The American Disability Act, ADA Case Study Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Case One

Case two


Introduction According to the American Disability Act, ADA is an act which is based on the premise that an employer who has 15 or more employees ensures that they provide reasonable accommodation for those employees or individuals who have disabilities.

However, this is unless those disabilities would be deemed to bring about or cause undue hardship. Essentially, reasonable accommodation is a change that follows changes in the work environment which is usually aimed at helping a person who has got disabilities to fit in.

Case One According to the ADA, an employer must ensure that the reasonable accommodation arrangements are made for the employee with disabilities. This should ensure that the employee can be in a position of carrying out the essential functions of the job.

Therefore, if an employer is in a position of modifying the job’s requirement structure or structure which will cause the employer perceived hardships and at the same time ensure that an employee who has got disabilities to work, then it is paramount that the change of the job should be made. In this case, Hand meets the legal definition of a qualified individual who has got a disability.

This is because he cannot be able to carry out some tasks within the job description because of the prevailing circumstances with regard to his health condition. According to the ADA, the employer should be in a position to ensure that he creates conditions or opportunities for employees like Hand to work. This implies that it is the responsibility of the employer to create such conditions.

Case two The LMRA is an abbreviation which stands for Labor Management Relations Act. This is a federal law which regulates the kind of relationship that exists between the employers and the employees or the workers. This law seeks to bring a balance between the in terms of rights and needs employers and employees. This is particularly in line with wages, issues to do with collective bargaining and the working conditions of the employees.

The discharge from duty of Dale and Brady was a violation of section 8(a) (1) and (3) of the LMRA. This is because the discharge was directed towards the interference and restraint which was directed against collective activity. In addition, the action taken by their employer was discriminatory in nature since it attempted to discourage any form of support for the collective formation of a union.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Essentially, instead of the employer seeking to sack the employees, it should have sought to clarify the stand of the management with regard to the issues which were being raised by Dale and Brady. This would have resulted into a common agreement in light of the subject which was at hand.

The decision by JTI to award only half of the safety bonus money available to its truck drivers was unlawful. This is because it was a decision which was arrived at without taking into considerations the interests of the workers. The workers were not consulted thus the move might be considered to be dictatorial and non democratic.

References Holley, W., Kenneth, J.,


Marcus Garvey and His Influence on Harlem Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Brief Biography

Garvey’s Ideas

Controversies and Inconsistencies

Contribution to Harlem Community


Works Cited

Introduction Marcus Garvey remains one of the most controversial figures of the movements for Black people’s rights. In 1910s, this man founded one of the most powerful organizations (of its time) aimed at complete liberation of Black people.

He also became the man who brought a new life to Harlem Black community. He inspired a lot of people to continue their struggle. It is also possible to note that Garvey was one of the most remarkable figures that contributed to the development of the Civil Rights Movements.

This man is regarded as one of the leaders of the movement for Black people’s rights (Ansbro xii). At the same time, Marcus Garvey had very specific views on the role of different races. His opinions were often in conflict with ideas and principles of other leaders.

Furthermore, Garvey was accused of a number of crimes, which contributed to diminishing of his popularity. These controversies have created two major camps of Garvey’s followers and Garvey’s critics or even enemies.

However, irrespective of different views and opinions, all admit that Marcus Garvey was an inspirational man who contributed greatly to the development of Harlem community.

Brief Biography Marcus Garvey was born in Jamaica on August 17, 1887 (Garvey 3). He gained good education “through private tutors, two public schools, two grammar of high schools and two colleges” (Garvey 4). Garvey noted that in his early years he did not see the difference between Whites and Blacks as he was surrounded by people of different races, ethnicities, genders and social statuses.

The first time he acknowledged the fact that there is race distinction was when he was a teenager. When he was fourteen, he had a white female friend.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was at that time when her parents “decided to draw the color line” and forbid the girl to communicate with Garvey because he was a “nigger” (Garvey 4). In maturity, race distinctions were more definite and Garvey started realizing his identity and the place his people played in the world.

Notably, Garvey travelled a lot throughout his life. He started his journey in 1910 when he left his homeland, Jamaica. He travelled across Central America. In 1912-1914, Garvey lived in London. He studied in daytime and he used to deliver speeches at the famous Speakers’ Corner in Hyde Park in the evenings (Moses 238).

At that time he became acquainted with the famous Pan-Africanist Duse Mohamed Ali who was the publisher of The African Times and Orient Review. This acquaintance influenced Garvey immensely as it is possible to state that his views were based on Mohamed Ali’s works.

In 1914, Garvey returned to Jamaica and in five days after his arrival the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities (Imperial) League (UNIA) was created (Dagnini 199).

The program of the organization was to unite “all the negro peoples of the world into one great body to establish a country and Government absolutely their own” (Garvey 5). The organization became very popular in Jamaica and thousands of people became members of the organization.

In 1916, Marcus Garvey came to New York to deliver a series of lectures on issues concerning Pan-African movement. In 1917, Garvey started a branch of the UNIA in the United States. The organization acquired wide popularity in Harlem and it had two thousand members within 3 weeks after its creation (Dagnini 200).

Within two years the organization had 30 branches in the United States and it had more than 2 million members worldwide (Dagnini 200). Garvey also launched his weekly newspaper The Negro World which propagated ideas of African American people’s dignity, pride, etc.

We will write a custom Essay on Marcus Garvey and His Influence on Harlem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the late 1920s, Garvey had to leave the USA. He came back to Jamaica as a winner, as a leader of his people. He set up People’s Political Party in 1929. He contributed greatly to the development of his motherland. In 1935, he came to London.

His health conditions worsened and he died in 1940 after two strokes (Rolinson 192). Notably, his ideas did not die as Garvey had numerous followers worldwide.

Garvey’s Ideas Many people consider Marcus Garvey to be one of the most influential Pan-Africanists. He believed Africans should be proud of who they were and get rid of their way of thinking (Dagnini 200). Garvey knew that many Blacks still could not get rid of the sense they are still enslaved, many Blacks could not stop behaving as if they were still slaves.

Marcus Garvey strived for “the repatriation of Black people of the African Diaspora to Africa” and development “of a strong and powerful Negro nation in Africa” (qtd. in Dagnini 200).

It is important to note that Garvey often resorted to Christianity in his speeches. His mother was Christian and he was quite a devoted Christian as well. He often delivered his speeches in churches.

Such meetings were as popular as his lectures as there were many Christians among Blacks in Jamaica and New York. Garvey’s followers saw that their leader shared their views on major issues as religion is about major beliefs of people.

Importantly, Garvey had quite a specific program to help Africans flourish. For instance, he believed that Africans needed to have a network of their own enterprises to be able to finance development of their new homeland (Garvey liii).

He believed that it was the right way to prove Africans were equal to Europeans. Therefore, it is possible to state that Garvey did not simply articulate popular ideas but had a particular plan to achieve the major goals.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marcus Garvey and His Influence on Harlem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Garvey stressed the idea of Africans’ unification on their land. His ideas were accepted eagerly as at that time people strived for their leader as “colored race” was “greatly in need of a Moses… a man of the people and designated by the people” (qtd. in Garvey xxxviii).

Garvey’s energy and his radicalism won the hearts of thousands (and even millions) of people. He also used to stress he was one of his people as he had the same background and he had to face the same hardships.

Furthermore, Garvey was quite specific in his ideas concerning race distinction as he was against intermixed couples and he “argued for segregation rather than integration” (Dagnini 200).

Such ideas were quite popular among African Americans at that time as they were hostile to Europeans. The ghosts of slavery were still alive and African Americans did not trust Europeans.

Controversies and Inconsistencies Nonetheless, his ideas as well as his philosophy were not consistent as there was quite a lot of controversy about Garvey and his ‘religion’. One of the most controversial parts of his philosophy was concerned with evolution of nations. Thus, he saw development in a way which contradicted the ideas of black race’s empowerment.

He believed that Africans should try to achieve the level of development of Europeans. He ignored uniqueness of African culture and wanted to make Africans create a white-like society, so-to-speak.

He was fascinated by European civilization and European path of industrial development. Garvey wished to make Africans appreciate classical music and start creating things Europeans had made. He noted:

Until you can produce what the white man has produced you will not be his equal (Garvey liii).

More so, he followed Europeans’ path even when pursuing his ideas concerning racial purity. Garvey propagated ideas of possible or even inevitable violence against the white race. He even stated that Africans needed their Hitler and even praised such organization as Ku Klux Klan (Dagnini 202).

Garvey claimed that this organization had the right trajectory as they wanted to make their land free from aliens. According to Garvey, Africans should have similar organizations which would propagate purity of nation in Africa free from European tyranny (Ansbro 51).

Garvey also believed that Africans were aliens in both Americas. He wanted Africans to create a strong nation in Africa. Therefore, though he spoke about equality, he accepted the right of the white man to live in Europe or Americas. He believed Africans should leave these continents.

His ideas concerning equality were also inconsistent as he believed Africans should follow European patterns of development. He did not assume that Africans could have their own way to develop and create a strong nation.

Contribution to Harlem Community However, irrespective of these inconsistencies the UNIA “was the greatest and strongest movement ever started among Negroes” (qtd. in Garvey xxxvi). It contributed greatly to the development of Harlem community (Rolinson 162). Activism declined in Harlem in 1910s as the major leaders of the African people’s movement left the stage.

Garvey became a new strong and inspirational leader who articulated ideas that had been in people’s minds for a long time. The UNIA united people of different backgrounds. Garvey made people believe they could win the fight. He inspired them to continue their struggle.

Importantly, Garvey suggested particular programs aimed at empowerment of people of color. He understood that financial background is important in their fight for their rights. There were quite many well-to-do Africans at that time and Garvey’s precision made them more active.

They were eager to donate money which was crucial for the development of the movement. It is possible to state that Garvey was the inspirational leader who prevented decline of the movement which eventually succeeded in the second part of the twentieth century.

Conclusion Marcus Garvey is one of the most controversial figures in the movement for rights of people of color. He strived for creation of a strong African nation which could build a potent state in Africa, uniting all Africans of the world. He understood that Africans needed financial background to achieve their goals. Admittedly, this was important for the development of the movement.

However, Garvey’s ideas were somewhat inconsistent. He propagated ideas of equality, but used to think European civilization was superior and he believed Africans should follow European patterns of development. His ideas concerning racial purity were also too radical.

Nonetheless, he played a crucial role in the development of the movement of people of color. He became the leader who inspired people to continue their struggle which was essential as Africans started losing their hope. To certain extent, Marcus Garvey was the Moses as he inspired African people to pursue their goals and their dreams.

Works Cited Ansbro, John J. The Credos of Eight Black Leaders: Converting Obstacles into Opportunities. New York, NY: University Press of America, 2005. Print.

Dagnini, Jeremie Kroubo. “Marcus Garvey: A Controversial Figure in the History of Pan-Africanism.” The Journal of Pan African Studies 2.3 (2008): 198-208. Print.

Garvey, Marcus. The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, Vol. I: 1826 – August 1919. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1983. Print.

Moses, Wilson Jeremiah. Creative Conflict in African American Thought. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.

Rolinson, Mary G. Grassroots Garveyism: The Universal Negro Improvement Association in the Rural South, 1920-1927. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2007. Print.


Meiji Period in Japan Expository Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction Japans economic, political and social stability developed intensely during the Meiji’s era. These effects were brought about by the appreciation of modern technology. This therefore contributed greatly to Japans revolution which was a transition from the feudal government.

Background Meiji period was a form of historical transition in Japan. It was a representation of a first half of the Japanese government or empire that consisted of a complete transition from the so called feudalism which was more of an isolation form of government as compared to the current modern government. There were many forms of transitions that took place (Craig 150).

This change included major transition in the military, foreign relations, economy, social structure and internal politics. This involved the formation of a completely new government that had new rules and regulations. This period had been a form of generation that was more enlightened compared to the former era. Therefore, it called for the former governor or leaders to step down and give way for the new leaders.

The reason for this was that; there was no way a former leader would rule an enlightened environment. Consequently, catching up with the newest forms of technology according to that era would have been a great challenge incase a former leader retained the office.

The new government was very tactical. It knew the main brainstems of the economy. Therefore, it resolved to first settle on financial matters. This resulted to the promulgation of a new charter that was accomplished in 1968. The Meiji governance was one organized group that had one main common goal of revolution.

Their goal first included the formation of deliberative assemblies; secondly was reviewing the customs and replacing the old and evil customs with new ways. One more major purpose for the formation of new government was to search for international knowledge that would be helpful in strengthening the rule of imperialism. These major transitions created a more clear foundation for exercising democracy in the Japanese government.

Factors that affected Meiji Restoration Effects of Tokugawa’s period

Meiji period was characterized by rapid change and modernization. This was seen in different sectors of the government. The most affected government sectors were the social, political, economic oriented institutions. The modernization resulted into Japan being rated as the most developed in the whole of Eastern Asia.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the main contributing factors to Japan’s modernization was the emulation of Togukawa society and the Togukawa beliefs (Craig 150). These beliefs catapulted the Meiji regime into a more organized and democratic governance. There are three factors that led to the smooth transformation of Meiji era. These included educational achievements, rapid economic development and common cultural and social background.

Economic development

Major contributors to economic development were road construction networks that led to developments of central business district. These industrial towns created a need for lodging areas, food reserves and goods that could provide travelers or tourists with accommodation services. These businesses provided a lot of income that was used in purchasing most intensives used for development.

The town area urbanized progressively during the Togukuwa era. In addition, most small towns developed in bigger urban areas. Therefore, the expansion of towns provided a good basis for innovation. Another major contribution to modernization was the agrarian revolution. This revolution was a transformation from subsistence farming to commercial crops farming.

The development of industries during the Togukawa period resulted into the subsequent growth of many industries during the Meiji era. Big family enterprises did develop during Togukawa era. These included the Simutomo, Mitsui and Konoike family lines. These enterprises developed into great banking companies and improved commercial businesses.

This overlapped into the Meiji’s era hence forming the big banking facilities that were seen during the Meiji’s era. The development resulted into Japan becoming a powerful industrial country.

To maintain the firm economic foundation, the Japanese had to form institutions that could be used to harness knowledge that would assist in continuity of knowledge gained during the Togukawa’s era. Many learning institutions were built that mostly related to business management studies. This was very tactful as it was significant for a new revolution.


Education brought a smooth transition to the growth and transition into the Meiji’s period. This acted as prerequisite for the excellent learning methods that were employed during the Meiji’s period. In addition, the country had gained a higher level of literacy at the time the Meiji’s era was about to begin. It was of much respect to have educated friends during the Togukawa’s period hence this education extended into Meiji’s era.

We will write a custom Essay on Meiji Period in Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Education was a sure foundation for development as it had been changing from time to time. This was like an assurance to the Meiji’s era because by the time the transition was taking there would be great achievements. Many merchants gained financial knowledge that would be used during Meiji’s period.

There was another reason why the Meiji era became successful prior to the Togukawa’s era. This was in terms of business knowledge advancements. The merchants who existed in the previous era gained financial and entrepreneual knowledge that would be used in the subsequent period which was the Meiji period.

Consolidation of power during the Meiji Period

Following world war two, the emperors in Japan resolved to form a new rule that was democratic in stature. The new governance was formed after the abolition of feudalism. The new change of democracy and governance resulted to the signing of a charter oath by Emperor Hironto which was done with the Humanity Declaration Committee.

This oath was to act as a sign of treaty for change to more democratic governance. This gave the emperor more powers as he would preside over all state business proceedings in the entire area of Japan (Shimposha 289). During this time the city Edo was named Tokyo and the capital city was transferred to Tokyo.

The population in the city of Tokyo was distributed evenly. Moreover, it is during this capital transformation that the emperor established for a more strengthened navy. The emperor was mostly involved in governance issues such as administration and organization of the cabinet.

Political Reforms

The Meiji regime had a well established administration that included a prime minister. This emulated the western form of governance hence a modernized government. The new leaders in Japan resorted to reform the work system of the major territories by daimyo (Shimposha 289).

Moreover, some members who were supporters of daimyo were accepted in the new government and were reappointed as leaders. The daimyo rule was later abolished by 1871. In addition, the privileges of the Samurai were declined as other groups such as burakumin had legalized discrimination imposed against them.

Meiji’s era had a nonfunctional parliament at its inception. It is at this time that Japan was controlled by the Samurai and daimyo who had received power transition from Tokugawa era. This meant that Japan was controlled by the Genro a part of the Oligarchy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Meiji Period in Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This group was highly equipped in terms of security. This therefore meant that the Japanese had the most powerful transformation which occurred within a single generation. They gained fame for this all over the Pacific area.

Rapid changes in the Meiji Era

There were radical changes that took place during the Meiji transformation. First, the army became more refurbished (Tipton 400). The change occurred in their dressing style which became more western in style. In addition, the military adopted more westernized weapons and guarding tactics.

To add to these, there was education for both boys and girls in the society. The industrial sector was also transformed to modern manufacturing industry like those that only appeared in the West. This led to production and manufacturing of more sophisticated goods that fitted in the modern revolution.

The kind of education the Japanese acquired enabled them to manufacture powerful weapons that were used for the territory security. The result of these changes was a drafted constitution in 1989 that transformed Japan to be turned into a constitutional monarchy.

Japan utilized the weapons in war times that enabled them to secure their territory. Japan was so powerful that it ended up being transformed from a mere island nation to an imperial power by its own right and might. Therefore, Japan overstepped many countries in East Asia to top the ranks of the most powerful countries.

Challenges during the Meiji’s transformation

The major challenges that affected the Meiji’s rule were born by the negative effects of the Shogunate. His downfall led to so many positive dramatic changes.

Reasons for Modernization

Japan thought that they had been left behind in terms of modernization. In the event to counteract the issue, there arose a very powerful regime that resulted into a more of enlightened governance. This modernization was spread to almost all economic sectors in the country. In addition, advancement in technology impacted the following areas; the military, political system and lastly the social aspect.

This rule was termed as “the enlightened rule” because it was to transform Japan from its “naïve” nature to a more modernized society. This aspect was going to be very crucial but the leaders were dedicated to bring change in Japan. Also, Japan was preparing itself for future incapacities that could arise due to lack of better preparation.

The Japanese emperors in that time knew well that for them to make it through the wars that were foreseen, they were to be well armed as the imperial superpowers. The rule that existed in the Meiji’s period wanted a collaboration of views that would integrate both western ways to traditional values.

Therefore, they resorted to make a complete “enlightenment” to every aspect of governance that existed. This involved the people and the physical objects.

Effects of the Meiji Era

Japan accelerated industrial revolution was as a result of Meiji’s era. This led to a powerful military rise in the year 1905. Their main slogan during the regime was “Strengthen the military as a result of enriching the power”. This strong nature led to the rule and discrimination of traditional monarchies that surrendered at the end.

The difference between the new governance and the former Samurai one was that, every male was allowed to serve in the armed forces and the right to the bear arms. Moreover, new government did not allow the Samurai males to carry along with them weapons that would act as a form of identification for them.

On the other hand, the samurai still held their heads high since they still remained the most educated of all in the society (More 55). They comprised part of the military, teaching staff, makers of guns and government officials.

Evidence that shows that Japan’s military team was strengthened was the victory which was seen in two wars. These were the Russo-Japanese war and Sino-Japanese war. In addition, the Japanese went to an extent of winning a war against Russia a super powerful country. Japan’s fame could also be compared to how both China and Japan responded to external invasions.

China had a more reluctant response which led to their defeat. The Chinese branded themselves with the notion of self superiority. Chinese military group were not prepared to the great modernization that had taken placed. The attacks by the made the country remained complacent hence its tactics were futile. On the other hand, Japan had a different mindset that had been impacted by the revolution in the Meiji’s era.

The foresight by the Japanese to embrace modernizing was a great stepping stone into their winning strategies. Therefore, between 1894 and 1895, Japan was in a great position to defend itself against any external attacks by any external military forces.

Industrial Growth

The Meiji’s restoration brought about a fundamental aspect of the society which was industrial growth. This was seen in the massive doubling in the infrastructure and production industry. The forms of productions were iron smelting, shipyards and spinning meals that were sold to connected consumers of the products.

Consequently, western technology was greatly employed by domestic companies to produce highly sophisticated products. These were finally sold to international markets and enhanced trade across borders. The growth in trade consequently led to the creation of modern communication lines and railway line.

International Trade

The Meiji’s rule or era had a lot of trade relations with the international countries. It was at the time of the era that Japan started emerging as a big international trade country. However, this trade was nonexistent in the past or it only existed in a limited form (Ebrey 405). Initially, Japan was also biased in choosing the country to trade with.

There were countries which were segregated and repelled to an extent that they could not form partnerships with Japan. Secondly, there were countries that were grouped for trading. The grouped countries were Netherlands and China.

They were collectively known as “Tsusho-no-kuni”. Lastly, there were those countries that acted in partnership with Japan in terms of trade. These also had a collective name which was “Tsushin-no-kuni”. Countries that acted as partners were like the Great Britain. This last group of countries was invited to major Japanese events like celebrations and in big festivals.

This biasness was cut off by the Meiji’s rule. The era resulted into the introduction of boarder line trading. Japan had a transition that was nicknamed “the enlightened era” hence it was very prudent that members of the state act in a more intelligent way to allow modernization.

First, they had to expand the boarders to allow other traders to interchange their goods with them. This eventually led to their expansion. Being a very clever lot, they embraced the issue of trade with other countries hence, they greatly improved.

Consequently, Japan expanded the trade to even powerful countries. It signed treaties with America, Russia, Canada and many countries in Europe. In addition, Japan made revisions of treaties within the Asian boarders hence having a more strengthened bond. The result for these radical steps was the rise of a very powerful Asian country from a very humble beginning.

Japan went as far as being accepted as a member in the Ruling Directorate of International Society. Moreover, Japan started to import raw materials which were manufactured into finished products and then were sold to other countries.


The entrepreneurs in Japan became more enlightened and powerful. This effort alternatively was reflected in the economy of the country. Great collaboration with the government and passion for development were the main contributors of the improved economy (Tipton 456).

Furthermore, their genuine interest in progress economically also boosted the country in terms of economic development. The origin of the entrepreneurs was the Sumarai’s. These people were better placed in the economic grounds than any other group because of their rich cultural heritage. They employed a sense of honor in their duties hence accomplished their work with diligence.

Labor Force

The labor force in Japan was mainly unskilled and did not recognize the new technologies. This called for a more technical force that would deal with the different forms of technology (Ebrey 550). Therefore, the Meiji’s era opted to create a solution for the need at hand. This issue eventually led to the creation of an opportunity for revolution in the labor force.

Therefore, a revolution was started that was geared to more of advancement and revolution. This included education and learning which resulted into a stronger generation in the time of the Meiji’s era.

This was commendable because it brought a lot of advancement not only in labor force but also in areas of research and creation of educational institutions. The basis for education was to make the citizens learned and also to counter the rapid changes that occurred in the modern world.

Conclusion The Meiji’s reign was a far-reaching era that was constituted majorly with change. This reign opened a new era for Japan as a country in its social, political and economic aspects. These aspects were key elements in the characterization of a developed nation.

The era involved a complete change to that which had never existed before. In addition, the era explained the major aspects of modernism which was more of a transition rather than a restoration era.

The factors that show that the Meiji era was a transformation to a new era points out the issue of constitutional promulgation, a highly developed communication and transport system, a well established industrial system that employed modern technology with a refurbished military system and lastly an established democratic government.

These advancements could only apply to a country that has improved. On the other hand, restoration would mean that these things existed before which is not the case for the Meiji’s era. Therefore, Meiji’s era was a revolution rather than a restoration.

Works Cited Craig, Albert. Meiji’s Restoration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961. Print.

Ebrey, Patricia. East Asia: Cultural, Political, historical and Social Aspects. New York: Wordsworth Publisher, 2005.Print.

More, Connie. Industrial Revolution in Japan. New York: Routeledge, 2000.Print.

Shimposha, Kui. Globalization in Asian Countries. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000. Print.

Tipton, Kathlan. Japan: From Togukawa to Meiji. Tokyo: Princeton University Press, 2003. Print.


Consumer Behaviour Campaign: Honda Insight Hybrid Report (Assessment) essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction The purpose of this campaign was to research and analyse the key consumer behaviour issues towards an advertising campaign. The product that we chose was Honda Insight Hybrid vehicle. Following is a picture of the Honda Insight Hybrid car.

Honda Insight Hybrid Honda wanted to target two categories of customers for their new vehicle launch. Firstly, the students and professionals within the age group of 20 to 29, who were interested in a stylish and safe mode of transportation. Secondly, the elderly above 55 years of age who preferred a technologically advanced and environment friendly vehicle.

The most favoured method of analyzing any product is the SWOT analysis. SWOT means the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of that particular product or company. Following is an illustration of the SWOT analysis of Honda Insight Hybrid car.

SWOT Analysis of Honda Insight Hybrid Strengths

Honda has a great brand image that will surely help in building up the sales. In today’s world, when the fuel sources are becoming limited and alternative sources of energy are being sought, the fuel efficiency of Honda Insight Hybrid is a welcome feature.

Commenting on a test drive, Ben Stewart said, “If gasoline prices continue to raise much beyond today’s $4 per gallon national average, both Toyota and Honda should see sales of these two hybrids skyrocket.

But if we could have just one of these cars to drive every day, our pick would be the slightly-more-fun Honda.” (Stewart, 2011). Honda has used the latest technology in manufacturing the car.

Another positive aspect of the car is that it emits less pollution and is environment friendly. As a result of these features, the car is expected to be favoured by the masses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weaknesses

The inclusion of new features has raised the cost of the car. Honda Insight Hybrid might be the preferred car but due to the high price, most of the people may not be able to afford it. The car hasn’t been tested yet for its on-road performance.

As such, people might resist buying it immediately. They would prefer to wait and watch. According to reports, one of the major drawbacks of Honda Insight Hybrid is its being light weight. Hence its on-road stability is uncertain.


Ours is a vast market. Proper marketing and making people aware of the new features can help in garnering good number of customers. Moreover, many of us are loyal to the brand of Honda. We know that Honda will always bring out the best. This popularity can be tapped to have good sales.


The major threat that Honda Insight Hybrid has is from its competitors like Toyota. The expected launch of Toyota’s Prius C by March 2012 might reduce the sales of Honda Insight Hybrid. In this regard, Larry E. Hall opined that, “But, it will soon be overshadowed by the 2012 Prius C when it arrives in March.” (Hall, 2012)

Conclusion The overall behaviour of the people towards the new Honda Insight Hybrid is encouraging and if test reports are to be believed, the car has a bright future. In my opinion, to get an edge over its main competitor, Toyota, Honda should reduce the price of its new car to some extent.

References Hall, L. E. (2012). Honda Insight. Web.

Stewart, B. (2011). 2012 Honda Civic vs. 2011 Toyota Prius: Hybrid Mileage Test. Retrieved from

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“Can Aristotle’s theory of Happiness be achieved by applying Friedman’s ideas of Corporate Social Responsibilities?” Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Outline

Analogy of Aristotle’s ideas to those of Friedman

Theory of Happiness

Aristotle and Politics



Outline Thesis statement: Aristotle discussed much about happiness in society and how it could be achieved. This paper examines whether the ideas of Aristotle can be achieved through application of Friedman’s ideas on corporate social responsibility.

It is established that Aristotle’s ideas are compatible to those of Friedman.

Analogy of Aristotle’s ideas to those of Friedman Aristotle is one of the classical philosophers who tried to understand society at his time. Most philosophers analyzed social, economic and political events. Just like Plato, Aristotle was trying to conceptualize justice in society by trying to understand leadership patterns.

He was much concerned about who should rule in society. He also evaluated factors that facilitated happiness. Aristotle observed that justice, which is achieved through the rule of law, is a human virtue that has to be observed and treated with high esteem.

Aristotle was a close friend of Plato but he did not believe in socialism where men shared property in society, including women. He also differed with Plato over who should rule.

While Plato argued that the best should rule in society, having attained high education, Aristotle argued that the rule of law should always be embraced. Aristotle believed that the rule of men would not guarantee better governance in society. To Aristotle, the rule of law should always be given precedence.

In the same line of thinking, Friedman argues that corporate social responsibility is mere propaganda exercised by multinational corporations and organizations whose main agenda is to further selfish interests (Friedman, 1970).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The philosopher observes that most businesses purport to support free enterprise by arguing that organizations and corporations are not simply concerned about profit making but are also keen on promoting desirable social values.

In other words, business executives assume that corporations have social conscience since they promote social services such as employment, equality and environmental conservation. By doing this, huge corporations and organizations would be promoting socialism, which is completely impossible according to Friedman.

It is from this analysis that Friedman observes that only individuals, who might be business proprietors or executives, have social responsibilities. Friedman underscores the fact that businesses cannot exist without the owners or executives (Friedman, 1970).

In this regard, the owner of the business has a direct responsibility to employees. Employees are required to operate according to the desires and wishes of the directors of the company. Friedman observes that a conflict of interest emerges between the owner of the business and employees.

The owner wishes to maximum profits while employees demand better pay and advanced working conditions. Both workers and employees are guided by the law and ethical values. The owner of the business must exercise openness, fairness and must operate according to the set laws.

Theory of Happiness Aristotle’s theory of happiness can be achieved through the application of Friedman’s ideas because happiness in society is only guaranteed through the rule of law. Each person must follow societal rules and regulations irrespective of his or her position in society.

Friedman postulates that both employees and employers must live according to certain laws that guarantee normalcy and constancy in society (Friedman, 1970). According to Aristotle, man must live within the constitution in case happiness is to be achieved.

We will write a custom Essay on “Can Aristotle’s theory of Happiness be achieved by applying Friedman’s ideas of Corporate Social Responsibilities?” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his works on politics, Aristotle puts forth arguments to support his position that man without the constitution is a beast (Chappell, 2006). The constitution has some advantages that make it strong as opposed to other forms of leadership styles.

The constitution is consensus based implying that it is a contract between the governed and the governor. Both parties are willing participants meaning that the governor cannot participate in any activity that runs contrary to the will of the governed.

In other words, the administrator cannot be engaged in any incident related to gross misconduct. The will of the people shapes both the policy and the actions of the ruler. In fact, Aristotle concurs with Friedman by suggesting that the governor is a manifestation of what the people want.

Both the governor and the governed must adhere to the rule of law because without the agreement corporations according to Friedman and the city-state according to Aristotle are ungovernable.

Moreover, Both Aristotle and Friedman observe that the constitution represents public bond and public will. This implies that the constitution makes everyone in society equal, which would further guarantee happiness.

The constitution does not discriminate between the mighty and the subjects according to Friedman and between the King and the populace according to Aristotle. In the eyes of the law, all are equal. Therefore, the constitution epitomizes the will of the people that is, the general will since it ignores individual will.

Individual will is selfish, perverted and mainly concerned with the pursuit of the earthly. The ideas of Aristotle coincide with those of Friedman because the law guarantees order in society. It is the same law that must be the guiding principle for all organizations and governments since the law will never fail.

Man can easily fail however good intentional he or she might be. In this line of thinking, the two philosophers are against democratic leadership.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “Can Aristotle’s theory of Happiness be achieved by applying Friedman’s ideas of Corporate Social Responsibilities?” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Democracy according to Aristotle is the government of the unfit because it can easily lead to the tyranny of the multitude. Democracy is an emotive type of system because it does not promote happiness in society and in organizations.

Aristotle and Politics The main contribution of Aristotle is how politics influences an individual’s happiness. Aristotle was of the view that politics make people happy (Schollmeier, 1994). According to Aristotle, beatitude can only be achieved when people are engaged in political activities.

He argues that man is only complete when he or she participates in political activities because man is both a social and political animal. This captures the universality of politics since it is ubiquitous. According to Aristotle, politics is the master of all arts since it is concerned with the end in itself.

Being a biologist, he was dismissive of biology for it concerns itself more with the process as opposed to the end. In other words, biology is always concerned with the search for a solution to a problem afflicting society. According to Aristotle, this is not the end. He views politics from the premise that the end justifies the means.

It is in line with this that he dismisses economics for the dilemma with economics is the search for wealth but not happiness. Equally, the study of military science/strategy cannot give man happiness since achieving victory in the battlefield does not guarantee happiness instead emptiness prevails.

Friedman argued in the same line with Aristotle as regards to politics. In organizations, many politics goes on in order to achieve self-interests. Politics make people to distinguish between the two sides of extremes.

Being too good is negative just as being too bad is negative. Politics makes a man to choose the middle path as opposed to the extremes. Aristotle argued that people should concentrate on political issues since everything is achieved through politics.

This is a central argument to the ideas of Aristotle and underscores his idea that politics is a centrifugal force. All other activities revolve around politics. Friedman observes that corporations participate in some form of politics to achieve their desired goals and objectives. This is usually done through promotion of social responsibility.

Businesspersons utilize social responsibility to win people’s confidence in order to make sales and increase profits. For instance, Friedman argues that a chief executive officer cannot be influenced by the public to reduce the prices of products. This would be considered a serious violation of the company’s rules and regulations.

In case a private administrator imposes taxes to people in order to use them in social responsibilities, such an administrator ceases to be a private employee and turns out to be a civil servant.

Friedman tries to argue that the doctrine of social responsibility is not real in many corporations instead it is pure politics. It is carried out to satisfy the wishes of the ruling elites, who are mostly politicians with an influence in the market.

Conclusion Just like Friedman, Aristotle believes that a just society is happier than unjust society. Justice can only be achieved if all men can be put under the law, for it is the law regardless of its nature that removes the beast character in human beings.

Aristotle concurs with Friedman’s ideas that law in general is the equivalent of reason or rationality because it governs man’s behavior. In other words, law makes people to avoid evil, which can destroy the very survival of society.

References Chappell, T. (2006). Values and Virtues: Aristotelianism in Contemporary Ethics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Friedman, M. (1970). The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits. The New York Times Magazine, September 13, 1970.

Schollmeier, P. (1994). Other Selves: Aristotle on Personal and Political Friendship. Albany: State University of New York Press.


Frustration and Stress Managing Expository Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Factors that make waiting frustrating

Controlling daily frustrations

Reactions to stress


Introduction Stress can occur in all spheres of our life and derive from different factors nowadays. It can be described as an emotional, mental and physical torture or strain that is associated with anxiety or overwork. The stress that is a result of waiting and anticipation is a kind of stress that can be controlled. One of the most difficult frustrating experiences is to wait.

Many thing always make us wait. Most people in the process of waiting lose their patience, become bored, angry, and this eventually leads to anxiety. The feelings of anxiety are influenced by the mood of an individual.

Depending on the mood, the time of waiting can be minimized or increased. This is because the amount of time that is wasted during waiting is a perception. For instance, most of the waiting process of the emptying of a cruise ship to get your luggage can certainly be frustrating.

Factors that make waiting frustrating One of the factors that make waiting become frustrating is the fact that one is thoroughly aware of time. In most cases, a minute can feel like hours, and this plunges a person into gloom. Most of the time wasted on waiting is a result of mistakes made by someone.

For example, some of the patients arrive in hospitals for their appointment like one hour earlier, and then they later complain of the long time they have to wait in the queues. Concerning the stresses associated with sitting in a traffic jam, it is necessary to learn to adopt ways that will reduce the stress. For example, favorite music or turning on a favorite radio station helps in calming the body tension.

There are many ways of managing this kind of stress. However, despite a lot of various ways, it is not easy to be prepared to face stress daily. Some of the strategies that might work include taking a book or iPod with you to keep busy with this distraction being absorbed in reading, thus reducing the factors causing a boredom.

Controlling daily frustrations Frustration is a typical and convincing expressive reaction to daily obscurities. Some irritation may be part of daily living, but tremendous disappointment has serious penalties.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In many cases, frustrations can come up from putting a lot of energy in transforming the things that cannot be changed, or situations that are beyond the control. Everyone is able to minimize the effects of trauma in daily living as it occurs.

Anticipation and waiting can undoubtedly be extraordinarily stressful. Almost in everyone’s life, there are cases when one has to wait for something in different occasions, whether it is to sit in traffic, or to wait in long queues in the cafeteria and banks. However, with practice, it is possible to learn to manage these stresses.

The first step to control the stress is through recognizing it. Many people live in stressing situations that they even have forgotten what a fantastic feeling it is to be in a relaxed state.

Expectations and anticipation throughout daily lives play a significant role for affectivity emotions. These states can be positive or negative. Waiting and anticipation can cause disappointment, negative surprise and psychological torture.

However, positive effects of waiting and anticipation arouse a feeling of relief and fulfillment. There tends to be negative impacts of waiting, as no one knows what is to be expected and, therefore, the feelings of being threatened come as a result.

Physical calming down can be appropriately used to intervene; for example, engaging in a simple activity helps calm down. Other physical measures include counting to ten, taking long and deep breaths, walking and trying to collect the thoughts. The standard practice of recreation techniques can also help in managing the frustrating conditions.

Try such a form of relaxation exercise for a few minutes every day. Sitting in a comfortable position in a quiet place can help in alleviating the daily frustrations. Controlling the breathing using different techniques teaches to take slow, deep breaths that help in relaxing. In the process of taking slow, deep breaths, a feeling of safety may appear in some cases.

We will write a custom Essay on Frustration and Stress Managing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Staying in a restful place and repeating a calming word or phrase aid in calming the body and emotions. In case of standing in a long queue in a bank, or at the restaurant, the best way is to try to pick up a conversation with someone around. This will ease the chances of being conscious of time passing.

The best way to avoid becoming angry is to avoid the instances that can lead to being enraged. Humor is one of the many forms that can be used to blow up stress. This is because being enraged will not speed up the process or reduce the time wasted.

In any case, being irritated will result in increased blood pressure, and ulcers, and eventually lead to heart diseases.

Reactions to stress When an event occurs, there is no time or chance to think over the actions on how to handle the situation. Taking immediate actions can be impulsive and cause many mistakes. The moment an individual responds to the event rather than reacts to it causes frustration.

The easiest way to avoid stressful conditions is rather through acceptance of the daily events than through trying to find out the causes of the problems. This can be the cheapest and the most effective way of changing the feelings of frustration.

Cursing, regretting, and blame affect mostly an individual him/herself, leading to stress development. In daily life, it is easy to get annoyed and frustrated reacting to an event. Frustration, as a result, ends up in overeating; however, sometimes, we are concerned with a problem that does not even exist.

Even if the problem exists, sometimes, there is no solution for the events. Several processes take place the moment before the outburst of emotions arises from frustration. A picture of the event runs through the mind of a person and results in an intensive helplessness as an individual thinks he/she cannot influence or change the situation.

This consequently fires feelings of frustration. Controlling emotions in the moment of frustration requires a lot of efforts to be done as the feelings tend to intensify the frustration.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Frustration and Stress Managing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, there are three most common ways of managing stress. These include the following. First, accept that frustration is common in the daily lives and cannot be easily avoided. The second way of frustration management is through the use of stress as a lesson and move forward in an effort of getting over it instead of being taken up with the same situation, which does not help anyway.

The third way is through formulation of new ideas aimed at creating new beliefs in one. This includes the understanding and acceptance that there are better ways of handling stressful conditions that the ones that are already existing. In addition, the choices made in situations affect the level of stress in daily life.

Expressing frustration through art and illustration is one of the best ways of expressing the feelings and taking notes of one’s everyday life. The choice of avoiding frustration leads to better outcomes in the future.

It is advantageous to believe that all what happens has a purpose in life. Focusing on positive intentions, which bring positive purpose, leads to more comfortable and peaceful life.


Organizational Decision Making: Group Decision Making vs. Individual Decision Making Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Decision Making Theory

Group Decision making

Individual Decision Making




Introduction Decision making is a fundamental function in all organizations and the success of the organization is directly dependent on the quality of decisions arrived at. Traditionally, most decisions were made by individuals who typically held high ranks within the organization.

However, this has changed and the popularity of group decision making has increased in the past few decades. This change has been precipitated by the adoption of flatter structures by organizations; a move which has resulted in more group participation in the decision making process.

Undoubtedly, the popularity of groups has increased over the past decade since groups typically outperform individuals and make better use of the available employee talents. However, group decisions are not always the best for the organization.

Currently, there is a certain important organization decision that must be made by a group but in my estimation; a better decision could be made by an individual. In this paper, I will explain why I think an individual’s decision is better suited in this case.

Decision Making Theory The primary objective of decision making is to choose the most effective and efficient solution among alternatives. Positive theory proposes that a chosen course of action is made from the presumption that it will bring about the desired results for the organization (Gastil, 2010). All purposeful actions undertaken by the group or individual should therefore be geared towards finding options which yield desired results.

Group Decision making Groups are formed when two or more people interact and are interdependent, or come together so as to achieve certain common objectives. Group decision making involves the members of the group trying to reach an optimal solution by considering the input of the group members.


The group members come from varying background and may have differing perspectives and ways of doing things. This increased diversity of view will be brought to the table during decision making (Gottlieb, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Group deliberations will therefore assist in the identification of strategic problems and opportunities due to the diversity of the group.

There is an increased acceptance of solutions that are arrived at by a group. This is because when a decision is come up with by a group, the members have a sense of ownership for the solution found (Gottlieb, 2009).

Group decision making also results in increased morale by the group members as well as a heightened level of commitment by the individual to the organizational tasks in consideration.

Group decision making results in more complete information being available to aid in the decision making process. This is because group decision making assists in overcoming the limitation on knowledge that an individual may have (Gottlieb, 2009)

. Groups make it possible to pool information concerning various complex tasks. The quality of the decisions made by the group is higher than that of an individual and it is also likely to be more accurate.


Arguably the most notable demerit of group decision making is the amount of time consumed in coming up with a decision. In an ideal group setting, every member is required to make a contribution in the decision making process. This will result in significant time consumption compared to the time that it would take for an individual to arrive at a decision.

Time consumed is increased even further when there is polarization in the group. Krizan and Robert (2008, p.191) define group polarization as “the tendency of group members to increase the extremity of their position following discussion of a relevant issue”.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Organizational Decision Making: Group Decision Making vs. Individual Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Group decision making may be plagued by domination by one or a few of the group’s members. This dominance might result in aggression and even territorial behavior which is contrary to the goals of the group process which are “sharing and responding to ideas, not taking over” (Kolin, 2009, p.23).

There is increased pressure on individual members of a group to conform in group decision making. This is because some groups require some levels of uniformity for decisions to be successfully arrived at.

Conformity involves having individual members adjust their behavior so as to align with the prevailing standards of the group (Gottlieb, 2009). The group may put pressure on the individual to change their opinion, attitudes or behavior so as to conform to the group template.

Conformity results in many compromises which might lead to the decision arrived at being less than optimal.

Individual Decision Making The decisions of an individual can play a monumental role in an organization. This is especially so since in all organizations, most of the monumental decisions which can make or break or make the organization are made by individual top managers.


Individuals are more likely to arrive at prudent decision for the organization. Research indicates that groups are likely to make greater risks in decision making that an individual would (Rothwell, 2012). This is because the consequences of a wrong decision to a group may not be as severe as they may be to an individual. The individual is therefore more likely to exercise caution when making a decision.

When a timely decision needs to be made, the individual is best suited to make the decision. This is because groups are time consuming as deliberations are made (Gottlieb, 2009). While studies show that committees can make better decisions than the average individual member, they take too much time doing this.

Since the individual is not under any pressure to conform, he/she will come up with an independent solution. This freedom from conformity may result in unorthodox yet effective results being achieved by the individual.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Decision Making: Group Decision Making vs. Individual Decision Making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cons

An individual suffers from a limitation of knowledge and information. This will hinder the decision making process since the information available may be incomplete. The solution arrived at is therefore likely to be less accurate than would be the case in group decision making (Gottlieb, 2009).

An individual may lack the diversity of view that is inherent in groups. The decision made may therefore be less holistic in view due to the individual’s limited scope. Gastil (2010) asserts that the individual is less likely to take all the significant parameters into consideration when coming up with a decision.

Discussion As can be seen, both group decisions and individual decisions have their inherent merits and demerits. Groups can be a valuable resource and an avenue through which an organization can harness worker’s creative power (Gottlieb, 2009).

At the same time, groups can be a tremendous waste of time and energy which will reduce organizational efficiency.

The maxim “a camel is a horse designed by a committee” is used to show that groups have the capacity to produce absurd results due to the different perspectives by the members.

This maxim is commonly attributed to Sir Alex Issigonis who was a prominent car designer (Rothwell, 2012). He came up with this maxim to demonstrate that a group has the capability of redesigning a good idea into a less effective one.

This popular saying emphasizes the ineffectiveness that can arise from having too many differing opinions by members in the group. With this in mind, the individual’s decision may be better suited for the organization.

Group decision making results in the filtering out of information that is at the extreme. This means that decisions that are either extremely good or extremely bad are avoided. In the present business environment, an organization’s success is dependent on coming up with novel and extremely good solutions.

Group decision making may therefore keep an organization from achieving its full potential. In such a case, an individual’s decision will be better since he/she can make an extremely good decision.

Conclusion In this paper, I set out to argue that individual decisions may be more appropriate for the given case as opposed to group decisions. To support this opinion, I have analyzed the various strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.

A detailed discussion of the merits and demerits of individual decisions has also been undertaken. From this, it has been proposed that group decision making has significant setbacks.

For this case, it is therefore my opinion that individual decision making is the most appropriate since it will result in sound decisions being made for the entire organization’s good.

References Gastil, J. (2010). The Group in Society. Washington DC: Sage Publications.

Gottlieb, M. (2009). Managing group process. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Kolin, P. (2009). Successful Writing at Work. NY: Cengage Learning.

Krizan, Z.,


When Tragedy Strikes: “The birds” Essay writing essay help

Tragedy refers to some of the drama based in human suffering. It talks about the events that happen and change the identity and history of an individual or an entire community. Personal tragedies may affect ones family, environment or their entire lives.

Tragedy has had many different people try and explain it over the years. Some people say that nature has a way of punishing people for their bad deeds. Others believe that tragedy comes from temptations inflicted by the devil. Traditionally, anyone with a consequent flow of tragedy in their lives is a bad omen to the community. In some communities they go as far as banishing some of these people.

However, it may be impossible to tell where when and how tragedy occurs. In most cases different people go through different tragedies. The important thing would be to know how to handle any form of tragedy in your life when it hits.

Trying to understand the root of the bad things happening in your life would make you go into a deeper depression. When tragedy strikes, how you strike back determines your survival.

“The birds” is a suspense and horror film produced in the early 1950’s. Evan Hunter originally wrote the screen play but Alfred Hitchcock directed the film in 1963. The story involves a lot of suspense and horror.

In 1961 there was an epidemic in California where residents awoke to dead birds on the streets one morning. Alfred Hitchcock got this as inspiration and even used some of the research findings to produce the film. It brings to life the tragic events that happened in this town (Gottlieb and Brookhouse 201).

The film starts with a love story. A young established lady, Melanie, meets a man, Mitch, at a pet shop and they hit it off well. He had come to buy his younger sister a pair of love birds for her birthday and had intentionally mistaken Melanie for the shop attendant.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That seemed to get her attention and his explanation to this quite charmed her. She even went ahead and bought the birds leaving them at his doorstep with a note attached. This marked the beginning of a new friendship and relationship. That built to a comforting hand in times of tragedy.

In our day to day lives, love is the height of all risk. It can either lead to be a beautiful life or a dreadful disaster. In your youth the most you think about is having fun and living in the moment. The only time we think about our futures is in regard to career and money and having the best of everything.

But love has a huge role to play in our lives. Settling down and having one partner helps one focus on other important things and plan a better future. Some of the time we let true love go and end up being heart broken. In such times we are unable to open our hearts to someone else.

This leaves us to live with the comfort of our jobs, houses and money not knowing that none of that can truly fill the void in our hearts. Love is what you make it to be. It can work to make you the happiest person alive or crush your heart. That has been the greatest lesson in my life, learning to love unconditionally.

Tragedy begins to strike in the film when there are un-explained bird attacks in the whole neighborhood. It begins when Melanie was leaving Mitch’s house to drop off the love birds. A seagull inflicts a wound on her forehead. On Cathy’s (Mitch’s younger sister) birthday, the guests are attacked by seagulls that gather round in the venue. The series of tragedies only get worse from here on.

Lydia was the next victim (Mitch’s mother) finding one of her friends dead in his house, his eyes pecked out by some birds. The bird attacks also happen in Cathy’s school when the children are attacked by birds in the playground. However, in the midst of all the tragedy we see the relationship between Melanie and Mitch and His family continuing to strengthen.

What really happens when tragedy starts to happen in reality? In my personal experience, losing my mother, my home and moving in with a stranger was about the worst tragedy in my life. Coping with the emotional pain was hard to handle, especially at my tender age.

We will write a custom Essay on When Tragedy Strikes: “The birds” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Months of counseling and treatment started me off in the road to recovery. Small steps and starting to come in to terms with the events that had happened helped me learn to live again. The process of having too much pain around you affects not only you but also the people around you. When you are emotionally unstable, you are not able to handle any responsibility handed to you.

The feeling of not being in control of your emotions leaves you vulnerable to any other attack that may occur. Proper counseling and care ensures that you learn to handle pain and pressure from the events that have occurred. One is only able to live a fulfilling life only if they are able to handle and control their emotions. You may not stop tragedy but you can control your emotional balance in such cases.

Some of the residents start to think it is the apocalypse others even claim it to be witchcraft. Residents at this point are getting nervous and are coming up with all possible explanations as to why all the tragedy is happening. It was rather hard to explain how birds that had lived there would suddenly become violent and hostile.

All these speculations were starting to scare the children and the rumor spreading was stopped. However, events only become worse after the attacks. An explosion at a gas station harms more residents than any of the other attacks. Birds then begin to attack when the people who were in the dinner try to run for their lives.

Melanie, who at this point was trapped in a phone booth, is rescued by Mitch. Lydia, on the other hand is sure that Melanie is the cause of all the tragedy.

She claims that none of these strange and horrifying events had happened prior to her arrival. This leaves Melanie in a dilemma. Could she be the cause of all the events happening? Had her presence brought danger and pain to everyone around her?

This list of events made me think about pain in peoples’ lives. Did some people have the ability to bring disaster to a whole neighborhood even without knowing it? In reality if you have too much trouble in your life you are labeled with all sorts of names. Traditionally a woman who would lose her husband at a in the first years of marriage, was labeled a murderer.

In our current generation a woman over the age of forty with no family of her own is labeled as one married to her career. It almost does not matter the emotions of the person going through the tragedy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on When Tragedy Strikes: “The birds” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In most cases people affected by any tragedy will always have someone to blame for it. In life you are not able to stop what people say or think about you but you can control how you react to what they say. Whether to take it as true or not is entirely up to you.

In the last section of the film, Melanie, Mitch, Lydia and Cathy take refuge in a friends’ house. However, this night the birds attack even more viciously than they ever had. Sometime in the night they are able to get into the house and hurt Mitch, but they manage to fix the broken window.

As they rested, in the middle of the night, Melanie heard some noises in the attic and decided to see what was happening without disturbing the rest. This leads her to a room where she is trapped in with the birds. Mitch and Lydia hear her screams and rescue and tend to her wounds.

However, the wounds are too severe and they decide to take her to hospital. As they leave the house they notice that the birds do not attack them. Driving as the sun rises and Melanie siting unconscious leaves the suspense of the future. With the birds not attacking them and the rising of the sun, this may mark a new beginning for all of them or the end of a horrifying experience.

The rising of the sun marks a new beginning. And in every person’s life there is a point where you start over. Get a new meaning to life and living. It may or may not be a life or death situation. In my personal experience it was losing my family and being uncertain of my future.

Not knowing what to do with my entire life brought me down to my knees. However, a point came when I was at my lowest and there was a ray of hope for a brighter future. Following that small light through college and into employment kept me afloat. I strongly believe that it is in those moments when life is meaningless that we get the small ray of hope that helps us move on.

“The birds” is a story of love, strength, friendship, and tragedy. It shows just how much one single community can handle so much tragedy and still get through it. However, the film ends in suspicion which we can relate to our everyday lives. In reality we do not know what happens when the sun rises.

We live hoping that every day will be better than the last. We all hope that tragedy never hits our doors, even when we are almost sure it will at some point. Through experience I believe that you cannot control all the things that happen in your life. You are only able to control your reaction to all the events that happen.

Works Cited Gottlieb, Sidney, and Brookhouse Christopher. An Interview with Evan Hunter in Framing Hitchcock: Selected Essays from the Hitchcock Annual. New York: Wayne State University Press, 2008. Print.


Susanna Kaysen’s Girl, Interrupted Essay (Book Review) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Summary

Kaysen’s Conceptualization of Her Illness

Treatment of Susanna Kaysen

Four D’s of Abnormality in Kaysen’s Story

Lesson Learned From the Book

Works Cited

Stigmatization of mentally ill people is still a common challenge. Also, having mental illness or caring for a patient with personality disorder is an unfathomable experience for most of us. Most people who have, at one time, been diagnosed with mental disorders are less likely to document their predicament. Some, however, would only do that under a concealed identity as away of avoiding social stigma.

This move characterizes a blame game between the author and society, and the author’s need to visualize him/herself as a new individual detached from the mental illness. This paper does not, however, seek to critique Susanna Kaysen’s book, Girl, Interrupted on that account.

However, besides providing a summary of the book, it focuses on the author’s conceptualization of mental illness; the treatment she received; its efficacy; and whether the four D’s of abnormality (deviance, dysfunction, distress, and danger) were present in the symptom description.

Finally, it will also highlight the negative impact of stigma and misjudgment towards the mentally ill as an important lesson that can be gleaned from the book.

Summary Set in the 1960s, in Mclean Hospital in Massachusetts, Girl, Interrupted, is Kaysen’s chronicle of her struggle with mental illness, or as she argues, the way she was misdiagnosed with mental illness. This was during an era marked by a wider generation rift in the US.

There was a conflict between the older generation’s insistence on traditions and baby boomer’s preference for pop culture, its music, antiviolence demonstrations, and fascination with drug and substance abuse. For instance, Kaysen’s refusal to work hard to pay for her studies was seen as an indication of psychological instability by her parents and counselor.

Additionally, Kaysen was further considered mentally ill when she became promiscuous and engaged in unruly behavior such as shoplifting. Retrospectively, the leading figures in the author’s life could have only considered Kaysen as a confused adolescent in an era of societal insecurity and upheaval.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to stressful social demands, especially from her seniors, which contributed to her suicide attempt, Kaysen ends up in a mental facility. For Kaysen, suicidal thought could have been her way out of the social madness, and not a symptom of personality disorder as believed by her therapist.

She recounts her perspective on suicide, remarking, “Suicide is a form of murder- premeditated murder. It isn’t something you do the first time you think of doing it. It takes getting used to. And you need the means, the opportunity, and the motive.

A successful suicide demands good organization and a cool head, both of which are incompatible with the suicidal state of mind” (Kaysen 36). Diagnosed with mental illness known as borderline disorder, throughout the novel, Kaysen embarks on a rigorous questioning of her state of mind.

This leaves her depressed, angry and sad hence only confiding in friends like Lisa. Later, Kaysen’s struggle to explain her situation gives her ticket to the real world.

Kaysen’s Conceptualization of Her Illness From her account, it appears that Kaysen is not aware of what she is going through. She does not know the meaning of borderline personality. In her view due to harsh conditions in the sixties, many teenagers would behave the same.

As such, she argues that her behavior mirrors that of an average teenager. She states that “Instability of self-image, interpersonal relationships, and mood… uncertainty about… long-term goals or career choice…” Isn’t this a good description of adolescence?” (152).

The doctor tries to convince her that her behaviors are antisocial but she responds that “They don’t define ‘social contrariness,’ and I can’t define it, so I think it ought to be excluded from the list. I’ll admit to the generally pessimistic outlook,” (154). She recounts that even “Freud had one too” (154). Soon after, Kaysen concludes that her diagnosis is based on sexism.

We will write a custom Book Review on Susanna Kaysen’s Girl, Interrupted specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For her, this is a clear misdiagnosis. Despite the techniques used by Kaysen, defense mechanism is common among many authors who seek to recount their unbearable past. For instance, in Truddi Chase’s memoir of her childhood abuse, she tells her story in the third person to subtly conceal her identity. She describes her self as “the woman” also refrains from referring to other characters by their real names (Chase 3).

Treatment of Susanna Kaysen The therapy that Kaysen receives focuses mainly on her psychological wellbeing. This sends her rebelling that her mind should not be treated differently from her body. It is evident that treatment mainly centered on a patient’s mental state is not as effective as one which integrates the biological and social components of an illness.

Treatment should take into consideration a patient’s deeds, feelings, and experience. Hence, any form of treatment should not treat the mind and the body differently. For this reason, the proposed treatment for Kaysen was inefficacious.

Four D’s of Abnormality in Kaysen’s Story Even though Kaysen seems to deny her diagnosis, the four D’s of abnormality are largely evident in her case. First, she is defiant of the therapist’s diagnosis of borderline personality disorder terming it as misdiagnosis based on sexism and lack of understanding of youthful nature in a stressful society. Her dysfunctional behavior is evinced in her suicide attempt (17).

This follows her distress and anger resulting from her interaction with the authorities who claim that her behaviors are antisocial. However, she presents an interesting question on what may account for depression as one therapist may say that “you’re a little depressed because of all the stress at work”, instead of “you’re a little depressed because your serotonin level has dropped” (38).

Lesson Learned From the Book Girl, interrupted is in actuality a good read. In her account of her predicaments and those of her friends in the hospital, Kaysen makes her audience to make more inquiry on mental illness and its associated stigma.

Perhaps the question that many readers should contemplate is whether from her eloquent and succinct narration of mental illness is compatible with her diagnosis with borderline personality disorder.

Nevertheless, Kaysen’s book is an eye-opener to the effects of social stigma towards individuals with mental disorders. Many readers will, especially those who at one had been diagnosed with mental illness, relate with her account and help stop discrimination against the mentally ill.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Susanna Kaysen’s Girl, Interrupted by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Chase, Truddi. When Rabbit Howls. New York: The Berkley Publishing Group, 1990.

Kaysen, Susanna. Girl Interrupted. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.


Social issue: the death of the Whitney Houston Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

In February 11 201In February 11 2012, the music and entertainment fraternity suffered a blow by the death of the Whitney Houston. On the first page (A1) of the New York Times newspaper, the lifestyle and career of the late musician dominated the page.

Written by Jon Pareles and his counterpart Adam Nagourney the two authors expressed sociological issues like drug abuse as the major social issue, which contributed to the Whitney’s downfall. In addition to giving a precise of the aforementioned story, the next discussion also elaborates the story by relating it to sociological imagination and the concept of social perspectives.

Before the death of Whitney Houston, cocaine and marijuana are some of the hard drugs, which dominated her life. Consequently, her marriage broke down due to constant abuse from the husband. Intuitively, Pareles and Nagourney highlight drug abuse as the main social factor, which contributed to the suffering of Whitney especially during her musical career lifetime.

Sociological imagination is the aspect of shifting social issues from personal perspective to the societal level. The established social values, cultural practices and other laws play a major role in shaping the life and behavior of an individual. Both personal issues and social forces may push an individual to adopt a certain behavior.

Therefore, the essence of sociological imagination is to solve personal social problems at a higher level in the society. Incase of a social problem like drug abuse, an individual may decide to stop the vice because of its negative impact to the children or neighbors.

The aspect of sociological imagination motivates an individual to view social problems like drug abuse, homicides and abusive marriages as elements that slow the development of the society and not necessarily the family or the individual.

The definition of sociological imagination relates well with the issue of drug addiction in the life of Whitney Houston. As a public figure, both her career and marriage life dwindled immediately after she started abusing marijuana, cocaine and alcohol.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, besides ending her marriage the issue also tainted her public image especially as a renowned musician. Furthermore, she ended up becoming a single mother. Therefore, as a public figure, a source of inspiration and a mentor to both her fans and the youths she failed.

Drug and alcohol abuse are major social issues that affect the American society especially among the celebrities. Besides enlisting, hard drugs and alcohol as the major social issues, the society categorizes them as social problems because of their negative impact to the public.

Furthermore, there is speculation that the death of Whitney may have been due to the use of both alcohol and antidepressants. Thus, from the analysis of the Houston’s story, the use of alcohol, cocaine and marijuana had a profound negative impact on both her personal and public lives. As controversial problems in her life, drugs, alcohol and eventual death of Whitney Houston categorize the story as a social issue.

Sociology is build on three major social perspectives namely, functionalism, conflict theory and interactionism. The functional theory identifies structural features like family and schools, which work interactively to shape the society. According to the theory, there are norms and values, which the society has established and all individuals have specific roles to play.

The functionalism theory advocates for social balance through definition of each person’s role. Secondly, the interactionism theory advocates for societal intermingling. The theory cites communication structures, collective responsibility and consensus as the aspects, which lead to a stable society.

Individuals should willingly interact, discuss and develop decisions in a collective manner for societal stability. Therefore, all individuals in the society should play a vital in establishing societal laws. In brief, the interactionism theory advocates for social cohesiveness.

Finally, the conflict theory cites inequality, wealth disparity and struggle for power as some of the elements, which, have contributed, to social conflicts. At the societal level, individuals have different beliefs and ambitions therefore, conflict ensue due to the diverse personal views.

We will write a custom Essay on Social issue: the death of the Whitney Houston specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The next discussion expounds on the analysis of Whitney Houston’s, issue of drug and alcohol abuse and eventual death in relation to the sociological theories. According to the functionalism theory, social structures like family, religion and other institutions play an important role in shaping the character and behavior of an individual.

For instance, Whitney started her musical career through church and her mother’s mentorship. However, after venturing into secular music she became a celebrity and famous. Consequently, she had a lot of money at her disposal and with nobody to guide her constantly; she embarked on drug and alcohol abuse.

Furthermore, the breakdown of her marriage also contributed to depression and eventual abuse of drugs. Therefore, marriage, church and family are major social institutions, which shape the behavior of an individual. However, when Whitney Houston disconnected herself from these institutions she forgot about the acceptable social values and behavior.

Secondly, the conflict theory cites that all individuals are constantly struggling to achieve their personal ambitions. Eventually due to power and wealth disparities, the society has produced structures like hierarchism. In addition, everybody in the society struggles to keep her position.

Therefore, in relation to the case study, although Whitney Houston had to embark on fighting drug and alcohol addiction she had personal problems that she kept to herself. Furthermore, she had not confided in anybody about her emotional and psychological problems therefore leaving her death as a mystery.

Although she was emotionally imbalanced, she struggled to fit in her class of celebrity by turning up for Grammy awards preparation. Thus, according to the conflict theory, each person has either internal forces or social problems that control their behavior or actions, which may motivate them to use drugs, alcohol and other substances of abuse.

Finally, the interactionalism theory cites communication as the pivot point in the stability of a society and more so an individual. Although Whitney Houston publicized her issues with drugs, alcohol addiction and eventual dissolution of her marriage, she died abruptly.

Nobody even her family members could comment on the cause of her death. Therefore, her death may have been due to communication breakdown. If she had discussed or interacted with other people about her social or health problem then the cause of her death would not be a mystery as the situation is currently.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social issue: the death of the Whitney Houston by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In brief, the society shapes the behavior and character of an individual. America is one of the nations in, which drug and alcohol abuse among the celebrities/musicians is on the rise.

Therefore, how could Whitney Houston be an exception? Analytically, the application of the social theories especially the functionalism and interactionalism theory shows that sociologists and other stakeholders should encourage people to engage in social activities in order to control their behavior.


Incident Command System Duties and Responsibilities Report custom essay help

Incident Command System (ICS) is an integrated and standardized on-scene management framework that allows an organization to quickly respond to emergencies situation (USDL). Develop in early 1970s. ICS has become an important tool for equipment, personnel, procedures, facilities and communication integration within a single organizational structure.

It represents best practices and has grown to become a standard for managing emergencies. ICS can also be used to manage planned events, acts of terrorism and natural disasters (FEMA). Because of its sophisticated nature that allows for rapid response, ICS is a key feature for National Incident Management System (FEMA).

Initially, ICS was developed as a management tool to respond to rapidly moving wildfires. According to United States Department of Labor (USDL), ICS was also developed to eliminate the problem of many people reporting to a single supervisor and the existence of unclear channels of authority (USDL).

Other problems that prompted the development of ICS were the lack of structured coordination among different agencies, insufficient and incompatible communication structure, and the lack of incident information that could be relied (USDL).

It is in the 1980s that ICS was integrated into a national outfit program called the National Interagency Incident Management Systems (NIIMS) thus becoming an incident response management system. Since then, ICS has become incident response tool used by many federal organizations and agencies to respond to disasters and emergencies(USDL).

By creating a manageable control system, ICS facilitates integrated planning and communication framework which an emergency response into five functional and manageable units that are critical emergency operations. These units are; Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics and Finance and Administration (USDL). The structure is as shown in Figure 1 below

Figure: ICS structure

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Source: United States Department of Labor

Duties and responsibilities of Command Staff At the top of the hierarchy is the Incident Commander (IC) who overseas the overall incident management operations besides developing goals and objectives of the incident response. The IC neither belongs to the Command nor General staff.

The IC unless he/she assigns duties to CS of GS, is responsible for establishing quick safety priorities in case of emergencies, and stabilizing the incident by availing cost effective and efficient ilfe saving resources, create incident objectives. Other responsibilities of IC include approving the implementation of Action Plan and ensuring that sufficient safety and health measures are available during emergencies (FEMA).

The Command Staff (CS) is responsible for carrying out staff functions which are essential in supporting the duties of an IC. These functions are incident safety, liaison, and public affairs.

The information Officer is tasked with developing and releasing incident information to the media, conducting press briefing, maintaining incident information, and availing to the incident personnel any incident information. The information officer also monitors and maintains any media information that can be used for incident planning (FEMA).

The Liaison Officer is responsible for coordinating incident activities between numerous agencies and IC. The duties include maintaining a list of agencies, establishing and coordinating interagency activities, and monitoring incident operations in order to identify potential problems (USDL).

The Safety officer on the other hand is tasked with developing and recommending health and safety measures to the IC. The Safety Officers role is to develop Site Safety Plan, evaluate Incident Safety Action and to provide quick and accurate hazards assessment and required safety measures (FEMA).

We will write a custom Report on Incident Command System Duties and Responsibilities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Duties and responsibilities of General Staff The General staff include Planning, Logistics, Operations and Finance and Administration. Unlike Command Staff, General Staff are responsible for coordinating the functional operations of the ICS (FEMA). The Operation Staff manages all operations which are directly linked to the primary objective of the incident operation.

Their work is to manage and assure safety of operations, develop the operation part of Incident Action Plan (IAP), coordinate the execution of IAP portion and approve changes to the IAP. The Officer in charge of Operations section manages all technical and tactical incident operations as provided by the IAP (FEMA).

The Planning section collects, evaluates and disseminates tactical information relating to incident operations.The department also supervises IAP preparations, compiles incident information, assesses alternative strategies, and reports major changes in incident status among others (FEMA).

The officer in charge of planning sections overseas all planning activities for the incident response and coordinates the operation of planning section. The Logistics Staff avails services, materials and facilities for incident response operations.

These services and facilities include food, supplies, medical services, communications, and transportation services among other services that might be required emergency responders (FEMA). The Finance and Administrative department provides financial, cost analysis and administrative support for incident response (USDL).

Generally Incident Command System remains an effective tool for handling all sorts of disasters ranging from man made to catastrophic, small to complex disasters at all levels of organization (FEMA).

The Incident Action Plan (IAP) provides a framework that ensures inclusive communication aimed at achieving a common incident objective. If ICS is executed effectively, it remains the most effective and efficient tool for handling emergency situations.

Works Cited FEMA, 2008. Incident Command System. pdf file. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Incident Command System Duties and Responsibilities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More USDL.n.d Occupational Safety


Invasive Mammalian Species Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Main Assertion

Strengths and Weaknesses

Usefulness of presentation

Works Cited

Introduction In this paper the discussion presented will briefly discuss the role of feral swine in relation to livestock within the United States. This issue is considered important given the fact that these animals have considered a potential threat to livestock within the country based on research findings.

According to Witmer, Sanders and Taft, the swine were introduced into the United States during the period around the 1400’s as a source of meat (2). Following this initial introduction there have been numerous subsequent introductions.

The introduction of the animals has been found to be possible through a number of ways including translocation, a number that escape from shooting preserves, dispersal of already established populations, avoiding capture or in some cases abandonment (316).

The management of these animals is a very controversial issue due to the diverse views held by government and private individuals and groups. However, despite this position it would appear that there is a need to readdress the issue given that these animals have the potential of harboring disease causing organisms that may threaten livestock in these regions.

Main Assertion The main assertion that makes the basis of this report is in the fact that feral swine populations are reported as having many negative impacts. Due to this there has arisen some considerable interest in the swine which are considered as an invasive species in a variety of settings (Witmer, Sanders and Taft 317).

Reports indicate that the swine are responsible for considerable losses in native flora and fauna. In addition to this the swine are able to cause soil erosion, declines in water quality, reduced bio diversity, crop and reforestation damage.

In addition to environmental degradation it is reported that the swine can harbor a number of diseases and parasites that can infect humans and livestock.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This position has been discussed in several national symposia in recent years with documentation produced on possible problems and solutions. Estimates from these reports indicate that feral swine may be responsible for an estimated $800 million to agriculture and the environment (Witmer, Sanders and Taft 317).

Because of their ability to harbor a number of parasites it is suspected these diseases are transmissible to humans, livestock and wildlife. Due to this there has been concern over the role that feral swine may play in the outbreak of a foreign animal disease such as hog cholera or foot and mouth disease (Witmer, Sanders and Taft 320).

Because of the disease threat posed by the swine there has been disease surveillance conducted in a number of states. Following this surveillance some measures have been undertaken to control the spread of specific livestock disease. One major setback to these efforts is the prevalence of the swine in populations across the country.

At the same time the pork industry within the US is major consumer of produce that comes from swine across America. It is reported that annual farm sales are in the range of $34 billion (Witmer, Sanders and Taft 320).

This produce is mainly sourced from swine kept in free ranges or in fenced populations. Due to this major business it is difficult to reduce the production from free ranges (Witmer, Sanders and Taft 320).

According to Witmer and Lewis, each species of wildlife occurs as a part of an ecosystem, interacting in many ways with other parts of the eco system. This interaction may include abiotic components such as soil, air and water as well as other substrates (Witmer and Lewis 423).

Species that are normally referred to as native or indigenous naturally occur in a particular area and have been there for a very long time. However due to a variety of events there are occasions when outside species may be introduced to an eco system.

We will write a custom Report on Invasive Mammalian Species specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These species in some cases are very successful and are then referred to as invasive species (Witmer and Lewis 423). Such species bear the ability to spread unchecked and increasing to high population levels. Due to this rapid spread such a species may become capable of compromising large portions of the biota

The process of introduction of a species can occur through a variety of mechanisms, both purposeful or by accident.

Accidental introductions include those in which animals escape from captivity, as stowaways on ships, trains or other vehicles. On the contrary purposeful introductions include those where the species are introduced to serve a specific purpose such as to provide substitute source of food (Witmer and Lewis 424).

It has been observed that it is very important to understand the potential ecological consequences of wildlife introductions. For this reason it is deemed better to prevent introduction of an unwanted species rather than deal with the management or attempts to eradicate it later (Witmer and Lewis 424).

Based on this therefore it is possible to conclude that to assist in managing the feral swine areas where the animals have minimal populations may consider complete eradication of the species.

Based on this report it emerges that estimates indicate almost 42 species have been introduced in Oregon and Washington (Witmer and Lewis 440). Though these introductions have taken place for a wide variety of reasons, some have made major contributions to outdoor recreation, state wildlife agency revenues, other have led to adverse effects on the environment in various locations.

This adverse effect arises mainly due to direct or indirect mechanisms such as resource competition, predation, and displacement. This suggests a need for improved measures to the management of introduced species across the nation.

In another report on the issue of feral swine and their impact on the environment it has been reported that these animals are known to have serious adverse effects on the environment (Campbell and Tyler 2319). The geographic distribution and abundance of feral swine is increasing throughout the United States, where estimates reports losses to the tune of $ 800 million annually.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Invasive Mammalian Species by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Due to this significant threat they cause to the environment natural resource managers are beginning to give recognition to these exotic animals. As a result feral swine management programs are being implemented throughout their range.

It is unfortunate that these feral swine damage management programs are conducted in a piecemeal fashion and are poorly funded (Campbell and Long 2319). Due to this situation it has been suggested that additional guidance is required for feral swine damage identification and management.

In this report several types of environmental damage are mentioned in relation to the feral swine. It is reported that in areas where these swine prevail rooting is very common due to the swine burrowing nature (Campbell and Long 2319).

The practice is the major source of conflict with agricultural producers due to the damage to farming equipment it causes. In addition to this it is reported that the swine can cause extensive crop damage to both row crops and forested areas. This particularly common during the seedling stage of development where the swine root up seedlings to consume the roots.

The feral swine are also responsible for forested eco system damage due to their practice of reducing the recruitment and growth of saplings. The swine can also cause significant damage in deciduous forests. The report also highlights several management approaches to handling the feral swine such as fencing, trapping, shooting and toxicants (Campbell and Long 2323).

In another report on the potential importance of swine and influenza it has been observed that the swine share common receptors with birds and humans (Hall 362). Due to this nature swine have the potential to be affected by both avian and mammalian strains of influenza. This position has seen some experts consider swine as a form of mixing vessel and new strains of influenza may arise due to genetic re assortment.

In this report it is also indicated that feral swine pose a serious threat to natural ecosystems and agriculture where they become established. This is because of their feeding and rooting habits can destroy native plant communities, damage irrigation sheds and displace native species (Hall 363).

The main reservoir of avian influenza is waterfowl and both swine and fowl reside in the same habitat. This factor makes the swine play a considerable role in influenza transmission cycles given that there is significant possibility of shared pathogens.

Strengths and Weaknesses In the United States populations of wild boars have escaped and lived in the wild for many years. Owing to this the population of these wild swine has risen and in some areas led to a need to consider appropriate management (Nugent 19). The swine are very adaptive and are capable of rapid reproduction.

In response to the dilemma the State of Oregon has led to a need for serious management consideration. The action plan currently in place has both strengths and weaknesses as will be explained further below. The main strength of the plan lies in the fact that areas for eradication have been identified though compliance is not 100% (Nugent 20).

However, the weakness of the plan lies in the fact that pig hunting is a popular activity in the region and as such the role of hunting revenues has limited what can be done in relation to the swine. Whereas hunters harvest 40% annually, it remains difficult to contain the population unless 70% is removed from each generation (Nugent 20).

Usefulness of presentation This report is considered important due to the fact that it provides information on the current situation in relation to feral swine. The report provides some statistics and general information on the potential effects that feral swine can have on the environment. In addition to that it provides information on the current solutions in place that deal with this specific problem.

Works Cited Campbell, Tyler A., and David B. Long. “Feral Swine Damage and Damage Management in Forested Ecosystems.” Forest Ecology and Management. 257 (2009). Web.

Hall, Jeffrey S. et al. “Influenza Exposure in United States Feral Swine Populations.” Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 44 (2008). Web.

Nugent, Martin. “Oregon Invasive Species Action Plan.” Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (2005). Web.

Witmer, Gary W., and Jeffrey C. Lewis. “Introduced Wildlife of Oregon and Washington.” USDA National Wildlife Research Center-Staff Publications. Paper 656 (2001).Web.

Witmer, Gary W., Robert B. Sanders, and Arnold C. Taft. “Feral Swine: Are They A Disease Threat To Livestock in the United States?” USDA National Wildlife Research Center – Staff Publications. Paper 292 (2003). Web.


African-Americans in the 1960s Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Historical background

Adversaries of the African-Americans in 1960s

Stopping segregation when going to school

Woolworth story

Right to vote


Works Cited

African-Americans in the 1960s faced segregation, discrimination and stereotyping from their white counterparts. The African-Americans were discriminated based on their race, color, origin, religion and creed. Therefore, they were excluded from many activities of the country.

The segregation included access to certain schools, waiting for long before being served and denial of voting rights. However, amidst these forms of discrimination, African- American movements emerged that demanded for equality and fair treatment of all the citizens.

Historical background 1960s witnessed emergences of many African-led movements, which had a sole objective of fighting discrimination. African-American civil rights movement (1965-1968) was a movement aimed at fighting racial discrimination against the African- Americans. It was also constituted to restore voting rights to the African-Americans (Digital rights para. 3).

Black power movement was another movement that emerged in 1966, which aimed at promoting civil rights including racial dignity, political self-sufficiency, economic and freedom from oppression from the whites (Murphiee 13). These movements, through rallies, lobbied for civil disobedience and non violent protest that helped them in raising their concerns to the federal and state government.

These protests bore fruits as legislations were changed to accommodate the rights of the African-Americans. For instance, civil rights act of 1964 banned any form of discrimination based on religion, color, race, employment practices, national origin and public accommodation.

Furthermore, the voting right act of 1965 restored and protected the voting rights of the African-Americans. Many other acts and rights were enacted to ensure that all citizens were granted equal opportunity and fair treatment.

Adversaries of the African-Americans in 1960s African-Americans went through difficulties in the 1960s. Because of the harsh treatment, their lifespan was seven years less compared to the whites. The children of African blacks had half chances of completing their schools successfully. Only, a third of the students had a chance of completing college while only a third had a chance to join a profession body.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This discrimination impacted negatively on the progress of African-Americans. Furthermore, the African-Americans earned half as much as whites and their chances of securing a job were very minimal. In addition, the voting rights of African-Americans were limited, as this freedom was denied to them (Murphiee 13).

Other forms of oppression were evident in the granting of opportunities and even in providing services or any other assistance. An African-American was always served after all the whites were served. This preferential treatment demonstrated the highest level of inhumanity and discrimination.

Stopping segregation when going to school In 1960s, attending school was a privilege that was given to white children. African-Americans were segregated as their children could not be admitted to certain schools that were a preserve of the whites. Many African blacks were viewed as second class citizens and they were not given an equal opportunity to enroll in good schools.

Even after the Brown v. Board of education decision, only 49 schools desegregated and only 1.2 African-American children in 11 states attended class with the whites (Digital rights para. 6). Therefore, this demonstrated the disparities and the level of segregation that the whites showed to their African-American counterparts.

In parts of the 1960, civil activist such as Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr spoke of these injustices and demanded the government to accord equal rights to all of its citizens without discriminating against race or skin color.

Woolworth story Discrimination was evident in the whites against the African blacks through different spheres of interactions and relations. On February 1, 1960, four African-Americans, Blair, Franklin, Joseph and David walked into the Wool worth stores in North Carolina agricultural and technical college. When they requested for a cup of coffee, a white waitress demanded them to stand before they could be served (Digital rights para. 4).

The notion behind standing is the formed perception and stereotyping of the African-Americans. This episode demonstrated the harsh realities of racial discrimination that African blacks went through as citizens of United States in 1960s. To demonstrate their anger and dissatisfaction on the way they were treated, the four men stayed at their seats until the lunch counter closed leading to sit-in protests.

We will write a custom Essay on African-Americans in the 1960s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The four men rallied support and the following day 25 colleges appeared at the restaurant. The non violent protest went on with African-Americans protesting against inequality. The protest finally bore fruits after six months when the white city officials granted the rights to African Americas to be served in a restaurant without giving preference to the whites (Digital rights para. 7).

The protests on lunch counter sit-ins spread to other cities across the southern states. For instance, in North Carolina, some storekeeper unscrewed their lunch counters while in states such as Alabama, Virginia, seats were roped-off to ensure that no one was given a preferential treatment.

All the customers had to stand upon being served with food. African- Americans Students resorted to attacking those libraries, lunch counters, and other public facilities such as beaches that were segregated and a preserve for the whites.

In pursuit of their rights, 142 student leaders formed a student Nonviolent coordinating committee, which would enable them fight and demand for equality. Rev. Luther King motivated them and encouraged them to stand up and be ready to be taken into jail in their pursuit to awaken the dozing conscience of whites.

These sit-ins resulted to wade-ins in beaches that were segregated. By the end of 1960 more than 70,000 people had participated in the sit-ins in more than 100 countries and 20 states with police arresting more than 3600 protestors.

Furthermore, almost 187 students were expelled from their learning institutions for participating in the sit-ins (Digital rights para. 8). However, these protest bore fruits as most of the counters were integrated hence helping in breaching the gap between the whites and the African-Americans.

Right to vote African-Americans in the early 1960s were prohibited to vote. This fundamental right was denied to them making them to be non partisans in the politics of the US. They could not therefore, demand for the respect of their rights because they could not vote. However, the enactment of the 1964 civil rights that prohibited discrimination in public accommodations and employment provided a relief.

Nevertheless, prior to the enactment of the act, this fundamental constitutional right to vote was not provided to the African-Americans (Clayborne, para. 4). For instance, in state of Alabama, eligible voters were required to provide written answerers to a 20 paged test on the state government and constitution.

Not sure if you can write a paper on African-Americans in the 1960s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the questions that were asked during these tests included giving reasons to why presidential electors cast ballots for their presidents and many other questions of such caliber. These laws were intended to restrict the African-American voters from participating in the elections through intimidating them indirectly. Therefore, the whites made it difficult for the African-Americans to votes in the general elections

Martin Luther king was instrumental in bringing the issue of voting rights to national attention when he decided to launch a voter registration drive in Selam, Alabama in 1965. In Selam city the number of blacks outnumbered those of whites but surprisingly the roles related to voting were assigned to the whites.

99 percent of roles were reserved for whites with only 1 percent being taken up by the blacks. Luther led his black counterparts to the county courtroom for registration. But their quest was halted after an approximate 2,000 black demonstrators were arrested together with king (Clayborne, para. 6).

However, upon the ruling by the federal court not to interfere in registration, James Clark ordered the African-Americans to stand on a line for five hours before taking a test. At the end of the day, not even a name of a single black was added in the registration rolls.

Protest matches went on and when four Ku Klux Klan members killed a 39 old white civil rights volunteer, the president, Johnson expressed nation’s anger and shock marking the journey to change (Digital rights para. 5). Two measures were adopted in 1965, which were aimed at helping in safeguarding the rights of black Americans.

24th amendment was ratified by the state on 23 January to bar any poll tax in the federal elections. Five southern states had poll taxes in their systems of governance.

Secondly, the signing of voting right by the president on 6 August prohibiting literacy tests and instructing federal examiners to seven states to begin registration of black voters helped in boosting African-American registered voters. The number reached 450,000 in the southern states within a year.

Conclusion In conclusion, 1960s was a transformation or transition period for the African-American citizens. They had suffered all forms of discrimination and through their undeterred efforts and determination, they managed to fight and reclaim their rightful place in the American community.

The African-Americans were discriminated in terms access to schools, services, voting rights but through their devotion, they finally managed to be granted their rights.

Works Cited Clayborne, Carson. African – American leadership and mass mobilization, 1994. Web.

Digital rights. America in Ferment: The Tumultuous 1960s: Voting rights. Web.

Digital rights. America in Ferment: The Tumultuous 1960s: The State of Black America in 1960. Web.

Murphiee, Vanessa. Black Power: Public Relations and Social Change in the 1960s. American Journalism, 21.3 (2004): 13-32.


Exchange Regimes and their Impact on Macroeconomic Performance Research Paper a level english language essay help

The dollar is the main currency used in the transactions of most international businesses. However, this does not mean that it is the best performing currency in the world. Most currencies are exchanged for the dollar and that has made it universally accepted as a measure of value and a medium of exchange.

The terms and the conditions of the exchange rates can either have a positive or a negative impact on the economic growth of a given country. Exchange rate is defined as the price of a country’s currency in comparison with that of another country’s currency (Jongwanich 2006).

Every country desires to move forward in economic growth and that necessitates the application of the best strategies to ensure that the desired results are achieved. However, analysts have not been able to come up with the best exchange rate regime that can result to economic prosperity. Different studies on this matter have been carried out but the conclusion is yet to be made.

Economic development requires the application of the appropriate exchange rates. This is because the kind of exchange regime adopted by a country determines its macroeconomic performance. Therefore, the choice of the exchange regime to be adopted by any given country is of great importance to international finance and in other aspects of economics.

The way these rates affect the economic growth of a given country is highly based on the status of that particular state in terms of development. There are four main types of exchange rate regimes: fixed exchange rates, the flexible exchange rates regimes, managed floating exchange rates and the exchange control rates (Yarbrough


Exchange Rate Regimes and Their Impacts Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Flexible, also known as Floating exchange rate regime

Pegged/ Fixed Exchange Rate regime

Managed floating exchange rates regime

Exchange Controls

Impacts of Exchange Rate Regimes on Macroeconomic Activities


Reference List

Introduction The theory of production and trade affirms that there exists no country, which is able to produce all commodities that its citizens require. This means that the country has to rely on other countries for supply of the other goods that the country does not produce or rather produces in quantities that are much lower than its demand.

At the same time, there could be other nations, which are in need of what the country produces in excess. This therefore makes the country export what it produces in surplus while being forced to import what it requires but is in deficit within the country.

As such, when a country exchanges goods and services with other countries for money, or other goods, international trade is said to have taken place. The exchange can be between two countries, economic blocs or even between continents.

International trade brings in concepts of foreign exchange. This arises where the trading countries do not use a common currency. During importation, the importer is required to convert their local currencies so as to make purchases in the currency of the exporting country.

On the other hand, payments to exporters are made in the local currency, and therefore the exporter is also required to convert the money into his or her country’s local currency. Currencies of different countries have different exchange rates against currencies of other countries.

The amount of a given currency that will be used to purchase a single unit of another currency is called the exchange rate. Under normal market situations, the exchange rate of a particular currency against another currency keeps on fluctuating, depending on the demand and supply of that currency.

The government controls the quantity supplied of a currency in a given country directly or indirectly. Therefore, the supply remains relatively constant and its curve becomes a straight vertical line.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The quantity supplied of that country’s currency determines demand for the currency. When more quantity is supplied, the demand for that currency will fall, and when less is supplied of that country, the demand will rise (Greenaway, 2011).

There is a need for a country to control its currency exchange rates in order to maintain a stable balance of payment. To achieve this objective, there are four regimes that dictate the exchange rates. An exchange rate regime refers to the policies employed to determine the exchange of a currency against another currency (Gandolfo, 2002). There are basically four exchange rate regimes:

Floating, also known as flexible exchange rates

Pegged, also known as fixed exchange rates

Managed floating exchange rates

Exchange controls

Each individual exchange rate regime has its own characteristics as outlined below.

Flexible, also known as Floating exchange rate regime Under the flexible exchange rate regime, forces of demand for and supply of a given currency determines the exchange rate. This forces play just like in an ordinary free market of goods and services, the difference being only that the good in subject is now becomes a particular currency held in bank deposits.

As pointed earlier, the amount of local currency supplied in a country is determined by the government. This implies that the supply of the foreign currency will be fixed, and only its demand that will vary as illustrated below

Fig 1

In the diagram above, the forces of demand and supply will fix the exchange rate at R0. “This rate is referred to as the equilibrium exchange rate, and the quantity demanded of the currency will be equal to the quantity supplied of that currency” (Greenaway, 2011, p.96).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Exchange Rate Regimes and Their Impacts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When the demand for Euros decreases, the quantity supplied will be more than the demand and this will result into a surplus as shown in fig 1. On the other hand, when the demand for Euros increases, the quantity supplied will be less than the demand and this will result into a shortage as shown.

If the Euros are being exchanged against the dollars, a surplus in the supply of Euros will lead to depreciation. The exchange rate will be higher at R2, which implies that the value of the Euro against the dollar will have gone down.

On the other hand, when there is a shortage in the supply of the Euro, appreciation of the Euro occurs. The exchange rate will come down to R1, and this implies that the value of the Euro against the dollar will be higher (Greenaway, 2011).

Pegged/ Fixed Exchange Rate regime Under the fixed exchange rate regime, the exchange rates are fixed by Central banks and other financial agencies found in countries with strong economic base such as the US. The forces of demand and supply still exist in the markets, but they do not necessarily determine the exchange rate (Ghosh


Foreign Direct Investment and Balance of Payments Research Paper college essay help online

Foreign Direct Investment is defined as an investment of a resident in a foreign company. The resident should however have a lasting and considerable interest in the management of the foreign company. In most cases, an investor should have more than 10% of the stock value or voting shares.

Flows relating to Foreign Direct Investment are chiefly divided into three forms that is, equity capital, intra-companies loan and reinvested earnings. Investors normally invest in the assets of foreign countries hoping that they will benefit from high interest rates, low inflation rates, as well as favorable political environment (Cutler,


Social Security Administration Case Study essay help free: essay help free

Introduction Social security Administration also known by the abbreviations, SSA is an independent body that administers social security insurance to the aged, accident victims and the disabled. Employees are usually expected to pay the social security taxes so as to benefit from the scheme and the benefits usually depend on the contributions.

The program has more than 62,000 employees across the country. Besides its head quarters, it has 10 regional offices, 8 processing centers and more than 13, 000 field offices.

The Social Security Board now known as the Social Security Administration was started by the social security Act so as to oversee the administration of new projects by the social security program. The board is composed of three executives that are appointed by the president.

The Board merged into the Federal Security Agency which was mainly made up of the Public Health Service, the Civilian Conservation Corps and the board itself together with other agencies. To tame the inflationary effects on fixed incomes, the Cost of Living Adjustments were incorporated into the SSA programs.

During its inception, the program only targeted workers bellow 65 years as long as they were within the states that were in its jurisdiction. The age restriction was later eliminated. Those employees that are not provided with a pension plan are particularly encouraged by the government to join the Social security program so as to benefit.

This paper focuses on the programs of the SSA, the financial analysis and the future projections. Some of the aspects analyzed include the financial rations like the liquidity, activity, leverage and profitability ratios. The case study also uses the strategic audit worksheet, SWOT analysis, IFAS as well as SFAS so as to analyze the current state of Social Security Administration and possible future implications.

Social Security Administration Background Social security Administration was started as an independent body that would help people have social security and get social insurance. The applicants are expected make contributions to the scheme and the benefits that a person gets depends on the contributions made.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This scheme was started by the law and it was meant to ensure that people have a decent life even after loosing their jobs or their ability to earn their livelihoods for instance through accidents or illnesses.

The scheme has programs that target the old people, the disabled as well as victims and family members of those who had registered with the scheme. It gets most of its funding from the contributions that the employers and employees get remit to the scheme each month.

The social security scheme has various offices spread across the country which are meant to ensure that its members throughout the country get their services without much difficulty. The scheme also gets much of its funding from the government. The scheme however faces a lot of competition from other pension schemes and pension programs offered by private insurance companies.

Analysis Despite the numerous challenges experienced by the social security administration, the program has managed to accomplish much. In the recent past for instance, the world economic recession posed a challenge to the program financially.This however did not hinder the compensation and benefits of its members.

Taking the example of 2011, the Social Security Administration funding from the government was less by $ 1 billion. This implied that the organization had to incur some budget cuts. Instead of carrying out blanket cuts across the board, priority was to be given to the most important activities so as to continue serving the members.

Findings have shown the workforce has been quite instrumental in offering quality social security services to the public through the adoption of new business strategies and use current technology in ensuring that thechanging needs of the members are met.

This has resulted in an increase of about 4% in the productivity of the organization recently. The compensation process has been reduced to less than a year hence more claimants are able to receive their benefits within a short period. The payment accuracy has greatly increased and the number of claimants who are awaiting compensation due to their pending cases has significantly reduced.

We will write a custom Case Study on Social Security Administration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through the establishment of customer care centers and tele-centers that deal with online services, the social security customer satisfaction index has greatly improved and the number of applicants being served at a time has greatly increased hence reducing the workload by a great margin.

Audit reports have shown that the Social Security Administration has complied with all the set laws and regulations and all the financial reports are reliable as they are in line with the given guidelines.

The organization has been channeling its earnings and efforts in ensuring quality service delivery to the members. The efforts are geared towards ensuring and maintaining public trust as most people depend on it. There is need for the government to help the organization to improve its services.

Financial Data For 2011 (Dollars in Billions)

Net Position

Year 2011 2010 2009 Total Assets $ 2,702.3 $2,635.5 $2’553.6 Less Total Liabilities $ 96.6 $95.9 $94.8 Net Position(Assets Net of Liabilities) $ 2,605.7 $ 2,539.5 $ 2,458.8 Change in Position

Change in Net Position 2011 2010 2009 Net Cost $ 782.7 $ 752.3 $ 731.6 Total Financial Sources $ 848.9 $ 833.0 $ 863.0 Change in Net Position $ 66.1 $ 80.8 $ 131.3 OASI DI HI SMI Assets (end of 2009) $2,336.8 $203.5 $304.2 $76.6 Income during 2010 677.1 104.0 215.6 270.4 Outgo during 2010 584.9 127.7 247.9 274.9 Net increase in assets 92.2 -23.6 -32.3 -4.5 Assets (end of 2010) 2,429.0 179.9 271.9 72.1 Balance Sheet as at September 2011 and 2010

(Dollars in Billions)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Security Administration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Statement of Net Cost for 2011 1nd 2010

(Dollars in Billions)

The total assets have been increasing in the recent years at a steady pace. The increase in the assets in 2011 f0r instance was a 2.5% increase from the previous year. The investments have also increased steadily due to the increase in the amount of revenue from tax collection as well as earnings from the investments.

The liabilities also grew due to the increase in the number of beneficiaries as well as the benefits that had accrued from the past years. The net position of the organization had increased due to the growth in the asset base than the liabilities.

Financial Ratios Liquidity Ratio by 2011 Formula:

LR = liquid assets / total liabilities.

= 2909 / 96606 = 0,030112001325

Liquidity ratio for 2010

= 2825 / 95937 = 0.0294464075383

This ratio indicates that the social security administration can acquire short-term borrowings by taking the liquid assets as security.

These assets can easily be converted into cash so as to cover the amount owed. The results above indicate that the liquidity ratio increased in 2011 from the previous year which is a clear indication that the organizations ability to handle short term credits had increased which is attributed to the increase in the liquid assets.

Profitability Ratio By calculating the profitability ratio of the social security scheme, it is possible to determine whether it is viable and whether it will be operational even in the future. It becomes possible to determine the overall performance of the program. In the ratio, the profits made by the firm are compared against its size, total assets and the gains or sales made.

From these, it is possible to compare the organization’s performance to other firms as well as the previous years.This ratio determines whether the scheme is good at running its businesses and whether it is performing well in comparison to its competitors.

The rations indicate whether profits are being made. From this it is possible to infer whether the social security scheme is operating at a loss or profit and whether it is outdoing other competitors or it is trailing behind in its performance.

Gross Margin This indicates the amount that a firm keeps as profit in relation to the sales. This is usually in the percentage form. The greater the margin the higher the premium a firm charges for its services or products. The formula is;

Gross Margin = Gross Profit / sales

In the Social security case;

Gross Margin = (625 11089) – (8357 485) /625 11089

(11714 – 8842) /11714 = 0.2451767116271

In percentage terms = 0.2451767116271 * 100 = 24.5177%

This indicates that the firm will fix its prices so as to ensure that a 24.5177%profit is made.

Operating Margin This usually indicates precisely how much profit or loss a firm is making by putting into consideration the operating and marketing costs that are incurred before the goods are sold or services delivered.

Operating Income/Net Sales

In the above case, operating Margin cost=13586/11714 = 1.1598087758238

In 2011, the operating margin for social security scheme was higher. This indicates that the firm operated at a loss. This could be attributed to the inflation and macroeconomic instability across the globe. All these contributed to a higher operation cost hence plunging the scheme into a loss.

Net Profit Margin This usually indicates the revenue that is kept by the company after all the expenses and other sources of income have been considered.

= Net Profit or loss / Net Sales

In the given case, the net margin would be; (11714-13586) / 11714

= -0.1598087758238

This is an indication that the firm made a net loss -0.1598087758238

As a percentage, this could be expressed as 15.98% loss.

Free Cash flow margin This usually stands for the revenue that the management can turn into cash. The formula for the free cash flow margin is; Free cash flow/sales

In this social security case, it would be,

848,912/ 11714 = 72.4698651186614

The high free cash flow in this case can be attributed to the fact that the federal government funds the scheme and hence the high free cash flow margin.

Return on Assets It is a measure of the organizations capability to convert its assets into profit. The formula for this is; (Net Income after tax interest expense)/ (average total assets). In the calculations, the after tax interest expense is added back to the net income. This is because the ratio measures the ability of the asset to generate revenue for the firm regardless of whether it is from debt holders or shareholders.

The formula for return on assets can be summarized as follows

ROA = Net Income / Total Assets

= (5115 28085 625 23 11089) /2,702,344) = 44937 / 2702344 = 0,0166288969872

This is the firm’s ability to turn its assets into profit.

Return on Equity This indicates the firm’s return on the shareholder’s investments. It is usually expressed in the percentage form. The formula is;

ROE = Net Income / Shareholder’s equity = 44937/ (2,702,344 – 96,606) = 44937 / 2605738 = 0,0172454022622

As a percentage, this would be;

1.72454022622 %

Activity Ratio Activity ratio can be termed as the firm’s investment in an asset or assets in relation to the returns from the assets or a group of assets. One of the ratios that fall under this category is the average collection period while the other is the inventory turnover ratio.

Average Collection Period This usually indicates the average waiting period in which goods or services taken on credit are supposed to be paid. This is usually in days. The formula is

(Accounts receivable / sales) * 360

The accounts receivable represents the customer’s promises for later payments. In the social security case, average collection period = (11089 / 907298) * 360

(11089 / 907298) * 360 = 4.3999215252321

It is hence expected that 4 days are the average number of days that payments are supposed to made for those who received the services on credit.

The low average collection period implies that the scheme takes a shorter time to collect its cash from the debtors which is a clear indication that the organization is stronger as most of its cash is not held up in the form of debts.

A higher average collection period would indicate that the organization is weaker as most of its cash it not paid on time. This would then imply that some of the activities would be at a standstill due to the insufficient funds.

Inventory Turnover Ratio The ratio indicates whether a firm has more or less products in the inventory form. Too much goods in the inventory form might lead to the firm experiencing economic problems as the inventories are supposed to be financed until they are sold.

Fewer inventories on the other hand might imply that the firm might fail to meet the customer needs and this might lead to the loss of customers. By finding the inventory turnover ratio, one helps reduce the risk of having too much inventory or too little.

Formula = Cost of goods sold / average inventory

In the above case, average inventory= (6105 2909) / 2 =$ 4,507 billion

Operation cost = 721,248 = Inventory turnover ratio = 721,248/4,507 = 160.028400266253

The organization has a high inventory turnover ratio. This indicates that it has fewer goods in the form of inventory. This is an indication that fewer funds are used to finance such inventories although the result might be the loss of some customers who might prefer the competitors that have enough inventory goods.

Leverage ratios The leverage ratio which is also known as the debt to equity ratio is supposed to indicate the amount of debt on affirms balance sheet. The more the debt a company has the riskier it is especially on its stock given that in the case of bankruptcy, the stock is supposed to be used to settle the company’s debts.

This ratio indicates the level to which a firm depends on debt so as to finance its operations. 2:1 is the uppermost acceptable debt leverage ratio limit.The debt is not supposed to exceed 1/3 in the long term. A higher leverage ration is an indication that the firm might find it difficult to repay its interest and principle incase another funding is to be sought.

The formula for the financial leverage is;

Leverage Ratio = total debt / shareholders equity.

=2,688,344 / 2,702,344 – 96,606

= 1.0317015755229

Total Debt to Assets

The form 0.0357489646026 ula for this is total liabilities/total assets

= 96,606 / 2,702,344 = 0.0357489646026

Capitalization Ratio Long-Term Debt

Long-Term Debt Owners’ Equity

=2,688,344/ (2688344 2605738)

= 0.5078017303094

These ratios are a clear indication that the social security scheme depends on debts to fund most of its activities. Most of the funding is from the l government.

Debt / Equity Ratio This indicates the level to which a firm relies on its debt holders to finance its activities as opposed to its owners. A higher debt/equity ratio is a clear indication that the company relies more on debts so as to finance its activities that it relies on its owners.

This is risky. A low debt/equity ratio on the other hand indicates that the firm is stable as it does not majorly rely on debts so as to finance its activities.

Debt equity ratio= (Long-term debts short-term debt)/ total equity

In the given case, debt/equity ratio=12’843/2,605,738

The small debt/equity ratio is a clear indication that the company is not in much debt as it does not fund most of its activities from debts.

SWOT Analysis for the Social Security Administration Through SWOT analysis, it is possible to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that the scheme encounters. In this case, there are various strengths that give the scheme a competitive advantage over its competitors.

Analysis Strengths The scheme gets stable funding from the employers as well as the employees particularly those in the formal sector. This is made possible through defined contribution programs.

The scheme allows for private pension hence allowing even those individual who are not employed particularly those in private businesses to benefit.

It is insured and this ensures that the applicants continue receiving their benefits even during hard economic times.

The scheme receives funding from the government as funds are set aside from the budget so as to ensure that the scheme runs as expected without becoming bankrupt.

The contributions made are not taxed. This shields the scheme’s income from heavy taxation that would make it difficult to operate.

The contributions to the scheme are customized so as to fit the needs of the member and suite one’s salary.

The processing period has been greatly reduced which implies that the beneficiaries are able to be compensated within a shorter time. This gives the scheme a competitive advantage over the other schemes.

The scheme has well established customer care centers which ensure that some customers are served online and their questions and inquiries are dealt with online. This has made service delivery easier and faster.

The scheme has been characterized by administrative efficiency.

The set laws have also been in favor of the scheme.

Weaknesses At times the government funding is never enough hence plunging the scheme into budget deficit. In the 2011 case for instance, the government funding was less by $1 billion which implied that the scheme had to make numerous budget cuts.

The scheme is also prone to the economic shakeups as in the case of the recession and inflation which makes it expensive for the scheme to pay all the benefits to the applicants and the value of the benefits is also greatly altered.

The scheme has ignored the informal sector hence loosing the revenue that could be earned from this sector.

The private sector has been underexploited by the scheme hence losing on the revenue that could be earned from this sector.

There have been cases of evading the contributions and claims that are inflated hence plunging the scheme into an economic turmoil.

It has been difficult to for the scheme to get its earnings especially in the cases where the resources are channeled towards low yield investments.

There have been cases of inefficiency in the collection of the contributions, registration of new members as well as record keeping. It has not been quite easy to collect the contributions from the private sector.

Opportunities The private sector has not been very much exploited as it is in the case of the public sector. This could be done so as to get more funding and earnings from this sector.

The informal sector is the other opportunity that can be exploited so as to increase the scheme’s funding.

Threats The scheme is prone to macroeconomic fluctuation as well as recession and inflation. The high unemployment figures and the increase in the number of workers being laid off imply that the scheme is bound to witness numerous losses particularly due to the reduction in the amount of contributions from employees.

The public sector has also been prone to budgetary constraints.

There has been strong opposition to reforms within the scheme hence leading to high operation costs.

IFAS Mean characteristics of young adult (aged between 18 and 40) female SSI and AFDC recipients (in percent)

Characteristic Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Estimated mean annual (weighted) population (thousands)



Less than high school education

Disability status




Missing information

Family composition

With at least one adult in the family

(other than the respondent)

With own children

Family income less than 150% of poverty

Program participation


AFDC family

470 13.3












2,940 15.7












According to the findings, it is clear that there is an overlap between the families that received the supplemented security income and those which get aid due to the fact that they had dependent children.

Individuals from families that received the supplemental security income and those that received aid due to having dependent children were interviewed.

Most of these families had disabled sole bread winners. Most of them had conditions that could not allow them to perform the normal daily duties that could enable them provide for their families.

Some for instance were disabled and had been either on wheel chairs or were using canes, crutches or even walkers for more than six months. Some had mental conditions that rendered them unable to perform the normal duties that could help them provide for their families (Ware, 2009).

The overlap between the families that are on social security income and those that get aid due to having dependent children has resulted in case overloads which has had implications on the period taken before these families can receive their benefits.

According to the findings, some of the factors that are put into consideration while a person is applying for these benefits include the disability status, the individual’s education background as well as race.

For the Self Invented Personal Pension otherwise known by the abbreviations SIPP, the individual characteristics that are considered include the age, marital status, the disability status, the person’s education level, his/her participation in other programs such as the SSI and AFDC.

The economic status and policy variables at that particular time are also put into consideration. For the children to benefit, other factors are considered too, for instance, the age of the parents, the race, education and the level of disability are considered.

Internal Factors Analysis Summary(IFAS) and External Factors Analysis Summary Table(EFAS)

From the EFAS it is possible to infer the external factors that affect the scheme. Focus is given to the opportunities which are available externally that the scheme can exploit so as to expand and even get more funding.

These include the targeting of the informal and private sector. Attention is also given to the external threats that are likely to influence the operations of the scheme like the inflation, budgetary constraints, unemployment and high operation costs.

The IFAS on the other hand focuses on the internal factors that affect the operation of the scheme like the use of new technology and customization of contributions.

Comparison of SSI recipients at their first SIPP interview and post-SIPP recipients (in percent)

Demographic group Married With own children Children in mother-only families Low Income families AFDC participation Disability status Young women (aged 18 to 40) SSI recipients at first interview 13.3 35.7 n/a. 67.5 20.6 80.0 Post-SIPP SSI recipients 34.4 67.5 n/a. 68.4 29.4 50.5 Children (aged 0 to 17) SSI recipients at first interview n/a. n/a 52.2 75.7 29.4 56.0 Post-SIPP SSI recipients n/a. n/a 53.2 69.3 37.s 20.2 SFAS

Year Adjust. R Sq. All (1) Adjust. R Sq. Income (2) Adjust. R Sq. Book Value (3) Incr. Book Value (1-2) Incr. Income (1-3) N 2000 0.676 0.622 0.559 0.054 0.117 1972 2001 0.155 0.077 0.130 0.078 0.025 1982 2002 0.680 0.173 0.591 0.507 0.089 2013 2003 0.784 0.445 0.690 0.339 0.094 2028 2004 0.859 0.635 0.760 0.224 0.099 2007 2005 0.861 0.611 0.787 0.250 0.074 2035 2006 0.882 0.779 0.811 0.103 0.071 2056 2007 0.805 0.698 0.738 0.107 0.067 1973 2008 0.631 0.203 0.573 0.428 0.058 1904 2009 0.709 0.189 0.699 0.520 0.010 1859 From the chart above, it is quite evident that there has been an increase in the book value in the recent years. This is can be attributed to the fact that the number of members who are joining the scheme is increasing.

It can also be attributed to the improvement in the collection of contributions that were otherwise lost in the past years due to poor collection methods. The increase in the book value can also be attributed to the efficiency in service delivery which leads to customer satisfaction.

This helps to retain the existing customers and even attract new ones. The reduction in the net income can be attributed to macro economic factors like inflation and high unemployment rates which simply lead to the reduction in the total income being collected from the members.

N=20 Net Income and Net Loss Firms Net Income Only Variables (a) INCBV t (b) INCNI t (a) INCBV t (c) INCNI t SFAS .190 (.056) -.049 (.032) .132 (.043) .004 (.904) Adj. R Square .136 .178 .157 .008 Definitions

INCBVt represents the incremental R square for the book value.

INCNIt represents the incremental R square for the net income.

Conclusion The Social Security Scheme has been instrumental in making sure that its members have a decent life even after they retire, become ill or are incapacitated due to their involvement in accidents. The scheme has been receiving much support from the government particularly in terms of funding. This has helped it to avoid being plunged into much debt or even bankruptcy.

The management has been working hard so as to reduce the workload and even improve its services to the clients hence improving its customer satisfaction index. This has been made possible by employing the current technology in its service delivery. The starting of online services for instance has helped reduce the workload and made the work easier.

The processing period has been reduced to less than a year. This has prompted most employees to register with the scheme given that other schemes take a longer period before processing the benefits hence increasing the book value.

The scheme has also had its own difficulties particularly due to the high inflation rates and the world economic recession. This resulted in the reduction of the income that the scheme earned especially in 2011. All the same, the scheme continues to play a significant role in the welfare of its members.

There is need to even better the services offered by the scheme and reduce the period that individuals have to wait before they can be compensated.

References Bertoni, D. (2011). Social Security Administration: Management Oversight. New York: DIANE Publishing.

Bovbjerg, B. (2006). Social Security Administration: Improved Agency Coordination. New York: DANE Publishing.

Ferrara, P. (2000). Social security: the inherent contradiction. Massachusetts: Cato Institute.

Kutz, G. (2011). Social Security Administration (SSA): Cases of Federal Employees. New York: DANE Publishing.

Matthews, J. (2012). Social Security, Medicare and Government Pensions. Chicago: Nolo Press.

Meyerson, N. (2010). Social Security Policy Options. New York: DIANE Publishing.

Osterweil, L. (2007). Social Security Administration Electronic Service Provision. Washington: National Academies Press.

Ricard, R. (2007). Social security: promise and reality. Washington: Hoover Press.

Sacks, A. (2004). 2004 Social Security Explained. New York: DANE Publishing.

Tomkiel, S. (2008). The Social Security Benefits Handbook. Washington: Sourcebooks, Inc.

Ware, W. (2009). Elements of systems modernization for the Social Security. National Academies: Washington.

Wunderlich, G. (1998). Social Security Administration: critical issues. Washington: National Academies Press.


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Introduction This case study is based on the framework of internatonal mergers and acquisition, its way of success and challenges that come along with it.

The concept of mergers and acquisition thus has to be understood and internalised before critically evaluating the Vechtel case study and how it applies to topics dealt like international takeovers, leadership in international environment, cross-cultural communication, company cultures and stereotyping (King et al., 2004).

When we use the term ‘merger’, we are referring to the joining of two companies where one new company will continue to exist on the other hand the term ‘acquisition’ refers to the purchase of assets by one company from another company. In an acquisition, both companies may continue to exist (Doz, 1986).

However, in this discussion I will loosely refer to mergers and acquisitions (M


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The field of occupational health and safety is evolving very rapidly because of developments in the related fields such as human psychology. As social scientists develop new theories to explain human behavior, application disciplines such as occupational health and safety update their methods in order to concur with the latest findings.

The La_Camera restaurant, along with other businesses and companies, has legal and moral responsibilities to ensure that the workplace is safe for the workers. As a restaurant, several risks may compromise the safety of the employees working in the restaurant.

This paper examines the theories and perspectives related to occupational health and safety in the context of the La_Camera restaurant.

In discussing occupational health and safety, many scholars fall into the trap of focusing only on “injury”, at the expense of discussing “occupational illness and disease”.1

This comes from the fact that it is easier to recognize injuries at the workplace such as cuts, bruises, and fractures compared to work related illnesses and diseases. Illnesses and diseases take time to develop hence it may not always be possible to tie them to the working conditions.

However, it is a fact that there are diseases such as respiratory illnesses that come about because of workplace injuries.

One of the significant developments in the study of occupational health and safety was the shift from concentrating on the measures put in place by employers to the role of the employees in the safety of their working environment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employee behavior does play a major role in “the occurrence of occupational injury and illness”.2 This focus led to the development of programs that concentrated on employee behavior, aimed at behavior change. Currently, there is growing realization that concentrating on employee behavior alone does not achieve the full benefits possible in occupational health and safety programs.

Current occupational health and safety programs focus not just on the individual, but also on the Occupational Health and Safety “management systems and organizational culture”.3

In order to enforce occupational Health and Safety Standards, regulators used the “classical deterrence model”.4 It had two aspects. The first one was specific deterrence that tried to deal with specific offenders, while the other was general deterrence aimed at general offenders to discourage non-compliance.

The theory behind this model was that if there were a way to uncover offenders regularly, then it would make potential offenders less likely to break the safety codes. This model called for the use of punishment as a deterrent, with severity calculated to discourage non-offenders from becoming offenders.5

The theory assumed that if the cost of violation is much higher than the cost of compliance, then the possibility that people will comply willingly increases.

Organizational structures play an indirect role in the safety of workplaces.6 The reason for this is that they influence the speed with which occupational safety issues receive attention.

In organizations with clear-cut structures, and clear reporting structures, safety issues receive better attention and such organizations tend to have fewer incidents of accidents and occupational safety mishaps.7

We will write a custom Essay on Literature Review: Theories of Occupational Health and Safety specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, other basic factors mediate the effectiveness of organizational structures hence they cannot guarantee high levels of workplace safety on their own.8 These factors include interpersonal relationships and attention to workplace safety codes.

Another theoretical framework with a strong influence on occupational health and safety is “responsive regulation”.9 Responsive regulation refers to strategies that have provisions for punishing offenders and persuades potential offenders not to violate regulatory provisions.

This theory stems from the realization that overreliance on “penal enforcement” only can lead to “regulatory resistance” from those who may have chosen to keep within the regulatory requirements.

If the only message practitioners get is that if you violate the regulatory requirements then you will receive punishment, the incentive to act willingly is lost.

At the same time, lacking a formal strategy of persuasion may lead to an informal system, which eventually will collapse due to lack of institutional based enforcement.10

In the matter of accident reporting, the behavior reasoning theory holds a lot of ground.11 This theory postulates that people tend to act based on their reasons. This means that many of the actions that people exhibit have clear reasons behind them.12

Therefore, to increase accident reporting, there is need to give the workers reason to do so. Workers may fail to report accidents for various reasons such as fear that the blame for the accident will fall on them, or that it may cost someone their job.13

On the other hand, workers may choose to report accidents if there is an associated reward scheme or if it will lead to some sort of credit. According to the behavior reasoning theory, it is imperative for employees to have many more reasons to report accidents that far outweigh the reasons they might harbor not to report the accident.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Literature Review: Theories of Occupational Health and Safety by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Based on these theories, it is interesting to evaluate how they compare with the occupational safety and health standards at the La_Camera Restaurant. As a restaurant the most obvious risks associated with working at the La Camera is burns associated with kitchen work, and waiting on customers.

Chefs face personal accident risks when cooking on the restaurants kitchen from the hotplates and gas stoves. Waiters are mostly at risk if they fall over hot food and drinks. In addition, they are at risk of scalding from hot steam from the cooking pots. Other risks at the restaurant include fracture and dislocation from falling due to spillage on the kitchen floor and the restaurant floor.

Broken glass and cutlery also poses a risk to the staff at the La_Camera Restaurant. The restaurant frequently handles broken glass and cutlery mostly because of accidents on the restaurant floor because of customers, but occasionally, it also deals with breakages in the kitchen and backrooms during routine handling.

Most of the measures at the La_Camera only address injuries at the workplace. They do not address longer-term illnesses that can result from working there. The Restaurant has a first aid kit and protocols for responding to the common injuries at the workplace.

However, health insurance is the only measure against long-term illness. There are no comprehensive solutions to problems such as allergies to certain foods and physical complications arising from spending long periods on foot when serving at the restaurant floor.

The Restaurant recognizes the role employees play in the general safety of the working place. It emphasizes on safety, and hygiene to ensure that the staff handles all the equipment in the best way possible.14

Shift supervisors check for thing like leaking gas, wet floors, the cleaning of broken glass and the disposal of waste that may result in injuries and illness. Whether these measures are part of a proactive occupational health and safety strategy or the result of looking for competitive advantage in the restaurant sector is difficult to prove.

The best illustration of the deployment of the classical deterrence model is in the requirement to report the occurrence of a spillage or breakage in the restaurant floor for immediate cleaning. The person waiting on a table is responsible for reporting the breakages and spillages that occur there. Failure to do it amounts to misconduct, and can lead to a negative reference.

The role that the organizational structure plays is that the shift supervisor is the one responsible for the most safety issues that occur at the restaurant. They take the decisions relating to the measures required to remedy the situation.

The restaurant is not very strong on responsive regulation because there are not clear rewards for reporting accidents. Instead, there is a raft of penalties for causing or failing to respond to an accident. Accident reporting is always a dicey affair.15

For instance, if the breakage is the result of the employees, they face penalties. However, if the accident is the result of the actions of customers, the restaurant meets the cost. Therefore, there is a tendency to ascribe breakages and spillages to patrons.

Reference List Amponsah-Tawaih, K


Advantages and Disadvantages of Sales Force Automation Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Sales force automation is an integrated system of computer software and hardware that performs routine sales function. The system is intended to keep track and monitor sales activities for small businesses and large companies.

Organization transactions, customer information, and company operations are some of the information stored in the system. The basis for sales force automation is a computer network in which an internet connection is outfitted to the main server that links them to the sales management software and connects them to marketing sites through the internet or extranet.

Sales force automation has several advantages and disadvantages as discussed in the next section.1

Advantages of Automating the Sales Force Decreasing Human Resources and Increasing Productivity

Sales force automation increases productivity through saving time that could otherwise have been spent on manual creation of reports, records, and presentations.2

It facilitates accessibility and improves communication to support sales activities that may help in planning sales tactics. The system has improved productivity by increasing the pace of data collection and analysis from the grassroots to senior managers at company headquarters.3

This provides an opportunity for sales and marketing management personnel to improve information delivery and support provided to sales executives.4

Reduction of Human Error (Increase Efficiency and Productivity)

The system helps in minimizing human error by removing unnecessary steps, setting control, and reorganizing the supply chain. Through sales force automation, it is possible for sales executives to access real-time inventory levels, update catalog information, and reverse any information for verification, which increases accuracy of data.5

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When information is processed from the field, crews can be programmed very easily and the inventory from the warehouse restocked on time to time basis.

Sales force automation is therefore very essential in inventory control as compared to traditional hand-written order forms that were subject to human error and their productivity was very low due to the use of manual systems to gather information.6

Data Management with Ease

Strong sales automation software helps the user to check the accuracy of data that goes through the business, particularly data relating to the customer.

Through sales force automation, it is possible for the sales and marketing management team to organize sales lead information by linking the customer with the associated organization.7

When the customer is contacted, all information is computed into reports for easy analysis and evaluation by financial analysts. Companies have experienced several challenges when keeping strong and progressive customer reports, which is very important for a company’s track record.

Use of traditional data management systems was very risky for large business organizations because data could be lost when shifting from one department to another.8

Electronic Data Interchange This is an essential requirement for any firm to be on the competitive edge. Many companies providing customer support services have experienced low turnover due to their failure to capitalize on capabilities of electronic data interchange which could help in meeting customer demands.9

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Advantages and Disadvantages of Sales Force Automation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also provides medium sized companies with an approach to increase the quality of services they provide to their customers and improve communication between business owners and their supply partners without having to travel or incur extra costs.

The whole process of electronic data interchange is made possible by sales agents who place orders direct from the customer to the supplier for immediate delivery. The software also supports multiple connections such as cases where distributors’ sales agents make order for their clients.

Integration The ability to sustain customers lies in integrating sales force automation, call center system, and customer support into comprehensive solutions that help business organizations in supporting and tracking customers from the primary contact through future sales support.10

Sales systems that are not well integrated confuse customer relations, paralyze service provision, and later reduce the overall sales potential. Integrated systems provides high level services to both new and existing customers and provide new tactics of interacting with customers using a computer system with an internet connection.11

Maintenance (Cost of Goods Sold Increase) It is important to note that for a business enterprise to progress in the recent competitive environment, the marketing and sales managers must adopt sales force automation technology.

Although this technology puts businesses at a competitive edge over others in the same industry, it is more important to note that maintenance cost of such technology is very high in terms of installation and payment of technical experts.12

This is because it is very expensive to buy the sales force automation software which is difficult to install and expensive to maintain. In addition, some data could be lost during data transfer from one computer to another, which might lose some important customer information leading to a loss in an organization.

Successful integration of the system requires internet connection, which is costly for medium sized businesses because they must pay for installation cost and internet usage.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Advantages and Disadvantages of Sales Force Automation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Training Effective implementation of the system requires adequate training on the software application, which is costly.13 For any software application, the training begins with practical examples and therefore it is the responsibility of all managers to ensure that both the management and employees are comfortable with software navigation before additional capital expenditure. Some companies prefer to offer training seminars in order to offer their sales force software.14

Hackers, Virus, Shut Down (contingency and cost) Security threats from computer networks mainly come from hackers who take advantage of security flaws like exposure of published products and well-known configuration errors.

The cost of responding to such an incident can be very high and it could lead to loss of data and productivity in an organization.15 For instance, taking servers of a large company like Microsoft offline and altering data can cause down time.

Extra expenses are also incurred due to the cost involved in conducting forensic audit, coordinating with the investigators, replacing damaged resources and managing negative relations.

Viruses also pose a great challenge to data management in an enterprise.16 Many organizations have been forced to go offline for hours and days due to past attacks by viruses such as Melissa, Love, and Letter.

These viruses have increased the cost of operations in organizations because they have to adjust their cost each time an organization has gone offline. Currently, there is no any laid strategy to prevent an organization from such virus outbreak but they can reduce the cost brought by the virus by using antiviruses.17

Issues of Too Much Transparency The main challenge in customer relationship development and management emanates from lack of clear and transparent presentation. Developers of sales force automation software are being challenged to create software that is easily compatible and without confusion which helps the user in controlling the system without difficulties.18

When sales force automation is transparent it means that there is no security and therefore all users can access important data for a corporate. Transparency is a very major disadvantage because anyone can access company data and when hackers access such information they can make a corporate go offline for several days.19

Electronic systems have become necessary in the life of every individual. They automated work in the offices, improved efficiency, and convenience for millions of people in the world.

However, since the introductions of portable electronic devices such as, mobile phones and computer people have suffered from several diseases causes by long exposure to electromagnetic radiation.

Such diseases include: leukemia in children and brain tumor.20 Medical experts have confirmed that in the past static scan has caused great harm to human body through lasting electrostatic Can which can absorb more dust in the surface therefore causing breathing problems.21

Conclusion Though sales force automation has proved effective to many business ventures that adopted the system, It has also rendered many people jobless especially in countries with low market economy (developing).

Such technology is very effective if well applied in an organizational setting and the cost involved in operations can easily be cut down.

It is important to note that though there are so many advantages associated with sales force automation, companies and other organizations that have not laid down proper security measures have lost high revenues to computer hackers and virus. Others have been forced to close down due to competition and lack of enough funds to maintain the system.

Bibliography Ahearne, Michael, Douglas, Hughes and Niels, Schillewaert. “Why Sales Reps Should Welcome Information Technology: Measuring The Impact Of Crm-Based It On Sales Effectiveness.” International Journal of Research in Marketing 24.4 (2007): 336-349

Banerjee, Snehamay and Ram, Kumar. “Managing Electronic Interchange of Business Documents.” Communications of the ACM 45.7 (2002): 96-102

Bellieni, Chen, et al. “Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Laptop Use of “Laptop” Computers.” Archives of Environmental


Virgin Blue Airline Company Essay argumentative essay help

Competition within the airline industry has become a major factor that calls for the enhancement of better marketing management practices, higher customer value in service delivery and increased levels of productivity for profitability.

According to Leeflang, (2011, p. 80), the fast changing systems of consumerism that dictate the need for greater value in service provision has driven businesses in the airline industry to build a culture of providing superior services.

It is against this consideration that this paper explores the marketing analysis of Virgin Blue airline as a major competitor in the Australian airline industry and its marketing as well as provision of catering services.

A brief background of the airline company Virgin blue airline was established in the year 2000 from the Virgin Express airline to offer low cost flights between the major cities in Australia (Lucio


Freedom and responsibility Essay custom essay help

The article describes believes as well as the actions of a farmer who thinks different from what the other people do about animals. The famer feels and practices animal farming, because he believes that animal meat should also be incorporated in their diets.

This was against the traditions of those in the United States as most were vegetarians (Bergson 1948). The farmer respects the animals as he urges that, each and every one of them was important in the ecological issues.

In the farm where he practices this is referred to as a polyface that is to mean, a land of many faces as he raises different types of animals in the farm. The land is said to be there for fifty years. In some way, the farmer had inherited this from his father who was also practicing animal farming.

The farmer desired to do a variety of things that he had no legal right over this is because, the government in the region had restricted on the type of food the people in the region should eat (Lavoie 1985). According to the government in the region rearing of animals as a source of food appeared unusual and hence people had adapted to this resulting to the being vegetarians.

This is demonstrated by the way people viewed the idea of the farmer keeping animals in his farm as not fit. As an ecological engineer, the farmer felt that the animals were part of the ecological system.

He is at one time being interrogated for his rearing the animals where the cow is said to be causing negative contributions in the environmental predicaments but he supports his actions by telling the interrogator not to blame the cow for the harmful effects of industrial food system.

On the other hand, the farmer had the moral rights in the rearing of the animals. This is due to the fact that, he raises animal with a good motive of providing a better local diet to the people, which would have an indigenous flair.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For the farmer, farming is indivisible from faith, natural balance, and attitude as well as from politics which was at the time ruling on the type of diet that people in the area should have. He had not at any time campaigned against consumption of other diets, but instead he educated people in his different books on the importance of incorporating meat in the diet (Lavoie 1985).

He also brings out the role of the animals in the ecosystem as beneficial to the environment as well as to other crops that could be grown perennially. In his speeches he not only elaborates on the importance of rearing animals but tells people to also focus on what can be grown fit in their area with little effort.

In a book by Pollan, the farmer is brought out as a fame man who raises the animals for meat in the correct way (Bergson 1948). It is also through his book and speeches that he becomes an adored speaker. His reluctance to sort out, transformed him to a convincing ethical influence for the food association.

Besides livestock rearing, the farmer also engages himself into other activities as a writer as well as a speaker where he at times comes up as a theorist, an entrepreneur, activist or an ecological engineer as he tries to emphasize on the significance of eating meat as well as raising livestock.

The restrictions in his actions had direct effects on the community’s development as people could not practice his teachings despite the fact that, they were all beneficial to the citizens due to fear as this could be viewed as going against the laws set by the government (Foss 1994).

The limitations in his preaching the benefits that come hand in hand with the raising of the animals played a great role in delaying the progression in the region. In his writings he argues that, in every system in natural world contains an animal constituent for the purposes of recycling.

He as well expounds on the symbiotic relationships that exist between the animals and plants. This gave a clear view as to why he insisted that animals should not be excluded in the farms as they had an additional advantage over providing diet to man.

We will write a custom Essay on Freedom and responsibility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The constraints gave the farmer a very harsh time in convincing the citizens his reasons behind raising the animals (Lavoie 1985). This is because; the people did not see the essence keeping these animals and eventually killing them for the purpose of eating.

This was greatly drawn back by the government failing to consider the farmer’s point of view. The government’s own interests in promoting the food system in the area had a vast contribution in dragging the development in the region. In his website he had elaborated further on the matter of respecting as well as valuing the animal one raise. This appeared ironical because their destiny was them being slaughtered.

The irony in it as seen by the people, demoralized his efforts and this proved hard to convince the citizen hence no development could be attained easily due to peoples’ perception on the message he brought forth (Foss 1994). In the region for this to make sense to people, there ought to be somebody else who should be concerned with the limitations in order to ease the negative pressures on the farmer. This would help in promoting development in the region.

According to Orval Watts, “the economy of a community is dependent on each and every member contribution”. He elaborates on the significance of free markets as well as governments’ interventions in eradication of famine. By this, it would be ensured of development in the community hence, the progression will be experienced in the whole region.

He portrayed this more as he was a director of economic education hence had the opportunity to pass the message across to all. Besides this, he also looked into the importance of acknowledging those who has vision in developing the community. This shows the need for the government in the United States to have recognized the efforts of Salatin as this could aid in the progression in the region.

John Locke intricate on freedom by quoting “To understand political power right and derive it from its’ original, we must consider what state other men are naturally in.” this relate to Salatins’ situation where despite that he had good plans for the community he was not given freedom to expound his effort as what he was doing was not allowed in the society.

He also quoted that, “He who appropriates land to himself by his labor, does not lessen but increase the common stock of mankind.” By this he was putting emphasis on the issue of working hard as always hard work leads to better products.

This relates to Salatin’s hard work he did as in the article, besides giving out speeches, he spent a lot of time on his livestock and if this was done by every member in the society it could lead to development in the community (Bergson 1948).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Freedom and responsibility by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to FA Hayek, cultural advancement is a course in which a society and motive developed at the same time and not due to an individual’s motive deliberately building.

This in relation to Salatin, he had the capability to promoting development in the society but since it calls for contribution by every member in the society, this could not easily be experienced as no one in the society had the same opinion as his (Lavoie 1985).

The reasoning of the government and the whole community at large would have lead to the progression needed in the community if only all played a part in incorporating new ideas to add to the efforts by Salatin.

In conclusion, the development of society is dependent on the kind of the government in the region and also its contribution in the regions development.

For a community to progress, the effort of the members also matter a lot as this is what determines the destiny. Consideration of people’s efforts is a key factor to be considered as this is what determines the outcome of the society that is either development or no development at all.

References Bergson, A. (1948). Socialist economics. In H. S. Ellis


Nike Company Patent for Self-lacing Shoes Essay online essay help: online essay help

Introduction The study involves the patent search for a new product. I have chosen Nike self-lacing shoes as the topic of study. The reason behind the choice of this product is that, such a type of shoe is not available in the market. It is also possible that a product similar to it is not likely to come in the near future. Nike is working on it and has almost finalized the technology that includes automatic ankle cinching.

Patent is the exclusive right gained by a business firm on a particular product which enables it to use, produce and market the product. No other firm is entitled to produce it in the same form or market it. “A patent is a form of intellectual rights protection that enables inventors to prevent other people from making use of their ideas.

Patents can be very important, both for the individual inventor whose rights are protected and for the economy” (The Importance of Patents par. 1). Patent laws can guarantee that no one is capable to obtain unfair advantage of the work and thoughts of other inventors. There are three forms of patents. They are Utility, Design and Plant patents.

Utility Patent: It may be obtained by any entrepreneur who invents a novel and useful process, mechanism, article of produce, or composition of material, or any innovative and useful development thereof.

Design Patent: It may be rewarded to any entrepreneur who invents a novel, unique, and special design for the product.

Plant Patent: It may be given to any entrepreneur who invents and asexually reproduces any dissimilar and novel variety of plant.

The reasons for patent search are includes Determining whether one can get a patent or if ones invention has already been patented.

Obtaining the idea about how an application for patent is structured in order to help in the preparation of the product.

Seeking knowledge about a pioneering field.

Knowing the market conditions and the involvement of the competitors.

Identifying the technology needed and used by the competitors.

The image of Nike self-lacing shoes. (Appendix 1)

Process of for Obtaining a Utility Patent (Appendix 2)

The Nike Company has filed a patent for Self-lacing Shoes that resemble the Sneakers from ‘back to the Future 2,’ and Reebok shoes as well. Though the time schedule for the marketing of the shoes is finalized, the patent shoes are still working on the technology. “EFS-Web is the United States Patent and Trademark Office’s (USPTO’s) Web-based patent application and document submission solution.

Using EFS-Web, anyone with a Web-enabled computer can file patent applications and documents without downloading special software or changing document preparation tools and processes” (About EFS-Web par. 1). When the user slips a switch, the shoe tightens the laces. The switch activates a motor that unrolls a spool of wire fixed in the shoe.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As soon as the spool reels in the wire, the particular shoe become tightens along the axis supported by various rods. The shoes are definitely ideal for kids, physically challenged people and aged ones as well. A look at the literature of the patent provides a general outline of the various technology and thinking behind the every type’s footwear.

As the diagram exhibits (Appendix 3), a weight sensor activates a motor in the footwear, which cause tightens and close of the particular types of shoes. User of this particular shoe also shouldn’t be expecting a lightweight runner. The shoe abodes a driveshaft and a motor in the soles. So the patent continues.

“The Patent Application Information Retrieval (PAIR) system provides IP customers a safe, simple, and secure way to retrieve and download information regarding patent application status.

There are two PAIR applications, Public PAIR and Private PAIR. Public PAIR provides access to issued patents and published applications. Private PAIR provides secure real-time access to pending application status and history using digital certificates” (Check the Filling Status of Your Patent Application par. 1).

When Nike obtains the patents, no other company can use the same technology. The patent right prohibits them from doing so. Further, spending lot of cash on studying the technology and then implementing the same debars ordinary companies to enter in this particular model field and standard companies like Reebok shall not damage their name by imitating the model.

In order to understand these market forces, the idea of supply and demand refers to the supply and requirement of goods and services in the marketplace. This is an economic method primarily based on utility, price, and quantity of the product. This method has been deemed as the backbone of market financial system. (Appendix 4).

Appendixes Appendix 1

The image of Nike self-lacing shoes

We will write a custom Essay on Nike Company Patent for Self-lacing Shoes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More (Self-Lacing Shoes).

Appendix 2

Process for Obtaining a Utility Patent

Text Version:

(Process for Obtaining a Utility Patent).

Appendix 3

Specification figure of Nike self-lacing shoes


Appendix 3

Supply and Demand Curve:

(Demand and Supply Diagrams of Nike Shoes).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Nike Company Patent for Self-lacing Shoes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited About EFS-Web. The United States Patent and Trademark Office. 2011. Web.

Check the Filling Status of Your Patent Application. The United States Patent and Trademark Office. 2011. Web.

Greenfield, Rebecca. Futuristic Marty McFly Nike Self-Lacing Kicks Work Pretty Simply. Atlantic Wire. 2011. Web.

Nike’s Compaign Tells Us the Air Mag Self-Lacing Shoes are Coming. Technobaboy. 2011. Web.

Process for Obtaining a Utility Patent. The United States Patent and Trademark Office. 2011. Web.

The Importance of Patents. Fedcirc. US Patent Law Information. 2009. Web.


Motivation Applicability in the Workplace Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Concepts of motivation

Need hierarchy theory

Organizational application



Introduction Motivation is the process that initiates and sustains certain behaviors or codes of conduct. A motivating factor triggers the beginning of a certain behavior and as long as the motivating factor is present, the person retains the behavior. This implies that the process of motivation is a cause-effect in which case, the cause is the motivating factor, while the behavior is the effect.

The emergence of this knowledge has triggered several researches in view of understanding the motivation process best. Initially, employers viewed the employees as just another input in the production process and continued to do so until the understanding about motivation came up.

Since then, employers have changed their behavior and approach towards their employees. This paper aims at exploring the facts behind one of the motivational theories and examining its applicability in the working place. Thereafter, the paper explores the need for new motivation theories to supplement the inapplicability of the theory under discussion.

Concepts of motivation In a wide range, managers have approached the issue of employee motivation under the guidance of two concepts. One of these concepts is the concept of the intrusive and extrusive motivation. Factors like personal interest and enjoyment of tasks assigned to a person, which are intrinsic in nature are motivating factors (Baumeister


Information Gathering Techniques Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Various means can be used to gather information about the current state of applications in any given organization. The information gathered is used in the development of better applications or in upgrading existing ones. The following techniques can be used in gathering information about various applications in hospitals.

To begin with, holding of Interviews is one way of gathering information in various departments of a hospital. This can be online interviews, phone interviews or face to face interviews. The interviewer can ask standard set of questions to the workers in various departments of a given medical institution.

Questions about satisfaction gained, difficulties involved when one uses a given application can be included in the interview questions. In addition, semi-structured interviews can be used which involves standard questions with more individualized tailored questions for specific workers to induce them into reasoning (Fossey, Harvey, McDermott


Islamic banking sector Proposal essay help free: essay help free

Abstract Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), has a vibrant Islamic banking sector. The region has over 50 banks with upwards of 40 foreign banks office representatives. Largely oil revenues fuel the United Arab Emirates economy, which serves as an enhancement for profitability of these banks.

The key aspects of the Islamic banks in the region are the profit and loss sharing, transparent dealing, lack of interest, lack of speculation and no gambling. The banks also do not deal with unethical business and have just policies of employment.

Dubai bank is the example used to support the Islamic bank concept in the Middle East. Many previous works have been undertaken in this field with no clear-cut research on its drawbacks. This document aims to support research on the customer perspective of the benefits and loops of the Islamic banking concept.

Customers of the Islamic banks weigh various options while considering the services offered. The banks are non-remunerative with extra returns for depositors of deposit accounts. There is greater risk in adjusted returns for customers who invest in Islamic banks indices.

This study aims to characterize the problems endured by the Islamic banks and together with their customers. Secondary data studies were used as customer sample from Dubai bank.

Findings will indicate the problems encountered by the Islamic banks. The study will look into the legal system, political issues, risks, low profitability, loans, lending rates, management and limited transparency. The quality of service that is offered and client problems will also be looked into.

Introduction Background Information

The new millennia brought in new features and changes in the banking industry key of them being banking systems. The tremendous changes in the industry can be linked to the need for better customer friendly service.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These custom-made changes were to aligned to maintain completion with other institutions in the same field and keep up with economic and political developments globally. The Islamic banks were developed due to religious requirements; hence, the competitive edge in the global field was edged out. The Islamic banks cannot compete globally and are ranked poorly out of the top hundred brackets.

It is inevitable for the Islamic banking industry to explore future limits for a clearer vision to predict challenges obstacles and effective counter measures. Most of these banks operate well in specific environments. It is estimated that Islamic banking systems manage over US$ 250 billion with clientele around the world.

Their client base is not restricted to Muslim countries but is spread well over Europe. The Islamic banking system continues to grow tremendously. There are more than 260 worldwide Islam financial institutions in operation.

Dubai Islamic Bank is the first fully-fledged Islamic bank. It has combined the best Islamic values and their traditional values as well. This is coupled with advanced technology and innovations of modern banking at its best. Dubai Islamic Bank was formed in 1975 and is established as a leader in the field of Islamic banking.

The trend of Islamic banking is on the rise in the Arab world, and the Dubai Bank is a front-runner for others. Islamic banking is the fastest-growing economic agent in the world that comprises of many institutions with billions of dollars in assets under management.

The role of Dubai Islamic Bank is impressive and the bank is true to its clients and roots. It is religiously and customer-centered institution with personal service and understanding.

Significance of the study

This study is vital for it will create information on the Islamic bank clients’ reaction towards the Islamic institutions system of banking. The main consideration is the prohibiting of interest generation as per Islamic laws. The study is also aimed to provide more information on client benefits in the Islamic system compared to those in conventional systems of banking.

We will write a custom Proposal on Islamic banking sector specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The benefits of the Islamic banking system are also subject to customer satisfaction, therefore, it is vital that the customers opinion on this area be viewed which the study aims to do.

The study aims to make contributions, based on client responses, to socio-economic grasp on the Islamic banking systems and assist the clients make decisions on which system comprehensive choice in conventional systems of banking or Islamic systems of banking.

Problem Statement

The key aspects of the Islamic systems of banking in the region are the profit and loss sharing, transparent dealing, lack of interest, lack of speculation and no gambling. The banks also do not deal with unethical business and have just policies of employment Dubai bank is the example used to support the Islamic bank concept in the Middle East.

Many previous works have been undertaken in this field with no clear-cut research on its drawbacks. This document aims to support research on the customer perspective of the benefits and loops of the Islamic banking concept. Customers of the Islamic banks weigh various options while considering the services offered.

The banks are non-remunerative with extra returns for depositors of deposit accounts. There is greater risk in adjusted returns for customers who invest in Islamic banks indices. The findings of the study will aim to assist clients and potential clients make a clear decision on the banking systems.

The Islamic banks are flourishing due to demand rather than supply. Therefore, their customer feedback will give a clear picture of customer satisfaction. This will assist it attaining indicator from the banks growth.

Sharia laws have been enforced in many Arab nations and its teachings and laws propel more and more Muslims to be clients of the Islamic banking systems. This can be seen as the driving factor to the banks development.

This will therefore, mean that the banks are profiting from a client base that dejects it. The faith based concept of the Islamic banking system drives of many potential non-Muslim clients. The fact that religious wars in Islam have caused many grievances to the rest of the society, many perceive association of the banks with funding of unjustified holy wars.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Islamic banking sector by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The concept of behind running the Islamic banks is a key indicator of the clients’ belief in the system. If the clients do not comprehend the working of the system, they will feel oppressed in that their money does not earn interest and yet the banks gain from their deposits. Policies of customer assistance in Islamic products will seek to address their reaction towards the Islamic system and the understanding of its functionality.

Objective of the Study

The general objective of this comprehensive study is to examine the customer awareness of Islamic systems of banking; this will look into their reaction of the performance and profit-and-loss sharing and recommendations for improvement generated.

Specific Objectives

To understand the customer reaction towards the Islam banking system

To create recommendations of Islamic banking improvement based of the client feedback


What are the customers’ views on Islamic banking system?

In which way do the Islamic banking clients want their banking institution to change?

Literature Review Islamic banking uses the principle of moneys not earning interest (Duncan 97). This ban is based upon Islamic ruling called Shariah. Since Muslims are not allowed to gain or pay interest, they are cannot conduct business with many conventional banks.

To service the Muslim market, Islamic institutions of banking developed a wide range of financing instruments that do not gain interest (halal). The halal conforms to the Shariah ruling and is acceptable to the Muslim fraternity. Many Arabians before Islam, and later in Islam practiced this interest-free concept.

For centuries, the banking system was used on a small scale, in the early 1970’s its commercial application started being used in the public domain. From this time, the concept has become a worldwide phenomenon. The concept has succeeded in many Islam countries, hence, the study on customer opinion and recommendations on growth.

The lack of awareness of the key principle is the main point behind the constricted growth. The system would have achieved worldwide success amongst non Muslim and Muslims if the principles were highlighted clearly to impending clients. The religious concept has kept constricting the growth of the institution.

Several surveys have been undertaken in the area to assist researchers understand the attitudes towards Islamic banking systems (Gafoor 69). These researches provide useful background information in the area of study.

Most of these researches show that the client would generally be accepting of the Islamic banking systems if they were educated on their policies. Better understanding of their policies would establish a good relationship between clients and the organization.

Ghannadian (41) conducted a study on perceptions customers toward Islamic banking in Malaysia. Many respondents proclaimed the main reasons for Islamic banking selection are based equally on economic considerations and religion. Majority of the clients also found the marketing of the product to be vague. The media has also errantly portrayed the Islamic banking concept.

The international media perception of the Islamic banking system is hostile and undermining according to Arab news chief editor. Despite this fact, many respondents of that study believed that the industry had grown tremendously. Ghannadian (32) put forward that Islamic banking organizations should tremendously improve their services for customers’ satisfaction in their wants and requirements.

In another study, quality of service is portrayed to be very important as an indicator for customer understanding and customer satisfaction. Quality service delivery as per to customers’ expectations is vital.

Gounaris (64) looked into the quality of service in the banking industry in greece and found an alternating influence per dimension of quality of service to the customer satisfaction. To retain the long-term customers and maintain an edge in the market service quality, it is vital and the key differentiation.

In the financial sector, understanding customer’s expectations and needs is essential as a prerequisite. In Dubai, customer perception of quality of service is significantly different from conventional banks in the Islamic banking system.

There are four dimensions reflected when comparing the Islamic banking systems and conventional system of banking. The values, image, reliability and personal skills are significant for the running of the conventional banking system. On the other hand, only value and skills are important in the Islamic banking system.

Better service delivery will in turn generate a lot o satisfied clients and consequent growth of the organization and its concepts. There were investigations by Boyd on selection criteria used by the institution. He based the ideas on demography and found many differences in quality of service and demography. In Muslim countries, males are made to do the financial obligations.

Methodology There is a requirement for convincing evidence base to carry out this study. The evidence will guide the general process that generates the document. This process will use information sources extensively utilizing both traditional and other sources.

It will make sure that adequate resources and information on Islamic banking systems is sort from a large collection of literature on the subject matter. To gain the objectives targeted, a process will be put in place that fast tracks attainment materials.

These processes will be interlinked, for efficiently generated information. The process will involve both quantitative methods and qualitative methods for the generation of information.

The qualitative methods will entail

Methods used quantitatively will entail the following:

Desk reviews of important data and previously complied reports available to gain a variety of aspects to be analyzed.

No Main Objective Approaches for methodology 1 Undertake a critical, elaborate and comprehensive analysis of the present customer opinions on Islamic banking system Desk review and analysis of available data Literature reviews 2 Develop key recommendations on issues affecting Islamic banking systems Literature review The process will need consideration before hand of data available and more information on the Islamic banks to assess their quality, efficiency and effectiveness.

Study Design

This will be a descriptive study. It will also contain cross-sectional study to determine the opinions of customers on Islamic banking systems. The study targets customers of Dubai bank in the United Arab Emirates.

The Study Population

The study will target a general cross-section of customers of the Islamic banks. This is to attain first hand information from the situation experienced by customers of these banks. A specific target population of customers of the Islamic bank of Dubai will be used.

Sample size Determination

There will be a sample size of 500 Islamic bank customers.The sample size will be determined using Fisher et al, (1999) formula, i.e. n =Z²*pq/d².

Where n is the needed sample size, z is the normal standard deviate which is given as a constant of 3.24 which corresponds to 99% confidence interval, p is percentage of targetable customers. This gives a prevalence of 45% d is the degree of accuracy, and q is given as (1-p) which is 1-0.45=0.55

The sample size will be based on the precision (p- value = 0.45), and so

n= {(3.24)²*0.045*0.55}/ 0.05²

n= 380

The sample size is increased to 600 in order to account for potential missing clients, refusals, and spoilt questionnaires. (5% of 380)

Data collection instruments

The study will utilize highly structured interviewer administered questionnaires will be used. The tool will be subdivided into sections. It will be written both in multiple languages including Arabic and English.

Pre-Testing of Tools

The data collection tool will be pre-tested in selected areas in to assess its effectiveness and the feedback from the pre-test will be used to make the necessary adjustments on the tool.

Training of Research Assistants

To ensure quality data is collected, the researcher will recruit exceptionally qualified local enumerators. They will be trained for 4 days to attain certain skills and knowledge required to enable them produces results.

They will be made familiar with interview conditions and variables being studied. They will be taken through interview schedules, question by question and they will be shown how to conduct interviews.

Data Analysis

Different analytical techniques will be used. The analysis on the awareness level on cervical cancer among women will be analysed using percentages. This approach has been used to explain the determinants of customer relations in Islamic banks in India.

Relationships between categories of variables will be analysed using the Chi-square test. Chi-square testing has been used to explain relationship of determinants of willingness to go for screening for breast cancer among women in United Kingdom (Bose 68).

The data analysis was both manual and electronic. The initial exercise of the data analysis started with the harmonization of dummy tables required to guide on the variables for electronic manipulation.

Frequencies of identified variables were run in SPSS some of which were exported to Microsoft Excel for generation of graphs and charts. Various variables were also summarized manually in tables to assist in the analysis.

Data Computerization and Verification

I entered the data.

Data was entered into Key Informant Questionnaire (KHI) files.

Quality control was conducted by systematic checking for outliers, coding errors, and impossible results.

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis.

Data cleaning

At the end, of the data collection Manual data cleaning of questionnaires’ conducted. All queries and concerns were harmonized to ensure uniformity as prepared to develop the data entry screen.

Data entry screen

Data entry and manipulation was to be done in the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The screen merged and harmonized into one Master sheet.

Data entry Data entry was conducted. All the entered data was merged into one data set Master sheet.

Ethical Considerations

The research will be presented to Universities administration for clearance and approval. The document will be presented to other interested stakeholders. Participants in the research will be required to consent to participate.

The purpose and objectives of the study, assurance of confidentiality and voluntary participation, anonymity, perceived benefits and possible risks before participating in the study will be explained to them. The participation will be voluntary.

Dissemination Plan

The result will be disseminated to the University and required Islamic banks institution. Further dissemination shall be through seminar presentations, workshops and report prints

Limitations, delimitations and assumptions


For the project, the researcher assumes that the participants of his survey differ in attitude, experiences and perceptions. Other assumptions are that the participants understand the purpose of the survey and they respond accurately and honestly to the survey.


The study delimits to a specific banking institution. The customers come from one institution for easier control of participants.

Works Cited Bose, McGee. Islamic Investment: Risks and Returns. New York: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

Duncan, Edmund. Efficiency, customer service and financial performance. Dhabi: Inter. J. Bank Mark, 2004). Print.

Gafoor , Michael. Commercial Banking Interest-Free. Washington: Noordeen, 2006. print.

Ghannadian , Fred. Economy banking development: Islamic banks. New York: Sage, 2004. Print.

Gounaris Seth. Service quality: Islamic Banking. New York: Routlegde, 2006. Print.


Organizational Communication Skills Training Program Research Paper college essay help

Selection of Training Program Criteria for the selected program

In the contemporary world, organizations face many upheavals as they aspire to achieve their objectives the main one being to maximize profits and revenues. Therefore, all aspects of the organization should be in harmony with this objective.

Among the most outstanding aspect that impairs organizations from making these strides is effective organizational communication. The rationale is that organizations interact with many other organizations, customers, suppliers, employees and other stakeholders while at the same time there are innumerable human interactions within the organization such as employer-employee to mention but one.

Failure to have effective communication channels may lead to the inability of the organization to achieve its goals and poses a major challenge.

Justification of the selected program

Communication skills are therefore important to enhance the success of an organization and helpful in propelling the organization to improved productivity and ultimately, increased profits (Manning, 2002).

With that in mind, a needs assessment in many organizations indicate that lack of effective communication strategies could lead to impaired decisions and policies which in turn could result to poor performance.

As such, in this training program the choice of organizational communication skills as the main topic comes about due to the realization that communication is the standpoint in all organizations without which no organization can achieve it desired performance.

It is worth recognizing that other aspects of the organization such as leadership and management are important, there is no feasible leadership without effective communication. Thus, this training program seeks to conduct a needs assessment on communication, develop a design for the training, implement the training and evaluate the outcomes of the project.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After the training on organizational communication skills, it is important to comprehend that an organization will boosts its chances of becoming competitive and improve the motivation and job satisfaction of the employees.

Besides, it will lead to improved public perception of the organization since the customers will receive improved communication.

Overall thoughts on the training

On overall, the training of all stakeholders on the appropriate communication skills within the context of the organization will be an important exercise that will not only boost the competitiveness of the also provide the employees, managers and other stakeholders with the requisite skills imperative for improved organizational performance.

Needs Assessment Being the transfer of thoughts and messages communication is vital for every organization. In particular, it enhances smooth flow of information among all stakeholders. One of the most outstanding needs in communication skills is to enhance the movement of messages across the entire organization.



Home Depot Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Alternative actions to address the situation



Works Cited

Home Depot Incorporation was founded in Atlanta, Georgia in the year 1978 by Arthur Blank and Bernie Marcus. Both Arthur and Bernie had been fired from a small company that dealt with home improvement products thus the decision to start a retail store providing these products. At its commencement, Home Depot had a warehouse stocked with a wide variety of home improvement products at very low prices.

From then on, the company has grown to be the largest chain offering home improvement items in the world. At the start, the company grew at a much slower pace but with time the business picked and today Home Depot is a successful enterprise.

With over 2,000stores across the globe, Home Depot is a booming enterprise with Lowe as its main competitor. With reference to the case study, this paper will assess Home depot’s growth strategy, its current business environment, the industry, competitors, the strategies used, and how the company can address the challenges it is facing.

The business environment of a company includes the various aspects of its surrounding which affects the operations in one way or another. In other words, Home Depot’s business environment is a set of conditions that cannot be controlled by nature whereby these conditions affects its normal functioning.

Just like any other company, Home Depot has internal and external environments. Its internal environment consists of factors like manpower, machinery, cash, and management which can be controlled by the business. Home Depot can make changes in the internal environment with respect to changes in the business’s functioning.

This is evidenced by changes in the top management since the company’s inception and the growing number of its workforce and stores. From the year 1979 to the year 2006, the company’s revenue grew from $ 22 million to $90.8 billion respectively. When Home Depot commenced its operations up to the year 2000, one of its co-founders acted as the CEO (Hess 2).

Having grown the company’s revenue tremendously, the board of directors embraced change by replacing Blank with Bob Nardelli. Having served in the military, Nardelli employed a completely different strategy. He imported manpower and ideas from the military and as a result caused culture overhaul.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Previously, Home Depot had a culture that was low profiled and collaborative but Nardelli converted it to “a culture of fear” (Hess 3). The decline in sales experienced during the 1990’s can be attributed to the form of management employed by Nardelli.

Changing the decentralized strategy that paid attention to employees and more importantly to the customers led to the low sales. This shows that changing the internal environment of the business does affect its business’s performance in different ways.

On the other hand, the external environment of Home Depot consists of factors that are beyond its control. The external environment of the business does affect its internal functioning, the strategies it employs, and its objectives as well. The operative external environment of the business consists of customers, the suppliers, competitors, market intermediaries, and the public as well.

The suppliers provide the company with raw materials therefore they must be reliable to ensure success of the business. Home Depot is a multinational company operating across the globe meaning that it has multiple suppliers. Customers are constituents of the business’s external environment.

Customers determine the success of the business therefore the need to tailor products that will provide maximum satisfaction. Home Depot is a large incorporation thus its customers range from industries, wholesalers, retailers, and governmental institutions.

Also, important to the external environment of the business are the market intermediaries who link the final consumers of the products to the business. Banks and other financial intermediaries, middle men, and marketing agencies fall under this category.

Competitors are an important constituent of the external environment of the business as well. Each and every move which a competitor makes affects the company. Home Depot’s competitor is Lowe; with this in mind, Home Depot has to keep on adjusting according to the strategies which its competitor employs.

We will write a custom Case Study on Home Depot specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Both Lowes and Home Depot compete in the “Do It Yourself” market for home improvement products. The merchandise offered by these two include building materials, millwork, and lumber, kitchen, plumbing, electrical, wall covering, paint, and flooring (Hess 4).

The Do It Yourself strategy was first adopted by Home Depot but Lowes has always been pushed by market forces to survive the stiff competition. After conducting SWOT analysis for both companies, it is clear that they possess the same strengths even though Lowe has never out performed Home Depot.

In this case, Lowe is found to have been the market leader and as a result has its loyal customers. On the other hand, Home Depot employed a better strategy of price leadership. The business took the strategy of offering the same product as Lowe but at a lower price.

The public which makes up the external environment of a business consists of people who have vested interest on the operations of the business.

On the macro or rather general external environment of a business, the PESTLE analysis is always carried out to establish its stand on the industry. PESTLE stands for political, economic, social-cultural, technological, legal, and environmental factors that make the external environment of a business.

The political factor determines how a change in governmental policy can affect a business. Political factors are felt in areas like labor and environmental laws, tax policies, tariffs and trade restrictions as well as the political stability of a country.

The economic environment is dynamic and it reacts to changes in politics and policies. An economy can affect a business through government spending, exchange rates, and interest rates among others. Social factors analyze how the beliefs and behaviors of the consumers affect the business. Culture, attitudes, and population constitute the social factors of the external environment.

The technological environment concentrates on the speed at which product innovations and production processes can affect the business. Ethics are important for a business for they lead the management and workforce to do what is regarded as morally right. Time and again, integrity and acting in an ethical manner have been said to be the driving forces that have contributed to Home Depot’s success.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Home Depot by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Environmental factors including the aspects of climate, climatic change, and weather which are important in the external environment of a business. Legal factors include consumer laws, discrimination laws, and employment laws. All these factors are important components of Home Depot’s external environment for they affect its operations in the short and long terms.

Since the 1990s, the industry of home improvement has experienced a speedy growth. With the wealth effect, many people have invested heavily on expensive and prized possessions. Change of customer needs, increased housing expenditure, and the internet has made the industry what it is today.

In its current situation, Home Depot has employed successful business strategies that can be summed into its core values. The core values include: offering excellent service to customers, caring for the people, being ethical, shareholder value, respecting all people, giving back to the society, maintaining a spirit of entrepreneurship, and building strong and lasting relationships.

The vision of stores with a wide variety of assorted products at low prices and giving customer’s excellent services has contributed to the company’s success. The greatest strength exhibited by Home Depot is its ability to listen to its customers. The company’s dedication to provide customers with an excellent service contributes to its success.

The only weakness the company has is that it spends more on advertising so as to lock out its competitors. After analysis of every aspect of the company, it is clear that the situation that needs to be addressed by Home Depot concerns the growth strategy. Robert Nardelli’s leadership and management styles did no good to Home Depot therefore the new CEO is faced by a challenging task concerning a growth strategy.

Alternative actions to address the situation There is need to change the GE style, human resource policies, accountability, technology, and operating efficiencies that were existent during Nardelli’s tenure. Nardelli significantly changed the entire culture of Home Depot through changes in merchandising, the executive, centralization, and purchasing and inventory.

The founders Blank and Marcus adopted an entrepreneurial and decentralized culture that gave first priority to employees and customers. Now that Blake is facing a huge challenge of bringing back Home Depot’s credibility, he can do so by using alternative business strategies.

The alternative business strategies should work on improving the current stores, diversifying services, finding new channels, and expanding the business to the global front.

The change should come from the top management then to the retailers such that they can schedule and optimize their work time. The company should put into consideration ways in which shoppers can be more efficient. This can be done through the provision of self-checkouts.

The best action which Frank Blake can take is to embrace the entrepreneurial spirit so as to settle problems regarding shareholders and employees. Rethinking the current strategies will also be a good alternative. Bringing one of the co-founders of Home Depot to the management level could work well in reorganizing the business.

Redirecting, reorganizing, and dis-positioning of the existing business strategies and some of its operations will be the best alternative. Redirecting the management from its current centralized nature to a decentralized one will enable the business to reach all the customers.

A decentralized management will allow the business time to be close to the customers and through research and development it will capture firsthand information on the needs and wants of the customers.

The information provided by the store managers will aid in decision making. Again, reorganizing the business to adopt the previously used inverted pyramid will help in overcoming the challenge. The pyramid structure recognizes the people working in the stores as very important since they are the ones in close contact with the customers.

Home Depot can employ the “best cost provider” competitive strategy to draw a line between the enterprise and its competitors. It is a fact that Home Depot’s competitors do offer installation services but the enterprise supposedly offers the services at affordable prices.

Nardelli opted for acquisitions and mergers and through them; Home Depot has been able to outdo its competitors. This trend can be used to increase the business’s market share through the opening of more retail stores across the globe.

The Do It Yourself approach coupled with differentiation and price leadership will be great alternatives which the business can take. All these alternatives will aid in satisfying the customers thus the growth of the business (Hess 6).

Recommendation The best solution for this situation at Home Depot is reorganizing and redirecting the management style. Decentralizing the business like before will enable the business to reach and keep contact with all classes of its customers. Investing in technology will enable customers to order products online. The advancing technology also allows product innovation and production processes.

A decentralized management system, excellent customer service, and competitive prices will keep Home Depot on top. Wide range of assorted products and excellent distribution channels will be a part of the decentralization. Ensuring that the mission and vision statements are observed will keep Home Depot on top.

The core values which include: offering excellent service to customers, caring for the people, being ethical, shareholder value, respecting all people, giving back to the society, maintaining a spirit of entrepreneurship, and building strong and lasting relationships will work well in improving the situation.

The vision of stores with a wide variety of assorted products at low prices and giving customer’s excellent services will aid in the decentralization. The competitive strategies to use will include differentiation and price leadership (Hess 8).

The financial objectives of Home Depot include growing its revenue by a certain percentage, growing the company’s market share through acquisitions and mergers, growing the return on sales and return on investment, and a strong cash flow.

Just like any other multinational company, Home Depot has an objective to be stable in the market, and having a solid balance sheet as well as a good ability to invest.

The implementation plan for Home Depot will aid in measuring the success of the business strategies employed. The implementation plan breaks down each strategy to steps that the management can identify with. These steps are then assigned to people to suggest when each can be completed.

For the implementation to be successful, the objectives should be clear, each task should be assigned with a deadline, and then progress monitored so as to achieve the intended goals and milestones (Hess 10).

In summary, the implementation plan should have: objectives, the tasks to be carried out, time allocation, and then the progress.

Conclusion The Home Depot incorporation was founded by Arthur Blank and Bernie Marcus in Atlanta, Georgia in the year 1978. The company has been successful since its inception due to its good management and business strategies. With over 2,000 stores across the globe, Home Depot is a booming enterprise with Lowe as its main competitor.

Even though Nardelli changed the management style and culture of the business, Home Depot has always remained unmatched. In this case analysis, the key issue identified is poor growth strategy.

With decentralization of the management, this situation can be done away with since the company will be able to keep in contact with its customers. This way, products can be tailored to give the customers maximum satisfaction hence brand loyalty. An implementation plan is important for it aids in the achievement of financial objectives as well.

Works Cited Hess, Edward. The Home Depot Inc. Virginia: Darden Business Publishing, 2007. Print.


Concept of an Entrepreneur in Business Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction This essay talks about an entrepreneur. It seeks to define who an entrepreneur is, how one becomes an entrepreneur; whether he is born an entrepreneur already or whether he acquires the skills of entrepreneurship in life. It will therefore, examine various aspects that are likely to influence one into entrepreneurship.

It will analyze character traits inherent in an entrepreneur. These include an individual’s level of innovation and creativity, his ability to recognize and take up opportunities and the amount of risk one is willing to get into when starting a business.

It will focus on the effect of family and upbringing upon one in becoming an entrepreneur, the effect of culture and various policies by different governments and their impact upon an individual. At the end of the discussion, it will be established that an entrepreneur is both born and nurtured. One’s environment plays a critical role in shaping one’s ideas and character into becoming an entrepreneur.

Discussion An Entrepreneur

This is a person who ventures into a business despite the risks inherent. He plans, starts, and runs the business growing it to maturity. Unlike a business man who runs a business and becomes part of a larger business community, an entrepreneur takes the risk to star up a new venture, which he expands and grows to a full business empire which he is master.

What Makes an Entrepreneur

Two propositions have been put forward to explain an entrepreneur. One is that he is born and not made and the other is that he is nurtured and not born. Those who argue than an entrepreneur is born posit that some people are born with certain innate characteristics necessary for entrepreneurship.

These individuals are more likely to take risks, identify and take up business opportunities and are more welcoming and ready to explore new experiences that seem promising to their businesses.

Some, like Shane (2010), argue that entrepreneurs are made. They further state that anyone has the capability of making an entrepreneur. All one needs is a passion, determination and good mentorship to become a good entrepreneur. The difference is that these people need to work harder than those born with characteristics of entrepreneurship.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To some extent, learning and adapting these skills by nurture is of benefits as an individual learns them from professionals who will guide him on how much of the skills are beneficial, and to what extent do the skills become harmful. This is unlike one who is born with the skills and does not know how to regulate them to attain balance between enough and too much.

For instance, an individual born with the traits of risk taking might overindulge to take risks even when failure is inevitable. One who learns the art of risk taking will be cautioned that some risks are not worth taking. It has been established that many entrepreneurs fail to succeed because they are too confident and reliant on their innate skills than those that they learn (Mount, 2009).

A survey from a business training program at the University of Southern California found out that people who got such skills through formal training and coaching were more likely to succeed than those who did not get such training at all.

Students learnt to sell items they were not even familiar with or which their cultures and religion prohibited them from associating with. Another study in Peru of women banking entrepreneurs showed that women who attended business training lessons increased their sales by 16% than those who did not.

Entrepreneurship requires persistence, optimism and hope that things will be well, coupled with hard work to attain one’s goals. These traits can be learnt and acquired by anyone who wishes to acquire them.

Scientific Proof

Scientific studies have been done on this topic to determine whether entrepreneurs are born or made. Scott Shane, a professor of entrepreneurial studies at Case Western Reserve University, co-directed a study that observed entrepreneurial activities of identical twins who share 100% of their genes.

The study concluded that 40% of entrepreneurial skills were inherited, while the other 60% was acquired through interaction with the environment.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of an Entrepreneur in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Exposure to an entrepreneurship environment has tremendous effects on influencing persons, who would otherwise not venture into entrepreneurship. This is according to a study at Munich’s Ludwig Maximilians University which found out that such exposure had influence on 18% of students who had never dreamt of becoming entrepreneurs (Klein, 2010).

The two aspects of nature and nurture exist in interplay at making entrepreneurs. In spite of the lessons and exposure, one has to have the right attitude and confidence needed by an entrepreneur to make one.

On the other hand, one might possess the right attitude and traits necessary for entrepreneurship, but not have the right knowledge on how to handle contemporary challenges in the business world. The skills might end up being wasted.

Traits of an Entrepreneur


As an entrepreneur, one must be able to think of ways, and in some cases alternative ways, to get things done. One needs creativity and an innovative mind that thinks fast how possible to carry out plan or achieve some goal.

Opportunity Recognition

An entrepreneur must able to recognize opportunities and take advantage of them to improve his business. A number of entrepreneurs have confessed to having strong intuition. They are able to predict trends and ‘feel’ that some venture is worthy or risky taking. They should be keen in analyzing market trends and whenever they spot an opportunity, they should take it up immediately.

Risk Taking

An entrepreneur is a risk taker from the onset of his start-up of a business. He goes out to venture into the unknown with possibility of success or failure.

Even when a business suffers setbacks, as it sometimes will, an entrepreneur should push on, and not pack up and leave. He is required to take up opportunities whenever he spots them. This is a risk as he is not certain whether they will pay of well, but he takes them up any way (Deakins


Abnormal Psychology: Fetishism, Transvestic Fetishism, Sadomasochism, Voyeurism, Exhibitionism, and Pedophilia Essay a level english language essay help

Abnormal psychology focuses on abnormal behavior and psychopathology in individuals. Paraphilia disorder is among such abnormal behaviors. This term entails wide ranges of obsession related to sexual abnormalities, depression and other disorders.

Psychologists interested in studying behavior of individuals use observable behaviors to do so. Psychologists try to reinforce positive behavior in individuals with abnormal behavior. Conversely, they try to discourage maladaptive tendencies in people with abnormal behaviors (Sarason and Sarason, 2004).

This essay shall focus on fetishism, transvestic fetishism, sadomasochism, voyeurism, exhibitionism, and pedophilia.

Fetishism in Portuguese refers to obsessive fascination. Normal individuals may find some parts of the body attractive resulting into sexual arousal. Psychologists consider fetishism a problem when it affects the normal sexual arousal or when individuals cannot have sexual arousal without fetish bodily features or objects (Aamodt, 2012).

Characteristics of fetishism disorder result from pathological assignment of sexual fantasies, fixation and certain behaviors towards fetish objects such as underwear, and high-heeled shoe among others, and non-genital body parts e.g. foot, buttocks and hair.

These objects do not include vibrators and other objects designed for sexual gratifications. Individuals with fetishism disorder will only get sexual arousal from using such objects. Fetishism individuals normally smell, rub or hold fetish objects in order to derive sexual pleasure, or ask their partners to do so when having sexual intercourse or masturbating.

Materials, forms, and shapes of fetish objects are crucial for fetishism individuals. This is a common disorder in male, and rarely seen in female. Fetishism individuals focus on the object and not the individual wearing that object.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Transvestic fetishism individuals tend to have a sexual disorder exhibited by dress in clothes of the opposite sex. The desires of individuals with this disorder are to gain sexual arousal through dressing in clothes of the opposite sex or cross-dressing.

Transvestic fetishism individuals must involve cross-dressing as an exclusive way of getting sexual excitement. These disorders also result into some cases of distress in individuals’ lives (Comer, 2009).

Transvestic fetishism is more common in men than women. Transvestic individuals also tend to adopt clothing, items, behavior and mannerism of the opposite sex. Occasionally, transvestic fetishism individuals use dressing, and cross-dressing as a way of alleviating stress.

Sadomasochism characters get their sexual pleasures from actions involving pain, and or humiliation. These individuals also look from sexual pleasures from other actions too. Sadists inflict pain whereas masochists like receiving pain. However, psychologists note that sadomasochism involves either receiving or giving pain for a sexual excitement (Sarason and Sarason, 2004).

Some scholars argue that sadism and masochism do not reflect true sexual context. They argue that giving and receiving pain may occur with or without consent of individuals.

In addition, getting sexual pleasures in such people may not happen in some cases. As masochist likes receiving torture, sexual humiliations and beatings, sadist inflicts pain with or without the consent of an individual.

Voyeurism disorder involves practices of spying on individuals involved in private behavior such sexual acts, undressing, and other private activities.

We will write a custom Essay on Abnormal Psychology: Fetishism, Transvestic Fetishism, Sadomasochism, Voyeurism, Exhibitionism, and Pedophilia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Voyeur conducts his or her activities in secret without the knowledge of his or her subject. Voyeurism may include making videos and taking photos during sexual acts or when one is nude. Increased interests and obsessions in a certain subject may result into stalking of such subjects (Comer, 2009).

Voyeurism has evolved in modern time and now includes television programs such The Real World and Survivor. However, in these programs, voyeurs have permission and intimately interact with individuals of their attentions and desires. Despite the knowledge of the voyeur, the original meaning of the term still has sexual connotations.

Exhibitionism disorder involves exposing private parts of one’s body (buttocks, genitals, or breasts) to a friend, crowd, strangers, and public in public or semi-public places. Authorities refer to some threatening cases of exhibitionism as indecent exposure and may attract legal charges.

Exhibitionism involves flashing of private body parts. Flashing may involve a non-threatening exposure of one’s’ private body parts to a person or group in circumstances not appropriate for exposure, particularly in public places or social gatherings (Sarason and Sarason, 2004).

Females tend to flash their breasts as a form of exhibitionism. However, in situations where females use their vulvae and buttocks, may involve some sexual connotations.

In turn, they may provoke sexual interests in their targets. Consequently, the flashers gain ego boost and become bold. Some forms of flashing have no sexual intentions such as the beads shows of Mardi Gras, nudist clubs, sharing tubs, or nude swimming.

Some common forms of exhibitionism involve exposing genitals when not wearing underwear (anasyrma), letting others watch a proceeding of a sexual activity (martymachlia), and men display their bare buttocks (mooning).

Men engage in the act for fun and disparagement whereas females may perform it for sexual seductions. Exhibitionism involves also running or roaming nude in public places (streaking). Finally, there are also acts of exposing a partner’s private parts in public places (candaulism) (Comer, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Abnormal Psychology: Fetishism, Transvestic Fetishism, Sadomasochism, Voyeurism, Exhibitionism, and Pedophilia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pedophilia disorder involves abnormal sexual interest in children. Individuals with pedophilia disorder get their sexual excitement, gratification, or arousal primarily from engaging underage children in sexual acts.

Pedophiles may aim their sexual desires to children of the opposite or same sex, or both sexes. Attractions may involve children and adults alike. Psychologists consider pedophilia as a case of mental disorder. However, authorities consider such actions as child abuse and punishable criminal acts.

References Aamodt, M. G. (2012). Psychology Today. Sussex: Sussex Publishers, LLC.

Comer, R. J. (2009). Abnormal Psychology, 7th ed. New York: Worth Publishers.

Sarason, I. G. and Sarason, B. R. (2004). Abnormal Psychology: The Problem of Maladaptive Behavior, 11th ed. New York: Prentice Hall.


Adventure tourism and development: Conservation or exploitation Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Adventure tourism or eco-tourism is a type of tourism which involves exploration and recreation activities. The destination of travel is usually exotic and remote with extremely hostile environment. The tourist has the opportunity to engage with nature through physical activities such as mountaineering, bungee jumping, rafting and rock climbing among others.

Adventure tourism is common in Nepal, and the main activities are mountain climbing, trekking and river-running. The tourist can also have an opportunity to meet with the people of that community, therefore, cultural exchange (Buckley, 2006).

The activities of adventure tourism have both positive and negative effects on the environment and social life of the habitat. The impact on the environment and community directly affect the development of tourism globally.

Therefore, for sustainable development of tourism, it is essential to know the impacts of adventure tourism to the environment and community. This will help in planning and management of tourism, to be able to reach targeted development goals.

Advantages of adventure tourism The impact of adventure tourism is mainly caused by the development projects and the tourists who visit the area.

Easy to develop

The cost of starting up a recreational centre for adventure tourism is relatively low as compared to the other types of tourism. Therefore, it is easy for one to set up in any economic region and can be set up by a local or foreign investor.

Job Opportunities

The rise of the tourism industry in any area creates job opportunities for locals and foreigners. The jobs are created as a result of the development projects which may need both experts and casual laborers. They also employ local guides, use of local transport and local supplies among others.

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Adventure tourism is has become common in protected areas and, therefore, the entrepreneurs should encourage the tourists to practice responsible tourism. The providers of adventure tourism take part in raising awareness on ways of protecting the environment.

Improved education and health facilities

As a result of availability of jobs and economic development, community is able to create education and health facilities. At the same time, the tourists get knowledge about the beauty and natural phenomena. This can make them ambassadors who will fight for the protection and supporters for the conservation activities in the visited regions.

Better Land Management

In a community where adventure tourism is practiced there is a possibility of good land usage because people have knowledge on the benefits of land.

Giving Back to Communities

The tourism industry participates in activities of the community through funding the cultural and social events. The customers also give back to the community by buying souvenirs after their visit.

Economic development

The constant arrival of tourists in a community helps improve the economy of that community. For example, in the arctic the tourists help to boost the economy and reduce the over reliance on natural resources (Snyder, 2007).

Disadvantages of adventure tourism Besides the positive impacts of adventure tourism it also has negative impacts on both the community and the environment. The development through tourism causes impacts which may be particularly harmful to the region and its environment, for example, pollution from the hotel industry, construction activities and tourist activities.

Economic impact: the cost of responding to environmental effects is usually high for the community. For example, oil spill and lack of equipment to deal with emergencies such as fire.

Social impact: During the peak season of tourism, the community’s social norms are affected. The dominant presence of tourists during this season alters the roles and functions of the local institutions such as education and religious. This causes a disruption in the community.

Cultural impacts: The natural environment and traditional lifestyle are affected by the effects of tourism, therefore, fewer tourists hence economies of scale. The loss of artifacts which are later sold to international markets cause loss of cultural heritage.

Environmental effect: The tourists, for example, in Nepal may litter the environment with plastic bottles and tissues, which is supposed, to be protected and the pollution of water from the waste from hotels. For example, in Nepal firewood is used as a source of fuel for cooking. The effect of cutting trees causes soil erosion and extreme floods (Boniface


The Reality of the Prospects within Wave Energy Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Current prospects and success


Works Cited

Introduction Over the years, there have been concerns on the impact of carbon fuels in use throughout the world. The resulting carbon emissions are accredited with damaging the ozone layer and resulting to global warming.

Consequently, global organizations, energy research institutes and individual nations invest numerous resources towards the generation of green energy. These are sources which are sustainable and with little depressing effects to the environment. Some of the sources being researched on, and implemented in different scales, include wind, solar and wave energy.

Wave energy has the allure of being ever renewable and inexhaustible. In 1799 two people attempted to patent a system that used waves for power (Scigliano). Nevertheless, development of such technology has always been instigated by turmoil in the oil sector; when the problems facing the sector are resolved, research and enquiry into wave energy subsides.

However, the current surge of research seems to have gained momentum, especially, from the growing environmental concerns. Wave energy utilizes floating or shore-side devices to capture waves and convert the waves into electricity. Waves arise from the difference in temperature between the air and water. Hot water rising creates a wind, which in turn makes the water move into waves.

The water particles do not travel far, but they jolt other adjacent particles to move, which goes on for miles. Waves have the advantage of being more concentrated that wind. This results from the density of water, which is significantly greater than that of air.

Waves are also more predictable, when they build up; they do not die easily and may go on for several days. Tides are quite predictable; they can be predicted for decades. Finally, waves generators do not cause disturbances like wind turbines. They lack exposed moving parts which can harm marine animals; additionally, they produce low noises.

Current prospects and success Numerous research resources have been utilized in the area of wave energy in the recent years. Universities and energy corporations have set up experiments evaluating the feasibility of wave energy. Examples include the Pelamis by Ocean Power Delivery in Scotland (Scigliano).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the US, such projects have been deemed feasible in the northeastern and northwestern coasts, for example, Oregon. Nevertheless, despite the significant progress in the area of wave energy, there are numerous issues, especially pertaining to the reality of the prospects within wave energy.

Banholzer identified these problems relating to the hype attached to the quest for green energy from waves, wind and other green projects. He identified the lack of basic understanding amidst the public concerning energy issues. This is convoyed with the quest for green solutions to mitigate environmental concerns.

In numerous areas, scientists theorize that projects will be applicable only to turn out that they are uneconomical or unsustainable (Banholzer 5478). He consequently warns about the hype around wave energy.

In another article, a scientist argued for the effects of extensive harvesting of wave and wind energy. Though they a considered as green energy, Axel Kleidon postulated that it is a wrong assumption that wind and wave energy are renewable.

In his theory, building enough stations to replace the use of oil would result in a significant depletion of atmospheric energy. The depletion of energy would in turn have catastrophic consequences.

His postulates are based on the conception that all energy comes from the sun, and only a small percentage of the energy reaching the earth’s atmosphere is useful (Kleidon 9). The useful part drives the waves and the winds, while the heat cannot be utilized. Extensive use of wind and tidal energy will convert a large percentage of the utilizable part into heat energy, resulting in significant weather effects.

Limitations There are several limitations associated with wave energy. Waves vary considerably in intensity around the world. These variations bear considerable significance to the feasibility of wave energy projects (Falnes 189). Numerous wave generators are designed to operate with a certain range of wave intensity.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Reality of the Prospects within Wave Energy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Below the threshold intensity, the generators produce insignificant amounts of electricity making them inefficient. Above the upper bound, the waves may damage the components of the generators resulting in stalled electricity production and losses. Replacing the equipment is quite expensive, and some may be sunk by large waves.

The dependence of generation on the intensity of the waves further limits some places for production of electricity through wave energy. Because the earth spins eastward, the winds flow, typically, from the west. This has a significant bearing in the strength of winds across the globe. The mightiest waves are at latitudes far from the equator and the eastern edges of extensive fetches.

These are mostly the western coasts of continents. This means that not all the sea is useful for the generation of wave electricity. In other parts, for example, the west of Ireland and Scotland, the waves have significantly higher energy. In these areas, the energy generated may reach up to 70 kilowatts. The eastern coasts of most of the continents have waves with significantly lower energies.

Wave energy is, therefore, comparable to oil deposits in their unequal distribution. In the event that the wave technology offers a solution to the energy woes facing the earth, it will not be a solution for all nations. Even those with coasts may lack access to waves with sufficient intensity.

The suitability of locations for the generation of wave energy is a matter of chance. This problem, of access to wave energy, is further compounded by the fact that numerous countries have no access to the seas or oceans. 48 nations and regions, in all the continents, lack coasts. These regions have no access to wave energy whatsoever.

Other concerns regard the fact that the systems that have been designed have not been tested for long-term survivability. This alludes to the lack of data that can prove how long a system of generators and turbines can survive in the water. Additionally, there concerns regarding inaccessibility of the areas harboring the wave farms; this has resulted in questions of navigation and sea-space.

Works Cited Banholzer, William. “Practical limitations and recognizing hype.” Energy


Ecological Studies in Los Alamos National Laboratory Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help

Defining Ecological Value Defining ecological value can be conceptualized as a process. This process of defining an ecological value begins with the identification of the ecological values to be protected, otherwise known as GAE’s. The process is carried out in two parts.

First, using a strictly ecological perspective, ecological values are identified. In other words, this identification is carried out from the ecological perspective. Secondly, human values that relate to the ecological values are put into consideration (Paustebauch, 2002). The two parts of defining ecological value are analyzed below:

Identification of Ecological Values

The first part is carried out scientifically by identifying the values common to all ecosystems. This is followed by narrowing in on the area of interest.

It should however be noted that only ecologically relevant GAE’s are put into consideration. There is a procedure that should be followed in identifying these relevant GAE’s. This procedure follows the steps below:

Identifying Values Common to All Ecosystems

Values common to all ecosystems are identified. Examples of such values are analyzed below:

Biodiversity which is basically how many different communities are in the ecosystem and the generic diversity. The more disturbed the ecosystem, the higher the probability of it having a higher biodiversity.

Ecological function or how the living organisms in that ecosystem interact in a hierarchal way to sustain the cyclic processes in that ecosystem. An ecosystem is said to have functional integrity if it has a population consisting of organisms from various taxa (Paul, 2010).

Any normally functioning ecosystem has a directional flow of nutrients and energy. This directional flow is designed in such a way that it maintains a balance in the ecosystem. Nutrients and transport processes are therefore common values in all ecosystems (Paul, 2010).

Identification of the Functional Components of Regional Ecosystems

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After identification of the values common to all ecosystems, there is need then to identify the functional components of regional ecosystems. It is noted that the basic functional component of any ecosystem is the food web.

This is made putting into consideration the broad interrelationships between the various parts in order to determine the relevance of each species (Glenn, 2006).

For example in a tropical rain forest, the main producers can be the lianas, the consumers are herbivores and carnivores and the decomposers are the detritivores. Such broad categorization makes the task easier in cases where the species are not known. This is for example in complex ecosystems such as those found in countries and regions such as the New Guinea.

Developing a Food Web for the Ecosystem

A food web for the ecosystem is then developed. This shows the feeding preference of each of the species in the ecosystem. Specificity is the key at this step. This is given the fact that there is need to state the function or role played by each species found in the ecosystem and how this affects the others.

Unlike the previous step, this step is organized into more trophic levels. For instance in New Guinea, the producers are lianas, trees and ground canopy. The herbivores are the first consumers in the ecosystem. Omnivores and intermediate predators are intermediate consumers in the ecosystem.

Lastly, terrestrial and arboreal predators are to be found on the periphery of the food web. There are also those species which plays the role of decomposer. According to Glenn (2006), scavengers, detritivores and chemicals are part of the decomposers.

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The ecologically relevant characteristics of the functional components in the ecosystem are then determined. This defines the non- trophic attributes which are a critical part of the ecosystem. Examples of such attributes are listed below:

Shelter or habitat for the species and the source of the shelter

Source of energy or food for the species in the ecosystem

The process of distribution of seeds probably through pollination. This shows how plant species are distributed in the ecosystem

Processes that break down dead matter to release nutrients. This will include the identification of the mechanisms or agents that aid this breaking down of dead matter

Stating the Relevant GAEs

The relevant GAEs are then clearly stated after determining the ecological attributes of every functional component. These are considered as endpoints of a specific ecosystem.

Human Values and Ecological Values

The first procedure in defining ecological values involved the identification of the ecological values of the ecosystem. This was analyzed in detail above.

The next procedure in defining an ecological value is determining how much it conforms to the societal and ecological values (Glenn, 2006). Values touching on issues such as endangered species, valued species, resources and species identified as important in terms of recreation and aesthetic purposes are identified.

This is a participatory phase of the process. Local citizens including the indigenous inhabitants of the area are contacted for purposes of understanding the values placed on ecological resources.

Other sources of societal values can be gleaned from existing literature such as the ones compiled by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (herein referred to as IUCN).

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Probabilistic Risk Assessment Chapter 22 touches on the potential risks faced by the duck population in the Canadian prairies. These are for example risks posed by the use of insecticides. The aerial hazard causing insecticides referred to in this case are the organophosphates, organochloride and pyrethroid insecticides.

The insecticides pose indirect risks in the pothole region by interfering with the ducks’ nesting habitats and food supplies. The insecticides also affect the formation of the eggs early foraging by ducklings. These are the risks that were studied in this chapter (Paustebauch, 2002).

Organophosphate pesticides contain carbaryl and deltametrin as the main ingredients. The chemicals form compounds believed to have negative effects on Saskatchewan (Paul, 2010). It was to be determined which percentage of these compounds caused toxicity and at what levels.

This gave rise to probabilistic studies. Several questions were asked and this further contributed to the probabilistic studies. The questions posed are provided below:

What was the percentage of invertebrates that died due to aerial toxicity from insecticides in the first 24 hours after spraying?

What role does gill absorption, ingestion and dermal intake play in mortality cases?

How much exposure to insecticides leads to mortality among invertebrates?

In which slough depth is there a probability of more deaths occurring?

In which slough width is there more deaths after spraying?

The end result or ecologically relevant value to be protected is the micro-invertebrate as it plays an important role as a source of food for the ducks (Glenn, 2006). The conceptual assessment model involves studying ways through which the insecticides reach the sloughs.

They may reach the sloughs for example through wind or water and the exposure concentration distribution. A short time frame of 24 hours is considered and thus sediments and their effects are not studied.

Risks are determined through exposure of micro- invertebrates to determine the levels of concentration that are lethal. Apparently, the amount of insecticide applied determines how much of it gets to the sloughs.

For example, application of insecticides from higher heights on a windy day leads to more of it being spread into the sloughs. Different birds prefer different pond depths with semi- permanent holes having a higher rate of attraction as breeding sites (Glenn, 2006).

This means that if a semi- permanent hole is near a farm, the probability of it getting contaminated by insecticide is very high. This leads to high mortality rates on the part of the species that prefer that habitat. The deeper the slough, the less the mortality rate because of less contamination.

Finally, risk is characterized using the exposure and effect analysis. The first way of doing this is to determine how exposure and effects overlap each other. In this case, two micro- invertebrates are used. These are the mosquito and a water-flea.

They are exposed to different concentrations of deltamethrin at their various toxic levels (Paustebauch, 2002). The result of this was the various probabilities exceeding fifty percent mortality rate for the species.

Application of reliability theory is fundamental in determining the probability of an event occurring or failing to occur. For example, lethal concentrations may lead to more than lethal effects giving erroneous results. The results can be used to make inferences about the other micro- invertebrates in the community using similar characteristics that the ecosystem taxa share.

There is however some inconsistencies between the observations made in the field and those made in the lab. In some instances, values obtained from the lab may differ from the ones obtained from the field probably due to the lab being an artificial environment (Paustebauch, 2002).

This can be overcome through the application of probabilistic assessment procedures. By using the quantitative results, one can determine whether the results differ significantly or not and thus repeat the experiment if necessary.

Risk assessment framework is used in exposing different species to varied concentrations of insecticides. This is considering how the insecticide will reach the slough. This could be through seepage, wind dispersal and surface run- off that eventually forms the breeding grounds dependent on factors like humidity, height and frequency of application.

The other way is to quantitatively describe the effect of a chemical at different concentrations. A toxicological benchmark of 50% is used and different chemicals are used on different species at their lethal levels (Glenn, 2006). These are then plotted on a table to determine which species are tolerant to which chemicals and at what level.

The ecological values in this case are the invertebrates and the prairie nesting ducks (Paustebauch, 2002). The societal values include how farmers value their crops. The question is: can they let their crops be destroyed by grasshoppers just to protect the birds?

We have to interview the farmers to know how far they would go in protecting their crops. The ecological values in case one include all the endangered organisms constituting the ecosystems of various forests. The societal values in the case are how much the indigenous people value the forests.

References Glenn, S. (2006). Ecological risk assessment. NY: CRC Press.

Paul, E. H. (2010). Environmental and economic sustainability. NY: CRC Press.

Paustebauch, D. J. (2002). Human and ecological risk assessment. NY: John Wiley Publishers.


Cultural Influence on the People of Vancouver Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Cultural Background of Vancouver City; Canada

Culture can be understood as the basic values, beliefs, and norms that help shape the behavior and characters of given people in a society. In most societies, and especially preindustrial societies, it takes the form of religion. The Canadian cultural policy of diversity has profoundly shaped the profile of this country.

The Canadians, especially in Vancouver, have an extraordinarily rich culture. The culture of centric orientation is highly upheld in Vancouver. Therefore, the people’s believes are highly influential for the residents of Vancouver.

The culture of centric orientation has promoted creativity in the City of Vancouver through various means; for instance, through artistry, diverse expressions, imagination and inclusivity. The combinations of these factors have seen Vancouver flourish culturally and economically.

Creativity among the people of Vancouver has improved the living standards of the people. Creative City of Vancouver, which is culturally embedded, has promoted equal access to opportunities, businesses and the general community well being (City of Vancouver, p. 2).

Creative City is conceived in Canada as a place where diversity, artistry, and culture are inclusive. This has facilitated local economic development (Bradford, p. 2-7). Here, the economy is driven by knowledge-based industries that are clustered and work through high levels of interaction and communication.

In so doing, they avoid the earlier problems of raw materials that limited their geographical location or positioning. The warm and rich cultural climate in Vancouver has attracted many investors.

These include investors from both local and external countries such as the USA, India, China, and Britain among others. The central values here include urban and economic sustainability, as well as the welfare of the people that is achieved through creative initiative and industrial development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Canada practices creative governance, a concept that favors its economic development. This is achieved through democratic governance that involves transparency, imaginativeness, adaptable city states, and inclusivity.

Also, there is a strong and creative workforce, industry, networking, connectivity, and competitiveness that boost the economic well being of Canada. Collaborative governance, city regions, scale politics, and social inclusivity have also played a significant role in economic prosperity (Smith and Katie, p. 3).

Vancouver’s population are people with different beliefs, values, visions and lifestyles. The Canadians are extremely close in their economic perspectives and move towards a creative city as a whole. Emphasis on protectionism of Canadian culture has been crucial in ensuring that Canada continues to grow economically.

People’s ways of lives are directly related with their economic advancement. Canada realized this factor and came up with a cultural protection policy. This was aimed at preventing foreign cultures from interfering with what was considered to be ways of lives of Canadians.

It involved offering incentives to firms that produced films and other television shows that illustrated and promoted the culture of the Canadians. On the other hand, cultural norms and beliefs were believed to hinder the economic well being of people.

Some cultures, in some communities and countries hinder people from taking advantage of economic developments. In Vancouver, culture is highly upheld and is geared towards economic empowerment of the people.

The city of Vancouver has a long history as far as culture is concerned. This dates back to the cultural policy debates whereby cultural norms and beliefs have retained protectionism status in political institutions of Canada.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Cultural Influence on the People of Vancouver specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The earlier efforts to replicate British cultures and artistry in Anglophone Canada were repulsed by Canadians who believed that culture makes people educated and civilized. Vancouver’s cultural organizations emphasize on efficiency in financial management.

This is also an extraordinarily, but essential pillar to economic growth of Canada. Therefore, cultural events were held in an unusually high value because they were, and still are, believed to further a noble goal.

The city of Vancouver has developed national policies and programs that are aimed at protecting and educating the people on the importance of cultural traits for the well being of the citizens. Culture is believed to be immensely valuable, and cannot be exchanged. This is the reason why Canada pursues the culture of inclusivity.

This means tolerance and appreciation of different cultural activities that promote institutionalization of communities in different cultures. In most instances, this applies to the demography of a place, organizations or institutions such as cities, businesses, schools and neighborhoods.

Main objective of the Research

The principle objective of conducting the research is to explore the role of cultural diversity; creative governance; skilled workforce; industrial cluster; connectivity; networking; collaboration; and the culture of inclusivity in relation to economic advancement of Vancouver City.

On the other hand, the general objective is to promote a sustainable and a world class economic development for Canada and the overall well being of the citizenry through technological advancement and innovations.

Literature Review Hughes’s views on Culture and Development

Cultural activities have led to development of cultural tourism hence elevating a country’s economy. This is because there is absorption of individuals into working in the industries which acts as a revenue earner to a country.

As a result of its international appeal, cultural tourism has become a phenomenon that is essential in tourism and travel industry (Hughes, p. 364). Cultural tourism is often utilized as a tool for marketing and development to widen the tourism policy objectives. Cultural tourism is highly valued by individuals dealing with urban regeneration strategies.

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According to Hughes, there exist mutual benefits between culture and tourism (p.164). Tourism generates the revenue, which is used to maintain cultural resources from interference from human beings and their activities which result into pollution.

In recent years, cultural geography has risen consistently to the challenges of re-figuring and expanding the research field. Alfred Marshall, the British economists, highlighted the positive impacts that can result from clusters of related firms or industries located in a geographic region (Flew, p. 86).

On the other hand, the difference of industries that are creative is due to the externalities arising from industry specialization, occupation, and the city diversities (Lorenzen and Frederiksen, p.155).

With various diversities in industries, cities are able to coordinate knowledge bases that are diverse. In addition, their geographic proximity enhances the distribution of knowledge, ideas, and entrepreneurship skills.

Cave’s views on Clustered Cities

The majority of the work in the industries is project based, time-dependent and contractual. This has provoked the transfer of skills across countries and nations, thus increasing the diversification of culture. Most of the small and medium scale industries provide work on a regular basis.

This helps absorb talents of skilled people from other areas of the globe (Caves, p.355). Geographically clustered cities are identified as professional and financial service centers. This is because they have high consumption levels of services and goods that are cultural.

Hall’s views on Culture and Development

The government invests in urban cities, and this is highly characterized by modern infrastructures. They hold the key industries’ player head offices. Furthermore, the governments have heavily invested in infrastructure of cultural cities that have many galleries extensive networks, universities, libraries, and museums (Hall, p. 7).

Mommaas’s views on Culture and Economics

Cultural clusters nourishment has been perceived as an alternative development source for urban culture. In urban centers and cities, there exists a mixture of functions that promote culture. They range from production, presentation, theatre, arts that are visual, consumption, pop music, and new Medias often clustered in various forms that are spatial.

Whilst some grouping strategies are based on activities that are either cultural or artistic, individuals have included elements of entertainment and leisure such as restaurants and bars among others.

Cultural managers often yearn for expanding and strengthening their market share in an already leisure and cultural competitive market (Mommaas, p.508). In addition, urban planners are striving to rejuvenate the urban quarters with the aim of strengthening creative economy that is local as a result of cultural activities.

Zukin’s views on Culture and Economic

Recently, principal cities have established their festival agendas and museums reopening and developing complex theatres. This has made the culture regeneration agenda move a notch higher. In this context, we identify a move from a policy aiming at occasion organizing.

The shift is a form of consumption that is spectacular and a policy that is refined and tuned. The policy aims at space quarter creating and cultural creativity and production milieus. However, development broadening perspective has stirred a lot of doubt, ambiguities, and conflicts. There is a debate regarding the development character, involved legislations and motives.

Critics are asking various questions such as: are individuals dealing with an interest that is genuine in the advancement of culture? Is there culture or art strategy proper and aims at developing of artistic values that are autonomous? Zukin observes that, whatever the cultural developers and producers initial intention, their acts are mere culture functionalisms and exploitation of culture for the purposes of landscape re-centralization (p.55).

Individuals in the new middle-class consume their products. This has eventually led to erosion of actual artistic values via related space commoditization. Some scholars argue that culture and economics are distinct in regard to the growth of a country. On the other hand, political sociologists and political economists see this view as being mutually exclusive.

They point a finger at the level of analysis used and the general assumptions of human behavior. They also argue that such arguments fail to provide enough parameters of cultural factors.

Previously, there have been several attempts to infer the economic performance of a country to its culture, or relate cultural factors with a country’s historic factors. They continue to argue that unless such factors are quantitatively analyzed, it is hard to test such an argument.

In industrial worlds, cultural values tend to revolve around religion. With industrialization and modernization, cultural values and beliefs become increasingly rational, secular, and exceptionally open to change.

In such a situation, industrialization has a significant role in shaping the culture of a country in the process of modernization. Education development has been identified as significantly aiding economic growths. In general, governments influence the culture practiced by a country.

Incentives are offered for production of programs and films that present the culture of the people of Canada. Also, this is a means of promoting industrial growth of Canadian economy. Such a policy protects local industries from collapse and also plays a role in job creation.

Mahroof’s views on Culture and Economic Development

Modern economic models place much emphasis on variables such as investment in human capital, technological advancement, population growth, and productivity of these factors in economic growth. Mahroof argues that there are other controlled factors that influence the economic growth of a country directly (p. 15).

Such factors include social institutions and government policies. These factors are highly essential in defining the environment where growth takes place. Moreover, there are other factors that impact the factors that facilitate economic growth. Such factors are varied as per the individuals. For instance, self control affects the saving habits of individuals and willingness to invest.

It is common knowledge that not all people practice the saving culture. Self control is a determinant in population growth and education investment. Investment in education leads to development of skilled human capital that further leads to economic growth through efficient and effective use of technology.

Skilled capital is responsible for technological innovations (Mahroof, p.16). Mahroof continues to say that there are other factors that are not directly linked with the economic growth, but play a significant role in it. Such factors include an individual’s commitment and mutual respect among others.

These factors develop work ethics that in turn promotes cooperation, which is a crucial factor in sharing technology and entrepreneur skills. In turn, this promotes business resulting to economic growth.

In actual sense, the above factors relate to values, beliefs and norms which are defined by customary beliefs. Therefore, they play a role in economic progress (Mahroof, p.16).

Lian views on Culture and Economics

According to Lian, most quantitative analyses have omitted the influence of culture on economic development (p.1). Instead, they have mostly dealt with political and economic factors or variables influencing economic development.

Such variables are also modeled around values, norms, and cultural beliefs of a given country in question. Therefore, when explaining the political and economic development, culture remains a central factor.

Lian totally disagrees with Aristotle’s suggestions that diversity presents susceptibility to economic growth (p. 5). Although it was indicated that religious, ethnic, and linguistic diversity presents obstacles to economic progress; such factors may be misguiding.

According to Kayat, cultural practices play a crucial role in the economic development of a nation (p.105). Through cultural tourism, cities are able to expand and stand out. Also, natural resources can be sustained and individuals are proud of showcasing their culture.

The appreciation of culture has led to employment of individuals in industries promoting cultural values. Entrepreneurs are enjoying the benefits of cultural diversity. This is because they are able to develop accommodation areas for tourists. Cultural tourism has enabled the rejuvenation of urban centers. Through cultural activities, there is the intermingling of various people and culture.

This is a result of people being employed in the small and medium scale enterprises that provide goods and services that are culturally based. This has significantly enhanced the diversification of culture further.

Nations should strive to create policies that enable the promotion of culture. Museums and other historical sites should be preserved from human interference. However, through modernization, culture is being eroded. The true cultural and artistic values have been interfered.

There is a considerable variation in cities portfolio activities in terms of financial management, how they are programmed and partially their position. The clustering of culture has mirrored a condition.

In this case, the field of culture has been diversified with cultures and arts being reproduced both in the public and private sectors (Granato, Inglehart and Leblang, p. 35).

Methodology The study will be exploratory and will expound on the perceptions concerning cultural values and their influence on economic development. The study focuses on the role of cultural variables, values, and norms in economic development in larger cities and some rural communities.

Such variables include creative governance, connectivity and networking, entertainment and education development. The findings will then be analyzed both qualitatively and empirically to determine whether cultural variables contribute to economic development.

Empirical Analysis

This method will involve incorporating societal cultural factors into an economic baseline endogenous economic growth model. It will then be analyzed using relevant data from the world values survey. This model is preferred because it incorporates both cultural and economic variables.

Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative analysis will be done in order to get in-depth information on cultural geography. Various aspects of cultural activity roles will be examined. For instance, how has cultural activities influenced the livelihood of the people in Vancouver? How has it been able to improve a country’s economy?

Conclusion The culture of people and economic growth are two inseparable factors. Economic growth of a country has a direct relationship with the cultural elements, culture that affects production of goods and services, investment decisions, technological innovation, resource allocation, and openness to trade.

Technological innovations are achieved through education systems and institutions. Creative governance encompasses transparency in government policies and programs. This has been identified as one of the cultural factors that promote economic growth of Vancouver and the Canadian economy.

Cultural values of social and political inclusivity geared towards development have attracted investments furthering cultural diversity, development and job creation.

This has also ensured political stability, a condition that is good for development and attraction of tourists. This is because development takes place in a peaceful environment that is free from conflicts.

Diverse culture practiced in Vancouver attracts tourists from all over the world. They earn the country foreign exchange that facilitates development programs and activities. Geographical proximity of cities in Canada facilitates sharing of entrepreneur skills, knowledge, and technological skills.

These skills are necessary for economic growth. The proximity also offers a variety of cultural sites, music, and accommodation that are of high standards. More restaurants and other social places are developed to cater for the needs of the population that includes locals and foreigners.

In the process, people are employed to work in this organizations and businesses, hence improving their well being through the salaries that they receive.

Works Cited Bradford, Neil. Why cities Matter: Policy Research Perspective for Canada. CPRN Discussion Paper, Canada: Canadian Policy Research Networks. 2002. Print.

Caves, Richard. Creative industries: Contracts between art and commerce”. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000. Print

City of Vancouver. Office of Cultural Affairs. Vancouver Art Initiative (1991-1993). Update for City Creative Task Force. 1997. Print

Flew, Terry. “Toward a Cultural Economic Geography of Creative Industries and Urban Development: Introduction to the Special Issue on Creative Industries and Urban Development”. Journal of Information Society, 26. 2010: 85-91. Print.

Granato, Jim, Ronald Inglehart and David Leblang. The Effects of Cultural Values on Economic: Aerican Journal of Political Science, 40(3). August 1996, pp.607-31

Hall, Peter. Cities in civilization: Culture, innovation and urban order. London: Phoenix Grant, 1998.Print

Hughes, Howard. “Culture and Tourism: A Framework for Further Analysis”. Managing Leisure, 7(3). 2002: 164-175. Print.

Lian, Brad. Cross-National Study of 98 Countries, 1960-1985, Economic Development and Cultural Change Journal. 46, 1 (1997) 61-77. Print

Lorenzen, Mark, and Frederiksen, Lars. “Why do Cultural Industries Cluster? Localization, Urbanization, Products and Projects. Creative cities, cultural clusters and local economic development .Denmark. 2008: 155–179. Print.

Mahroof, Muhammad Khan. Cultural Values and Economic Growth in Asia: An Empirical Analysis. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 1(2). 2010. Print

Mommaas, Hans. “Cultural Clusters and the Post-Industrial City: Towards the Remapping of Urban Cultural Policy.” Journal of Urban Studies 42(3). 2004: 507-532. Print

Kayat, Kalsom. “The Nature of Cultural Contribution of a Community- Based Homestay Program”. An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism 5(2). 2010:145-159. Print

Zukin, Shack. “Postmodern Urban Landscapes: Mapping Culture and Power.” Modernity and Identity (1998): 221–224. Print

Smith Richard and Katie Warfield. The Creative City: a matter of values. Web.


Doing business in the Philippines Report best essay help

Introduction There are some important issues that one needs to consider before embarking on a mission to do business in a given country. Such issues as social, economic, and political environment of a country would be worth of consideration by a prospective investor.

The current paper intends to explore the possibility of doing business in the Philippines. It will emphasize on the social, economic, and political situation in the Philippines.

In addition, the culture, language, customs and protocol of the Filipinos shall be addressed, as well as their business etiquette, business culture, negotiation techniques, and meeting protocols.

Background The Filipino culture is heavily influenced by forces outside the Asian region including Mexico, and the United States. The influence of Islam in the Philippines has been somewhat limited, unlike such other Asian countries as Indonesia and Malaysia (CIA-The World Factbook 2011).

Filipinos have embraced many western values under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church that has a large following in the country. The Filipinos have a strong sense of dignity and personal pride.

Business Structures Most companies in the Philippines are family controlled. Business structure is largely hierarchical with the owner-managers possessing a lot of power. However, western business practices are slowly being embraced (Communicaid 2009).

Having good contacts with the top management is crucial as they are responsible for making most decisions. When making initial business contacts with Filipino organizations, only the senior people in your organization should meet with senior representatives from the Filipino organizations as sending lower ranking officials would be considered an insult.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Management style The Filipino culture is characterized by paternalistic management style due to the strongly hierarchical culture. On the other hand, it is important for managers to become acquainted with some of the strong Filipino attributes that underline personal relationships in the Philippines.

To start with, the Filipinos are wary of being embarrassed for their actions, or for failing to live up to society’s expectations (Communicaid 2009). To criticize an individual in public is frowned upon, as it amounts to an insult.

Meetings Filipinos are not very particular about time, and most business meetings start late. As such, western business representatives can get frustrated with the slow progress of meetings and negotiations. Small talk is common before the start of a business meeting and it is during this time that the relations-building process between the two parties is established (Barcelon 2011).

Filipinos are nonconfrontational because they strongly believe in getting along with others smoothly. They frown on any form of negative talk. Moreover, Filipinos rarely contradict other people openly.

Therefore, a meeting might appear to be moving smoothly even when there is no apparent progress. When establishing new business contacts, gifts are often welcome as they are a sign that negotiations have been concluded satisfactorily.

Teams Filipinos strongly believe in team spirit. People make sacrifices for their fellow team-members and those who appear to criticize team-members are severely dealt with (Communicaid 2009).

It is important to treat every team member with respect and dignity because in case you insult one of the team members, the other team members could feel insulted as well.

We will write a custom Report on Doing business in the Philippines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Communication style English is the business language in the Philippines and as such, communication is not a problem for most western business people. Because the Filipino communication style is heavily influenced by the country’s Asian roots, western business people are therefore advised to desist from using coded and diplomatic language as this could complicate communication (Nolan 1996).

Like most other Asian countries, Filipinos find it very hard to say ‘no’ as this could be interpreted as being unfriendly or confrontational. Overseas visitors should also be wary of the Filipino body language.

For example, the Filipino may smile as a way of hiding annoyance, embarrassment, or disagreement, and the western business people can take this as a sign of pleasure or agreement. Once an agreement has been reached, it is always advisable to wait for requests for information or a contract before proceeding.

Women in business Although the Filipino culture acknowledges the role of women in business circles, they should not be seen to dominate their male counterparts. Gender bias in the Philippines is almost nonexistent.

Dress code Personal grooming is important in the Philippines, both at business and social gatherings. Filipinos have a tendency to judge somebody based on their appearance. During business meetings, it is always advisable for men to dress in a suit and tie, while women are expected to dress modestly (Taglaw 2007).

Formally evening wear is also acceptable at most of the good restaurants in manila, but one is always advised to check the dressing code well in advance

Top Tips Many Filipino organizations are hierarchically structured.

The Filipinos strongly believe in saving face

It is common for business meetings in the Philippines to start late

Filipinos are nonconfrontational, but do not interpret their politeness as a sign of agreement

Foreign business representatives need the assistance of local to help them wade through the bureaucracy hurdle

Gifts are acceptable in business meetings as they signify agreement in negotiations

Cultural, social, and economic climate The Filipino culture is a blend of western and eastern cultures, with a strong influence by the Malay culture. Economically, the country’s nominal gross domestic product was estimated at $ 216.1 billion in 2011 (Barcelon 2011).

Poverty influences the country’s social climate. For example, nearly 30 % of the population lives below the poverty line.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Doing business in the Philippines by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Successful entertaining Business entertainment is common in the Philippines. The arrangement for business lunches and dinners takes place over the phone and it is customary for the inviting party to pay (Torres 2006).

The informal atmosphere of business entertainment enables everybody to relax. Dress code differs widely, and tipping is also highly anticipated.

Facts and figures The Philippines consists of more than 7,000 islands on the coastline of Southeast Asia. The Philippines has a population over100 million, most of who lie in the lower middle income category. In addition, the Philippines has a land area of approximately 298,171 sq km, and a life expectancy of 71.66 years (CIA-The World Factbook 2011).

Manila, the capital city, has a population of 11 million, and is also the largest city in the country. Other large cities in the Philippines include Cebu City, Davao, and Zamboanga. The country’s monetary unit is the Peso.

Conclusion Doing business in the Philippines calls for an understanding of the social, economic and political climate in the country. The Filipino culture is characterized by paternalistic management with a strong hierarchical culture.

Many of the leading companies in the Philippines are family controlled. Business meetings start late, and the Filipinos strongly believe in team spirit. English is the business language in the Philippines, while gender bias in the Philippines is also almost nonexistent.

Reference List Barcelon E. 2011, Doing business in the Philippines. Web.

CIA-The World Factbook 2011, Philippines. Web.

Communicaid 2009 , Doing Business in the Philippines | Philippine Social and Business Culture: A Philippine Overview. Web.

Nolan J. 1996, Philippines business: the portable encyclopedia for doing business with the Philippines, World Trade Press, California, USA.

Taglaw 2007, Doing business in the Philippines. Web.

Torres Q. 2006, Doing business in the Philippines. Web.


Employee motivation in Radisson Hotel Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review

Relevant motivational variables for Radisson Hotel

Reward allocation versus employee motivation

Participation versus employee motivation

Job enrichment versus employee motivation

Theoretical framework


Introduction The importance of attracting and retaining employees in the hospitality industry is being recognized by many market players. Seeking solutions at corporate level is no longer valued and companies perceive this as a feature of traditional techniques of managing human resources.

Within the area of human resource, the international integration is being accomplished through mechanisms that increase the competitive advantages of organizations. The high competition in the hospitality industry has a dire need for effective and high quality human resource management. Creating a competitive advantage is a factor that has to be considered in human resource management strategies.

Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between several variables identified in literature and employee motivation in Radisson Hotel.

It is to this response that this study aims to review the literature and suggest the ways in which Radisson Hotel can respond to employee motivation and also recommend on the best strategies to increase its competitive advantages.

Literature review Motivation is something that is inherently held by people that steers them to action. It varies in different individuals. It can also be regarded as the willingness to take action at a particular degree of effort. It appears in literature out of life goals, values and intentions.

As motivation comes from leaders, there is need to direct and cultivate the enticement that the workers already have (Ziegler et al 2010).

Individuals who appear to be much interested in motivation researches are leaders in their effort to provide directions into why employees perform tasks as they do and eventually provide themselves with techniques to enhance work productivity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Motivation plays an important role in performance. This relationship was recently explored by Nawab, Bhatti and Shafi (2011) through a qualitative method to analyse deeply two important terms used in HRM: pay roll and organizational reward system.

Their conclusion was that different motivation factors can be used by an organization to enhance performance and efficiency of employees. These findings confirm an earlier suggestion by Bruce and Pepitone (1998) who proposed that motivation led to greater work performance.

This is true because a motivated individual pursues goals with greater vigor and focus. He/she has a better chance of attaining the set objective. There are many theories concerning motivation some of which are “needs-based” (Griffin


Environmental Issue Report scholarship essay help

Introduction Sustainability ensures that people get energy resources continuously without affecting future generation. Renewable sources of energy are those that are ever present and would not deplete since they regenerate by themselves.

The following are renewable sources; Hydroelectricity, Biomass, Solar thermal, Solar electricity, and Geothermal. This paper examines sustainable measures that should be adopted in Eco-homes.

Sustainable progress is an issue stirred by drift from an ideal thought to a supreme endeavor to tackle emerging problems of financial challenges and ecological problems. This category of revolution has endeavored to solve existing social problems.

At present, people prefer eco-friendly programs when constructing their homes. Such houses are friendly to ecological bio-diversity and preserve future sustainability of the existing world. Eco-home is also known as sustainable house/ home because it is advantageous and costs-effective its owner.

There are scores of components which can be incorporated into a new home or existing house to offer vital development to environmental sustainability condition. In fact, incorporation of such components depends on provision of significant needs and cost of materials and equipment.

Diagram below illustrates a typical Eco- friendly house

Sustainable Live At present, “people depend mostly on fossil fuel such as natural gas, oil and coal energy, the world is actually changing” (Barrell, Kirbby


The Importance of Human Resource Research Paper writing essay help

Introduction One can literary define human resources as the workforce or those individuals working for a certain organization, business entity or economy.

It may also refer to a section or department within that organization that deals with the management of those resources, for instance, the hiring of new employees and their training, besides overseeing the overall provision of the necessary benefits plus the compensation packages to best suit all parties.

This term was initially coined in the United States during the 1960s due to the major concerns that arose in the business world regarding labor relations, and since then, has spread to the entire world (Society for Human Resource Management, 2007).

In any successful organization, the human resources or the workforce is regarded as a great asset, equated to its material and financial resources such as machinery, buildings among other equipment.

Therefore, it is necessary for an organization to manage its resources including the workforce with a lot care and formulate the best practices to capitalize on those assets in order to triumph (Maidenhead, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2002).

This is the main reason why so many organizations or companies have embraced the human resource section or department.

Though the contributions of this department may not be directly associated with the company’s production, profits, or even its general success, this human resource department gives the employees an opportunity to perform even better by encouraging them, which later on translates or contributes to the company’s or organization’s success.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In managing the human resources, three major factors must be considered; firstly, the demographics: these are the characteristics of the people or the work force for instance the social class of the people their gender or age.

This kind of trend may have an influence on the pension packages, the insurance contributions among others. The second factor is diversity; these are the variations within the work place. That the employee base reflects the general make-up of the society for as long race, sexual or ethnic orientation is concerned.

The third factor is skills and qualifications; that employers ought to compete for quality employees through offering incentives or community investment (Society for Human Resource Management, 2007).

Other factors influencing the management of human resource include:

Geographical spread: the distance difference between the individual and the work place, the transportation and the infrastructure of that area must be reflected in the pay.

Occupational structure: According to Mahoney 1989, there are three kinds of occupational structure, that is, craft (being loyal to the profession), organization career (endorsement or promotion within the firm) and lastly unstructured (unskilled employees who only work when required).

Generational difference: this is the disparity in terms of age among the members of a certain firm. It defines the way people think and their perspective of various life and business aspects (Maidenhead, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2002).

The role of human resource to the organization and society In any organization, the challenge is always to offer administrative functions that are faultless like benefit enrollment as well adjustments while at the same time availing time and energy to perform equally fundamental and strategic tasks, however much time and energy consuming they may be.

Initially the main role of HR in an organization was to act as an arm of the management to police and systemize the organization. Here, the HR profession attended to executive agendas too but was mostly perceived as a hindrance by most of the remaining part of the organization (Thornton, 2008).

However, presently the role of HR has come to be accepted by line managers as being a strategic partner, administration expert in redesigning the organization process and a mentor when it comes to change besides being the employee’s advocate or guarantor.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Importance of Human Resource specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More HR as a Strategic Partner The HR persons add or contribute to the general development and attainment of the objectives of the organization and its business plan as a whole.

This means that HR management ought to think of itself as one of the organization’s strategic partner to guarantee their contribution viability and ability (Maidenhead, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2002).

The tactical partnership does influence HR services, for instance, hiring of personnel, the arrangement of work positions, rewarding of selected individuals, recognition and appraisal systems, employee and performance development, strategic payments, career and succession process.

HR as an employee Advocate The HR manager possesses expertise in the creation of a happy working environment in which individuals feel motivated and positively contribute to the success of the organization.

They conduct this mandate by employing various approaches and tactics that are in line with the organization’s goals. Under this docket, the HR is mandated to perform the following tasks.

Management of current employees

One of the core functions of the HR department is to manage employees that work for that organization. In contrast with managers who directly supervise the workers on a daily basis, the HR section deals with issues like benefits, training and payment of workers and the company policies.

Other benefits that could be managed by HR include insurance and pension plans, health matters like leave for illness but paid, vacations payments and employee investments. HR is also mandated to resolve conflicts amongst employees or between managers and their employees or filed grievances by the employees against the organization (Allen, 1973).

They resolve such problems by either imposing penalties on offenders or taking certain appropriate actions to ensure any undesired behavior in the organization does not recur.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Importance of Human Resource by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to achieve these mandates, the HR must adopt strategies that are excellently designed thus able work appropriately and in favor of the entire organization.

Prospective and New Employees

Human resources are also mandated to recruit new employees for the organization. HR personnel may be concerned with hiring of potential employees by means of advertisements or organized job fairs.

Sometimes, the HR section will attempt to recruit diversified individuals to develop the diversity within that organization’s workforce. For instance, an organization might choose to find candidates that are from a given minority demographic.

The HR section does the collection job applications before reviewing them and then forwards the best candidates for the job to the most suitable managers of that organization. The recruiting process might also involve the background test out, testing for drugs and substance usage and credit checks.

This process is often conducted immediately after a new employee has been hired (Allen, 1973). It helps in understanding employees and determines their ability to certain task that require at most sobriety.

Moreover, this process can also be used to identify employees with addiction problems and thus employ some of the intervention measures to help them recover.

The HR department often collects and reviews job applications before forwarding those of the best applicants to the appropriate managers in the organization. The hiring process might also include background checks, credit checks and drug testing.

The HR department bear the responsibility of typically orienting a new employee after he/she has been successfully been hired and provides the employee with necessary instructions regarding the company policies and ensuring proper training of the employee in accordance to the organization’s requirements. This will ensure competence from the worker.

Outgoing Employees

An organization’s human resource section is also responsible to take care of an employee when he/she leaves the organization for any reason.

If, in any case, a worker is laid off duty or maybe let go but unwillingly, certain responsibilities must be undertaken by the HR section, to make sure that the correct procedure was followed or that the process was done in accordance to the law.

In some instances, payment called severance is done or negotiated alongside settling any outstanding balances or any other benefits like paid vacation time.

The HR department is also required to return all keys that belong to the organization, or any other equipment from that worker and ensure his/her accessibility to the company’s resources is restrained up to and including the organization’s computer networks.

Improving Morale

The morale of the employees in any organization is a major concern to the human resource department. The HR section is also mandated to organize for holiday parties or any other get-together party for the employees; it has the responsibility of choosing one of the employees as the employee of the month and the rewarding of employees on merit.

The HR concerns itself to providing and maintaining a positive and enjoyable environment for working. This is mainly to motivate the employees and thus improving their production through their enhanced contribution.

It is necessary to understand the needs of the employees and make them feel appreciated, as they are part of the success of the organization. This is possible in numerous ways.

For instance, the HR can employ excellent communication strategies, excellent rewarding processes and rewarding employees with a share ownership of a company. By this, employees will feel tremendously motivated thus increasing their efforts towards reaching the desired objectives of the firm. The HR is responsible for defining the culture to be adopted by a company in promoting some its mission towards realizing the firm’s objective.

In this capacity, HR provides workforces with incredible opportunities. It provides them with a chance to enhance their skills and knowledge within their line of work. The Hr also provides employees with the opportunity expand their desired careers thus meeting employees’ intrinsic and extrinsic desires.

This builds workforces’ in various capacity, as they are able to feel satisfied with their jobs, elevate their revenues, enhance their living standards and promote their societies socially and economically.

HR as Change Champion The HR professional’s characteristic nature to, frequently, evaluate and assessing the effectiveness of the practices and policies of an organization leads to recurrent but necessary changes within the organization.

One can value HR professionalism exceptionally due to its technical knowledge and ability to perform successful strategies concerning change that best suit the organization. HR minimizes dissatisfaction by the employees by perfectly linking strategic needs of the organization and change hence reducing their resistance to change.

The HR professional is mandated to facilitate the overall accomplishment of his/her organization by first identifying the organizational goals, mission, action plan, and vision then finally come up with measures on how to succeed.

Compensation as one of the most important practices of HR Compensation can be defined as the full amount of monetary or non-monetary form of payment awarded or given to an employee in favor of work done as required. Key aspects considered before compensation is done:

A research in the marketplace concerning the value of similar jobs,

contributions of that employee and his/her achievements in the organization,

how available is the human resources in the job market with similar expertise,

the employer’s aspiration to attract certain workers and retain them for the worth they are adding to their duties in their posts

The company’s profitability or the availability funds in a non-profit making division or public segment setting, thus determining the employer’s ability to avail payments at market-rate compensation

Other payments offered under the compensation docket include; bonuses, sale commission overtime pay, non-monetary perks like stock options in some cases and company-paid car or housing or both.

Compensation may also include profit sharing and benefits. Profit sharing is when the company takes a percentage of its annual profits and decides to divide the sum of money accumulated across all the workers and then distributed using a given formula. This kind of compensation is applicable mostly to profit making organizations and that there has been an accumulated profit over specified period.

Befits, on the other hand, are in form of compensation offered to the workers by the employer over and above the specified payment as basic salary or an hourly rate kind of payment. Benefits amount to a portion of the full compensation package meant for the worker.

Importance of Compensation Strategies Compensation as a practice serves a major role to the employer and employees in any given organization. The main purposes of compensation include:

Increase ability to attract the best, most competent and the brightest workers especially amongst graduates,

Engaging the employees through motivating and boosting their morale thus increasing productivity in their line of duty,

And retain the key workers and minimize costs incurred during recruitment and training of personnel.

An employer must determine his/her strategy for compensation that will enable him/her achieves his goals. If an employer executes, adopts or implements an excellent remuneration strategy, it is almost certain that many employees will be willing to be employed in the firm.

Moreover, such excellent remuneration plans automatically maintains the existing brilliant workforces, as they will be willing to, always, renew their contracts. It is of massive significance to appreciate workforces with market drive approaches or tactics, as this will also promote the company’s economic and social position.

To the employee, bonuses as a form of compensation as well as profit sharing and stock options given in significant percentages ensure their prosperity in relation to the company or organization’s prosperity. In that, the higher the rank within the organization the more the employee earns in variable compensations.

Worker’s compensation laws; is a legal framework meant to ensure an injured employee due to an accident while on duty or if he/she contracts a disease while performing his/her duty, receives adequate compensation and proper medical benefits.

Ever state recommends that compensation insurance is purchased by employers, to make sure that the affected employees, either by illness or injury, alongside those who depend on them are catered for against potential hardships like illness, injury or even death.

This compensation was not only created to protect the worker but also the employer against abrupt or any potential cost and hardship shocks of the employee due to injury or illness. This compensation law has also given the employee a right to even sue his/her employer in accordance to the law.

As an employer, ensure that workers and the management staff understand that reports concerning accident ought to be filled immediately a worker has been injured in his/her line of duty or claims have job related sickness.

Employees must know how to avail claims to your selected compensation company, work directly with your employee’s compensation manager to make sure that both your liability and that employee’s medical requirements are met.

Ensure the claim is correct and timely filed by working personally with your workers and adhere to your insurance company’s procedures.

Executive manager’s Compensation is a form of compensation that slightly differs from the other employee form of compensation (Strandberg, 2004).

This type of compensation covers executive employees like the president of that organization, the vice president, the chief executive officer the CFO and sometimes the director or some managers of higher ranks in that organization. Executive compensations normally entail:

The base salary,

Income protection guarantees after undertaking a liquidity event like during a sale or an offering of a public stock


Additional benefits referred to as executive-only benefits like perks or extra paid vacation

Some incentives like stock options

When an individual in the executive rank comes onboard he is given a signing bonus.

They are entitled to a guarantee called severance package in any case there is a reason for employment termination rather than cause

The merger of the salaries, the bonuses and incentives is normally called the Total cash Compensation normally for executives, in short (TCC) (Strindberg, 2004).

Best practices An organization’s most precious incentive for inspiring and preserving talent is the practice of compensation. Even if the employer decides to pay for performance of tasks or use incentives to promote the desired behavior, a comprehensive system to supervise the progression is a crucial asset.

Compensation Management System facilitates organizations to design and execute compensation plans in accordance to the organization’s requirements with a resolution attached directly to the entire talent management set. Here are some of the best practices that promote the attainment of the compensation goals (Allen, 1973).

Administer compensation alongside incentive plans in accordance to a specific individual’s needs or departmental needs. This should be in terms of variable pay, the sales multipliers, and one-time incentive. Payment of bonuses or offering of any type of variable compensation may add up to an incentive and equally a disappointment, based on the mode of administering and the way it was perceived or communicated. Administering of incentives must be planned in a way that individuals comprehend the reason behind the payment and that unless the company meets certain predetermined projections there will be no pay out. Another criterion to consider in paying out of incentives is the team’s general success and performance. Employers should avoid paying out bonuses minus evaluating the success of the employee, not unless he/she is obligated by a constitutional (CBSR, 2003).

Allocate carefully, scarce resources at the same time encouraging top performers in the organization.

Encourage performance goals. Make sure that the organization’s best performers are being reasonably compensated for promoting success in the organization and supporting company aims with a swift analysis of employee’s performance ratings in his or her report.

Keep fairness and equality in presenting offers to budding new employees by maintaining compensation standards in accordance to family to which the job belongs or position of that individual.

Ensure proper management of income of potentially strong workers due to compensation

Highlight top performers. Build a profile of best performers and avail it to the public within the organization through a company intranet or any other means to encourage other employees to do their best. In the profile include all the incentives and benefits awarded to them (Sumner, 2006).

360-degree feedback system is a method or system that seeks to get feedback from peers, subordinates and seniors (the bosses), concerning specified employee for general evaluation. This method has been embraced in many organizations, as everyone is given an opportunity to evaluate a fellow workmate or his/her senior, and information is collected for analysis before any compensation are done. Here, the opinion of everybody matters and the ideology of working so hard to please only one individual is no more. This system has also proved worth in identification of leaders that best suit the higher levels or positions (Mees, 2004).

HR and compensation HR plays an integral role in managing and executing compensation practices in accordance to the best interests of the organization. HR best understands the needs of its people and allocates compensations where they best suit.

Understanding the needs of employees helps an organization determine the best way to remunerate or reward employees. This is because some employees prefer intrinsic rewards, while others extrinsic.

Conclusion What differentiates a successful organization from ineffective one is the value of workforces. This is because their labor force is an exact reflection of the entire organization. Therefore, a stronger value of an organization is a direct reflection on how the organization is valuable.

I strongly believe, from this point of argument that, it is clear on how human resource is of massive significance, when it comes to the fruitfulness of a firm. In a different but a clear angle, it simply works like a talent acquisition process whereby the best are recruited, maintained and trained to exploit their extraordinary talents.

They are also often engaged to the best interest of everybody and the organization at large, so one cannot under estimate the value of HR, as it is, to some level, the backbone of an organization. One can imagine an organization that exists without Human Resource; it could be a complete “nightmare.”

The organization would hire untalented individuals to work on certain crucial levels of the organization. Eventually, this could jeopardize the company’s effort of achieving greatness by not meeting its desired goals.

References Allen, L. A. (1973). Professional Management: New Concepts and Proven Practices. Berkshire, UK: McGraw Hill.

CBSR. (2003). Best People Practices: The Integration of Values into People Practices. Vancouver. Web.

Thornton, G. (2008). Recruitment and Retention: The Quest for the Right Talent. Web.

Maidenhead, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD). (2002). Corporate Social Responsibility and HR’s Role. Web.

Mees, A.


Allure cruise line Case Study college essay help: college essay help

Cultural challenges and stress Overview and demographics

Allure Cruise Line has three vessels in its fleet, with approximately 40 nationalities represented at any given time. However, this always fluctuates between 32 and 53 concerning contracts binding the crew and the company.

Nearly all the crew sign off each week depending on the time the Allure Cruise Line is within the home port. The same number of people come on board to replace others who have days-off.

Communication is a critical issue in Allure, as the firm engages in service of hiring agents to handle interviews and screen potential crew members for English skills to reduce the time which could be spent on bridging the logistical difference to achieve this.

Food is another difficult problem which Allure management has to cope with, making up the best menu to appeal and please everyone on board, as varying cultural backgrounds can be a really frustrating issue, not forgetting the high cost involved in meeting this objective.

Social life aboard the cruise ship has a great influence on the morale of the crew, depending on their age, which varies from 19 to 40 years. Majority of the crew members date and once in a while undergo break ups; and because of the proximity of their living and working conditions conflicts might arise among them.

Brotherhood mentality is another question capturing the diverse background and societal cultures on board the Allure, this characteristic is common for people from the same nationality and tends to depict a behavior resonating among them.


To avoid communication barrier among employees, Allure should continue to attract better employees by implementing a brilliant marketing strategy while developing a more competitive workforce. Allure should recruit the people in organizational-based teams and then induct the workers on skills based criteria.

This will go a long way to ensure that a strong sense of efficiency and productivity of Allure are upheld. Allure should make regular training on a normal part of human resource department’s responsibilities and integrate these functions into its human resource management strategy.

The food served to both, passengers and “internal passengers” is an issue, but Allure needs to focus more on their clientele than on the employees.

Social life within the crew members should be encouraged but with check and balances. A happier employee is more productive and more efficient at work than a lonely and demoralized one. Brotherhood disposition should be discouraged among crew members from the same race or background.

“Mafias” on board Mafia is term used to describe the favoritism which occurs in the dining room aboard the Allure Cruise ships; the head server often portrays some passion and promotes only the crew from his or her own country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The eastern and western Europeans hold leadership roles within the food service area and dining room. This dining room mafia phenomenon exists only in the dining rooms of the Cruise, where the top leaders are the dining room managers, supported by the head servers who wield a lot of power.

The dining room hierarchy is as shown below:

The head server exhibits a kind of experience in the dining room and creates a rapport with passengers by ensuring they are well catered and taken care of as they enjoy their experience aboard.

The servers are not well remunerated as compared to other staff; however, they make small salaries from the tips they receive from passengers who recognize their services.

Meanwhile, the tips received by the servers are divided among the servers themselves and the assistant servers. The benefits which accompany the server status make it one of the highly sought after positions on the Allure Cruise Ship.


Allure can improve employee performance by using more effective and efficient performance management programs. Allure has failed to correctly measure and confirm the conduct of their head servers, and this has been affecting the overall efficiency and productivity of the company.

Not only that, Allure has also failed to take into account the effect that the head server’s actions may have on the Allure’s representation among the passengers on board, and also the morale of other servers who feel cheated on board.

We will write a custom Case Study on Allure cruise line specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has to change as Allure needs to give an independent person the task of keeping performance records and will need to constantly re-evaluate and assess the crew working in the dining room, alongside their regular superior.

This would allow the independent person a better opportunity to evaluate the servers without any degree of bias. This has come about as a highly significant change as now many companies require independent evaluations, as well as evaluations of employees by their superiors as essential (Cheverton, 2004).

These measurements help Allure to discover which of the crew members is engaged in working at quality level and, needless to say, becomes helpful in deciding who deserves a raise and bonus.

Meanwhile, it also keeps the crew members in controlling as they work harder and better to present themselves better. This also increases the level of enthusiasm in the employees and helps keep the business operating at a healthy rate (Boone, 2001).

In the current models of many organizations, the ones that are different from the more traditional ones, assistants are apportioned with tasks by the top managers as their authority is the best for the activity.

A contemporary approach is to arrange the chores and the workload by assigning up project crew consisting of crew members who join these teams because of their compatible to their competencies and trades like servers.

Allure can achieve this by reducing the level of hierarchy within the organization structure to limit bureaucracy.

Relation to real world The image of Allure needs to be properly projected not only to attract more customers but also to attract the very best of human capital available. Enlisting reputable workers is becoming an extremely hard task these days, because of the continuously changing working environment and the massive degree of competition in the workforce.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Allure cruise line by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The attitude and morals of the Allure workforce are a tremendously sturdy contributing factor to the company’s overall image in this competitive market.

The marketing department at Allure needs to be more involved in changing the way the company works and operates within the internal structures to determine the effect of the company on the local community and internationally.

Allure should advertise to attract clientele but also portray the right image worldwide. These factors are essential for Allure’s growth and success.

In the newer models of organization, different from the traditional ones, workers are assigned with work by the upper management on the basis of the management that is best for the job.

A new approach is to organize the work and the workload by setting up project teams consisting of workers who join these teams because they think they are compatible to their competencies and interests (Anshutz, 2006).

Companies that follow such models usually change the levels in the company’s organization, and mostly keep only three levels: project sponsors (the former management team); project leaders; and project coworkers.

References Anshutz, J. (2006). How to successfully manage people. Hong Kong: Perfect Bound Paperback.

Boone, M. E. (2001). Managing interactively: Executing business strategy, improving communication and creating a knowledge-sharing culture. New York: McGraw Hill Professional.

Cheverton, P. (2004). Key marketing skills: strategies, tools and techniques for marketing success. Kogan: Page Publishers.


Flexibility and Coping With Changes Report (Assessment) online essay help

According to Dubrin and Young, the ability to cope with change is the difference between success and failure in ones career (345). Not all people are able to deal with change in the same way. This therefore, highlights the need to empower people to improve their abilities to cope with change.

A successful career depends on ones ability to deal with change. But according to results of a study conducted in more than 500 companies, employees deal with change differently; some are more adaptive while others are less adaptive (Dubrin and Young 345).

In the study, the ability to cope with change, here in referred to as flexibility, is determined by measuring up to seven personality traits, which can be grouped in the following two broad categories: positive self image as well as the ability to cope with risks. Individuals with high scores in the two aforementioned traits are said to be highly flexible.

In coping with change the two aforementioned traits are found to also have a strong correlation with the ability to cope with ambiguity and positive emotional disposition.

Thus, being optimistic as well as having the ability to cope with ambiguity in time of extreme uncertainties enables employees not only to cope with change but also to benefit from it.

The assertions made herein indicate that only those employees who posses these traits have the ability to cope with change, and also spell doom for those without.

This therefore raises the question of how employees lacking both in the ability to cope with ambiguity and positive emotional disposition can become flexible and be able to cope well with change. It is essential for such employees to conduct a self assessment which enables them to determine how flexible they are.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This involves a series of self administered questions that address a number of issues ranging from the inability to appreciate differing opinion, inability to deal with dissenting work mates, avoiding work related challenges among other issues.

If an employee scores highly in these test, then he or she has a limited ability to cope with change and is thus less flexible. Improving their tolerance capabilities becomes necessary.

Dubrin and Young (345) make simple but effective suggestions on how inflexible employees can improve their ability to cope with change. These suggestions are not just practical steps towards overcoming such inabilities but are aimed at changing an employee’s attitudes as well.

Dubrin and Young’s suggestions also encourage proactive rather than a reactive approach. To improve ones flexibility, Dubrin and Young challenge employees to look for opportunities that involve ambiguous tasks and learn to develop a positive attitude about them (345). Identifying positive attributes that enhance positive affect is vital in such a case.

When faced with forced change, employees ought to adopt the ‘what if’ approach. Asking a number of ‘what if’ questions with regards to ones career enables an employee to take responsibility for ones career growth.

Dubrin and Young (335 to 346) further suggest that employees ought to ask themselves these questions before major changes occur to avoid being caught unawares. It also helps one to gain an understanding on the inevitability of change. All these increase receptiveness to change, and improves ones flexibility.

Flexibility is an essential trait that facilitates career growth. Unfortunately, it is not a universal occurrence. Developing it follows simple to do steps and is largely rthe prerogative of individual employees.

We will write a custom Assessment on Flexibility and Coping With Changes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited DuBrin, Andrew and Jeffrey Young. Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior. Ontario: Thomson Nelson. 2006. Print.


The communist Party in the Soviet Union and China Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction





Introduction A Communist is a party that propels the use of social principles of communism enhanced by a communist state of governance. Karl Marx and Angels advanced this form of party in the mid 19th century. According to Leninism, a communist party is a party which belongs to the working class who may be ruling and non-ruling elite in the society1.

The Chinese Communist Party is the world’s largest and strongest party with approximately 78 million members drawn from the party and non-party members. A survey of the Chinese political parties reveals that the Chinese Communist Party accounts for 5.6% of the total population of China according to 2009 country survey.

The Russian Communist party was recorded as the most powerful party , but today it has collapsed with China taking over the lead. This paper explores some of the factors that may account for the failure of the communist party in Russia, as well as factors contributing to the success of the Communist party in China2.

Discussion To understand reasons that led to the collapse of the CP in Soviet Union, we examine how these parties arose in respective countries. While the Soviet Union did not experience uprisings, China had a historical series of mass peasantry revolutions.

In October 1949, the party became officially powerful to found a country led by single-party system. The revolution cause driven by the masses gave the CP the power to protest against the perceived oppression’ to give defense, economic resources, employment, and education to the peasant majority.

Until today, the successes of the communist party in China have been attributed to the overwhelming revolt waged by the peasants3.

The Soviet Union has no history of unity among its ethnic minorities as well as the inefficient units that formed the Soviet blocs. The differences in languages spoken among the blocs, varied history for every Soviet state continued to spur ethnic and cultural division.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This led to lack of feasible means that would have unified the innately different subsets that formed the union. According to the founding father of communism, Karl Marx, communism cannot thrive without forming requisite mass revolution of the international proletariat.

Impending lack of unity among the revolutionary proletariat, the Soviet Union came into power without an effective and robust support of the masses to sustain its presence and power. Pursuant to the need for an economically strong party and country, China’s CP remains a distinguished large communist party in the world today4.

Thus, one of the greatest differences between the two countries is the extent and scope of emphasis put on the economic reform compared to political liberation. In essence, although political liberation was a necessary condition for the growth of the party, it was not a sufficient condition for creating a powerfully sustainable communist party5.

While numerous factors have contributed to the collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union, one eminent cause remains critical to its failure during the 1980’s. This cause creates the fundamental difference between the Soviet case and the survival of the Chinese communist party.

The introduction of liberalist ideologies by Mikhail Gorbachev led to a political compromise between the people’s loyalty to the party and the government.

This led subsequent loss of confidence and trust in the ideologies of communism due to failure of the communist government to provide people with promises that led to the revolution6.

The Chinese communist government did not emphasize the need to control the entire populace, but rather generate and control economic resources. The economic reform agenda introduced by the government left the Chinese population more satisfyed.

We will write a custom Essay on The communist Party in the Soviet Union and China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Because the communist party forms its foundation on the powerful elite forming the lead the working class of a society, it generates and wields its power through a mass of resources from its powerful members.

Studies show that although the party has continued to face resistance from the opposing figures, its highly skilled members that form the party’s elite have continued to devise strategies that maintain its power.

In the case of China, the CCP has obtained its strength from the peasant and armed forces7. The emergence of the peasantry revolts that cropped up after the defeat of the second revolution in the southern provinces of China marks the beginning of the Chinese communist party’s strength.

Several factors have contributed to the victory and subsequent success of the Chinese communist party. Firstly, this was made possible because of the Chinese communist party’s excessive involvement in the practices of organizing and training of the peasant majority to form a united front capable of sustaining a continuous war without fail.

High economic resources endowment of the working class enabled the party to sustain the desperateness of the backward peasantry that rallied behind the elitist party forming the communist party8.

The ability of the party to demonstrate a strong following was facilitated by the innate backwardness of the peasants coupled with geographic vastness of the country and lack of proper communication networks. Although these factors may be viewed as the insignificant, their contributions has had an enormous impact on the success of the party for many years, especially during the most challenging moments of its life.

For instance, the strong division between the elites and the peasantry facilitated by the intellectual and geographical location, and resource accumulation stimulated the peasants to wage war in respect of their perceived inadequacies9.

The observable incompetence of the bourgeois government that existed during this period necessitated the growth and sustenance of the war driven by the peasants on behalf of the working class.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The communist Party in the Soviet Union and China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the utter despair and the sorry state of the peasants found reasons for their war, which stimulated further energy for the war. A large and poor peasant population has characterized China during the revolutions with few, but powerful elitist population that controlled the country’s economy10.

The tactical sense of the Chinese communist party leadership that oscillated between opportunism and adventurism managed to exist for many years under the province of the strong resistance of the government.

Although the party lost its power against the ruling government, it continued criticism of the government’s policies served to provide an impetus for subsequent revolts through a mass of peasants and army revolutions11.

It continued pressure on the government giving it another bargaining tool to agitate for change in the economic, political, and social systems that underpinned the country’s leadership12.

Therefore, lack of a strong Democratic Party caused the peasant majority and armies gathered their support for the Chinese Communist Party. This scenario gave the Chinese communist party a formidable ground to front its political capital.

Numerous sources suggest that the power of the Chinese communist party has declined over the past two decades, especially after the advent of the Deng reforms and the subsequent collapse of the joint (collective) farming system.

Many believe that these factors have contributed to the party’s disintegration across the country. Some surveys noted that the rural membership of the Chinese communist party branches had seen 60% disbandment as at the beginning of 199313.

However, the support for the party has remained intact in the urban cities, accounting for its continuous existence. The declining power of the party has generated an impetus to rejuvenate its power by attempting to search for the new direction for its future14.

The party called eminent scholars and experts from foreign countries to offer their opinions on the way forward for the party. This strategy has been developed out of frustration and worries created by the continuing rise in levels of unemployment, rural poverty, widespread corruption within the party and its government that continue to threaten its sustainable power in the future.

The overall country’s perception about the communist party as an honorable umbrella party has served to stimulate the ever-increasing membership across the country. Studies show that, in the past decade, over one million people joined the party every year.

The party’s leadership has invested enormous resources capable of recruiting the masses, especially the educated young populations that has the power to forge its communist ideologies to the rest of the population. This strategic move to target the educated masses and the working class spurred its growth and strength throughout its historical life15.

The party has thrived on a number of factors including stirring up nationalist perceptions and feeling among the people while promoting the people-driven defense ideologies. The party’s growth has been attributed to the widespread divide in China between the poor and the rich holding unto the economic and political power.

In addition, the communist party in China has continued to benefit from its strategic membership drawn from the brightest entrepreneurs and elitist groups that held profitable positions in the country’s leading corporations and private ventures.

These proletariats have been made to develop positive perceptions about the Chinese communist party, which has continued to moving them away from mainstream politics and criticism of the Chinese communist party policies.

Similarly, the government has continued to using its state machinery and resources to incorporate the majority from the rural areas left behind in the politics of the communist party.

According to John Pomfret, over the years the communist party has sustained itself as a strong party with excess power by providing the Chinese population with stakes in maintaining the status quo and appealing to the masses. The rural populations have continuously been integrated into the TVE system as well as termination of the taxes.

Therefore, the government under the leadership of the CCP creates a friendlier atmosphere that cushions its people from adverse economic distress arising out of economic downtimes16. Therefore, the people of China have used these facets to continue submitting to the social principles of the communist party to yield a powerful unity to date.

According to Timothy’s theory of the state effect, he argues that the communist party attempts to position itself as the fundamental reformer of the society17. Apparently, this society stood separated from the party during its revolution against the tenets of the ruling class.

This juxtaposed state of the party among the people and society has generated a misconceived image to the public, making it a loyalist party with the largest membership.

Conclusion The communist party in China and the Soviet Union, both had similarities and differences that account for their success and failure respectively. Studies documented that both scenarios posses a series of similarities that illustrate why they survived at one time, the death of the party in the USSR, and the continued wielding of power by the Chinese Communist Party18.

Many scholars have argued that both parties have experienced the demise of their power due to their inability to formulate strategies that appealed to the changing times.

Many scholars have argued that both parties have experienced the demise of their powers due to their inability to formulate strategies that appealed to the changing times.

In case of the Soviet Union, much of its failure has been attributed to the lack of the appropriate links between the Soviet based states and the leadership that promoted the western democracies at the expense of communist ideologies.

One critical difference that distinguishes the Soviet CP and the Chinese CP are that China did not have immoral communist leader, Mao Tse-tung as opposed to the Soviet Union. In addition, the Chinese communist party during its trying moments prioritized its leadership agenda by putting economic reforms ahead of the political issues that it faced19.

This phenomenal move under the clever guidance of Deng Xiaoping has continued to receive accolades. This step has enabled Chinese communist party to stay longer in China compared to the Soviet Union.

Bibliography Amacker, Christopher. “Why did Communism survive in China but not in the USSR?” Web.

Barnett, Thomas, “Deng Xiaoping,” Esquire, 4 (2008): 146.

Johnson, Chalmers A. Peasant Nationalism and Communist Power: The Emergence of Revolutionary China 1937-1945. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1962.

Chan, Bary Watson, eds. Sources of Chinese Tradition. New York: Kegan Paul International, 1960.

Courtois, Stephanie. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Grigor, Ronald Suny. The Empire Strikes Out: Imperial Russia, “National” Identity, and Theories of Empire,” A State of Nations: Empire and Nation-Making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Lawrance, Alan. China under communism. New York: Routledge, 1998, 134.

Pei, Minxin. “From Reform to Revolution: The Demise of Communism in China and the Soviet Union”.Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994, 11.

Shambaugh, David. China’s Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation, University of California: University of California Press, 2009, 256.

Zhang, Wei-Wei. Ideology and Economic Reform under Deng Xiaoping. New York: Kegan Paul International, 1996.

Footnotes 1 Minxin Pei, “From Reform to Revolution: The Demise of Communism in China and the Soviet Union” (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1994), 11).

2 Stephanie Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1999), 39.

3 Christopher Amacker, “Why did Communism survive in China but not in the USSR?”

4 Christopher Amacker, “Why did Communism survive in China but not in the USSR?”

5 Stephanie Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1999), 39

6 Christopher Amacker, “Why did Communism survive in China but not in the USSR?”

7 Ronald Grigor Suny, The Empire Strikes Out: Imperial Russia, “National” Identity, and Theories of Empire, A State of Nations: Empire and Nation-Making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001)

8 Ronald Grigor Suny and Terry Martin, ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 323.

9 Thomas, Barnett, “Deng Xiaoping,” Esquire no. 4 (2008): 146.

10 David Shambaugh, China’s Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation, (University of California: University of California Press, 2009), 256.

11 Wei-Wei Zhang, Ideology and Economic Reform under Deng Xiaoping (New York: Kegan Paul International, 1996), 2.

12 Amacker, Christopher on November 17, Why did Communism survive in China but not in the USSR? (2010).

13 Alan Lawrance, China under communism. (New York: Routledge, 1998), 134

14 Wei-Wei Zhang, Ideology and Economic Reform under Deng Xiaoping (New York: Kegan Paul International, 1996), 2.

15 Chalmers A. Johnson, Peasant Nationalism and Communist Power: The Emergence of Revolutionary China 1937-1945 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1962), 3.

16 Chan, Watson Bary ed., Sources of Chinese Tradition (New York, Kegan Paul International, 1960), 871.

17 Stephanie Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1999), 39.

18 Pei Minxin, “From Reform to Revolution: The Demise of Communism in China and the Soviet Union” (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1994), 11.

19 Christopher Amacker, Why did Communism survive in China but not in the USSR?


IBM Company Analysis Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Brief Company History Formally established in 1911, IBM has grown within the past 100 years into one of the largest technology-oriented enterprises in the world to date.

It was one of the first companies to develop the concept of the home personal computer, pioneered the development of the modern-day checkout line through the creation of the laser scanner, is the primary manufacturer of many of the cash registers in operation in grocery stores around the world and is one of the largest suppliers of automated teller machines used in nearly every single bank in operation at the present.

By 2005 the company shifted is operational makeup by selling its personal computer division to Lenovo and instead focused on providing software and hardware-based solutions to other multinational companies and international organizations. This has resulted in the present-day IBM, which is known around the world as a business solutions provider that enables businesses to run more smoothly and efficiently under a technological infrastructure developed by IBM.

Economic conditions While the 2008 global financial crisis in effect obliterated the profit margins of hundreds of multinational companies around the world, IBM was largely unaffected and by 2009 actually emerged from the crisis with a 20% higher third-quarter income, which amounted to $2.05 per share. This is in stark contrast to the effects of the financial crisis on other technology-oriented firms who experienced billions of dollars in losses during this particular period.

The reason behind why IBM continued to be profitable despite the uncertain financial environment at the time is actually connected to the company relinquishing its production and sale of computer hardware and various devices directly to normal consumers. Instead, the company focused on the creation of software and service products with an emphasis on long term service contracts with corporations, government departments and various organizations.

What you have to understand is that a large percentage of the technology-based corporations that were negatively affected by the 2008 crisis were affected due to a lack of consumer demand for their products.

People were in effect to scared to buy new laptops, computers or other forms of technology-based products as a result of not only the high degrees of unemployment that permeated the market at the time but it was also due to the fact that there was a certain degree of fear in the markets regarding the possibility of job loss.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since IBM catered directly to corporations, this in effect allowed the company to altogether avoid the slump affecting other technology based enterprises, especially when taking into consideration the long term contracts the company had.

Furthermore, as a direct result of the crisis many companies turned towards the concepts of Six Sigma and lean operations resulting in a distinct shift towards more efficient computer based operations as well as turned towards outsourcing various aspects of their operations to other countries.

This in effect necessitated the creation of newer and better software and hardware infrastructures, which IBM was only too happy to provide during this particular period of time.

On the other hand, it must be noted that as of late IBM has experienced some financial difficulties as many of its clients within Europe have been affected by the debt crisis, which has severely constrained their ability to expand/upgrade their systems. IBM has made up for this though by continuing to expand its outsourced operations within India and the Philippines, which enabled the company to more or less breakeven despite the lack of demand from its European clientele.

Ethical issues One of the main ethical issues surrounding IBM at the present is its current predilection towards outsourcing various aspects of its internal operations and manufacturing processes to other countries.

While it may be true that companies that are based within the US are not under any legal obligation to ensure that all aspects of their operations remain within the country, the fact is that after IBM received extensive financial assistance in the form of government bailout money from the US government it still chose to fire nearly 5,000 US based employees over the following months and shifted a large percentage of its workforce to overseas operations such as those in India, China and the Philippines.

Given the fact that IBM in effect was helped by US taxpayers the company had the moral and ethical responsibility to at least pay them back to a certain extent by using the bailout money to subsequently increase the number of local jobs within the country.

We will write a custom Research Paper on IBM Company Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While it may be true that the company did invest the money into IT infrastructure development which did create some jobs, the fact remains that this was barely felt within the US domestic market and as such calls into question the corporate social responsibility the company should have displayed in terms of actually helping the American people.

Marketing strategies The gains achieved by IBM within the past 15 years can all be attributed to its marketing strategy of removing itself from direct competition within the currently oversaturated PC market.

Instead, the company has focused on direct business to business sales wherein its primary clients are multinational corporations, government and educational institutions, the airline industry, the food services industry as well as several other industries within the global economy today that rely on the technology, software and consulting expertise of IBM in order to resolve their technology-related issues.

As such, IBM does not advertise in the traditional sense but rather relies on direct business contacts, product roadshows and its reputation as one of the best companies in the world for technology based solutions to gain clients.

Evidence of the effectiveness of such a method of marketing is actually seen by the average consumer on an almost daily basis wherein most of automated teller machines, cash registers, and credit cards readers encountered by a vast majority of the general public are all mostly made by IBM or one of its subsidiaries.

In cases where IBM does do direct marketing campaigns, the advertisements are not directed at the average consumer as seen in the case of numerous advertisements by companies such as Asus, Toshiba, and Apple, which rely on a strategy of presenting how much better their product is compared to their competitors.

Instead, IBM’s marketing strategy revolves around presenting solutions involving software, consulting services and the implementation of a technological infrastructure that would resolve any and all issues a client would have regarding creating an efficient and effective business platform.

There are three components within market orientation that determine how a company will implement a marketing strategy within the competitive environment that it finds itself in:

Not sure if you can write a paper on IBM Company Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These components are comprised of the following:

Customer orientation

Competitor orientation

Inter-functional coordination.

When it comes to marketing strategies involving customer orientation, a company utilizes its available resources in gathering data on the needs and behaviors of the consumer segment that it is targeting. The same can be said for competitor orientation marketing strategies however, in this case, it focuses on competitors within the same market instead.

Either method though has a distinct weakness; focusing too much on consumer orientation can actually blind a company to changes in the market or may actually stifle innovation since the company focuses too much on consumer satisfaction rather than changing based on trends.

Focusing too much on competitor orientation, on the other hand, results in too much time and capital being placed on competitive activities, which results in companies at times neglecting their consumer bases and focusing too much on getting ahead of the competition. In the case of IBM, what was done was to focus on a customer-oriented strategy by providing solutions instead of merely software and hardware.

Not only that, the company also avoided the potential pitfall of being blind to changes within the market by in effect taking itself out of the competitive direct to consumer PC market and instead focused on a niche market strategy involving multinational corporations, institutions and other such organizations.

This strategy can be considered a stroke of genius since it enabled the company to further enhance its reputation through better client services, which in effect resulted in additional clients for IBM. The end result of this particular marketing strategy enabled IBM to become the 2nd largest firm within the US based on the number of employees it currently has as well as enabling it to reach the 4 highest position within the US market in terms of the sheer amount of market capitalization it has at the present.

Strengths and Weaknesses As mentioned earlier, the current strength of the company lies in the fact that it does not provide individual products to consumers but rather sells IT based solutions to its clientele. This can come in the form of a technological infrastructure with long term IT support that ensures a continuous stream of income from such clients as they continue to develop and upgrade their systems in order to keep up with the current pace of technological improvements.

On the other hand, the weakness of the company lies in the fact that as more IT based companies enter into the business to business solutions market, IBM does not have a fall back industry in the form of direct sales of computers to rely on for additional income.

Industry analysis- Necessity for Innovation and the Need to Change Markets Thamhain (2005) indicates that research and development into new ways of producing and utilizing technology is one of the practices most often seen in technology-intensive enterprises (Thamhain, 2005). This is due to the fact that technology has as of late been under a constantly accelerating level development and as a result, has enabled new players to enter into markets whereas in the past distinct barriers to proper entry would have been present (Thamhain, 2005).

As such, failure to sufficiently innovate along with new technological trends and products can be thought of as a failure on the part of the managerial practices at a company since being able to anticipate trends and use them to either reach greater market penetration or keep the company relevant to consumers is a necessity in today’s technology intensive market economy.

Nowhere is this more evident that in the IT services industry at the present wherein IBM has to directly compete with other business to business service providers such as Oracle, Cisco, Dell and now HP as this company transitions from a consumer-oriented approach to one that focuses primarily on selling to various businesses and organizations.

Of particular concern within this particular industry are the possible long term implications of a prolonged economic recession within the US, especially when coupled with the debt crisis within Europe, which are two of the main markets of technology-oriented enterprises such as IBM.

The main problem with consumer markets in economies such as those within the US, Europe and the Middle East is the fact that consumer spending is at an all-time low which has resulted in the current economic downturn since consumer spending is the primary basis of economic recoveries or recessions (Keller


Understanding of Technology and Philosophy Essay argumentative essay help

According to George Orwell, there is substantial reason to support the idea of mechanization in pursuit of achievement. The author, Orwell, put the statement trying to express the possibility of a typical a self-driven invention. A pacifist loves peace and embraces the path that avoids violence in all his or her activities.

Shunning of military approaches to settle issues of the society is the desire of a pacifist. When a peace-loving individual gets an opportunity to work in a firm that deals with the manufacture of bombs, then there are high chances of devising newer versions or types of bombs within a short time (Orwell, p.207). Habitual characteristic of humanity has a design characterized by inventions that allow for advancement geared towards satisfying unending needs.

The statement by Henry Adams that talks about the steam found in the world not being able to build Chartres represents an argument of flawlessness in the concept of work. There needs to be a reason for having faith in whichever action that an individual undertakes although this is insufficient for realization of goals.

This can be applied to for power generation if tapped in the correct way according to standard procedures. This is likened to the possession of power which is relevant for use by those who cannot harness it for meaningful use.

The book by Adams tries to relate the Virgin and the Dynamo as presented by Adams, shows how one item can be of considerable importance in one setting while at the same time, a complete irrelevance at other regions (Adams, p. 324). Presence of steam is a normal occurrence, coming in the form of a force which can be beneficial when applied doing work while it is quite useless when allowed to escape into free space.

Applying the concepts of mechanics in transformation and redirection of energy is practical and claimed to be quantifiable. It was not possible to construct any meaningful application of the force while at Chartres as induced by the Virgin, whose value could not achieve substantial gains (Adams, p.324).

Adam admits that there was the relevance about true existence of this force, but its application was not practical particularly then. Improvement of status in performance using machinery by man has grown into a culture which is instinctive as opposed to being suppressive for other discoveries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Performing extra duties with an opportunity for extra improvement due to inventions and innovations are recommended (Orwell, p.207). The first scenario is touching on the principles of communism that are in line with the basics of socialism and Orwell, the writer, describes the situation from a fascism point of view.

The concept of mechanization is a slow and sure process that is rapidly encrypting into the society by a section of the population. It represents a minority group who opposes the idea of mechanization as a process but instead have a compulsion to live by the guidelines (Orwell, p.208).Civilization brought by the use of machines as a tool in efforts that culminate into modernization and capitalism concept has a driving force as maximization of profit earnings.

Using machines as workers for men rather than being servants for machines is the best choice according to independent minds. With extrapolation mechanization, the users who are the humans represent a brain material that is under bondage within a bottle. This imprisonment is virtual in the sense that the mind, which is the governing part of the body, takes over operations in directing the body.

It is where the so-called advancement is heading. Avoiding the situation is almost impossible due the nature of large-scale use both under the conscious and sub conscious mind. The more the advancement in mechanization, the more the modernization in general and this bring about advancement, efficiency and decency in procedures (Orwell, p.293).

Those who embrace the values of utopia aim at reducing pain and suffering in life of the practitioners. This results in the alleviation of conditions governing life by reducing steps taken towards industrialization. Introduction of artificial issues that obey guidelines of socialism and by extension, the utopia, transforms humans into robots who are using machines to perform all their chores.

Liberalism as one of the social theories adopted for use in the sense that the beneficiaries of this fruitful course are those who care about the love for peaceful coexistence among themselves and with the community at large (Mises, p.70).

Freedom declaration out of such practices on machines cause a reduction of workload on operations but can be a source of detriment to the lives of the operators. Compromising of safety standards in the making and supporting of fascism concept is a common activity.

We will write a custom Essay on Understanding of Technology and Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The issue of ascertaining credibility of mechanization in terms of controlling its extremes warrants safety concerns. Attaining economic democracy due to the practice of converting the community into a capitalist arena is desirable. It enables the occupants of the target are to be workers and beneficiaries of not only as consumers.

This brings about the reality of self-styled democratic society by eliminating the concept of fascism (Mises, p. 21). Using this advancement process against intended harmonization situations, can reverse when the products turn out to be destructive, on the other hand. When this happens, then one of the principles applied in safety gets violated breaking fundamental laws for normal existence (Orwell, p.207).

Understanding of technology as explained by the two authors measures the extent of burden in the society. Both Orwell and Adams view the concept of mechanization as a hindrance to free existence of socialism. Instead of liberal scenario in the democratic administration of societal activities, one can decide to contribute to economic development components of a community.

Accidents and erratic occurrences in the course of industrialization processes may cause mass destruction of lives and property contrary to expectations of improvement of standards. Such cases as airplane crash, highway traffic accidents and other industrial disasters are some of the detriments of technological advancements.

Making choice embrace capitalism is vital for development in the economic and social outstretches of a state with shinning achievements (Schumpeter. 7). Oppression by authoritative governments embraces fascism by participating in concentration on development of self-ego at the expense of the rest.

Poisonous gases, oxide leaks among other lethal chemical radicals are industrial products whose chemical components are able to have a devastating effect on the human body system.

The Dynamo that formed a center stage in the life of Adam is essential in the career path and studies but much value, not as an obsession just as the Virgin with the female forces. He had appreciated his college results with limited value in the likeness of experimental results (Adams, p. 319).

The authors, Adams and Orwell, consider development that accompanies industrialization with a recessive approach that ranges from neutrality to other extremes that enslave the mind. The idea of socialism has a strong impact over generations and will remain unchanged because of the enticing nature of the concept that governs the society (Mises, p. 23).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding of Technology and Philosophy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Practicing of faith in all the endeavors is the secret for opening success doors as put across by Marxian theory. This further explains the reasons that underlie the concept of judgment of actions based on instinct in terms of success evaluation (Schumpeter, p. 13).

Works Cited Adams, Henry. The Education of Henry Adams. Charleston, South Carolina: Forgotten Books, 1961. Forgotten Books. Web.

Mises, Ludwig V. Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis. Auburn. Alabama: Ludwig Von Mises Institute. 2009. Print.

Orwell, George. The Road to Wigan Pier. UK: Penguin Publishers. 1937. Print.

Schumpeter, Joseph A. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. UK: George Allen


Cost changes and the Implementation of Control Mechanisms Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction In one form or another problems often occur in projects whether they come in the form of delays, cost changes, timeline adjustments or a variety of other problems that create scheduling and planning problems during a project (Lenfle and Loch, 32 – 55). In order to resolve such incidents, it is often necessary to have a control change mechanism in place to make sure that alternative plans exist for particular processes to continue to function normally.

Cost changes and the Implementation of Control Mechanisms Ingredients and Menu Pricing

One of the main problems in the restaurant business are sudden cost changes to ingredients brought about by nature calamities such as floods, earthquakes, red tide etc. This directly impacts the restaurant’s bottom-line since if the dished served costs more to make than its indicated price on the menu then the restaurant would of course lose money as a direct result.

Taking this into consideration, the contracts between the restaurant and suppliers must be amended in order to have some form of provision indicating that the restaurant will only buy a certain number of ingredients based on a previously agreed upon set price.

This ensures that should there be a sudden change in the price of ingredients the restaurant will not be contractually liable to purchase them at a loss (Lenfle and Loch, 32 – 55). It must also be noted that there a certain degree of control must be implemented on the menu prices themselves.

Aside from the external circumstance that may increase the price of ingredient the restaurant also needs to take into consideration subsequent increases in employee salaries as a direct result of cost of living increases not to mention the fact that there are also issues related to rent, utilities expenses and miscellaneous other expenses that may occur that necessitate price increases on the menu.

As such, cost control mechanisms must be implemented in regards to these potential problems in regards to an adjustable profit/loss scale in order for the restaurant to determine what point would it be necessary to implement changes in pricing (Lenfle and Loch, 32 – 55).

Timeline Adjustments

Between the planning and actual performance stage comes the implementation stage where all the initial plans for the restaurant are implemented and tested in order to ensure that everything is working as it should be.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During this particular stage though, you must take into consideration that not everything will go as planned and as such it is necessary to implement sufficient timeline adjustments that take into consideration delays in construction, equipment arrival, training of staff, creation of sufficient supply contracts and a variety of other potential delays that may occur (Blackstone, Cox, and Schleier, 7029-7046).

What you have to understand is that control mechanisms in the form of rescheduling strategies, a work around plan and a variety of other processes are needed in order for operations to continue unimpeded (Blackstone, Cox, and Schleier, 7029-7046).

The creation of a restaurant comes in particular stages with one aspect leading to another, if delays occur and the owner still attempts to push on through with the original schedule, the possibility of grave problems (i.e. faulty wiring, food being delivered too early, untrained staff etc.) increases exponentially.

As such, it is necessary to implement some form of alternative plan when certain delays occur in order for certain processes to still go ahead as planned without necessarily causing interruptions with other aspects of the processes needed to finish the restaurant.

Project Performance

When it comes to the overall performance of the project, certain control mechanisms need to be implemented in order to ensure that everything is going according to plan and is not over budget.

This involves control mechanisms which examine the daily costs associated with construction, the amount of progress made in finishing the restaurant and determining whether the speed in which the construction is being done is in line with the original budget for the construction of the restaurant.

Furthermore, it must be determined whether the training of employees for the restaurant as well as the development of the necessary preparations for promotion are also on schedule (Krane et al., 54 – 67). Neglecting to examine such factors and implement some measures of control to them can lead to a disastrous opening

We will write a custom Assessment on Cost changes and the Implementation of Control Mechanisms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Introducing Project Contracts and Agreements

In regards to properly implementing the necessary project contracts and agreements, these activities will be instituted through the various development plans of the restaurant via a consensus of the project team.

New iterations to the contracts will be discussed and deliberated until all parties involved are satisfied with the changes. Once all parties are in agreement the agreements and contracts will then be subsequently finalized and implemented into the main project development plan.

Informing the Project Team of Changes to the Plan

Should subsequent changes to the project plan be necessary the project team in conjunction with personnel who are directly impacted by the changes will be called to the restaurant site (or the nearest possible convenient location) in order to discuss the subsequent changes needed.

Should various individuals be otherwise indisposed due to a combination of events the details of the meeting will be forwarded to them via a transcript report and their role in the changes will be indicated.

Potential Impact on Budgets, Schedules and Deliverables

Once the project has been proved and is underway it is expected that there will be changes in budgetary allotments and schedules will definitely be delayed. What you have to understand is that there is a world of difference between planning something on paper and actually seeing things through.

Sudden changes as a direct result of external circumstance often occur, as a result costs often spiral upwards with the original budget intended for the implementation stage of a restaurant project often reaching 15 to 20 percent over budget. Such is the nature of implementation procedures that more often than not project managers often allocate a certain amount from the intended capital when starting a particular business in order to deal with costs related to going over budget.

It must also be noted that developing a scheduling plan for construction, installation, training and a variety of other necessary processes all hinges on the fact that everything is completed by the allotted time given for a particular activity. Unfortunately this is often not the case and as such control mechanisms in the form of alternate schedules must be devised in order to deal with such problems.

Deliverables on the other hand will definitely be affected with the potential for certain outcomes being delayed or not happening at all as a direct result of certain changes to the overall planning of certain aspects of the projects. In cases such as this it is best to adjust the expectations of what deliverables may occur based on the new data from the project planning stage.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cost changes and the Implementation of Control Mechanisms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Blackstone, John H., James F. Cox, and John G. Schleier. “A Tutorial On Project Management From A Theory Of Constraints Perspective.” International Journal Of Production Research 47.24 (2009): 7029-7046. Business Source Premier. Web.

Krane, Hans Petter, Nils O. E. Olsson, and Asbjôrn Rolstadås. “How Project Manager- Project Owner Interaction Can Work Within And Influence Project Risk Management.” Project Management Journal 43.2 (2012): 54-67. Business Source Premier. Web.

Lenfle, Sylvain, and Christoph Loch. “Lost Roots: How project management came to emphasize control over flexibility and novelty.” California Management Review 53.1 (2010): 32-55. Business Source Premier. Web.


The Evolving Role of Government in Education Essay college essay help near me

The introduction A brief overview of important historical points

The role of government in American education is considered to be a question of great sensitivity. Generally, one is to keep in mind that originally “policymakers have supported state and local control rather than federal directives and federal education legislation has normally contained strong prohibitions against federal control of education” (Orfield, 2004, p. 4).

In other words, there was a need to protect a national department of education from any abuse of government. General support for American society and fears of radical changes prevented government legislation for many years.

Traditionally, there were the conservatives, who tried to protect education from federal control; liberals and moderates, however, were of the opposite opinion and wanted to develop federal programs, in order to support the growth of educational establishments.

It should be pointed out that the supporters of public education also wanted to involve federal government in education, in order to equalize funding of the establishments and create a strong support for poor children. Thus, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which was created in the mid of the sixties, led to a significant governmental role in public education.

The thesis statement

The impact of the federal government on public education is recognized to be extremely important for the development of American society. Although the evolving role of the federal government is regarded ambiguously, nobody can deny the fact that various education programs and laws created by the federal organizations help improve students’ academic achievement.

The body

When discussing the evolving role of the federal government in education, there is a need to consider some important historical data. Thus, first of all, it is necessary to trace back the events, which had a great impact on modern education system formation. As far as there are a lot of data concerning the education system of American society, one is to keep in mind that there are key events, which are to be highlighted. On the other hand, it is necessary to touch on the most influential events the modern system of education is related to.

The No Child Left Behind Act

In the early eighties, Department of Education was created; the main purpose of its establishment was to promote “student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access” (Nelson, 2011, p. 1). Twenty years later, the federal government established one of the most important laws for the education system development, which greatly impacted on education restructing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The No Child Left Behind Act is recognized to be extremely important document for American society, as it sets needs for particular purposes in relation to education progress in peculiar subjects. The No Child Left Behind Act is an unfunded mandate, which provides the states with federal education funding.

However, NCLB was regarded as an aggressive entry into a long-established educational policy of the USA, as according to its requirements certain penalties could be imposed on schools, if annual progress aims for establishments had not been met.

From a civil rights perspective, however, certain chapters of NCLB are regarded positively in the principle of “the insistence on accountability for racial and ethnic minorities, the policies for more qualified teachers, the requirement to offer choices to students in failing schools, and the aspirations for substantial progress for all groups of students” (Orfield, 2004, p. 4-5).

Generally, the principles of NCLB are rather ambiguous, as the law rearranges relations between the states and government; thus, in some fields the control over federal government can be both decentralized and expanded.

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act

Another document created by the federal government, which should be analyzed is the first title of The Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

It appeared to help economically deprived learners. ESEA provides high poverty schools with additional resources. So, one can make a conclusion that ESEA reauthorization provided by NCLB, can be regarded as a necessary step to help economically and educationally disadvantaged students.

Generally, major policy changes of ESEA reauthorization of Title I include equal educational outcomes, certain deadlines to improve students’ academic achievement, test-based accountability expansion (this point is related to all students), etc. Some words must be said about Improving America’s Schools Act. It should be noted that “IASA was notable for mandating that challenging standards apply to all students, including those receiving Title I services” (Sunderman


HRM Evaluation: Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd Report essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction




Analysis of the difference between current practice and best practice as identified in the literature appropriate for the industry location of the organization. Additionally, there is my recommended practice for the organization given current constraints:

Introduction The major strategy to be used in tackling this question is the location of Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd as compared to the best location of such businesses in the industry. This is because it is important to analyze the costs associated with the strategic location and logistical procedures of the business outlets. It is also necessary to know the importance of the organization’s cultural perspective to Baiada’s performance.

Currently, Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd headquarters are situated at Pendle Hill, 30km west of Sydney. The other operating centers are in major Australian cities and towns such as Victoria and Brisbane (Welcome to Baiada 2007). This location can pose a challenge to the logistical operations of Baiada Poultry.

This is because there are other major companies that engage in poultry farming as well. These have more supply joints as compared to Baiada and they can therefore pose a challenge to the company’s profits (IBISWorld 2010).

Since these competitors such as Inghams Enterprises are strategically located within 50 km of the market, they can be in a position to reduce operating costs associated with transport. As a result, they can achieve a competitive advantage over Baiada Poultry by selling their products at cheaper prices (Organisations: Connected with poultry 2011).

On the other side, it is important to note that the best location for poultry products is near the consumers. The current location of Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd may therefore not benefit it logistically.

This is because it might take long to deliver the desired goods on time. This is given the fact that Baiada’s poultry outlets are further from the markets while the major poultry producing firms are located within the market centers (Location of Farms and Processing 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Delivery time is essential in ensuring that product quality is maintained. If the products take too long to reach the end consumer, then quality is compromised. Eventually, consumers will opt for the competitor’s products. This can have long term negative effects on the profits of Baiada Poultry Pty.

It is necessary to consider that Baiada’s human resource re-strategized its workforce. It therefore trained and promoted employees from within therefore creating a friendly culture among the employees and their seniors. This way, the poultry business has flourished because the employees are well coordinated and promotion activities boost their morale.

Since they feel fairly treated, their production levels have improved. Consequently, Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd has been able to achieve a competitive advantage over its competitors (Marchington, M 2005, p. 74).

As a result of the good relations at the place of work, the overall level of production as well as performance of the company has increased with time. Note that with increased consumption of poultry products in Australia, it is necessary to improve the quality by constant training of the workforce (Adams 2010).

Recommendations The location of any business and in this case poultry business is essential in order to save transport costs of either raw materials or finished goods. Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd should therefore aim at establishing businesses near major consumer joints such as hotels. Additionally, its suppliers or source of poultry should be conveniently located in order to save time and money. This way, it is possible to save costs.

It is recommendable that Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd should increase the number of its outlets. This way, it will be able to reach many consumers and therefore be able to beat competition from the top players in the market. Logistically, it should improve the supply chain by contracting raw materials from suppliers who are near its production facilities.

Additionally, the company can reduce costs by establishing its outlets near the consumers. This way, less delivery costs will be incurred. Baiada Poultry can also practice economies of scale whereby it can sell in bulks in order to save transport costs. As a result, this can create a competitive advantage over the competitors.

We will write a custom Report on HRM Evaluation: Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company’s human resource department should yearn to improve the level of management to a standard that is up to date. It can do this by conducting seminars in order to train its staff about the managerial as well as supervisory roles.

This way, production procedures can be smoothened and problems associated with industrial strikes can be prevented. Baiada Poultry Property should also be keen to ensure that promotion is transparent at all times. This way, issues of mistrust among the employees may be avoided and quality can be maintained always.

Challenges There are various challenges that were encountered during research on this topic. For instance, some of the information available is very inadequate. This is to say that Baiada Poultry Property Ltd has not posted sufficient information about its operations on the internet. Therefore, there is need to constantly update poultry business information in order to form a reference for prospective clients.

References Adams, P 2010, Landline: Chicken Run. Web.

IBISWorld 2010, Poultry meat farming in Australia- industry market research report. Web..

Location of Farms and Processing 2011. Web.

Marchington, M 2005, Fragmenting work: blurring boundaries and disordering hierarchies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Organisations: Connected with poultry 2011. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on HRM Evaluation: Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Welcome to Baiada 2007. Web.


The Music Industry Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction The music industry is dealing with many issues that are affecting how it operates. The industry is among the many that have endured the most of technological and social changes in the last three decades. The forces of globalization have changed for good how people access, use, and distribute music.

In addition, there are very powerful forces in the music supply chain that will influence the music industry at least in the near term. The industry had many commercialization approaches before the emergence of the internet as a force driving globalization. Some of them remain valid ways of running a career in music but some are becoming obsolete.

The relative ease with which new entrants can make music has reduced in a significant way the barriers to entry. It is no longer enough to be a talented musician to succeed in music. It takes business acumen, intelligence and a keen appreciation of subtle changes in consumer tastes and preferences to keep up with the rapid rate of change in this industry.

This paper will explore the driving forces in the music industry. It will also look at the strategies used in the development and marketing of music, the challenges to the industry and some potential strategies that can help to overcome these challenges.

Current State of the Music Industry Scope of the Music Industry

The music industry is a very varied establishment. Understandably, music was not an invention in a lab or a unique cultural element in a specific part of the world. Rather, music evolved in different cultures independently leading to very many classes of music. Even within the same cultures, there were songs for each occasion.

There were songs of celebrations such as when a child was born or when there was something important in the community, and there were songs for funerals and general mourning. Some communities had songs to accompany work while almost all cultures had singing games for children. In this sense, the evolution of music is a human phenomenon that grew with the technological development of each culture.

The emergence of the musician as a career person is also a new development in the world. Advanced cultures allowed people to specialize in music but they often had another trade to make it possible for them to earn a living. Otherwise, music was a community endeavour where all the people took part in singing and dancing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In last century, mass communication and rapid transit systems made it possible for some people to become career musicians, travelling from town to town to play music for varied audiences. As this art grew in commercial meaning, many other people joined the commercial facets of music to support the careers of popular musicians.

The current scope of the music industry is very large. There are still elements of the traditional sense of music where whole communities participate in singing. This is common in churches and in institutions of worship where the entire audience participates in singing as part of their spiritual expression.

There are also songs that families sing such as during birthdays. Lullabies help children go to sleep. Perhaps the most common expression of communal aspects of music is the singing of national anthems, which every country sings during important national functions. Apart from these expressions of music, there is a fully-fledged commercial music industry. This industry packages music as a product and presents it to a paying audience. This paper will concentrate on this type of music.

Stakeholders in the Music Industry

In order for music industry to function, several stakeholders must cooperate to ensure that a song leaves the music writer’s pad and ends up in the earphones or stereo speakers of a music enthusiast. While the list below describes these stakeholders individually, is common for an individual to play more than one role.

Composer: This is the originator of songs, the person writes the actual words of the songs. This role calls for someone well versed in music to understand musical language, and has the gift or skill of writing songs.

Singers/Musicians: A singer or musician is the person that performs the song because of their ability to sing. Their talent gives them this role. It is not strange to find musicians that write their own songs. In fact, many of the talented musicians that songwriters seek start as their own composers.

Instrumentalists: This category of stakeholders refers to the people that play musical instruments to accompany music. They have a much-reduced role in recorded music especially because of the use of computer-based instrumentals. However, their role in live music is still intact. They are also in demand by instrumental music enthusiasts.

We will write a custom Essay on The Music Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Producers: These are the professionals managing the music production process. They ensure that all necessary factors of music production come together to produce music

Technical personnel: There is a class of technical personnel necessary for the effective recording of music. They include sound engineers and recording technicians. Their role is to manage the technical factors of music production.

Record label companies: Since the advent of the gramophone record, companies came up to profit from the music industry. These companies continue to sign musicians and then support their careers at a fee. In other words, they provide musicians with everything they need to get their music out and then they share the proceeds.

Marketing companies: After the production of music, record label companies hand them over to marketing companies to send the music to the market. Some record label companies own the marketing companies that handle the marketing of the music they produce.

Retail distributors: The final important stakeholder in the music industry is the retail distributors. They make copies of the music available to the eventual consumer.

The stakeholders above represent the music supply chain where the eventual music gets to the consumer via tangible means, in this case, a disc. Other stakeholders benefit from music such as advertisers, movie producers and television companies. The important thing to note is that the industry is very large and the number of stakeholders is very large depending on the supply chain used to market a particular piece of music. For instance, there is no role for a record label company if a band or a musician decides to use concerts and music tours as the only way they distribute their music. On the other hand, they will need other people to support their business model.

Current Income Generation Strategies for the Music Industry An analysis of the music supply chain reveals the fact that the musician is only a small part of the entire process. The process of commercializing a musical production is a very complex business undertaking that needs more than just the musical skills of an artist to succeed.

In the same vein, it is imperative for musicians to have a working knowledge of commercial aspects of the music industry to ensure that they get the most out of their work. There are direct ways and indirect ways that the music industry uses to reach consumers. Direct ways refer to those that aim at reaching the eventual consumer and hence earn revenue from it. Indirect avenues refer to uses of music where the music forms part of the final product, or accompanies another product before reaching the final consumer.

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This paper classifies indirect strategies used in the distribution of music as concerts, selling of a music bearing product, and thirdly, internet sales of music. These strategies feature actual transfer of the music from the musician to the end user.


Concerts are still a popular method used to earn revenues from music. With the globalization of music, musicians normally have fans in vary vast areas. Many fans of popular musicians have never met of seen their idol performing in person. This makes concerts a very powerful means of facilitating this interaction.

Revenue from concerts comes in different ways depending on the popularity of the musician. For very popular musicians, organizers sell tickets to cover the concert expenses and to pay the artist their performance fees. Some of these organisers use the concerts as a means of making a profit.

They bring in a musician to a local fan base, and organize the concert in such as a way that in the end they have a profit from ticket sales. A musician can also use personal resources to organize the concert and make a profit from it. In situations where the musician needs publicity, a concert can also help to raise the required awareness. In this case, the musician may either meet the cost of the concert as part of their marketing fees, and hope to recover their expenses by selling CDs.

A concert is also a good place to sell merchandise products to fans. A musician may arrange to sell t-shirts, jewellery, shoes and other fashion accessories that carry their brand. If well planned, this method can help meet the costs of organizing the concert. The advantage of converts is that they eliminate the risk of piracy. If a musician uses concerts as the exclusive means of distributing music, then there will be no copies of the music to pirate.

Selling CDs

In the life of the commercial music industry, there has always been a means of conveying music to consumers. While technology has moved from the gramophones to iPods, the principle remains unchanged. Mass commercialization of music took place when the magnetic tape came into existence.

This tape had certain advantages over the gramophone record such as portability. It was possible to carry a number of tapes on a trip using a very tiny carriage space. The walkman was also a revolutionary invention in the development of music. It made music personal. The magnetic tapes introduced the problem of piracy.

Magnetic tapes were erasable and easily reproducible. However, the impact of piracy in the era of the magnetic tape was not as serious as the impact of piracy on CD sales. Original tapes had a superior sound quality and there was a sense of prestige in having original tapes. CD’s do not have the same qualities.

The output quality of a pirated copy can match the original. CDs are still popular nonetheless as a means of selling music. In the late nineties, the success of a musician depended on the number of albums sold, while in the last ten years, the measure of a musician’s success is the number of CDs sold. Outlets for CD sales include local retail stores, bookshops, supermarkets and music stores. In addition, CD sales can form part of the revenue streams for a concert.

Internet Sales

The internet is a new avenue for the distribution of music. With the development of digital versions of music, it is possible to transfer music by digital means. Selling music via the internet has several advantages. First, it eliminates the need to transport music physically to retailers. The consumer simply logs in to a site such as eBay or iTunes and buys music. It is very easy and convenient to pay for music online using one of the many online money vendors. The most popular vendor is PayPal, but a number of competitors exist.

Sales from the internet cut out a number of intermediaries from the music supply chain. It is possible for a musician to pay studio time to record their music, and to make sales online without passing through a record label. The only copy the musician will need is the master copy of the music from the studio.

After that, it is theoretically possible to sell millions of copies of the music at no additional cost, or the need to make physical copies. This method of sales is becoming more attractive even for record labels because it reduces their distribution costs by a very large margin.

Licensing of Music to Intermediate Users The final means through which musicians commercialise their music is by licensing. This refers to selling rights to the music, in whole or in part to a third party for their own use. Since music is an intellectual property, copyright laws protect the composers and the musicians by outlawing the use of the music without the consent of the musician.

The demand for licensing will increase as more and more people selling products online and advertising products through mass broadcast develop the need to piggyback their advertising messages on the music of popular musicians. Clients for licensing include moviemakers, advertising companies, video game makers and producers of television programs. A good example of this method of making money is the use of Celine Dion’s Song, “My heart will go on” in the Movie “Titanic”, produced by James Cameron.

Indirect Strategies

Some musicians have successfully developed merchandises from their music brand. The idea behind making products unrelated to music comes from the realization that a fan base is also a market niche. Developing products that can help fans to identify more with the brand makes the fans feel more attached to the musician.

The products that make successful merchandises are fashion items such as shoes, clothes, armlets, caps, bracelets, necklaces and T-shirts among others. It is feasible to produce perfumes, cosmetics and beauty products as a means of commercializing music. The basis of their success is the strength of the musical brand they represent, and the loyalty their fans have to them.

Challenges the Music Industry Faces The music industry has been on the receiving end of both the positive and negative consequences of technological growth. In fact, music makes for a very viable subject when it comes to the study of the impact of technology in the modern world. As music becomes more and more reliant on technology for production and distribution, it is clear that the most significant challenges the industry faces are technology related.

These challenges include piracy, influx of software alternatives to musical instruments, ease of file sharing and file transfer, and the death of the album as a measure of success in the music industry. Another problem related to technological developments is the creation and retention of a fan base.


Piracy in music in its simplest terms refers to the production and sale of illegal copies of music. It does not matter whether it is a single song or a complete album. Piracy is not new in the music industry. Its recognition as a problem came about with the emergence of the magnetic tapes.

Magnetic tapes were easy to reproduce even at the domestic level. However, the real threat came from commercial piracy where people set up entire business systems that made counterfeit copies of music and sold them for profit. Often pirated copies of music had a lower quality compared to the originals hence the market put up some form of resistance against pirated music.

With the advent of digital technologies, it is almost impossible to detect a pirated copy of music from an original one by listening to it. This is making pirated music more acceptable. Moreover, CDs lack the prestige magnetic tapes had.

They are not very good show items. This has led to a lack of attachment comparable to the one that original magnetic tape owners and gramophone records enthusiasts exhibited.

In fact, it is very easy to simply take an original CD and in just a few minutes copy it onto a laptop’s hard disk. Unless new technologies inhibiting the making of digital copies of CDs get widespread use, the problem of piracy will continue to affect the music industry.

The Software Influx

On the creative end, music is suffering from an influx of softwares for use in the production of music. This comes from the fact that it is possible to make a song, complete with beats and instrumentals using a headset and an open source software. It is no longer necessary to learn the art of making music such as playing a musical instrument in order to produce the sound of that instrument.

What a person will learn in three months about playing a guitar, an average computer user with access to a music making software can reproduce within a day. The remaining frontier that computers have not yet conquered is singing. Theoretically speaking it will not be long before it becomes possible to reproduce voices of popular artists or to create fictionalised ones and synthesize their voices into music!

There is a real threat to music as a form of art. The space for creativity is reducing more and more. As people become more accustomed to music made by computers, the sounds of authentic artists playing authentic musical instruments will become strange.

As voices undergo scientific manipulation to perfect them in digital sound studios, there will be lesser recognition for the effort it takes to perfect a singers natural voice. It may not matter anymore.

Ease of File Sharing

Another problem that music faces today because of technological change is the ease of file sharing enabled by the internet. It is true that “Illegal downloading remains to be a continuous challenge for the recording industry”. Once one person in a clique of friends finds an interesting song in digital format, it is then very easy to pass on the song by forwarding the file to their friends.

In the context of social media, it may be hundreds of people in an instant. This whole clique will not need to buy the music thereafter, which wipes out that market. Sharing files is much harder to track especially when the sharing takes place in privately held email accounts. This problem eats into the potential revenue a musician can make from their music.

Death of the Album

The next threat to the development of music is the death of the album. Musicians are working harder to produce near perfect singles rather than committing time to produce full albums. The current distribution systems of music make it easier and more economical to produce a hit single and then go find the next big song rather than sell a whole album to an audience.

In addition to this, people no longer listen to whole albums the old-fashioned way. Rather, they listen to specific songs of interest from different albums. People are listening to music on digital media more and more. Whether it is a CD player, a laptop, a phone or an iPod, a user creates a playlist and listens to the particular songs of interest. Unlike records and magnetic tapes, picking specific songs is not a laborious activity.

The response on the side of musicians has been to provide music in detachable formats hence fuelling this new trend. The problem it posses to music is that it reduces the power of music as a communication tool. The art of producing music albums revolved around the capacity of the musician to produce a set of songs based on a particular theme thereby increasing the communicative value of their music.

Creating and Keeping a Fan Base

Globalization and “increased amateur activity” in the music industry because of the lowering of entry barriers have made it very difficult to develop and retain a fan base. Music markets span the world and are not in specific geographical confines. For a musician to reach such a diverse audience, it calls for a lot of work.

The challenge of raising a fan base also stems from the difficulty of getting through to the fans because of the high number of musicians looking for their attention. Remember, music is not the only input an average music fan receives. It is a constant struggle to keep looking for an appropriate means to find and maintain a fan base.

Responses to the Problems Facing the Music Industry In order to address the issues facing music, it is important to have certain things in mind. First, there is need to recognize that a successful music career depends on the soundness of the business strategy used to distribute it. The musician needs a source of income, and the most efficient way of making a living is through the music.

A successful musical career requires dedication and focus, which a part time hobby just cannot allow. Secondly, music is essentially an art form. Therefore, the commercial aspects of music do not have the last word on the success of music.

The intrinsic appreciation of music by enthusiasts transcends the challenges that modern music must deal with. In this sense, the technological challenges music faces cannot kill music. However, every musician must find a way of overcoming these challenges.

Using Piracy to Advantage

While piracy imputes illicit gain on the part of the commercial pirate, some concession on the part of the musicians can reduce the impact that piracy has on their careers. For instance, a musician can decide to use pirate networks to build publicity and to grow their fan base.

After all, it is the demand for the music by their fans that makes the music pirates find it attractive to make illicit copies. Even better, if the perceived losses in revenue by the distribution of illicit copies do not outweigh the benefits from the resulting publicity, then it may make sense for a musician to allow their music to pass through pirate channels.

Another safe way of avoiding pirate channels can be the use a business model that does not rely on the digital copies for success. This can include the sale of merchandize to raise funds for the music. If fans know that a musician does not sell their music but instead uses merchandise to pay for its production, they will be supportive of the efforts.

The other way to beat piracy is to release music free of charge for personal use but to position the music as a product for licensing. If the song is popular, them someone will want to use it for their promotional campaigns.

This model will make it easy for the musician to monitor commercial uses of their music and to make money from royalties. Giving out the music without cost will also make the music available to many people thereby growing the fan base.

“Live Music” Tag to Mitigate Software Threat

The threat posed by software will be very difficult to beat. Music lovers are listening to more and more computer generated music that it is only a matter of time before music from real instruments becomes odd. The only way to ensure that the taste for music made from real instruments remains is by providing opportunities for the fans to listen to live band music.

It is possible to use concerts for this purpose. Another method would be to add the label, “made from real Instruments” to such productions to differentiate the music from the rest. This approach will likely create a market niche for music lovers who value the art of making music from real instruments.

Education that File Sharing Constitutes Piracy

After establishing a fan base, it may be necessary to educate fans on the fact that file sharing is as bad as piracy. While a fan does not derive economic value from the copies they share, they deny the musician potential revenue when they share musical files with their friends.

A musician can exercise a certain amount of persuasion over loyal fans hence it makes sense to try to persuade them against sharing files. Moral persuasion is the best tool available for a musician because any other method of dealing with piracy will be very expensive. Policing piracy is a very expensive undertaking, which is difficult even for organised law enforcement agencies.

Letting the Album Die and Creation of Collector Albums

The traditional album seems headed for certain death. However, it is not a trend worth trying to change. This is because the way people listen to music no longer supports music delivered in album format.

From today’s standpoint, it is inconceivable that people will revert to the old ways of listening to music the way magnetic tapes and gramophone records forced them to. They do not have to listen to music sequentially but can choose to shuffle them, skip, or rearrange them in the way they wish.

On the other hand, it may be helpful to sell collections of singles such as the best hits by an artist in the last two years. Just as people no longer look for whole albums, they will only be interested in songs that please them.

Another way of looking at this situation is to consider it a marketing situation where the old way of packaging music does not support current consumption trends. Artists will therefore have the increased burden of planning their songs in a way that they each song stands alone. What should guide them is more of a philosophy rather than a theme when writing their songs.

Use of Social Media to Create and Maintain Fans

The need to raise and maintain a fan base will not become easier with time. The good thing is that technology has solutions to the same problems it has created for the music industry. The difference between a successful musician and a non-starter may well be their social media strategy.

The young generation, who support the emerging music industry, spend a lot of their time on social media platforms. With a good strategy, it is possible to grow a fan base using the tools available there. In fact, a musician today has more opportunities to build and maintain a fan base by adopting existing technologies to do the work that old musicians travelled thousands of miles to do.

Alternative Income Sources

It is incumbent upon musicians to continue thinking about more income streams that they can use to bolster their financial standing. Granted, there is a point where too much commercialization of music can actually kill the art. However, without some kind of income, artists cannot commit themselves fully to the art of making music.

Musicians should do their best to find new ways of utilizing their talent for income. As they do this, record labels also should work hard to find ways of making music available to users at a lower cost and in a manner, which discourages piracy. It is vital to develop CD technologies that will resist duplication. While technically it is very complex to do this, it is vital to find ways of reducing this vice. Piracy is a real vice that threatens the future of music.

Conclusion The music industry is not exempt from changes in technology. If anything, the music industry bears the brunt historically whenever there are groundbreaking changes in technology. For the music industry to survive beyond this point as a commercial venture, it will need to adapt its systems to fit the current circumstances.

Reference List Holmes, D 2005, Communication Theory: Media, Technology, and Society, SAGE, London, UK.

Mather 2012, ‘Print


Why an interview is generally invalid and unreliable Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Discussion and analysis



Introduction As a selection tool, an interview has been found to be unreliable and invalid therefore most companies end up employing candidates under bias conditions. This article will consider the reasons behind the fruitless efforts of interviews in giving accurate and genuine results.

However the key to improving the reliability and validity of interviews can be seen through employing useful tools. This paper will also explore various ways in which interviews can be made a more impactful tool for selection. Further analysis on how these tools can be incorporated into the selection process to improve decision making will also be discussed.

Background Many companies and businesses have been opened up recently. The need to employ new ideas and opportunities has also been on the rise with different companies and businesses searching for fresh talent. Ideally, an interview as a tool is used to gauge a candidate’s performance ability by a potential employer (Fontana


Influence of Heavy Metal Music on Adolescence (Behavior, Identity, Mood, Regulation, Psychology) Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Studies on adolescence and teenage culture are confined to understanding of teenagers’ needs. Because adolescents have similar concerns and needs and create similar peer groups, music performs the same goals for all of the groups. Being a source of peer group identity, music contrasts either with working class street subculture or with conformist culture in schools.

Accepting the potent impact of music on adolescents’ behavior, identity, and psychology leads to a deeper analysis of the influences of heavy metal music on teenagers’ development. At this point, adolescents’ preoccupation with heavy metal music is found to be harmful in terms of its influence on school achievement, social behavior, and individual differences (Harqreaves


Research paper on Vietnamese women immigrants in the United States Essay best essay help: best essay help

It is apparent that Vietnamese women ranging from the age of 20 to 45 began to migrate into the United States in the mid 1970s (Seller, 1994). Research has shown that the current population of Vietnamese women stands at approximately 1.1 million. Moreover, this has been perceived to be one of the largest immigrant groups in the US.

From a comprehensive analysis, it is evident that in a period of two decades, the population has grown significantly with majority residing in Texas and California (Seller, 1994). Notably, despite the increased number of immigrants into the US, majority of the women have faced numerous challenges.

Nevertheless, there are those who have been able to cope with the emerging situations regardless of the numerous barriers related to language and cultural shocks (Fadiman, 1997). It is against this backdrop that this paper explores how these women adjust in the US and their specific avenues for success and failure.

Literature review Vietnamese women who ventured into the US had high hopes to live up to their dreams while there. Nevertheless, it is notable that majority of them have been disillusioned since they find life in the US totally different from what they imagined or expected (Seller, 1994). Probably, I expect that since these women had attained working age, they wanted to venture out and search for greener pastures in this foreign land.

I also tend to think that initially, it was not easy for them since most of them were native speakers of Vietnam languages and hence they could not communicate effectively in English. In this case, I anticipate that they became vulnerable to alienation and loneliness. Alternatively, there were those women who were quick to adapt to life in the US. For instance, they learnt how to communicate in English and this liberated them from language barrier (Kingston, 1989).

In addition, I suppose there emerged a generational gap between the native immigrants and children who were born by the women while in the US. This would be due to the fact that these children grew up in a different cultural and social setting from that of their parents (Seller, 1994).

Furthermore, I intended to study how the Vietnamese women coped with the strange situations in the US. Therefore, this study is relevant in explaining why the number of immigrants has kept on increasing yearly.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, this study intends to prove the hypothesis or the assumption that Vietnamese women aged between 20 and 40 years were prone to cultural shocks, discrimination and economic difficulties in the US (Seller, 1994).

This hypothesis is integral in understanding the possible factors influencing success and failure of immigrants in the US. Additionally, poverty in Vietnam is one of the independent variables that triggered immigration to the US. However, poor skills and language barrier were some of dependent variables that hindered migration of majority of the women to the US.

The study has revealed that most of the Vietnamese women at the age of 20-45 years migrated into the US as domestic workers. Nevertheless, they faced challenges in conforming to the social roles and norms in the new society. This is due to the fact that their roles both in the society and in families were configured by the new social setting in the US (Kingston, 1989).

It is evident that they operated under tough conditions while trying to balance the conflicting social roles. Moreover, empirical research has shown that cultural shocks were inevitable and they had to transit from their native culture in order to cope and adopt the US culture (Fadiman, 1997).

For instance, in Vietnam, these women thrived in a patriarchal society whereby they remained submissive to their husbands unlike the case in the US. For example, while in the US, they had to abandon certain feminine roles and pick up those that were masculine. Notably, they compromised patriarchal values from their culture, a factor that was not easy to cope with at the beginning.

Other cultural shocks emerged from the fact that women and children had a lot of freedom as opposed to the case in Vietnam. Interestingly, this was perceived as a violation of the traditional family structure in Vietnam (Kingston, 1989).

Issues to do with gender disparity were no longer a common issue in the US. Contrastingly, the issue of gender discrimination is very significant in Vietnam and probably that was the reason why most of the women preferred to migrate to the US in search for freedom (Seller, 1994).

We will write a custom Essay on Research paper on Vietnamese women immigrants in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, it is evident that most of the Vietnamese women faced economic difficulties since they were not prepared for the US life. Research indicates that majority of the immigrants were being trafficked into the US as domestic workers. Consequently, circumstances took a different turn once they found that there were unique sets of issues that they had to adhere to in order to cope with life.

For instance, majority were used to speak native languages as opposed to the case in the US where English was the medium of communication (Seller, 1994).

Therefore, they had problems while seeking Jobs and this made them to strain for some time before they could cope with the normal lifestyle. From the study, I found out that there emerged a huge gap between the children and parents due to difference in cultural standards (Kingston, 1989).

Nevertheless, regardless of the numerous challenges faced by Vietnamese women, majority of them have succeeded and are doing remarkably well. Most of them have learnt to speak in fluent English. This has helped them to venture into businesses such as running restaurants, beauty shops and salons (Fadiman, 1997).

References Fadiman, A. (1997). The Spirit catches you and you fall down. New York: Douglas


Impact of New Forms of Technology on Our Understanding of Pornography Research Paper custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Theoretical Understanding




Introduction “The impact technology has had upon society today cannot be measured. In fact, it has had such an impact that if it were wiped out, the human race would be thrown back into the Dark Ages” (Leon 2011, p. 2). The above statement was made to show the extent that technology influences our society today.

Indeed, new forms of technology have greatly revolutionized almost all aspects of our society. It is almost impossible to point out one aspect of the society that is not affected by technology (directly or indirectly).

In fact, technology has had such a strong impact on the society, that if it were eliminated, the society would probably grind to a halt. Furthermore, technology controls all aspects of our daily activities (from the time we wake up to the time we go to bed) because everything we do or engage in is run by some form of technology (Leon 2011).

The thought that technology has greatly improved our functions as a society is undoubted, but in the same light, it is only fair to represent the fact that technology has made our society become more ferocious and mean. Today, people use technology to spy on other people, launch attacks (like digital terrorism) and perpetrate hateful information (among other ills) (Wall 2007).

However, there is no better example of how technology has been condemned for its misdeeds than through its revolution of the pornography industry (Gallop 2011). Pornography greatly touches on the morals of a society and indeed, like the diverse universe we live in today, people hold different views about it.

This paper seeks to understand the impact of new technology on online pornography based on an incident in Indonesia where a lawmaker was caught viewing porn during a parliamentary session. This incident centers around the actions of Arifinto who belongs to the Islamic conservative Prosperous Justice Party (PKS) of Indonesia (Wilson 2011). This incident acts as the case study for this paper.

Privacy and identity issues will be highlighted through this case study. Besides using the above case study as a basis for explaining the research problem, this paper also analyzes how technology has impacted our understanding of pornography through different tenets of the industry including distribution, production, access, privacy and identity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper therefore shows that technology has completely changed concepts of the production of pornographic material, the distribution of pornographic material, access to pornographic material and our understanding of the concepts of privacy and identity. The diffusion innovations theory will (also) be used to explain these facts.

Distribution Even though the pornography industry has grown in leaps and bounds, a few years ago, our understanding of pornography was mainly informed by our understanding that pornographic materials could only be found in printed forms and in theatres and strip clubs (Emily 2007, p. 2).

However, from the progress in technology, the motion picture industry has heralded a new dawn in the distribution of pornographic materials. Initially, video and home video cassette recorders provided an opportunity to change the distribution of pornographic content in new and more personal ways.

Indeed, the introduction of video and home video cassette recorders meant that people did not necessarily have to go to a movie theatre to watch movies or sex shows; one could easily access such content at the comfort of their bedrooms. With this new progress, the porn industry found another opportunity to grow because producers made many video productions for home entertainment (Holt 2011, p. 12).

However, perhaps, the biggest break in the distribution of pornographic content came with the advent of the internet. The internet provided a global network for the sale of pornographic content because pornographic materials could easily be shared through the worldwide web. Subscriptions to adult content websites is now not a new phenomenon. The surge in digital content of pornographic materials was especially spurred by the relatively low prices of owning personal computers (Emily 2007).

From the progress in technological inventions, our perception of pornography has been greatly changed. Pornography is no more a taboo subject; it is quickly becoming a readily accessible product that is no longer a preserve of a specific age group or culture. It is readily available to all.

Perhaps, in the past, it was easy to regulate the sale and distribution of print material (bearing pornographic content) or the access to strip and dance clubs (age restrictions) but with the advent of the digital age, pornography is no longer subject to the above limitations. In fact, the lack of these limitations has been a cause of worry for most adults because they perceive the lack of these limitations as a threat to the morals of our society (Holt 2011).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of New Forms of Technology on Our Understanding of Pornography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Identity Advancements in technology have made it very difficult to uphold principles of true identity in the sale, production, distribution or even access to digital content. The biggest worry among most people today is the easy access to pornographic content that minors have (Gallop 2011).

More so, the invention of portable digital devices like tablet computers, mobile phones (and the likes) have made it very difficult to supervise the access to digital content among minors. Now, minors can access pornographic materials merely by faking their identities and more importantly, their ages (Holliday 2003, p. 124).

Incidents of identity misrepresentation and the unauthorized access to classified information or adult content has been facilitated by advancements in technology. The digital landscape now is such that, there is no basis for verifying information provided online. Therefore, it is very easy for people to masquerade themselves for people they are truly not.

The use of fake names to access or produce pornographic content is especially rampant. As opposed to previous years where it was easy to know people accessing pornographic content, it has been increasingly difficult (in recent years) to identify who is truly accessing pornographic content (Gallop 2011).

Focusing on Arifinto’s widely publicized case; we can easily testify that his private browsing of pornographic material was anonymously done. Indeed, the websites he was accessing could not reveal his identity. In other words, if he was not caught, we would not know that the lawmaker accessed the pornographic materials and it would equally be difficult to detect if any prominent personality was accessing the pornographic content.

A few years back, it would be very difficult to conceal one’s identity when accessing these pornographic materials. As explained in earlier sections of this paper, pornography was mainly accessed through the physical presence of the consumer at the venue of production. Consumers had to be present at the location where the pornography was being produced because technology did not provide the convenience or storing such information or distributing such content through digital means.

For example, if Arifinto was not spotted by the photographer (as he viewed pornographic material) it would be difficult to know if he truly accessed such information. In fact, it is there mere fact that there was evidence pegging him to the accusations that he accepted to resign and admit to his actions (Wilson 2011). Otherwise, if there was no evidence to show that he was actually viewing pornographic material in parliament (and he decided not to accept such claims), it would be difficult to pin him down.

Just to show the influence of technology in this example, it is important to highlight the fact that if Arifinto attended a strip club or a live sex show, he would have otherwise been spotted in person and he could not deny such claims because there would be eye-witness accounts. Therefore, technology has greatly facilitated identity concealment and it has made it possible to access pornography without one’s identity being known.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of New Forms of Technology on Our Understanding of Pornography by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Privacy Privacy is often a common concern in most technological debates. Often, this concept is used to refer to debates concerning the importance of embracing technology (or not) (Bogart 2002). When referring to pornography, we can see that technology has greatly infringed on people’s rights to privacy.

In fact, pornography thrives on the fact that people would pay money to access pictures or videos which would have otherwise been considered private. Incidents of prominent personalities having private videos or photos leaked to the internet are ever more common now than before.

Arifinto’s case clearly depicts the extent that technology has changed the concept of privacy in today’s society. In detail, the invention of digital devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers has enabled people to access information or videos in public places. For example, as explained in earlier sections of this paper, in the past, access to pornographic materials was only limited to strip clubs and dance houses.

Sex shows were mainly done in private and in highly regulated environments where everything that went on in such premises was considered private. However, with the advent of technology and the continuous invention of digital devices, people have been able to access products which would otherwise be considered private in public places (Cavalier 2005).

When Afrinto accessed pornographic material in parliament, he exhibited the power of technology in transforming private content into publicly accessible information. A few years ago, he would not have been able to access such pornographic material in public places (let alone in parliament).

Coincidentally, it is also through another technological device that he was pointed out. A camera man with a powerful camera was able to zoom at the pornographic pages that the parliamentarian was browsing (from a distance).

In fact, media reports show that Afrinto’s claims that he accidentally bumped into the pornographic site were disputed by the camera man’s photo which showed that he had about six folders of pornographic content (opened) as his colleagues debated important matters of national importance (Wilson 2011).

The influence of technology on privacy can therefore be highlighted through this example, despite the fact that it was interesting to see that the same technology that was used to access “private” content was also used to infringe on Afrinto’s privacy.

Afrinto’s use of the tablet computer to access pornographic material therefore shows the influence of technology in making pornographic content (which would have otherwise been considered private) public. Indeed, if Afrinto accessed such content at the comfort of his house, he probably wouldn’t have received the same level of criticism he did.

Theoretical Understanding The diffusion innovation theory focuses on explaining how innovation is quickly communicated within a specific society. Usually, this theory is used to explain how new ideas are spread (within a society) because innovation is perceived to be a representation of new ideas.

Rogers (2003) explains that characteristics of new ideas or concepts in communication often determine the rate at which new technology will be communicated. There are four elements that are used to explain the rate of technological adoption (revolution within the society). These elements include communication channels, time, the social context and the innovation itself (Rogers 2003).

These four elements can be used to explain the rate and form used by technological innovations to revolutionize our understanding of the pornography industry. More so, the concept of ‘time’ clearly explains the transition in the production and distribution of pornographic content from previous years when pornography was considered a private product to now that it is readily accessible.

The time difference between today’s conventional methods of the sale, access and distribution of pornographic materials shows the change in the perception of pornography over the years.

The element of communication channels (explained in the diffusion innovation theory) explains the various forms of digital gadgets and networks that have been used to communicate pornographic content (Greenhalgh 2007, p. 20). Indeed, the internet and the tablet computer were the main forms of digital tools used by Arifinto to access pornography.

The concept of communication channels is therefore the main element of technology that has influenced the concepts of identity and privacy in today’s society. Through the communication tools used to share and transfer information, different safeguards for verifying subscriber information have been by-passed. Moreover, these communication tools have been used by subscribers to access information anonymously. This measure has completely changed the concept of identity in accessing digital contents.

The concept of innovation explains the advancements in technology used to transform the pornography industry. A common question asked by many observers when referring to the concept of innovation is why some innovations spread faster than others (Dwivedi 2011).

This paper identifies the worldwide network that the internet provides as a main catalyst for the changes in distribution strategies within the porn industry. Concisely, through the internet, Arifinto was able to access porn. The internet has also been able to transform the porn industry from a private industry to a public one. This phenomenon has been explained under the concept of privacy.

Finally, the diffusion innovations theory explains that the social context is an important element explaining the spread of innovations within the society. However, within the context of this study, the concept of social context can be used to explain the pressure and condemnation that Arifinto received after the pornography scandal.

The immense pressure to resign can be explained by the strict Islamic principles that did not condone pornography or appreciate the impact that technology brings in the Indonesian context. In fact, pornography access through new technology is condemned and at best, frowned upon (Wilson 2011).

Conclusion Arifinto’s incident shows the transformation that technology has brought to our understanding of pornography. This paper shows that distribution, privacy and identity in pornography have been completely changed by technology. Technology has eased the access to pornographic material and similarly, it has changed the production of pornographic content.

Like the diffusion innovations theory explains, concepts of identity and privacy have also been completely changed through technology. Technology has made it easy for users to access pornographic material (anonymously) and it has also transformed pornography from a private product to a public product. Through these transformations, we see that technology has completely transformed our understanding of pornography in the 21st century.

References Bogart, W 2002, Consequences: The Impact of Law and Its Complexity, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Cavalier, R 2005, The Impact Of The Internet On Our Moral Lives, SUNY Press, New York.

Dwivedi, Y 2011, Information Systems Theory: Explaining and Predicting Our Digital Society, Springer, New York.

Emily, B 2007, Internet’s Affect on the Porn Industry. Web.

Gallop, C 2011, Make Love Not Porn: Technology’s Hardcore Impact on Human Behavior, TED Books, New York.

Greenhalgh, T 2007, Diffusion Of Innovations In Health Service Organisations: A Systematic Literature Review, John Wiley


Business Opportunities and Implications for an Organization to Enter Into South Africa Case Study writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Brief overview of country and main issues

Cultural Context

Political/Legal context

Economic context

Conclusion and recommendation


List of References

Executive Summary South Africa is the leading economy in the African continent. It gained its independence in 1994 from the Dutch who had took over power from British government in 1910. The country is the focal of Africa. It was the first African nation to host FIFA World Cup in 2010. This country has the highest number of languages considered by the government as official (eleven languages).

It has varied cultural background because of the numerous tribes it has. Some of the cultural values are prohibitive to specific type trade, while others are supportive. The political environment of this country has been very stable. The political class has been very supportive of foreign investments in various fronts.

This has seen many firms’ growth. The legal system is also very welcoming to foreign investment. There are a few formalities that any foreign firm may need to take. The process of getting the trade permit is simple and short. The economic structure of the country is another factor that makes this country attractive to foreign investment.

Although there are a few individuals who are super rich, having amassed most of the country’s wealth, the other populace is still economically viable. The best approach to get into this market is to adopt target marketing technique. Each market segment should be determined based on their wealth and cultural values that affects their purchasing habits.

Brief overview of country and main issues South Africa is the leading economy in the entire continent of Africa. It has a population of about 51 million people. According to a report by Tarp and Brixen (1996, p. 78), South Africa has a strong economy when compared to other countries in this region. This can partly be attributed to the fact that this nation gained its independence from the British rule as early as 1910.

Although the Dutch remained in power, they took citizenship of this country and as such, the resources of this country were not taken away to the European countries. Another factor that has ensured that this country has a strong economy is its rich natural resources.

South Africa is the world’s largest gold exporter. Gold is a very precious metal and it fetches good money in the international market. Other sectors of the economy are also equally developed. The country has the best infrastructure in Africa, especially after hosting the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The transport sector was upgraded, and so were other sectors like communication, banking and other social amenities. The country has some of the best harbors in this region (Best 2009, p. 98). Since the time the blacks took over power in 1994, the country has relatively been peaceful, save for the xenophobia that was witnessed in the late 2009 following economic downturn in the world that affected this country.

Amidst all these positivity, the country experiences a great difference in the distribution of wealth. The wealth of this country is held by a few individuals, leaving the majority wallowing in poverty. This has greatly affected the purchasing power of the people of this country, as discussed below.

This paper seeks to conduct a survey of this country’s business environment in order to ascertain its viability to sustain business ventures.

Cultural Context South Africa is very rich in culture. Majority of this population are the blacks, making up 80 percent of the entire population. The whites make 9 percent and so are the colored.

The Asians make up 2 percent of the country’s populace. Among the Africans, there are various tribes each with its own cultural practices. There are the Zulu’s who are the majority, the Xhosas, Swazis, the Ndebele, the Sotho, Venda, Tswana and the Tsonga. The country has about eleven official languages, most of them Africa languages, other than English and Afrikaans.

The African cultural values are still cherished in this country. For instance, many of the African cultures values children and this would make men marry many wives. Although this is advantageous to the business world in that it increases the target population, it has an equal negative effect because the little wealth that is available has to be spread among the many, making their purchasing power very low.

The current president of this country, Jacob Zuma is such typical African. A Zulu by tribe, this president has married several wives as a symbol of being true to his culture. Some of these cultural practices may be a hindrance to business while others may be beneficial.

We will write a custom Case Study on Business Opportunities and Implications for an Organization to Enter Into South Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Among some societies for instance, traditional medicine is highly encouraged as opposed to the pharmaceutical ones. This has had negative impact on the sale of laboratory drugs because the population does not believe in them. Conversely, the sale of electronics has been boosted by the cultural practices of this country.

Most of the African cultures have close family ties. They stay as a large society, always concerned about the others welfare. As such, such electronic products like cell phones that enable communication have been a great welcome. The social media has also received an equally high acceptance among the locals. As such, items like the iPad, iPhone, and computers in general have found good market in South Africa.

Most of the country’s cultural practices have been influenced by the west because of the increased interactivity between Africans of this country and the west. Such products as the Hollywood movies are very popular among the youths. There is a shift in the cultural practices of the country’s citizens, especially among the youths.

Because of the influence from the west as fostered by various channels, the youths are abandoning some cultural practices that were highly valued by different tribes of this nation for the western culture which to them is more liberal and less restrictive. Their dressing code is changing and as such, business firms that operate in this industry have come to realize that those dresses that are in demand in the American markets would fetch good prices in this country, especially among the youths who want to imitate the west in almost everything.

Political/Legal context South Africa was one of the most attractive colonies in the entire African region because of its rich resources. During the scramble and partition of Africa, the British government took this country as one of its colony. In 1990, the Dutch declared self governance and took over power. They presided over a government that was highly racial. Africans, the whites, the colored and the Asians had their own facilities that were not to be shared.

The whites had the best infrastructural facilities and other amenities, while the blacks, who were the majority, had the worst (Fifield 2007, p. 78). This was called the apartheid governance. This has had a great effect in the political structure of this country even today. Although the governance of the country currently is purely on a democratic front, there is still a great mistrust between the whites and the blacks.

The conservative whites, who were forced out of the government because of the strong wave of change, still harbor the feeling that they deserve to be treated better than any other race in this country. On the other hand, the blacks are still suspicious of the whites following the oppressive rule that the whites had made them undergo.

This is a source of tension, and although the country’s political environment has been very stable since the onset of democratic rule in 1994, there is fear that this tension could deteriorate to violence as was witnessed in 2009. The law of this land has liberalized trade. Investors who may wish to invest in this country have to undergo a few formalities to open up business units in the country.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Opportunities and Implications for an Organization to Enter Into South Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economic context South Africa has a sound economic structure. According to a report by Roux (2005, p. 67), South Africa is the leading producer of gold in the world. This industry employs many of the country’s nationals as miners of the product, transporters, traders and many other positions.

It is the main foreign exchange product for the country. This country has a well developed agricultural sector. Most of the food products consumed locally is found locally. It also exports some of its agricultural products to other African countries. The fishing industry is also developed, especially on the high seas. Other industries are also well developed.

Despite all these economic prosperity that this country seems to enjoy, there is one major problem with the economic structure of this nation. The country’s economic system is controlled by the minority. Though rated Africa’s best economy, the wealth is in the hands of a few individuals.

These individuals cannot manage to spend all the wealth they have, and at the same time fear that a moment may come where the government may put them to task to explain their source of wealth. As such, they have kept this wealth in European nations where they know that they would be safe from any investigation.

This has left the larger population in object poverty. They cannot afford many luxuries in life. To others, even the basics are a problem. To an investor, the large population of the country and the huge gross domestic product may be very attractive. However, the reduced purchasing power of this high population is a huge impediment to growth of business units in the country.

Conclusion and recommendation South Africa is one of the most attractive destinations for investors. It is one of the fastest growing economies among the developing nations. The political structure of this nation has been its main strength. The country has experienced a stable political environment since the Africans took over power from the Dutch.

This has provided business opportunities to many investors because of total absence of strife. Save for the little xenophobic behavior that was witnessed a few years ago for about a week, the country has been a safe place to invest in. The political class has avoided interrupting with the business units. The ruling party ANC (African National Congress), which has been in power since independence, has had friendly policies towards foreign investors coming to this country.

The economic structure of the country is also very attractive. Although the country has its wealth with the minority, it is still economically viable. The remaining population is still attractive enough to make a good market. The rich minority can also make attractive market segment for goods of ostentation like top of the range cars.

The social structure is another factor that can facilitate trade. The cultural practices of the majority of the residents would facilitate trade in such products as electronics and clothing. With the legal structure that is not prohibitive of foreign investment, investors have the best opportunity to invest in this country’s various sectors.

Recommendations To succeed in this environment, the following factors are strongly recommended to ensure prosperity for firm.

Any foreign firm should avoid any practice that would be a sign that they favor a certain section of the community as this would be a strong reminder to this society of the apartheid rule which is abhorred by many of the citizens

It is advisable to have a deep knowledge of the sector one is planning to invest in. The investment should be that which can be supported by the chosen sector.

The investors should adhere to the legal structures that the country has put in place regarding the trade in the country

Target marketing is highly encouraged. This is because this country has people of different cultures and with different amounts of wealth. The rich should be targeted with specific products and so are the middle class and the poor. Similarly, the cultural practice of the specific tribes of this country may dictate the type of product that would be most preferable to them.

List of References Best, RJ 2009, Market-Based Management Strategies for Growing Customer value and Profitability, Pearson, New Jersey.

Fifield, P 2007, Marketing Strategy: The Difference between Marketing and Markets, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford.

Roux, A 2005, Everyone’s Guide to the South African Economy, Zebra, Cape Town.

Tarp, F


“The man to send rain clouds” by Leslie Marmon Silko Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

How conflict is developed

How conflict is resolved

Works Cited

Introduction The central conflict in a story is normally the fight between the main character and other things that hinder him or her from achieving or accomplishing something that he or she wants (Garfinkel, 44). If there is no central conflict then a story does not exist since other characters and themes revolve around the central conflict to make a story. At times the central conflict in a story can be the burning issue in the story that needs to be addressed or resolved (Fog