The selected person for observation is a thirteen-year-old boy with a Mexican ethnic background. The boy comes from a family of five with an unstable background as the parents are unemployed. Their culture is a blend of indigenous and Spanish customs; however, traditions vary significantly across the country. Consequently, in his family, the traditions of their people are revered, and all the most important Mexican holidays are celebrated. The boy says that his father is often not at home because he works a lot.
Findings from the literature review showed that Freud believed that the first five years of a child’s existence are critical in shaping the people they will become. ID checks are necessary to comply with societal norms, yet this leads to tensions between individuals’ unsatisfied wants and those of the community at large. The ego and superego form help us use that power and direct our desires in ways that are more acceptable to the rest of society (Freud, 2017). At each stage of development, pleasure is concentrated in a different part of the body, creating a psychosexual conflict.
Conflicts must be handled for an individual to progress through each stage of psychosexual development. As an individual evolves psychologically, the more energy he expends resolving these issues, the more essential those phases’ features become to him as he grows up sexually (Fulgencio, 2020). To explain this, Freud suggested the analogy of military units on the march. As units advance, they will encounter opposition or conflict. If they are highly successful in winning the battle (conflict resolution), then most of the units (libido) will be able to move on to the next battle (phase). However, the greater the difficulty encountered at any particular point, the greater the need for troops to remain in the fight, and the fewer will be able to move on to the next confrontation. In this case, this paper critically aims to analyze and translate the various characteristics observed in a patient through Freud’s theory of development.
The following essential aspect is the documentation of observations after the conversation with the boy. Therefore, at thirteen years old, physical, mental, emotional, and social transformations are taking place. When a child reaches puberty, their hormone levels shift (Simmons & Blyth, 2017). Most boys develop facial and pubic hair as well as a deeper voice as they age. There will be peer pressure for a teen to drink, smoke, use drugs, and have sex at this period. The observed noted that at the moment, he is under this kind of influence from his peers but tries not to succumb to it.
Moreover, teenagers develop personalities and interests, yet their parents’ influence remains strong. Hence, despite the strong influence of American culture, the observed boy was still experiencing conflict, as he was heavily exposed to Mexican culture at home. This contributes to the development of high levels of stress, which affects the fact that children are increasingly starting to try smoking, drinking, or using drugs. This is especially dangerous when a child’s peers and classmates engage in these activities. However, it should be understood that this deviation occurs because young people have a heightened sense of opposition to their everyday life. Moreover, due to the difficulties in social life, they prefer illegal actions that are prohibited to minors.
Depression, liver failure, and other chronic disorders are all frequently brought on by drug and alcohol use. Recovering from an alcohol or drug abuse problem is not always an easy task. The method used by the parents of the surveyed boy is to maintain contact and control through a mobile phone and social networks. Therefore, parents need a cell phone to keep tabs on their child’s locations, which is why they insist on it.
The use of these devices, on the other hand, might be addictive and have an impact on a child’s outlook on life and behavior. It is possible that strangers on social media could take advantage of the impressionable adolescent. It is usual for teenagers to have mood fluctuations, which can range from euphoria to apathy. It does not matter what triggers them; they will launch into a tirade about how unjust the world around them is. Sometimes mood swings might be a sign of depression. Mood swings and depression can be distinguished from adolescent rebellion by looking at how severe and long-lasting they are and what domains they affect. The adolescent may become irate with their relatives frequently and for no apparent cause.
It must be noted that the boy is very argumentative and talkative, which can result in him growing more so as an adult. Perhaps this is because he has to take the role of a male figure in the family due to the constant absence of his father, which causes him anger. It should be recognized that rage is a normal human emotion and that it is especially prevalent among adolescents. In the end, if they do not channel their anger effectively, it can turn into aggression and lead to violence that is damaging to themselves and others. Adolescents, most people feel as if the world revolves around them at this age. They may believe that everyone is staring at them or that their behavior is somehow to blame for everyone else’s bad behavior.
The self-esteem of most 13-year-olds also fluctuates wildly, which can be seen during the conversation with the boy. The child stated that they could have a positive self-perception one day and a negative one the next. Even if they want to do things on their own, they may desire their parents’ assurance that they are on the correct road. Even though most 13-year-olds have grown out of their childhood playthings, they continue to engage in a variety of activities with their peers. Most of them want to be active with their friends, whether it is through sleepover parties, backyard camping, board games, or sports. In comparison to time spent with parents and siblings, the observed child prefers to spend time with their peer group rather than with the parents. As kids experiment with interests, activities, clothing, haircuts, and music, they begin to create an identity at this age. They experiment with a variety of guises to see which one is most comfortable. Moreover, the tendency to isolate from the rest of the family can be underlined, which acts as a response to inside and outside stress.
Playing with their classmates can be a crucial social outlet and an essential aspect of a child’s growth, even though it may be difficult to watch. As a bonus, it can help individuals deal with their stress. The positive aspect is that the 13-year-old is becoming more self-reliant. Nevertheless, the boy confides in the friend group more frequently, rather than relatives. Because of this, parents must talk to their children frequently about a wide range of topics, including but not limited to sex, drugs, bullying, and other inappropriate activities.
There are several factors parents should consider when it comes to the protection of their children at this age. Reminding kids this age to buckle up, whether driving or riding a scooter, bike, or skateboard, is an excellent place to start. If parents are concerned about their children’s safety online, now is the time to talk to them about the dangers of social media and cell phones. Set some ground rules for social media use, such as what should be shared and what should not be shared. People may want to consider making child’s accounts private and keeping an eye on their online activities. Moreover, the importance of doing things right online in a productive way must be discussed, as well as how to avoid hurting others online and how to deal with feelings.
Therefore, this work investigated how Freud’s theory is reflected in the behavior of a boy under observation. Following the observation and findings section, it is clear that the developmental characteristics are supported by Freudian Theory. This is because Sigmund Freud’s beliefs on adult personality development form the basis of the psychoanalytic method. Theories were divided into four categories: level of consciousness, personality structure, defense mechanisms, and stages of psychosexual growth. Based on Freud’s theory, an adult’s personality is made up of three distinct parts: the id, which is primarily concerned with having fun; the ego, which is concerned with being aware of the world around; and the superego, which is concerned with maintaining morality at all levels of consciousness.
Therefore, it was concluded that the observant might suffer from anxiety. It is generated by the interaction of different personality structures, which necessitates the use of a variety of defense mechanisms. They appear to hide the underlying, anxiety-inducing motives for the conduct of these systems work. Moreover, the boy’s desire to rebel and smoke can be explained using the theory. Therefore, the libido is centered in his or her mouth during the initial stage of psychosexual development. As a child, his libido and the desires of the id are both satiated during the oral stages by placing everything and everything in his mouth. Sucking, biting, and breastfeeding are all examples of mouth-oriented activities during this period of life. Oral stimulation, according to Sigmund Freud, might lead to oral fixation later in life. Oral habits such as smoking, nail biting, finger chewing, and thumb sucking are all around us. When under stress, people with oral patient quality tend to indulge in such actions.
A child’s libido turns to its genitals as an erogenous zone during the phallic stage, the third stage of psychosexual development, which can last from three to six years. After learning about the physical distinctions between genders, the kid begins to experience complexes of sensual desire, resentment, rivalry, and jealousy. This can be rectified by identifying the patient with the traits of the child’s biological parent.
Freud, S. (2017). Three essays on the theory of sexuality: The 1905 edition. Verso Books.
Fulgencio, L. (2020). Incommensurability between paradigms, revolutions and common ground in the development of psychoanalysis. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 101(1), 13-41.
Simmons, R. G., & Blyth, D. A. (2017). Moving into adolescence: The impact of pubertal change and school context. Routledge.