Introduction Death penalty is a way of punishing people found guilty of committing capital offences. There are few countries that apply this form of punishment. The methods used to punish offenders are controversial in several jurisdictions depending on the nation’s cultural and political ideologies. There are people who support this form of punishment. On the contrary, other people strongly oppose capital punishment.
This paper discusses death penalty from the point of view of utilitarian principles. These principles suggest that the form of punishment has the ability to deter similar crimes. It also suggests that capital punishment is suitable for wrong doings that involve taking away the life of others. The opponents of death penalty believe that the punishment is too harsh and infringes upon human rights. They also believe that it lacks the ability to deter future crimes.
Utilitarianism is a moral theory, which posits that “the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall utility” (Dreeben-Irimia 292). The theory supports consequences of actions without scrutinizing methods for implementing the actions.
The theory was widely promoted by John Stuart Mill who suggested that initiatives were evaluated based on their consequences. The theory considers the pursuit of contentment and ensuring that people are happy with decisions. The theory promotes three claims including the consequentiality, happiness, and objectivity claim.
The theory suggests that punishing people is equal to treating them badly and is a sign of mischief. From the outlook, it would appear that utilitarian’s may contest capital punishment because it creates unhappiness. However, the theory supports a form of punishment when the level of suffering is so high that it is beneficial to society.
The theory posits that a punishment that makes the society can only emanate from intense suffering. Evidently, a form of punishment that generates more happiness in society is justifiable under the utilitarian theory.
The theory supports capital punishment on the basis of deterrence. When punishment is instilled in potential wrongdoers, they cannot commit crimes because they understand the type of punishment they will go through. The theory also supports incapacitation where people who have committed capital crimes can never have the opportunity to repeat such wrongdoings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, capital punishment takes away wrongdoers from the streets and eliminates the danger to the public. The form of punishment also provides people and families of victims with the proof that justice will be served. The relatives of people killed by criminals gain comfort and fulfillment because they know the offender has received equal punishment.
As opposed to this, the opponents of the application of utilitarianism theory in retribution argue that this form of punishment has minimal effect on containing related crimes. The opponents have noted that states where people receive capital punishment continue to record high numbers of capital offences. Furthermore, the form of punishment is final and takes away life and this makes it inappropriate in cases where suspected wrongdoers are wrongfully convicted.
Conclusion In summary, utilitarianism supports the retribution only on the grounds that there will be increased safety within a society. The theory believes that. The principle promotes the objective of happiness even when the consequences of actions leading to that entail making other people suffer.
The supporters of the theory and its application are convinced that deterrence and incapacitation make people happy. On the other hand, opponents of utilitarianism argue that proponents have failed to provide proof that the form of punishment minimizes future offences.
Works Cited Dreeben-Irimia, Olga. Patient Education in Rehabilitation. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2010. Print.
Economics of Walnuts in California Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Walnut Industry in California
The industries’ marketing trend
Introduction Walnuts accounts for a greater percentage of fruits and nut crops in California (Ramos 2). Nearly all walnuts produced on a commercial basis in the United States come from California, thus makes a great contribution not only to the economy of the state but also to the nation at large.
The first variety of walnuts grown was the hard-shelled English variety before the soft-shelled varieties were introduced in 1860 and 1870. Examples of varieties grown in California include: franquette, Payne, Eureka and Hartley. Walnut orchards mostly do well where the soils are very deep and the climate is favorable (Ramos 3).
Over the last decade, the production of walnuts has tremendously increased. This is occasioned by awareness of various means of production and health benefits derived from consumption and increased demand in foreign markets (California Walnuts.org 5). The Walnut Marketing Board has been controlling much of the California walnut production, while Independent processors and buyers have been playing a crucial role in marketing and to some extent production. This makes them key to the industry’s development (Hasey 3).
According to a report released by California Agricultural Statistics (CASS) in the late May 2007, acreage under walnuts in the early 1920s was about 34,138 and this has grown in leaps and bounds to about 243,000 acres. The high demand especially from Europe, Asia and Middle East has provided impetus for quality improvement of the crop.
This has been enhanced by technological development by way of research and improvements in marketing efforts in the industry. In addition, the walnut industry has been profitable in present years. As a result, farmers have increased planting acreage (Diamond foods 1). This essay will explore the economics of walnut establishment and production in California. In particular, the paper will be narrowed down to issues, trends and challenges facing the walnut industry in California.
Walnut Industry in California Walnuts are among the top agricultural produce in California. Nearly all the walnuts produced in the U.S. come from this state. Therefore, walnuts contribute significantly to the economy of California and to the country’s trade balance of trade (Hasey 4). The competitiveness of the California’s walnut industry is attributed to its ability to steadily produce and market high quality products.
The industry’s capacity has been enhanced through technological advancement by means of research and harmonization of marketing activities. Nonetheless, the industry like other agribusiness sectors is being challenged by the rapid and unpredictable demands of the current society, for example, increased urbanization, environmental degradation and global market volatility (Karen5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Walnuts have been grown in California for over three centuries since the Spanish invasion in mid 1860s. The first commercial nurseries were established in Santa Barbra and Nevada by Sexton and Gillet respectively.
Sexton produced soft shell walnuts which were well acclimatized to the southern conditions. On the other hand, Gillet produced frosty hardy variety imported from France and were well adapted to Northern conditions. Even at the moment, the walnut varieties grown in California are from the above two early varieties (Hasey 7).
Initially, farmers grew walnut orchards with plantlets. As a result, yields and quality were compromised by non-uniformity of trees. Rigorous scientific research and development saw the introduction of vegetative propagation which resulted in more consistent and uniform orchards. This was embraced by the whole industry (Hasey 8). In the state of California, walnuts did very well in areas where there were suitable climate and deep soils.
In the early 1920s, the overall walnut acreage was estimated to about 34000 acres, mostly in the southern region. The industry continued to grow and by the late 20s the total acreage had expanded to over 100000 acres, still mostly in the southern region. Over three quarters of this acreage consisted of young trees, signifying increased output in the future. In overall, California accounted for more than half of the U.S. production (Klonsky 3).
However, the walnut acreage in the Southern region started to decline in the 1940s and almost disappeared in the 1960s. This was attributed to numerous reasons, especially 2nd world war and growth in urbanization. In addition, citrus was more marketable and lucrative during this period than walnut. Thus, many farmers replaced walnut with citrus. Nonetheless, the acreage began to increase immediately after the 60s, largely in the rivers of the central valley.
The industries’ marketing trend In the earlier days, the growth of new and disorganized walnut industry was hindered by fluctuations in price and marketing challenges. Farmers reacted by forming local cooperatives. The first cooperative was formed in the late 1880s. Several years later, other cooperatives were created, and a central union was established to regulate prices. Nevertheless, rivalry among the local cooperatives persisted. For this reason, the California Walnut Association was set up in the early 1990s to assume the marketing role for its members (Hasey 8).
Up till then, the industry faced stiff rivalry from French importers in the local market. However, by early 1920s the industry had captured more than 50 percent of the U.S. market. California’s walnut industry continued to grow to capture a larger share of the U.S. market. The U.S. Walnut Marketing Board was formed in 1962 to regulate product quality and market. The board moved its base from Los Angeles to Stockton and changed its name to Sun-Diamond Growers after a series of merger with other cooperatives (Hasey 9).
We will write a custom Essay on Economics of Walnuts in California specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The growth of the industry is also attributed to independent buyers and handlers who provide an alternative economic option to numerous farmers. Initially, cooperatives controlled over 90 percent of the market. However, things have significantly changed. Nearly half of the market is currently controlled by the independent sectors. The cooperation between the two groups has also contributed to the success of the industry (Klonsky 3).
California’s walnuts are traded in a vibrant market. Even though U.S. remains its main market, large quantities are exported. Currently, nearly 40 percent of the products are sold in the global market. As a result, the industry is increasingly becoming exposed to global competition.
The industry mainly attributes their success in the global market to promotion funds provided by the federal government (Farm express 4). However, Karen Klonsky attributes this success to a number of factors(4). The first factor is strict adherence to quality measures put in place and followed to the letter by farmers.
This is observed throughout the production and processing stages. Second, farmers have incorporated various forms of technologies in the production and processing of walnuts in order to ensure high quality (Karen 5). Third, farmers have put in so much investment in storage facilities in order to maintain the requisite quality of nuts after processing. The accepted moisture content of the nuts is a maximum of 8%, which is highly recommended by experts (Karen 6).
The presence of Californian walnuts in various foreign markets across Asia and Europe has increased the demand for the product. The industry is recording more exports than it did ten years ago (Farm express 6). Paradoxically, much of the exports go to Asia, which is the leading world producer of walnuts.
The California Walnut Commission is culpable for the outstanding performance in the global market. The group was launched in the year 1987 through a California state law. This commission has developed a number of strategies and programs such as the Market Access Program, which focuses on introducing various products into the international market. The strategies also focus on the need to expand existing markets for various products by increasing awareness and quality of products (Farm express 7).
The European market has been a huge export zone for both in-shell and shelled nuts. However, market forces such as diverse consumer preferences led to higher demand for shelled walnuts compared to demand for in-shell walnuts. This resulted to increased export of shelled walnuts to the European market, which boosted the growth of the local industry in California. The German market is expanding and has developed into a leading destination for Californian walnuts (Farm express 7).
The strategies applied by the commission were also very successful in opening up the Asian market. The Market Access Program has facilitated the penetration of the walnuts into the South Korean market. South Korea is one of the largest importers of the California walnuts in Asia.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economics of Walnuts in California by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The future of California walnuts in the South Korean market received a huge boost in the year 2007, when the United States of America and South Korean governments signed an agreement that would lower the cost of trading between the two countries (Farm express 8). Additionally, Californian walnuts are a huge international brand that has helped to promote the culture of people in the state, as well as attracting foreign investors (Farm express 9).
Conclusion Growing walnuts contribute significantly to the California’s economy and to the country’s balance of payment account. The walnut industry in California has grown in leaps and bounds over the last one decade. The main contributing factors to the speedy growth include better awareness on various methods of production and increased demand for walnuts.
Commercial growing of walnuts is a widespread activity in California because of the low cost of production. Farmers in the state have made great contributions to the history of walnuts. Walnut growing is characterized by the cultivation of gardens that consist of walnut trees and absence of vegetation.
The California Walnut Commission is culpable for the outstanding performance in the global market. This commission has developed a number of strategies and programs such as The Market Access Program, which focuses on introducing various products into the international market.
The efforts by the commission have been very successful, as California walnuts managed to penetrate foreign markets in Germany. The strategies applied by the commission were also very successful in opening up the Asian market, which had partly blocked the trading of Californian walnuts. The United States and South Korean Free Trade Agreement has played a crucial role in the growth and development of the walnut industry in California over the last couple of years.
Works Cited California Walnuts.org. California Walnuts: Sizes and Colours. Web.
Diamond foods. California walnut acreage trending upwards.PDF file. Web.
Farm express. California Walnut Industry Surges With Record Exports. Web.
Hasey, Janine. The Walnut Industry in California: Trends, Issues and Challenges. California: Agricultural Issue Centre, 1994. Print.
Klonsky, Karen. Economics of walnut establishment and production, California: California university Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 2006. Print.
Ramos, David. Walnut Production Manual, California: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Iris and the Sky Myth Essay scholarship essay help
The myth of Iris (the rainbow) and the sky is reflective legend riddled with a series of etiological elements in its interpretation. The myth offers intrinsically narrates the war that Iris had with the sky due to the pride of Iris. Iris did a lot of bad things that made the sky very mad.
Reflectively, a legend narration is characterized by two parties who try to outshine each other. In fact, there is always a superior party of the two who will eventually win in the confrontation. The inferior party will always want to use cunning tricks to try to challenge the superior party.
As it is always the case in many legendary tales, the inferior party called Iris challenges the sun, the moon and even the more superior sky on a fame contest. Iris uses many tricks such as deception and live contest to outmatch its competitors who the support of the Sky. Iris fails miserable and even deeply offends the sky. In the climaxing test for popularity and preference by those living under the sky, Iris attempts to outshine the sun without success. As a disciplinary action, the sky permits the sun to shine for so long that the people experienced famine.
As is always the case in many legends, there is a winner who is always rewarded with a gift in the form of favor by the gods or an item of precious value. In the case of the Iris legend, the sun gets this reward and it leads to a disaster. The rain is then rewarded to rescue the people but it only leads to more death. The sky finally gives up and permits the rainbow to appear after the rain as a symbol of hope to the people.
Reflectively, an etiological legend like that of “Iris and the Sky” presents a narration of beginning, cause and continuation of certain events in the society or nature. The ideal etiological element that can be identified in the Iris and Sky myth is the elucidation practices that are synergistic within a self contained system.
The narration explains why the sunshine and the rain cannot occur at the same time. In fact, the sun has the responsibility of shining for some time and then the rain is expected to regulate the damages caused by the sun. If the rain is not stopped by the rainbow, it would destroy the people and their means of livelihood. Thus, Iris was given the role of giving hope to the people. Every time Iris is spotted, the people were assured of the end of rainfall.
Just like the case in many legends such as the marriage between the sun and the moon, the considerable notion of fate and demureness demonstrate how the living things need to acknowledge nature for its role in their survival. This involuntary cage ensnares people unwillingly in teleological effectiveness coordination, power and lucid calculations in their endeavor to forge a common identity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the front of regionalism, the traditional cage is characterized by defining rules, disciplinary control, and recognition of the symbols that the nature displays. Whenever people spot Iris in the sky, they are fully aware of the symbol of stopping rain.
The “Iris and Sky” myth fits in the etiological theme of the classical mythology. The events in the myth communicate the reasons behinds the events that occurs when mankind interacts with the nature.
Cell Phone Magnifier Essay college essay help: college essay help
Marketing cell phone requires multi-generational marketing strategies. Williams and Page (n.d.) state that each generation has unique tastes, preferences and history. Consequently, companies must reach out to these age-groups in order to convince them to buy their products.
Multi-generational marketing, thus, takes place when a business caters for unique needs and conducts of more than one generation (Williams
Summary of the Eucharist by Robert Barron Essay online essay help
According to John Macquarrie, theology should treat all religious beliefs as diverse. Theology aims at showing the coherence of Christianity. It should also encompass the doctrines of the different faiths in Christianity. This is necessary to promote positive relationships among different faiths practiced in the modern world.
As John believes, there is need to integrate all Christian faiths with the entire range of human life. The only trick, therefore, is to exhibit the coherence of the Christianity faith. This paper explores how Robert Barron summarizes the theology of the Eucharist in accordance with John’s definition of theology.
Summary of the Eucharist as Offered by Barron In only three chapters, Barron gives a detailed description and analysis of the Eucharist as an important practice in Catholic faith. In the first chapter, the author of the text considers the Eucharist as a special and sacred meal. The Eucharist has been a question of debate among Christian believers for many years. However, Barron explores the practice as an important rite for Catholics and other Christians.
According to the author, believers should consider the Eucharist as a sacred meal that brings them together and remind them of Christ (Barron 28). The Eucharist, according to the author, is a Holy Communion. This means there is need for Christians to reenact the communion occasionally. This is necessary because Jesus instructed his followers to do so in his memory. It is agreeable that Christians and Catholics consider the Eucharist as a holy practice because it helps them remember Christ.
According to Barron (29), the Eucharist is a holy meal for Catholics and other believers. Jesus asked his followers to practice the Eucharist in his memory. The Catholics believe that the elements of the Eucharist cease to be wine and leavened bread after consecration. Instead, they become the blood and body of Jesus respectively.
They portray the divinity, faith and holiness that characterize Christ’s soul. The Catholics usually consecrate the wine and bread, something that portrays the separation of Christ’s blood from the body as it happens on the cross.
The other important thing from the book by Barron is that Christians should treat the Eucharist as sacrifice. To support the argument, the author of the book states that the church should always consider the Eucharist as a special sacrifice. It is necessary for Catholics to assemble on Sabbath day to offer thanks and break bread.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, Christians should first confess all their sins before the practice. This is the only way to make their sacrifice pure. Those quarrelling should reconcile because the sacrifice of the Holy Communion meds to be holy. Barron views the Eucharist as an essential element of the Holy Mass, something that makes it a true sacrifice (Barron 58). On the cross, Christ offered himself wholly on the cross. This explains why Christians should offer themselves to God and repent their sins.
The main purpose of the Eucharist is to give thanks to Christ and glory to the Father. This is the best way to offer sacrifices and ask for forgiveness. Finally, Barron sheds more light on the Eucharist as an important symbol of faith, repentance, sacrifice and holiness (Barron 67). This casts doubt and makes it an important practice among Christian believers today. The Eucharist is a new opportunity for Christians to celebrate and benefit from the offering made by Christ in every Holy Mass.
By the end of the day, the purpose of the Eucharist is to give thanks and glorify our creator (Barron 73). This is the only way to obtain mercy and forgiveness. Christians can say their prayers after forgiveness. The Eucharist is an important practice that glorifies God and brings Christians closer to Him. It is also an important act of sacrifice.
How Barron is Doing Theology According to the Definition by Macquarrie After reading the book, it is notable that Barron succeeds in defining the Eucharist as an important catholic ritual. The author offers a detailed description of the Eucharist as an important practice through which Catholics celebrate Christ and ask for forgiveness (Barron 18).
The sacred meal brings Christians come closer to their creator. Although this is the central focus of the text by Barron, it is quite clear that the author goes a step further to do theology as defined by Macquarrie. John Macquarrie, an Anglican theologian, believes that theology should consider Church’s faith as something coherent. This means that theology should show the coherence of Christian faith and present a sense of unity that brings together all Christian believers.
Theology should seek to unite all doctrines, beliefs and attitudes practiced in our modern world. That being the case, Barron views the Eucharist as an important practice that brings Christians closer to their God and Christ. Barron therefore does theology as defined by Macquarrie because he describes the Eucharist as a holy meal that brings Christians together. He goes further to explain the importance of the meal, consecration, repentance and celebration as essential parts of the Eucharist (Barron 52).
From a critical perspective, it is notable that the Eucharist presented by the author is something that brings all Christian faiths together. Although the kind of meal that forms the Holy Communion might differ from one faith to another among Christians, the idea of theology becomes evident as detailed by Macquarrie. The Anglican theologian believes that theology should always seek to unite all beliefs and attitudes practiced by different religious groups in the world.
We will write a custom Essay on Summary of the Eucharist by Robert Barron specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The specific doctrines of the Holy Communion among Christians are more or less the same. For instance, the author does a great work of theology by pointing out that there can never be communion without sacrifice. This is an important part of the Eucharist as practiced by different faiths.
Christians should relate the idea of giving sacrifice with the suffering and death of Christ on the cross. Jesus decided to sacrifice his soul and body on the cross to secure forgiveness for our sins (Barron 89). Therefore, believers should consider the Eucharist as an opportunity to repeat this important sacrifice on the cross. Although the author of the book is a Catholic priest, he goes further to treat the Eucharist as a holy meal for all Christians. This is what helps the author complete his theological work as detailed by John Macquaarrie.
Therefore, several things come out clearly to the reader after reading the book by Robert Barron. The first thing is that the Eucharist or the communion is a special and holy meal for Christians. Christians are required to practice the Eucharist because it is the way of Christ.
The other thing is that the Eucharist is a form of sacrifice for Christians. With such ideas, it is evident that Robert Barron does a great job of treating the issue from a theological perspective. This is true in the sense that he follows Macquarrie’s description of what theology ought to be. In conclusion, all religious faiths should treat the Eucharist as a special practice for Christians.
Works Cited Barron, Robert. Eucharist. New York: Orbis Books, 2008. Print.
The Environmental Impact of Nuclear Energy Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Current Status and Potential
Explanation and Evaluation of Effects
Current Status and Potential Electricity production in the US consumes over 40% of the total energy produced within the continent. Electricity is the second source of energy that the United States generates from primary forms of energy such as nuclear and coal. Given the high rate of dependency on electricity, environmentalists are concerned the production of electricity from various primary energy sources could lead to acute pollution and degradation of the environment.
According to Environmental Impact Assessment, in 2011, coal contributed 42.3% and natural gas 24.7% of the US total electricity generation. In addition, in the same year, 4 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity came from coal, and 42% of the US population consumed this portion (Batagol).
The United States also produced 1,094.3 million short tons of coal from the 25- coalmine states. Wyoming, which is in the Western Coal Region, produces the largest amount of coal in the US followed by West Virginia. Comparatively, electricity production and consumption in the US using steam engines has been on the rising trend given that the 3,856 billion Kilowatt-hours in 2011 is 13 times higher than the consumption in 1950.
Major mining zones in the US include the Western Coal Region, the Appalachian Coal Region, and the Interior Coal Region, where production and conversion of coal to useful energy is relatively cheaper than other forms of energy.
Nuclear energy has also dominated electricity generation with 19.3%. Uranium ores are available in different regions of the US, such as the mines of western United States. There are 65 power- plants in the US; they are located in 31 states. The three populous states of New York, Texas and California have been using more of the one-fifth US electricity that Nuclear Plants have been producing yearly since 1990.
The country has the opportunity to enhance its capacity to generate electricity from nuclear following the approval of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to build and operate between three to four units of the Vogtle plant, which may start operating in 2016. In 2002, US commercial reactor sites stored 51,002 short tons, and an estimate value reported 12.2 billion kilowatt-hours as the amount of electricity that a single power plant generated.
Explanation and Evaluation of Effects In terms of production, nuclear reactors do not emit harmful products like CO2 and SO2, and it is, therefore, relatively eco-friendly; however, the process of manufacturing large amounts of metals and concrete as well as mining and refining uranium ore requires large amount of energy, which is expensive (Batagol). Since radioactive materials are harmful to human health, those handling uranium are prone to severer hazards.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Miners, companies, and governments have to adhere strictly to disposal regulations given that the elements always remain active for several years. Further, authorities should put in place apt safety measures to control nuclear reaction to avert incidences like the 1986 Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine and the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in Japan. The Chernobyl incident left 31 people dead due to acute radiation poisoning that occurred when 5% of the radioactive reactor core escaped into the air (Rosenberg).
Countries are turning to using eco-friendly forms of energy to avert the impact of the climate change menace. The changing climate implies that most countries will divert to eco-friendly and cost-effective sources of energy to produce electricity. Nuclear energy is not only relatively eco-friendly, but it is also capable of producing large quantity of electricity more conveniently.
Environmental agencies criticize the use of coal given its negative impact on the state of the environment and human health. Emissions from burning coal such as CO2, SO2, and mercury cause acidic rain and smog, which are harmful to the environment and cause respiratory complications (Davis and Keegan).
However, nuclear energy also has acute negative impact. Construction of nuclear power plants can have temporary or permanent effects on the environment. For instance, the construction equipment emits pollutants into air, land, and water.
With the constructions occupying spaces, it does away with any future use of the land for production purposes. Apart from construction effects, license renewal for nuclear plants may necessitate use of extra pieces of land for removing old components and staging new components. Such operations may expose workers to radiation, which are hazardous health effects. Fukushima disaster demonstrates that nuclear plants expose lives to incredible danger.
Therefore, plants must adhere to the allowable radioactive exposure so that the source does not become harmful to the human health and the environment. Uranium being a radioactive element can increase cancer incidences, if limits of radon-226RN and 222Rn- concentration surpass the permissible limit (El-Hinnawi par 6).
Additionally, during mining, exposure to dust and radiation can result in respiratory diseases, cancerous growths in the body, and deaths. Wind erosion can blow piles of mills into rivers, thus causing leaching.
We will write a custom Essay on The Environmental Impact of Nuclear Energy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The toxic nature of fluorine and hydrogen fluoride that produces uranium hexafluoride poses serious health threats. Workers should protect themselves from the highly corrosive UF6 in order to avoid dangerous exposures. In operating nuclear plants, the fuel element retains most of the radioactive products, and the liquid and gas waste-processing system removes the radioactive releases.
Comparison Gaseous emissions from nuclear reactors are negligible to fossil fuel-operated plants. However, the reactors release a lot of heat during operation, and direct them to the cooling water. Accidents are possible with the operation of nuclear reactors; however, necessary safety practices and devices have been integrated into the reactor to protect workers and the public in case of malfunctions (Davis and Keegan).
Credible reports indicate that from1996 to 2000; those who encountered severer accidents due to nuclear accidents were 48 and 597 due to coal accidents (Roberts). In case of chemical leakage to the environment, radioactive elements can cause adverse effects on fauna and flora.
For instance, in the Fukushima disaster, radioactive elements caused mass water and soil pollution to the extent that the locals had to stop using water from taps and certain products (Sugihara, Genichi, and Shiro 89). A nuclear plant requires stringent procedures and monitoring during construction and operation since it uses extremely harmful chemicals that can stay long in a human’s body and the environment. Radioactive elements reduce soil fertility thereby killing plants growth.
Nuclear energy is an extremely delicate source of energy, as it requires a complex safety system and highly skilled personnel in order to operate at cost-effective terms. The high demand for electricity world over and constant advocating for a clean environment by many organizations make nuclear energy to be a preferred choice to coal. The Clean Energy Standard Act of 2012 advocates the use of energy sources that do not produce greenhouse gases (El-Hinnawi par. 4).
Clearly, this makes coal lose preference to nuclear energy, as it limits global warming. The nuclear energy industry has been able to account for its wastes. Nuclear, therefore, remains as the best energy option for the current world, which struggles to prevent adverse effects to the environment. Despite nuclear energy having harmful health and environmental effects, it is highly likely that the US continue using it as the main source of energy given its relatively eco-friendly nature.
Works Cited Batagol, Cheryl. “Clean Energy | US EPA.” US Environmental Protection Agency. N.p., n.d. Web.
The Tom Tom Company Report college essay help online: college essay help online
Abstract This analytical treatise offers an explicit review of the Tom Tom Company’s business environment. The main focus of this paper is the internal and external environments, SWOT and recommendations for the future strategies that the company should implement. The recommendations identified include remodeling of the company’s marketing strategy and decision making processes.
Internal environment analysis Corporate strategy
Within the automotive navigation systems industry of the Netherlands, the business magnitude of the Tom Tom Company is wide and well organised into different subs stores and has a strong presence in all the continents of the globe. The company has an active presence in the main urban towns within the Netherlands besides several franchises.
The company has stratified its target market into wholesaler, retailer, and small business segments. The products are also produced in different quality in order to maximise the returns from clients in the upper and lower economic ladders. Despite the relatively crowded market, Tom Tom has designed and integrated reliable and efficient in-house and external suppliers to ensure the flow of its products within and out of the Dutch territory.
The performance of the Tom Tom Company within the expansive automotive navigation systems industry in the Netherlands is highly dependent on the buyer-power in terms of their purchasing power. For instance, the current 5% discount for many of its products and free shipping for purchases beyond a certain quantity has ensured that the business is geared towards maximising its returns.
Through competitive pricing, strategic expansion, and planned diversification, the Tom Tom Company has managed to establish a strong international market niche despite the rivalry. At present, the company controls 38% of the international market and has a very responsive customer support and online maintenance team for every continent.
Capabilities and strategic issues in diagnosis
The Tom Tom Company has a great opportunity for expansion since the market is inclined to its advantage. For instance, its innovative approach to addressing consumer concerns via the customer support centres and a well organised distribution network will ensure sustainable and rapid expansion into new market niches.
External environment analysis General environment and industry
The Tom Tom Company operates in the automotive navigation systems industry. The company has established leadership in the European market and controls 39% of it. Currently, the retail and wholesale business segments are the leading sources of revenues amounting to five million dollars in the last twelve months.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Competitors
The main competitors of the Tom Tom Company are the Navico Holding A.S, MiTAC International Corporation and the Garmin Limited. However, the company has a more global presence than these competitors. For instance, the company controls more than ten percent of the global market.
Overall potential of the company Strengths
The company has already established itself in the global market and offers competitive prices for its products. The company’s product prices are almost 20% cheaper than those of its competitors.
The company has the opportunity of diversifying marketing beyond its current scope of operations because of its wide distribution channels. Besides, its supply chain, online sales platform, and the franchised operations have the potential for expansion into the under-exploited Africa market.
Most of the models of supply chain management at Tom Tom propose a linear format to make judgments within the organisation. As a result, responding to the issues raised by the customers often takes a longer time than is expected by the clients.
The company’s modernism business approach makes it miss on exact predictions of its desirable future positions. For instance the projected business expansion strategy of 2011 failed to meet the expectations by almost 30%. There are many competitors in the market, especially the big players mentioned earlier.
Recommendations The company needs to make use of the current technology in order to remain on top of its competitors. Also, the company should change its approach to strategic insight and execution of strategic plans (Wheelen
Man and Environment Report college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Natural Resources and Energy Availability
Food Production and Distribution
Introduction The global human population has increased drastically over the past few decades to more than six billion people today. This has obviously put a strain on the world’s natural resources. The rapid growth in population is attributed to a number of factors including improved medical technology, improved standards of living, improved public health, and reduced death rates (Pearce 2010).
The current essay shall endevor to examine the impact of increased human population on the global resources. Specifically, the essay shall explore the impact of increased population on natural resources, energy availability, food production, and the environment.
Natural Resources and Energy Availability The growing world population has really stretched our natural resources like water, land, minerals, and energy supplies. As the global human population increases, so does the demand for food. This necessitates clearing of forests, ponds, wetlands and green belts to make room for food production (Engelman 2009).
However, we end up damaging our natural ecosystem in the process. In addition, when natural resources like forests gets depleted, natural processes like the nitrogen cycle and photosynthesis are affected, thereby interfering with the growth of the ecosystem. As the world population grows, so does the rate of energy consumption. Already, the rising human population has overstretched the non-renewable sources of energy, and this has forced various countries to turn to renewable sources of energy (Nielsen, 2006).
Food Production and Distribution As the global population increases, there is a dire need to increase the world food production. Consequently, different countries are embracing technology in agriculture as a way of improving food output. Unfortunately, as more forest land is cleared to give way to food production, it leads to deforestation (Shiklomanov 2000).
Even as the global food production has increased by nearly 24% in the last decade (Pearce 2010), there has not been an even distribution of food production globally. In Africa for example, food production has actually decreased while the population in the continent has increased. At the same time, global cereal production has fallen drastically.
Environment Over-population affects on the environment on two levels:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consumption of natural resources:
Due to the rapid increase in global population, fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources are getting depleted rapidly. In addition, renewable resources like forests and fisheries are also getting diminished (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs 2009), at a higher rate than they are getting replenished.
Emission of waste:
Over-population leads to emission of wastes, and this destroys the environment. Some of these wastes include toxic materials, water and air pollutants, excess nutrients, and greenhouse gases (Engelman 2009). Untreated waste like sewage is also a real threat to human health.
Other environmental wastes like excess nitrogen in rivers and lakes cause algal bloom. In turn, the algal bloom reduces the levels of oxygen in the water, thereby killing the fish. On the other hand, increased greenhouse gas emissions cause global warming and by extension, a rise in water levels.
Conclusion A rapid increase in population has overstretched our natural resources and at the same time, increased pollution to the environment. To avert an inevitable crisis, it is important that we manage our natural resources better by embracing science and technology. Another useful way to manage the impending crisis is to create awareness on the effects of overpopulation through educational forums.
Reference List Engelman, R 2009, State of the World Population 2009: Facing a changing world: women, population and climate, .
We will write a custom Report on Man and Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nielsen, R 2006, The Little Green Handbook: Seven Trends Shaping the Future of Our Planet, Picador, New York.
Pearce, F 2010, The Coming Population Crash and Our Planet’s Surprising Future, Beacon Press, Boston.
Shiklomanov, I A 2000,’Appraisal and Assessment of World Water Resources’, Water International, Vol. 25, pp. 11–32.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs 2009, World Population Prospects, the 2008 Revision. Web.
Starbucks: Recreating Uniqueness Case Study a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Starbucks brand uniqueness
VRIO resources in Starbucks’ strategy
Introduction Starbucks is one of the well-known coffee house chains. The company is represented in many countries of the world. The brand of Starbucks has gained the popularity among people of different ages and represents one of the notable examples in the history of marketing and management.
The aim of this essay is to describe the macro-environment of the firm and to analyze the uniqueness of Starbucks.
Macro-environment The firm operates at the three levels of the environment: macro, micro, and the internal level. Each of them exposes the company to various risks as well as provides the opportunities for growth. The macro environment is the level, which determines the long-term perspectives of the company (The marketing environment n.d.).
The macro-environment consists of seven major elements including the demographics, economy, political factors, legislation, socio-cultural factors, ecological and geographical factors, and technology (Marketing assignment help n.d.). For example, the technology plays a crucial role in the long-term success of Apple.
The innovative activity is the important part of its business. The development and launch of iPhones and iPads have been accomplished due to the hard work of the R
Child Welfare in the Together Youth Shelter Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Abstract Child protection is becoming an increasingly significant topic at present. Being closed systems, families cannot be checked regarding the environment, which parents raise their children in, and how this environment affects children. As a result, a number of cases of domestic violence and child abuse pass unnoticed.
To avoid the instances of family violence, the Glassboro community (Glassboro, NJ) has created the Together Youth Shelter, where runaway, homeless and/or neglected children are provided with required help on a regular basis. Since the center has been doing perfectly, its example can be used to improve the work of numerous similar centers that face issues with delivering efficient services to the community.
The Time to Lend a Helping Hand Has Come: Together Youth Shelter About the Together Youth Shelter: Stability as the Top Priority
Appealing to families in order to address their issues and solve the rates of child negligence in the community is an incredibly challenging task. Defining conflicts in such a closed system as family is barely possible. However, helping parents find common language with their children, as well as prevent the rates of child abuse, it still possible, as the evidence provided by Together Youth Shelter shows.
Together Youth Shelter and government
Though being a government-funded and government-supported organization, Together Youth Shelter restricts the effect of government on its performance to a minimum. It is imperative that local issues and dilemmas should be resolved on a local level; otherwise, the solutions to the problems will trigger even more drastic effects (Kelly
The Star: A Universe with an Unneeded and Heedless Deity Essay essay help online free
Arthur C. Clarke, in his 1955 short story “The Star”, proposes an immensely plausible explanation for the appearance of an unusually bright and light in the sky near the time of the birth of Jesus in Palestine. He suggests that a supernova of enormous strength was the event that caused the phenomenon attested to in the Christian New Testament.
He elaborates on this interesting notion by constructing a tale of a space-faring Earth vessel, engaged in long-range exploration. In Clarke’s story, the ship locates and investigates evidence of a sophisticated alien civilization once thriving in the star system around the former supernova.
The evidence from these investigations reveals that this supernova, which wiped out this species, would have coincided exactly with the star that appeared in Bethlehem. Clarke’s protagonist, a Jesuit priest and astrophysicist on the spaceship, finds his faith challenged by this discovery. The narrator deplores and questions in an agony of doubt what he sees as a cruel waste of lives in order to make a point on Earth.
This suggests that Clarke, who has described himself as an atheist views the universe as huge and filled with unlimited potential for wonder, and the Christian God as either nonexistent, unnecessary, or heedlessly cruel, and ultimately not worthy of human faith (Clarke, Credo, 2010). The vision that Clarke presents of the universe is accurate in its depiction of its enormous size.
It is also hopeful in its suggestion that almost any phenomenon could possibly turn up, if humans look far enough. This, in Clarke’s view, includes finding another sentient species, whether living or dead. The spaceship has already found, “ruins of ancient civilizations on other worlds” (Clarke, The Star, 1974) . This is congruent with what is reported on the science news regularly.
The public is assured by astronomers that there are billions of star systems. Given these numbers, it seems reasonable to infer that somewhere there is another one that could include a rocky planet. It is further reasonable to imagine that a planet could exist with temperatures that permit carbon based life forms to develop. Thus, Clarke is placing his story in a plausible universe congruent with the facts that are now known about our galaxy and others, and filled with possibilities.
However, the universe that is out there, in Clarke’s vision of the universe, could operate without the benefit of control by a God. The crew members of the spaceship are all apparently atheist or agnostic; the narrator says of them, “Few of them have any religious faith”. (Clarke, The Star, 1974).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ship’s doctor describes the universe, its creation, and its possible creator as follows: “it goes on forever and forever, and perhaps Something made it. But how you can believe that Something has a special interest in us and our miserable little world—that just beats me.” (Clarke, The Star, 1974)
This character believes that God is not even necessary. Furthermore, the doctor is suggesting that even if there were an intelligence that could encompass the creation of the universe’s immensity, it would be too big and too detached to be immanent in human affairs. This seems like a reasonable objection to the disparity between the size of the universe and the size of petty human problems. For deeply believing Christians, however, the problem with this view is that it places limitations on the power and capacity for love of an infinite God.
The human mind can envision a God who is both capable of creating a universe of staggering vastness, but also interested, aware of, and active in, the daily lives of billions of human beings. This is a stretch, but it is a matter of scale rather than absolute possibility. If a universe-creating deity can exist, then it is merely a matter of scaling in the other direction to invest this God with the capacity to simultaneously listen to individual prayer.
Ultimately, this view of God’s unbounded power leads the narrator, and potentially, the reader, into a mess. This is because the author Clarke in this story has linked an act of love (the incarnation of the deity in the person of Jesus in Bethlehem on a particular date) with an act of destruction (the immolation of the alien culture by the supernova).
Clarke acknowledges that God has the right to do whatever God wants with the creation that God has created. The Jesuit narrator affirms, “God has no need to justify His actions to man. He who built the Universe can destroy it when He chooses. It is arrogance—it is perilously near blasphemy—for us to say what He may or may not do.” (Clarke, The Star, 1974) However, the mind of even the priestly astrophysicist revolts against this idea once he knows and appreciates the lost alien culture.
He protests. “But to be destroyed so completely in the full flower of its achievement, leaving no survivors—how could that be reconciled with the mercy of God? “ (Clarke, The Star, 1974) This is not an entirely new conflict for believers. The Bible/Torah is sprinkled with incidents that puzzle the faithful, and raise questions about the lovingness of God. The Book of Job, for example, describes acts of God (or rather, acts that God permits to be done to Job by Satan) that seem heedlessly, almost frivolously, cruel. (Jones, 1985)
The Star does not offer a comforting solution. The solution, for believers, in the past, has been that God’s purposes are unknowable and humans must accept on faith that they are tending towards the good. Clarke proposes a hypothetical situation that would strain even this long-tested strategy of faith. The narrator of this story is left unable to cope. He says, “But there comes a point when even the deepest faith must falter, and now, as I look at the calculations lying before me, I have reached that point at last.” (Clarke, The Star, 1974)
We will write a custom Essay on The Star: A Universe with an Unneeded and Heedless Deity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A number of palliatives for the problem that Clarke has manufactured could be suggested. Perhaps the alien race was taken up into heaven, into the presence of God, immediately upon death. Perhaps God somehow communicated with them that their demise would allow another species to come to a greater knowledge of God, and a deeper communion with the deity. Perhaps they volunteered for this task of signaling to the magi that Jesus was being born.
These might satisfy the Jesuit astrophysicist in The Star, but if they were to do so successfully, Clarke would probably have included them in the story. Clarke leaves the reader with no comfort, forced to consider the possibility that God could be so wasteful of, “peoples thrown into the furnace” just to make a dramatic announcement elsewhere in creation. (Clarke, The Star, 1974)
The vision of the universe and of God that Clarke presents is deeply skeptical. While the author acknowledges the possibility that God is the author of the universe, Clarke also casts doubt on the credibility of the Christian notion of a loving and involved deity.
He insists, by linking the incarnation with a hypothetical alien holocaust, that in order to accept an immanent God, a believer must also accept the possibility that this deity is capable of doing something appalling and without discernible justification. This is a very cynical tactic but Clarke makes a powerful point that challenges the faith of all believing readers.
Works Cited Clarke, A. C. (1974). The Star. In A. C. Clarke, The Nine Billion Names of God: The Best Short Stories of Arthur C. Clarke (pp. 235-240). NY, USA: Signet NAL. Web.
Clarke, A. C. (2010). Credo. In P. Kurtz, Science and Religion: Are They Compatible? (pp. 181-185). New York: Prometheus Books. Web.
The New Jerusalem Bible. Ed. Susan Jones. New York: Doubleday, 1985. Print.
Directions: Read about Clostridium perfringens in the Case File on page 155 and 176 of your book. After reading a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Directions: Read about Clostridium perfringens in the Case File on page 155 and 176 of your book. After reading these passages answer the following questions in your discussion post.
Describe the morphology of C. perfringes. Speculate on how this patient became infected with this bacteria.
C. perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium. Explain how C. perfringes creates energy in the absence of oxygen.
Speculate on the reasons why diabetic patients are more susceptible to development of gaseous gangrene than others.
Your post can either be written, or you may upload a video of yourself addressing the above questions. Once you post, you will be able to see the post of others. For full points, you will need to post two replies on two other posts. Your replies can only be written, no video replies please.
Post addressing all with plenty of details 8 pts (2 points question 1, 3 points questions 2, 3 points question 3)
Reply 1 Meaningful response over a 100 words 2.5 pts
Reply 2 Meaningful response over a 100 words 2 pt.
High blood pressure Report college admissions essay help
Introduction High blood pressure is also referred to as hypertension (HTN), and it can be defined as a disease in which blood pressure in arteries goes up forcing the heart to perform higher in order to supply blood to blood vessels.
It can also be defined as a condition where blood in arteries exerts abnormally high pressure on arterial walls (Al-Nozha
Build the management-research question hierarchy Case Study essay help free
The First step is management dilemma, which is the relation to the environmental stimuli. A manager is interested in the highest output from the business. The second one is elimination of negative symptoms; this is exclusion of conditions that might deteriorate the business.
A manager must make sure that all employees are satisfied, so that the organization is stable and adjusted. The third step is the correction of problems. This entails communication and cooperation within the company. As managers are in charge and can take a more global look at the business structure, they have to shape the culture and the inner, as well as outer relations with other workers and the public (Inquiring Minds Want to Know—Now!).
The fourth part of the hierarchy is the choice that is made in the direction of the opportunity. A careful consideration of the internal culture and environment are crucial in selecting the right course of action. In the fifth step the right questions and research are instrumental in finding out the company’s needs.
In the sixth step the recommended course of action is based on the research findings. This is a personal orientation towards the workings of the company. A chance to try several positions within the organization could allow for a better choice of personnel, with a better set of skills (Jennings, 2010). This would create proper opportunity for people to find out own skills and a place in the company. Also, the basis of the structure will be complimented by employees knowing the trade and having a feeling of ownership and interest.
Relevant ethical issues.
Penton media is a concept taking its base primarily in general human ethics and applying those rules and guidelines in a business environment. Ethics itself is set of moral principles and laws that govern a just and civilized society (Bradburn 8). Business ethic refers to how people’s morals and fairness are used in agreements and decisions between companies and organizations worldwide. The main idea of business ethics is that it closely correlates with the laws of a society and the kindness of people who make it up and in order for the companies and organizations to flourish, ethics should be a guideline never dismissed from business.
Penton media but more importantly the laws that are based on ethical behaviors are needed to regulate the actions of business to prevent illegal issues and chaos of anarchy.
If a company is not limited in the way it earns its profits, the selfishness of the financial greed will cause to focus on making the most money the fastest without considering a sensitive balance between nature and ways that humans exploit it for personal gain. The research that was conducted received a response of 97.7 per cent, contacting the advertisement at least once during the year (Inquiring Minds Want to Know—Now!).
This made Penton media one of the competing corporations. The key goal of Penton media is to regulate the actions of corporations in relation to the surrounding natural environment, people and society’s laws and rules. Another reason why ethics is the right direction for any business is that honesty will be rewarded and the benefits gained from kindness will be much greater than those of lies and deceit (Bradburn, 2001).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More References Bradburn, R. (2001). Understanding Business Ethics, London: Thomson Learning.
Inquiring Minds Want to Know—Now! (n.d.). Business Research Methods. 1-8.
Jennings, M. (2010). Environment Business: Its Legal, Ethical, and Global Environment, Connecticut: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Connection between Performance-based Pay and Job Satisfaction Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction The impacts of any form of compensation have become one of the major issues within the organization, whether in policy formulation, human resource management and decision-making process. Most importantly, compensation procedures are critical in determining employees’ performance and job satisfaction.
The main reason why compensation concepts mainly performance-based is essential to the organizations’ human resources managers is that they want to find out the impacts of the notion on the organizations’ performances as well as the employees’ commitments, attitudes and behaviors (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 678). In addition, studies indicate that performance-based pay has both positive and negative influences on the employees’ behaviors, mindsets, and commitments to a given task.
Performance-based pay is one of the modes of compensation applied by organizations to enhance performances of workers as well as ensure that the organizations’ goals are attained.
Moreover, not only have the performance-based compensations used in reward planning, but also in developing the resources as well as helping in shaping personal actions of employees (Chang and Hahn 398). In the context of job satisfaction, the performance-based pay plays the role of employees’ attitudes development, responses to given tasks as well as in organizations’ decision-making processes.
Practically, performance-based pay is purposely used by organizations to distinguish their employees’ performances as well as establish the strengths and weaknesses of employees regarding job commitments and satisfactions. Moreover, organizations use performance-based pay to assess and put into operations the reward management systems that would ensure employees satisfaction as well as in decision-making processes.
The intentions of this study are to examine theoretically the influences of performance-based pay on the employees’ job satisfactions. Much of the earlier studies have focused on the impacts of performance-based pay on job commitments, employees’ attitudes, and decision-making as well as on the job outcomes (Chang and Hahn 398). However, there are limited studies on the relationship between performance-based pay and job satisfaction.
Moreover, few studies that have been conducted have found little correlation between the two variables. The findings indicate that there are many factors determining job satisfaction among employees. Compensations do not necessarily determine job satisfaction rather a contributing factor. Before examining the relationships existing between the two variables, it is critical to understand the concepts of performance-based pay and job satisfaction.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Performance-based pay The performance-related pay covers various forms of employees’ compensations that take into consideration the output of individual workers. In other words, workers are compensated according to performances. The performance-based pay is applied in the circumstances where workers can easily show discrepancies in their productivity, depending on the individual endeavor.
In such situations, performance-based pay is believed to have higher chances of increasing workers performances (Ismail 925). Moreover, in terms of influencing individual employees’ job satisfaction, performance-based pay is also believed to play a significant role.
There are various forms of performance-based pay. However, the most commonly practiced include the piecework pay, where compensations are based on each unit of output. Piecework pay is majorly applied in public institutions. The advantage of piecework compensation is that it prevents public wastage and less costly in terms of financial management (Ismail 928).
The greater disadvantage with this form of performance-based compensation is that it does not motivate workers, particularly in the situations where output cannot be measured. Under such circumstances, performance-based pay cannot have direct influence on employees’ job satisfaction.
The other form of commonly used performance-based pay is the result-oriented pay. In this form, workers are compensated according to the quantity of output or measured value. The compensation augments with increases in the results. The result-oriented pay is related to merit pay where compensation is pegged on individual contribution in the general performance (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 678).
Profit related pay is another form of performance-based payment where the organizations reimburse their employees depending on the level of profits or gains made by the organization. The forms of performance-based pay do not have direct relationship with job satisfaction. Job satisfaction results from employees attitudes towards assigned tasks. However, the forms of performance-based pay do not have direct influence on job attitude. As such, the direct influence on job satisfaction is lacking.
One of the major advantages with all these forms of payment is that the employees are motivated to attain the greater output. The forms of compensation also enhance the performance culture among the employees and within the organization. However, these forms of compensation can hardly be determined without appropriate measurement procedure (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 678).
We will write a custom Essay on Connection between Performance-based Pay and Job Satisfaction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the circumstances where output cannot be measured, performance-based compensations have increased limiting factors. Essentially, performance-based pay system is aimed at increasing the employees’ output rather than influencing their behaviors.
Performance-based compensation strategy on job satisfaction The performance-based compensation system of an organization is established to accomplish several objectives, particularly on the management of employees’ job satisfaction (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 678). In other words, performance-based compensation system of an organization is set up to attract, retain and motivate employees.
To attain these major goals, the performance-based compensation system should comply with the regulations that govern the employees’ remunerations, which have a greater influence on the way employees perceive their assigned tasks. Moreover, performance-based compensation system should also simplify the administration of employees as well as be cost-effective.
Essentially, performance-based compensation system can only attract, retain and motivate employees when it is perceived to be satisfactory. Increased benefits employees get from an organization will attract employees with skills and needed competence.
Essentially, the strategic choice of performance-based compensation is to influence the attainment of business goals. Organizations should adopt strategic choices that enhance the employees’ development and growth. Moreover, the firm should adopt the strategy that upholds the culture of participation and empowerment within the workforce.
Also, organizations should adopt strategic compensation choices that develop the culture of protection and reliability of employees. Most importantly, compensation strategies should increase competitive advantage through sustaining business approaches to developing and improving employees’ capabilities (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 678). As such, performance-based compensation strategy will be perceived as self-satisfactory, which is critical in attaining required goals.
Impacts of performance-based pay on employees’ job satisfaction and commitment Performance-based pay is one of the compensation methods that are applied widely by organizations. Due to increased competition within the international market and expectations of the organizations’ stakeholders, the performance-based pay concept is receiving more attention particularly in human resources management and the organizations’ decision-making process (Chang and Hahn 403).
The reason is that performance-based pay is critical in ensuring increased outcomes of the organization as well as decisions affecting employees’ outcomes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Connection between Performance-based Pay and Job Satisfaction by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Various organizations have put in place effective performance-based compensation strategies that aid in decision-making processes as well as making the workforce responsible for their performance domino effect (Chang and Hahn 403). For these reasons, it is critical to understand the effects of performance-based pay on the employees’ attitudes towards the undertaken assignments and ways through which the required satisfaction can be attained. In the contrary, many employees have perceived performance-based pay as negatively related to the satisfaction they get from their assigned tasks. Studies indicate that employees have perceived performance-based pay as threatening rather than enhancing their performance outcomes as well as job satisfaction. Therefore, many organizations tend to understand the concept of performance-based pay and the way it affects the employees’ outcomes and how it contributes to their job satisfaction. Such understandings are significant in coming up with appropriate tools for the performance-based pay implementations and the way it can contribute to the employees’ satisfaction.
Studies indicate indirect link between performance-based pay and employees’ job satisfaction. However, theories and models indicate different outcomes depending on the specific organizations. The general perception among employees is that job satisfaction depends on entire organization treatment and compensation is among those contributing factors (Ismail 928). Some organizations have used performance-based pay to influence employees’ job outcome, which have negative effect on their satisfaction to the given task.
In most cases, performance-based pay has been applied to increase the employees output with little attention on job satisfaction and commitment. However, in situations where performance-based pay is not directed only towards attaining positive outcome, employees’ satisfaction is achieved. In other words, performance-based pay should be directed towards attaining various outcomes, including employees’ job satisfaction and commitment.
While implementing performance-based pay system organizations have to evaluate its impact on employees’ attitudes towards assigned tasks and behavior. In addition, organizations have to determine various tools that can be applied in the implementation of the performance-based pay, particularly in the situations where job satisfaction is to be achieved.
Studies have indicated that there is positive correlation between performance-based pay and the employees’ job satisfaction, attitude, performance and commitment outcomes when appropriate implementation tools are applied (Ismail 930). However, much of these studies have concentrated on diverse organizations, cultures and compensation models.
As indicated, performance-based pay is one of the important reward systems human resources managers of organizations use in their compensation practices and influence the workers general performance and attitudes towards assigned tasks. In addition, performance-based pay is being applied by various organizations to motivate workers as well as influence their behaviors, attitudes and performance towards their jobs (Ismail 930).
However, the objective of performance-based pay towards attaining job satisfaction among employees has not been achieved by the implementing organizations. Studies indicate that workers have been dissatisfied with their job process due to failures by the organizations to put in place appropriate implementation tools to attain the employees’ job satisfaction goals of performance-based pay.
In addition, lack of training on the performance-based pay compensation criteria on the side of management has also contributed to the gap between the results of performance-based pay on employees’ satisfaction and the implementation process (Ismail 930).
Moreover, there is also lack of information regarding employees’ reactions to the performance-based compensation processes. Practical examination of the workforce’s conduct, particularly on their assigned tasks due to the performance-based compensation process forms the basis of space existing in theoretical models.
Performance-based compensation strategy on job satisfaction The performance-based compensation system of an organization is established to accomplish several objectives, particularly on the management of employees’ job satisfaction (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 678). In other words, performance-based compensation system of an organization is set up to attract, retain and motivate employees.
To attain these major goals, the performance-based compensation system should comply with the regulations that govern the employees’ remunerations, which have a greater influence on the way employees perceive their assigned tasks.
Moreover, performance-based compensation system should also simplify the administration of employees as well as be cost-effective. Essentially, performance-based compensation system can only attract, retain and motivate employees when it is perceived to be satisfactory. Increased benefits employees get from an organization will attract employees with skills and needed competence. As a result, employees are retained and motivated towards attaining the desired goals.
Essentially, the strategic choice of performance-based compensation is to influence the attainment of business goals. Organizations should adopt strategic choices that enhance the employees’ development and growth. Moreover, the firm should adopt the strategy that upholds the culture of participation and empowerment within the workforce.
Also, the organizations should adopt strategic compensation choices that develop the culture of protection and reliability of employees. Most importantly, compensation strategy should increase the competitive business advantage through sustaining business approach to developing and improving employees’ capabilities (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 678).
Linking job satisfaction and performance-based compensation Studies that have been conducted on the relationship between job satisfaction and performance-based compensation indicate that many firms are applying performance-based compensation to enhance their employees’ attitudes towards assigned tasks. The main argument for the adoption of performance-based compensation is that these organizations need to influence their workforce’s conduct as well as approaches towards their jobs (Ismail 931).
Consequently, organizations’ human resources managements are capable of monitoring their workers job performance through the application of performance-based pay practices, note down the areas that need adjustments as well as ones that require back up. Through the application of performance-based compensation practices initiatives, organizations become aware of employees who need assistance on their job performance as well as the ones who need strengthening of their satisfaction (Ismail 933).
The attainments of positive results on job satisfaction and performance directly depend on the quality of performance-based compensation evaluations undertaken by these organizations. For instance, conducting a quality performance-based pay evaluation on job satisfaction leads to decline of disparities in the process.
As a result, higher levels of uniformity are achieved. Further, the results of most investigations indicate that for the organizations to gain higher competitive benefits, the labor force must be highly motivated towards their jobs which result in high productivity. As such, any method that would result in increased employees’ motivation towards jobs is significant for these organizations.
According to Chang and Hahn, the workers’ job satisfaction through their own valuations is significant in productivity. The organization’s administration should judge the personnel job satisfaction based on their performance while deciding on whom to promote as well as the members of staff who should be given the most suitable jobs 396. In other words, a highly satisfied worker with the best job description will always have greater output.
Essentially, the relationship between job satisfaction and overall employees output is direct. In addition, the employees’ job satisfaction should also be evaluated through the overall performance output.
Even though there are various variables where output is used as the measure, job satisfaction remains significant. Therefore, human resources management has the responsibility of studying personnel’s job satisfaction through a practice of yields monitoring. The process of supervision is used informally by most of the organizations.
The performance-based compensation entails evaluating the workers’ output based on the decisions and views of subordinates and peers. Further, performance-based compensation also considers the views of other supervisors and even the employees themselves. Realization of organizational goals involves a lot of emphasis on the performance-based compensation. The pursuit of accurate performance-based compensation depends on the managers’ responsibilities and the level of belief that the personnel has in their assigned tasks.
Discussions concerning pay based on performance and rankings involve ratings that are designed for expansion purpose as well as those that determine the remuneration results (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 677). Over the recent years, weight has been put on the employees’ response to performance-based pay evaluations, particularly the effect such evaluations have on their job satisfaction and commitment.
Moreover, backgrounds under which performance-based compensation assessments are considered fundamental to the employees’ job satisfaction and commitment are also highly considered. For instance, appropriate establishment of performance-based compensation effectiveness and evaluation system on employees’ job satisfaction and performance.
Precedent hypothetical studies propose that appraisals of staff output and job satisfaction based on payment criteria are critical in the determination of output resolutions as well as educing high efforts among employees to move them forward (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 677).
Therefore, it is possible for one to determine the tools that can be applied in the implementation of the performance-based compensation appraisal on employees’ satisfaction on the given tasks. In other words, job satisfaction is achieved in the situations where performance-based compensation breeds gains due to the fundamental roles of employees.
In addition, through such functions, one is able to justify the expenses involved in operations of such structures. Performance-based compensation appraisals are also vital in the determination of employees’ term of service for the rationale of shaping the capability and task obligation. However, little efforts have been made to identify how the performance-based compensation variable and its consequences on staff’s satisfaction results are affected.
Performance-based compensation is a system that has gained a lot of credit concerning the improvement of the output as well as building workers behavior and organizational obligation.
In addition, performance-based pay is very essential as an assessment and ranking exercise carried by a firm on its workforce sporadically or per annum on the gains achieved from the workforce based on the work specifications and individual conduct (Ismail 943). The descriptions are very apparent in debating the rationale for performance-based compensation evaluations on job satisfaction by firms.
As a result, several researchers have offered categorization of purposes for performance-based compensation in firms comprising attainment of organizations goals, response by workers on assignments as well as individual employees’ choices on job assignments. For instance, Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach categorized the effects performance-based compensation have on employees’ job satisfaction based on the creation of attitude that inspires workers to build up themselves and advance their performances 675.
In addition, the deliveries of information to the human resources management on job satisfaction and commitment as well as on the output of subordinates form the basis for categorization. Moreover, the provision of systematic manner of deciding on remuneration adjustments, elevation of workers and relocations also form a basis for classification.
Performance-based pay system is very critical as a supervisory practice that connects corporate objectives to the output standards as determined by the employees’ attitudes and satisfaction on their assigned tasks. In this framework, performance-based pay is fundamental in command, behavioral growth, as well as job satisfaction (Ismail 943).
The command responsibilities include recruitment, compensation along with remuneration. On the other hand, behavioral growth relates to the identification, attitude, job satisfaction and expansion of prospective output. Further, the communication function aids in the conveyance of messages and responses to the staff concerning their output and prospective behaviors. However, other studies argue that a firm may apply the performance-based pay to protect against cases of unlawful behaviors.
Though the study by Chang and Hahn was limited to the employees’ output dependent variables, the studies indirectly add more information on how performance-based pay affects employees’ job satisfaction 398. Also, the studies provide a framework through which the influence of performance-based pay on employees’ job satisfaction can be explored.
Job Satisfaction, performance-based pay and cultural dimensions Within any organization, cultures play a critical role in shaping the individual behavior. Therefore, cultural aspects are significant, while appraising employees’ job satisfaction and performance. Studies indicate that most workers feel dissatisfied with their jobs because managers do not take into consideration their culture while evaluating performance (Ismail 950). The reason is most organizations adopt models that emphasize performance-based pay appraisals that do not recognize employees’ cultures.
Culture remains fundamental consideration in the employees work attitudes and management processes. Organizations have taken little cognizance of cultural dimensions in their employees performance-based pay systems, particularly in the domain of behavioral aspects. While performance-based pay remains critical in influencing employees’ attitude, satisfaction and output, cultural aspects are similarly important in raising motivation and satisfaction on job performances.
Performance-based pay and employees perception Further studies indicate that in organizations where performance-based pay procedure is considered just, then the personnel self-esteem, as well as satisfaction, is boosted (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 677). Thus, the achievement of an effective performance-based pay depends on the acceptability that it is fair.
On the contrary, in organizations where the performance-based pay is deemed unjust, the result is behavioral dysfunction and job dissatisfaction. Also, workers’ optimistic analysis of performance-based pay results in improved inspiration and output in general.
In terms of job satisfaction, performance-based pay involves grading and attributes ranking (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 677). Further, performance-based pay also involves the technique of behaviorally attached balances. Evaluation regarding job satisfaction occurs through employees’ self-evaluation, peer grouping conversations and responses from management (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 683).
Involvement of other workers in evaluation of employees’ job satisfaction is also very significant in the realization of the pragmatic goals that organization intends to achieve through the application of performance-based pay. The result is possible due to improved probability of response being worked on.
Moreover, putting a lot of emphasis on the continuous preparation of a company’s personnel on the processes involved in the performance-based pay is essential to the realization of highest levels of effectiveness on their assigned tasks (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 689).
The empirical studies on performance-based compensation and job satisfaction Studies that have been conducted in the area of performance-based compensation and job satisfaction indicate a direct correlation between the two variables.
However, the studies show mixed results. In some cases, majority of employees feel satisfied with their jobs in relation to the type of compensation based on their performance (Chang and Hahn 403). Conversely, some studies indicate approximately fifty percent of employees feel satisfied with the task provided in relation to the performance-based pay the firm applies as a method of rewarding workers.
The causes of the differences in the findings remain puzzling to the human resources management researchers. The general assumption is that the relationship between performance-based pay and job satisfaction among employees is direct. In other words, the compensations based on employees’ performances directly affect their job satisfaction.
Further, the studies indicate that employees feel satisfied with their compensation method under the circumstances that the rewards procedures applied by the organization are fair. In situations where compensation practices are perceived by employees to be fair, employees are more satisfied.
In other words, performance-based pay is one of the compensation practices that firms utilize to motivate workers (Ismail 950). Most studies indicate that over ninety percent of employees consider fairness in compensation method practiced by the organization. The meaning of the findings is that fairness is a critical attribute of compensation practices that ensure job satisfaction among employees.
In other words, in order to achieve the motivational objective, the compensation-based pay must be perceived as being fair by the employees. In this case, fairness implies that employees perceive the overall compensation policy as reasonably representing their contributions to the goals of the organization. Essentially, job satisfaction is a perception among employees, particularly where the general organization practices are perceived to be fair.
In addition, the communications by the organization to the employees regarding compensation practices remain critical to the general satisfaction employees derive from their assigned tasks. In other words, what the organization communicates using their compensation practices directly affect the satisfaction employees get from their jobs, which in effect influence the general attainment of the organization goals. Studies indicate that most organizations do not communicate the applied method of compensation to their employees.
Besides, similar studies indicate that most employees do not understand the method of compensation being practiced by their organizations (Ismail 952).
While studies further indicate that satisfaction of employees on their jobs are not only being influenced by the compensation practices but also other factors, unfair performance-based pay, as well as other compensation policies and practices, have increased possibilities of making employees become dissatisfied. In other words, compensation policies that are perceived by employees to be unfair have increased likelihood of demoralizing employees.
However, most organizations have adopted performance-based compensation policies that are logical and sound in relation to the assigned tasks. However, most employees do not understand these policies and often relate their pay with other employees from various firms in the same industry.
In an effort to explain the compensation practices and policies to the employees and present the salary survey comparing the organization’s performance-based pay with that of industry, employers can clearly be understood by their workers, which in effect increase their satisfaction (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 689).
In essence, communications concerning the compensations based on performance remain critical regarding employees’ satisfaction to their jobs. Employees are likely to be more satisfied with their jobs in the situations where they understood their performance-based pay practices. As such, organizations must make every effort to ensure that employees not only comprehend performance-based pay practices but also other reparation actions in order to increase their satisfaction on their jobs.
Performance-based pay, workers satisfaction and motivation Researches that have been conducted indicate that job satisfaction is primarily derived from the motivation. Further, studies indicate that highly motivated workers are more satisfied on their jobs than employees who are not motivated. Therefore, performance-based pay practices aimed at increasing workers motivation also result in increased satisfaction (Ismail 952). Most organizations tend to use compensations policies to motivate their workforce.
Performance –based pay is the most commonly applied method of compensation that is used by employees to motivate their workforce. In the situations where the performance-based pay has ensured workers have been motivated, their satisfaction will also increase. In essence, the satisfaction of workforce is directly related to the motivation they derive from the organization practices. As such, any factors affecting the motivation of workers also affect their job satisfaction.
In fact, the compensation system of an organization is established to accomplish several objectives, particularly on the management of employees’ satisfaction and motivation (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 689). Essentially, the compensations systems, particularly performance-based pay of an organization is set up to attract and retain as well as motivate employees.
To attain these major goals of the organization, the performance-based compensation system should comply with the regulations that govern the employees’ remunerations. Moreover, to attain the objective of motivating employees, the compensation system based on performance should also simplify the administration of employees as well as be cost-effective.
As indicated, the compensation system based on performance can only attract, retain and motivate employees when it is perceived to be satisfactory (Ismail 950). Even though increased compensation of an organization will attract employees with skills and needed competence, it does not necessarily mean that such employees are satisfied.
However, most of the human resources management will assume that employees will be within the organization because they are satisfied. Studies indicate that job satisfaction is a perception by employees that the organization is fair on their reward system. As a result, employees are retained and motivated towards attaining the desired goals of the organization when they feel satisfied with their jobs (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 689).
Essentially, while planning for the compensation policies, the workers’ satisfactions have to be considered. In fact, the tactical choice of type of compensation will have greater influences on the general attainment of the goals of the business, which is hugely determined by the workers attitude towards their jobs (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 689).
The consideration of the attitude of workers towards the assigned tasks explains the reason why organizations should adopt a strategic choice that enhances the employees’ development and growth. In most instances, employees will be satisfied when the compensation strategy adopted upholds the culture of participation and empowerment within the workforce.
In addition, employees will be highly motivated and satisfied when the compensation applied by the organization enhances a culture of reliability and protection. In other words, the compensation strategy should be reliable and provide financial security to the employees.
The performance-based compensation normally has the attributes that make workers feel satisfied with their jobs (Ismail 950). Therefore, organizations should adopt strategic choices on compensations based on employees’ performances that enhance the culture of protection and reliability in order to increase motivation and satisfaction.
Essentially, motivation and satisfaction of employees remains significant when strategic choices of performance-based rewards are made by the organization. Most importantly, the performance-based compensation strategy applied by the organization is considered to increase the competitive business advantage when it sustains the business approach to employees’ development and improvement, which are closely linked to motivation of workers (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 689).
Performance-based compensation practices that increases satisfaction As indicated, performance-based compensation strategy that enhances the workers satisfaction attains the competitive advantage to the organization. One of the practices of compensation that ensure increased satisfaction of workers to their jobs is the incorporation performance-based actions within the business processes. The reason is that business process of the organization determines the level in which the company goals and objectives are attained (Chang and Hahn 403).
Essentially, to contribute to the enhanced satisfaction on the part of the workforce, the compensation design system should be within the businesses processes. Moreover, compensation practices based on the performance of employees should be one of the factors that are geared towards motivating employees, increase the performance of the organization and contribute to the increased competitive advantage.
The performance-based compensation should be designed in such a way that appropriate remunerations of workers increase the level of their participation that in effect increases their productivity (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 689). Further, the design should increase the employees’ level of participation on their job. As indicated, suitable levels of employees’ participation strengthen the principles and ideals of the organization.
The organization should set standards and values that should be enhanced by the compensation practices. Moreover, the standards set by the organization directly correlates to the value created by the practice of performance-based compensation. By creating standards, competitive advantage of the organization will be attained through the values established by the performance-based compensation practice.
The performance-based pay, employees’ satisfaction and organization’s performance Studies indicate that modern organizations are continuously recognizing performance-based compensation as one of the significant practices than increases benefits to the organization. Moreover, studies indicate that the organizations practicing performance-based compensation have increased benefits.
In other words, in organizations where performance-based compensation are practiced, it is not only the employees that benefit but also the organizations (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 689). The reason is that performance-based compensation increases job satisfaction, which in effect enhances the organization performance. Generally, the relationship between performance-based compensation and the organization’s increased performance is direct.
On the other hand, organizations that have perceive performance-based compensations as being costly have hardly achieved their goals. The reason is that employees’ motivations, as well as job satisfaction, are reduced considerably. As indicated, performance-based compensation is not the only factor that determines employees motivation and job satisfaction but significantly influences the variables.
Critical analysis of the advantages of performance-based pay to the organization shows that the benefits of the compensation practice surpass the costs involved.
The employees’ job satisfaction and increased organization performance associated with the practice of rewarding employees based on their performances ensure continuous flow of qualified staff with required skills and technical competence to keep the business at the competitive edge.
Given the fact that the qualified staffs with required skills and technical competence are critical in the attainment of goals and objectives as well as the key driver for their growth and development of the organization, competitive advantage is achieved (Chang and Hahn 403).
The current competitive environment requires organizations to keep highly qualified staff with necessary skills and competencies within their workforce. One of the ways through which the organization can keep such qualified staff is through appropriate remunerations that ensure satisfaction. To remain relevant, organizations must be flexible when it comes to the management of employees’ compensations and benefits in order to ensure their satisfaction.
On the part of employees, performance-based compensation and benefits ensure augmented productivity due to the satisfaction they receive from such benefits (Ismail 950). Augmented productivity on the part of employees results in the increased performance of the organization.
As indicated, performance-based compensation should ensure security and wellness to the employees. In other words, well-compensated employees feel protected from social ills that may distract the work processes, which in turn may result in decreased satisfaction and performance. Moreover, performance-based compensation practices that take into consideration needs of workers are critical in the motivation, satisfaction and general output of the employees.
According to Chang and Hahn, there is direct correlation between appropriate performance-based compensation and increased employees job satisfaction and performance 404. Essentially, performance-based compensation has a direct impact on the employees’ satisfaction on the assigned tasks, which by extension influences their performances as well as that of the organization.
One of the most significant benefits of performance-based compensation to the organization is that the employees are motivated to attain the greater output. Remunerations based on performances increase the worker’s motivation and job commitment that are translated into large organization’s performances.
In addition, the forms of compensation practice also enhance the performance culture among the employees and within the organization. However, researches indicate that job satisfaction derived from performance-based compensation can hardly be quantitatively determined (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 689).
In other words, no appropriate quantitative measurements have been developed to determine with conviction the job satisfaction employees derive from performance-based pay. However, increased output due to increased compensation can easily be observed (Ismail 950). As such, whether job satisfaction due to performance-based pay should be based on some form of measurable outputs has remained debatable among researchers.
The relationship between Performance-based pay and increased efficiency Increased efficiency among the workforce may result from various factors, including job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has often led to increased effectiveness among employees. Moreover, increased effectiveness cannot be divorced from high performance and attainment of the organization goals.
As indicated, to achieve job satisfaction among employees, appropriate compensation policy has to be adopted by the firm. Performance-based compensation practices have proved the most effective in enhancing the job satisfaction among employees. As such, performance-based compensation directly influences performance among workers. In fact, the increased performances result from augmented motivation workers gain from appropriate compensation (Ismail 950).
Essentially, the motivation workers derive from the performance-based compensation practiced by the organization will enhance effectiveness and efficiency among workers that contributes to improved performance. As already mentioned, the effects of such practices are the increased productivity and attainment of overall goals of the organization.
Generally, one of the major influence appropriate performance-based compensation design system has on the organization are the increased performance due to effectiveness derived from motivation and job satisfaction, productivity within the workforce and the general attainment of the organization’s goals (Chang and Hahn 403). Efficiency and effectiveness attained because of job satisfaction play a significant role in the achievement of the organization goals.
As mentioned previously, performance-based compensation practices impacts on the employees’ perception regarding culture and performance of the organization (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 689).
In other words, the performance-based compensation design system of an organization communicates particular aspects that directly relate to the performance-culture, which in effect have direct influence on job satisfaction. In particular, the level in which the performance-based compensation practices of organization can create motivation, efficiency, and effectiveness among workers.
One of the performance-based practices that create efficiency and effectiveness is where the compensation applied reflects the employees’ talents, skillfulness, capability, and understanding of the work processes. Also, the performance-based compensation practices should reflect the reparation levels of other organizations. Essentially, the organization’s success mirrors the extent in which the talent and skills of the workforce within the organization are efficiently and effectively utilized (Chang and Hahn 403).
Moreover, in order to attain the effectiveness on employees’ performances, the performance-based compensation system should reflect the level in which the organization recognizes the contributions of individuals, teams as well as groups. In other words, the recognition of employees’ contributions to the organization success is one of the factors that result in increased job satisfaction.
Moreover, performance-based compensation practices such as offering bonuses to individuals with increased performances portray the cultural aspect of the organization that values individualistic ideals. In fact, such practices have been found to be directly linked to increased job satisfaction among employees.
Under the circumstances where the organization recognizes the individual ideals, employees with individualistic traits will be attracted to the firm. On the other hand, performance-based compensation that recognizes the teams’ contribution portrays the collective values of the organization. As such, individuals that value collective ideals will be attracted to the organization.
In general, the performance-based compensation system and design often communicate the values and beliefs of the organization regarding employees’ satisfaction on their jobs and efficiency with which the tasks are performance (Amuedo-Dorantes and Mach 689).
Whether the organization performance-based compensation policy portray individual or collective values, job satisfaction and performance remain critical. Effectiveness and efficiency the tasks of the organization are performed will depend on the level of satisfaction of employees.
Performance-based compensation has also been found to have direct influence on the general employees’ management procedures. Under such management procedures, the employees’ efficiency and effectiveness can be enhanced through the application of appropriate performance-based compensation (Ismail 950).
In this case, appropriate performance-based compensation implies that the remunerations should be based on the market rate. In other words, payment rates adopted by the organization should equal or above the rate of other firms within the industry. Moreover, suitable compensation that has increased effect on the workers attitude towards their jobs and motivation should be above the market rate.
Generally, effective performance-based compensation indicates the manner in which the organization values its workers as well as their needs. Workers will often feel satisfied with the given tasks when the organization values their contribution as well as needs. In addition, effective performance-based compensation practices increase workers motivation and job satisfaction that results in augmented productivity as well as the general performance of the organization.
Conclusion Performance-based pay is one of the tools that are widely being applied to combine employees’ performances and organizations’ compensations policies. In addition, the performance-based pay is understood to be covering several compensation methods in which firms reimburse their employees based on each unit of output. Further, firms utilize compensation-based pay to develop and enhance the employees’ capabilities, performances and give out rewards.
In terms of job satisfaction, studies indicate indirect correlation between compensation particularly performance-based pay and job satisfaction. However, the findings are not always the same in all situations. In other words, compensation is not the only determinant of employees’ satisfaction. Many factors contribute to the satisfaction of employees on their job assignments. Primarily, performance-based pay systems are aimed at increasing the employees’ output rather than influencing their behaviors.
However, further studies indicate that in organizations where performance-based pay procedures are considered fair, personnel self-esteem, as well as job satisfaction, is boosted. Thus, the achievement of an effective performance-based pay on job satisfaction depends on the employees’ perception that the practice is fair and geared towards improving their welfare.
On the contrary, under the circumstances in which performance-based pay is deemed unjust, the result is behavioral dysfunction and job dissatisfaction. In addition, workers have optimistic analysis of performance-based pay results in improved inspiration and output in general. Moreover, performance-based pay involves grading and attributes ranking.
In general, various factors directly influence job satisfaction. The most important factor is the employees’ perceived notion that the basic needs are met by the organization. Essentially, motivating practices directly contribute to the satisfaction of employees towards assigned tasks.
Even though compensation is such motivating factors, performance-based pay do not have direct influences on employees’ motivation. Performance-based pay has to be combined with other motivating factors in order to have influences on employees’ motivation, which by extension results in job satisfaction.
Works Cited Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Tracy Mach. “Performance pay and fringe benefits. Work incentives or compensating wage differentials?” International Journal of Manpower, 24.6 (2003): 673-698. Print.
Chang, Eunmi and Juhee Hahn. “Does pay-for-performance enhance perceived distributive justice for collectivistics employees?” Personnel Review, 35.4 (2006): 397-412. Print.
Ismail, Azman. “Relationship between Performances based pay features and job satisfaction: Does interactional justice act as a mediating role?” Academy of Management Journal, 35.5 (2007): 921-955. Print.
Comparing and Contrasting Islam and Christianity Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Religion is of great importance to many people in the world. By following their various religious beliefs, people are able to find meaning in their lives and lead purposeful lives. Religion also provides a moral code that guides the lives of the followers. While there are hundreds of religions in the world, only a few have considerable numbers of members.
Two of the major world religions are Islam and Christianity. Each of these religions has over one billion followers who are found in all the continents. This paper will compare and contrast some of the aspects of Christianity and Islam with the aim of showing that while these two religions often appear irreconcilable, they have some significant similarities.
Differences The first difference between Islam and Christianity is that the two religions have different founders who lived in different historical times. A Jew called Jesus Christ, who claimed to have been the son of God, founded Christianity (Streng 5). On the other hand, Mohammed, who is revered by his followers as the last and most important prophet of God, founded Islam (Gerner 5).
The two religions leaders occupied different times in history and they introduced their respective religions to different groups of people. Christianity was introduced in the year 1AD to Jews in Jerusalem while Islam was introduced in 7AD to Arabs in Mecca. The leaders of these two religions played differing roles in society. While Jesus was primarily a spiritual leader, Mohammed was both a spiritual and a political leader (Ayoub 342).
The relevance of Jesus Christ in Christianity and Islam also proves to be a major area of divergence in the two religions. While the person called Jesus is recognized by both religions, the two religions hold varying beliefs about him. To Christians, Jesus is a central character in the faith and his followers believe that he was crucified and later resurrected, making him mankind’s salvation (Streng 8). He is therefore worshiped and held in the same reverence as God.
For Muslims, Jesus was a prophet who preached the word of God to the Jews. Muslims do not believe that Jesus was a son of God and his role in the religion of Islam is minor compared to that of Mohammed. Even if Jesus might be referenced by Muslims since he is recognized as a prophet, he cannot be worshiped.
While both religions have the concept of salvation for humanity, they differ in how this salvation is obtained. According to Christianity, all people are born with an “original sin” (Baker 131). This is the sin that was passed on when the first two people created by God, Adam and Eve, sinned.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The only way that this original sin can be removed is by repenting to God and accepting his forgiveness. Christians think that believers can obtain salvation through the deeds of the saints as well as Jesus’ suffering (Baker 131). In contrast to this view, Muslims believe that people are born without a sin. Each person is supposed to lead a pure life and therefore maintain this sinless state until death (Ayoub 349). For Muslims, the individual cannot earn reparations for his/her sins but must work for his/her personal salvation.
Similarities The first major similarity between the two religions is that their dogmas are based on one all-powerful God. Both religions are therefore monotheistic in nature.
For Muslims and Christians alike, this all-powerful God created the universe and man. Human beings are therefore accountable to God and they must show reverence to him (Ayoub 345). Both religions suggest that God has a special relationship with humankind and is constantly looking out for them. Believers are supposed to seek the will of God in prayer and supplications.
Christianity and Islam have roots in Judaism, which is the religion of the Jews. The Judaic roots of the two religions are evident from the fact that both believe in Abraham, Jacob, and many other patriarchs who are first referenced in Jewish texts. The link between Judaism and Christianity is more apparent since Jesus, the founder of Christianity, was a Jew (Streng 11).
He encouraged his disciples to follow most of the Jewish beliefs and customs. With Islam, the link is a bit weak since Mohammed, the founder of Islam, was an Arab. Even so, Islam embraces the prophets of Judaism and the Muslim holy book, which is the Koran, borrows heavily from the Jewish Tanakh (Gerner 10).
Islam and Christianity share the idea of an afterlife. The two religions believe that the world will end at some time in the future and that when this happens, people will exist as souls in the afterlife. Both religions warn their followers to prepare for a great judgment during this afterlife (Baker 131).
In the afterlife, people will be rewarded with heaven or cast into hell depending on their deeds while on earth. The concept of heaven and hell arises since both religions believe that God is just and he will therefore reward the good with heaven and punish the evil people with hell.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparing and Contrasting Islam and Christianity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Islam and Christianity place special emphasis on giving alms and helping the needy in society. For Muslims, being charitable is a key tenet of the religion and it is included in the third pillar of Islam (Ayoub 364). Every Muslim has a religion obligation to give part of his wealth to the needy if he is well off.
Christians are exhorted to be charitable to their neighbors and help the needy. The Christian bible declares that the person who has a lot should share with those in need around him so that God can bless him (Baker 150). By following these teachings on alms-giving, followers of Islam and Christianity offer help to the unfortunate members of the society.
Conclusion This paper set out to highlight the similarities and differences between Christianity and Islam. It began by noting that while Christianity and Islam appear to be absolute opposites, the two religions have many similar beliefs in addition to their differences. The major differences include the respective religion founders, the status of Jesus, and how followers of the two religions attain salvation. However, there are some major similarities beginning with the monotheistic nature of both religions and their roots in Judaism.
In addition to this, the two religions share in the concept of the afterlife and believers of both religions are encouraged to observe good morals and help the needy in society. Considering these facts about the two religions, followers of Islam and Christianity should avoid the deep animosity they have towards each other since their religions have similar roots and many important common beliefs.
Works Cited Ayoub, Mahmoud. “The Islamic Tradition.” World Religions: Western Traditions. Ed. Willard G. Oxtoby, 2nd ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2002. 342-455. Print.
Baker, David. Biblical faith and other religions: an evangelical assessment. NY: Kregel Academic, 2004. Print
Gerner, Katy. Islam. NY: Marshall Cavendish. 2008. Print.
Streng, Fredrick, “The Nature and Study of Religion.” The Nature and Study of Religion. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2000. 1-18. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparing and Contrasting Islam and Christianity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Please watch the attached video before beginning this essay. Find an article on the web that gives some information essay help free: essay help free
Please watch the attached video before beginning this essay.
Find an article on the web that gives some information you can use to assess an organization’s business strategy – in other words, an article that allows you to place the company in one of the four “generic business strategies” boxes described in the video, and to assess one or more resources/capabilities the company intends to have that pass the four tests of “sustainable competitive advantage.”
1.) Which of the four “generic business strategies” is the company aiming for?
2.) Pinpoint one resource/capability the company seems to be aiming for that has a chance of passing the four tests of sustainable competitive advantage. Has the company successfully built one or more resources/capabilities that seems to, or has a chance to pass the four tests?
Please include a link to the article along with a reference page. Thank you!
Sir John Falstaff Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The history of the character
The analysis of the character
Introduction The works by William Shakespeare are the integral part of the world literature heritage. Shakespeare is the outstanding author of the numerous tragedies and comedies which are staged at the theatres all over the world. Falstaff is one of the most remarkable characters of the several plays of the dramatist.
The aim of this essay is to characterize the place of the figure of Falstaff in the works of William Shakespeare.
The history of the character Sir John Falstaff is the fictitious character of the three works by William Shakespeare including his historic plays Henry IV (both the first and the second parts), Henry V, and the comedy The Merry Wives of Windsor. It was claimed by the literature critics that, initially, Shakespeare named his character John Oldcastle but the family of the real life John Oldcastle urged Shakespeare to change the name of his character.
That is why the dramatist renamed it to Falstaff. Although the historic John Oldcastle was essentially different person, the connections between his destiny and the life of Shakespeare’s character could be found. In particular, in the play Henry IV, we get to know that the prince Henry starts to keep away from his old friend Falstaff once he has become the king. In the history, the prince Henry really kept away from John Oldcastle when he had been crowned.
The analysis of the character Falstaff is one of the most popular Shakespeare’s characters despite his flaws and moral shortcomings. This is because the figure of Falstaff embodies the sincerity and astuteness of the plain men. “In Henry IV, Part 1, Falstaff is a boon companion to the young Prince Hal, a type of nonjudgmental father-substitute…and throughout the play Falstaff comments on the political machinations with inglorious, reckless, egotistical good sense” (Sir John Falstaff n.d., par.2).
His sarcasm is addressed to the remain of feudal society. He can hardly be described as the earnest man. On the contrary, he serves not too hard and uses the ruses and lies to present himself as a more diligent person. In Henry IV, Part II, we get to know about the breakdown of his friendship with prince Hal. In Henry V, Falstaff dies.
The figure of Falstaff represents the spirit of cheerfulness and independence. The charisma of the character is apparent in his wittiness and boldness. The sincerity and generosity are some of the features describing his character. It can be said that his merits give rise to his demerits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, his inherent love of freedom leads to his defiant behavior, his humor turns to cynicism and his cheerfulness results in the drunkenness and gluttony. Through the character of Falstaff, Shakespeare shows how the mockery of morality can lead to the immorality. Nevertheless, the nature of his character makes him stand out among other figures of Shakespeare’s plays.
Conclusion In order to summarize all above mentioned, it should be said that the figure of Falstaff takes an important place in the works of William Shakespeare. The character is presented in three of his famous plays: Henry IV (Part I and Part II), Henry V, and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The plots of the plays depict the relationship of Falstaff with prince Hal. Overall, Falstaff is one of the brightest literature characters. He embodies the spirit of independence and cheerfulness in the works of Shakespeare.
Reference Sir John Falstaff. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Sir-John-Falstaff
“Der Erlkonig” and “Lost Your Head Blues” Essay (Movie Review) essay help online free
Schubert’s Erlkonig employs a solo voice and piano and the song dates back to 1815. The first performance of the song was in 1820 in Vienna. The song has four characters, each with his voice. A talented vocalist can however vocalize all characters. During performances, Schubert preferred to place different vocalists in charge of each character to achieve a different vocal range. Different characters have different rhythmic nuances and vocal coloration.
Bessie Smiths’ Lost Your Head Blues unfolds in a slow and mournful tone. In spite of the tone, the song captures a strong and bold woman who is ready to stand up to her abusive husband. Smith published her song in 1926 by fusing a variety of related genres. Because of her vocal ability and emotional appeal, audiences are able to connect with her song. It is for that reason that people crowned her the Empress of the Blues.
Schubert’s Erlkonig has four characters, each with his or her vocal coronation. Schubert was however outstanding because his vocal range allowed him to sing the four voices, each with different rhythmic nuance. When singing as the narrator, the first character in the song, Shubert vocals range between the middle and minor mode.
For the father, an authority figure in the song, the voice oscillates between minor and major mode. The son is frightened and Shubert manages a high range to show the fear in the boy’s voice. For Erlking, the fourth character, Shubert strikes a major key and accentuates it with an up and down undulation.
Bessie Smiths’ Lost Your Head Blues falls within the dominant classic style of the 1920s. The song blends early blues with then contemporary jazz to produce a masterpiece that put Smith above her peers. She fuses each stanza with unmatched vocal strength that cascades genres limitations. Her emotional appeal in the song is very strong as she takes the audience through the story of a bold woman who stands up to her husband. She personalizes the song with unrivalled success. This makes the song resonate well with the audience.
Many people regard Schubert’s Erlkonig as extremely difficult to perform. The song has four characters and the performer is conscious of different vocal coronation of each character. Schubert vocal strength makes it possible for him to perform the four characters with ease. For the first four characters, he adjusts his voice appropriately from high key, middle range and minor mode.
The fifth character is a horse and Schubert performs it by rapidly playing the piano to mimic horse’s movement. The song starts with rapid and repeated piano beats to reflect urgency in the story line. The performance quickens and gets louder as the horse gallops and tension between the dad and son escalates. The song ends in an abrupt cadence to show the child’s death and the horse slowing down.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bessie Smiths’ Lost Your Head Blues performance resembles early blues and jazz songs. She performs the song with great vocal strength that captivates and binds the audience like a spell. The song captures the audacity of a strong woman who could not bow down to her manipulative husband.
The performance is therefore slow and mournful. It brings out the pain of a woman in an emotional and convincing style that makes it easy for the audience to identify with the story line. The performance is powerful with tempo rising and falling appropriately with the character’s predicaments. Smiths’ performance is slow, serenading the audience and allowing for absorption of the meaning. Every woman can identify with the performance.
Schubert’s Erlkonig captures the story of a father, his two sons, a ghost and a horse. The horse is frantically galloping with the dad and sons on its back. The younger of the sons can see a ghost, Erlking, tempting him. Erlking’s voice is soft and sweet and hence captivates the younger boy with promises.
When the boy declines, Erlking threatens to take him by force. This prompts the boy to ask his father for assistance. The boy fights off but succumbs and dies at the end of the song. The song captures the period that people believed strongly in ghosts. It unfolds in as an informal dialogue.
Bessie Smiths’ Lost Your Head Blues is a love story gone sour. Smith captures the predicaments of a woman who is reeling in abandonment by her husband. The couple enjoyed matrimonial bliss until the man got plenty of money. The song captures jazz period after First World War. During this period, marriages were disintegrating because of a carefree attitude adopted by most Americans. The language is informal.
The two songs discussed above represent their era and genre. Schubert’s Erlkonig represents the gothic era in which belief in ghost was common. It stands out from others because of its unusual characteristics. The presence of many characters, each with different rhythmic nuances makes it a great song. Bessie Smiths’ Lost Your Head Blues captures the jazz period in America. The song stands out because of the blend of early blues and the then contemporary jazz.
Maggie Fitzgerald in Million Dollar Baby and Betty Ann Waters in Conviction Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The essence of the characters – Maggie Fitzgerald in Million Dollar Baby and Betty Ann Waters in Conviction – are completely different. Hilary Swank plays both the characters in the movies. In case of both the films, it seemed that the characters were right for Hilary Swank. The tomboyish character of Maggie is strong both physically and psychologically. On the other hand, Betty Ann is a strong-willed character.
Maggie Fitzgerald is a hillbilly who is poor, works as a waiter, and steals food to put together some savings (Swank, Eastwood and Freeman, Million Dollar Baby). Yet, she finds time and strength to train to become a professional boxer. Maggie is destitute, alone, and leads a non-significant life.
She yearns to become something special and so continually pressures Frankie Dunn to be her trainer. Swank plays the character to perfection. Never, for a moment, did she loose control of the reserve and composer of a woman who had faced all the hardships of life. There was no place for emotional outburst in her performance.
Betty Ann is a courageous working class single mother of two, who fights her way through law school to free her brother who, wrongly convicted of murder (Swank, Rockwell and Leo, Conviction). The objective of Betty Ann was to free her brother from being wrongly convicted for life. She shows courage and conviction to exonerate her brother. Her primary obstacles were her incomplete high school degree and her brother’s violent police record.
Her successes were marred with hurdles, all failures in her effort were due to her, and her brother’s past haunted her. She overcame the obstacle of her inefficiency as a person by passing through law school to be legally able to defend her brother. It took her sixteen years to become a lawyer and then petition the evidence to be reexamined. However, the evidence apparently, was destroyed after ten years. This added to the complex nature of the case.
However, after a lot of trouble, Betty managed to get hold of the evidence, and the DNA samples of the perpetrator’s did not match her brothers. However, the euphoria was short-run, as soon the DA’s office declared that there was enough evidence to hold her brother as an accomplice. Nevertheless, Betty’s conviction of her brother’s innocence helps her to fight her way through the system to acquit him.
Maggie as a character is introvert but she communicates strongly with her coach Frankie. She is responsive to the instructions and acts more of a man than a woman in the film. On the other hand, Betty Ann is an emotional person, who is essentially a woman. She laughs, cries, and expresses anger whenever the situation be so. Hilary Swank played two very different characters with equal ease.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hilary Swank had completely altered her personality and body movements to portray to the roles of Betty Ann and Maggie. In Maggie, she internalized a boxer, who was strong and masculine, with little demonstration of emotions. On the other hand, in Betty Ann she played an emotional sister who loves her brother and sacrifices her life to exonerate him. She changes her voice to suit the characters – Maggie with a husky, masculine tone of speaking and with Betty Ann, a woman soft but strong willed.
In both the character, Swank fitted perfectly well. It almost appeared that two people played the roles rather than one. Her movements, manner of speaking, gestures, and body language altered to suit the need of the characters, never overdoing it.
Works Cited Conviction. Dir. Tony Goldwyn. Perf. Hilary Swank, Sam Rockwell and Melissa Leo.: Omega Entertainment. 2010. DVD.
Million Dollar Baby. Dir. Clint Eastwood. Perf. Hilary Swank, Clint Eastwood and Morgan Freeman.: Warner Bros. 2004. DVD.
The Physiology behind the Periodization of an Olympic Swimmer Term Paper college admissions essay help
Introduction For a long time, sport events at the Olympics such as swimming have provided an important arena for experimenting with techniques of periodization. In swimming, for example, the individual effort of each athlete is easy to measure since swimming competition focuses only on the individual athlete and the clock. Individual performance does not rely on group performance of other swimmers in the competition.
Therefore, the output of an athlete can be easily regulated with proper practice and training schedule. Understanding the nature of each sport is important in devising a periodization system that takes the needs of the event into consideration since each sport in essentially different. This paper analyzes the concepts of periodization and tapering in swimming at the Olympic level.
Needs Analysis of Swimming
To be successful in swimming as a sport demands self-discipline and adherence to a strict training plan that agrees with the physical and psychological demands of the sport. The first requirement for a successful career in swimming is nutrition. Observing a strict nutritional plan is an essential aspect of preparation for any athlete (Eberle 2007). Nutrition is an important part of a swimmer’s training for swimming consumes lots of calories.
Most Olympic bound athletes in the swimming category cover over seven miles in a single training session. Therefore, the nutritional diet of a swimmer ought to consider the strength needed and should be sufficient to build endurance due to the strict training demands. The athlete’s diet should consist mainly of proteins and carbohydrates that have high energy content. In short, the diet of a swimmer should contain more calories (over 1200) than that of an average person (Eberle 2007).
Weight training is another important area to consider. When preparing for the Olympics, the training schedule of swimmers should aim at developing strong muscles. The body of a swimming athlete needs to have the necessary muscle power to overcome water resistance. However, it must remain flexible to enable the swimmer to execute strokes and varying motions.
A swimmer’s legs must have enough strength to push the body off the wall as he makes turns. Exercises for such athletes should not only focus on strength, but must also pay attention to agility. Their daily weight workout ought to last approximately 30 minutes. These exercises should be done at least twice in a week and do not include warm-ups. The training and fitness coach must ensure that the training plan does not wear out the athlete.
Training for an Olympic swimming event requires recovery as part of the workout plan. During recovery, relaxing massages aid in the quick recovery of muscles that are strained during workouts. Recovery can also include ice immersions to relieve aching and decrease swelling of muscles. This allows the athlete to have sufficient energy for training.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides physical training, swimming at the Olympics requires mental strength to withstand the pressure that comes with the expectations on such a global stage. Swimming in an international stage with thousands of onlookers demands that the athlete be prepared mentally for such an audience to avoid unnecessary distractions. This can be done by setting and following certain habits or playing particular types of songs before getting into the pool.
In addition, the athlete must practice his strokes regularly and perfect his techniques. This requires skillful periodization and tapering to ensure that the athlete reaches his peak at the Olympic stage. Such planning requires an understanding of the underlying principles of periodization and tapering as outlined in the subsequent section.
Underlying Principles of Periodization and Tapering
Periodization refers to a systematic alteration in the volume and intensity of exercises to avert overtraining and encourage peak performance at the intended time. The key words in periodization are volume and intensity. Volume refers to the quantity of work completed in each exercise each day for every month while intensity is the power-productivity of the workout.
Periodization signifies the emphasis of employing different training systems at different stages (Issurin 2008). It is often achieved through careful planning for the calendar period before the event to produce a detailed training program.
The underlying theory supporting periodization is that in alternating between several stages, an athlete can cover different systems more comprehensively than if he trains in a uniform way continuously. A good periodization strategy can cover several years. In our case, the plan should bring out the peak performance of the athlete at the Olympic stage since no athlete can maintain a peak performance throughout the year.
Most athletes attribute a complete season’s success to tapering. In sports such as swimming, tapering is the tradition of decreasing the intensity of exercises in the days leading to a major competition. It is widely practiced in many energy-demanding sports like athletics and swimming. Many athletes consider tapering as an integral recipe for good performance.
The period of tapering varies from one sport to another and may last over one week. In most sports, an event that involves protracted periods of endurance is often preceded by long periods of tapering. In swimming, however, distance swimmers taper for fewer periods than those in the sprinting category.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Physiology behind the Periodization of an Olympic Swimmer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main gain from a taper lies in the recovery and restitution that it enables. What makes a swimmer competitive is the quality of the workout that he does before tapering and is not directly because of the taper. The purpose of the taper is not to provide a magic route to success, but rather a period for the athlete to restore his strength and relax his muscles away from the rigorous training.
Though the training does not stop, it is slowed down considerably. The taper is, therefore, characterized by fun activities and moderate exercises. The main factor to consider in the taper is intensity instead of volume.
Consequently, a good taper must permit resting periods and recovery without generating the unfounded fear of losing conditioning. It must also execute certain tasks that are intended to reproduce the targeted performance at the competitive event.
Periodization Stages of Training for Swimming at the Olympics Olympic activities like swimming events, rowing and most field events are vital for research and validation of periodization hypotheses. In swimming and other individual sports, individual output of athletes is easy to measure since it is all about the athlete and the clock. This makes it easy to set goals and plan towards achievement of the goals. This is done by constructing and maintaining a sound periodization plan.
Periodization involves the creation of separate units where certain techniques are stressed. Every swimming cycle is split into intervals of micro-cycles, macro-cycles and meso-cycles. The traditional model focuses on a number of blocks that concentrate on endurance, maximum speed, improvement of VO2max, and anaerobic level. It also includes a period of tapering. This is an example of a linear model.
One advantage of this model is that it offers avenues for acclimatization within the structure. Outlined here are some of the categories used in periodization.
A macro-cycle denotes the whole season in a training program including the recovery and transition phases (Issurin 2010). This period is traditionally taken to infer one year in a swimming calendar, but can be modified according to the targets and needs of a specific athlete since not all athletes are the same.
The second category is the micro-cycle, which provides the swimmer with more comprehensive information concerning the nature of the workout in terms of intensity, volume and regularity of each workout session. The degree of intensity in every micro-cycle varies between low intensity and high intensity and includes recovery days.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Physiology behind the Periodization of an Olympic Swimmer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The third category, the meso-cycle, refers to separate blocks of workout sessions directed towards an explicit target in training, for instance, preparation, endurance, speed and competition. The meso-cycles are often around three to four weeks long. The table below is an example of a periodization plan for an Olympic-bound athlete.
Date September October Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March April-Aug. Meso-cycle Preparatory phase Competition Maintenance Peaking Transition Macro-cycle General endurance Specific endurance Local meet Local meet Taper Olympics Recovery Off season Micro-cycle Low to moderate intensity High to moderate volume
High intensity Moderate volume
High intensity Low volume
Very high intensity Full recovery between sets
Easy exercises Recovery Light exercises to keep fit From the table above, there are four main phases that are outlined in a swimming periodization. These are the endurance or preparation phase, the competition phase and the recovery or rest phase. Paying attention to all these stages when devising a periodization plan is important since the intensity and volume of exercises recommended for each phase varies considerably.
If applied appropriately, a periodization plan that outlines all these phases should enable the athlete to reach his peak performance levels at the targeted competition. The endurance phase is subdivided into general endurance and specific endurance.
The general endurance phase marks the beginning of the season and is characterized by low intensity exercises that place prominence on dry-land conditioning. This stage includes exercises that enhance flexibility, aerobic activities and weight workouts. In this stage, volume of exercises can be high or moderate and increase gradually in the next stage. The main goal of this phase is to gradually transition the body into coordinated training and acquire training tactics for the season ahead.
At this stage, the exercises are intended to prepare the body for the next period and improve the basic skills. It focuses on revitalizing cardiorespiratory strength and acquiring complete body strength by way of practical strength training. This stage usually lasts four to five weeks depending on the swimming calendar and the schedule for the major competition. For this period, it is helpful to practice cross training and aerobic endurance to determine fitness levels (Rechichi, Dawson
EBay Company in E-business Report essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
About the site (eBay)
EBay in e-business
New additions to the website
Introduction The Internet has brought about many changes in the consumer world. There have been various advantages that have been developed to make life easier for many people. With these advancements, it has become easier to conduct many traditional activities online. These include communication, purchases, and sending important data. The development of online companies like eBay has enabled consumers and producers to gain because it provides an online avenue for conducting business transactions.
About the site (eBay) EBay is an online website that provides an avenue for buyers and sellers to buy and sell goods. Thus, consumers can easily get the goods and services that they want by simply going through the website and finding the deals that suit them.
It also offers an auction service where consumers can bid for the prices of various products and services. EBay as a company was founded in 1995. Its success has been attributed to the increasing use and access to the Internet. This has increased the website’s audience, making it grow fast over the years. The company operates in over 130 countries, thereby becoming a multi-billion dollar company (Collier 330).
The company is owned by Pierre Omidyar, a computer scientist. It began as a personal website, but he was forced to upgrade by his service provider. During this time it was known as AuctionWeb whereby it provided an online avenue for companies to conduct online auctions. Pierre was forced to charge users of the site because of the high traffic the site was getting during its initial days. Thus, he got the first eBay employee who handled the fees paid by users.
The company’s first president was employed in 1996, thus it signaled the evolution of the company into an online e-commerce website. In its initial days, the company was usually involved in online auctions. Thus, it was able to conduct over 2,000,000 online auctions in 1997 in comparison to 1996 whereby only 250,000 online auctions occurred. The company then began to consider business activities beyond auctions. Thus, it changed its name to eBay in 1997.
The company belonged to a consulting firm owned by Omidyar called Echo Bay Technology group. Thus, the website was to be located at the domain echobay.com, but a different company already owned the name. Omidyar then named it eBay.com, a shortened version of his consulting company (Collier 322).
Major progress for the company occurred in 2002 when it purchased PayPal. Thus, it was able to make a service that enables people to save money within PayPal and use it when making transactions. Thus, this service made it easier to securely send and receive money over the Internet for any company or individual with an email account.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More EBay in e-business EBay is a company that has witnessed increasing growth over the years. Its success is a result of the increasing use of the Internet. Thus, eBay has evolved into an e-business. This means that companies can establish shops online without necessarily having a physical structure.
Thus, all the transactions conducted within the business are depended on eBay. When a consumer wants a product, they simply log into the site and make a selection of what they require. The seller in many cases only has the goods within a warehouse facility for storage. Thus, once purchased the goods are delivered to the customer without hustles (Schwalbe 56).
EBay is a form of e-commerce where business transactions are conducted online. Thus, the website provides a platform where buyers and sellers can interact and sell their goods and services. Moreover, it provides a secure way to conduct these transactions. It also facilitates virtual communication where the customer can interact with the seller.
The use of PayPal also led to improvements in e-commerce. It became easier to conduct business online with a faster method of making transactions. Users could easily open a PayPal account, which would be tied up to their email. Thus, they could make secure transactions that were efficient and safe (Collier 210).
EBay uses an online auction or fixed price trading. Thus, a customer can choose either of the two methods to purchase the products or services they want. The bid made by the highest bidder is still shown during the entire period to allow for price discovery by potential consumers (Collier 207).
The option of negotiating for prices through an auction is an effective strategy to encourage more consumers because people are attracted to a situation where they have a wider choice to choose from. Through negotiations, people can determine the prices of the goods and services that they want and ensure they spend on a cheaper but quality product. Through eBay, people can sell products that are not necessarily new.
Thus, individuals with used products can easily sell their product through the service at a cheaper price. It also enables them to access a wider market, thus they can sell at a profitable price with ease. The customer also finds it easier to conduct transactions because it only involves the click of a mouse without movement and goods or services are then delivered to the customer (Schwalbe 38).
We will write a custom Report on EBay Company in E-business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Website targets EBay is an international company, thus it attracts a diverse group of people ranging from individuals to companies. It has localized websites in countries such as Europe, North America, Latin America, and Asia Pacific. The largest users of the company comprise of individuals. This is the main target audience because a wide range of transactions occurs between individuals and consumers during transactions.
Companies are also allowed to operate accounts with eBay. Thus, they can sell their goods and services to a larger consumer base without necessarily having a physical shop or requiring the consumer to visit the company’s premises.
The website also targets potential consumers with the use of advertising. Thus, it has an online classified website whereby people can meet, exchange ideas, and conduct business easily. This has facilitated the company to increase its online presence and attract more users. The online classified sites include German automobile website mobile.de, itoko, and Netherlands marketplaces.nl (Gitlin 1953).
Website services EBay is a company that has established various services in relation to trade.. These were various websites under eBay dealing with payment, communication, and commerce. The services include PayPal, Subhub, Half.com, Rent.com, Micro Place, Media Marketplace, Shopping.com, and Kijiji.com.
Online auctioning is one of the initial services offered by eBay. This is where customers can bid for a product until an agreeable price is reached. Being online, individuals can easily bid on a product from home. Thus, it has gained popularity over the years as bidding is an effective strategy to ensure consumers get the goods and services at the best price that they can afford.
Online classified is also one of the services offered by eBay. This is conducted through various websites owned by eBay, including Gumtree and kijiji.com whereby it offers an avenue for online communities within a specific urban region to conduct trade. Thus, advertisements are placed online for a specific audience within a region.
Launched in 2005, it operates in over 300 cities worldwide. Such a service has been able to offer localized advertising whereby users can find products within their geographical regions. PayPal is also a service offered by eBay. It allows for payments and money transfers for users of eBay over the Internet. It processes payments that occur over the Internet with ease and efficiency. PayPal became eBay’s subsidiary in 2002 and operates worldwide (Collier 300).
Global spread EBay is an international company with operations all over the world. Currently, the company has partner sites namely eBay US and eBay UK. These sites allow for the use of regional currencies for transactions. There are about 31 eBay subsidiaries globally. Many of these websites are localized, thus it encourages people within the various regions to conduct business and easily find what they need. The company, though established in the U.S., is growing twice as fast as a result of international markets.
Not sure if you can write a paper on EBay Company in E-business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many countries had not been traditionally engaged in e-commerce, thus eBay was able to establish this new trend of doing business within various countries. The company has over 125 million registered users. These comprise of both individuals and companies. Thus, the company has been able to adapt a business concept into areas that are characterized by different cultures. It is also flexible where it adapts to local conditions that encourage more users to use the site (Gitlin 1954).
New additions to the website There have been several additions to the website to facilitate an increase in the number of users and ensure ease of using the services offered by the company. One such example is the creation of a mobile application that runs on Smartphones like the iPhone and Android OS phones. Thus, many people have been able to install the eBay mobile application, which has facilitated the ease at which people can access the website.
Thus, people can easily conduct transactions or advertise their products easily by using the mobile application. Moreover, the mobile application has the ability to scan barcodes, thus it becomes easier to find online prices for a particular commodity. It also provides an interface to check on auctions as they are progressing online (Collier 336).
EBay has also established a gift cards service. This is where cards can be purchased as gifts. These cards can then be used by a user to make purchases on the website without using their own money. Moreover, eBay has a loyalty program whereby users of the website can earn points from the transactions made.
These points can increase over time and be used to make purchases on the website if sufficient. Moreover, the loyalty program can offer discounts and cashback guarantees to customers, thereby providing an attractive reason why they should conduct transactions over the website (Collier 335).
Conclusion In conclusion, eBay has been able to grow as an online company due to the increasing use of the Internet. Moreover, it provides a way to easily conduct trade and make financial transactions securely. It is user friendly and diverse, thus many people can use the site for various activities including e-commerce, auction, classifieds, and transfer of money. This has ensured that eBay has retained its position as an important online company.
Works Cited Collier, Marsha. EBay for Dummies. 7th edn. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2012. Print.
Gitlin, Marty. eBay: the Company and its Founder. Edina, MN: ABDO Pub., 2011. Print.
Schwalbe, Kathy. Information Technology Project Management. 6th edn. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
The Sprit Catches You and You Fall Down Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction There is a common concern of the constant struggle between modern medicine and cultural beliefs that oppose the modern treatment. The story of Lia is painful and tragic but it presents a distinct illustration of how traditions and culture can clash with the contenporary medicine. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize major concepts of the course and relate them to experiences described in the story.
Ethical Situation in the Story The book describes the story of Lia struggling with epilepsy that worries both the family and doctors. As the story begins, it is possible for the reader to relate with the experiences doctors have at the hospital as they try to solve Lia’s problem.
One can easily understand the doctors’ attitude and perceive Lia’s family as being selfish and ignorant since they are more interested in following their culture other than working with the medical workers to save the girl’s life. However, the author later presents the point of view of Lia’s family and the reason they take such a stand. After this, readers can understand how the Hmong people interpret and comprehend certain things that impact on their beliefs on treating such illnesses (Fadiman, 1998).
Ethical Principles in the strory Cultural understanding
The most important and conspicuous ethical principle in the story is the understanding of the existence of diverse cultures in the world. Equally significant is learning what views these cultures present in the quest for a common goal of healing (Black, 2013).
In the story, the predicaments of Lia are caused by persistent misunderstanding based on diverse religious perspectives. The conflict is also based on the existing language barrier that made Lia’s family be noncompliant to Lia’s medical instructions. Similarly, the doctors are unwilling to consider cultural beliefs of the Hmong in their treatment of the girl.
The author presents a struggle of different beliefs and cultures in the characters of the medical workers and Lia’s parents with each emphasizing on their way in the treatment. The people of Hmong are described to have fought different cultures over centuries. For instance, they were forced to leave China where they belonged to Laos then to Thailand, and later to the United States.
These movements exposed them to different cultures that threatened their cultural beliefs and practices (Fadiman, 1998). Throughout the history, the nation of Hmong has had no motivation to assimilate to other cultures because they spent their lives in the traditional South East Asia mountain villages in almost complete isolation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Differently Ethical Discussion
In the story, Fadiman (1998) seems to be acutely aware of the frustrations faced by the medical professionals in providing health care to individuals from different cultures. Despite these people having radically practiced worldviews, the author is able to present a case to physicians to acknowledge and understand such family realities (Black, 2013).
Much like the present Hmong people in America who chose not to assimilate themselves to the American culture, it was easy for the pre-war Hmong to resist assimilation to more wealthy cultural groups. They believed that they were more wealthy, more numerous, and more politically superior by resisting contact with “this land of leeches” and would be less likely to succumb to tropical diseases (Fadiman, 1998).
Selected Solution. People should not fight over the dilemma but find a way of understanding and accepting the arguments of each side. According to Andrews and Boyle (2008), the conflict is mostly fueled when the medical professionals and hospitals are extremely insensitive to different cultural beliefs of their patients.
Compromise in medical treatment
It is evident from the story that the doctors are willing to treat Lia but her parents believe that she should be treated according to their guidelines because the Hmong people consider that illnesses are due to emotions which leads to the concept that the soul is the key factor of their argument. On the other hand, the American culture takes illnesses as physical conditions meaning that the mind and the body are separate. To the Hmong, the soul is more important than the patient’s life. With the American doctors, it is quite the opposite. The family members understood that the cause of Lia’s seizures was that her soul had left her body. So, in their eyes the cure for Lia depended on getting her soul back with no medication giving. On the contrary, Foua and Nao Kao believed these medications would make Lia sicker.
Selected Solution. Fox (2005) recommends that the principle of compromise should also be applied to doctors who should accept different thinking patterns of their patients. For the modern medicine to be truly effective in most cases, there must be a cooperation or balance between the technology-based Western medicine and the spiritual and cultural beliefs of the patient and family.
Medical professionals need to accommodate the thinking patterns of different people and practice professional tolerance even if they will not follow their demands in the treatments. Throughout the story Lia Lee struggles with epilepsy, her first seizure occurring at just three months of age. The violent progression of Lia’s disease and the destruction of her brain, as well as the appropriate treatment are the foundation of a constant tug-of-war between her doctors and parents.
Ethics of Love
Another ethical principle is love and care since the story implies that only love exists when everything else disappears. In the story, the doctors went on with their medical treatment and did not care or even show respect for cultural perspectives of the Hmong people. However, showing love to Lia and taking care of her health and mental needs remain the only point of agreement.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Sprit Catches You and You Fall Down specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Selected Solution. Doctors should handle medical treatments with love and care to make patients and their families happy despite being sorrowful. It is hurting to see how Lia is robbed of the joys in life and the reader gets tormented by the failure of the Western medicine to halt the progression of her epilepsy.
The doctors failed to diagnose her for five months and failed to initiate the appropriate seizure protocol. A child was held by its mother all day and night and they loved their sons more. The Lees adored Lia. They did not hide the fact that Lia was their favorite child, the one they considered most beautiful, the one most hugged and kissed, and dressed in the most exquisite clothing (Fadiman, 1998).
Summary The paper presents a conflict of the modern medicine and traditional viewpoint that is fueled by the lack of compromise between the two sides. Each side of the two perspectives is filled with the best intentions of patients and seems to be keeping the goal of healing in mind. However, cultural differences between the two sides are stronger than their good intentions (Black, 2013). These two extremes are the dilemma that the readers find themselves when taking sides of the most appropriate solution for Lia.
References Andrews, M.,
Advertising Techniques Classification Classification Essay best essay help
Television shows have specific ways in which they are classified based on their content, language, and other features such as themes used. The conventional way of classifying the shows is always focused on the content, and its appropriateness to various age groups in the family.
Inasmuch as this classification approach has been considered as successful in regulating the type of content that should be viewed by different age groups, it may be necessary to go beyond this conventional classification method. It may be necessary to bring in creativity to classify these shows in a way that is different from the normal classification.
When doing this, it is important to develop a principle or a set of principles that would be guiding the new classification. This means that such a new classification criteria should be based on factors that are clear, reasonable, and acceptable to various stakeholders. It should be able to provide what is offered by the current criteria, and even more from various perspectives. This research seeks to develop a new division classification principle for the television shows.
The classification principle that the researcher has developed to classify television shows focuses on how family life is depicted. Most of the television shows always try to capture family life in one way or the other. This new principle will take into consideration the kind of language used in the shows, and the way characters relate.
Although the classification will be conscious of some of the conventional classification criteria such as the level of nudity in the show, violence, and theme used, these factors will not form the basis of this new division classification criteria. In order to bring more understanding into this new classification approach, the research will categorize some of the popular television shows into three divisions.
This new approach will classify Situational Comedies as Test Romance. ‘How I Met Your Mother’ is one of the most popular television shows, not only in the United States, but also in other countries around the world. This popular television show has been classified as a situational comedy (sitcom) through the conventional classification techniques.
However, this show would be classified as ‘Test Romance’ based on the kind of relationships between the characters. It was classified as a comedy because of its funny intrigues. In this new classification, the intrigues are used to classify it as a ‘Test Romance’. A number of factors in this television show have guided the classification into this new division. In this television show, we meet Ted in Season 1 as unmarried man living with two other friends, Marshall Eriksen and Lily Aldrin.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lily and Marshall have a romantic relationship that prompts Ted to look for love. He finds Robin, a young reporter, whom he falls in love with after a short while. The romance between the two fails to materialize, and Ted soon finds another woman called Victoria whom he begins dating. Upon realizing that Ted is getting romantically attracted to Victoria, Robin becomes jealous and realizes that she is in love with Ted.
She makes Ted realize that she has a feeling for him. Ted responds to this quickly by lying to her that she has broken-up with Victoria who has just moved to Germany. Ted and Robin start dating. However, Ted has been keen on maintaining his long-distance relationship with Victoria. Things do not work out well for Ted when the two ladies realizes that he has been cheating on them, and this brings the relationship between Ted and Victoria to an end.
The decision to classify this show as a ‘Test Romance’, which is a completely new classification, is because of the nature of romance experienced. Several characters develop romantic relationships, only to breakup after a short while. Some reunite after some time, a sign that these relationship are under test. They are testing whether it can work. Those that can work get stable as seen between Ted and Robin. Those that fail the test fall apart, as that between Marshall and Lily.
In this new classification approach, Horror or Dark Comedies would be classified as ‘Mysteries’. One of the most popular Dark Comedy television shows that have attracted a lot of attention in this country is True Blood. This television show has been categorized as a Horror or Dark Comedy using conventional classification methods.
However, in this new classification approach, this show would be classified as ‘Mystery’. This classification is based on the content of the show. In this show, a number of mysterious events that is beyond human understanding characterize the episodes. The ability of the Vampires to assume the nature of a human being only to turn into a beast when ready to attack is mysterious.
In season one of this show, the episode starts with strange killings of women by unknown person. These women are killed in the same pattern, through strangling. It is mysterious how these women would be drawn to their death traps by a specific serial killer. The show presents a series of other strange happenings, most of which are very scary. Classifying it as a Mystery helps wrap up all the strangeness of the happenings in various episodes of the show.
This new classification would classify all family related comedies as ‘Fun Families’. This is because these shows are always meant to bring fun and happiness to the families by presenting interesting episodes. Conventional classification method would classify them as Comedy under different contexts. This classification focuses on the kind of message that is presented in the show, and the target group. One such television show that fits into this new classification is ‘All My Children’.
We will write a custom Essay on Advertising Techniques Classification specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is one of the oldest television shows in this country. It has always been categorized as a Soap Opera and a Comedy. In this movie, we are presented with presented with two families. A woman named Phoebe Tyler heads one of the families, while Martin is the head of the other family. The plot of this show clearly demonstrates the fact that it is meant to bring fun to the viewers. The two families have a sharp contrast from each other.
While one of the families is headed by a patriarchal father, and is seen as very stable, the other family has a single mother who struggles to keep the family morally upright. She is barely able to control the children. However, factor that comes out clearly in both families is the funny ways in which some characters react. For instance, Ruth, the wife to Martin, always tries to ensure that her family is run in the way she desires. However, she is keen to ensure that she does this secretly because she fears the husband.
Charles Russell Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Wild Horse Hunters
The Medicine Man
Introduction Charles Marion Russell was a West American artist born in 1864. Russell is greatly referenced for his ability to combine cowboy artistry, with other attributes like history and beauty. Russell recorded approximately 2000 works and incorporated bronze and oil in his paintings.
Russell’s collections can be found in C.M. Russell Museum Complex based in Montana. It should also be noted that, Russell was a talented storyteller and author. The works by Russell have realized financial success, as evidenced by the recent purchase of Piegans painting at $5.6 million, in the year 2005
Discussion Russell identified with art even when he was young. He demonstrated interest in wild art, as he made sketches and molded animals using clay. His interest in wild adventure was evidenced by the early stage that he learnt to ride horses.
It should be noted that, Russell dropped out of school when he was only sixteen years and found a job in a ranch based in Montana. Russell’s job in the Montana ranch was not long-lived, as he relocated to Judith Basin and became a hunter. It was at Judith Basin, that Russell became acquainted with Western norms. Russell led his career in Montana where he died in 1926.
As a cowboy, Russell depicted weather conditions at Judith Basin by painting. Russell’s career began in 1888 after he made a sketch he named ‘Waiting for a Chinook’. Russell later improved the painted version of this sketch. During this period, Russell interacted with people of Blackfeet and became well versed with the Blacks’ norms. Russell returned to Judith Basin in1889, where he noted increase in settlements. He began working as full time artist in a studio and developed his career intensively.
Russell married an eighteen year old girl when he was at age of thirty two. After his marriage he relocated to Great Falls. Most of his works were done in Great Falls and his reputation spread locally and internationally. His wife Nancy played a crucial role in success of Russell. Nancy did not only pose in the image of Keeoma 3, but also engaged in a lot of marketing for Russell’s art especially in America and United Kingdom.
Wild Horse Hunters One of the notable works by Russell was the Wild Horse Hunters he painted in 1913. The painting featured people chasing after untamed horses. Russell used beauty of form and color to highlight his painting. The bands that are chasing after the wild horses are led by stallions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this painting, Russell used background of mountains and other features he had sketched while in Judith Basin. The use of untamed horses symbolized the unrefined Western culture that was spreading to other regions. Most scholars accredit this piece of work by Russell for the aspect of humor it assumes.
The Medicine Man The Medicine Man was also celebrated, as great work by Russell. The work depicted great reference that Russell had for Indians. It should be noted that, the piece of art defines a cultural product associated with Indians. An Indian medicine man was supposed to guide people in their movements and act as the intermediary between Indians and the spirit. In addition, a medicine man had power to talk with animals.
The painting consists of Indians, specifically the Blackfeet and a medicine man is in front of them. The background of the painting is a tree that Russell sketched back in Judith Basin. The mountain of Highwood is also highlighted in the painting. The region originally belonged to Blackfeet people, who engaged in activities like hunting.
The painting by Russell demonstrated the high esteem that an Indian medicine man was accorded. The medicine man carried a crooked rod that was crowned with feathers. Russell uses a crooked rod to signify single tribe inclination in place of the whole Black race. Russell highlights the powerful cultural product of Indian medicine.
The medicine man wears an antelope medallion around his neck that was used to identify a thief among the Indians. Further, Russell brings forth a strange shape of a key at the shoulder of a horse. Formation of such a shape meant that the one riding the horse was a thief. It should be noted that, Blackfeet were nomads and moved along with their properties. Russell highlighted poles that Blackfeet used to carry animal hides. In Russell’s paintings reference and respect among the Blacks, is evident.
Conclusion Russell contributed significantly to the world of art. In spite of acknowledgements that Russell received, there were critics directed to his works as well. It should however be noted that, many scholars identified with Russell’s works. He employed rich aspects of nature and transcended culture boundaries, thereby securing large audience worldwide. One admirable fact about Russell was that he did not learn his art in school.
There is no mention of Russell’s study after he dropped out of school at the age of sixteen years. Nancy contributed to Russell’s success significantly especially in the marketing sector. Despite the fact that Russell was West American, he incorporated culture and norms of Blacks as well. In this regard, Russell promoted culture awareness as well as appreciation.
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Series “Breaking Bad” Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
“Breaking Bad” is one of the best drama action series on television which introduces Walter White, a middle-class chemistry teacher who calls himself Heisenberg. Due to the fact that the episodes in the series vary in their dramatic effect and tension, the episodes’ culminations and endings are always unpredictable, and this aspect, along with the focus on the antagonist as the main character, influences the audience’s great interest in the series.
Although the series started as the typical television crime show, it developed its dramatic effect in several following episodes. In the first episode, Walter White is portrayed as an ordinary chemistry teacher, and the viewer does not expect that he can become a cool-headed killer and the greatest methamphetamine dealer at the West Coast and in some European countries (“Breaking Bad: Official Site”).
The motives for Walter’s crime activities are in the fact that he is diagnosed with lung cancer, and Walter knows that he is dying slowly (Stanley). As a result, Walter becomes ‘bad’ and chooses the easiest way to make money for his family while selling methamphetamine with his ex-student Jessie Pinkman.
The former student Jessie Pinkman is the supporting negative character in the show who reflects the true nature of Walter’s actions. Pinkman was a terrible student in high school, and his parents punished him because of the drug abuse. Thus, Walter took Jessie under his wing and taught him how to cook and sell methamphetamine to become richer (“Breaking Bad: Official Site”; Stanley).
It is possible to state that Walter had no intentions to kill, but circumstances forced him to act in such a way. However, the show was in progress, and it became clear that there were no boundaries for Walter. Walter’s wife Skyler was also affected by the husband’s negative behaviours (“Breaking Bad: Official Site”). There are moments in the series when Walter can make the audience angry because he goes too far to protect his methamphetamine business, for instance, from his brother-in-law’s intrusion because he works for the DEA.
Even though Walter White is the protagonist, the other vivid characters are Saul Goodman, the dirty lawyer with a good heart, and Gustavo Fring, the international fast food franchise owner and the largest methamphetamine dealer in the North America. With references to these characters, the series can demonstrate whom a person can or cannot trust.
The show is interesting because of the preserved dramatic effect and manipulation of the audience’s expectations. It is almost impossible to stop watching the episodes because of the desire to know the characters’ fate and outcomes at the end. Thus, the chemistry teacher destroyed his family life because he did not know where to draw the line. The series can be ranked ten on a scale of ten.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Checklist for a Research Paper
The thesis is presented as the final sentence of the introductory paragraph, and the reader can refer to its main points as indicators of the essay’s direction.
Topic sentences and body paragraphs are clear and well developed to provide the supporting evidences from the show’s plot and to present the discussion of the evidences.
The thesis is completely supported with the necessary details and factual examples while referring to the show’s plot, examples from the episodes, and to the discussion of the episodes in The New York Times’ review.
I have used the appropriate number of sources to provide the examples from the series with references to the show’s official site and to cite the critical discussion of the series in The New York Times.
All the sources are properly cited according to the MLA format.
The conclusion effectively summarizes the main points and restates the thesis with presenting the personal opinion on the series.
The paper is proofread and revised.
The work cited page includes every source cited in the text in the correct format.
The paper is formatted according to the MLA Style requirements.
Works Cited Breaking Bad: Official Site. 2013. Web. .
Stanley, Alessandra. A Clear Ending to a Mysterious Beginning: The Final Episode of ‘Breaking Bad’ Leaves One Question Unanswered. 30 Sept. 2013. Web. .
Horizontal Inequalities, Political Environment and Civil Conflict: Evidence from 55 Developing Countries Essay scholarship essay help
The article, “Horizontal Inequalities, Political Environment and Civil Conflict: Evidence from 55 Developing Countries”, analyzes the relationship between socioeconomic and political factors in the context of civil unrest and segregation of minority groups. The author evaluates the tendency of conflicts at ethnic, religious and regional levels due to the effect of factors such as the type of regime and political alienation.
The author establishes greater tendency of unrest and conflicts in regional groups compared to ethnic and religious groups by sampling populations from 55 developing countries. The author focuses on aspects of horizontal inequality because it does not arise from inherent inequality such as intelligence, but is rather a form of forced inequality on diverse subcultures.
Collection of the samples entails calculation of welfare inequalities between different identify groups and analyses of key socioeconomic indicators such as educational levels and household assets. The article identifies a relationship between different systems of governance at the regional level and tendencies of conflict because of horizontal inequalities, which the author identifies to be stronger in democratic and semi-democratic systems than in autocratic systems.
While the creation of democratic systems does not necessarily translate into the occurrence of conflicts, the aspect of inclusiveness and freedom in such systems encourages protests because democratic systems facilitate proportional representation of diverse groups. In this regard, marginalized groups have the opportunity and means to mobilize and protest against socioeconomic inequalities and seek address of low economic development in their region (Østby 19).
On the other hand, the structure of autocratic systems limits the chances of disadvantaged groups to mobilize for protest because of the lack of all-inclusive systems, which eliminate the channels through which groups can express their grievances and allows a greater extent of state repression compared to democratic systems. The author evaluates the impacts of different forms of institutional structuring on the political process in a country and discusses the importance of inclusiveness in key government institutions.
An analysis of countries with great levels of socioeconomic inequality and alienation of ethnic, religious and regional groups indicates that sustenance of peace requires the creation of all-inclusive institutions, which minimize grievances and sentiments among groups (Østby 10). The article describes the eruption of wars and conflicts in most countries as an outcome of grievances that have remained unattended to for a long time causing the affected groups to mobilize for war.
The analysis of horizontal inequalities and civil conflict indicates that economic inequality cannot lead to political unrest in itself, but requires the catalyst of an environment in which people can organize themselves into groups and start a rebellion. Expression of frustrations and grievances among individuals due to socioeconomic factors such as poverty requires the existence of systems and institutions that allow the group aspect of human beings to thrive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author concludes by emphasizing on the role of inequality in the occurrence of conflicts and contrasts numerous assertions that describe inequality as being immaterial in cases of civil unrest. Furthermore, the author encourages the need for processes of conflict resolution to consider aspects of regional inequality and political alienation of minority because of their significant role in civil conflicts.
Sustenance of peace requires the establishment of political systems and institutions that ensure inclusiveness of minority groups in proportionate measures. By creating programs to address socioeconomic inequality, political regimes can significantly reduce cases of civil unrest and conflict.
Work Cited Østby, Gudrun. Horizontal inequalities, political environment, and civil conflict: evidence from 55 developing countries, 1986-2003. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, Development Research Group, Growth and Macroeconomics Team, 2007. Print.
Hypertension Prevention and Treatment Essay college essay help: college essay help
Over the last century, medics have identified considerable and underlying roles played by high blood pressure in escalating the risks for cardiovascular ailments (Khan, 2006). The disease is the leading cause of death among the American adults. It is estimated that the disease affects over 60 million individuals.
The prevalence of the disease together with its complications is rising radically due to obesity and increased number of aging people. Recent studies indicate that the outstanding lifetime threat for developing the disease is up to 89%, and the likelihood of requiring antihypertensive medication is 60% of the individuals above 50 years (MacGregor
Type 2 Diabetes Essay essay help free
Introduction Diabetes is a health condition that is developed when sugar level in the blood increases above normal levels. The two major types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than type 1 diabetes. This essay discusses some of the most frequently asked questions about type 2 diabetes through a sample dialogue between a patient and a doctor.
Patient: What is type 2 Diabetes and how is it developed?
Doctor: Type 2 diabetes can be described as a complication in the metabolic processes characterized by a relative shortage of insulin and high levels of glucose in the blood (Barnett, 2011). It differs from type 1 diabetes where there is a complete deficiency of insulin caused by destruction of pancreatic islet cells.
In addition, type 2 diabetes is more common in adults unlike type 1 diabetes which is prevalent amongst young people. The typical symptoms of type 2 diabetes include: recurrent urination, excessive thirst, and persistent hunger (Wilson
Culture in the UAE Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Behavior of women in UAE
Behavior of men
Behavior between men and women
Introduction Culture is one aspect of business that is ignored by many people wishing to conduct business on the international scene. Studying and understanding the cultures of various nations would be beneficial to international business people since they can compare opportunities and make informed choices.
This paper will conduct a review to provide an insight into the culture of the United Arab Emirates and how it impacts the local and international business. Various dimensions and elements of behavior will be discussed. Specifically, the behavior elements such as communication, dressing patterns, personal grooming, and expression of emotions will be reviewed.
Behavior of women in UAE Dress code is an important custom in the UAE. Women need to have a head scarf, especially when visiting rural areas. Shorts, tight pants, sleeveless and short sleeved tops should be avoided. Women should try and dress as close as possible to the locals. The locals value marriage greatly and it is important for married women to travel with their rings on or for the single to have some form of wedding band to avoid stingy questions.
Before taking photographs, it is important to ask for permission. Same group of religious women believes that taking their photo is taking their soul. The UAE is characterized by women street vendors and to avoid being harassed or embarrassed, individuals should speak as few words as possible such as “no, thank you”.
In some regions, men and women interact from a distance and hence foreign females should be cautious about touching their UAE male business partners unless they stretch their hand first. Women are well groomed and very polite to strangers in the streets and other social places. Women rarely talk in the company of a man.
Behavior of men Men in the UAE dress in long robes and wear the Arafat garment around their necks. Men are also permitted to wear trousers and not cover their faces. Married men are expected to speak first and his position of authority cannot be challenged. Men in the UAE are more dominating and have the responsibility of taking care of their families.
Basically, men in the UAE often greet people with a handshake and are expected to look into the eyes of the person they are interacting with. Besides, men use commanding voice when communicating and are very physical in displaying dissatisfaction.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Behavior between men and women During an invitation in the UAE, it is important to note that nothing is expected of the guest. It is the responsibility of the host to foot all the bills for drinks, snacks and meals that may be offered (Culture of the United Arab Emirates, 2013). In the UAE, handshake and smile depend on one’s religion. For the residents of the UAE, it is dependent on whether they are secularists, traditionalists or religious. A pat on the back from a native of the UAE during conversations or negotiations may mean waiting for a while.
A misplaced eye contact and grins on strangers may provoke some natives of the UAE who may then ask who you are instead of saying “hi”. Religious neighborhoods in the UAE call for respectable dress codes. Individuals should be ready to adjust their dress codes depending on where they visit. In addition, religious neighborhoods have strict gender interaction rules. For instance, the most common sight is minimal contact between the two sexes (Morrison, 2003).
For more local and less exposed UAE business people, they will stand in close proximity to their business partner and are generally less formal. They may take a phone call during serious business meetings, are emotional and may shout during negotiations. The UAE residents are also known for asking very personal questions such as marital status, income earned or age.
Such queries may easily offend sensitive business partners. The UAE residents are also known to be less strict time keepers. The arrival of a foreign business person on time is a sign of respect but a UAE partner would be allowed 15-20 minutes after the starting time.
In the UAE, religion is greatly valued and individuals are so attached and loyal to their various religious affiliations. The UAE is, therefore, an Arabic nation whence most operations are conducted based on Arabic values and beliefs. It is also interesting to note that religion connects individuals with the legal system. Various laws that govern social structures such as marriage and divorce are defined based on the religious affiliation (Morrison, 2003).
Apart from the laws, religion plays a great role in defining social cohesion in the UAE. There is a noticeable separateness between the majority Islamic group and the minority groups such as Christians. The majority group centers its affairs around Islamic faith while the minority groups seem to be detached from the state (United Arab Emirates: Countries and cultures, 2012). There is a need to be highly innovative so as to obtain customers based on competitiveness.
Conclusion Conclusively, a foreign business person has to familiarize himself and respect local practices such as dress code and other mannerisms. There can be incidences of discrimination based on behavior; hence, one should be ready to encounter such.
We will write a custom Essay on Culture in the UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Culture of the United Arab Emirates. (2013). Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/exploringtheuae/presentation/culture
Morrison, T. (2003). Doing business in the Middle East: Customs and culture. Web.
United Arab Emirates: Countries and cultures. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.everyculture.com/To-Z/United-Arab-Emirates.html
Portraits of Escaping Slaves Portrayed as Heroic Fugitives Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The Experiences of Slaves
Portraits of Escaping Slaves and Heroic Fugitives
Family and Christianity
Introduction The institution of slavery that existed in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries brought great changes to the American culture. The colonialists imported slaves from Africa and used them in their agricultural plantations. Since slavery was a political, social, and economic issue, it gained significant attention among the writers.
Many great writers tried to present the issue of slavery in literature by creating different fictional stories. The fictional stories portray experiences that slaves underwent in their struggle to overcome slavery and become heroic fugitives. Since slavery was common in both the South and North, slaves struggled to escape to Canada using different routes.
While some travelled on foot, others navigated their way using a ship. Great literary writers in the 18th and 19th centuries dwelled on the issue of slavery as they tried to depict the experiences of slaves in a comprehensive manner. In this view, the essay examines literary portraits of escaping slaves depicted as heroic fugitives by comparing the portraits of Harriet Stowe, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Jacobs.
The Experiences of Slaves The slaves went through traumatic experiences when they were under the control of their masters. The experiences compelled slaves to seek ways of escaping and attaining freedom. Since many slaves tried to escape, most of them did not manage to survive because their masters were ready to torture or kill them whenever they caught them. In this view, escaping was a heroic act, as many fugitives who dared to escape did not survive.
In her fictional book, Harriet Stowe portrays the experiences that slaves went through and refers to them as the lowest, vilest, and filthiest form of human nature. According to Stowe, slavery shows us “human nature in its lowest debasement, the slave degraded, and his owner degrading himself” (2). In her depiction, Harriet Stowe illustrates how slave masters degrade humanity in the manner they treat slaves who are under their care. Hence, slaves experienced a great ordeal, which made them to become heroic fugitives.
Like Harriet Stowe, Fredrick Douglass is another literary writer who depicts the experiences that slaves underwent during the period of slavery in the United States. Fredrick Douglass concurs with Harriet Stowe that the institution of slavery degrades humanity. Douglass asserts that slaves lived an aimless and worthless life in that their deaths during escape were better than their lives in slavery (6). This implies that the nature of suffering that slaves endured was appalling and dreadful to humanity.
Owing to such experiences, slaves decided to devise ways of escaping. To attain freedom, slaves helped one another. In some instances, they fought their masters, hid in bushes, escaped in the darkness, battled with hunting dogs, sustained gunshots, died during the escape, and eventually managed to escape as heroic slaves. While most died during the escape, those who managed to escape became heroic fugitives because they were able to overcome their powerful masters.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike Harriet Stowe and Frederick Douglass who wrote fictional stories about the slavery experiences, Harriet Jacobs presents her own experiences as she worked for twenty-seven years in slavery conditions. Harriet Jacobs refers to slavery as dark, deep, and foul form of persecution and the abomination that slaves endured. In explanation of her life as a slave girl, Harriet Jacobs highlights traumatic experiences that she experienced under the hands of her master.
According to Jacobs, her life was an ordeal one because she saw her parents die in slavery when she was barely six years old, experienced sexual abuse, got married in slavery, became disabled, and ran away (150). Harriet Jacobs endured the horrendous acts because she was a young girl who was unable to defend herself. Eventually, Harriet Jacobs portrays the life of a heroic girl who managed to survive the awful experiences of slavery.
Portraits of Escaping Slaves and Heroic Fugitives Harriet Stowe, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Jacobs portray heroic slaves in their literary works who manage to escape from slavery to safe places in search of freedom. Harriet Stowe uses Uncle Tom as character to portray the struggles underwent by slaves. Uncle Tom is a black man who lives in slavery conditions with his family.
His master dictates what to do with his children and wife, and thus he has no authority over his family (Ammons 11). When he overhears that the master is planning to sell his children to other masters, Uncle Tom decides to escape with his family. On the day of the escape, Uncle Tom makes his wife escape with his son and they manage to survive cold night, avoid hunting dogs, and eventually reach Canada, a safe haven.
On the other hand, Simon Legree, a slave owner, buys Uncle Tom and uses him in his plantation as other slaves. However, when Simon Legree commands Uncle Tom to whip his colleagues in the plantation, he refuses. As he loves fellows more than himself, Uncle Tom plans the escape of Cassy and Emmline, and agrees to die for their sake (Stowe 354). Therefore, the escape of Cassy and Emmline makes Uncle Tom a heroic slave who gives his life for the sake of freedom of fellow slaves.
Comparatively, Frederick Douglas portrays a fictional character, Madison Washington, a cook, who rescues fellow slaves. In the book, Frederick Douglass portrays how Madison Washington manages to rescue 19 slaves and make them attain freedom.
Madison Washington endures slavery to the point where he decides to escape to Canada in search of freedom. Since his friendly master enables him to escape alone from slavery, leaving his family behind, Madison Washington starts missing his family when he arrives in Canada. As he comes home to sneak his family, the master notes them escaping, and thus kills his wife. The master then sells Madison Washington to traders who took him to the South.
We will write a custom Essay on Portraits of Escaping Slaves Portrayed as Heroic Fugitives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the ship, Madison Washington meets other nineteen slaves and plans their escape. Madison Washington leads a rebellion on the ship, takes control of the ship, and thus sets nineteen slaves who are on board free. In this view, Washington becomes a heroic slave as he manages to rescue nineteen slaves.
As Harriet Stow and Frederick Douglass portrays the heroic acts of their fictional characters, Harriet Jacobs portrays her own experiences, which depict her as a heroine and fugitive slave who manages to escape slavery and attain freedom despite all odds. Linda (Harriet Jacobs) is born and grows in a slavery conditions and experiences many hardships, which range from child abuse to human sufferings in adulthood (Lyons 5).
Since her parents die when she is six, she relies on mistress as her mother. In the hands of her mistress, Linda grows while enduring slavery experiences in her life and in the lives of other slaves. Given that the master (Dr. Flint) compels her to engage in sex, Linda decides to date a neighbor (Mr. Sands), who eventually impregnates her and makes her give birth to two children (Jacobs 207). Hence, by outwitting her master, Linda becomes a heroine for she has the power to determine the father of her children and secures their posterity.
When Linda falls out with his master, she plans to escape with her children to prevent his master from avenging on them. Fortunately, a slave trader who happens to be a friend to Mr. Sands arrives and requests Dr. Flint to sell him the two children, which he consents (Jacobs 24).
However, Mr. Sands takes the children and brings them up under slavery conditions, and thus annoys Linda. To rescue her children, Linda plans to escape into New York City where she finds a caring family, which accepts her kids. Ultimately, Linda becomes a heroine because she manages not only to secure her freedom, but also the freedom of her children.
Family and Christianity Harriet Stowe, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Jacobs also portray escaping slaves as people who have great responsibilities in serving their masters and their families. Harriet Stowe portrays Uncle Tom as a man with a wife and children, which means he has a great responsibility of providing their needs.
When his master wants to sell his son, Uncle Tom decides to escape with his family. Although his wife manages to escape, Uncle Tom dies after rescuing his colleagues from slavery. Comparatively, Frederick Douglas portrays Madison Washington as a man who loves his family very much. Although he manages to escape into Canada, the love for his family prompts him to come back home and rescue his wife and children from slavery.
Likewise, Linda is a girl who fights slavery throughout her life. At the tender age, Linda is wise enough to choose the father of her kids, as she prefers Mr. Sands to his master, Dr. Flint. When the children grew up, Dr. Flint decides to sell them to another owner, but Linda is smart enough because she asks a friend to their father to buy them. Eventually, Linda manages to save her children from the bondage of slavery, which portrays her as a loving and caring mother.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Portraits of Escaping Slaves Portrayed as Heroic Fugitives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Harriet Stowe portrays Uncle Tom as a Christian who believes in God. In his Christian belief, Uncle Tom is determined that God is there to see him through the tribulations that he undergoes during slavery. As Uncle Tom struggles to attain freedom, he hopes that God is guiding him safely (Stowe 382).
Hence, his faith in God sustains him to overcome numerous challenges. Frederick Douglass portrays Madison Washington as a man who also believes in God because he encourages his fellow slaves to trust in God. Madison Washington attributes his successful escape with friends to the plan of God. Similarly, Harriet Jacobs portrays Linda as a woman who fears God in all what she does and believes.
Conclusion Slavery was a social, political, and economic issue that the Americans grappled with during the 18th and 19th centuries. Literary writers such as Harriet Stowe, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Jacobs wrote books, which portray escaping slaves as heroic fugitives who looked for freedom using all means.
The writers present experiences of slaves, describes their heroic activities, and their convictions. Overall, the literary works portray slaves as heroic fugitives who did not only battle for their own freedom, but also freedom of their families and fellows.
Works Cited Ammons, Elizabeth. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin: A Casebook. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Douglass, Frederick. The Heroic Slave: A Thrilling Narrative of the Adventures of Madison Washington, in Pursuit of Liberty. New York: Wildside Press, 2012. Print.
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. New York: Harvard University, 1861. Print.
Lyons, Mary. Letters from a Slave Girl: The Story of Harriet Jacobs. New York: Simon Pulse, 2007. Print.
Stowe, Harriet. Uncle Tom’s Cabin. London: John Cassel, 1852. Print.
Analyzing the Logic of an Article: Cultural Authenticity and Recovery Maintenance in a Rural First Nation Community Essay best college essay help
What is the Main Purpose of the Article? The article focuses on how the concept of “culture” (i.e. societal upbringing, traditions, etc.) acts as a potential means for helping a person recover from substance abuse. The article implies that “everyday cultural experiences can act as an important source of healing in communities” (Nygaard, 2012).
It shows the importance of such experience by showing that there is an insufficient level of integration of cultural mechanisms as a form of supportive recovery maintenance. Lastly, it shows how culture has a means of enabling people to “kick the habit” so to speak by creating a more accepting and familiar environment where the process of healing can begin. However, the article concludes by stating that at the present, there is still a limited understanding of how culture can act as a social support for recovery.
What is the Key Question of the Article?
The key question of the article is how culture may bolster resilience in substance abuse recovery as well as what constitutes “cultural authenticity” for both indigenous and non-indigenous residents of a remote community.
Most Important Information from the Article
When examining the article, the most important information that was shown was how culture based treatment actually enabled the creation of a positive sense of recovery among indigenous populations which helped significantly with their recovery from the substance abuse.
Nygaard (2012) presents the notion that it was the cultural devastation on local indigenous populations brought on through politics, economics and the modern world that created a loss of a sense of “self” among members of “first people” populations resulting in them turning towards destructive patterns of substance abuse.
The end result was as traditional cultural values continued to be eroded as a result of the encroachment of economic and political interests, the more likely these populations would turn towards substance abuse as a means of escape. By implementing methods of positive cultural experiences and the creation of a better sense of “self”, this helped to create a better means of recovery for indigenous populations.
Main Inference from the Article
While the author concluded that utilizing culture as a means of enabling substance abuse recovery is still in doubt given the lack of sufficient understanding behind the proper establishment of standard practices, the fact remains that despite whatever power culture may have in terms of enabling patient recovery, socio-economic factors still play a crucial role in either leading indigenous people towards substance abuse or out of it (Nygaard, 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem really is that indigenous populations are continuously experiencing a level of “culture shock” so to speak wherein traditional practices are simply not in harmony with modern day practices. Aspects related to modern conveniences in communication, entertainment and travel are at odds with the way in which indigenous people used to live their lives resulting in a slow erosion of traditional cultural identities which leads people towards substance abuse.
Taking the line of reasoning of the author into consideration, it can be stated that should the use of culture as a means of building up the concept of the “self” be integrated into standard recovery processes, it is likely that greater levels of government intervention into cultural preservation may be enabled.
On the other end of the spectrum, if the line of reasoning of the author is ignored, one of the possible implications is that a viable means of preventing substance abuse among indigenous populations could be lost resulting in higher numbers of patients for recovery centers in Canada in the coming years.
Main Points of View
Overall, the main points of view of the article is the potential that culture holds as a means of enabling substance abusers to recover, however, so long as socio-economic problems exist, it is likely that even culture would be insufficient in preventing relapses.
Reference List Nygaard, A. (2012). Cultural authenticity and recovery maintenance in a rural first nation community. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction, 10, 162–173.
Are there Occasions in the Delivery of Health Care when Deception is Warranted? Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Physicians have the responsibility of providing patients with the most appropriate medical care. Prior to the last three decades, the relationship between physicians and patients was paternalistic. They acted in the best interest of their patients.
This also means the professionals used deception, including prescribing inactive treatments, to try to meet their clients’ needs. In the contemporary society, however, deception is largely not tolerable. Cooperation between physicians and patients to enable everyone get the information for making informed decisions is an extensively accepted model today.
Nonetheless, there is a need for balancing hope with realism. Since deception deprive patients their right to information regarding their health, physicians should avoid it; however, deception is warranted if honesty would sacrifice the therapeutic relationship or lead to severe medical problems.
When delivering health care services, physicians can use deception to embrace good bedside manner, compassion, and balance hope with realism, which is part of their work. One of the most common occasions when doctors and nurses should use deception is when seeking the consent of the patient to undergo surgery or receive a risky but extremely necessary treatment. When seeking the consent, the physician should not release every piece of information about the cure of the disease to the patient.
According to Bersoff (2003), it is not realistic for physicians to discuss with the patient every possible effect of the treatment before initiating the treatment. Going over every side effect that rarely occurs is not useful and, therefore, the physician should not involve the patient on the issue. These experts should exercise rational judgment in determining the most appropriate information to present to the patient. Discussions on the risks or weakness of the treatment can scare the patient and is, therefore, not necessary.
Another occasion when deception can be medically helpful for a patient is when honesty would sacrifice the therapeutic relationship (Helbert, 2009). Patients with certain emotional disorders need special care to enable them to get the best treatment. When dealing with the individuals, physicians need to take a gentler approach.
They need to tell the patient with symptoms of stress about the cause of the symptoms in a gentle manner and explain that the symptoms would naturally disappear. Using this approach is more effective than giving brutal, judgmental, and honest statements. However, the physician should guide the patient to overcome the stress if the root cause of the stress remains unresolved.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The morality of using deception in medical practice has biblical support. Generally, the Bible teaches against deception and other vices. However, a close study of the Bible reveals that every human being should be each other’s keeper. The Bible says that irrespective of individuals’ scope of service in the church, they must love their neighbors to qualify for God’s crowning (Galatians 6: 2, The Holy Bible: King James Version, 2004).
Christian physicians should therefore make decisions that demonstrate care and love for their patients. The biblical teaching on love implies that providing information that may scare a patient from undergoing a risky treatment when there is no alternative remedy is inappropriate.
In addition, physicians should not provide information that would sacrifice the therapeutic relationship. Such pieces of information are not helpful for the client healing. The Bible requires physicians to disclose pieces of information that have clinical benefits, but hold back those that are none essential.
Outstandingly, there are scenarios when clinical deception is never justified. For instance, when a patient is encountering a scenario requiring them to make a difficult health decision, such as whether or not to have a risky treatment, the physician should provide all facts that would aid the patient to make an appropriate decision.
The physician may embrace certain moral believes, but the facts may come in handy in reaching the best conclusion. The physician should objectively present the facts to help the patient make a decision that offers the best benefits. It is mistaken to deceive patients that their condition would go away without getting further treatment if the assertion has no scientific backing, but the physician intends to gratify the sick person (Helbert, 2009).
Another common scenario that requires information disclosure after a diagnosis reveals that the patient is not suffering from a physical health condition.
This requires the physician to give an honest opinion. Hanson, Kerkhoff,
Steve Jobs Commencement Speech Analysis. Rhetorical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Is it necessary to follow passions or reasons while choosing the career? What effects can losses and failures have on the person’s life? In spite of the complex character and deep ethical, philosophical, and psychological meanings hidden in these questions, they are answered completely in Steve Jobs’ commencement speech at Stanford University in 2005.
Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple, Inc., is known as one of the world famous and successful entrepreneurs whose unique approaches to business and marketing provoked the great public’s interest. That is why, Jobs’ speech on the importance of finding the interesting and loved job drew the attention and gained the recognition of the graduates during the Commencement Day at Stanford University in 2005.
The goal of Steve Jobs’ speech is to persuade the graduates to find the jobs that they can truly love because of their passion for the definite activities. Thus, Jobs is successful in achieving his goal because of his exclusive approach to structuring the speech and to blending the rhetoric appeals in order to discuss well-known concepts and ideas of love, loss, and death in a unique form; that is why, it is appropriate to examine Jobs’ manipulation of methods of persuasion in detail.
In his speech, Jobs demonstrates the virtuous use of the rhetoric appeals in the development and presentation of one of the most persuasive commencement speeches in order to draw the students’ attention to the significant questions which can contribute to changing the person’s life.
The strategies used in developing the structure of the speech and the rhetorical strategies are closely connected. Jobs’ speech can be divided into five parts which are the introductory part to evoke the graduates’ interest regarding the topic discussed, the three life anecdotes, and the concluding part which restates and supports the author’s arguments presented in the main part of the speech.
It is important to note that each of three stories told by Jobs is also developed according to the definite structure pattern where the first sentences of the stories can be referred to the pathos, the personal experience can be discussed with references to the ethos, and the final parts of the stories are organized as the logical conclusions, using the logos.
The first reference to the ethos is observed in the introductory part when Jobs states, “I never graduated from college. Truth be told, this is the closest I’ve ever gotten to a college graduation” (Jobs).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The uniqueness of Jobs’ approach is in the use of the reverse variant of the ethos as the rhetorical appeal because Jobs has no credibility to discuss the importance of the university education, but he has the credibility to discuss the points necessary for the professional success because of stating his position as the co-founder of Apple, Inc., NeXT, and Pixar.
The next three stories presented in the speech are used to develop Jobs’ argument about the necessity to do what a person loves and the importance of finding these things and activities. This argument is developed with references to the concluding or logical parts of the author’s stories which are also highly emotional in their character. Steve Jobs uses the pathos in the first sentences while telling his stories.
Thus, the discussion of the details of the child adoption in the first story, the reflection on the happiness of building the first company, and the mentioning of the main question in the life, “If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?”, contribute to the audience’s emotional reaction because of describing the author’s own feelings and emotions (Jobs).
The credibility of Jobs’ considerations depends on the presentation of his own personal and life background and experiences to support his ideas. The use of the pathos in the speech is observed when the author concludes about the results of his experience: “If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do” (Jobs).
Discussing the near death experience, the author uses the sentence “About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer” which combines the ethos and pathos strategies (Jobs). Thus, Jobs can use more than one rhetorical appeal in a sentence.
Nevertheless, Jobs’ goal is to persuade the graduates to act and find the things that they love to do, and the focus on the logos is observed in the stories’ concluding sentences when Jobs provides the logical argument: “Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work” (Jobs). These concluding remarks are based on the logical rethinking of the evidences and facts presented as the examples from the author’s experience.
The repetition of such phrase as “Don’t settle” and the final phrase “Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish” contributes to drawing the audience’s interest to the presented facts and ideas (Jobs). The effectiveness of using the rhetorical appeals depends on the author’s style and his use of repetitive structures and imperative sentences which sound persuasively.
We will write a custom Essay on Steve Jobs Commencement Speech Analysis. Rhetorical Essay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his speech, Steve Jobs achieves the main goals of the speech with focusing on the ethos, logos, and pathos, and with using the author’s unique style. Jobs presents his developed vision of the career and passions in life with references to the ideas of love and death and supports considerations with the autobiographical facts.
Works Cited Jobs, Steve. ‘You’ve Got to Find What You Love,’ Jobs Says: Text of the Address. 2005. Web.
Xtra Mile: Roles of Medical Directors Analytical Essay college admissions essay help
The case study concentrates on the roles of medical directors in giant HMO companies and insurers. The case study specifically focuses on gatekeeper contracts in HMO. Dr. Bethe is one of the medical directors in Xtra Mile firm. The case study informs that all the directors in the firm report to different levels in the organization.
The case also provides information on the criteria used by the firm in hiring its medical directors. In addition, the case study contains the firm’s database and information on the approaches it uses to motivate quality performance among physicians providing healthcare within the network (McLaughlin, Johnson
Indian Custom and Culture Community Essay essay help: essay help
The Indian culture, which reaches back about 5,000 years, is arguably one of the oldest and most varied in the world. The Indian culture is formed by customs and traditions that would tend to differ greatly from region to region.
However, many of the Indian customs and traditions are said to be common, and in that case, are integral part of the country’s unique cultural beauty. India has a wide range of cultural diversity, and for that reason, there are numerous culture-affiliated ceremonies that are celebrated each year to mark diverse customs and traditions of the Hindu.
This clearly explains the multitude festivals marked by different communities in the country all year round. Some of the common aspects of the varied Indian culture include language, religion and the arts. Other common aspects that have been used to define the Indian culture are things such as cuisines, theatre, music, and festivals, to name but a few. Rites of passage form an integral part of the Indian custom and cultural activities.
This paper examines the marriage rite of passage as it is practiced by the Hindu in India. In this particular case, the observations of various activities which are undertaken by the Hindu while marking this particular passage of rite are mainly based on Indian custom and culture, rather than on religion.
I have personally had the opportunity to participate directly in various celebrations intended to mark specific rites of passage in India. Through these celebrations, I have come to gain a better understanding of the colorful and unique culture of India.
As it would be observed, Hindus have come out clearly as the only religious group that has meaningfully celebrated the ideal stages of life as they are perceived by different cultures in India. One of my most memorable custom and culture celebrations of the Hindu was a rite of passage that took place some months ago in Guntur district, in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The main transition that was being marked here was marriage.
As it was clearly manifested in this traditional event, Hindus have their own special way of celebrating marriage ceremonies. For example, there were various activities used to illustrate this marking, and these would include invitation and welcoming of the bridegroom, exchange of flower garlands, presentation of the would-be wife, the ceremony of the sacred fire, holding of hands, taking of the seven steps, sacred fire circumambulation, the use of ‘kum-kum’ to mark the hair parting of the bride, viewing of the sun and the pole star, exchange of presents, tying of the knot whereby the garments of the groom and the bride are tied together to symbolize union, and then the blessings from the officiating priest and the elders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Traditional Hindu marriage celebrations are highly regarded among other custom and culture celebrations in the Indian society, owing to their colorful decorations which are usually expensive (Dubois, 2007).
More importantly, the celebrations are momentous occasions that are characterized with great joy and rich food cuisines, among other distinguished aspects of celebration. All these aspects were evident in this big event that would extend for nearly three days. For instance, the wedding venue was decorated with fascinating, beautiful colors that symbolized love and affection.
The other eye-catching aspect was the dressing code of the bride. She wore two dresses; a red one and a white one. It later occurred to me that the colors carried significant meanings in connection to the ceremony. The white one was a symbol of purity, and it showed just how pure the bride was.
The red color, on the other hand, was a symbol of her fertility. I came to realize that a couple of other small, but meaningful activities had preceded the big event over the last few days. One event which had caught my attention was one in which the bridegroom had to break a clay pot by stepping on it to symbolize his strength, just before he walked into the marriage ceremony.
Numerous processes took place in the course of the ceremony and following is a brief description of the main rituals. Invitation of the groom and his people was the first ritual to be conducted as the ceremony unfolded, and this happened at the boundary of the compound where the celebrations were to take place.
This was followed shortly by the application of ‘kum-kum’ powder on the foreheads of the bridegroom and his companions. Formal introductions of family members from both sides taking part in this big occasion were then conducted, indicating the birth of a new reunion between the two sides. It was then time for the bridegroom and the bride to exchange garlands or ‘Jayamaala’ as they are commonly called.
The second ritual of the Hindu marriage ceremony is ‘Madhu-Parka’, and this was another impressive moment, especially for the bridegroom, who was escorted to a well-decorated altar where he was welcomed with a drink. This particular drink, as I would come to learn afterwards, was a thick fluid comprising of a mixture of honey, yoghurt and sugar, among other things.
We will write a custom Essay on Indian Custom and Culture Community specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The next ritual was ‘Gau Daan’ and ‘Kanya Pratigrahan’, and here, a cow was donated to the bride’s family by the bridegroom. There was also a symbolic exchange of presents such as clothes, cosmetics and ornaments, among other things. Afterwards, a special necklace which is the emblem of an Indian woman’s marital status was presented to the bride by her would-be mother in law.
In Hindu, this necklace is known as ‘mangala sootra’, and it means that the bridegroom family has accepted to welcome the bride to be part of them. At this point, the proud father to the bride stood up in front of the couple where he loudly proclaimed that the bride together with her people have conceded to the bridegroom’s plea to marry their daughter, and that there was no other option, but for the other family to take her as their own from that time henceforth.
The above main parts of the marriage ceremony were followed closely by a couple of other rituals that included Vivaha-homa, Paanigrahan, Shilarohan and Laaja Homa, Sapta-Padi , and then Ashirvada. ‘Vivaya-homa’ entails the lighting of the sacred fire which is used to manifest the presence of god ‘Agni’ in the ceremony.
Meanwhile, the just married couple was surrounded by their families and friends, among other people who had attended the ceremony, as the priest started to chant the holy mantras. After he had recited the sacred mantras in the presence of everyone who was in attendance, the priest then embarked in another mission of leading the couple around the fire.
At some point, the sounds of a ringing bell suddenly greeted the air, symbolizing the beginning of just another significant moment of the ceremony. Here, a wide array of offerings was showered onto the fire, with some words representing the virtue of selflessness being uttered by the multitude to escort the gifts. The main theme behind this practice was to remind the newly-wed couple about the importance of the virtue of selflessness as it applies in modern families, and especially the new ones.
‘Paanigrahan’ or the ceremony of vows was the next ritual, and here, the gentleman, while holding his wife by the hand, would make his long-waited proclamation that he and his love were now husband and wife. All these happened as the couple made rounds around the sacred flame, where the main section of the celebrations was centered.
‘Shilarohan’ and ‘Laaja Homa’ were the next rituals. In the course of this part of the ceremony, the woman would systematically jump onto the surrounding stones and stand on them briefly as she and her husband continued to dance around the fire. This was a way of affirming her strength in marriage and loyalty to her husband in the course of her marital period.
There was then the last part of the fire-side activities, where the couple was required to go round the sacred flame in a gentle pace for at least four times. Here, the bride would lead her husband for the better part of the exercise, while the husband led her in the final lap. The main aim of this exercise was to remind the man of his duties and responsibilities as the head of the family.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Indian Custom and Culture Community by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Then, the bride and the groom held up their hands together above the burning flames into which barley grains were directly sacrificed by the bride’s male relatives and companions. This, however, was a symbol of unity amongst themselves for the welfare of the entire society. It was then time for the ‘kumkum’ powder to be applied on the woman’s head, and this was done by none other, but the groom himself. This is known as the ‘sindoor’, and it serves as a characteristic feature for married Hindu women.
Finally, there was ‘Sapta-Padi’, which is regarded as the legal section of the event. During this stage, the newly-wed couple was required to take about seven steps around the sacred flame in a clockwise manner.
The seven steps have significant meanings in the following order, starting from the first to the last one: food, strength, prosperity, wisdom, progeny, health, and friendship. The Hindus attach a lot of significance at this stage, since it is here where it is announced officially that a wedding ceremony has successfully come to an end, and that the union between husband and wife has been sanctified.
A matrimonial knot was eventually tied to unite the couple, after which they took a glance at the sun and another one at the polar star to seek blessings and resolve to remain unshaken, respectively. ‘Ashirvada’ was the last part of the colorful matrimonial ceremony, and here, the couple received immense blessings and best wish greetings in their married life, from the priest and the elders from both sides.
As it would be observed, rites of marriage are conducted for a common goal of marking a transition in people’s lives from adolescence to adulthood (Bell, 2003). Different communities and societies across the world would tend to mark these celebrations in different ways, due to the aspect of cultural diversity.
This, however, does not imply that there are no similarities at all in the manner by which these celebrations are carried out across different cultures. For instance, there are both similarities and differences between Hindu traditional rites of marriage as observed from this case, and the ways in which my folkgroup carry out the ceremonies.
Starting with the similarities, there are several ways in which Hindu rites of marriage match with those of my own folkgroup. For instance, there is the presence of priest in both situations, to officiate the sacred part of the ceremony. Another similarity is observable from the point where the bridegroom is joyously welcomed into the ceremony to meet the bride, before they are bonded for life by the priest.
Another way by which the Hindu rite of marriage matches with the way marriage ceremonies are conducted in my own culture is the exaggerated decoration of the venue where the ceremony is to take place. In both situations, different types of colors are combined to symbolize peace and happiness.
Another similarity with the two is that, a cow is given during the wedding ceremony as part of the dowry payment, and also as a present to the bride’s family for giving out their daughter to the bridegroom and his people. Blessings and best wish greetings from the officiating priest and the elders from both sides are also common features with the two cultures.
Apart from the above similarities, the Hindu rites of marriage also differ greatly with the practices of my own culture as far as this particular rite of passage is concerned. For example, unlike in my own culture, where at least a day is spared for the ceremony, Hindu marriage ceremonies normally comprise of numerous conservative rituals that would see the occasions being extended up to three days or even longer.
Another obvious difference is that, the Hindu tie couples’ garments together into a knot to symbolize matrimonial bonding, while in my culture, both the groom and the bride exchange wedding rings to symbolize that they have accepted each other as husband and wife.
The other common differences would be in the symbols used in Hindu marriage ceremonies, which are not applied in my own folkgroup when similar celebrations are being conducted. For instance, there is the use of sacred fire in Hindu marriage ceremonies, a practice that does not apply in my culture.
Brides in Hindu wear garments with symbolic colors such as white and red, while in my culture only white is the acceptable color for brides’ wedding garments. The other observable difference here is that, the hair parting of Hindu women is marked with colored ‘kumkum’ powder as a symbol of their marital status, a practice that does not apply in my own culture.
There are also differences in the manner by which these two different cultures conduct themselves before and after marriage ceremonies. For example, bridegrooms in my own culture are not required to step on any clay pot to prove their strength, as it is in the case with the Hindu. More importantly, there is nothing like dancing around a burning fire, stepping on bricks around the fire, taking seven steps, and viewing of the sun and the pole star in my own culture, as it applies in Hindu marriage ceremonies.
References Bell, B. (2003). The rites of passage and outdoor education: Critical concerns for effective programming. The Journal of Experiential Education, 26(1), 41-50.
Dubois, A. (2007). Hindu manners, customs and ceremonies. New York: Cosimo, Inc.
Cracking Knuckles Problem Solution Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Why People Crack Their Knuckles
The Cause of the Cracking Sound
Health Implications of Knuckle Cracking
Introduction Knuckle cracking (or snapping of joints) is a type of joint osteopathy that generates a cracking noise. Most people possess the ability to pop a number of joints such as jaws or elbows. Going by my experiences with a colleague who works as a lab technician, the sound of cracking knuckles is annoying especially in a formal setting.
It is also speculated to have health side-effects. Speculations about its relationship to arthritis and other joint complications have for a long time dominated the field of medicine and physiology. This paper looks at the causes of the popping sound generated when cracking knuckles, the benefits as well as health complications associated with the practice in response to my lab technician’s behavior.
Why People Crack Their Knuckles The main reason why most people cracktheir knuckles is the mobility it generates for a short period after cracking. It is also a habit people form as children when they see others crack their knuckles. The popping sound is often funny and interesting to children who carry this practice into adulthood. Though most knuckle crackers are oblivious to this, the popping sound produced during this exercise can be quite irritating to some people.
The Cause of the Cracking Sound There are several hypotheses that explain the sound generated when cracking knuckles. Some scientists associate this sound with escaping gases. This explanation asserts that the synovial fluid that exists in human joints functions as a lubricant. The synovial fluid consists of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide. When a person snaps a knuckle, he enlarges the joint capsule. This leads to a swift discharge of the gases.
The release of these gases leads to the formation of bubbles in the capsule. This is probably why one has to wait for a while before cracking the same knuckle again. When a person pops a joint, the extending of the capsule reduces the pressure forming a vacuum (Clough, 2006). This vacuum is then filled by the gases. It is this process that causes the snapping sound when the gas bubbles rupture.
Patients of arthritis often feel snapping sounds made by their joints due to the damage caused by the condition on the even cartilage. This is quite different from the voluntary snapping of joints often witnessed in knuckle cracking.
Health Implications of Knuckle Cracking Pain, when cracking a knuckle (or any other joint), is a sufficient reason to seek medical attention. Most health professionals believe that knuckle snapping does not have any detrimental health implications (Weil, 2004). However, some studies suggest that persistent knuckle cracking can cause feebleness in a person’s grip or swelling of the person’s hands (Weil, 2004). In case the lab technician persists with the knuckle cracking habit, he may soon be unable to perform simple procedures.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nonetheless, there is no evidence to suggest that knuckle popping triggers arthritis or any major complications. The two major types of arthritis are rheumatoid and osteoarthritis (Allan, 2011).
The causes of both categories of arthritis are not well documented and most scientific research concentrates on revealing events leading to the complications. Most cases of arthritis are genetically transmitted although aging and physical stresses also play a major role. For people already suffering from arthritis, persistent knuckle cracking can cause ligament injury.
Conclusion The popping sounds made when cracking knuckles do not need to be distinctively treated since there are no major implications of knuckle cracking. Therefore, there is no reason for alarm concerning the link between the habit and arthritis. The only concern is if the cracking of knuckles or other joints is accompanied by pain or swelling.
So far, the technician and other habitual knuckle crackers have no cause for alarm. However, the technician should try to control the habit and seek medical attention if he feels any pain or notices swellings. He should also consider the mental disturbances his actions cause to other workmates.
References Allan, D. B. (2011). Conquering arthritis. Phoenix, AZ: SPFP, Inc.
Clough, D. J. (2006). Arthritis. Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Clinic Press.
Weil, T. A. (2004). Health and healing: The philosophy of integrative medicine and optimum health. USA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
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Rousseau’s Discussion of Private Property as a Politically Cynical Reinterpretation of Locke Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Origin of Property in the State of Nature
Legitimization of Private Property
Legitimacy of Government
Introduction One of the most confounding concepts on the discipline of political theory is the issue of property. Classical philosophers like Plato and Aristotle dedicate a large part of their work to speculations about the state of nature and property ownership. However, a comprehensive theoretical exploration of the concept of private property ownership is credited to relatively modern philosophers like Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
The writings of Locke and Rousseau on property ownership are quite fascinating to compare. Both philosophers portray the early stages of man in what they refer to as the state of nature. This paper takes a critical look at Rousseau’s conceptualization of private property and the state in relation to Locke’s work on the subject.
Origin of Property in the State of Nature According to Locke, man is driven out of his primitive state by his desire to satisfy his needs. He believes that man is able to acquire only the basic essentials while in the primitive state. John Locke perceives the issue of property acquisition from the standpoint of land. He asserts that land increases in value and productivity due to cultivation. Therefore, labor is the foundation on which one can claim property ownership.
If a person works tilling land, then the land belongs to him while the one who constructs a house owns the house. Locke proposes certain principles, which must be adhered to for ownership of land and property to be permissible. He asserts that man must not harvest from nature in excess of what he can use. When accumulating property, man must ensure that there is enough left to satisfy the needs of others.
In an apparent response to Locke’s ideas on the origin of private property, Rousseau maintains that man is completely solitary in the unadulterated state of events. He believes that, in this state, man is only motivated by individual desires and procreates only during accidental encounters with the other sex (Rousseau 63). He is deeply opposed to Locke’s idea of man as a sociable being. In his state of nature, man lacks the ability to identify even their own offspring.
In the state of nature, Locke and Rousseau seem to agree on several issues especially the theoretical nature of their conceptualization. Rousseau concurs that the state of nature is a largely nonviolent period. However, his revelation of the state of nature is much more appealing. While Locke appears to insinuate that man has progressed out of this state of nature, Rousseau praises it as a period of harmony and virtue.
In addition, Rousseau does not simply take the contemporary man and place him in the state of nature. Instead, he makes a convincing argument of a relatively different and primitive man who slowly evolves into a modern version.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Locke’s version does not explain the evolution of man until the state of nature. Rousseau’s argument seems more convincing since the facts that corroborate the evolution theory have been unearthed. Therefore, Rousseau’s theory appears entirely reasonable in allocating diverse attributes to ancient man and contemporary man.
However, some of the attributes Rousseau’s gives to ancient man and his life in the state of nature are questionable. One these attributes is that man’s basic desires are mostly satisfied in the state of nature.
Rousseau’s idea of a man relaxing while eating fruits off a tree and sleeping under the same tree is more idealistic than realistic. Another concern is that since Rousseau believes that man is solitary as a primitive being, dismissing the threat from wild animals is not very rational. The life of ancient man is perhaps not as peaceful as Rousseau proposes.
Legitimization of Private Property Private property ownership is a substitution to communal and collective property ownership. In a private arrangement, property ownership guidelines are established around the concept that several disputed resources are delegated to the decision making power of certain individuals or groups. The individual to whom a certain entity is allotted or the person who discovers or constructs it has dominion over the entity. That person holds the decision on what can be or cannot be done with the entity.
Rousseau appears to agree with Locke concerning the disparities that ensue from the inequitable allocation of property. Nevertheless, for Rousseau, personal property and its effect on the human race is a key source of inequality and repression among humans, and not the solution.
Rousseau maintains that the route that leads to privatization of property is the same route that turns humans away from civilization to their model pre-civilized communal society. However, Rousseau believes that private property is introduced long after man abandons the natural state. Unlike Locke, he believes that private property does not exist in the classical state of nature.
I agree with Rousseau on the concept that the privatization of property comes with advancement in civilization. However, I prefer the state of affairs in the private property civilization. Due to the unpredictable nature of climate and the subsequent scarcity of resources, it is only wise that man accumulates property in preparation for a rainy day. The inequalities therein are the consequences of poor management of the privatization process by the authorities trusted with the distribution of property.
We will write a custom Essay on Rousseau’s Discussion of Private Property as a Politically Cynical Reinterpretation of Locke specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Legitimacy of Government In his second treatise of government, Locke asserts that the state of nature is of absolute freedom and equivalence and believes that man should strive to imitate the state of nature. In Locke’s perception, the authority of the state is dependent on its capability to make laws and protect each member’s rights (Locke 22).
The state must also protect individual rights to private property. Locke holds that the authority of the government rests on the consent of the governed. This is the most important element in Locke’s conceptualization of government as it recognizes the role of the government in protecting the rights of the governed. This is the underlying principle behind the formulation of human rights legislation throughout the world.
Rousseau, on the other hand, does not perceive the social contract as the stage where state of nature ends and an ordered society commences. His philosophy does not speculate a specific point where man suddenly transitions from a primitive life to civilization. Instead, Rousseau postulates a progressive transition through evolution (Rousseau 22).
The crucial part of Rousseau’s theory lies in his perception of government. He argues from an assumption that there is a ‘general will’ that profits everybody. His ‘general will’ seems to be a contrast to ‘the will of all’ where citizens pursue their individual interests. In my opinion, the collective good is a collection of individual interests.
A society cannot claim true freedom if the competing interests of its members are not met. In his conception of the ‘general will,’ Rousseau fails to distinguish utility from the will. Instead, he says that the general will is interested in the good of all.
In the state of nature, Rousseau argues that man functions effectively in his pre-civilized state where there is no inequality (Rousseau 19). However, in the social contract, he argues that man can only function effectively under the supervision of the sovereign state. This may seem like a contradiction since his proper functioning of the state of nature envisions man as independent. However, a further reading of his ideology presents a clear understanding of this concept.
He believes that, with the inequality that arises from privatization of property, man requires supervision to prevent chaos. Rousseau asserts that the sovereign is useless without a proper relationship with the governed. Without the general will (and outside the state of nature), a leader only serves his private interests and not the interests of the people he claims to serve.
Rousseau portrays the general will as a technique of legitimizing the power of government. General will also serves as a way of limiting the use of this power by those in authority. It is an integral part of the social contract that unites the citizens under one political sovereign and guarantees protection of the citizens. It is also a way to minimize corruption in government. However, Locke believes that the government has little to do with ensuring the functionality of the state. Locke does not perceive the government as requiring public participation like Rousseau does.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rousseau’s Discussion of Private Property as a Politically Cynical Reinterpretation of Locke by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though contradictory on many fronts, the perspectives of Locke and Rousseau can be reconciled on several aspects such as their joint opposition to dictatorship. In both postulations of government, the legitimacy of government lies in the will of the people.
Conclusion The conception of private property as envisioned in most modern legislation can be traced to early philosophic deliberations on the origin of government. A comparison between these two theories of government reveals the related nature of their premises as well as their points of divergence. Their views on private property lead us to the relationship between property ownership and the legitimacy of government. From the above arguments, it is evident that Rousseau’s theory is in response to Locke’s theory.
Works Cited Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government, USA: Maestro Reprints, 2012. Print.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Discourse On the Origin of Inequality, Minneapolis: Filiquarian Publishing, LLC., 2007. Print.
Social and Political Theory Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction This paper is based on the topic of political and social theory. It focuses on the origins of legitimate governments based on the arguments of three philosophers namely Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Plato’s Socratic dialogues (Apology and Crito). The paper pays special attention to the main views and values of each author as to what constitutes legitimate governments, the power of such governments and the limitations of the power and authority of legitimate governments.
Thesis Statement Rousseau’s arguments on the origin of legitimate governments are more compelling than those of Hobbes and Plato. This is because he traces the development of legitimate governments to the emergence of private property which came as a result of increase in human population. Private property pushed man to form governments so that he could enjoy his natural rights and run away from the state of nature, which the three theorists described as brutal, nasty and harsh.
Plato was one of the first philosophers to put into writings the works of Socrates. In two of his dialogues (the Apology and Crito) Plato constructs the views of Socrates in a manner which resembles the social contract theory by Hobbes and Rousseau. According to Plato and as presented in the Apology and Crito, the main value which led to the emergence of legitimate government is the value of justice (Emery 46).
In the Apology and Crito, Plato portrays Socrates as a person who stands by his beliefs and words. He also portrays him as a hardliner who would not be moved by anything to change his philosophy on any issue. On the issue of fear of death, Socrates is presented as a fearless person, who would not be intimidated by anybody or anything to change his philosophy. He is not afraid of death and goes ahead to state that the fear of death is illogical because no one knows what happens after death.
When he is brought before the jury to answer charges of atheism and corrupting the youth, he says that he prefers death sentence because it would reprieve him of the burden of living a life which is full of contradictions and biases. He blames the jury for being ignorant of his arguments and for agreeing with the charges brought by Meletus, who is not able to substantiate his arguments.
In the apology, Plato argues that Socrates was not afraid of death because he was ready to obey the laws of Athens, which according to Socrates enabled his parents to give birth and take care of him. According to Socrates, men are naturally inclined to do injustice to each other, that is, each man would like to do injustice to the other man. Men also fear the effects of doing injustice to others and thus, in a state of nature, each man would like to do harm to others and be spared of any punishment for doing so.
Accordingly, this state of nature does not allow any man to survive and that is the reason why men agree to make laws to regulate their behavior. The laws result into establishment of a legitimate government which is tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that all men are able to access justice. The same government is responsible for ensuring that those who do injustice to others are punished for doing so.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The limitation of the power and authority of such governments is that all men are not naturally equal. Some are influential than others and therefore, some may do injustice to others and manage to escape the effects of doing so through what Socrates calls mistakes by the jury or government.
For instance, even though Socrates accepts death sentence, he faults the decision by the jury to sentence him to death as a result of false and inconsistent arguments by his accuser Meletus. The value of justice is therefore very central in Plato’s arguments about the origin of a legitimate government.
Just like Plato and Rousseau, Hobbes described the state of nature as almost impossible to allow for the existence of humanity. His main value in the explanation of the emergence of legitimate governments was the value of rationality. According to him, men are naturally driven by their self interest which pushes them to meet as many selfish needs as possible irrespective of how they meet those needs.
Since it is practically impossible for every man to meet his selfish and personal interests, men through the value of rationality and the ability to reason established a society. It was within this society that men were able to pursue their selfish interests. Men therefore agreed to surrender part of their natural rights and in return get protection, order and norms within their societies.
The value of rationality enabled men to realize that they could not simply go about meeting their selfish and individual interests because each man had different selfish and personal interests and therefore, if they all met their selfish interests, life would have been like the hypothetical state of nature (Hobbes 19).
Accordingly, governments were established to regulate the behavior and contact of men in the society. The governments were supposed to enforce the laws and regulations which men agreed to govern their contact. Such laws include laws governing human rights, natural rights among other aspects of human life and society. The government was therefore supposed to ensure each man not only got his rights but was also provided with an environment to pursue the same rights and self interests.
The key limitation of the power and authority of such a government is that Hobbes suggested that the government has a super authority and is not subject to questioning by any other authority. This form of government as postulated by Hobbes has the effect of creating monarchies and dictatorships; which eventually can prevent man from pursuing his selfish and individual interests. Such authority and power are therefore limited in that there would be the need of creating another authority to check the excesses of the governments.
We will write a custom Essay on Social and Political Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jean-Jacques Rousseau
In his discourse on the origin of inequality, Rousseau puts forward a logical explanation of how men progressively moved from the state of nature to form legitimate governments. According to him, the state of nature was both good and bad. It was good because men were born free and were very few at the beginning.
Consequently, they were naturally able to meet their needs and self interests because nature was able to provide for everything that man wanted. It was bad because the same man, with the abundance provided by nature still had the ability and desire to harm and do injustice to other men.
As the population of men grew, they started living in communities. What followed was division of labor among families which eventually led to the emergence inventions and innovations thus making life easier. As a result of division of labor, men had some hours left for leisure which they used to compare themselves with others leading to competition which later led to the emergence of private property (Rousseau 56).
Private property was therefore Rousseau’s main value which led to the emergence of legitimate governments. Since division of labor and specialization led to the increase of inequalities, the emergence of private property further appeared to reinforce those inequalities within communities.
It also led to the emergence of social classes within communities. According to Rousseau, it was the few men who had acquired enough property who came up with the idea of forming a government with a sole aim of protecting their property from those who had not acquired it but would have wanted to acquire it by force.
Accordingly, governments were formed to provide equality and protection for all people and enable every one to have a good environment to acquire property.
However, Rousseau pointed out that the formation of governments was a conspiracy of the rich to govern and exploit the poor in the disguise of offering protection and equality for all. This is the limitation of such power and authority because sometimes the poor may rebel against the governments through revolutions and overthrow the governments and return the society to its state of nature.
Conclusion I find Rousseau’s arguments on the emergence of legitimate governments more compelling. This is because he provides a logical and progressive account of how man has evolved from the state of nature to form a government; and how the same man can destroy the government and revert back to the state of nature.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social and Political Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Emery, Watson. Plato’s Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito: arranged for dramatic presentation from the Jowett translation with choruses, Lanham: Md Univ. Press of America, 1996. Print.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan, London: Continuum, 2005. Print.
Rousseau, Jacques. Discourse on Inequality: On the Origin and Basis of Inequality among Men, Auckland: Floating Press, 1910. Print.
Humanitarian Intervention: Views of Richard Falk and Michael Walzer Essay best essay help
Identifying the central argument of the two articles Richard Falk and Michael Walzer present varying views as regards to the reason why state and non-state actors intervene in the international system whenever a crisis emerges. The two analysts differ over a number of fundamental issues, but they seem to agree about the nature of the international system, as they both observe that actors do not intervene to fulfil the interests of the affected individuals, but instead they aim at realizing their national interests.
Falk notes that powerful states intervene militarily to realize their ambitions and objectives in any conflict. He analyzes the effects of intervention whereby he comes up with two sets of reactions that intrusion seems to generate as far as legal, ethical, and political issues are concerned. In the first response, Falk observes that commissions are set up within the state to investigate the consequences of interference where eminent persons are appointed to serve in such committees.
The second response to intervention is criticisms from civil societies and human groups. The analyst tends to disapprove the behaviour of powerful states and other units that rush into conclusion without seeking the approval of the world governing body, which is the United Nations. For him, the advice of the Security Council should always be relied upon before coming with a decision to intervene militarily in a war-tone region.
Falk accuses the role of non-official bodies, such as NATO, which are often used in restoring peace without the approval of the world governing bodies. States should embark on strengthening the legally and ethically accepted institutions, such as the regional blocs since they represent the interests of the majority.
Non-official organizations, including NATO, only represent the interests of the powerful states, such as the United States, France, Britain, and other US allies. Whenever intervention is undertaken, Falk suggests that the UN objectives under the responsibility to protect clause ought to be followed closely.
In this regard, the rules of engagement should be clear meaning that actors should determine when to intervene, the mode of intervention, and must give a genuine reason for intervening. Additionally, military involvement should be employed as a last resort meaning that other options should be explored. If military action is adopted, approval should be sought from the UN to make it legitimate.
Michael Walzer approves intervention if it is felt that human life is in danger. In fact, he claims that actors should make an attempt of intervening as soon as possible to prevent human suffering. In his view, it is difficult to commit crimes against humanity without being noticed in the modern international system because of the development of information communication techniques.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In his attempt to justify intervention, he analyzes four major themes that actors have to consider, which include the nature of occasion, the agents to be used in intervention, the techniques of engaging the aggressor or the belligerent state, and the best time to end or terminate intervention. Regarding occasion, the international community should only interfere with state sovereignty if the condition is extreme.
Issues, such as violation of human rights and authoritarian regimes do not call for intrusion since they have to be dealt with locally. Only issues related to genocide and mass murder call for intervention. When engaging the aggressive party or state in the international system, only the United Nations should be given the mandate of doing so. The use of force is justifiable, but only if other means have failed. Once the situation is restored back to normal, the intervening state should withdraw, as soon as possible.
Identifying the points of agreement and disagreement between the tow scholars The two analysts agree at some point while in other instances they differ. On the issue of intervention, Falk observes that regional organizations and internationally recognized bodies, mainly the United Nation, should be left with the mandate of resolving conflicts and force should never be applied.
Walzer takes a different stand, as he suggests that only the United Nations should be given the mandate of intervening and force might be used to restore the situation back to normal. Walzer is of the view actors in the international system should not intervene over minor issues. For him, only genocide should attract intervention, as other issues ought to be resolved locally. Falk differs slightly with this idea, as he suggests that actors have the right of intervening whenever deemed necessary.
The two analysts agree that intervention is necessary and should always be undertaken whenever human life is in danger. While Falk underscores the that powerful states intervene to salvage their interests, Walzer has a different view, as he observes that intervention is undertaken to prevent the hostile actor from harming human life. They both give examples of intervention in India, Kosovo, and Rwanda, but their accounts are different.
Critical evaluation of the two positions It is noted that Falk is a realist while Walzer is a liberalist. Realists believe that any state would have an interest of preserving its political autonomy, as well as territorial integrity.
Regarding the intervention of powerful states, the main objective is to maintain the global power, which is defined in terms of military power, political domination, diplomatic power, and cultural power. Based on this view, realists believe that the international system is anarchic, brutal, and life is short-lived as an actor engage in a zero-sum game whereby a loss on the side of one actor is the gain of the other.
We will write a custom Essay on Humanitarian Intervention: Views of Richard Falk and Michael Walzer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the global system, there is no Leviathan, which is charged with the responsibility of overseeing the affairs of all actors, instead the vacuum left is filled by the powerful states. In this regard, the international system exists based on the Hobbestian state of nature where life is short-lived and highly calculative. Peace in the international system is maintained by balance of power.
Liberalism is one of the dominant theories in the study of international relations stating that world peace and security could be achieved through cooperation. The theory tends to suggest that regime types, existence of international organizations, and the nature of domestic politics affect the decisions that foreign policy makers formulate at the international political arena.
The commercial interests of various actors force them to implement free trade policies, which have the role to play in the relations among states. Through the theory, other related theories have been formulated, including globalization and interdependence. Walzer notes that agents of globalization, including the media, play a role in exposing the actions of the aggressive actor.
For peace to be maintained globally, actors should think of institutionalizing peace, which would definitely facilitate cooperation. Walzer observes that the United Nations is competent in maintaining peace and security. Therefore, the theory does not encourage actors to come up with short-time peace solutions, but instead they should aim at formulating lasting peace strategies. In this regard, international law, norms, and formation of alliances ought to be stressed if lasting peace and security is to be achieved.
Works Cited Falk, Richard. “Humanitarian Intervention: Elite and Critical Perspectives”. Global Dialogue, 7.1 (2005): 1-7. Print.
Walzer, Michael. “The Argument about Humanitarian Intervention”. Forum for Intercultural Philosophy, 5.1 (2004): 1-8. Print.
Establish and adjust the marketing mix Report essay help: essay help
Introduction The retail industry is a battlefield for a wide range of goods essential for daily use. There is stiff competition in the industry as giant retailers and emerging retailers seek to gain competitive advantage over each other (Pesendorfer 34). Companies that wish to survive must make regular but necessary adjustments in the marketing mix to stay ahead of competition.
Wal-Mart products and services market
Wal-Mart is an American Corporation existing in approximately thirty nation states. The firm has an average sales record of one hundred and forty US dollars in these countries. The United States-based company provides the enormous retail programs all over the world.
However, as the world’s leading retailer Wal-Mart does not have market stores in certain global leading marketplaces. For instance, the corporation does not conduct business in India, Russia, South Korea and Germany. The realization and establishment of extra supercenters in India is hampered.
The aspiration to operate cannot succeed following the recent breakdown of Indian partnership with the company. The problem of poor conditions of investment culminated in the 9th Oct, 2013 termination of partnership with Bharti Enterprises. The sticking point emerges from the demand by the Indian administration that the overseas traders must resource more than thirty percent from the merchandise they vend from Indian SME’s.
The inquiries whether or not Wal-Mart Corporation is probing any violation of laws of anti corruption of the United States is unclear. The head of Wal-Mart Asia in his interview never mentioned if any investigations on the alleged violation of foreign retail investment rules by Wal-Mart were underway.
Conversely, the corporation is yet to figure the means of entering the Russian marketplaces. In the fiscal 2010, Wal-Mart closed down the offices in Moscow following an aborted deal with the Kopeyka that was a potential partner. The price discrepancy caused the plan of attainment to subsist. Nevertheless, in the year 2006 Wal-Mart terminated its businesses in South Korea and Germany.
The German populace pitied the way the grocery handlers executed their work at the line of check. As such, many consumers chose to purchase from the local bazaars in doubt of the ever-smiling clerks whom they thought were flirting. Wal-Mart failed in South Korea owing to the adherence of US stratagems of marketing of clothing and electronics rather than considering beverage and food as a big market in S. Korea.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Key features and influence of products and significance to the market
Wal-Mart offers the customer a wide range of goods and services. The products that the company manufactures in the local and international plants have the company logo. The products that are outsourced to other manufacturers also carry a specific logo. This means that the company consumers can easily identify the brand. Items such as apparel and toys are renown by the consumers worldwide. The company advertises the products as possessing high quality compared to those provided by competitors.
This coupled with the lower price attracts many existing and prospective customers. The company products including those produced offshore are of high quality. The company has bargaining power over manufacturers hence has the power to give the manufacturer the standards of products to be produced without increasing the buying price. As such, the retailer is able to influence the market by making competitors produce items of similar or better quality.
Wal-Mart’s pricing policy is based on the ‘Everyday low price’. This means that the products must cost less to enable the retailer to sell at lower prices. All the products provided by the company meet the ‘low price’ criteria.
Whenever customers feel that any of Wal-Mart’s competitors are providing goods at a lower price, the company gives them the opportunity to report and the company makes the necessary price adjustments based on Wal-Mart Price Match Policy. The customers do not require providing such an advertisement to prove that indeed the competitor is offering lower or matching prices.
Significant market outcomes
The promotional methods and distribution channels utilized by the company are significant in determining the effectiveness of the marketing mix (Soonhong, Min
Analysis Chipotle Mexico Grill Company Case Study essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Vision and Mission Chipotle Mexico Grill’s vision aims at serving high quality food that is prepared deliciously. The high quality food is obtained from classic cooking techniques, as well as sophisticated recipes. The company’s idea is to fulfill the promise of a full-service restaurant that values speed and convenience.
The ambition of the restaurant is to offer an extra special dining atmosphere that succeeds in redefining the fast food knowledge and enjoyment for everybody at inexpensive prices. Part of the vision says: “Food with Integrity”. This is a critical aspect that also forms part of the mission statement. It further declares the organization’s purpose of identifying the products and customers who are unique. This distinguishes it from the rest of the competitors (Jones
Organization and Monitoring of Clinical Trials Research Paper custom essay help
Introduction Psychotherapists have always preferred using placebos as a way of making their patients develop positive attitude towards a given medication. According to Harrington (1999), placebos are inert drugs given to patients in order to improve their psychological conditions while in the process of receiving physiological attention.
Given that the drug is inert, it does not have any physiological effect on the patient. However, the patient will believe that the drug is functional, and they will develop a feeling that their physical condition is improving.
This condition has always been described as placebo effect. Clinicians often use it as part of improving the psychological state of their patients. However, there has been need to find real solutions to patients who need physiological and psychological attention. For this reason, Perfect Sponsor has come up with a Wonder Drug that would be able to offer these patients real solution other than basing the treatment on false beliefs. This therapeutic agent will be able to help patients who have physiological problems that need therapeutic attention.
Super CRO has been contracted to conduct Phase III North American registration trial in order to determine the safety and efficiency of this wonder drug. It is important to develop a clear plan of the activities that would be carried out before the project can commence. The plan must specify individuals who will be participating in various activities, and the time each activity is estimated to take. The project will target adults aged from 18 to 75 years.
Site Selection Site selection will be the first activity that would be undertaken by the project members. Perfect Sponsor has stated that it desires to have 20 sites in Canada and another 20 sites in the United States. This means that the project will cover 40 locations in total. The first activity would be to select 20 individuals who live in the United States and another 20 in Canada.
These forty individuals must be clinicians who have some administrative experience. They will be selected from the hospitals that have been sampled to participate in this project. In Canada, the participating hospitals will be Bassano Health Center, Oilfield General Hospital, Boyle Health Center, St. Mary’s Hospital, Our Lady of the Rosary Hospital, and Cochrane Community Health Center.
Others include Daysland Health Center, High River General Hospital, Hinton General Hospital, Sacred Heart Community Health Center, Medicine Hat Regional Hospital, Milk River Hospital, Big Country Health Center, Raymond Hospital, St. Paul Health Care Center, Taber Hospital, Three Hills Health Center, St. Joseph General Hospital, Viking Health Center, and West Lock Health Center. In the United States, the participating hospitals will include St. Mary’s Hospital, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Duke University Hospital, Johns Hopkins Hospital, UCFS Medical Center, Cleveland Clinic, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Indiana University Health Center.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Others include University Hospital of Cleveland, University of Michigan Health System, Vanderbit University Hospital, Mount Sinai Hospital, Yale New Haven Hospital, University of Iowa Hospital, Ohsu Hospitals, UPMC Presbyterian Shadyside, Barnes Jewish Hospital, Shands Hospital, and University of Wi Hospital.
The administrators at these selected sites will be the project team leaders at these sites. They will be working directly with the project coordinators. There will be two project coordinators. One will be in charge of the operations in the United States while the other will monitor operations in Canada. The entire process is expected to take two months, from January 1 to February 28.
Investigator meeting When the above forty team leaders have been confirmed, a meeting will be held at the head offices of Super CRO in the United States. The two regional project coordinators will also accompany these team leaders. The project coordinator will chair the meeting that will also be attended by selected officials from the Perfect Sponsor.
Given that the Perfect Sponsor is the owner of this project, it is important to ensure that its officials are present during the induction process. The fact that these team leaders will be responsible for all the activities taking place at their assigned sites, it is necessary to conduct the induction process with a lot of precision.
The induction will be conducted by doctors from the Perfect Sponsor in close coordination with clinicians of Super CRO. This process is estimated to take a period of one month, from first to thirty-first of March. The team leaders will be guided on what to do while at the site. It is believed that one month is enough to make them be able to participate in this project successfully.
Master File set-up and Regulatory Document Collection When the induction process is completed, the next activity will be setting up of master file, and development of regulatory document collection (Tonnquist, 2009). As mentioned, this project will take place in two different countries at forty locations.
The geographical locations of these places are far apart, and it is necessary to ensure that data collection process is done properly to make this project successful. It means that the documentation must follow a given pattern that is clear and easy to follow-up. For this reason, the project manager will develop an online filing system. The two regional coordinators will be assigned twenty team leaders as per the country of participation.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Organization and Monitoring of Clinical Trials specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The regional coordinator in the United States will be given a code name of US, while that in Canada will be given the code CD. Each of the forty-team leaders will be assigned code numbers based on the codes of their regional leaders. This means that those from the United States will have their codes starting from US1 to US20.
Those in Canada will have their codes starting from CD1 to CD20. This way, it will be easier to determine the regions where each participant is coming from, and the particular participant based on the code they have. All the team leaders, the regional coordinators, the officials from the Perfect Sponsor, and the project manager will be present in order to make it possible to understand the identity of the participants. An online database will then be developed, and each of the codes entered.
The team leaders will be expected to identify themselves using the codes. However, their names will be reflected on the codes to enhance clarity. However, the names will not be released to the public during the final release of the report. The report will only identify them using these codes. This process is expected to take two days.
Protocol Development The next stage will be the development of protocol. In every project, it is always important to develop a clear protocol that would be used to guide all the activities that will be conducted. In the development of protocol, there will be need to have all the participants in this project. At this stage, the officials of the Perfect Sponsor may not be needed. This does not mean that they are restricted from attending these sessions.
However, their role may be of limited use at this stage. The reporting protocol must be made clear to all the participants. The information on what should be conducted and any necessary adjustments will be coming from the sponsor to the project manager. The project manager would then pass this information to the two coordinators. These coordinators will be expected to communicate directly to the team leaders. The team leaders can then direct the individual participants at their sites as may be necessary.
The order of seniority will follow this channel. This means that at no stage will any information be passed without following the correct path to the head office. The team leaders will collect information from the field and pass it to the regional coordinator. The regional coordinator will pass this information to the project manager who will then be able to inform the sponsor of the progress being made in the project.
However, the officials of the Perfect Sponsor are allowed to intercept this information at any point in this channel. When this happens, the officer responsible at that stage must inform the superior that the officials of the sponsor had intercepted some information. This information must reach the project manager so that he can determine how to inform the sponsor on the progress. This is expected to take one day. The team leaders, project coordinators, and project manager must be present at this stage.
Case Report Form Development The next stage will involve case report form development. The forty-team leaders must have a clear common method of reporting their findings to their superiors. It is important to ensure that the manner in which the team leaders in different regions in the United States report is similar to the way team leaders in Canada report.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organization and Monitoring of Clinical Trials by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This means that it is necessary to develop a universal case report form that would be used by all the team leaders. This must be done when all the relevant officers are present. In fact they would be involved in coming up with the right format. The two regional coordinators will head the process of developing case report form in presence of the project manager. The regional coordinators will engage the team leaders in coming up with the most appropriate report form.
The process would involve comparing some of the previously used case report forms. The team will develop a form that meets the present needs in the best manner. When this is completed, the project manager will engage the two regional coordinators in developing another case report form that the two will use to compile reports from the team leaders and then report to the project manager.
The project manager will also involve the two officers in developing a form that he will use to compile the two reports into one document that shall be sent to the Perfect Sponsor. This process is expected to take one week. The officials of the Perfect Sponsor will be expected to attend the meeting so that they may understand the way the report will be made.
Study Drug Management The next activity will be the study drug management. This very sensitive area will need total concentration of the members involved. This is because it involves development of a prototype that will be used in the field. The special doctors from the Super CRO who were involved in the development of the wonder drug will head the process.
They will be responsible for the induction process that will take place at this stage. The members needed at this stage include the project manager, the regional coordinators, the team leaders, officials from the Perfect Sponsor and the special doctors.
The doctors will head all the sessions at this stage. They will start by explaining the way placebo drugs have been used and their impact in enhancing the conditions of patients. They will explain how psychologists have used these drugs to improve conditions of their patients. They will then explain to the team members some of the special features of the new wonder drugs. They will inform the team members the history of this drug, some of the success stories it has, and any other special characteristics that makes it superior to the placebo drugs.
The specialists will try to compare the two drugs, identifying some of the benefits of the new wonder drug to the patients and medics. The project manager and the two regional coordinators will act as secretaries at this stage. They will take notes on all the proceedings at this stage. The team leaders are expected to be very active during this process. They are expected to pose any relevant questions to the specialist because they will be at the field.
They may face challenges in the field, and therefore, must attempt to ensure that they are fully equipped for the activities ahead. The specialists will make all the demonstrations needed in this research. They will respond to all the questions posed. In essence, they will be trying to ensure that the participants will be able to handle all the needed issues in the field. This process is expected to take a period of two weeks. It may be extended to one month or more based on the prevailing conditions.
Regulatory document checklist It is important to understand that this is a new drug that is being introduced for the first time. It is necessary to have clear documents that will support the drug release.
As Böttcher (2003) notes, this is a legal requirements that must be observed during this project. The team leaders will need this document when they are in the field to validate their activities. They will need to present the document to various regulatory authorities in their respective regions. The most important document at this stage will be the Medical Release Form that will be used to grant consent to introduce this new drug.
All the scientists who were involved in the development of form must sign. In the form, they must state the entire process that led to the development of the drug, and all the elements in it. The document must state some of the side effect that comes with the use of the drug. The document must also state how the side effects can be managed. The project manager must sign the document as an indication that he has approved the project.
Site feasibility assessment The feasibility assessment will be conducted in two regions in Canada and another two regions in the United States. The two regional coordinators and the financial officers in this project will conduct this activity. The choice of the two hospitals will be made randomly. These officers will determine if there is need for the project, and the costs it will take. They will then determine the benefits of the project. They will finally make a conclusion as to the advantages of using this new drug.
Agenda for Investigator Meeting In a meeting, there must be a clear agenda explaining some of the activities that will be carried out (Nagarajan, 2005). It helps in guiding such meetings. The following is the agenda of the final meeting that will be carried before the team members are sent to the field.
Agenda 1: The project manager making official opening remarks and welcoming all members to the meeting
Agenda 2: Activities to be undertaken in the field by project members and the desired duration
Agenda 3: Some of the challenges that the project members will face in the field and how to mitigate them
Agenda 4: Meeting government officials in relevant offices to explain this project
Agenda 5: Any other business
Conclusion This project is expected to bring a complete change in the medical field. Placebo drugs have been used for a long time to treat patients. However, recent reports have shown that the placebo drugs are not ethical because they give patients false impression that they have been treated. This wonder drug is expected to introduce an efficient and effective way of phasing out placebo drugs.
References Böttcher, H. M. (2003). Wonder drugs: A history of antibiotics. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Harrington, A. (1999). The placebo effect: An interdisciplinary exploration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Nagarajan, K. (2005). Project management. New Delhi: New Age International.
Tonnquist, B. (2009). Project management: A complete guide. Aarhus: Academica.
Andy Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Cans 11 and the Flash-November 22, 1963 Analytical Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Andrew Warhola, better known as Andy Warhol, was born on August 1928 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. During his lifetime, Andy Warhol aroused much controversy and struggled for acceptance by the art world. However, the evidence of his achievement is that he is one of the rare artists, especially in the USA, to have had a whole museum devoted to their work.
He produced works in a variety of media, cutting across many artistic disciplines, including: fashion illustration, painting, printmaking, sculpture, magazine publishing, filmmaking, photography, writing, and chronicling the underground art scene. He also generated, from his own life activities and the documentation of his relationships with friends, celebrities, and collaborators, what might be termed early performance art.
He is instantly associated with the movement called Pop Art, short for ‘popular’, and according to Osterwold, inextricably tied to Western industrialized society (Osterwold 4). Anecdotally, Warhol is often the only artist of this style that non-art-history students can name without prompting.
This style followed Abstract Expressionism in time and in approach, moving the art world farther away from the old idea that, for example, a painting is ‘about’ anything, or that works of art are special and one of a kind. Pop Art, and especially Warhol’s work, often featured mass-production techniques (such as silk-screening) and irreverent choice of subject matter (such as soup cans) (Bockris 210).
This movement thereby broke down even further the progressively unraveling classical ideas and limitations on what constitutes high art, or real art, or art of any kind. Besides being an innovative artist, Warhol was notable for his flamboyant apparent homosexuality in a much more repressive decade.
He was both a product of, and an element of change in, the 1960s and 1970s. This was a time characterized by a push to liberalize behavioral norms, in dress, hair styles, sexuality, and use of mind altering substances. His prodigious output and provocative personality and lifestyle still rouse controversy, and discussion (Columbia University).
Two works that reflect both his commentary on the state of society and his reaction to current events are Campbell’s soup cans 11 and the Flash-November 22, 1963. The Camphell’s Soup Cans 11, produced in 1962, depicts an array of 32 seemingly identical cans arranged in a grid of rows (Warhol). Though initially not recognized as actual art, the exhibition of the piece marked the beginning of a public debate that provided Warhol with much-needed publicity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although students and fans may argue endlessly over the significance of this work, it retains its ability to delight and surprise the viewer and trigger questions about what constitutes real art. The group of pieces titled Flash-November 22, 1963 was also a major work by Warhol. Warhol made this work at a time when the country was still obsessed by the media-hyped spectacle of Kennedy’s assassination. It includes an array of 11 screenshots, supposedly taken from the newswires from the time of his shooting and shortly thereafter.
Warhol was struck and disheartened by the four years of persistent media emphasis on the assassination. Thus, this piece of art work is highly relevant to events and trends of its time. It is also prescient in its acknowledgment of the increasing power of media to whip up public feeling, even very cynically and artificially. This paper will endeavor to describe these two pieces of art as art, and suggest meanings.
Camphell’s Soup Cans 11
Camphell’s Soup Cans 11 is a series of thirty two separate 20X16 inch canvases screen printed with synthetic polymer, and hand-stenciled with the names of the 1962 range of Campbell flavors. Thus, Warhol embodied several of what would become key characteristics of Pop Art: appropriation of a pre-existing image and well-known brand name, repetition by nearly mechanical means, removal from its usual context (the grocery shelf), and confusion between hand work and use of technology (silk screening plus hand stenciling).
Regarding appropriation of images, Warhol himself said,“Pop artists did images that anyone walking down the street would recognize in a split second—comics, picnic tables, men’s pants, celebrities, refrigerators, Coke bottles.” (MOMA)
This use of recognizable commercial images simplified many of the choices that artists previously had to make. The basic elements of art were rather predetermined. In the case of Campbell’s Soup Cans 11, Warhol preserved the color values of the actual can labels, offering a sharp contrast between the red, white, and black. The line is very clear cut, and regular, moving up, across and down again around the can’s silhouette.
The shape is also pre-selected, and decidedly geometric rather than organic. The texture is difficult to tell without being in the same room, but if other silk-screened works are any indicator, then the texture, both visual and tactile, is likely to be smooth and unobtrusive. Warhol permits the mass of the cans to be suggested by the viewer’s familiarity with the apparent subject – a cylinder – as well as his competent use of perspective.
In elevating a humble soup can to the level of the Mona Lisa, Warhol was reflecting his own love of soup as a child, but he was also saying that art does not need to depict angels and kings to be art (Stinespring) (MOMA). There was also perhaps a critique of the world around him. John Stinespring characterizes the evolving criticism of Warhol as increasingly attributing to the artist a commentary on, “commercial, mass-produced, and somewhat sleazy nature of modern American society” (Stinespring).
We will write a custom Essay on Andy Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Cans 11 and the Flash-November 22, 1963 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He also pioneered a way of being a brand himself as an artist, because he could produce many nearly identical copies of his art (Schroeder). Other variations on the soup can theme showed damaged or torn labels. These works could be interpreted as commentary on the superficialities of American society, or simply a joke. The painted label is coming off in some of these, showing only another surface underneath, not the soup itself (Stich 91).
Flash-November 22 1963
Flash-November 22 1963 is a part of a portfolio of images exploring the period from the Kennedy campaign to the capture of Lee Harvey Oswald (Telfair Museum) . Warhol used cropping, alteration of color, and massively increasing the contrast of news photographs (the news flash of the title) and posters (Moorhead 92) to suggest the ways he felt that the media manipulated the public (Stich 182). As such, their color palette is limited.
The example picked for this paper shows a high contrast shot of Jackie Kennedy grieving, duplicated twice. The color values are fairly intense. There are only two colors: purple evoking both royal garb (which seems appropriate for the residents of ‘Camelot’) as well as priestly vestments, and black evoking death and finality.
There is the shape of her face, suggested by the sketchiness of the grainy photograph enlarged many times. The duplication gives rhythm to the composition. The lines of Jackie’s face: her brows, her hairline, her chin, are all round and echo one another. The overall shape of her face is a rough oval, evoking classical ideals of feminine beauty.
However the high contrast of the screen prints make the organic forms of her features seem like marks on a map or mountains on the moon. Although, as with the Campbell’s Soup Cans, there is probably little texture from the silk screening, the illusion of texture arises from the graininess of the much-enlarged newsprint. When viewed as a woman’s face, the pictures give the impression of real-life mass, but if viewed as simply shapes of black on a purple background, they dissolve into abstraction.
This work, as with Warhol’s other images of celebrities, calls on the viewer to consider the nature of fame. Here is a beautiful woman grieving for her lost husband – the painting raises the question; is it worth it to have been the most powerful woman in the free world if she is robbed of her mate as a result of that power and fame?
Conclusion These two works of Warhol’s embody several aspects of Pop Art, which was, “popular, transient, expendable, low cost, mass-produced, young, witty, sexy, gimmicky, glamorous, big business.” to use a description by Richard Hamilton (Biography.com). Warhol’s soup cans transform every package into a potential masterpiece. The nearly hieratic image of a weeping Jackie forces the viewer to recall the assassination differently, and is particularly significant right now at the 50th anniversary of that event.
Warhol is quoted as describing the movement that he helped to propel into the national consciousness as follows,” Once you ‘got’ pop, you could never see a sign the same way again. And once you thought pop, you could never see America the same way again.” (Biography.com) These two pieces of art have helped this student ‘get’ Pop, and perhaps even ‘think’ Pop, and look at America and at art differently ever hereafter.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Andy Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Cans 11 and the Flash-November 22, 1963 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The art critics in Europe and eventually those in the USA accepted his substitution of advertising icons for those of the past, and his use of pre-existing images, among many other innovations, and art thereby moved beyond Abstract Expressionism decisively. (Fallon 18) (Danto xi).
Works Cited Biography.com. “Andy Warhol” 2013. Biography.com. Web.
Bockris, Victor. Warhol: The Biography. Cambridge: De Capo Press, 2003. Web.
Columbia University. Andy Warhol. 2013. Web.
Danto, Arthur. Andy Warhol. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009. Web.
Fallon, Michael. How to Analyze the Works of Andy Warhol. Edina: ABDO, 2010. Web.
MOMA. “Appropriation” 2013. MOMA. Web.
—. “Campbell’s Soup Cans: Andy Warhol” 2013. MOMA. Web.
Moorhead, Jasmine. Pop Impressions Europe/USA: Prints and Multiples from the Museum of Modern Art. New York: MOMA, 1999. Web.
Osterwold, Tilman. Pop Art. Cologne: Taschen, 2003. Web.
Schroeder, Jonathan E. “The Artist and the Brand.” European Journal of Marketing 39.11/12 (2005). Web.
SOLOMON, DEBORAH. “For Individual Artists, Museums All Their Own.” 28 March 1999. New York Times. Web.
Stich, Sidra. Made in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. Web.
Stinespring, John. “The Critical Response to Andy Warhol – Review.” Studies in Art Education 40.1 (1998). Web.
Telfair Museum. “Warhol/JFK: November 22, 1963 A Selection of Andy Warhol Prints from the Herbert Brito Collection.” 2013. Telfair Museum. Web.
Warhol, Andy. Campbell’s Soup Cans: 1962. MOMA. The Collection. New York: MOMA, 1962. Web.
Footnotes The Norman Rockwell Museum was founded a year or so earlier, in 1993 (SOLOMON).
Elie Saab: Growth of a Global Luxury Brand Case Study online essay help
What is Elie Saab’s core business? Describe its product in terms of the three levels of a product; core, actual and augmented product
The three product/service levels include the core, the actual, and the augment level. These levels are closely connected with one another. Elie Saab employs branding and designing to gain a competitive edge in the market place. These two are at the level of actual product. They support the core level to influence customers to purchase a product or service. For instance, through branding and designing, the company influences customers to gain confidence and trust in consuming Elie Saab’s products.
The augmented level of a product is when companies offer after sales services, customer relationship management activities, and warranties among others.
In this level, the marketers of this company research on the potential consumers of its offers. This helps it to design the actual product by employing augmenting strategies with an aim of meeting the needs of consumers. Elie Saab offers its customers all these to make them loyal to the brand, and hence increase sales, profits, and revenues. This makes the company gain a competitive edge.
Conduct a brief SWOT analysis, and identify Elie Saab’s competitive advantage based on your SWOT findings
Strengths Elie Saab is a member of the Chambre Syndicale de la couture
The company owns its own stores except the one in Dubai, which is left for local expertise
Has consumer trust and loyalty due to its branding and designing (stars and royalty)
The company is among the few that are certified, and hence gains a competitive edge.
Third party distributions
Weaknesses The company is not well represented in multi-brand shops
The brand is diluted due to its involvement in different activities such as hotels and yachts among others
Elie Saab has low sales in Asia, USA and Russia, and hence poor performance.
Opportunities The increase in wealth and number of the World’s High-net-worth Individuals, especially in Asian countries
The emerging markets, for instance, the Asian market
Huge potential in Asian markets that need to be fulfilled
Threats Reverse trends, whereby organizations mix luxury and affordability
People switching to casual wear
Party ladies switching from high class aristocracy to new world billionaires
Aging consumers in Europe, Japan and USA
In what stage of the life cycle is Elie Saab located? What is your evidence for your selection?
The company is in maturity phase, the third stage of product life cycle. This is because the sales have reached their peak, and the market for its products is saturated. The company is also facing other challenges such as a decrease in market share and profits (Shuayto
PLEASE RESPOND TO POST INCLUDE REFERENCES Osteoporosis is a skeleton disorder where the bone strength becomes abnormally weak; the writing essay help
PLEASE RESPOND TO POST INCLUDE REFERENCES
Osteoporosis is a skeleton disorder where the bone strength becomes abnormally weak; the bone’s weakening results in an increased risk of bone structure. As discussed by Sozen et al. (2017), it is estimated that over 10 million individuals have osteoporosis in the U.S. One of the variables that raise the risk of the disease including females of Asian or Caucasian race, with thin or more petite body frame with a family history of osteoporotic. According to Porter et al. (2021), between 4 to 6 Caucasian women have osteoporosis, and 13 to 17 million white women will have low hipbone density in their lifetime. Also, those who smoke cigarettes, use alcohol excessively and lead sedentary lifestyles are at a higher risk of the disease. Sozen et al. (2017) cited poor nutrition, low estrogen levels, and malabsorption as other osteoporosis risk factors.
Nurses play a significant role in disease management in today’s healthcare. In promoting bone health, they take the lead in increasing awareness and promoting healthy lifestyles among all patients. The management of osteoporosis to minimize fracture risks incorporate both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. To maximize bone health, nurses can educate patients and give them information on positive lifestyle changes. Nurses can administer drug treatments to minimize fragility structures.
Similarly, nurses can help patients develop diets that enhance their bones (Porter et al., 2021). A diet rich in Vitamin D and calcium throughout life protects against skeletal demineralization. Patients also need to participate in frequent physical activity, avoid smoking, and reduce their alcohol consumption. Park et al. (2017) assert that muscle-strengthening resistance exercise for the disease can promote better bone health and reduce the risk of fractures. If successfully managed, it may aid in reducing pain and symptoms associated with structures of the vertebra.
Park, C.-H., Lee, Y.-K.,
History of Balinese Dancing Art Essay essay help free: essay help free
Music and dance were known to people for a long time. At first, dance would be used in religious ceremonies and rituals, for example, to call out the rain in the dry season and in some instances, before going hunting, to bring good luck and a rich catch. Our ancestors believed that they would please the spirits and the higher forces of nature, thus they will be sent whatever it is they needed in abundance.
Balinese dancing is one of the oldest types of dancing. Bali, an Indonesian island, has become a tourist attraction where people from all over the world come to see the unique dance. It is very influential on a person and there is no other medium quite like it that can have such a significant effect on a person. Especially, Balinese dance is meant to touch the deepest parts of the human soul. It can raise the mood and make it light or depress it and have a negative influence on the psyche of a person.
Comparing to other types of art, which can be made and put on a wall or stored in a museum, a dance only exists while it is made. To make it even more unique, Balinese dancers incorporate a lot of hand gestures and movements of the legs and body.
Every part of a person seems to be doing its separate dance but altogether, it creates a unit where the center is the emotion and connection to a higher force (Spies 2001). Balinese dancing is learned from a very early age. Children start learning within a family by first observing their parents and mimicking the movements. As it is a traditional dance of the culture, a lot of Indonesians are well aware of the dance and its importance.
The learning process is one of the unique features of the whole dance. It is not done in private, on the contrary, the practices take place in a public place where neighbors, friends and people from the community come and watch. Their views are an important part of the learning process, and if there is a mistake made, they will point it out. This teaches the student to be used to an audience but also, to the criticism of the profession.
It is interesting that the Balinese dancing culture understands that only through humiliation and public display students can reach perfection. Another significant teaching technique is that students learn by observing their teacher. There are no mirrors, so the only way for them to learn proper movements is the close interaction with the teacher. At first, a student stands behind their teacher and repeats the moves.
Then, the teacher will go behind the student and make physical contact. In this way, the teacher moves the student’s arms and legs making sure of the correct placement. It is important to mention that each teacher has their original way of style and movements. As such, some teachers become more demanded than others, and people come from distant locations to be taught by a particular teacher (Gold 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Balinese dancing is a form of theatre that comes to life through dancing. It is a show between the certain music style, illusory dancing and acting. The gestures and the emotion on the dancer’s face are authentic to the culture and the rituals that have existed for centuries.
The unique musical instruments add to the traditional dancing and are also considered a part of the ritual to the Gods. Religion has always been an intricate part of the Bali culture where a person’s life is a battle between the good and evil spirits. This means that a person becomes connected with their dance and costume in the closest way.
The representation of the spirit must be emotional and heartfelt. When an individual is doing the dance, they must feel the energy that is radiating through their body and so, transfer it to the surrounding people and nature. For each particular type of activity there is a specific dance. Religious dance greatly differs from a dance before a hunt or the calling out of weather (Ness 1992).
Even though a single person can perform a dance and hypnotize the audience, a large group of people performing the same moves is even more enchanting. Due to the fact that the dance is learned from such a young age, dancers become extremely experienced in the movements and the synchronization becomes almost perfect. As a matter of fact, it is one of the key characteristics of the dance.
Even when dancers turn away from each other, they are able to perform the exact same movements, with a specific height of an elbow, foot extension or finger movement. The music that is played helps in a great way because it contains sound cues that allow people to quickly and unnoticeably adjust in case they lost the rhythm (Merkle 2012).
Another form of Balinese dancing is called “Topeng”. This is when a dancer or several are wearing special masks. Usually, these are of different types and have many kinds of emotions expressed on the mask. It is never taken off during a performance, and it is meant to symbolize ancestral roots and rituals.
The general theme of the masked dancing is connected to the kings that ruled a long time ago. It is very closely linked with the history of the people, and this is why it is appreciated even more than other types of Balinese dancing. Humor is often involved as one of the key aspects of the performance.
We will write a custom Essay on History of Balinese Dancing Art specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though some events that are acted out relate to the ancient past, humor is still incorporated. This type of mixing of time and cultures adds greater uniqueness to the dance and the people performing and watching. The dancers have different roles within the setting, some are wise and philosophize about life while others are clowns who run around the stage and contrast the other characters.
The masks are made from wood, and the process is considered an art form in and of itself. Painting the masks and applying specific emotions is a very long process which requires high level of skill. It is rather interesting to note that the paint is made from all natural products, which adds even more connection to the nature and the spiritual world (Gold 2004). As such, Balinese dancing is one of the most original ones in the world.
Indonesian Balinese dancers have kept their popularity to the modern day. It stays an important part of the culture as the future generations continue to respect and transfer the legacy of the ancestors.
Works Cited Gold, Lisa. Music in Bali. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Merkle, Margarete. Bali: Magical Dances. Berlin, Germany: Epubli, 2012. Print.
Ness, Sally. Body, Movement, and Culture. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992. Print.
Spies, Walter. Dance
Consulting in the Corporate World Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents The skills of a consultant cannot be taught in a classroom
The role of mentorship in the development of consulting skills
Skills of an effective consultant
The skills of a consultant cannot be taught in a classroom Consultants are professionals who have a great deal of experience and expertise in a particular career field. Much of their knowledge is acquired through informal interactions with their colleagues and contacts in the same career field (Goodyear, 2006).
In the case study, Manchester Business School has recognized the need to involve consultant mentors to guide their MBA students so that they could become specialists in their fields of interest. The interaction that the students could have with their mentors could be essential in the future when they plan to start offering consulting services to their clients.
Classroom teachings and curricula are so inflexible that they do not allow much interaction between a student and the outside world (Goodyear, 2006). Consulting skills cannot be acquired in such settings. Classroom teachings equip students with the communication strategies to use when forming networks with colleagues and other contacts who could be vital in their career progression (Barker, 2006).
The role of mentorship in the development of consulting skills Excellent consulting skills are required by consultants so that they could offer quality consulting services to their clients (Allen, Eby
Gay Marriage Laws Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Views of Religion
Ethnicity and Same Sex Marriage
Views of People from Different Age Groups
Introduction In the recent past, people have stood up to fight for various rights which they deem are vital for them. Various civil rights groups have been formed to enhance the fight for human rights. Among the rights that people want is the freedom to marry a person of their choice. As a result, same sex marriages are increasingly becoming the order of the day.
These discussions have found their way to the politics of various states in the US. Consequently, gay marriages have been legalized by various state governments. However, gay marriage rights have elicited furious debates among various groups of people. Some people were supporting the rights while others were critically opposing the idea.
Views of Religion Religious groups are among the groups that oppose gay marriages to the latter. It should be noted that religious groups base their teachings on the readings of the holy book. According to many versions of the modern Bible, Christians are only allowed to marry people from the opposite sex.
Same sex marriages are thus a sin and one cannot be allowed to continue being a member of the church after engaging himself in same sex marriage (Donovan
Globalization and Its Discontents Essay college essay help: college essay help
This paper will establish that globalization is unnecessary. The paper will examine some of the discontents making globalization unacceptable today
First, I will describe the issue of globalization as used today. This will include how economists and entrepreneurs consider globalization as a necessary force towards economic development. Next, the paper will use a moral theory to explain why globalization is not the best today.
The next thing is to apply the moral theory (utilitarianism) to establish the reason why globalization is bad. The discussion will explore the current definitions and ideas about globalization and explain how they have prevented many people from realizing their potentials. Finally, I will use the theory to justify why globalization is wrong. I will conclude the paper by welcoming the idea of “internationalization”.
Globalization refers to “the integration of global societies and nations”. On the other hand, “internationalization is the process of promoting relations among societies and nations”
One weakness of globalization is that it has killed national boundaries. This has affected the establishment of sovereign states. Globalization also favors free trade and treaties. This has resulted in uncontrolled movement of goods and citizens thus affecting the stability of nations. The idea of globalization has made it impossible for people to make the best decisions regarding fiscal policies and wages. Globalization has also resulted in mergers and establishment of monopoles in different societies.
As a result, this has led to the establishment of giant corporations thus affecting emerging businesses. Globalization encourages monopolies, something that affects growing economies. Globalization forces countries to “specialize” their services and goods. This results in dependency thus affecting the lives of the citizens. The idea to enforce property rights and trade-related legislations affects “knowledge sharing”. This has affected the performance of different economies.
In order to understand the evils of globalization, it is necessary to apply the ideas of utilitarianism
According to the theory, “actions and behaviors are permissible (and right) if they produce the greatest happiness to many people”. According to utilitarianism, “morality and ethics should be impartial and therefore decisions should consider the welfare of the society”.
Impartiality calls for the continued involvement of all people and nations. As well, the theory claims that decisions and actions should present happiness to every individual. That being the case, the theory recommends the best ideas and decisions that will help reduce pain and bring happiness to the majority.
From the above justification, the utilitarian theory supports the idea that globalization is bad
That being the case, societies should promote the idea of “internationalization”. Utilitarianism does not permit globalization because it kills boundaries and increases monopoly. Utilitarianism is opposed to actions that kill economies or promote dependency. The theory argues that more people will suffer due to lack of appropriate goods and services. Globalization also restricts “knowledge sharing” thus affecting the performance of small economies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In conclusion, the moral theory encourages human beings to consider the best practices and actions that will provide happiness to the greatest majority
Kantianism is another moral theory. The theory claims that “actions should be undertaken depending on an underlying principle (maxim)”. This theory would support globalization because it results in economic development and establishment of major corporations. This becomes “the maxim” thus making globalization good.
However, utilitarianism considers globalization as evil because it fails to address the needs of many nations and their citizens. Instead, it supports monopoly thus resulting in economic imbalances. Therefore, utilitarianism requires global leaders and decision-makers to move fast and promote “internationalization” rather than globalization.
A college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Summary of the Plot
Introduction The world of literature is the source of new ideas, thoughts and inspirations. The authors make us think over our life. Undoubtedly, everyone has the right to have their own opinion and the literature encourages us being open-minded and independent in our judgments. The novel A
The Boeing Ethical Policy Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Summary of the case
The ethical issues
Why they are ethical issues
Who is affected and how
Leadership issue to be addressed
Summary of the case Michael Sears was the chief financial officer at Boeing and Darleen Druyun was the vice president of the missile defense systems in 2002 when the unethical issue occurred. Sears offered Druyun a job at Boeing that made her influence the outcome of a large contract bid. Druyun’s daughter was working with Boeing. Druyun was seeking a job after her retirement.
The daughter’s fiancée was seeking a job position at Boeing. The favor of offering the fiancée a position had also been considered. There was a violation of the Boeing ethical policy and the Procurement Integrity Act. Sears and Druyun tried to cover up their unethical behavior.
Druyun lobbied politicians in Congress to ensure that Boeing was granted the contract. Congress awarded the contract to Boeing without any publicly presented contests from other bidders. The contract gave Boeing triple the usual amount charged as profit margin. Later, Druyun admitted having influenced the high price given to Boeing.
Boeing was also found in other unethical activities. Boeing was in possession of a 35,000-page document taken from Lockheed Martin. Accessing trade secrets of a competitor that could reduce their advantage in bidding a contract is unethical. Boeing had also used proprietary information from Raytheon on its missile defense system.
Boeing used program accounting system for its financial statements which makes it impossible for auditors to see the exact amount of the actual transactions. The company used financial misappropriation to look attractive to McDonnell Douglas investors when they sought a merger.
The company was accused of discriminating against women, blacks, and Asians in offering salaries. Two top managers at Boeing had romantic relationships with their employees.
The company settled the lawsuit pertaining to program accounting at $92.5 million. The company allocated $10 million to adjust the women pay rates. The company paid the Office of Federal Contract compliance (OFCCP) to settle its salary discrimination case.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company paid $615 million to settle its unethical behavior cases including Druyun’s case and Lockheed Martin stolen documents. In the workers’ case and Lockheed Martin case, Boeing settled with the Department of Justice without having to admit guilt to avoid new litigation from the aggrieved parties.
The ethical issues One of the unethical behaviors involves Boeing possessing a proprietary document that belonged to Lockheed Martin without their consent.
In another unethical behavior, Stonecipher had extra-marital affairs with an employee even after signing a code of conduct agreement with the company.
Why they are ethical issues It is unethical to be in possession of a competitor’s proprietary information that could reduce their advantage during a contract review.
The code of conduct agreement is used to prevent employees behaving in a manner that may be considered as employee mistreatment or that may weaken the brand.
Who is affected and how Lockheed Martin could have lost its competitive advantage by having its trade secrets exposed to a competitor. Boeing paid millions of dollars to the Justice Department to settle the case.
Debra Peabody resigned after 20 years working at Boeing. Joan Stonecipher filed for divorce after 50 years of marriage. Harry Stonecipher resigned after holding the CEO position for about a year.
We will write a custom Essay on The Boeing Ethical Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Leadership issue to be addressed Boeing should strengthen its research and development department to avoid relying on stealing competitors’ information to gain competitive advantage as in the case of Raytheon and Lockheed Martin.
Dubai Financial Market Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
History of establishment of DFM
Objectives and functions
The growth of companies listed on DFM
Growth of trading in DFM
Abstract Financial markets are important entities in the economy. They have a significant effect on the performance of the national economy, as well as the performance of companies whose shares are listed.
Financial markets are places where stocks are traded. Stocks may include company shares, government bonds, and other securities. Foreign currencies are also traded here. In Dubai, the major financial market is referred to as the Dubai Financial Market. It is among the largest financial markets in the UAE region. This article will focus the various aspects of the Dubai Financial Market.
Introduction Financial markets are popular economic entities in every nation. These are markets where securities, fungible items, as well as commodities are traded. The prices at which these securities are traded are guided by the laws of demand and supply. Financial markets could either be general or specialized.
There is more than one item traded in the general market, unlike the specialized market that deals in a single commodity. Participants in these markets include individuals, companies, as well as government agencies. Financial markets are beneficial in a number of aspects. For instance, they help the organizations raise capital to expand their operations. Financial markets also facilitate risk transfer in what is referred to as derivative markets.
Almost each country has its own financial market. In Dubai, there is the Dubai Financial Market (DFM) that was founded in the year 2000 on March 26th. It is headquartered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Since its inception, there are over 60 companies that have been listed on the Dubai Financial Market. Most of these companies are domestic, with only a few foreign companies if any. It is important to note that most of the foreign companies listed on Dubai Financial Market are from the MENA region.
They are from countries such as Kuwait, Sudan, Oman, and Bahrain. However, most of these companies have foreign shareholders, among other domestic shareholders. The information regarding Dubai Financial Market will be focused on in this research paper. The history of Dubai Financial Market will be outlined, its functions and objectives, the requirements that a company should meet to be listed here, as well as the growth of companies listed on the market and growth of trading in Dubai Financial Market.
History of establishment of DFM Dubai Financial Market was established on the 26th day of March the year 2000. This is the same day when the operations commenced in the market. However, trading of shares did not commence until Wednesday 7th March 2007. It was established as a public institution and it was to function as an independent corporate body. The financial market was established through a resolution that was passed by the Ministry of Economy of Dubai in the year 2000.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The resolution that led to the formation of Dubai Financial Market was referred to as the Resolution No. 14 of 2000. The organization operates as a secondary market where shares and other securities that have been issued by the public companies are traded. Federal government bonds are also traded here. In addition, the local government, as well as any other public institution has the right to trade its securities in the Dubai Financial Market (Dubai Financial Market, 2013).
Financial instruments, as well as local and foreign currencies are also traded. In the year 2005, the Executive Council Decree set up Dubai Financial Market as a Public Joint Company in the United Arab Emirates. The paid up capital for the company was AED 8billion. This amount was to be allotted over 8 billion shares.
The par value for every share was to be AED 1.6. Twenty per cent of the shares were issued to the public for public subscription. The response to this public initial offer was too positive, which led to a high level of oversubscription. The amount generated added up to AED 201billion, an amount well over the 8billion target. Since it was established, Dubai Financial Market has continued to grow and expand, as well as improve on its performance and services offering.
During its first year of operation, the organization had less than 20 listed companies. Some of the companies that were listed by the end of the year 2000 include: Dubai Islamic, Dubai National Insurance and Reinsurance, Emirates Bank, Mashreq, Dubai Insurance, Union Insurance, Union Properties and Agico (Arabian General Investment Corp, or Shuaa), Emaar, Dubai Investment, as well as Tabreed also known as the National General Cooling Company.
The company further had a total of 12 brokers who were accredited by the end of 2000. They included: “Al Sharhan, Commercial Bank International, Dubai International Securities, Dubai Islamic Bank, Dubex Securities International, Emirates Bank International, Emirates Commercial Centre, Mashreq, National Bank of Abu Dhabi, National Bank of Dubai, Shurooq, and Union National” (Gulfnews.com, 2001).
However, it recorded a consistent growth in its first three quarters of the year 2000. It started with 7.17 million shares, which then increased to 7.57 million shares in the second quarter and third quarters. By the fourth quarter, the company had about 9.15 million shares. The growth rate of Dubai Financial Market followed the same pattern as more shares continued to be listed and more companies joined the market.
Objectives and functions Every successful organization should have objectives that are well stipulated in a clear and precise manner. All the activities carried out within an organization must be in line with its objectives. Dubai Financial Market was formed with the major aim of offering securities trading services.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Dubai Financial Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The organization aims at providing innovative services in the securities market. It aims at increasing the level of efficiency and effectiveness in the market, as well as enhancing transparency. Creating a liquid environment is another objective of the organization. The financial markets usually have a significant effect on the general economy of the country in which they are operated. A good performance in the financial market is an indicator of a well performing economy (Dubai Financial Market, 2013).
On the other hand, if the financial market is performing poorly, then this will be an indicator of a poorly performing national economy. The leaders and managers of Dubai Financial Market are aware of the importance of security markets in an economy, thus they ensure maximum efficiency in the organization. Dubai Financial Market tries to enhance the utilization of the available resources to create an efficient marketplace for securities.
The company attempts to utilize the resources as effectively and efficiently as possible (Dubai Financial Market, 2013). Efficiency can also be enhanced by ensuring that investors are well armed with relevant information that will facilitate their decision making. Investors need to make decisions that are well informed; otherwise, they might end up losing their fortunes. Dubai Financial Market ensures that investors have the right and sufficient information to help them in their decision making.
In addition, the organization also tries to prevent investors from any form of unfair treatment or improper practices that might discourage them. In doing so, the Dubai Financial Market regulates all the activities that take place in the trading of securities. It ensures that the prices of securities are controlled by the forces of demand and supply and not by individuals or entities.
There is a possibility for individuals or entities that have large numbers of shares to control the market and become unfair to the rest of the investors. The Dubai Financial Market management ensures that this does not happen to ensure fairness and attract more investors.
The company offers investment opportunities to potential investors, a function that is said to have a positive influence on the growth of the national economy. People can save through the financial market and trade securities where they make profits. Dubai Financial Market also makes arrangements for the purchase and sale of securities. In doing so, it ensures that the investors are treated in a fair manner. The market further facilitates transfer of securities from one owner to another.
In doing so, it establishes a center where deposits transfer and settlements can be conducted. This is done in a system that is highly integrated to make the process speedy and accurate (Dubai Financial Market, 2013). It also ensures a high level of integrity among members and security brokers through establishment of a code of ethics. It provides training to its members to enhance integrity. The company has accredited brokers who help investors in conducting the securities trade.
There are some people who may not be aware of the processes and procedures followed in the market securities, thus they can get help from these brokers. Finally, Dubai Financial Market gathers any relevant data, as well as statistics regarding securities and prepares reports that are presented to its stakeholders. These reports are important in that they facilitate accurate and relevant decision making by the investors.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Dubai Financial Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Listing requirements The term listing refers to the shares of a company being traded on a stock exchange or others on the list of the shares to be traded. For the shares of a company to be listed, it has to apply for listing. However, there are some countries whereby the financial market or the stock exchanges can just list the shares of a company. For a company’s shares to be listed in the market without applying, the shares have to be traded through informal channels actively. The following are the requirements before listing on the Dubai Financial Market.
The company is required to give a brief description of its history and operations. The financial markets aim at listing companies that have a good performance to boost its chances of success. Investors will only want to buy shares of a company that have a healthy performance. Attracting more investors will increase the profitability of the Dubai Financial Market. It is for this reason that it only lists well performing companies.
The company is expected to show its financial statements for the past few years prior to its application (Aljifri
Information system Essay college application essay help
Implementation challenges in the case Children’s Health Fund (CHF) is a very ambitious initiative that will help ensure that the poor in this society get access to quality healthcare facilities. Its Mobile Medical Clinic (MMC) will enable the team of doctors to move from one location to another. However, it is important to appreciate some of the challenges that this project face during its implementation. One of the main challenges that come out from this case is the source of funding.
Well-wishers fund this project. This means that the capacity of this program to meet the medical demand is limited to the amount of funds it receives from this group. Another problem is that the medical officers can only be found at one location at a time using their blue van. This makes their service unreliable, especially in cases of emergency. Given that the service is offered in several states, the service offered by this firm will make minimal impact.
Some of the above problems can be addressed using technology. Health information technology (HIF) can be used to enhance information management. The management team of this firm can develop programs that will help process and store clients’ information in a protected database.
The database manager should be responsible for the management of client’s data to ensure that this firm is in line with the laws governing this sector. In order to have access to vital data while in the field, the mobile van should have a wireless communication system that will link the MMC’s database with the firm’s central database at the headquarters.
In order to enhance management consistency, MMC should develop decision support system (DSS) that will guide management officers while in the field. Their decision will be based on information available in the database of the firm. DSS can also help the medics determine what the patient could be suffering from, by comparing the current symptoms of the patient and available data on similar symptoms and the conclusions previously made (Brown, DeHayes, Hoffer, Martin,
Medical Office Management Expository Essay college essay help: college essay help
To be a Medical Records and Health Information Technician (MRHIT) requires a postsecondary non-degree education. This means one must undergo high school education and relevant education training in clerical work and language. An education in computer and electronic use is relevant in the mentioned profession. However, having a bachelor’s degree in a medical office management is highly recommended.
At Iowa, the state and national requirements for the profession are a high school diploma, an associate degree, and a bachelor’s degree. Additional certificates are a master or doctoral degree in a medical office management. According to Skurka (2012), these certificates must be issued from accredited institution or medical training facilities under the supervision of American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA).
State and national requirements for MRHIT certificate at Iowa include are certificate in computer technologies, medical insurance and coding. Others include a certificate in health information and medical records and basic knowledge in accounting.
The median salary for MRHIT in Iowa is at $14.71 compared to a national median salary of $16.42 per hour (U.S Department of Labor, 2013). In the same context, the annual median salary in the state is at $30,600 compared to $34,200 at the national level (U.S Department of Labor, 2013).
The fact that the American aging population is increasing, demand for MRHITs is also increasing. It is estimated that the job opportunities for MRHITs will increase by 21% in every 10 years (Mertz
Divorce through a child’s eye Term Paper essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
First impression of divorce in a child’s eye
Family system theory and divorce
Attachment theory and divorce
Divorce and the social exchange theory
Introduction Children who are born and brought up in a family setup develop a special relationship with their parents. Each member of the family plays a critical role and a gap is recognized any time a certain member of the family is absent.
Depending on the relationship agreements, the parents divide roles amongst themselves and children learn to live within the social class of their parents. Obviously, each of the family members would wish that the life trend continues forever, but sometimes, that may not be the case. A time may come when the behaviors of either of the parents change completely.
The father, for example, may decide to become depressive and abscond from his duties. In such a case, the mother takes on the burden of caring for the whole family. If the father continues with the unimpressive behaviors, the mother would become tired and seek for a divorce. Some cases have happened where the mother turns to live a reckless life that forces the man to resolve to divorce. The later is a rare occurrence; however, regardless of the cause of divorce, the children are the immensely affected victims.
Children, especially those in their tender ages fail to understand why they can no longer live with both parents (Eisenhard, 2012). In this case, we have an interviewee who was a victim of divorced parents at the age of sixteen. The teenager was in denial since she could not believe or understand how she could just stop seeing her beloved dad. This paper will base its discussion on the interviewee’s answers to address the issue of divorce through the child’s eye.
First impression of divorce in a child’s eye When life begins taking the other side of the coin, there is a lot of confusion. The interviewee started experiencing many unexplainable ill signs. The parents began trash talking each other, and each side of the family despised the other. The family members from the mothers said ill things about their father and the father’s family that despised her mother.
The teenager was caught in confusion; she could not understand what was going on, neither could she tell whom to believe. At one point, the child watches his father sleeping with a cigarette in his mouth. This is a clear sign that her father was extremely depressed. On reporting the incidence to the mother, the innocent child gets blows the following morning.
Her father is extremely mad such that he throws his shoe on her. This is a very disgusting scene and the interviewee indicates that the confusion affected her grades. Her grades dropped drastically during this period, and her emotions changed instantly. She could get mad at people easily and start quarrels with her siblings for no tangible reason. Form this point of view, it is evident that divorce is a scenario that brings in a lot of confusion, disbelieve and denial of the whole truth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Family system theory and divorce The family system theory tries to bring out the exact relationship that exists between the family members. Each of the family members develops an interdependent relationship with the other. The relationships formed are so strong such that breaking the bonds proves to be very difficult (Bell, 2010).
The interviewee indicates that she could have her mother’s family members talking ill of her father. Whether whatever the family members said was true or not, she could not believe them. The interviewee started seeing her father less often, and they could only meet in special places for some limited time.
The divorce robbed the teenager of her beloved father. She really hoped that things would work out for her parents and they would get along. The innocent teenager could not comprehend the fact that divorce meant total splitting of the family. However, despite the immerse interaction patterns that had formed between the family members, the mother could not settle for less. She could not get along with the infidelity of her partner, and she opted for a split family rather than a family of distress and agony.
The interviewee mentioned that immediately after knowing that her parents were divorcing, she could not absorb the fact, and she kept on pushing the thought at the back of her mind. Her parents would fight at her sight and she kept on disbelieving what she saw. Although the interviewee found it difficult at first, she understood everything later on. After the divorce, each of the parents owned the teenager an explanation.
The father had a story that defended him, and the mother had her side of the story. Finally, she had to settle on one truth, infidelity is what made her parents divorce. She is currently twenty years, and she can understand the agony that her mother underwent to seek refuge in divorce. Despite the fact that her parents divorced, she is happy for them because there is a lot of calmness and everyone is happy.
Attachment theory and divorce As a family develops, strong emotional attachments form between the family members. Healthy emotional attachments between the family members enable the family to live happily. Parents who have a strong attachment to their families will work tirelessly to ensure they offer the best for the family.
The children develop strong attachments with their parents, and as they grow, strong emotional relationships occur (Mercer, 2006). After the age of six months, children are able to identify and sensitively respond to their caregivers. As children grow, they seek protection from the people around them and thus build a special attachment with their caretakers. The children grow up believing in their parents, thinking about them, and expecting a lot from them.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Divorce through a child’s eye specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The divorce scenario caught the teenager in surprise. Throughout her life, she had developed a strong attachment with both parents. The teenager developed a separation anxiety because she actually lost a special attachment figure. At first, the interviewee could not believe that she could be a victim of divorced parents, but it really happened. With disbelieve, the interviewee’s grades dropped at first as her mind was preoccupied with the thought of her divorced parents.
The interviewee had to develop an adaptive response, and she slowly gained back her confidence and developed increased strength that enabled her to score higher grades than before. The social life slowly changed and the interviewee felt like she would address her issues to her pals. As she grew, she developed a different perspective of life. She grew up knowing that a marriage commitment ought to be taken seriously.
From experience, the interviewee testified that individuals should understand that family splitting affects the entire life of the children. The interviewee was sixteen when the fateful incident happened, and four years down the line, she could comprehend everything. However, for her siblings who were very young when her parents divorced, it could take quite some time to comprehend everything that happened.
Divorce and the social exchange theory The social exchange theory is very interesting as it explains the individuals’ interest in a family. The exchange theory states that individuals enter into relationships to reap maximum benefit and minimize the costs (Miller, 2005). In a family setup, the exchanges between the parties involved ought to be fair and balanced, thus enabling the involved parties to reap mutual benefits. The individuals in a family express behaviors that generate the greatest reward.
According to behavioral psychologists, family members will repeat the gainful behaviors provided they reap the required fruits. The Unitarian economists state that human beings will research on the necessary information, and employ all behaviors needed to make rational decisions that would reap maximum benefit. However, in some cases, the more the individuals in a family receive the reward, the more the reward loses its value, and that is when relationships start becoming sour.
The interviewee’s parents stated losing value of their relationship benefits when she was sixteen years old. The father could no longer find value in the intimate relationship with his wife, and thus he decided to become unfaithful. On the other hand, the mother weighed the benefits and costs associated with an unfaithful marriage, and of course, the costs outweighed the benefits.
Probably, the father could no longer provide for the family as he did before. The attachment between the father, children, and his wife was lessened as compared to the early days when the father did not have a third party to attend. The woman could also encounter the risks and costs associated with contacting sexually transmitted infections if she continued to cling to the marriage.
There being no more benefits of confiding in the marriage, she opted for divorce. It took the teenager some time to comprehend the cost benefit analysis that made her mother settle for a divorce. It is after she reached her twenties that she understood the emotional sufferings that her mother underwent during those tough family moments. She is now contended and happy because regardless of the split family, everybody is living happily.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Divorce through a child’s eye by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion From the discussions, it is evident that children are greatly affected by their parents’ decision to divorce. However, it is necessary for people to take a stringent analysis of the underlying issue that forced one to seek for divorce before making judgments. Clinging to an unfaithful marriage would pave way to many life problems than resolving for a divorce.
However, if possible, parents should always try as much as possible to keep their marriages. They should try to apply the utilitarian theory that requires couples to find out the necessary information of the behaviors that reap maximum benefits in the family union. Each of the family members should take actions that benefit the entire union.
Divorce should be the last thing couples should settle for as it adversely affects the children as well as the parent who will be separated from their kids. As the interviewee stated, people who make marriage commitments should stick with the commitments since bridging the commitments affects the children as well as the entire community.
References Bell, D.C. (2010). The dynamics of connection: How evolution and biology create care giving and attachment. Lanham, MD: Lexington.
Eisenhard, T. (2012). The D-Word: Divorce through a child’s eyes. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse.
Mercer, J. (2006). Understanding attachment: Parenting, childcare, and emotional development. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Miller, K. (2005). Communication theories. New York: McGraw Hill.
Jazz Music Report Report best college essay help: best college essay help
The day when I told myself that it had been a while since I last attended a jazz concert happened to be the pivoting point in my vision of New Jazz music. The concert featured the compositions that had been around for quite a while and seemingly had no surprises.
Nevertheless, because of a new and imaginative way to interpret the compositions known by millions of people for quite a while, the concert left a huge impact on me and changed my perception of the concept of the New Jazz music in general and the works of some New Jazz musicians in particular.
The impact that the songs left with me is very hard to nail down. On the one hand, the unique interpretations of the songs were a fresh breeze in the range of traditional reiterations of the already existing versions. On the other hand, some of the interpretations rubbed me the wrong way, perhaps, only because I was so much used to the traditional versions of these songs. Anyway, it was rather engaging to listen to the new ways of singing old time classics.
The shift from Fender Rhodes solo to saxophones trio in Gaviota might be considered too much of a risk for the band to take. Seeing how the song clearly sounded very differently from the traditional performance, the audience might have easily refused to accept the version suggested by the band. However, much to my surprise, the new vision of the composition did not cause any misconceptions or unwillingness to see Clare Fischer’s creation in the new light.
The change in the choice of the instrument, however, did lend the song a more lounge-like sound, which seems to go against the author’s intent. While Fischer’s original version chimed in with the charm of the Girl from Ipanema with its bossa nova style, the concert interpretation was clearly aimed at triggering associations with the style preferred in the XXI century, which blends the influences of the mellow, classic and lounge jazz.
The same cannot be said, however, about the interpretation of Joseph Kosma’s Autumn Leaves played during the concert; an obvious homage to the composer, the given version did not deviate from the one that was introduced initially. At some point, however, the idea of replacing the flugelhorn with a more upbeat trumpet can be considered a rather risky choice; because of comparatively higher range, the cheerfulness of the composition might be seen as somewhat out of place.
Michael Franks’s Tell Me about It was revamped rather successfully, too. Originally quite boring, for my taste, song that every single jazz musician needs to come up with at some point in his/her life for some reason, it gained a new meaning as it was performed by a female artist. Perhaps, owing to the fact that the performer’s voice did not match Franks’s pitch and let the song sink into a lower tone, the composition sounded more sincere and refined.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In contrast to Franks’s performance, the interpretation provided by the female singer actually helped understand the lyrics better and feel the light sadness that the entire song was shot through. It was not that Franks could not perform his own song the right way – it was just that the new performer added another shade of meaning to Tell Me about It, and I happened to like that new meaning better.
The same cannot be said, however, about the next song that I was offered to listen to, Dizzy Gillespie’s Soul Sauce (Sutro 169). In contrast to the performances that came previously, it was rather jumbled. In contrast to the traditional version, which had a weird yet appealing rhythm to it, the concert version, which was clearly going for a much smoother version, yet tried to retain the original sound, was all over the place.
Palmer’s Leapfrog to Harlem, along with George Stone’s I’m out of Time, Too, was performed rather nicely, yet it clearly lacked the sound of trumpet, which help the original composition together and made it unique. By replacing the trumpet with the saxophone, the performers managed to add the composition a distinct scent of the “big city lights,” yet the replacement was deadly to the originality of the composition, turning it into another lounge jazz piece.
Arguably, the musicians were in a no-win situation – there was nothing that they could have done to revamp the song and leave it recognizable. If they had made too many changes to make it more palatable, the audience would have said that the new song sounded nothing like the old one; if the musicians left it intact, the audience would have argued that this was another pointless recycling of the “old gold.” Anyway, the rest of the concert was quite decent and even had a few pearls to be discovered ahead.
Abstract Image, a composition written by Fred Sturm, did not have any major surprises for me in terms of the choice of the instruments; however, the performance was rather neat, and the saxophone that replaced the original penny whistle was quite clever. Unless the musicians had made the given change to the song, the latter would have been completely out of place in the realm of the XXI century smooth jazz that the concert offered its visitors to plunge into.
For me, the given interpretation of Sturm’s most famous composition was, actually, a chance to take a new and unbiased look at the whole New Jazz concept (Clark 8). Previously believing that it was nothing but consistent attempts to bring postmodern chaos into the music that was not supposed to be orderly and follow strict rules by default, in contrast to, say, the classical music, I finally realized that the New Jazz era is a means to breathe new life into the genre that has so much potential in it and yet is forgotten so shamelessly.
Speaking of New Jazz, the interpretation of Matt Harris’s Snap Crackle snatched me out of the gloomily thoughtful mood. While the performers clearly made it sound more smoothly, it still created a charming atmosphere of carelessness. Followed by James Miley’s Three-Fingered Jack, it served as a means to switch from the process of quiet meditation to the state of musical delight.
We will write a custom Report on Jazz Music Report specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sammy Nestico’s Mind Machine added more whimsy to the concert. Actually, at this point, I felt the idea of introducing more whimsy to the concert rather redundant, since the atmosphere created by the musicians needed a heartfelt moment rather than a moment of vivacity; however, at this point, the idea of changing the tone of the concert was a rather welcome change of pace.
Horace Silver’s Peace was a logical solution to link the previous part of the concert to the point at which it was going to end. Sophisticated and slow, it led to Tony Martinez’s famous Pa’lo Latino, which was a perfect way to end a fairly good performance.
The concert definitely left me in a completely different mood from the one that I was when I arrived there. While I could not say that I liked every single interpretation of the compositions that had already become household classics by the beginning of the XXI century, they definitely offered a lot of food for thoughts and even more for aesthetic savoring of the moment.
Works Cited Clark, Andrew. Riffs
Trolley Problems Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
There are two cases presented for analysis in this essay; Trolley Problem I and Trolley Problem II. In the first case, a runway trolley would kill five people on its pathway. These persons can only be saved by pulling the switch in the train. However, pulling the switch would kill one person.
The dilemma is whether to pull the switch or not. In trolley problem II, a runaway trolley would kill five people on the pathway if it stays on its course. Again, pushing a stranger to the track is the only way to save these persons. The body of the stranger would prevent the train from hitting the five people. Nevertheless, the train would kill him. Again the dilemma is whether to push him or not. In both cases, the response is yes because in either way there would be loss of life. Therefore, it is better to save many lives at the cost of a single life.
Immanuel Kant was one of the most prominent philosophers. He is widely regarded as a key figure of the present philosophy. Kant argued that human beings should act in a way that upholds humanity as an end but not to meet certain goals.
According to him, rational beings should never be treated simply as tools for achieving certain ends. Instead, they are regarded as an end in themselves and their rational motives must be respected. Kant argued that there are some kinds of actions, such as murder, stealing, and dishonesty, which are totally forbidden, even if they would result into more joy. In applying Kant’s ethics to the trolley problem I and II, there are two queries that must be taken into consideration.
First is whether it is rationally justifiable for every person to act in a similar way. Second is whether the action upholds humanity and not simply using beings to meet certain goals. If the answer to both questions is no, then the action should be avoided. Apparently, in both trolley problems I and II, the act of pulling the switch and pushing a stranger to the train pathway would kill them and save the lives of five other people.
These acts would mean using human beings to make an end, preventing the death of five people. Per se, these actions would not be accepted by Kant. A reasoning being cannot sensibly accept being treated simply as an object to make an end; they are regarded as an end in themselves. The two acts contravene Kant’s ethics and are not acceptable. In addition, Kant would refute such acts if adopted by everybody.
Jeremy Bentham and Stuart Mill were the two philosophers who developed utilitarian ethics. Utilitarianism stresses on the outcome of actions, which are either pain or pleasure. According to the theory, the right action is that which results into greatest pleasure over pain. However, the consequences of an action are not considered only to a person but for everyone.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the consequences of an action are analyzed based on its long-term effects. Utilitarian ethics claim that in any particular dilemma, the right decision to make must result into more joy and least sadness for most people (O’Donohue
Critical analysis of the recent developments in the world Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Overview of the recent historical incidences in the world
Critical analysis of the recent developments in the world
Future pointers to the contemporary developments in the world
Introduction The different schools of thought in the field of political science denote that the world is a global stage on which the actors advance their activities. It is important to note that the world is not merely a stage, but a complex stage that is marked by complex actions from the states who are the major actors in the global stage, as well as other players.
This paper explores the critical developments that have taken place in the world over the past few years. Of greater essence in the paper is bringing out the factors that have shaped these developments and the use of theoretical foundations in the field of political science to paint a picture of the future developments and incidences in the global stage.
Overview of the recent historical incidences in the world The developments at the global stage from the beginning of the 20th century to the present time depict critical developments in the political and economic realms.
The past five years have seen the rise in the scale of global trade, growth in the issue of democracy and human rights that features in the global political uprisings across the Arab region, the increased scale of competition in national politics based on the dimensions of opinions on the events taking place on the global stage, the expansion of individual country capacities in technology, and the widening debate about the issue of economic development relative to the subject of environmental sustainability.
These developments are still eminent in the contemporary globalized political environment and they continue to influence the course of events in the modern globalized society.
Critical analysis of the recent developments in the world As observed in the introductory note, the developments in the world largely denote aspects of competition, as well as the aspects of cooperation in dealing with the emerging issues at the global stage. The recent developments in the world are a pointer to the fact that both the tendencies of realism and idealism are evident in the interaction within and among the players on the global stage. However, the most important thing to note is that the world is confronted with a lot of political and economic issues.
The past five years have seen a heightened scale of restlessness across the Arab Region. Beginning with the revolution in Libya, followed by the revolution in Egypt, Libya and the recent developments in Syria, it is evident that concerns about democracy and the reconsideration of the systems and forms of governance have taken root in global politics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to note that the Arab region has been marked with conflicts for a long time. However, the series of revolts in the Arab region and the resultant ousting of the longstanding political leaders and governments in the countries that witnessed the revolution is an important marker when it comes to the issues of democracy and the increase in the demand for political participation (Doyle, 2013).
A close observation of the revolutions that have been taking place in the Arab region reveals a similarity of a number of revolutionary features. The first feature revolves around the issue of autocracy and the elongated period of political leadership by a single individual.
The second thing about the political unrest in the Arab world is the limited space for political participation and the question of human rights and democracy. The third aspect of similarity, which largely features in the grievances of the rebels, is the deterioration of the standards of life due to the interconnectedness of the economic policies and political decisions (Twair
Christian Theological Entities Essay essay help: essay help
Is Catholicism a Unique Religion? Catholicism refers to various doctrinal and theological traditions that characterize Christian entities in contemporary society. It embodies practices that define beliefs and ethical conduct with regard to Christians. Despite its general disposition, most people construe it as an embodiment of the Roman Catholic Church.
In certain instances, people view Catholicism as a description of Christian theological entities that bear witness to the teachings of Jesus Christ (Barron 11). In other aspects, the term describes a community of protestant churches whose hallmark lies in their contrarian approach to theological and doctrinal interpretation of scriptures and Christian beliefs (Barron 11).
There are experts who believe that Catholicism refers to the institution of the Roman Catholic Church that receives guidance and tutelage from church leadership in Rome, Italy.
According to this school of thought, Catholicism is distinct for its stringent adherence to institutional practices that promote retention of traditional practices with regard to functions within its jurisdiction. Due to its conservative nature, Catholicism enjoys exclusivity and ability to control various undertakings that define its essence in contemporary society (Barron 13).
Catholicism also asserts the essence of sacraments and their role in entrenching and upholding Christian values. Mediation and intercession is a key feature in Catholicism. Believers depend on mediation whenever there is need for divine intervention. Such practices explain the relevance of saints among Catholics. Saints act as intermediaries between believers and God, especially during moments of hardship and suffering (Barron 16).
Other important aspects of Catholicism include Holy Communion and the Holy See in Rome. Catholicism embodies various belief systems that define core values and practices. For instance, it supports celibacy and dedication to Christianity through prayer and service to humanity. Through such practices, the church endeavors to spread Christianity and demonstrate how God’s love serves as a unifying factor for individuals in different societies.
In light of the above submissions, it is important to note that Catholicism does not suffice in the context of a single denomination or theological entity (Barron 17). It should reflect the essence of universal Christianity as opposed to a specific reference to the Roman Catholic Church. Viewing Catholicism in a subjective fashion does not satisfy the desire to comprehend and articulate issues that relate to Christianity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, Catholicism refers to a community of believers who owe allegiance to teachings of Jesus Christ. In a broader sense, Catholicism covers institutions and denominations that practice Christian values and beliefs (Barron 21). The principle of Catholicism denotes universal Christianity and all aspects of its practice and propagation. It encompasses differences and similarities that manifest in universal Christianity.
It is difficult for anyone to define Catholicism as a unique religion because it represents numerous theological and religious outfits. The religious outfits that characterize Catholicism have divergent views and interpretations with regard to doctrinal and theological principles. Despite such differences, they profess Christian faith as their sole motivation and impetus for religious practice (Barron 24).
Is There a Single Universal Christianity or Several Universal Christianities? As earlier mentioned, Catholicism refers to religious groups that profess faith in the divine teachings of Jesus Christ. This definition exhibits contradiction that arises in reference to Catholicism as a unique religion. It is important to understand the essence of various outfits that profess belief in teachings of Jesus Christ.
Such outfits portend fundamental discrepancies in their interpretation and understanding with regard to religious and theological tenets. Doctrinal and theological differences do not affect their ability to connect and address believers whose concern revolves around Christian values (Barron 31). A single universal Christianity is nonexistent because there are numerous groups that suffice as catholic. For instance, there is a catholic church that that pledges allegiance to the Bishop of Rome.
Indeed, this practice is a key element among those who profess Catholicism. It comprises Eastern and Western divisions that serve as its core support base. This strain of Catholicism believes in the essence and rationale of apostolic succession. Apostolic leadership and guidance is an integral reality among Catholic believers (Barron 34). The Eastern and Western divisions cover different areas of command but claim allegiance to the church leadership in Rome.
Another group abides to orthodox beliefs and teachings. This outfit believes in apostolic leadership and guidance with regard to leadership on religious matters. They trace their religious foundations to ancient Christian practices and subscribe to early Christian beliefs. The Orthodox Church claims its allegiance to teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. Two major outfits manifest with regard to orthodox beliefs and teachings (Barron, 35).
They include Eastern Orthodox Church and the Western wing that has slight alterations to basic doctrinal interpretation. Both orthodox churches differ on fundamental areas of interest with regard to religion and interpretation of scriptures. Other protestant and evangelical churches broke away from the original Catholic Church because of differences in doctrine and interpretation of scriptures. Examples of such religions include Anglican Church, Lutheran, and Reformed Catholic Church.
We will write a custom Essay on Christian Theological Entities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They all believe in the concept of apostolic succession and swear allegiance to the Bishop of Rome. However, they harbor major differences with regarding to traditional practices within the church (Barron 39). Most of their practices are identical to those of the Catholic Church but differ in certain areas such as celibacy and family issues. Other Christian entities believe and practice apostolic leadership but have no historical or documented link to apostolic tutelage, as evidenced in the early Christian community (Barron 43).
Due to this reality, the Catholic Church does not recognize their union and fellowship with regard to religious practices. However, it is important to note that such religious outfits are valid because they have members who subscribe to their teachings and practices. Other groups do not practice apostolic leadership but profess its essence in order to retain fellowship with Catholic leadership in Rome. Both religious entities have close relations with the Catholic Church, whose leadership emanates from Rome (Hellwig 21).
These complexities affect overall perception of universal Christianity because they present contradictions and anomalies that do not promote its image. For instance, universal Christianity presents gross disunity and inability to compromise on basic and fundamental areas of concern. Observers find it difficult to understand how religious entities fail to foster unity of purpose, yet they purport to represent similar interests.
Universal Christian entities fail to inspire confidence and trust because they seem to promote and articulate personal interests (Hellwig 23). Their areas of contention border on theological and doctrinal interpretations that do not have any significant impact on the overall disposition of the church. History shows that there have been numerous instances of disagreement among universal Christian entities. Such differences are responsible for current divisions and disharmony among universal Christians.
Whenever there are differences and misunderstandings, it is important for all parties to initiate dialogue in order to find lasting solutions (Hellwig 25). On the contrary, universal Christian entities are usually quick to break away and establish new frontiers for religious practice. Other religious groups are skeptical of universal Christian entities because they project an image of greed and inability to tackle important issues among themselves.
This reality does not promote positivity and hope with regard to these religious outfits (Hellwig 27). Therefore, most observers have negative perceptions regarding the role of universal Christians in promoting religious harmony in contemporary society. In absence of such efforts, universal Christian entities cannot achieve harmony and unity of purpose. It is important to note that Christianity has spread to various places across the world (Hellwig, 34).
In ancient days, Christianity was prevalent in Europe and other surrounding areas. Currently, Christianity thrives in continents such as Africa and Asia. Due to this fact, there has been emergence of religious factions that incorporate local values and patterns of behavior. For instance, Christianity in Africa derives influence from African beliefs and traditions. This scenario replicates in other areas that embrace Christianity (Hellwig 39).
Is Catholicism Compatible With Other Religions? In contemporary society, there is need for ecumenical cooperation between religious groups in order to ensure and guarantee appropriate dissemination of positive ideals and principles. All religious outfits have unique attributes and values that define their essence with regard to fostering positivity among its adherents. Religious groups are responsible not only to their members but also to society. This makes it necessary for various religious groups to cooperate in order to ensure realization of individual and collective objectives (Hellwig 41).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Christian Theological Entities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Universal Christianity should seek indulgence of other religious groups towards creation of positive values amongst individuals in society. Catholicism promotes morality and rational thinking with regard to various undertakings in society. In fact, it seeks to encourage positive thinking that ultimately influences human relations in society. In order to achieve this noble agenda, universal Christians should foster interdenominational cooperation.
After honing unity among various Christian factions, they should extend this to cover other religions such as Islam, Buddhism, and religious Jews (Hellwig 43). Although there are fundamental differences between doctrinal and theological interpretations, all religious groups can fuse specific positive values that promote societal wellbeing. For instance, Islam promotes communal values that seek to enhance interdependence amongst its members (Hellwig 44).
Islam requires its wealthy members to assist those who do not have a material endowment. Such values are important because they encourage rationality and pragmatic behavior patterns. Muslims are very dedicated to requisite religious practices that embody their doctrine and theological inclination.
They endeavor to follow religious teachings and practices that characterize the Islamic conviction. Their dedication to serving humanity is legendary because it forms a basis for religious practice (Hellwig 54). The aforementioned values are relevant and applicable to universal Christians because they promote positivity in society. Universal Christians should emulate such Islamic values because they serve as a guide for upright human living.
Religious Jews also have social values that seek to promote upright living in society. Jewish traditions and practices are proactive and mindful of individuals in social contexts. Jewish religious principles promote unity and cohesion in society (Hellwig, 57). Through various undertakings, the Jewish community supports humanitarian efforts in different parts of the world. Such efforts are similar to those undertaken by universal Christians around the world. Buddhism also supports peaceful coexistence in society.
Its religious principles revolve around non-violence and peaceful resolution of conflicts in contemporary society. These values are very important, especially because society continues to witness violence and upheaval. Catholicism should learn and appreciate the importance of ecumenical cooperation in order to foster positive engagements in society (Hellwig 57).
In order to promote its universality, Catholicism should embrace other religious groups that have similar objectives and motivations. By cooperating with other religious outfits, universal Christianity could expand its influence across the world. It is notable that certain observers argue against such cooperation. They fear that ecumenism could jeopardize values and belief systems within Catholicism (Hellwig 65). On the contrary, cooperation shall strengthen and entrench positive human values in society.
It is necessary for universal Christians to embrace other denominational entities in order to guarantee unity and ability to conquer negativity in society. By incorporating other cultural and religious belief systems, Catholicism strengthens its ability to promote positive action in society. Therefore, it is necessary for universal Christians to devise structural frameworks that support realization of such ideals and aspirations (Hellwig 69).
What is the Future of Catholicism? For a long time, Catholicism has had immense influence on societal existence and propagation of various undertakings. During early days of its inception, Catholicism had influence on society because it changed human understanding and approach to challenges that were present in communal settings (Rausch 44). Universal Christianity sought to overhaul and eradicate traditional forms of worship. In certain ways, proponents of universal Christianity succeeded in achieving their objectives.
The Christian influence in society continued to manifest in numerous engagements that characterized human existence in society. After entrenching Catholicism in Europe, proponents sought to spread its influence to other parts of the world (Rausch 44). This endeavor materialized after they managed to spread the gospel to far-flung areas such as Asia and Africa. Though Christian missionaries encountered hostility in areas such as Africa, they struggled to introduce and entrench their message to the local inhabitants.
Generally, this mission was successful because the missionaries overturned local worship systems in favor of Catholicism. Several decades after introduction of Catholicism in areas such as Africa and Asia, there is immense influence on their religious systems (Rausch 47). Such systems are predominantly Christian. However, the future of Catholicism is uncertain in areas such as Europe.
It is evident that people in European societies are increasingly shedding their Christian beliefs. Most people in these communities argue that Catholicism is not dynamic. Its conservative nature makes it impossible for members to adjust to modern developments that emanate from technological advancements and innovations (Rausch 49).
Due to its stringent nature and inability to accommodate change, Catholicism risks losing influence and support in Europe and other parts of the world. People find it difficult to conform to Christianity because of its inability to recognize and appreciate changes that are currently evident in society. Catholicism should embrace change in order to foster and enhance self-preservation (Rausch 54). In my opinion, Catholicism could fade and disappear because it fails to incorporate modernity into its belief system.
For instance, it should ensure and support revision of canonical statutes that do not reflect realities in modern societies. In absence of such undertakings, it will be difficult for Catholicism to foster relevance and hegemony in highly dynamic social contexts. The future of Catholicism depends on realignments and changes within its leadership ranks in order to support and appreciate change in society (Rausch 67).
Works Cited Barron, Robert. Catholicism: A Journey to the Heart of Faith. Newyork: Doubleday Religious Publishing Group, 2011. Print.
Hellwig, Monika. Understanding Catholicism. Chicago: Paulist Press, 2002. Print.
Rausch, Thomas. Catholicism in the Third Millennium. London: Liturgical Press, 2003. Print.
Gender Socialization Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Lorber on Gender Socialization
Introduction Feminists and gender experts generally agree that, at birth, there is no femininity or masculinity. It is through early gender socialization that infants become engendered according to their sex (Scott and Jackson 41). Gender is defined as “a social symbolic construction that expresses the meaning a society confers on biological sex” (Wood 320). From an early age, boys and girls learn different gender-specific roles in their environment as taught by parents, siblings or caregivers.
Lorber observes that “parents produce gendered children through the toys they buy… they also encourage them to play in a gender-appropriate way – girls with dolls, boys with action figures” (61). Thus, parents influence early gender socialization by controlling “the patterns of gendered behavior, which, not only become part of a child’s identity as a boy or a girl but also become embodied” (Lorber 63). Besides, parents, the media, peers and school also influence early gender socialization.
It is evident that gender socialization is intertwined with culture. In patriarchal societies, “society is organized around certain kinds of social relationships and ideas” (Johnson 78) that seem to favor men. However, this “does not mean that all men – each and every one of them – are oppressive people” (Johnson 76).
Rather, it is the social system that breeds social oppression and male dominance that characterize patriarchy. It is through understanding the larger social system that society can identify the positive gender roles that can promote gender equity and reduce oppression. This paper reviews the arguments for and against early gender socialization, patriarchy and its effects, and the effect of engendered society on gender roles and performance.
Patriarchy Gender identity plays a big role in social stratification in many cultures including the American society. Typically, a patriarchal ‘system’ assigns males and females distinct heterosexual roles, a practice, which serves to perpetuate male dominance.
However, Johnson holds a different view; he views patriarchy as a system that “includes cultural ideas about men and women, the web of relationships that structure social life, and the unequal distribution of rewards and resources that underlies oppression” (84). He encourages society to view patriarchy as a system that all people participate in, not as an embodiment of masculinity.
From an early age children are taught, via explicit or subtle means, to conform to societal gender constructs (either feminine or masculine) in their behavior, looks and actions. Dworkin views this as a cultural product where “women live in fairy tales as magical figures, as beauty, danger, innocence, malice, and greed” (32). Culture creates distinctive and appealing identities through fairy tales – the wicked witch, the beautiful princess, the heroic prince – to define who we are” (Dworkin 32).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, patriarchy is intertwined with cultural norms, gender roles and identities in a given society. In many societies, social inequalities are attributed to patriarchy. This implies that, in such societies, more men than women occupy powerful positions and well-paying jobs in business, law and government. In light of this, Johnson defines patriarchy as “male-dominated, male-centered, and male-identified” (84).
A male dominated society places men in dominant and influential positions, a practice that increases social inequality in the society. Such a society is often organized around social control, with men, through oppression and threats of violence, exerting control over women, who need male protection and supervision. A patriarchal society is male identified when most socially valued attributes and personal qualities are associated with men while devalued qualities and roles are associated with women.
This explains why patriarchies feel threatened by movements related to class, race or sexuality/gender. A patriarchal society is also male-centered. In such a society, men and boys are the center of attention while women are pushed to the periphery. Moreover, men and masculine roles are the center of focus or public attention in patriarchal societies.
Allan Johnson’s definition of the term patriarchy dispels common misconceptions surrounding oppression. He contends that society erroneously associates patriarchy with males, which often leads to the conclusion that men are oppressive. However, he argues that patriarchy is “about standards of feminine beauty and masculine toughness, images of feminine vulnerability and masculine protectiveness, of older men coupled with young women, of elderly women alone” (84).
It is the patriarchal “system that encourages men to value women primarily in terms of their ability to meet men’s needs and desires and to support men’s self-images as potent and in control” (96). Thus, people should learn to distinguish between the individual male and the patriarchal system.
It is by recognizing this difference that people can begin to address the actual causes of gender violence and social inequality. In view of this, bias based on gender, race or social class is not oppression per se, but “the sum of individual failings on the part of blacks, women, and the poor, who lack the right stuff to compete successfully with whites, men, and others who know how to make something of themselves” (76).
Thus, to eliminate social inequality, it is important that people understand the misconceptions surrounding patriarchy. Patriarchy revolves around social relationships and structures, which may limit an individual to some extent. It is worth noting that, through his argument, Johnson’s gives a new perspective on patriarchy, whereby he portrays men not as villainous as commonly portrayed by gender many movements.
We will write a custom Essay on Gender Socialization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The social norms define how people act or behave, which explains why people make the decisions they make in a patriarchal context. Johnson observes that the symbols in our culture “make up the patriarchal culture” (84), which, in turn, “affect the structure of social life” (87). Thus, it is our culture that creates power relations and gender roles, which then shape people’s behavior and values in patriarchal societies.
Collins/Anderson Today’s dynamic society requires people to recognize that gender is closely intertwined with other social aspects in “a matrix” of social domination. In modern societies, gender, race and economic class shape the issues of inequality and power relations. Also, social identity is largely organized around social domination, stratification and oppression. Therefore, in order to reconstruct the role of race, class and gender in society, it is important to examine them in the context of power relations.
Sociologists, Andersen and Collins, have developed a framework for understanding these social categories. First, they propose that the three categories are not absolute as they are constructs of social interaction (76). Second, the social categories create binary social groups, not social identities. This means that individuals can either be male or female, poor or wealthy, etc. It is through these power-based groupings that power relations are played out in the society.
A third concept in Andersen and Collins’ framework is that the three categories, besides directly defining group identities, their effects result in distinct social structures in the society. In this way, they contribute indirectly to identity formation. The fourth element of this framework relates to the fact that the three categories affect social interactions, social institutions and each group’s consciousness in the society. Based on this framework, it is easier for people to understand the significance of the three categories on gender socialization.
In the modern American society, it is often thought that people are no longer classist, racist and/or feminist. It is generally believed that a person’s gender, class or race does not disadvantage him or her in the society. However, Andersen and Collins argue that these social groupings are still significant as “the system of privilege and inequality (by race, class and gender) is less visible to those who are more privileged” (78).
That is why women complain about male dominance while men believe that patriarchy does not exist. It shows that the American society tends towards the status quo, which favors the groups in power. In contrast, the other groups/categories are marginalized, making them victims of social injustice.
The dominant forms of knowledge help perpetuate this trend by stating that racism, sexism and classism does not exist in the modern society (Scott and Jackson 67). It is no wonder social inequality continues to persist in modern societies. Therefore, an understanding the role of gender, class and race in power relations would help unravel the issue of social domination.
Andersen and Collins note that the three categories affect social domination, which then influence “social interactions, access to power and group consciousness” (77). It is clear that the individual categories do not work in isolation, but rather their combined effects help define an individual’s social experience. Therefore, oppression, in power relations, is a product of the interconnections between the social groups in the society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gender Socialization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On her part, Dworkin, unlike other sociologists and gender experts, criticizes female oppression, pornography and sexual violence in her analysis of fiction books. In her work, entitled “Woman Hating”, she explores gender socialization in fairy tales and sexist writings.
She argues that cultural symbols and images are some of the way power-based gender relations are established and maintained in the society. To illustrate how cultural stereotypes are created, Dworkin writes that fairy tale characters “Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, and Snow-white and Rapunzel – all are characterized by passivity, beauty, innocence and victimization… they never think, act, initiate, confront, resist, challenge, feel, care, or question” (42).
From a social perspective, only good women have these attributes. Also, in fairy tales, females “are characterized by passivity, beauty, innocence, and victimization” (42). The same trend occurs in gender roles, whereby from an early age “culture predetermines who we are, how we behave, what we are willing to know, what we are able to feel” (35). Thus, culture has shaped women’s behavior and actions to conform to ‘acceptable’ social standards. They have to do what is deemed ‘good’ in the eyes of men and society.
Because of this, “women strive for passivity, because they want to be good” (48). It is the same ingrained mentality that “convinces women that they are bad, the bad need to be punished and destroyed, so that they become good” (48). The women, therefore, view oppression and male dominance as acceptable in the society. Dworkin’s arguments echo similar arguments made in many masculinity and feminine studies.
Scott and Jackson state that, in most societies, gender roles are fixed right from birth with each role viewed as a discrete and pure trait (51). People create a set of masculine and feminine traits, which they attribute to a particular gender (male or female trait). For example, being tough is considered a male trait, whereas being sensitive or caring is a female trait. In this regard, the traits or values are portrayed as mutually exclusive and nobody can possess both the male and female traits.
Lorber on Gender Socialization Lorber holds the view that gender is a construct of human interaction, hence, like culture, relies on sustained social interactions. Lorber notes that gender socialization is created early in life.
From birth, children’s perceptions regarding masculinity and femininity are largely shaped by the body images they see. Even at birth, infants are perceived differently: “little boys have strong grips and hearty howls… and little girls have dainty fingers and gentle cries” (61). According to Lorber, parents create socially gendered children through the play toys they give them.
Parents buy action figures and Barbie dolls for their boys and girls respectively. They even encourage the kids to use the toys in ways they consider to be socially acceptable. In this way, younger children learn to act and behave in gender-appropriate ways. It also plays a role in shaping the children’s gender identity early in life. Lorber argues that parents influence early gender socialization through the naming of their newborn baby, mode of care and dress.
The children’s interactions with same-sex and opposite-sex siblings and relatives shape their self-identity in the context of gender. It is their cognitive development that allows children to identify and apply their actions in gender-specific ways and avoid inappropriate behaviors.
With regard to early gender roles, Lorber observes that the young children “perform of gender roles in ways that constitute them as two separate, opposed groups” (67), a trend, which is reinforced by “the adults’ approval of children’s performance of difference” (68).
The children interpret the adults’ approval of their gender-specific actions as an inherent difference that exists between male and female. Referring to the gendered roles he observed in children’s games, “Barbie Girls vs. Sea Monsters” Lorber observes that, in gender relations, the gender boundaries are clearly marked such that children have to “affirm their commitment to difference” (68) from an early age in their personal interactions.
Lorber regards gender as a social platform for assigning social statuses, responsibilities and behaviors. It is through early gender socialization that a social stratification system is created resulting to social inequalities that continues throughout one’s life. The gender socialization process creates distinct ways of differentiating a “male” from a “female”.
The early social interactions, children learn roles and behaviors expected of their gender, a trend that continues well into their adulthood. It is through social encounters that human beings learn to behave and act in a gender-appropriate manner and to object to differing gender norms.
Gender-based expectations or behaviors are enforced by peers, the media and other social platforms. Lorber notes that, “in sports, extreme body modification, in particular, steroid use to build muscle masses” (72) is a common trend among the youth because this action is considered a standard of excellence in sports. Thus, daily human interactions in sports build gender-based expectations for both male and female bodies.
The gender socialization process institutionalizes gender roles creating gender-stratified relations. Lorber’s argument that early gender socialization through play toys and body modification emphasizes the need for people to realize that gender constructs are products of human interactions shaped by culture and individual perceptions.
Boys and girls usually engage “in sports to emulate professional athletes who use extreme body modification, in particular, steroid use to build muscle mass” (71). Therefore, coaches and parents should focus on improving the children’s behavior patterns, taking into account their personality differences, rather than creating distinct gender roles and behaviors for their children.
Works Cited Andersen, Margaret and Collins, Patricia. Race, Class,
“Outlaw Platoon” by Sean Parnell Analytical Essay online essay help
The book “Outlaw Platoon” by Sean Parnell is story on heroism. The author begins by explaining how he became the commander of the infantry platoon at the age of twenty-four. This paper explores how Sean Parnell lived and displayed three army values as he describes in the book. The three values identified from the book include “duty, respect, and personal courage”.
From the book, it is notable that the author displayed and lived most of the army values. The first value that comes out clearly from the book is that of “duty”. After the platoon arrived at their base in Afghanistan, “the insurgents attacked them with rocket fire” (Sean 12). The fire killed and even wounded several children. As a soldier, Parnell ran into the village to help one of the little girls. He grabbed the girl and sprinted towards the First Aid Station.
The girl was bleeding in his arms. Afterwards, “the image of the bleeding girl came back to him when he was in bed” (Sean 15). Parnell had to accept the situation and move on with his life. As well, he believed that the other soldiers in the platoon must have had experienced a similar scene. This shows clearly how the soldier lived the value of duty. It is also a sign of commitment towards helping civilians and children. The value of “duty” requires that the soldiers do more than what is required of them.
The other value that is evident from the book is that of “respect”. According to this army value, soldiers are supposed to treat other people well and with respect. Through respect, soldiers are able to appreciate the best in all the other people. During the 16 months in Afghanistan, the author explains how he encountered the noblest attributes of human spirit. Through respect, the soldiers were able to develop the best bonds amongst themselves.
Although this was the only way for the men to survive, Parnell upheld the value of “respect” thus developing the best relationships with the soldiers. The author goes further to explain how they worked as a team. Parnell clearly understood that every individual had something to contribute towards the success of the operation (Sean 104).
The book goes further to present the value of “personal courage”. Personal courage is one of the oldest values associated with the American army. During the 16 months, Parnell was always ready to face adversity and danger. The team endured physical challenges and risked their safety in order to help others.
The approach made it easier for them to attack the insurgents. According to the author, the platoon was fighting a strong infantry. The insurgents were seasoned and properly armed. It was only through courage that they would survive and win the fight. For instance, Parnell describes how he courageously helped one of the solders by the name Garvin after an attack (Sean 182).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The insurgents had no mercy because their objective was to “behead the American soldiers” (Sean 128). Although the insurgents did their very best to overrun the American soldiers, Parnell explains how their team remained strong in order to survive and go back home alive.
This is a sign of personal courage. With courage, faith, and love for each other, most of the soldiers were able to return home alive. Together with the soldiers, Parnell displayed and lived most of the army values thus making the infantry platoon successful despite the challenges and obstacles encountered (Sean 126). In conclusion, Parnell’s book is a story of courage and selfless commitment.
Works Cited Parnell, Sean. Outlaw Platoon: Heroes, Renegades, Infidels, and the Brotherhood of War in Afghanistan. New York: William Morrow Paperbacks, 2013. Print.
Major Factors Contributing to the Creation of the Early Narrative Film Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The History of Narrative Film The history of narrative film is traced back to more than 100 years ago in the late 1800s. Simple basic filming devices were invented and were used during this period. Narrative films spread to all parts of the world within twenty years. The spread led to the development of complex technologies and the rise of a major industry.
The industry became widely accepted as a form of entertainment. It attracted numerous artists, entrepreneurs, politicians, and scientists (Cook, 2004). However, the film industry has constantly been dependent on factors beyond its control. The dependency raises important questions, which include: What are the effects of technology on the filmmaking industry? How has industrialization affected the creation of narrative film?
According to Gunning (1991), the narrative of the film was the most important aspect of this art. Editing, composition, and lighting were all designed to assist the audience in understanding the story in the late 1910s. The characters in these stories were created through increased editing. In addition, performance and dialogue subtitles helped the audience in relating the images to the scenes.
Editing was increased and the distance between the cameras and the actors decreased. The change contributed to the development of the star system due to recognition of actors and the emphasis on facial expressions. Editing was used to display the internal thoughts and emotions of a character, as well as to clearly show instances of psychological intensity.
The filmmaking industry experienced a rapid growth and expansion during the first thirty years of its operation. The then unfamiliar experience quickly spread across the globe, attracting an ever growing audience in all the places it was introduced. The growth made it a very popular form of entertainment, displacing other forms of entertainment.
The rapid growth in audience led to an increase in the number of locations where films were shown, competing with opera-houses and theatres for excellence and opulence. The length of the films increased from a few minutes to hours, which controlled the world’s screens for a long time (Cook, 2004).
Among the countries credited with the invention and development of filmmaking are French, America, Germany, and British. The French and the Americans played a major role in the distribution of filmmaking in other parts of the world. They led in the development of artists and talents. Russia, Italy, and Denmark also played a role in developing filmmaking before World War I. By following a strong export policy and advancing its markets, the US became the largest consumer of films (Gunning, 1991).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Americans dominated the world’s film market by the beginning of the First World War. The American filmmaking industry continued to grow during the war, developing new technologies and strengthening its control. The US filmmaking industry moved to Hollywood and films from the new studios filled the world’s market after the First World War. Hollywood led the filmmaking industry artistically and industrially (Liesegang, 1986).
Factors Contributing to Creation of Narrative Film Technology
The history of filmmaking began with devices and experiments designed to present images in a sequence. The earliest technology in filmmaking involved producing an illusion of continuous movement. The illusion was achieved by passing a series of pictures in quick succession in front of a light source.
Later, the moving pictures were projected on a screen. Each picture was briefly held in front of the light source and replaced by the next one. If the process was quick enough, it provided an illusion of movement, where the discontinuous pictures are perceived as continuous (Elsaesser, 1990).
Various experiments seeking to analyze the movement of pictures and their reproduction were performed. The experiments were aimed at naturally reproducing movement by showing pictures at the same speed used to take them. A mechanism was developed to allow the pictures to be displayed in the camera in quick succession.
The pictures were projected in a similar manner. The technology resulted in the development of film rolls. The roll was placed in the camera and quickly moved down while holding it very still. The process had to be repeated when the film was being shown. The process was enhanced by the development of a loop placed in the threading of the film. The loop was situated where the film passed in front of the lens (Liesegang, 1986).
The film was developed and spread in a material invented by Henry M. Reichenbach. The material was made up of a semitransparent and flexible celluloid base. It was divided into strips that were 35mm wide. The material was first adopted by Thomas Edison in 1892 for his Kinetoscope.
Kinetoscope was a device that allowed one person at a time to view brief segments of a film. Riding on the success of the Kinetoscope, other machines developed to reproduce pictures in movement employed the 35mm technology. The Eastman Company supported this process even though their photographic films were 70mm wide. To produce films of the required width, the company had to cut the photographic films lengthwise (Abramson, 1987).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Major Factors Contributing to the Creation of the Early Narrative Film specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the late 1800s, colored films came into existence. They were created by delicately hand-coloring the frames using very fine brushes. The resultant film was spectacular due to the glow of the pictures (Cook, 2004). However, these films had a limitation since the colors occupying a particular place could spread to other areas of the frame.
The problem was addressed by giving each frame a uniform color. Uniformity of frames was achieved by tinting, toning, or a combination of both. Eastman Kodak invented the first color-sensitive emulsion around 1915. His invention was promoted by the trademark ‘Kodachrome’. Although Kodachrome was still a two-color system, it provided a basis for remarkable developments (Gunning, 1991).
Most early narrative films were accompanied by some kind of sound. The films had lecturers who commented on the pictures shown on the screen, expounding on their material and meaning for the spectators. In addition to the speech, most films were accompanied by music. Accompanying music was produced from a piano or specifically commissioned for the film. At times, music was used together with noise effects.
Noise effects were usually produced by performers using a large display of objects that reproduced natural and artificial sounds. Inventors of moving image desired to synchronize films and discs to print sound directly on the film. It was not until 1926, however, that Warner Bros., a Hollywood Company, presented a film using sound synchronization (Elsaesser, 1990). The film was produced by Don Juan and John Barrymore.
Though it had started as a mere novelty, filmmaking turned into an established industry by 1913. The earliest films evolved from moving snapshots, about a minute long, to about five to ten minutes long by 1905 (Cook, 2004). The films also used change of camera position and change of scenes to convey a message or to show different themes. With the development of longer displays, a new set of methods for making complex narrative films emerged in the 1910s.
By this time, large-scale businesses had come up to offer services of making and showing films. The companies acquired specialized venues exclusively used for showing films. The venues were supplied with films by various production and distribution companies. Such companies started by selling the films to the exhibitors, but later started renting them out. In the late 1910s, Hollywood became the most important supplier of films (Abramson, 1987).
A number of countries claim that they were the ones who invented the moving pictures. However, filmmaking cannot be traced to any of these countries. The reason is because, like many technologies, filmmaking cannot be traced to any particular moment. In addition, the birth of filmmaking cannot be credited to any particular country or person. In the late 1800s, entrepreneurs strongly pursued avenues to project pictures that continuously moved on a screen.
Such ventures led to the presentation of moving pictures to a marveled audience in various parts of the world (Gunning, 1991). Although filmmaking had spread to different parts of the world, some European countries and the United States retained their dominance over film production and exhibition. The French, however, were the first to dominate local and international markets. In addition, they were arguably the best in stylistic innovations, though they competed with the United States and Britain on this front.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Major Factors Contributing to the Creation of the Early Narrative Film by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Among the initial innovators in France were the Lumie’re brothers. They are said to be the first to show moving pictures to an audience for a fee. The brothers operated a photographic equipment factory where they experimented with a camera design called the cinematographe. However, depending on how one looks at it, the first show of moving pictures can be traced to Edison when he developed the Kinetoscope.
The Lumie’re brothers faced competition from other film makers, such as Georges Melielis. Since the brothers primarily dealt with documentary material, Melielis became the leader in the production of fiction films. However, due to competition, Melielis was forced into bankruptcy in 1913. One of the major competitors at this time was the Pathe Company, which outlived the Lumie’re and the Melielis (Abramson, 1987).
According to Cook (2004), the film industry in some European countries and the United States began coalescing into industrial capitalist enterprises in the early 1910s. Specialization and division of labor was established in the industry by separating exhibition, distribution, and production sectors. Films became longer in size and exhibitors demanded a regular supply of new items. The development led to increased demand for production of high standard films.
Such production required increased division of labor, specialization, and standardized practices. The emergence of permanent exhibition venues also contributed to the rationalization of separating exhibition from the other areas of filmmaking. Specialization and division of labor enabled the industry to maximize profits, making it more stable. Since profits depended on the turnout at exhibitions, producers in most countries were forced to make short films to accommodate the different tastes of the audience (Gunning, 1991).
The attempt to rationalize distribution of films resulted in maximization of profits. As a result, US manufacturers who had initially concentrated on the domestic market only began expanding into international markets. According to Elsaesser (1990), Vitagraph was the first company to establish a distribution office in Europe in 1907. Other major companies followed by establishing distribution agencies in Britain. They became America’s distribution centers in Europe.
On its part, British filmmakers mainly concentrated on the distribution and exhibition of films, rather than on production. Half of the films showing in Britain were American, with French and Italy films constituting a significant portion of the remaining 50 percent. Germany also benefitted from the distribution of American films. The US replaced the Europeans as leaders in the film industry in 1914. At this time, the Europeans were reeling from the effects of World War I (Liesegang, 1986).
By 1908, the film industry was well established and flourishing like never before. However, the industry was still very disorganized. Neighboring exhibition venues competed for similar films or rented similar items, which forced them to compete for the same audience. Some distributors supplied exhibitors with films that had been shown for so long that they contained scratches that obscured the image.
The new developments created the need for film censorship and regulation (Cook, 2004). The Edison and Biograph companies helped the producers to form the Motion Picture Patents Company in late 1908. The MPPC was formed in an effort to stabilize the industry and look after the producer’s interests. In addition to the producers, the MPPC incorporated foreign distributors in the US. It later agreed to regularize the issue of new films and to standardize the price per foot for their films (Elsaesser, 1990).
The production of films in major countries was characterized by specialization and division of labor. The sector changed from a collaborative enterprise to a specialized field with the emergence of specialists. Such specialists included property men, script-writers, and wardrobe mistresses. All of them worked under the director. The director was required to make one reel per week using their own cast and crew.
The requirement led to the emergence of a new category of producer who was charged with overseeing the whole process (Elsaesser, 1990). At the time, the film industry put emphasis on speed and quantity of films. However, a few films, especially those made to promote cultural values, were exempt from the rule. According to Gunning (1991), Vitagraph, the largest American studio, hired G. W. Griffith as its sole director. The director was hired in 1918. However, by the time he left in 1913, there were six directors under his supervision.
Conclusion By mid 1910s, the American film industry had improved in terms of better and permanent exhibitions, internal censorships, and the production of respectable forms of entertainment.
Conditions had improved from the early 1900s when the industry was in a crisis. A large audience could now comfortably enjoy watching films in an elaborate movie exhibition venue. The films produced during this period were different as well. Narrative emerged as an important aspect of the films at the time. Such factors as technology improved editing, composition, and lighting in the production of films.
Specialization and division of labor also impacted on the production, distribution, and exhibition of narrative films at the time. In addition, specialization and division of labor maximized profits in the filmmaking industry, leading to its stability. However, the distribution and exhibition sectors in the US hindered the process of changing the industry to multi-reel film producer.
The reason is that most exhibition venues had a small seating capacity. In turn, limited seating capacity led to the exhibition of short films featuring a wide array of subjects to attract more audience and increase profits. Due to this, the impetus to shift the focus of the industry to the production of multi-reel films came from Europe. The reason is that the distribution of imported films was not subject to MPPC controls.
References Abramson, A. (1987). The history of television, 1880 to 1941. Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Cook, D. A. (2004). A history of narrative film (4th ed.). Virginia: W W Norton
The Problem of Social and Economic Inequality in Modern Society Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
The Articles Analysis
Introduction Nowadays, we have the opportunities to be the active participants of the social problems solving. In the past, people struggled for gaining these opportunities. However, it does not mean that the nature of social issues changed dramatically. Quite the opposite, the nature is, essentially, the same but the methods of their solving and the attitude of public towards them have undergone changes.
The aim of this essay is to analyze the newspaper and magazine articles devoted to the problem of social inequality and economic welfare.
The Articles Analysis The first article, which I am going to present, is The Future of Fair Labor by Jefferson Cowie. The author gives the overview of the historic process of the labor legislation reforming. Cowie emphasizes the importance of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s legislative act addressed to the employers and workers.
The President’s initiative laid the foundation of the modern employment legislation. “It outlawed child labor, guaranteed a minimum wage, established the official length of the workweek at 40 hours, and required overtime pay for anything more” (Cowie n.pag.).
However, the author of the article states that the current situation in the field of employment regulation and legislation is rather vulnerable. It seems that the current legislation is too flexible in the sense that it gives to the employers the opportunity to find the loopholes. As a result, the substantial part of employees works the abnormal hours and does not obtain the appropriate remuneration. The author claims that it is the role of the government to ensure the efficiency of the current employment legislation.
The second article is The 1 Percent Are Only Half the Problem by Timothy Noah. The economic inequality is the major theme of the article. The author touches upon the problem of social stratification based on the differences in the economic welfare of the American population.
Although he indicates to the significant gap between the wealthy individuals, whose weight in the total population accounts for only 1%, and the other part of the population, the weight of which is 99%, he argues that the problem should not be considered only in the context of the average income.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Noah claims that the access to education is the crucial factor of the social and economic welfare. The rise of the educated class should be taken into consideration (Noah n.pag.). The problem is twofold: on the one hand, the gap caused by the income inequality narrows, and, on the other hand, the educational gap widens.
The Cuts that Keeps Bleeding is the third source, which deserves the special attention. It presents the statistical information on the dynamics in government spending on education. According to the data presented in the article, the funding of the education has been reduced by 28% since 2008 (“The Cuts that Keeps” 11).
It is clear that the decrease in financing affects the quality of education. The statistics shows that the number of course offerings has decreased by 15% since 2008. The data support the opinion regarding the educational gap increase. It is not surprising as the cuts in spending limit the access of people to the higher education and they contribute to the social and economic inequality.
Conclusion In summary, the analyzed articles are devoted to the problem of social and economic inequality. The authors emphasize the role of government regulation. Although the situation improves in certain areas, there are still the urgent problems requiring the legislative changes and government initiatives.
Works Cited Cowie, Jefferson. “The Future of Fair Labor.” The New York Times. 24 June 2013. Nytimes.com. Web.
Noah, Timothy. “The 1 Percent Are Only Half the Problem”. The New York Times. 18 May 2013. Opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com. Web.
“The Cuts that Keep Bleeding.” By the Numbers, 30 (2013): 3. Print
We will write a custom Essay on The Problem of Social and Economic Inequality in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Eyes on the Prize Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Roles of Civil Rights Movement
Change and Civil Rights Movement
Racial discrimination has been the most contentious issue in America. The issue has been highlighted by various tools of communications such as books, movies, articles, and periodicals. One of the remarkable communication tools on this subject is ‘Eyes on the Prize’ movie. The movie brings into perspective the topic of racial discrimination and roles of civil rights movements in attaining equality in America (Hampton, 1986). This study seeks to highlight the issue of racial discrimination in reference to the above mentioned movie
Roles of Civil Rights Movement To achieve the desired transformation towards equal treatment of all races, America needed civil rights movement. The movement not only played the role of communicating information on racial discrimination, but also changed the attitudes, beliefs, and feelings of all Americans towards the issue.
From the movement, Americans were able to embrace tolerance. For instance, in volume 2 of the movie, the African-Americans were ready to endure the mistreatments in the jails while most of the whites were ready to accommodate them in the community (Hampton, 1986).
Change and Civil Rights Movement Civil rights movement was the major element that facilitated change in America. Without the movement, change could have been difficult to attain. The movement not only prompted the government to take actions, but also cultivated the sense of responsibility among Americans (Hampton, 1986).
Racism Discrimination is a common problem in America. Racial discrimination dominates the list of discriminating practices. However, it is cognizant to note that the magnitude of racial discrimination in America has greatly reduced. This can be attributed to the roles of civil rights movements and affirmative actions taken by the government to promote racial equality (Hampton, 1986).
Reference Hampton, H. (Executive Producer). (1986). Eyes on the Prize: Ain’t scared of your jails, 1954 to 1956. Boston: Blackside Inc.
Atrophy of the Muscles Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Atrophy of the muscles is a condition that occurs when the muscles have been in an inactive condition for a long period of time. The cast on the leg is the major cause of muscle atrophy. It reduces muscle activity and causes loss of the tissues. The major effect of the cast as indicated in this case is weakening of the leg muscles and reduced level of activity.
The cast restricts the movement of the muscles (Sandri, 2008). Restricted movement of the muscles leads to reduced muscle tone. The patient therefore develops movement difficulties, which may exacerbate the condition (Hannah, Andrew
The American Way of Dining Out Research Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
The Americans’ Restaurant Expenditure
Is Eating Out Healthy?
The Economics of Eating Out
Introduction For most Americans, dining out is a favorite pastime. Americans dine out when celebrating an event, when on a date or just to have a new dining experience. But, in the aftermath of the 2007/2008 economic downturn, people are dining out less often, instead preferring to eat at home to save money. This trend is already having a toll on hotels and restaurants. Nevertheless, on average, American’s prefer eating out to eating at home.
A survey by the United States Department of Labor [DoL] found interesting facts about the American’s way of dining out. A significant proportion of the respondents (63 percent) reported having dined out at least once the previous month with 53 percent of them dining out in fast food restaurants, 18 percent in full-service restaurants and 9 percent in other food restaurants (DoL Para. 2).
What is worrying, however, is that most of the foods consumed away from home tend to be energy rich but less nutritional compared to home prepared foods.
Though patrons may not like to eat unhealthy foods, they opt to eat out due to convenience, diverse meals on offer or simply for entertainment reasons. The argument presented in this paper is that, when it comes to eating out, Americans neither base their dietary choices on nutritional quality of the meals nor do they consider their budgetary constraints. Their restaurant choice and frequency of dining out is based on the prospects of entertainment, convenience and a variety of dishes on offer.
The Americans’ Restaurant Expenditure Nutritionists advise people to adopt healthy eating habits, which, along with physical exercises guarantee a healthy and quality life. However, it is not clear whether this message and the consumers’ desire for a healthy life influence their eating behavior or dietary choices when eating out.
The Department of Labor reports that, on average, the daily energy intake of an American when eating out rose from 18 percent in 1994 to 32 percent in 1996 (Para. 3). This indicates that eating out increases one’s caloric intake significantly. The same survey established that consumer spending on restaurant foods had increased with consumers, in 1996, spending over half of their dietary expenditure on restaurant foods. The rise in the number of consumers eating out implies that dining out is a preferred pastime for most Americans.
With regard to food expenditure, the U.S. Department of Labor reported that, on average, in 2010, restaurant spending by each American stood at $2,505 (DoL Para. 5). In comparison, in the previous years, 2009 and 2008, the average restaurant spending was $2,619 and $2,698 respectively (Para. 7). The drop in consumer spending in 2010 is attributed to the 2007/08 economic downturn. Nevertheless, Americans enjoy dining out often as opposed to eating home-cooked meals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consumers attribute their eating out habits to public suitability, entertainment value and availability of many dishes in restaurants. However, from the DoL statistics, eating out increases the consumers’ calorie intake, as restaurant foods tend to be calorie-rich but nutritionally deficient. Eating out more often increases one’s body fat level in adults leading to elevated body mass index. It is no wonder eating out has been associated with obesity and overweight especially in adolescents.
A survey by Technomic Inc. that interviewed a number of restaurant owners found that most restaurants are not keen on providing healthy foods for their patrons. They do not feel that providing healthy meals would increase the number of customers visiting their establishments. Some held the opinion that “most customers’ attitude is ‘when I go out to eat, I want to eat what I want’” (33). Nevertheless, the hotel executives felt that creating consumer awareness about eating healthy would help in the management of obesity.
To manage obesity, which has become an epidemic, nutrition educators have employed a number of approaches to promote healthy eating out habits. They educate consumers on nutrition and healthful diets that one can get in restaurants when eating out.
They sometimes incorporate aspects of consumers’ preferences, convenience and entertainment when providing the nutrition information to influence their eating behavior. One such campaign technique is the “5 A Day” program that encourages Americans to eat a minimum of five servings of vegetables/fruits daily (Stewart et al. 522).
The “Power of Choice” program is another example of these programs that aims at educating adolescents to eat healthy and engage in physical activities to stay healthy (Stewart et al. 522). Although these nutrition-education programs have the potential of promoting healthy eating habits among Americans, their impact largely depends on the patrons’ own knowledge on nutrition and whether they apply it when making choices on the type of restaurant or food to eat.
Is Eating Out Healthy? The statistics given by the United States Department of Labor show that more Americans prefer eating out to eating at home despite the low nutritional quality of restaurant foods. But, what factors influence Americans to continue to eat out despite the increased health risks associated with fast-foods?
From an economic perspective, a consumer’s preference and nutrition knowledge would affect his or her dietary choices. Thus, consumers who have knowledge on the nutritional value of foods would be expected to evaluate restaurant foods before placing an order. Food prices also influence the consumers’ dietary choices.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The American Way of Dining Out specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides income and food prices, the consumers’ demographic characteristics can be used to explain the trends in consumer behavior. In the American context, psychological factors such as attitudes, information, perceptions shape consumer behavior, and by extension, the demand for restaurant foods.
In light of this, it is clear that the Americans’ rising demand for restaurant foods is shaped by the desire to eat healthy in a convenient location that provides entertainment value. Thus, when choosing among eating in a restaurant, eating at home and eating in a fast-food café, an individual will often consider each option’s entertainment value and convenience. Consumers with limited funds and/or time will tend to choose the option that is cheap but offers greater pleasure.
The Americans’ way of eating out can be explained using the traditional economic theory. This theory describes how consumers make decisions when they have limited product information at their disposal. The FDA specifies that “if a restaurant claims that a particular menu item is ‘low in fat’… then this requirement is satisfied by adding: ‘low fat – provides less than 3 grams of fat per serving” (Technomic 8). However, the FDA does not require restaurants to disclose a meal’s specific nutrient content.
Therefore, restaurants can choose to give the complete nutrient content of the foods sold or simply provide the mandated information. Nevertheless, if the majority of consumers want menu items with healthy nutrient content, the hotels/restaurants may give the complete nutrition information of the foods sold.
As restaurants always compete for customers, marketing themselves as providing healthful foods can give them a competitive advantage. Some popular restaurants voluntarily give complete nutrition information of the foods they sell.
A good example is the Subway restaurant, which supplies the caloric content of its popular sandwiches and compares them with the sandwiches sold by the other restaurants such as McDonald’s and Burger King. McDonald’s and Burger King, on the other hand, give pamphlets containing the details of the nutrient content of foods sold. However, other restaurants provide no such information making healthful eating away from home almost impossible for Americans.
The incomplete nutrition information provided by most restaurants can be attributed to the need to retain consumers as knowledge of a meal’s dietary composition may affect demand for foods with undesirable nutrient content. Thus, when little information is provided, the consumers cannot make an informed choice when eating out.
However, those who have nutrition knowledge can assess the nutritional quality of the products sold by restaurants. Even for those who prefer to eat at home, they are motivated by the need to save money, not to eat healthy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The American Way of Dining Out by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, it can be argued that, most Americans’ eating out choices (where to eat, what to eat and how frequently to eat out) are largely dependent on entertainment and convenience, not on the nutritional value of the foods. In view of this, people with a good understanding of nutrition can effectively determine the restaurant food types that are healthful compared to those with little or no nutrition knowledge.
The Economics of Eating Out Although a third of Americans report reducing how often they eat out, 1 in every 10 people in America dine out more often (DoL Para. 4). A further 70 percent of Americans cook at home to cut down their food expenditure while another 57 percent believe that eating out is an unnecessary expense.
Interestingly, about 29 percent of Americans claim to have reduced their expenses in other areas to sustain their eating out habits (Para. 6). These statistics imply that Americans’ restaurant spending has, to some extent, been affected by the sluggish economy. Therefore, Americans have not changed their dining out habits; they have only reduced how often they eat out. The economic downturn has seen more Americans eat out less often with some shifting from eating in major establishments to casual food outlets.
Now with constrained budgets, many Americans have resorted to eating at home and when eating out, price consideration takes the center stage. They prefer casual restaurants when eating out because their prices are often low. This explains why popular casual restaurants have gained in profits over the past few years while the profits of full-service eateries have declined. For instance, The Cheesecake Factory gained 2.44 percent in profits while the McDonald’s profits declined by 12 percent in 2010 (Technomic 9).
The implication here is that consumers are increasingly becoming selective with regard to where to eat out due to budget constraints. But, what drives eating out habits besides prices? It is evident that cravings for exotic and foreign cuisines, restaurant location, entertainment value, healthy dishes offered and variety of food choices motivate Americans to eat out as opposed to cooking at home.
This indicates that the American way of eating out is not influenced by the need to eat healthy. Rather, entertainment value, convenience and variety of dishes available in restaurants drive many Americans to dine out in restaurants.
Conclusion Dining out in restaurants is a favorite pastime for most Americans. Most Americans prefer to eat out to eating at home because restaurants offer convenience, in terms of location, they offer a variety of meals/dishes and most offer entertainment for patrons.
Despite the recent economic downturn and the poor nutritional quality of fast-foods, most Americans still enjoy dining out. Therefore, until Americans recognize the high nutritional value of home cooked meals, eating out will continue to be the norm, as fast-food restaurants continue to rake in profits.
Works Cited Stewart, Hayden, Blisard, Noel, Jolliffe, Dean and Bhuyan, Sanjib. “The Demand for Food-Away-From Home: Do Other Preferences Compete with Our Desire to Eat Healthfully?” Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 30.3 (2005): 520-536. Print.
Technomic, Inc. Trends in Healthier Eating and Fruit and Vegetable Usage in Chain Restaurants. Wilmington, DE: Produce for Better Health Foundation, 2006. Print.
United States Department of Labor [DoL]. Economic News Release: Consumer Expenditures– 2012. Web. .
Chinas History and Relations Cause and Effect Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents China’s Diplomatic, Military and Political relations
How China Affected the Asian Countries
Spread of Buddhism
How Asian countries influenced China
China’s Diplomatic, Military and Political relations The Yuan Dynasty was one of the most influential authorities that reigned over the Chinese territory and preceded other dynasties which included the Song and Ming. The Yuan dynasty used Marc Polo to communicate with other countries. In regard to the relationship between the Yuan dynasty and its neighbors, it incurred a lot of rebellion from its rivals such as the Mongols.
During this struggle, the rebels could terrorize the allies of Yuan Dynasty and free them to China (Ebrey et al. 179). In the same light, the author reveals that the continuous rebellion by the neighboring countries led to the formation of anti-Yuan dynasty which aimed at conquering it (179).
The dynasty did not only solve its conflicts through war but also using diplomatic means. In this regard, they could use travelers to communicate with the European countries such as Italy. For instance, they sent Mac Polo to deliver a letter to Italy in order to create ties with the dynasty. The dynasty could also receive visitors such as John of Montecorvino who was a missionary from Italy (Sen and Victor 75).
Ebrey revealed that the Ming Dynasty was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang who had experienced the plight of poverty during the Yuan Dynasty which had imposed a lot of disorders in China (227). In fact, Ebrey stated that Zhu had started his life from the bottom of society (228).
The author further states that the founder’s attempts to bring order on the society of the Chinese people were mostly considered as a draconian act (227). However, although the people were not always positive towards his acts, the author elaborates that 30 years of the Ming dynasty transformed China in a great way (227). This achievement was attained against many odds including intensive rebellion from the royalists of the Yuan government (Ebrey et al. 228).
During one of the struggle for power, the Yuan government troops burnt down the temple of Zhu showing disrespect (Ebrey et al. 228). The continuous military attacks show that the Chinese territories were not used to solving their difference in a diplomatic manner. Instead they used their power to outdo, conquer, and colonize other territories.
The song formed a separate and critical dynasty in the Chinese history. The dynasty was founded between 860 and 960 when the forces were devolved to deal with the local issues (Ebrey et al. 91). The author reveals that during this period any local man who was capable of organizing defense teams against the rebels could be declared as the king (91). This defense was quite crucial considering the strong rivals of the song dynasty who included Liao and others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How China Affected the Asian Countries China had profound effect on the various aspects of Asia countries including culture, religion, and political factors. For example, Ebrey stated that the expansion of Han dynasty in China incorporated the Peninsula’s north western part.
This expansion increased the interaction among Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese people leading to spread to Chinese culture and technology (Ebrey et al. 98). In this regard, the Korean gradually embraced the Chinese ideologies such as Buddhism, writing skills, and Confucianism as a result of the increased interaction.
The author then stated that in the fourteenth century, the outpost fell of Chinese dynasties evoked the creation of three different states of the Korean territory which was established in China (98). However, Ebrey elaborated that the domestic production of silver in China decreased significantly in 1430 requiring them to acquire it from the neighboring countries which produced the metal.
As a result, they bought about 50 percent of the Japanese silver as well as the one transported by the Portuguese ships in order to satisfy the demand (Ebrey et al. 267). In the same light, they also relied on Russia, which is one of the Asian countries, for silver that was mined in Mexico. It is thus evident that the Chinese influenced the Russian economy profoundly owing to silver trade that took place between the two nations.
Additionally, China affected the economic development of Japan following the trade between the two countries. In this regard, the Chinese monetary system used to sliver to make currency making it an important commodity in China (Ebrey et al. 267). The Chinese trading experience is revisited by Lockard when he stated that Chinese and Arabs were quite skillful in the technology of sea transport which enabled them to become active in the Southeast Asian trade (63).
He then stated that the trade between China and other countries continued to grow during the 700 to1500 era. While elaborating the role of China towards economic development of South Asia, he revealed that the Chinese were the main people who captained the ships which sailed to Japan and China (90).
This implies that the Chinese were probably the drivers of economic development in this region owing to the early technological knowledge. The author further focused on the spread of Chinese trade to the Arabian countries. In this case, the authors revealed that in 1296, Angkor conducted active trade with the Chinese merchants owing to the support provided by the Chinese ambassador in Angkor (39).
We will write a custom Essay on Chinas History and Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ambassador then left a detailed description concerning the society’s conduct as well as its authorities in order to create way for the future unions between China and Angkor (39). Further, Lockard described China as a country that inspired the development of trade in other countries. Between 1400 and 1650, the author revealed that China entered into an age of commerce where they practiced trade across the Indian Ocean (64).
This initiative increased the demand of the Southern Asian demands which probably inspired other Asian countries to enter participate in this trade. It is thus evident that China a perfect example of a country that motivated others Asian Countries to adopt trade. Moreover, China was a major threat to Vietnam especially when considering the political stability of this country. In this regard, Lockard pointed out that since the Chinese authorities frequently sent their forces to Vietnam, the Vietnamese could not ignore their sporadic attacks (62).
Spread of Buddhism Buddhism has already existed in the world for approximately 2500 years, and it was founded by Siddhartha Gautama who was a prince of a tiny Indian realm (Lockard 22). Siddhartha was also well known as the Buddha (“enlightened one”) (Lockard 22). According to historical records, Buddhism had been highly praised during the time of India’s Mauryan empire by its third king Ashoka who himself devoutly believed in Buddhism (Ebrey et al. 57).
During the period of Ashoka’s governing, Buddhism carried forward and flourished extensively (Ebrey et al. 57). According to historians, king Ashoka took advantage of the mechanism of his kingdom to widely promote Buddhism within India (Ebrey et al. 57). As a devote Buddhist, he banned animal sacrifices, and made an approximately one-year long pilgrimage to all the holy places of Buddhism (Ebrey et al. 57).
Nevertheless Buddhism declined after 1200 C.E., it spread to the neighboring world due to Ashoka’s dispatch of Buddhist missionaries to the rest of Eurasia (Ebrey et al. 57-58). Thus, India established relationships with its neighboring world on military, trade, religion, and culture. Due to the fact that it is the birth land of two religions: Buddhism, which spread to Central Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia ((Trautmann 8).
For East Asia, one propagation path was northwest through Central Asia to China, which explains why the first Buddhist text was translated in the language from Central Asia rather than the language from India (Ebrey et al. 58). For Southeast Asia, the route started from east to Sri Lanka and then to most of the Southeast Asia (Ebrey et al. 58).
Though language diversity occurred along the path of the dissemination of the Buddhism, some translators like Kumarajiva made huge contributions to unify the language of Buddhist text and thus made the spreading of Buddhism more smooth (Ebrey et al. 59-60).
According to the research of some scholars, it was during the Han Dynasty that Buddhism was initially brought into China by the Buddhist monks travelling from the outside world with the development of diplomacy and trade. However, the development of Buddhism was quite limited due to the prosperity of Confucianism in Han times. After the decline of the Han Dynasty in 220 C.E., Buddhism started to flourish in 300 C.E. (Ebrey et al. 70).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinas History and Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Buddhist emphasized that the quality of “kindness, charity, the preservation of life, and prospect of salvation” was significantly important (Ebrey et al. 70). Such emphasises attracted not only male followers but also female followers since becoming a nun emancipated women from being repressed in their traditional role in the ancient Chinese society (Ebrey et al. 70-71).
How Asian countries influenced China The Korean states appeared in China through the Tang Dynasties from Han such that they were in close contact with the people of China (Ebrey et al. 98). The author then stated that since the Tang and Sui authorities attempted to sabotage the Koreans, they developed a lot of resistance against the two governments in order to secure their livelihood in China (98). This evoked a lot of competition against the expansion of the two Chinese territories considering that the three territories wanted to expand geographically.
Additionally, the Manchurian were one of the most important dynasties which sahped the history of China and its culture. In this regard, the Manchus fought against the Chinese Ming dynasty so that they could rule China (Ebrey et al., 255).
Ebrey argued that conquering China was one of the Manchus’ priorities since they considered it as resourceful country as compared to its counterparts including Korea (255). After the conquest of China by the Manchus Qing reigned over the land Chinese territory seeking political ties with Joseon who helped them to extend their campaign in China.
Following the weakening of security in China, Qing expanded it by conquering other territories around the Chinese vicinity. This obviously led to the geographical expansion of China leading to the increased security. However, Ebrey pointed out that during an attempted conquest of Joseon, the Korean state proved it strength by portraying its resolve as a nonthreatening territory which could remain autonomous (255).
Works Cited Ebrey, Patricia, Anne Walthall, and James Palais. East Asia: a cultural, social, and political history. 2nd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 2012. Print.
Lockard, Craig. Southeast Asia in world history. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Sen, Tansen, and Victor Mair. Traditional China in Asian and world history. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Asian Studies, 2012. Print.
Trautmann, Thomas. India: brief history of a civilization. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
The Eighteenth Amendment Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction The United States common tradition did not rule out the use or acquisition of any alcoholic drink. However, the Eighteenth Amendment proscribed the shipping, rummage sale, and production of alcohol. The devoted faction strived to support the control of alcohol purchase and consumption based on several reasons. In fact, the group discerned the direct association amid the inconsiderate social conducts and alcohol.
The faction believed that domestic violence and child abuse transpired from the uncontrolled alcohol consumption. According to Shay (2004), the pessimistic crash on the US labor output resulted from hysterical alcoholism (p.67). The dilemma of alcoholism was thus tossed into an act following the emotion of Anti-German. This occurred during the Second World War. This paper describes and analyzes the account of the eighteenth amendment.
Main Body The asylum seekers from Germany alias alien enemies controlled most of the United States breweries. The feeling of the Anti-German was not to manufacture alcohol but to feed the military using fashioned grain. Conversely, some other groups such as the NPR (National Prohibition Reforms) and AAPA (Association against the Prohibition Amendment) battled the growth of this project.
At the onset of the fiscal 1919, the Eighteenth Amendment got ratification from the Congress in spite of the attempts of anti-Prohibition factions. The prohibition of transporting, importing, exporting, selling, and manufacturing alcoholic drinks came into effect in the year 1920. The Amendment augmented when nearly twenty nations (65%) countrywide had banished alcohol.
The already stored wine cellar had to bother less since the Amendment had put a stop to the crouch of individual exploitation and ownership of alcohol. Therefore, the US central government grabbed the aptitude to enforce the ban through the Act of National Prohibition. The vital Amendment delineated the extent of intoxicating alcohol, usage exceptions, and penalties against the violation of law. The officially authorized and utmost value of alcohol in any drink was 0.50% percent (Shay 61).
Ratification of the 18th Amendment
The achievement of the Eighteenth Amendment approval occurred in early January of the fiscal 1919. The ratification cropped up after three hundred and ninety four days in over three quarters of the US nations. Ten days prior to the ratification, a formal certification by the stand-in Secretary of State ensued.
Besides, there was a time limit for the ratification following the necessitated number of states by the 18th Amendment. The Amendment could not come into effect provided few nations had ratified the Act in a period of seven years. Historically, there was a challenge on the legality of the Act with the inclusion of time bounds in the proposed constitutional amendment for the first time. In the mid 1921, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the constitutionality of the Eighteenth Amendment (Wheeler 91).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The 18th Amendment had three sections with the first and second sections proving to be the relevant part for the implementation and proscription of alcohol. The first section prohibited the exportation, importation, transportation, and production of alcohol for drinking purpose in the US or any territory under jurisdiction.
In order to enforce the Amendment through suitable legislation, the second section provided for the states and Congress to possess powers that concurred. In the last section, the editorial provided that if the parliament endorsed the revision in seven years founded on the legal requirements form, the submission date by the senate would make it out of order. Thus far, the specificity of the amendment and its enforcement did not come clear in the statements of this article (Blocker 1237).
The enabling legislation (1919 Act of National Prohibition) provided a resolution to the itching issues of alcoholism. According to Wheeler (1919), the Act was famous as Volstead Andrew who sponsored the legislation and chaired the committee on Senate Judiciary (p.45). Besides, the Congress superseded the President’s veto after he alluded to the constitutional and moral objections in October 1919.
The official entitlement of the Volstead Act strived to endorse scientific research and indemnify abundant supply and usage of alcohol in industries, drying, and energy growth. The Act aspired to control the sale and usage of high proof alcohol, production, and manufacture of spirits. The Amendment commonly aimed at forbidding the intoxicating drinks. Even though the 18th Amendment seemed short, its implementation was not easy as it was confusing and intricate in interpretation.
The effects of 18th Amendment
The implementation of the Amendment under certain exemptions existed as unlawful. In fact, particular illegitimate alcohol production industry substituted the legal businesses. Violence and murder engulfed between criminal gangs, organized criminals, and minor marketplace operators in rivalry over market rheostat. The consumers succumbed to painful fatalities, sightlessness, and paralysis given the haphazardly prepared bootleg drinks that contained creosote.
In effect, the Prohibition made consumers to switch to unsafe stuffs like liquid heat, hair tonic, cocaine, and opium that had adverse effects on their lives. Similarly, the prohibition led to dishonesty as bootleggers and moonshiners paid off the custodians of Prohibition Bureau, sheriffs, and police in order to carry out shoddy business (Blocker 1237). The spread of corruption in most cities and towns generally facilitated disrespect for the rule of law. Further, assassination and hostility transpired given the failure to use bribes.
On the other hand, the Amendment forced individuals to gulp alcohol given the obnoxious, intense, and infrequent consumption. The proscription saddled the taxpayer and depressed the returns generated by the government due to elevated confinement, courtyard, and decree enforcement operating costs.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Eighteenth Amendment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The involvement of prohibition touched almost 70% of the entire expenses of national government. Taft asserted that the disenchantment came with Prohibition over a period of five years (p. 55). Actually, he wrote that reverence for the law had shrunk instead of intensifying and the government expenditure was higher. Moreover, journalist engraved that there was no condensed amount of mental illness, transgression, and drunkenness in the entire nation given that they were even more.
The Repeal of 18th Amendment
The United States continually suffered from the bottlenecks of the Eighteenth Amendment with threats evident in welfare, financial system, ethics, security, and health sector. The prohibitionists emphasized on the possibilities of repealing the Amendment despite its ratification. Over the years, the tribulation of Prohibition augmented to increase antagonism from the populace. A call for the Repeal of this article ultimately came from the diverse supporters of the Act.
Interestingly, a longevity abstainer called Rockefeller John felt the effect and consequences of the prohibition and supported the Repeal of this Amendment (Taft 61). The WTCU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union) was essential in national Prohibition since they coveted to guard kids, women, and families from the cruel consequences of alcoholism. Women supported the Repeal owing to the fact that Prohibition did not meet their endeavors.
The command for Repeal from numerous organizations increased attributable to the discontent and disenchantment in the US. These associations encompassed VCL (Voluntary Committee of Lawyers), WMU (Women’s Modernization Union), URC (United Repeal Union), and AAPA (Association against the Prohibition Amendment). Nevertheless, specific organizations that supported the Prohibition were against the upsurge of Repeal.
These included, the Temperance Strategy Board, World League against Alcoholism, and Methodist Board of Temperance. The plank of anti-Prohibition along with the year 1932 election guaranteed by President Roosevelt of the Democratic Party came from such prohibitions (Barry 72). Merely a solitary US nation opposed the Repeal while the citizens casted off the Prohibition by seventy four percent of the ballots in favor of Repeal against the opposing twenty six percent.
In the year 1933, Repeal of the 18th Amendment occurred in December with the 21st Amendment. The Congress Act in the late 1935 saw the Repeal of the first and second sections of the Volstead Act. Separate Repeal of the laws of federal Prohibition took place in different provinces and localities.
The Volstead Act reprieved the influential funding of the Congress by the 18th Amendment. As such, the Act turned out to be unenforceable and illogical according to the Supreme Court in the US. In general, discharge emerged from the infringement of the Volstead Act pending the verdict of certainty before the Repeal date (Barry 54).
Conclusion After the Second World War, the temperance progress (neo-Prohibition) was latent and surfaced with fresh and customized ideologies as well as characteristics. Indeed, over the last quarter of the 20th century the consumption of spirits, wines and beer has radically begged off.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Eighteenth Amendment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The supposition that people are not trustworthy when making suitable choices in their lives cuts across the rehabilitated progress. The government is likely to employ legislations that impose restrictions on the liberty of an individual to safeguard the public or citizens from their ingestion actions. Instead of ascertaining strict legal prohibition, the administration ought to exercise tactics such as marginalizing the alcohol consumers and making liquor less communally allowable. This is what the eighteenth amendment is intended to do.
Works Cited Barry, James. The Noble Experiment, 1919-1933: The Eighteenth Amendment Prohibits Liquor in America, New York, Florida: Watts Press, 1972. Print.
Blocker, Jack. “Shaping the Eighteenth Amendment.” Journal of American History, 82.3(1995): 1235-37.
Shay, Gene. Amendment 18, Prohibition: Amendment 21, Repeal of Prohibition, Lawrenceville, NJ: Cambridge Educational, 2004. Print.
Taft, William. The 18th Amendment, Detroit, MI: Henry Joy Press, 1930. Print.
Wheeler, Wayne. The Eighteenth Amendment, Chicago, IL: National Conference of Social Work, 1919. Print.