Introduction A strategy direction is an overall plan for deploying organizational resources with a view of establishing a favorable business position. It shows a company’s awareness of its competitors. Attracting and retaining customers is the ultimate goal of strategic management in the achievement of economies of scale.
A number of factors that include the company’s structure, competitive position of the organization, current policies, and functional processes play a crucial role in determining the viability of strategies that need to be implemented in the business.
However, such factors have to be evaluated profoundly according to the recommendations for execution of the strategies. The Alibaba Company is an online marketing business that bridges wholesalers and retailers all over the world. A robust online marketing strategy is the sole determinant of the company’s success.
Innovation requires establishment of a stable and competitive position in the ever-dynamic online business. This essay critically discusses the interplay of the abovementioned factors with a view of highlighting apt ways implementing the strategic recommendations.
Recommendations for the Management of the Alibaba Company
To remain abreast with modern business activities that are driven by unpredictable technology, the Alibaba Company is recommended to invest in innovation, web-based customer services, employee training, and electronic human resource (EHR) systems.
A vast application of information technology in present-day business has become a norm in modern organizations. The Alibaba Company is faced with a challenge of handling a million inquiries from its enormous customer pool worldwide.
Establishment of a web-based customer support forum will not only handle common customer questions at a time but will also minimize communication costs that are incurred by the company and its customers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Frequent questions that pertain to the location of the business, working hours and types of services and products will be answered via the web easily rather than making calls to the individual customers.
Secondly, the Alibaba Company has an enormous employee population. Workforce issues form an integral part of human resource roles. With this high number of employees in different countries globally, it has become an enormous problem for the human resource managers to handle individual cases.
Therefore, there is a need to establish electronic human resource services in the company to handle cases that arise from the infinite number of employees.
The implementation of a web-based human resource site that allows employees to report working hours, tax withholding options, and beneficiary services, among other responsibilities will be an efficient method of minimizing the operational costs of the company.
At the Alibaba Company, employees have to send a request for change through the central human resource office and remain hopeful that it will be considered. This situation has created an obstacle to the employees since most of them do not understand the manipulation of taxes and payrolls.
Therefore, designing a user-friendly tool that allows individual employees to input most of the information in a computer interface creates an immense workload relief to the human resource staff. This situation creates more time for the HR department to provide a quality response to the customer needs; hence, the employees remain motivated.
There is also a need to train employees on self-management skills to minimize unnecessary consultations that can lead to time wastage within the organization. This situation will also reduce instances of authorizations that direct report managers have to approve. As a result, redundancy of the HR activities will be lightened.
We will write a custom Essay on The Alibaba Company’s Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Changing the office of the HR manager to a portal is the primary objective of this strategic recommendation. Today, many firms provide universal access to HR services using technology and web-based applications. This situation has radically changed the practice of human resource management.
These changes often result from the need to cut costs, expand, and improve services. Organizations that adopt refined HR technology tools outperform those that do not. Therefore, implementation of this recommendation is paramount to the success the Alibaba Company.
It will help the HR to change the business operations of the company. It will also cut unnecessary costs. Moreover, the Alibaba Company should document transaction records using various means such as hand-written books, physical storage vaults, electronic, and/or online data recording avenues.
These methods of storage will result in increased savings since the time for reviewing and approving manual records will be reduced significantly. For instance, in case operators make mistakes during data entry, electronic systems will prompt them to make real-time corrections to prevent adverse effects on company data.
Functional Policies that Favor Implementation of Strategic Recommendations
Functional policies are a set of standardized guidelines or procedures meant to guide an organization’s workforce on proper ways to provide products and services.
It is the sole responsibility of management to outline these procedures, especially for an international business and ensure their strict adherence for the business to remain competitive and operational. Standardization ensures stability of the company’s capital activities and fosters productive relationships of employees.
A careful study of the Alibaba Company reveals that there is a need for the management to redefine its structure to keep its workforce abreast with the dynamic environmental and technological changes in the modern regardless of the functional rules in place.
The management will need to standardize its processes by preparing precise instructions for the employees to ensure efficiency and proper organization of the business.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Alibaba Company’s Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of these directions include proper analysis of all business operations of the Alibaba Company, preparing the company for change, process monitoring, developing a plan for streamlining and formalizing the company processes, and identifying the company’s weaknesses in effectiveness and performance.
Change management is necessary as it handles human behavior and attitudes, some of which hamper the success of projects due to a tendency to resist change. On the other hand, process management involves specific tasks executed by the company’s workforce and systems in a guided way to attain specified objectives or results.
The marketing strategy recommendation forms an integral part of the Alibaba Company. Senior managers in the company need to understand the importance of inculcating an innovative culture.
This situation can be achieved by engaging key decision-makers, marketing managers in fundamental marketing functions of the company, such as strategy formulation. It is important to engage managers in strategy formulation to ensure smooth implementation of changes in the organization.
This situation reduces chances of resistance. There is a need to ensure respectable personal interactions between senior managers and departmental managers. Therefore, removing organizational communication hurdles can fruitfully encourage mutual consultations among management.
In the prevalence of technological dynamism, creating a room for rapid and timely flow of information is inevitably important. As an online-based business, the Alibaba Company must ensure fast communication processes.
It is also important for the company to delegate authority to marketing managers as this move enhances flexibility to adapt to changes. The senior management should create a favorable atmosphere of innovativeness, responsiveness, and openness. The strategy of empowering the marketing manager is very effective.
It ensures the development of personal values and interpersonal relationships. This situation encourages them to engage other stakeholder firms actively. The ultimate goal of authority delegation to marketing managers is provision of support to innovative practices in the organization.
Fostering interactions amongst different management levels fosters commitment and trust. The marketing department of this company will explore ways of remaining knowledgeable of the latest market trends through conducting a market survey over the internet.
The information gathered will be weighed against the current position of the organization. This survey will entail new trends such as social media marketing and advertising, brand recognition, and company’s growth rate against competitors, among other market-related variables.
The company will also look into its current position concerning technological changes. In the advent of online marketing, which has been adopted by many business organizations, the management cannot relent on keeping abreast with the latest online marketing practices.
The management of the Alibaba Company has recommended training its Information Technology (IT) department to keep pace with technological advancement. This responsibility is crucial to positioning the company competitively up-to-datee technologically.
Some key roles of the IT department would include prompt updating of information on websites regarding products descriptions and their prices. Furthermore, there is a need to ensure availability of promotional services and products to attract more customers.
The strategic role of top management is to provide the necessary support to the IT managers to ensure that plans to keep pace with technological changes are implemented in time.
Evaluating the Organizational Structure of the Alibaba Company
Organizational structure influences information flow, coordination of work, and decision making as part of strategy implementation. A company’s structure is based on some proportions, which determine the successful implementation of top managerial strategic directions.
The directions include formalization, centralization, and specialization. A formal structure is the one governed by rules and procedures that provide a means for defining appropriate work practices. The Alibaba Company currently adopts an organic structure. Horizontal and vertical communication models characterize this structure.
Although this structure enhances flexibility of roles, it cannot be the best for the company. To encourage a collaborative and innovation supported culture, the organization can do better with a structure that removes superiority. Since the Alibaba Company is an online business that primarily depends on dynamic market changes, it should adopt a centralized structure.
To achieve innovation and achieve strategic marketing directions the company will adopt the specialization structure. This structure allows specialist to tackle tasks that they are best suited. This phenomenon will ensure that within the departments only the specialists handle the relevant tasks.
For instance, the marketing department can focus on cooperative promotions and advertising, pricing, distributor relations and proper identification of market segments. E-marketing forms the basis of the company. Specialization in the marketing department will contribute significantly to the company’s success.
The Company’s Culture
Organizations culture comprises shared beliefs, norms, and values in an organization. It is the basis for strategic directions as its influences formulation and successful implementation.
Culture influences strategy implementation in various ways. A flexible and stable culture brings about partnerships, togetherness, teamwork, and cooperation among the company’s workforce. On the other hand, a culture of resistance will derail success of the business.
As an online business, the Alibaba Company will create and sustain a collaborative culture that will ensure active interdependent interactions among department managers and the top management. This situation will create an amicable environment for creative consultations besides encouraging support for new ideas.
The Alibaba Company will focus on cultural alignment. When the culture sides with strategy implementation, the company positions itself efficiently in the international market. Culture allows staff to practice dedication and honesty when working individually or in a team.
For technological innovation to be successfully implemented the company will need to encourage an innovation culture through the provision of necessary support. This support can be based on managerial, financial, or labor aspects. This situation calls for the entire company workforce to be well aware of the importance of innovation.
Next, each person will see the need to support new ideas. The ultimate achievement is success of the company. Adaptability to the rapid change in the modern-day business calls for a culture that allows employees to switch to new ways of doing business.
Proposed Functional Tactics, Cultural, and Structural Changes for the Alibaba Company
The company will need to address functional policies, culture, and the current structure if successful implementation is to be realized. Change and process management procedures will be properly executed to keep the employees and departmental managers focused on the goal and processes of the company.
The top management of the Alibaba Company has to outline rules and procedures to avoid duplication of processes and deviations. These policies should be enforced in each department. Proper training is also required for the employees to understand the importance of adherence.
Successful implementation of the marketing strategies will require delegation of authority to managers. It is advisable for the company to discard the formalized structure and embrace specialization as the latter ensures that activities are not generalized.
Only specialists in the particular departments handle them. This move avoids unnecessary costs by eliminating incompetent decisions that result in losses and poor performance. It also ensures time efficiency because experts formulate the implementation decisions.
Cultural alignment is paramount to fruitful strategy implementation. It ensures that the company to encourages adaptability and stability. Employees should be thoroughly educated on the importance of the vital cultural practices. The management can achieve this through goal definition and goal unification.
Managers should define culture in terms of performance, development, customer orientation, goal orientation, and administration to take care of the overall objectives of the organization.
Obstacles/Constraints and Management Solutions
The management can face a number of obstacles during implementation of strategies. Such obstacles include financial constraints to fund market surveys and research. In addition, the company can face employee resistance in cases where change has to be implemented.
Insufficient guidelines can result in poor execution of business strategies. Inexperienced employees lack adequate knowledge about implementation of new strategies in the business. To improve the application of new strategies, some elements need to be tackled.
The management should be in a position to ensure availability of important resources, communication channels, and distinct action plans. Failure to empower people in the organization creates an inferiority complex. This state of affairs hinders the motivation among employees.
Conclusion From the above discussion, it is evident that strategy implementation is not an easy task. It is the duty of the management to outline functional policies. It should also adopt an appropriate structure that aligns with the organizational culture.
Coupled with the involvement of the management, innovation, and technological competency, this situation will ultimately lead to the overall success of the Alibaba Company.
The key strategy of online marketing requires a specialization structure that calls for recruitment of competent specialists in various departments in the organization.
Schwarzkopf and his Leadership Style Coursework online essay help
One of the greatest leaders of the 20th century is General Schwarzkopf. His leadership style is an intriguing subject matter, because he was able to accomplish something that has never been done in the history of military warfare.
Schwarzkopf spearheaded a coalition of military forces composed of military personnel, and military equipment that came from different parts of the world. He was tasked to command an alliance comprised of generals and military officers from different parts of the globe.
It was a tremendous challenge to manage their egos, and to inspire them to give their best. He succeeded in persuading military leaders from different cultural backgrounds to work together. At the same time, he orchestrated a military campaign that resulted in few casualties.
In addition, he was able to accomplish major goals in a few months. He defeated Saddam Hussein in less than 4 months (Schwarzkopf, 1993).
If one will contrast his achievements to military generals that were faced with similar challenges in World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, it is safe to say that General Schwarzkopf’s accomplishments are almost unequaled. Thus, I have decided to use his leadership style as a basis to improve my own.
I was able to develop a sketch of Schwarzkopf’s leadership style by gleaning insights from his autobiographical book. I decided to use the book because of personal anecdotes, and other important information regarding Schwarzkopf. In addition, the book is also a critical source of relevant information.
It was published a few years after Schwarzkopf’s successful management of Operation Dessert Storm. This historical event was a famous military operation that liberated Kuwait from invading Iraqi armed forces under the command of Saddam Hussein.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leadership Style His leadership style is a combination of Dominance-Style and Interactive-Style of leadership. There was a trace of the dominance style of leadership when Schwarzkopf compelled his subordinates, and fellow military officers to accomplish a specific goal.
On the other hand, there was also a trace of the interactive style of leadership in his repertoire, because of his capability to work with others.
His leadership style was characterized by humility. He was willing to work with others. He was willing to make them feel part of the winning team. Thus, he did not take all the credit for the overwhelming success of Operation Desert Storm. His leadership style was also characterized by adaptability.
He was willing to adjust to the requirements of the mission. In other words, he was willing to work even if the circumstances surrounding him were far from perfect.
Finally, Schwarzkopf’s leadership style was defined by cultural sensitivity. He realized that he had to be sensitive to the cultural background of the leaders that he had to work with.
His complex leadership style was derived from adopting skills that were under the Dominance-Style and Interactive-Style of leadership. His effective leadership style was largely the byproduct of his upbringing and experiences. Schwarzkopf was born into a middle class family, and he lived in an affluent neighborhood.
However, Schwarzkopf was not a spoiled brat. When he was a young boy, he was affected by the impact of the Second World War on American families. As a result, his family was able to experience economic hardships. At the same time, Schwarzkopf’s mother was dealing with alcoholism.
We will write a custom Coursework on Schwarzkopf and his Leadership Style specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Life’s problems gave Schwarzkopf the ability to understand the frailty of human nature. As a result, the multi-awarded general was able to develop a profound sense of empathy that endeared him to his subordinates.
I am fascinated to learn more about Schwarzkopf’s leadership style. I believe that his experience and insights can help me improve my leadership capabilities. If I can learn how to be more interactive, and more adventurous as Schwarzkopf, then, I believe that I can become a better leader.
Before going any further it is important to point out that based on the Disk Self-Assessment, I have the Cautious-Style of leadership. I like this particular leadership style because it means that I am analytical, systematic, and persistent. It also means that I love solving problems. Those who belong to this category are task-oriented leaders.
I also scored high in the sub-category labeled as The Perfecter. In this particular category, leaders have the tendency to pay attention to process and details. Leaders under this category are thorough and dependable.
Although you can depend on me to accomplish goals and follow-up on issues that needs resolution in the shortest possible time, I struggle when it comes to in-depth involvement with people. It is important for me to learn how to be genuinely open to people that have a different opinion or a different approach on how to solve a specific problem.
I realized that my current capabilities are good enough to solve simple problems. However, when it comes to more complicated goals or objectives, it is imperative to develop the skill on how to work with other people. This is the reason why I greatly admire General Schwarzkopf.
He did not only work with people that have a different approach to completing a shared task. He worked with people that spoke a different language. He worked with people that may be offended by things that we find ordinary or inconsequential.
He did not only collaborated with them; he even inspired them to accomplish difficult tasks. I want to adopt certain aspects of his leadership style, especially the part that enables him to persuade people to set aside their differences in order to work as a team.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Schwarzkopf and his Leadership Style by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More My strategy for improvement is to continually learn from leaders like General Schwarzkopf. I will look for leaders that were able to blend the Dominance-Style and Interactive-Style of leadership. I will study how to communicate with other people.
I will try to find out how to develop the skill to initiate a consensual and collaborative type of working process (Daft, 2014). I want to understand how to influence people through relationships, rather than through position power and authority.
I want to learn how to share ideas and maintain two-way communication (Lewis, 2007). I believe that this is the only way to empower people, and encourage them to develop their skills even more.
Reference Daft, R. (2014). The leadership experience. CA: Cengage Learning.
Lewis, P. (2007). Management: Challenges for tomorrow’s leaders. OH: Thomson Higher Learning.
Schwarzkopf, N. (1993). It doesn’t take a hero: The autobiography of General Norman Schwarzkopf. New York: Bantam Books.
Leadership Styles in Organisations Synthesis Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction This paper is based on the topic of leadership. It explores the topic by looking at various leadership styles and how they relate to each other. It starts with a discussion of the trait leadership approach followed by a comparison of trait leadership with contingency and participative styles of leadership.
What follows is a discussion of servant leadership, which is the most appropriate for organisations faced with disruptive changes. It is argued that servant leadership has the ability of uniting all members of organisations around a common goal and as a result, it becomes easy to implement organisational change.
Servant leadership also enables organisations to have a cohesive organisational culture where loyalty and commitment to organisational goals are the guiding principles for moving organisations forward.
The paper cites various authors who have written about the concept of leadership. It also uses theoretical frameworks to support the arguments.
Trait Approach of Leadership Wart and Suino defined leadership as the ability of a person to influence other people to do things which they may not do without the influence (Wart
International Political Economy – World Systems Analysis Analytical Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
World-System Analysis’ Approach to Power and Wealth Inequality
Criticisms of World-System Analysis
Introduction In the last two to three decades, the world has experienced unprecedented economic growth in all spheres of economy. Despite such encouraging progress in the economy, the gap between the poor and rich people has widened. The rich are getting richer as the poor get poorer.
Further, the world has moved to a more integrated and globalised economy where there is interrelatedness between nations of the world.
Although such globalisation might ideally mean more prosperity for nations based on their increased accessibility and market interaction levels, it has instead acted to increase economic inequalities among societies and nations. In addition, at the global political stage, the powerful countries have amassed more power.
Periphery countries are becoming less influential in the political and economic realms. While trying to explain the growing disparities in wealth and power in the global political economy, different scholars have advanced different theories.
Of the many theories and approaches, Immanuel Wallerstein’s world-systems analysis has been credited for its detailed analysis of the functioning of the world economy1. The theory incorporates different arguments from the existing knowledge in sociology, political science, and economics.
However, it significantly shifts from the existing theories of economic development that focus on the nations as independent units that can traverse their own paths towards civilisation and modernity.
This paper will analyse whether the world systems analysis has been able to explain successfully the wealth and power inequalities in the world. Further, it will discuss various criticisms that have been put forward against the approach.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More World-Systems Analysis According to Makki, the world-system analysis, which is also referred to as world-system hypothesis, is a modern macro-sociological viewpoint that regards the changes of capitalism and world economy as a ‘total collective system’2.
The theory draws from the tenets of historical sociology and economic history. It is also linked to Immanuel Wallerstein who is credited for building its credibility. According to Jones, developmental theorists have adopted the theory for its synthesis of developmental and unequal opportunities across the world. 3.
Although the theory’s views on capitalism and the global economy differ from those expressed by Marx and Weber, these two theorists have offered a great inspiration to the theory.
The main agenda of the theory is that the world as a whole plays an important role in determining the economic and social dynamics between and among nations. In other words, the theory emphasises the world-system as the main unit of social analysis.
The theory is a shift from Marxist approaches that viewed the nation as the main unit of analysis in the global political economy. By world-system, the theory indicates the inter-regional and transnational divisions of labour that divide the world between the rich and the poor, and the powerful and the weak as Macedo and Gounari confirm4.
Accordingly, Wallerstein views the world-system as a social system with no boundaries, structures, coherence, or rules of legitimating but rather a body that comprises conflicting forces that hold it together or threaten to tear it apart as each group tries to remould it to its advantage.
Further, as an organism, the world-system has a life span. It changes over time while other characteristics remain constant. According to Harvey, its life is not only largely self-contained, but also has some internal developmental changes5.
We will write a custom Essay on International Political Economy – World Systems Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the world classification, nations are joined together through market financial system rather than through affairs of the state. In this incorporation of nations, the relationship is based on the exchange of goods and products that characterise a market financial system.
According to O’Brien and Williams, although there is competition among polities to dominate the system, none lasts forever6.
As a shift from the thinking of the 19th century with reference to society, politics, and economy, the world-system analysis criticises Marxist and other theories of economic development and approaches to modernisation. For instance, it criticises the modernisation theory for its focus on the state as the only unit of analysis.
It claims the existence of one path through which all nations experience economic development. It disregards the transnational structure that hinders local and national economic development.
World-system analysis is a shift from the modernisation hypothesis, which holds that nations follow a given course and stages of development from pre-modern to modern states and that nations are accountable for their individual growth.
Through small assistance to its internal strictures of economy, Wallerstein asserts that any nation can become modern just like other developed countries have7.
As such, capitalism is an inevitable outcome of the previous failures of structures of economy such as feudalism since nations have progressed in their path to modernity.
However, world-system theorists disapprove this notion on capitalism. They view it as a deliberate move through which Europe came to dominate the world economy to create inequalities8.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Political Economy – World Systems Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While explaining the inequalities in wealth and power, the world-system analysis views the world economy as having divisions based on the kind of labour each country or region offers and/or contributes to the system and market economy9.
The theory regards the world economy as a body that comprises three groups of countries, that is, the core countries, semi-periphery, and the periphery countries.
Core nations concentrate on capital–demanding and proficient work production as opposed to a wanting toil or raw-material assembly that is characteristic of semi-periphery and marginalised nations10. By focusing on proficient production, the mainstay nations govern the sidelined or marginalised nations.
However, changes in the system mean that countries may lose or gain more on their status. In this case, Clark says that periphery countries may upgrade to semi-periphery and further to core countries11.
At different periods, some nations may raise to hegemonic status in the system. For example, hegemonic status has passed from Netherlands to the Great Britain and then to the United States of America.
World-System Analysis’ Approach to Power and Wealth Inequality As previously explained, the world-system analysis tries to explain the inequalities in the world by viewing the world economy as a single unit where division of labour among its members contributes immensely to inequalities in power and wealth.
In this case, the countries that fall under the core category dominate the world economy since they control the means of production while the peripheral ones control labour.
Tracing the history of the world’s economy from the start of capitalism, O’Brien and Williams see a trend where the world is constantly in a core/periphery economic relationship that began with Europe12.
In this case, Gareau reveals that countries that controlled production were always more prosperous at the expense of those that supplied labour13.
For more than 5 centuries, many European countries have been in the core countries category while the others such as African, Asian, and South American countries, which have historically provided labour for European nations, remain at the periphery14.
According to Harvey, the most important structure of the present-day world system is what he refers to as power hierarchy between core countries and the peripheral ones. In this affiliation, powerful countries govern and take advantage of the underprivileged ones.
Their driving force is to use unrefined ways of getting hold of the weak countries’ wealth. According to Goldfrank, in this equation, technology plays an important role in determining the category where each county falls15.
The countries that have advanced technology such as the United States, Britain, Japan, and Germany among others form the core countries while the less technologically developed countries such as Kenya, Venezuela, and other third-world countries form the periphery.
Over the years, the core nations have used their advantaged positions to amass great power both economically and socially over their disadvantaged nations as Tarrow reveals16.
According to the world-system analysis, the core nations’ access to enormous financial resources by controlling the highly lucrative means of production implies that they are able to finance other core areas of their economy and standings in the global stage.
For instance, looking at the hegemonic status of countries over the years, a peculiar trend emerges17. For instance, during the reign of the Great Britain in the 19th century, it controlled more than 85% of world’s industries.
Further, it amassed great powers through its advanced military and superior economic status that allowed it to ‘acquire’ and colonise many territories across the world. One of the main reasons of establishing colonies was to have a ready access of raw materials and a ready market of the finished products.
In this interaction between the Great Britain as the core and its overseas territories as the periphery, it is evident that the interaction was not mutually beneficial. The Great Britain benefited more. It amassed more wealth and more power at the expense of the periphery countries18.
In another case, during the reign of the US as the hegemony after the World War II, the nation accounted for more than 50% of the global finished products.
The interaction between the poor and the wealth nations is characterised by unequal exchange. Unequal exchange refers to the systematic substitution of excess material possessions between sectors that lie in the peripheral category and the highly industrialised and powerful countries.
The powerful homelands amass immense resources using marginal surplus. On the other hand, the continuous deprivation of the periphery’s surplus leads to stagnated or reducing capital for those countries.
The implication is that they are unable to break from the yoke of poverty to a higher economic status as a way of standing in the global arena.
In the process of domination by the core nations, three key processes ensure that these countries amass power and wealth in the end. Firstly, it starts with productivity dominance where the core countries have control over technology and other means of production, which are not accessible to the periphery countries.
In this case, as Macedo and Gounari confirm, with the superior technology and means of production, the countries can produce high superior products at a cheaper cost, thus tilting trade to their advantage19.
As long as the periphery countries do not have access to such technology due to many factors, including capital resources, the core countries achieve dominance whereas the peripheral ones feed the core countries’ productivity with cheap raw materials in exchange of expensive finished products20.
The core countries’ act of accumulating more productivity powers leads to the second process of gaining power and wealth, which is trade dominance. According to Moore, since the cost of production is cheaper and hence able to benefit more from international trade, core countries easily dominate the trade21.
The core nations control trade by selling, as opposed to purchasing, more of their products to other states22. Consequently, there is a favourable balance of trade for the core nations. With trade dominance, more money comes relative to the amount that goes out, thus resulting in economic supremacy.
For instance, the US and European countries get a large percentage of the global monetary possessions.
With strong financial resources, the core nations are able to invest more in activities such as education, economic diversification, healthcare, poverty elimination programmes, research and development, and military among other activities that ensure that they strengthen their dominant position in the world system.
On the other hand, as Harvey says, the peripheral countries are characterised by underdeveloped technologies, less industrialisation, large populations of poor people, and high levels of illiteracy23. In addition, the peripheral nations are greatly influenced by the core nations through their multinational corporations.
In many instances, they have to adhere to the economic policies of the former, although such policies are obviously skewed to the advantage of the rich ones as Firebaugh confirms24.
Due to their focus on few financial means that involve the processing and selling of materials, marginalised states enjoy less fiscal diversity as compared to the major countries25. Further, there is a high availability of cheap and unskilled labour, which is exploited by the core nations through their multinational corporations.
Since the peripheral countries struggle to meet the needs of the people who have little financial resources, no surplus has been availed to invest in high-technology production activities that are done by the core nations.
Further, due to the basic nature of the technology that is available for these nations, the high cost of production makes it difficult for them to industrialise.
Consequently, such nations are locked in a vicious cycle where they are unable to expand beyond their focus on production of raw materials to feed the ever-expanding production capacities of the core nations.
Therefore, with all the odds against the periphery countries, McCarthy asserts that it is difficult for the poor nations to prosper in the highly skewed world system that benefits the rich while exploiting the poor26.
In many ways, the world-system analysis presents the bitter reality of globalisation where issues such as free trade and elimination of previous barriers of trade are advantageous for the prosperity of the ‘world-economy.’
However, upon further analysis, world-economy is a tool that is supported by the core nations as long as it benefits their interests in the world-system.
It is evident that the notion that globalisation is beneficial to all countries is not valid in all its assertions as it has led to the increase of the difference between the underprivileged peripheral countries and the well-off major ones.
In this case, globalisation has provided an opportunity for the rich to exploit the poor countries in an arrangement that benefits the former while disadvantaging the latter. Hence, the world-system analytical approach provides a detailed and a convincing explanation of the present-day power and wealth inequalities in the world.
Criticisms of World-System Analysis Like any other theory, the world-system analysis has received a lot of criticism from different theorists and economic experts who are not satisfied with its main assertions.
The first criticism is that unlike other social theories that explain the economy and inequality in the society, world-system theory focuses on the economy and less on other important issues such as culture27.
While this criticism is strong, it does not lead to a disregard of key concepts other than the world-system analysis. However, there is a need to find a way through which culture can be incorporated into the theory to make it more reflective of the social dynamics of the world economy, power, and inequalities28.
Further, the theory is criticised for being overly core-centric. In this case, the critiques such as Gregory assert that Wallerstein concentrates on explaining why and how the core nations have amassed wealth29.
At the end, he does not focus on the plight of the peripheral nations. Further, he does not offer elaborate solutions of how such inequalities and power can be eliminated30.
However, this claim is not a valid argument since his reference to a ‘system’ is an indication of the fact that perfection can never be achieved.
The theory compensates for this argument by pointing out that just like a system, the various changes that occur with time change the balance where the periphery and semi-peripheral countries change their status up and/or down the classification.
Another valid argument by Hall is that by focusing on the world market and economy, the theory makes a great supposition by assuming the local class struggles and class divisions that play an important part in one way or another in the state and global economy31.
Conclusion The world-system analysis satisfactorily explains the main causes of disparities in wealth and power in the global political economy. The theory views the world as a unitary system that is divided into core, semi-peripheral, and peripheral nations as dictated by divisions of labour between them.
The core countries dominate the economy of the system through their focus on production of high-end finished products and high-skilled labour while others focus on low-skilled labour and production of raw materials.
Accordingly, due to these differences between nations in the system, core countries exploit the poor nations for their raw materials, which create surplus in productivity. In this way, the key countries dictate business and monetary wealth at the disadvantage of the marginalised states that remain underprivileged.
However, the theory has been criticised for its focus on the economy at the expense of other important factors such as culture and class struggles within individual nations. Further, it has been criticised for its focus on core nations whilst showing less attention to the peripheral nations.
As such, a room has been left for expansion of the theory to address valid criticisms that have been advanced by its critics. Overall, the theory has been able to capture and explain the ‘politics’ of the global economy and the inequalities of power and wealth.
Bibliography Clark, Rob. “World Incoome Inequality in the Global Era: New Estimates 1990-2008.” Social Problems 58, no. 1 (2011): 565-592.
Drainville, Andre. “Resistance too globalisation: The view from the periphery of the world economy.” International Social Science Journal 59, no. 2 (2008): 235-246.
Firebaugh, Glenn. New Geographies of World Income Inequality. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003.
Gareau, Brian J. “Theorising Environmental Governance of the World-System.” American Sociological Association 18, no. 2 (2012): 187-210.
Goldfrank, Walter. “Paradigm Regained? The Rules of Wallerstein’s World-System Method.” Journal of World-Systems Research 6, no. 2 (2000): 150-195.
Gregory, Robert J. “What is World Systems All About? An Introduction for Human Ecologists.” Journal of Human Ecology 16, no. 3 (2004): 193-196.
Hall, Thomas. A World-Systems Reader: New Perspectives on Gender, Urbanism, Culture, Indigenous People and Ecology. Oxford, UK: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2000.
Harvey, David. A Brief Introduction to Neoliberalism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Jones, Bary R.J. “Globalisation and change in the Iiternational political economy.” International Affairs 75, no. 2 (1999): 357-367.
Macedo, Donaldo, and Panayota Gounari. Globalisation and the unleashing of new racism: an introduction. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2006.
Makki, Fouad. “The Empire of Capital and the Remaking of Centre Periphery Relations.” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 1 (2005): 149-168.
McCarthy, James. “The Financial Crisis and Environmental Governance ‘After’ Neoliberalism.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 103, no. 2 (2012): 180-195.
Moore, Jason. “Nature and the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism.” The Journal of Fernard Braudel Centre XXVI, no. II (2003): 97-172.
O’Brien, Robert, and Marc Williams. Global Political Economy: Evolution and Dynamics. 4th. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
Tarrow, Sydney. “Transnational Politics: Contention and Institutions in International Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 4, no. 1 (2001): 1-20.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. “The West, Capitalism and the Modern World-System.” Review 15, no. 4 (1992): 561-619.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World-System I. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Uncertainties of Knowledge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004.
Footnotes 1 Immanuel Wallerstein, The Uncertainties of Knowledge (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004), 8.
2 Fouad Makki, “The Empire of Capital and the Remaking of Centre Periphery Relations,” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 1 (2005): 149.
3 Bary Jones,”Globalisation and change in the Iiternational political economy,” International Affairs 75, no. 2 (1999): 357.
4 Donaldo Macedo and Panayota Gounari, Globalisation and the unleashing of new racism: an introduction (Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2006), 23.
5 David Harvey, A Brief Introduction to Neoliberalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005, 23.
6 Robert O’Brien and Marc Williams, Global Political Economy: Evolution and Dynamics (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), 68.
7 Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World-System I (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003), 307.
8 Andre Drainville, “Resistance too globalisation: The view from the periphery of the world economy.” International Social Science Journal 59, no. 2 (2008): 235.
9 Immanuel Wallerstein, The Uncertainties of Knowledge (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004), 15.
10 Immanuel Wallerstein, “The West, Capitalism and the Modern World-System.” Review 15, no. 4 (1992): 561.
11 Rob Clark, “World Income Inequality in the Global Era: New Estimates 1990-2008.” Social Problems 58 (2011): 568.
12 O’Brien and Williams, 13.
13 Brian Gareau, “Theorising Environmental Governance of the World-System.” American Sociological Association 18, no. 2 (2012): 204.
14 Andre Drainville, “Resistance to globalisation: The view from the periphery of the world economy.” International Social Science Journal 59, no. 2 (2008): 224.
15 Walter Goldfrank, “Paradigm Regained? The Rules of Wallerstein’s World-System Method.” Journal of World-Systems Research 6, no. 2 (2000): 153.
16 Sydney Tarrow, “Transnational Politics: Contention and Institutions in International Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 4, no. 1 (2001): 8.
17 O’Brien and Williams, 19.
18 Fouad Makki, “The Empire of Capital and the Remaking of Centre Periphery Relations.” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 1 (2005): 158.
19 Macedo and Gounari, 22.
20 Goldfrank, 176.
21 Jason Moore, “Nature and the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism,” The Journal of Fernard Braudel Centre XXVI (2003): 151.
22 Drainville, 237.
23 Harvey, 23.
24 Glenn Firebaugh, New Geographies of World Income Inequality (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003), 42.
25 O’Brien and Williams, 45.
26 James McCarthy, “The Financial Crisis and Environmental Governance ‘After’ Neoliberalism.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 103, no. 2 (2012): 188.
27 Makki, 158.
28 Harvey, 56.
29 Robert Gregory, “What is World Systems All About? An Introduction for Human Ecologists.” Journal of Human Ecology 16, no. 3 (2004): 194.
30 Macedo and Gounari, 13.
31 Thomas Hall, A World-Systems Reader: New Perspectives on Gender, Urbanism, Culture, Indigenous People and Ecology (Oxford, UK: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2000), 63.
Sustainability Assessment Approach: An Alternative Research Paper essay help: essay help
Introduction This research paper explores an alternative model of sustainability assessment. Specifically, it highlights a sustainability assessment model adopted in brownfields, greenfields, and Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) as applied in Bowden-Brompton community development.
A discussion of method
Currently, all major cities in Australia are experiencing intensifying pressure due to urban development. Hence, a new alternative model of sustainability is required for brownfields, greenfields and TODs.
This would ensure that old buildings and neighbourhoods are renovated, reworked and retrofitted to attract new businesses and reclaim brownfields and greyfields with the aim of rejuvenating defunct sections of the city through TODs for enhanced accessibility.
This alternative shall curb notable sprawling of the city into outer greenfields and make extensive use of brownfields, inner city greenfields and TODs.
In addition, it would restore public infrastructures, reduce costs, reduce car dependency, enhance accessibility, create space for recreation, and leave agricultural land in city outskirts (Newton 2012).
According to Newton (2012), the NSW and Victoria governments have missed the concept of urban planning and sustainability development. In the recent past, these governments announced that they would continue to ensure “the development of new housing on the fringes of Sydney and Melbourne” (Newton 2012, para. 1).
This approach shows that the current sustainable urban planning in Australia cannot offer the required solutions to sustainability development and therefore sustainable urban development constitutes a critical challenge in contemporary cities (Newton et al. 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a need for urban planning to exploit brownfields, greenfields and TODs within the middle suburbs of the Australia’s largest and fastest growing cities.
An urban regeneration model that focuses on brownfields, greenfields and TODs provides an effective approach to inner city development. Australia has an existing model for inner city development known as the Better Cities.
However, Newton (2012) has observed that a brownfields, greenfields and TOD model, in itself, is likely to fail in the provision of housing required to cater for growing populations and ensure sustainability if there are no effective approaches.
This approach offers sustainable urban development. Lombardi et al. (2011) noted that the concept of sustainability is popular and widely used in the UK, but it has not achieved much in urban regeneration. In fact, urban regeneration has failed to challenge the status quo because of ineffective policy and lack of implementation.
The regeneration of brownfields, greenfields and TODs offers an alternative solution to urban sustainability development. These are ageing areas within inner cities. They have physically deteriorated, not environmental-friendly and technologically backward.
In addition, they are underdeveloped parts of cities. Nevertheless, state governments have attempted to improve housing, business activities and employment and enhance TOD projects. In most cases, these attempts have not succeeded specifically outside the central business districts.
The success of Bowden-Brompton community shows that brownfields and greenfields offer viable alternatives to sustainable urban developments.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Sustainability Assessment Approach: An Alternative specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More TODs must focus on improving transportation corridors in brownfields and greenfields for accessibility.
Brief definition The redevelopment of old urban structures, removal of waste, establishment of new structures and transport corridors to meet the rising needs of expanding citizens in the urban age has been a major issue for the government (Gleeson 2012). Policies and implementation efforts are the major challenges.
Consequently, it is imperative to develop new tools for assessment of urban development and sustainability. These new assessment tools are necessary to ensure that urban developments have better environmental, social and economic impacts (Davidson
Design Methods Analysis Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Generating alternatives-morphological analysis
Introduction Studies show that each phase in the product design process can be made efficient depending on the effectiveness of the tools used in the decision making process. Among the decision making tools that are used include brainstorming, generating alternatives-morphological analysis, and the evaluation matrix.
The tools have different areas of application and effectiveness decision making. The tools are crucial in optimizing available solutions to design a good quality product when seeking for possible solutions.
This study aims to establish the strengths and weaknesses of each of the tools that are applied in decision making at the product design phases and the areas they have been applied to provide solutions to design problems.
Brainstorming According to Bronson and Merryman (2010), the effectiveness of brainstorming depends on ideas generated by individuals working in groups to create a design that balances the goals of the user at the problem definition and possible solution to determine the best possible solution phases in the design process.
Hunton and Gold (2010), brainstorming involves different product design ideas that are put together in group thinking sessions to evaluate the alternatives and generate high quality product design solutions.
However, the limitations of brainstorming, according to Carpenter (2007) are that it is time consuming, hinders other group members from making positive contributions that might hinder the use of better quality product design ideas.
Weaknesses in the brainstorming process can be detected by determining if other group members do not understand the design problems and suggested solutions, do not make contributions, relate with others poorly, and tend to be segregated among their social status (Kinicki
Emirates Airlines CSR Application Research Paper college essay help online
Executive Summary This research paper evaluates the application of CSR by Emirates Airlines. The research is motivated by the need to understand the possible gaps in the company’s CSR strategies, and hence determine the necessary adjustments that the firm should undertake.
Emirates Airlines appreciates the importance of operating in a social responsible manner in order to satisfy its internal and external stakeholders. In a bid to achieve long-term business success, the airline must improve its commitment to establishing a balance between its internal and external environments.
Therefore, the airline should ensure that it adopts a holistic approach in its CSR. The research paper analyses the various CSR activities and strategies that the organisation has integrated into its social responsible strategic human resource management practices.
The paper is organised into a number of sections. A brief company profile, the purpose of the study, and a statement of the research problem are outlined in the introduction section.
The literature review section entails a review of the available literature on the application of CSR strategies and activities in organisations while the methodology section outlines the research techniques used in collecting data from the field. Conversely, the analysis section entails an evaluation of the findings obtained from the study.
The last section outlines the conclusion and the recommendations that Emirates Airlines should consider in order to improve its CSR strategies.
Introduction Emirates Airlines is one of the most successful air travel companies in the United Arabs Emirates (UAE). The firm was established in 1985 and it is owned by the UAE government. The airline’s operations are mainly based at Dubai International Airport, which serves as its hub.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It appreciates the significance of developing optimal competitive advantage in order to sustain superior performance. Subsequently, the company has invested a substantial amount of resources in order to attain competitiveness (Emirates 2014).
The airline is focused on continuous improvement of its fleet size and destinations in order to serve the local and international air travel demands. Currently, the company serves over 142 destinations, which is facilitated by over 230 aircrafts. It operates over 3,000 flights per week to over 70 countries.
One of the unique characteristics about Emirates Airlines entails its independent operations, as it is not a member of the major global airline alliances, viz. Star Alliance, SkyTeam, and Oneworld. Its independent operation was motivated by the need for optimal flexibility in responding to market changes.
However, the airline has entered a number of code-sharing agreements with different global airline companies in order to attain competitive advantage (Emirates 2014).
The airline has established two main divisions, which include Emirates Executive and Emirates SkyCargo. Additionally, the airline offers diverse cabin services such as economy class, business class, and first class.
In its quest to provide a high level of customer service, the airline has fitted its aircrafts with diverse in-flight entertainment system.
It has adopted the concept of global carrier and competitive pricing as its business model, which has remarkably improved its competitiveness against major international carriers such as British Airways, Air France-KLM, Qantas, and Lufthansa.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Emirates Airlines CSR Application specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, it has sustained its positive financial performance despite the prevailing economic changes. During its last financial year, which ended on 31st March 2014, the airline’s net profit grew by AED 3,254 million (Emirates 2014).
Statement of the research problem
The global airline industry has experienced considerable growth because of an increment in demand for air travel over the past few decades. Consequently, the degree of competition within the industry has increased substantially. New investors are venturing into the industry by adopting diverse business models such the low-cost models.
Conversely, some industry players are adopting diverse expansion models such as the formation of joint ventures in an effort to improve their market performance. The industry is characterised by a high degree of volatility due to economic changes (Worthington
Artworks by Jeff Koons Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents New Hoover Convertibles
New Hoover Convertibles Jeff Koon was one of the most controversial artists of the post war time, his works were designed to provoke, shock, astonish, but at the same time, to inform, point out and communicate.1
His work called “New Hoover Convertibles” was created in 1981. The visually distinctive factors of this work are the three vacuum cleaners that were advanced for their time. The artist put them into a transparent container make of acryl and added fluorescent lights in the bottom so that the exhibits were properly lit.
By inserting the vacuum cleaners into the transparent box and adding fluorescent dramatic lighting the artist made the appliances look like very valuable trophies. This was done in order to communicate the public passion for consumption and the change of values in the society.
Koons pointed out that in the beginning of eighties household appliances were something people had to work hard to buy, they represented everyone’s big goal, they were the evidence of an important achievement.
The historic factors that influence Koon and inspired him to create this work of art was the rapid development of technologies and the social passion for consumption and the love for pristine newness.2
Besides, the way the three vacuum cleaners are arranged – in a straight line, makes it clear that the work of art symbolizes not only consumerism but capitalism dwelling in the supermarkets and putting the goods in geometrically correct rows, lines and forms.
His work represents the mass culture of the beginning of the eighties and the use of readymade goods presents the nature of consumption in a controversial way by comparing usual objects to valuables and paying capacity to an achievement.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Triple Elvis Triple Elvis is a work of art that contains three levels. They are arranged hierarchically. The closes object seen by the viewers of the work is a blow up pool toy shaped as a red lobster. The second dimension of the work includes three photographs of a half naked Playboy model in seductive poses.
The last layer is the print made of Westermann’s art works arranged one over another in an abstract manner. This layer is located the farthest from the audience. Each of the dimensions overlaps with the ones near to it. Lobster pool toy is put on top of the whole work.
By creating such hierarchy in his art work, Koons demonstrated the reversed values where art is at the very bottom of the pyramid, and pornographic images are more important than it.3 They also are bigger in size. Finally, the very top is occupied by a very simple entertainment item that is not artistic at all.
Adding it to his pyramid of art Koons shows the new attitude towards aesthetics and beauty. Making the lobster a part of the art work and actually placing it on top of everything else Koons demonstrated the ranks of values.
This way Koons’ pyramid of art turns to the pyramid of consumption. The most popular kind of goods and entertainments are represented by the pool toy. The next is a series of images of sexual character – the second most popular consumption product.
Finally, art is at the very bottom and is mixed up. In this work Koons makes art a part of consumption culture of the eighties. This is why all art works of Koons were based on the elements of Triple Elvis.
Bibliography Farago, Jason. “Jeff Koons: A Retrospective review – great, good, bad and terrible art”. The guardian. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Artworks by Jeff Koons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fineberg, Jonathan. Art Since 1940. Upper Saddle River: Peason, 2010.
Jeff Koons: A Retrospective”. Whitney.org. Web.
Footnotes 1 “Jeff Koons: A Retrospective”, Whitney.org.
2 Jason Farago, “Jeff Koons: A Retrospective review – great, good, bad and terrible art”, The guardian.
3 Jonathan Fineberg, Art Since 1940 (Upper Saddle River: Peason, 2010), 460.
Self-Forgiveness as the Path to Learning to Forgive the Others Critical Essay essay help
The ability to forgive one’s own faults has never been valued on par with forgiveness towards the others’ failures, which is rather unfortunate, as the recent research shows.
According to the article titled “Self-Forgiveness: The Stepchild of Forgiveness Research” conducted by Julie H. Hall and Frank D. Fincham, people’s attitude towards the others is in most cases defined by their standards for their own behavior and personality.
In their paper, the authors explain the link between forgiveness and self-forgiveness, as well as define various offence-related factors. It is important to stress that the researches of that kind have never been undertaken on a scholarly scale before, since the issue in question has never been considered worthy of a scholarly research.
However, Hall and Fincham have successfully proved the opposite. The key issues that the given research responds to or, at least, attempts to solve, are the definition of self-forgiveness, the relation between self-forgiveness and interpersonal forgiveness, and the means to differentiate between self-forgiveness and pseudo self-forgiveness.
As for the results of the research, it must be admitted that the latter proved rather unexpected. It turned out that the forgiveness of others is closely related to self-forgiveness; moreover, the latter often predetermines the former.
In addition, the authors have come up with a model of self-forgiveness that encompasses the stages of the forgiveness process, explaining the specifics of human behavior in the process of forgiving.
According to the authors, self-forgiving people tend to compromise in the process of conflict solving, as well as admit that they are guilty, in most cases. Hence, it can и concluded that self-forgiveness defines forgiveness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue seems to be beyond exciting. Even though the idea that forgiveness stems from the ability to forgive one’s own faults is not quite new, the research offers a new vision of the problem. Hence, it seems that the paper by Hall and Fincham provides a foil for the further research.
In addition, the paper raises a number of questions that are yet to be answered. For instance, Hall and Fincham claim that at present, there are no measures for forgiveness, which makes the assessment process rather complicated according to the results of Hall and Fincham’s research (Hall