The 2020 Summer Olympics Games In Doha City Essay Essay Help

Introduction Sports mega-events in the world continue to be widely celebrated, admired, and appreciated by many people in different countries (Preuss, 2004).

The popular mega-events in the world include Olympic Games, the widely admired Soccer World Cup, UEFA Championship, and all other related mega-events.

All these events are adored given their pleasure and entertainment and due to numerous impacts they bring to those countries and regions that host them (Humpreys and Prokopowicz, 2005).

Olympic Games, for instance, have been found to be the most popular and widely watched games according to the research findings by the Sponsorship Intelligence (SI) (Humpreys and Prokopowicz, 2005).

The research commissioned by International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 2004 indicates that, Olympic Games have a popularity awareness of about 95% among people of both ages around the world (Sport Business, 2005).

Moreover, the Olympic sports are not just seen as sports for entertainment, but the event is further regarded as a cultural and social event.

According to the research findings, 76% of people believe that Olympics constitute more than just a sport; 72% believe that Olympics constitute competition aimed at winning, while 72% contend that Olympics provide good role models for children and young people (Sport Business, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from these, Olympics Games have had economic impacts on countries and regions holding the events; indeed, tourism, hospitality, image building, and infrastructural developments have been realized as a result of Olympic Games (Preuss, 2004).

These therefore may be the diverse reasons as to why various committees and stakeholders in Qatar have come together to strategize on the best ways to ensure the 2020 Summer Olympics Games are held in the country.

Given that bidding for mega-events in a global stage is a complex and sometimes difficulty process, the country does not leave any chance to waste and efforts have been beefed up to ensure the games come to the country.

Aims and Objectives of the Proposal World events remain coveted by majority of people across the world, especially Olympics Games (Kumar 2007). As a result, effort by those interested in having chance to host international sporting events cannot be underestimated or ignored.

There has been growing enthusiasm in the Arab world over the need to host world events and promote the region into world limelight and recognition (Houlihan and Green, 2011).

Apart from Cairo, Doha is another city in the Arab world that has increased its effort to have Summer Olympic Games of 2020 held in the city.

The main aim of the stakeholders in the city is to enable elevation of Doha and Qatar at large into international limelight and be able to bring international trade and investment in the city.

We will write a custom Essay on The 2020 Summer Olympics Games in Doha City specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The stakeholders of the city and the Qatar Olympic Committee have come together to put down critical strategies that can be used to win the bid for rights to host 2020 Summer Olympics Games.

Although there are diverse factors as to why the city is interested in the winning bid rights to host the games, it is seen that the basic objectives of the stakeholders in the city is to increase tourist activities as a result of the games, and also motivate investors into the country and particularly in the city.

Through Olympic Games, the stakeholders of Doha City aim to portray a unique sporting experience for the city that will in turn culminate into an international brand and this will enable the city to march alongside other global famous cities that have been host to Olympics Games and their status has gone up (Houlihan and Green, 2011).

Background Information It is important to explore the background information concerning Olympic Games and this will lead the research to look at Olympics Games in history, explore the role played by International Olympic Committee (IOC) and eventually analyze background information about the bidding city-Doha City.

History of Olympic Games Olympics Games constitute major internationally recognized events that primarily feature summer and winter sports. When the sports are held every four years, the world witnesses a high number of participants and involvement, with thousands of athletes taking part in different sports.

Olympics Games, as compared to other international events, appear to be the most popular sports in the history of mankind. They attract a high number of participants and currently, about 200 countries take part in the games.

Olympics Games derive their origin in the city of Olympia located in Greece, possibly during the period of 776 BC (NOSTOS Hellenic Information Society (UK), 2000). The first games in the city were organized in the valley of Olympia in Elis, which was full of woods and other vegetations.

At some point, historians point to the fact that, the period 776 BC was not the first time the Olympics Games were being held in the city of Olympia, but it was the first kind of games conducted with great organization that was accompanied by festivals, usually held after four years (NOSTOS Hellenic Information Society (UK), 2000).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The 2020 Summer Olympics Games in Doha City by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This was especially after the signing of peace agreement between the inhabitants of Elis and Pisa, and as a result, Olympics Games were considered the avenue to foster this peace agreement.

At the same time, Olympics Games became the appropriate avenue through which people of Greece and especially Olympia could express their pride of nationhood, apart from the peaceful goals of cohesive co-existence.

From the first year they were held (776 BC), Olympics Games became an event that was subsequently held after four years up to 393 AD, before being interrupted and stopped by the Christian Byzantine Emperor Theodosius 1 (NOSTOS Hellenic Information Society (UK), 2000).

At this point, Olympics Games had been practiced for about 1170 years. Efforts in modern world increased to have Olympics Games restored and these efforts were particularly evident in France during the 19th century.

Subsequently, the modern form of Olympics Games picked in 1896 and it was held in Athens, Greece, and this is why the modern world is accustomed to Summer Olympics Games.

The two most important Olympics Games that majority of athletes participate in include the Winter and the Summer Olympics Games.

However, in recent times, more developments in terms of changes have been witnessed as far as the sports are concerned, whereby, there has been introduction of Youth Olympic Games for young athletes and introduction of Paralympics Games for athletes with disabilities (Young 2004).

The modern world has grown through mass media commercialized Olympics Games and today, athletes participate in the games as professionals.

In order to host Olympics Games, a country needs thorough preparations of key elements and infrastructures, and as a result, the entire process is regarded as risky.

Nevertheless, this has not discouraged determined cities and countries from seeking rights to host such games. In addition, this may just explains why the city of Doha is currently in the race for bid to have the rights to hold the games in 2020.

The country views the chance to host the 2020 Olympics Games as an opportunity to enable the city realize robust developments in terms of infrastructures, as well as social and economic progress (Houlihan and Green 2011).

The International Olympic Committee Given the size of the Olympics Games and high participation of countries and individuals, there has been the need to have a body in place to ensure sanity is observed in conducting the sports.

International Olympics Committee was created solely to bring together diverse stakeholders involved in the sports into a kind of recognizable community guided by rules and regulations as to how the games should be developed, facilitated, and preserved.

The body was founded in 1894 by an individual known as Baron Pierre de Courtin, and the headquarters of the organization are located at Lausanne in Switzerland (Bowdin, 2010).

As a result, International Olympics Committee has assumed key roles such as having the powers to facilitate the selection process of countries to host Olympics, presiding over all activities of planning for Olympics Games, providing necessary and appropriate information concerning Olympics Games, and so on (Bowdin, 2010).

Simply, International Olympics Committee is regarded as the primary and supreme organization mandated with responsibilities and powers to preside over Olympic Movement and related activities.

At the same time, the IOC functions as a custodian of collaborative relationships involving Olympics Games Committees such as, the National Olympic Committees (NOCs), the International Sports Federations (Ifs), the athletes, and the Organizing Committees for the Olympic Games (OCOGs).

From the responsibility it play or performs, IOC has been the primary nerve to the progress and success of Olympics Games across the world, since its planning procedures ensure smoothness in hosting and running of Olympics Games.

The Bidding City-Doha The city of Doha is regarded as biggest city in Qatar and acts as the capital city of the republic of Qatar. The city is located in a region popularly known as Persian Gulf and according to census statistics of 2008, the city has a population of about 998, 651 people (Oxford Business Group, 2008).

At the same time, the city is considered as one of the primary municipalities of Qatar. Moreover, the city inhabits about 80% of the country’s population, as well as acts as the basic economic centre of the country.

At the same time, it is the administrative centre for the political government of Qatar, where majority of officials reside and conduct their business or activities.

Majority of the city’s inhabitants are expatriates who come from different countries such as the Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Germany, and majority from Asian and European countries (Oxford Business Group, 2008).

Infrastructure development in the city is huge and many investors have put up modern buildings in the city. Moreover, infrastructures such communication, transport and financial services in the city are excellent, and this can be linked to economic role the city plays in the country and the entire Persian Gulf region (Oxford Business Group, 2008).

Modern hospitality facilities are being put up, and this shows how the city is likely to be a hub for tourism activities. On overall, Doha has placed itself in a good position of appealing to diverse international and national investors and tourists, which may just explain the continued growth of the city, especially in the future.

The intention to bid for 2020 rights of hosting Summer Olympics are further boosted by Doha’s role in the past, where it has played host to major regional sports.

Some of the sports the city has hosted in the past include 2006 Asian Games, 2011 Pan Arab Games, 2011 AFC Asian Cup, and in 2022, the city will be home to FIFA World Cup.

Analysis of Olympic Games Strengths

Strengths of Olympics Games are reflected in the overall benefits the games bring to the diverse people in terms of economic, social, and cultural status.

In analyzing the past reports about the benefits Olympics Games has been able to bring, it is clear that the hosting community can derive various benefits from the games.

For example, in a report to assess the impact of 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympics Games in British Columbia, it was established that, the games resulted into long-term impact for the people and communities in the area, and these long-term positive impacts translated into numerous sectors of the economy (Nebbeling, 2002).

The games were found to results into increased higher volumes of visitors to British Columbia, prior and after the games, especially after the advertisement of the city (Nebbeling, 2002).

Moreover, the games provided opportunity for the products and services of the region to be exposed to wide array of both national and international audience, thereby promoting and facilitating trade and investment.

At the same time, the report noted that, as a result of sports, the region was able to create long-term and sustaining legacy reflected in aspects such as sports facilities, cultural and sports endowment programs, social housing and major transportation infrastructure improvements (Nebbeling, 2002).

In another report, which has been produced about the likely impact of London Olympics of 2012, it has been estimated that the games will lead to creation of about 30,000 new jobs (Halper, 2009).

Furthermore, study by the Olympics Games Impact Study shows that, the GDP of London would increase by 5.9 billion pounds between the years 2005 and 2016 as a result of Olympics Games (Halper, 2009).

From these evidences, it is clear that hosting Olympics Games is likely to stimulate economic, social, and cultural benefits to the city of Doha over a long-term period.

Weaknesses

Despite the numerous positive things associated with Olympics Games, it has to be noted that the games also reflect and exhibit abilities to promote negative consequences, which may have far-reaching negative consequences to the people, communities, and environment.

In the past, Olympics Games have been associated with displacement, migration, and relocation of people, especially from areas where fields and other infrastructural buildings have to be built (Roche, 2000).

This in turn has led people to loose their cultural attachments to aspects like land, vegetations, arts, and aspects that reinforce identity of people.

In similar manner, the high number of people who crowd the hosting city does not auger well with the environment and resources of the area.

Environmental pollution and degradation is likely to increase, resources are likely to be strained, and people’s social and cultural stability is likely to be disrupted (Roche, 2000).

Moreover, such high world events result into skyrocketing of prices of products and services in cities and neighborhoods, where the games are taking pace. This may not auger well to the economic and welfare of people in those areas, especially those with low incomes.

External Analysis of the Bidding City This section will evaluate and assess the suitability of Doha City to host 2020 Summer Olympics Games in regard to its PESTLE factors and SWOT factors.

PESTLE factors look at external environment of the city, while SWOT factors look at the internal factors that make the city suitable for the games.

Pestle Analysis Political

Qatar is one of the few countries in the Persian region and Arab world that enjoy relative political stability. The country, unlike majority, was not affected by the Arab uprising that characterized majority of Arab countries in the past few months.

Much of the country’s political control is exercised in the city of Doha; indeed, apart from being an economic hub, Doha is a political and administrative base of the country’s key institutions.

Given its position in national and international level, the city’s security is high. In recent times, big international events took place in the city, and this just demonstrates how the city is equipped to hold many international events in future.

For example, the city was host to the first ministerial-level dubbed the ‘Doha Development Round of World Trade Organizations negotiations (World Trade Organization, 2012).

Apart from this, the city successfully hosted the 2011 Asian Games, together with 2011 Pan Arab Games. Moreover, the city is home to numerous fields that will be used in 2022 FIFA World Cup Soccer.

The success of these events shows how Doha is politically stable, and it has used this stability to create an environment for internationally recognized events.

Economics

Qatar is one of the Arab countries that produce oil and natural gases in large quantities. Majority of this wealth is concentrated in Doha and the city has become the economic centre of Qatar.

For instance, the country is home to the largest oil companies such as Qatar Petroleum, Qatar gas and Ras Gas (Martin-Bea, 2008).

Due to diversification strategies that the government has initiated in terms of the economy of the country, there is booming construction, financial, real estate, tourism, and service industry in the city of Doha (Martin-Bea, 2008).

This has also been contributed by the ‘modernization program’ spearheaded by the head of state of Qatar (Martin-Bea, 2008).

The economic potential in the city has attracted local and outside investors, a situation that shows how Doha has progressively embraced globalization aspects, and this makes the city the appropriate venue for 2020 Summer Olympics Games.

Social

About 80% of Qatar population resides in the city, and this phenomenon is spiced up by presence of large population of emigrants. Doha acts as home to diverse cultures and groups of people who tend to exist in harmony.

At the same time, tolerance of spiritual and cultural differences seems to be excellent in Doha, and this can be evidenced from construction of numerous churches in the city (Martin-Bea, 2008).

Literacy level in the city is high and people tend to be informed in wide array of issues. At the same time, education is key priority of government of Qatar, and this has seen Doha have some of the best institutions.

Education and literacy are two critical aspects through which social development of any society can be realized. In this sphere, it can therefore be said that, bidding for Summer Olympics is likely to consider the educational level of people of Doha.

Educated people are perceived to make good decisions, are informed, and are more civilized. Apart from education, sports and cultural arts also dominate the lives of people of Doha, a situation likely to be an avenue for tourism and recreational activities.

Lastly, Doha is one of the cities that have been found to have the lowest crime rates in the region, and this tends to auger well to any international event (Wallace, N.d).

Technology

Doha has progressed immensely due to availability and use of technology. The infrastructural development in the city has forced the residents to be first receptors of information.

In addition, there are many social networks as a result of wide distribution and presence of technology such as internet (Martin-Bea, 2008).

As a result, most activities in the city and the lives of people in the city have been influenced greatly by technology. Technology can be used to spur tourism and economic activities in the city.

Moreover, people conducting their functions in the city are likely to remain connected to the outer world through internet and social networks. Therefore, sophisticated technology of the city is likely to be an asset of winning the bid for the Olympics Games.

Legal

As compared to its neighbors, Qatar has been undertaking legal reforms in order to make its trade and investment opportunities both to local and foreign investors (Wallace, N.d).

As a result, there are many foreign investors in Doha, and the entire regulation system in the country strives to be transparent and business-friendly.

The friendly business environment created in the country is likely to attract more visitors who may be interested in numerous opportunities available in the country. Hence, the amenable nature of people of Doha is likely to increase confidence among people, hence the need for the bid.

Environment

Doha has a subtropical climate that has seen heat level in the city sometimes go up. Temperatures average over 30c degrees, and this is especially during the May to September period.

Rainfall is scarce and humidity is variable. However, the government emphasis on construction of real estate in the suburb makes it possible to move out of the city.

At the same time, the suburb has some of the excellent beaches that have cool breezes where people can relax during hot day. Moreover, proposals have been tabled to construct air-conditioned stadiums in order to beat the heat in the country.

SWOT Analysis The city of Doha can use SWOT tools to identify the primary strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. In this manner, the report will look at the key opportunities the city has and its key threats.

The opportunities can be pursued while threats can be analyzed and strategies developed to avoid them in the most harmless manner.

Opportunities

Major opportunities for Doha include a booming economy that enables the city to provide essential services and amenities to participants and audience.

Another opportunity lies in the country’s international image of being one of the safest countries to live and conduct business in. At the same time, information technology that has resulted into an information-based society in the country gives the city an upper

hand, especially when compared to other competitors, apart from Madrid.

Another opportunity for the country is exhibited in the infrastructural development in terms of facilities, hotels, housings, and numerous fields.

The country, and especially the city, has some of the excellent and state-of-the- art fields that have seen the country host 2006 Asian Games, 2011 Pan Arab Games, 2011 AFC Asian Cup successfully, and the eventual coming 2022 World Soccer Football Cup.

Threats

The major threat for the city’s bid is the environmental matters. The heat in the country, especially during summer, remains the biggest obstacle to the city’s bid.

This fact is further accelerated by the city’s request to change the dates for the Olympics from July-August to August in order to avoid high levels of temperatures (Casey, 2012).

Moreover, the city aims to change the events schedule so that major events take place in the morning instead of the day to avoid interruption from high temperature rates.

These issues may be huge obstacles for the attempts being made by the city and this will require committees concerned with the actual bid process to device appropriate ways to deal with these issues. One way is to focus more on constructing air-conditioned fields, but the committee has to show how this plan is viable and sustainable.

Porter’s Five Forces Porter asserts that, before organizations can develop successful strategies, they need to understand what particular forces are likely to affect their operations and profits in the entire industry (Ahlstrom and Bruton, 2009).

As a result, the author identified five forces (Porter’s five forces model), which he argued that have the capacity to affect the profitability of the organization.

The argument that is advanced is that, all firms present in a particular industry are likely to face forces within their industry, which in one way or the other may affect profitability capability of the company.

As a result, if a firm or business organization understands these forces, it is in a position to develop specific strategies, which can allow the business or organization to take advantage or protect itself from the forces and in turn, enable the organization to consistently remain profitable (Ahlstrom and Bruton, 2009).

The five forces include buyers, suppliers, new entrants, substitutes, and rivalry (Ahlstrom and Bruton 2009). Although Olympics Games have no competitor, since the IOC operates the games as monopoly, the major competition is likely to be witnessed among sports companies that supply different materials for the games.

At the moment, Sports Companies are many, and as the popularity of the game increases, new sports companies rise up to compete with the already established companies.

As a result, bargaining power of buyers (sports women and men) is likely to be high. Given that there are many players and new entrants are likely to increase due to less stringent factors, sports companies may want to maintain steady and loyal suppliers to beat deadlines during the games, and as a result, the bargaining power of suppliers is likely to increase as competition among sports companies increases (Ahlstrom and Bruton, 2009).

On the other hand, there are less stringent rules limiting new companies, and this situation is likely to see entrants of new companies increase.

At the same time, presence of numerous players is likely to see availability of numerous substitutes, a situation likely to reduce prices of sports products. Lastly, rivalry is likely to be high due to ease of entry and presence of many established players (Ahlstrom and Bruton, 2009).

Review of Success Key Factors for the Event Analysis of Doha city leads to identification of key success factors that the city can exploit in order to win bid rights for Games. The country boasts of political stability, economic boom, and robust development of the city.

This is in addition to the technological development of the city, the civilization, and cosmopolitan nature of the city, the social cohesiveness, and enhanced security measures with reduced crime rates in the city, and the infrastructural development of the city in terms of fields, roads, houses, hotels, and other critical facilities.

Technology, for instance, can be used to increase worldwide solicitation for support for the city to be the destiny of 2020 Olympics Games.

On the other hand, political stability and support can enable the city to receive critical support in its endeavor to have the bid to host the games. Social cohesiveness of the city on the other hand can be used to attract more attention and enthusiasm from people around the world.

Analysis of Strategic Option to ensure Successful Hosting Porter develops the Porter’s Generic Strategy Framework, where the author proposes three responses to industry structure and to competition in the business environment.

The three responses are cost leadership, differentiation, and focus (Eldring, 2009). In the case of Doha city, focus leadership is the most appropriate for the city stakeholders to utilize in order to win bid rights.

Doha city, as compared to other cities, has excellent infrastructures, economy, security, political stability, and cultural and arts centers.

As a result, the city of Doha boosts itself as home to technological powerhouse, excellent tourism destination, and unique sports fields and facilities.

At the same time, the amenable nature of people of Doha cannot be compared to any other in the category of those competing with the city.

Games such as Olympics succeed in an environment in which tourism flourishes, security is guaranteed, information technology is excellent, infrastructural development is perfect, and civilization of the city is world class or global.

Recommendations to Strategy Approach From the PESTLE and SWOT studies that have been done, it is clear that Doha’s key resources that are necessary to win the bid of rights to hold 2020 Olympic Games.

The infrastructures are excellent, together with other key facilities. However, as it was seen, environmental concerns for the heat in the country remain the obstacle.

As a result, the city should establish a professional and consultancy body to evaluate the best ways the issue of increased temperatures can be dealt with so as not to crop up as the major obstacle to the bid.

At the same time, the city should establish a committee of experts to evaluate the sustainability and viability of putting up air-conditioned fields (Casey, 2012).

Another recommendation suggested for stakeholders of the city is to devise, enhance, and promote effective advertisement strategies for the city, a situation that will increased general international awareness about Doha.

Given that Madrid is the most important competitor and known in world, the city should increase advertisement strategies to counter this development and position itself as the widely known city in the world. Both local and international advertisement agencies should be used in this strategy.

Conclusion Bidding for rights to host internationally recognized events is gradually becoming a competitive process such that cities across the world no longer find easy to obtain the rights.

This shows how the process and popularity of games has become important. This great enthusiasm can be associated with increased economic, social, and cultural benefits associated with hosting internationally recognized sports.

For the 2020 Summer Olympics Games, the final round of selection has five cities, and Doha city is one of them. Bidding for the second time, the city has to put in place all the necessary measures and strategies to ensure that the chance does not slip away.

As a result, this report has largely looked at how the city of Doha can successful bid for the right to host the 2020 Olympics events.

Reference List Ahlstrom, D.,

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Sex and Death in Stoker’s Dracula Essay (Book Review) essay help site:edu

The Victorian society imposed strict restrains on uncovering sexuality, particularly expressing female sexuality because the Victorian vision of a woman was confined to an idealized representation of the roles that females should play in society.

Therefore, Stoker’s novel Dracula reflects a negative attitude toward female sexuality that conforms neither of the above-accepted patterns. As a result, death is the only punishment for any displays of women’s eroticism.

Death and sexuality, therefore, are closely intertwined because they are the most powerful tools of peace disruption among both males and females.

Specific attention should be paid to the representation of a New Woman freed from sexuality, evaluation of sex as an anti-Christian regressive process demoralizing society, and strong association between sex and death as disruptive powers stereotypes in the Victorian era.

Stoker was fully aware of the sexual allegories running through his novel and heavily criticized by him. At the end of the novel, the sexualized women are get punished for their immoral actions and uncontrolled sexual desires: “There was something about them that made me uneasy, some longing and at the same time deadly fear” (Stoker 57).

Within the rigid social and moral frames of the Victorian age society, women were accepted into several limited options – acting the role of a chaste and innocent girl, or imposing the obligation of mother and wife.

Other than that was heavily criticized and rejected by society and by men who resisted their sexual fantasies and wished to exterminate any of abnormal sexual representations (Davis 22). In addition, the death of the female vampire can be associated with the author’s negative outlook toward self-determined women that surpassed the acceptable norms of morale.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All women succumbed to the Count Dracula’s evil intentions were doomed to die, except for Mina Harker, the woman who manages to resist Dracula’s seduction.

In the novel, the heroine reveals a perfect symbiosis of contemporary woman possessing traditional virtues: “She is one of God’s women, fashioned by His own hand to show use men and other women that there is a heaven where we can enter, and that its light can be here on earth” (Stoker 300).

By presenting the portrayal of Mina as the one belonging to the New Women generation, the author provides an example of the Victorian woman that is capable of resisting the devil’s seduction.

Just as the Count Dracula personifies the vices of society and demoralized outlook on sexual relationships, sex is featured as an anti-Christian regressive display, which makes both men and women succumb to their “inner” vampires (Davidson 27).

In the play, Stoker refers to religious ideologies while demonstrating his opposition to the expression of sexuality; he, therefore, considers Dracula as antagonistic hero resisting divine laws: “Thus are we ministers of God’s own wish: that the world, and men for whom His Son dies, will not be given over to monsters, whose very existence would defame Him” (Stoker 508).

At this point, the story can be regarded as a moral tale that informs about the greatest concerns of the Victorian age – the threat of violating the religious traditions, and the threat of feeing women from moral and stereotypical boundaries of that time.

More importantly, the presence of an antagonistic hero creates transparent and clear distinction between right and wrong actions, as well as between divine and vicious sources of social intentions.

We will write a custom Book Review on Sex and Death in Stoker’s Dracula specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Regarding the above-presented juxtapositions, the deep connection between such controversial conceptions as sexuality and death is explicitly revealed. Representing sexuality as the one unfitting societal views is as powerful as representation of death.

Hence, those females and males surpassing the forbidden boundaries are doomed to be on the edge of death. Lucy fails to resist Dracula’s seduction and reveals her sexual nature opposite to her traditional virtues (Stoker 486).

As a result, Van Helsing sees no other choices but to exterminate the evil and turn Lucy into a socially and morally respectable state. Because of the fear of loosing their reputation, men decide to kill Lucy and seduced girls to save the society from vices. These female vampires, therefore, embody the utmost sexual desires of men who are afraid of been captured by their personal fantasies and be socially scorned.

In conclusion, strong expression of female sexuality is closely associated with the disruptive power of death in Stoker’s novel. Women and men of the Victorian era were heavily suppressed by rigid morale and religious ideologies and, as a result, surpassing the established frames would mean death for male honor and female innocence.

Hence, Dracula embodies all the societal vices and sins that were rigidly criticized and forbidden at that time. Therefore, sexualized women, such as Lucy who succumbed to vices, should be punished whereas Mina, a representative of the modern female movement, manages to suppress her inner sexuality and liberate herself from the evil.

This confrontation is also represented through eternal encounters between the Devil and God, between the right and the wrong. Pursuing the religious patterns of that time, Stoker compares Dracula with the Devil who demoralizes and disrupts society.

Works Cited Davis, Lloyd. Virginal Sexuality and Textuality in Victorian Literature. US: SUNY Press, 1993. Print.

Davison, Carol Margaret. Bram Stocker’s Dracula: Sucking Through the Century, 1897-1997. US: Dundurn Press, 1997. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sex and Death in Stoker’s Dracula by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Stoker, Bram. Dracula. US: Plain Label Books, 1897. Print.

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Pros and Cons of Social Networking Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Pros of social networking

Cons of social networking sites

Control of risks by social networking sites

Conclusion

References

Introduction Technology and innovation have brought about many applications which are used by individuals to better their lives. Social networking sites are applications on internet that allow individuals, groups or organizations to interact and share

Information, concepts and interact with each other.

Social networking sites like face book, twitter, my space and you tube have grown to be very popular all over the world. While the these sites have primarily been used by individuals to connect with their friends and family members, many business and corporate organizations have taken advantage of them to advertise and market their products and services to their existing and potential clients.

Some of the marketing practices carried out by companies have been criticized and challenged as being unethical and raising many other concerns as far as consumer welfare and watch groups are concerned (Bloom

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Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde Essay essay help free

Robert Louis Stevenson’s novel, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, speaks about a person with a split personality. It tells of a person leading two parallel ways of life. At one time, he is a being but at other times, he has a different personality all together.

At one time, he is a human, exhibiting human nature and character but at another moment, he is an ogre trampling on children and killing innocent people. Robert Louis’s novel presents a misanthropic view and a general disregard for human nature.

His work leans towards a general disliking of human nature, which is shared by a few other misanthropists who have expressed this through their satirical writings. A good example is Moliere’s Character, Alceste, in a 1666 play. Alceste states that his hate is general. He hates all men because some are evil and filled with wicked deeds, and hates others because of their permissiveness towards the wicked.

This is a story that is perceived from varying angles and perspectives. The novel tells a story about one doctor with split personality. The story dissects the existence of duality within the life of a person or basically the duality of human nature.

Robert Louis suggests that within every human, there exists the evil and the perfectly human and good side. As a consequence, the bad nature is occasionally cast upon the human side. Dr. Jekyll is one person who has continuously veiled a life featuring wicked and evil acts and he feels like he is always fighting within himself.

He was wondering what side of him to expose and at what time1 (Stevenson 132). He happens to scientifically create a concoction that has the supernatural ability of transforming him from one side of his dual nature to the other. However, after taking it for a longer time, he realizes that he does not need the portion in order to transform. This is a fact that eventually brings him down.

The Victorian norms dictated that things had to happen with due consideration to class, and no class was to overlap the other in its areas of operation. The class system demanded that issues leadership, governance and politics be left to the upper class.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To the upper class, Mr. Hyde represents the working class. To them, the working class does not consist of gentlemen but rather people of no status. This relation shows how the story challenges the Victorians’ ideas on a political platform.

This novel, as most philosophers and literary persons argue, was meant or rather the events in the novel were a forecast on what was to be the situation in Victorian England, which is the setting place for the novel.

One very outstanding modern world challenge as manifested in the novel is scientific research. Some scientific researches are carried out by unscrupulous scientists who have ill intentions with their discoveries just like Mr. Hyde in the novel.

The modern world is faced with the challenge of regulating the work of scientists. Recently the world has had to deal with the controversial issue of human cloning. We as humans are not quite sure where this scientific move will lead us to, but we fear the ability of cloning to create a million terrorists.

The world over, people are faced with the weakness of being economical with very vital information. This can be seen in the book, where Utterson attempts to hide his friend’s ugly deeds. He also prevents him from engaging in a dangerous affair with Mr. Hyde.

In the same sense, Jekyll goes an extra mile to conceal Hyde’s identity2 (Pagden 83-85). Dr. Hyde is hiding his rather despicable scientific work and his beastly behavior. Utterson denied providing information to the police when he discovered about his friend.

He was doing this in order to protect his friend’s integrity and public image. This, in a modern sense, reflects the many different inside jobs within the society. This includes the people living with and hiding evil. People are upholding status quo since no man would ever want to appear any lesser.

We will write a custom Essay on Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The aspect of class is also portrayed. People who can afford excesses are graded as the upper class, while those who can barely afford basic needs for themselves belong to the lower class.

The people in the middle class also exist and they are either graded as upper middle class (since they are closer to the upper class) or lower middle class (just next to the lowest class). In this book, class is reflected in the physical appearance or rather the architecture.

The book describes Hyde’s residence as a shabby looking place. In opposition to this, Dr. Jekyll’s place is luxurious, well kept and majestic.

The modern society, just as in the book, is marred with violence. There are records of various acts of violence. The scenes always involve the culprit – who is Hyde – and a victim who is always an innocent individual. In the earlier chapters of the book, another bad side of Hyde is witnessed.

He is recorded to have trampled on a young girl in the street without any mercy. This was done without any prior provocation3 (Kiely and Robert 64-65). Just as the novel concludes, we discover that Hyde seriously enjoyed committing those heinous acts of violence.

He drew a lot of pleasure and satisfaction from violence. Through this, we see the imagery that Stevenson’s work depicts on the modern society, which is the constant acts violence.

Even more interesting is the fact that the final victims of Hyde’s violent episodes are Jekyll and himself. Jekyll commits suicide in front of Utterson and Poole. However, it is ironic that, in this case, none of the victims is innocent.

Another challenge that the modern society is faced with is male domination. The novel (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde), in a way, depicts a classic touchstone of the Victorian society and its ways of life. The novel reflects what the Victorian society really was.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most essentially, it proves the fact that this was a male-dominated era. The men had all privileges and possessed the powers that were bestowed upon them by the society. Just as in the modern society, this was a society fighting male domination.

In the entire novel, female characters are very few, if any. All the main characters in the book are male or rather professional gentlemen. This basically reflects what the era upheld and respected – men of status. The modern society is trying to wreath itself out of male domination with worldwide calls for gender equity and gender balance.

The first female that we come across in the novel is the young girl who is literally run over by Hyde. This further depicts the female members of this society as very feeble, helpless and in need of help from others (males) in order for their voices to be heard.

The modern society is also faced with the challenge of people having different sexual orientations. Apart from the book having very scanty information regarding women characters, there is also no information on any of the characters having intimate female relations.

Most of the literary persons suggest that Louis Stevenson, being a worker under the Victorian restrictions, was rather reluctant to relay information regarding its monkish patterns of existence4 (Calder and Robert 198-199). It can be rightly argued that Jekyll indulged in rather secret pleasures. Another discovery is made about Lanyon, Enfield, Utterson and Jekyll. Firstly, they are all bachelors.

Secondly, they derive their friendship and intellectual stimulation from one another. Many have thus postulated that this absence of active female characterization suggests that Jekyll’s secretive adventures were homosexual tendencies that were so common a practice at the time.

Undeniably, homosexuality is a feature that is of great concern all over the world, juggling between acceptability and rejection.

A new and somewhat radical thinking by Sigmund Freud suggests that the story is about psychoanalysis and issues of the subconscious. He reiterates that the conscious entails everything we are aware of including those that we can talk about and even think of in a rational manner.

The subconscious is the store of feelings, desires, thoughts and memories that are not within the conscious awareness. The subconscious controls behavior and experience even though one may be consciously unaware of the influences within.

Freud also identified the preconscious. He defined it as the memory. He states that the memory is not always a component of the conscious but can be recovered or retrieved with less difficulty at any time.

He believes that humans’ acts and deeds are influenced by a powerful impulse that they will never be able to comprehend. This is visible in the story whereby Mr. Hyde is a representation of Dr. Jekyll’s subconscious. Dr. Jekyll’s conscience desires to be set free from the existing boundaries of humanity.

These boundaries have been cast upon him by the Victorian society5 (Rogers and sorrel 168-169). The modern man is fighting within himself to be rid of the primitive form, which is a form that is wild, violent and uncouth. People have to conform to the set codes of conduct or face the consequences.

It is rather important to note that the primitive form is the true and genuine version of a person. The modern form has merely been molded by the modern society.

Another modern societal challenge is poor communication. The persons in the book opt to withhold issues of great importance to the society. In the first chapter of the book, Enfield conceals some important information. He refuses to tell about the culprit who ran over the girl on the street.

He claims that he is avoiding gossip. However, later after naming Hyde, the book states that Utterson and Enfield unceremoniously ended the conversation. This silence reflects the moral character of the Victorian era, which was an era that greatly emphasized on the outward appearance and no one would have liked to be identified as a gossiper.

The novel is also a reflection of the modern London City. During that time, the city was undergoing great transformations and in effect did not lack the challenges that come with urbanization. The city appears to be the central place for majority of the novel’s scenes.

The city is described as being idyllic and of much splendor but at the same time, it is also revealed as dangerous, dark and full of mysteries. This is a rather accurate description of the current cities and city lives. The cities are faced with challenges of holding extremities.

The modern city contains the pious people and on the other hand, it contains the ‘wrongdoers’. During the daytime, this city is bubbling with seemingly legitimate activities. However, at night, the city is literally handed over to the masters of the dark who include the prostitutes, gangsters, tricksters and such related persons. At night, the dark is left in the hands of the law enforcers.

Another novelist, Dan Chaon, gives his two cents about the novel. He reiterates that Robert Louis used the setup of a modern city in order to make the situation as realistic as possible. It was a perfect place that Hyde could ever live. He adds that Hyde needed the anonymity. This anonymity could be easily provided by the masses present in the city.

In conclusion, it should be noted that, as Joseph Jacobs wrote in the year 1894, this novel stands next to Gulliver’s Travel and The Pilgrim’s progress as one of the three most intriguing works of allegory in English.

However, this book is set in the Victorian era and is an anticipation of the Twentieth Century. Undeniably, the story strikes the reality surrounding the human nature. This story, as observed from the above discussion, signifies the modern gothic and relates minimally to the traditional Victorian era.

Bibliography Calder, John, and Lee Robert. A Life Study. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. Print.

Kiely, Ray, and Lee Robert. The Fiction of Adventure. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1964. Print.

Pagden, Ann. About Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Print.

Rogers, George, and Timothy Sorell. The Dual Nature of Man. London: Routledge, 2000. Print.

Stevenson, Reed. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. New York: Scribner, 1886. Print.

Footnotes 1 Stevenson, Reed. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (New York: Scribner, 1886). 132.

2 Pagden, Ann. About Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987) 83-85.

3 Ray Kiely and L. Robert. The Fiction of Adventure (Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1964) 64-65.

4 John Calder and L. Robert. A Life Study (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980) 198-199.

5 George Rogers and T. Sorell. The Dual Nature of Man (London: Routledge, 2000) 168-169.

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Triumph at Kapyong Essay (Book Review) essay help: essay help

The book, Triumph at Kapyong, which was written by documentary and television news reporter, Dan Bjarnason, serves as honor to both the involvement of Canada in the mediations and its actions to response against Communist attacks.

This book was released in 2011 as a dedication to 60th Anniversary of the war. The release date was very significant, but too was the book content. The author was very successful in analysis and bringing to life what really happens in the battle 60 years ago, which most people have been neglecting.

The book focuses on the Battle of Kapyong, a minor group of hills in the northeastern part of Seoul and Bjarnason as well uses most of his story to explain the incidents which resulted to participation of Canada in the battle.

He also mentioned the creation of the combat division required to manage this new war, and the bravery portrayed by their leaders in ensuring that this authority was contribution of the broader United Nation, but fully self-governing from American authority.

The soldiers who were deployed in the war came from second Battalion of the Princess Patricia, who had gained his status at Ortona and Vimy and provided the past success; it was not surprising that they were the first to join the war in Korea.

Bjarnason explains the significance of the power of Brigadier John Rockingham, brigade commander on the PPCLI, who was famous and honored experienced person in the war. Brigadier Rockingham wanted the work to be completed efficiently and effectively by several subordinates who created the resistance of Kapyong achievable.

Another role which was focused in the book is the role of the commanding officer of the PPCLI’s second Battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel Jim Stone, who facilitated the soldiers to the level that they were prepared for their initial attempt through fire in an aggressive land and fighting a well-equipped opponents who usually favored to raid their opponents during the night.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering these Chinese techniques and experiencing the mass execution of a United States patrol that had been captured in their sleeping bags and this led Stone to command that the soldiers on patrol should just carry a blanket to cover themselves during the assignment. He stated that the blankets would help them to counterattack their opponents since it will be easy for them to get out of the blankets and defend themselves.

In April 1951, the attack on Kipyong was carried out and the author claims that the attack was part of the Chinese “Fifth Phase” insult.

Many people may not be informed about the participation of Canadians in this way and most probably have learned about the distracted conflict which overcame the British Army’s Gloustershire Regiment which was pushed towards the west, or also the third Battalion Royal Australian Regiment which also moved back after the severe war.

These divisions were ordered to go back to the war and the Patricias maintained their spirits, which made them to succeed in the war. Bjarnason contrasts the defense, and very significantly, the success, to fabled stands. While not as broadly identified as the British section of the warm, the PPCLI stood firm against an attack of around 5000 Chinese soldiers, stopping the attack at a cost of ten troops.

Bjarnason was very successful in providing an engaging and informative reading and he points out that the book was not intended for military scholars of history as such, but for all the interested readers and learners who would acknowledge the efforts of the Canadian troops in the war.

Through Bjarnason’s presentation of the short history of the creation of the division after the World war two, he lets the audience to acknowledge the efforts and states in which the soldiers engaged in the fight and some died. Bjarnason did a commendable task of inserting a personal perspective to the fight through discussing the men and their involvement before, during and after the battle.

The first personal example is the activities of Wayne Mitchell, who was honored with DCM (Distinguished Conduct Medal) for presenting fire assistance using a Bren gun at the time of the battle and he was injured two times rescuing many participants of his squad through offering fire wrappers.

We will write a custom Book Review on Triumph at Kapyong specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lieutenant Mike Levy, who was within the dangerous battle at Kapyong, showed the same courage and he was usually recalled in the two weaponry fire. These were from around New Zealand weaponry division, together with significant gunfire from his private group, all claiming attacks in Cantonese at his enemies.

Whereas his commander, Captain Mills, was honored with Military Cross for his activities, he performed effective communication between the squad and the support divisions. Bjarnason put some efforts to solve the past records through pointing out the manner in which bravely Lieutenant Levy acted, and the manner in which true appreciation of his acts was declined derived just from his belief in Judaism.

This kind of anti-Semitism was well-known in 60 years ago, but in the current standards, it appears insignificant. Author’s explanation of the allied effort from the Unites States pressing to let the Patricias to cooperate and the attempts of Indian health division and new Zealand fighters, demonstrated successfully that this was really UN attempt.

They rejected Stone‘s idea to agree with Americans up to the time they had familiarized themselves to their latest location. It is as well astonishing to point out that Stone supported acclimation, patrols, and training in the units before he was put on the line, which highly aided the Patricias to live on the most horrible stages of the war.

The weak point of the book is pointed out in Bjarnason himself since the book is not an all-inclusive military history, which shows improved tactical maps. He used the maps which were enough to harmonize the story, but enhanced tactical maps could have improved the clearness of Bjarnason’s tale, where it portrays places and progress of both the Canadian supporters and Chinese enemies.

The book offers the people with a model of other records of the war in the bibliography together with a recording of the approved records of Canadian’s duties in the Korean War.

The demonstrations in the book show the real image of the battle and however, it is significant to recall that Bjarnason did not use this book to act as a classic history of the war, relatively, it captures understanding to the first key war of the Canadian troops in Korea, and the manner in which the war was very critical than anybody can picture.

Korean veterans, irrespective of their citizenship, have various grounds to feel affronted by inadequacy of understanding regarding “their war,” and some people recognize or acknowledge the awful situations experienced on the Korean cape.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Triumph at Kapyong by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These awful conditions include the rocky terrain resembling the situations in Italy at the time of World War Two, the issue of inequitable war equipment, and finally, the continuous guarding and motionless condition of the battle which signifies requirements not awfully different just then at Passchendaele.

Bjarnason points out that regardless of human wave insults by the opponents, Chinese, the secure reaction from Lee-Enfield rifle presented to the Patricias, fundamentally untouched since its launch in the British troops in 1895 was extremely sluggish.

Nevertheless, what was very important was the creativity of the man to weld the weapon, but not the weapon itself, which made the diversity. The above instance confines intensely the power of this excellent book and to narrate the participation of these Canadians on a minor hill in Korea, and the significance to recall their efforts and experiences they underwent while providing the protection other Canadians needed.

Bjarnason, in his book, highlights the heroic strengths of platoon commander Levy, who was a very experienced person in World War Two.

He was in charge of his tenth platoon of Dog Company, PPCLI, to success, regardless of the difficulties they faced during the war and superiority of their opponents. Bjarnason illustrates management styles which Levy used during the war as resulted from his personality instead of training.

During the break in the war, Bjarnason describes that Levy witnessed a Chinese commander ordering that his army to start killing the American pigs and Levy reacted by saying that they are Canadians and they have many soldiers.

At last, with signals of communist soldiers just going to overpower his stand, the brave and energetic lieutenant suggested Defensive Fire and SOS (DFSOS). The approach kicked off Chinese offensive and, strangely, made his superior to be credited for their efforts of kicking off the Chinese offensive and his superior was offered with Military Cross.

After Bjarnason set the stage, bringing in the participants and their personal achievements, he followed by creating it until the heroic war at Kapyong and the consequences.

Bjarnason explored the experiences which participants of the Korean War directly underwent and the war itself, and he used Hub Gray, the writer of the book: “Beyond the Danger Close,” to bring to the reader the nature and experiences of the battle. Bjarnason stated that it was the proposal of Levy to call down weaponry on the Patricia stands to stop the attack of the Chinese waves of insults, but it was confident commander, who did not even fully participated in the battle, who was awarded the acknowledgment.

The dilemmas and wherefores of this failure to notice are also explained and unluckily, offer some ethical and moral quandaries and all together, these acts as demonstration those men, even the best leaders of men, are complicated and are never perfect. Also, at times they act and say things to pass specific messages which are never realized and which are fully further than the character.

Bjarnason was successful in presenting the heroic history and he used his excellent abilities in presenting his ideas and what really happens in the past. Bjarnason illustrated that the legacy of Kapyong currently can be one of the countrywide commemorations, instead of a closely disregarded footnote.

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The Role of Transportation in the Development of Tourism Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Role of Transport in Tourism Development

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The growth and development of tourism depends on transportation to a great extent. Although transportation and tourism development are, nevertheless, this paper has tried to demonstrate that the relationship between these two issues is somewhat controversial owing to the many schools of thought that are available.

Nevertheless, new technologies in transportation has greatly improved tourism sector. The development of these newer technologies has come about because there is a growing demand for newer, faster and more efficient modes of travel.

Development in transportation impacts on the mobility of individuals, not to mention that it influences their demand and motivation (Duval 2007).

On the other hand, transportation may also impact negatively on tourism development owing to the issues of pollution, destruction of the environment and wildlife, and congestion. The paper attempts to examine the role of transportation in tourism development.

Role of Transport in Tourism Development The role played by transportation in tourism development remains controversial mainly because there are various schools of thoughts regarding its role in comparison with development.

Some schools of thought have for example sought to categorize the role of transportation in tourism into negative, positive, and neutral. With regard to the positive perspective, transportation is seen as a key driver of the tourism industry.

On the other hand, the neutral perspective holds that transportation facilities may not yield productive tourism activities on their own.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In contrast, the negative point of view seeks to examine circumstances under which transportation might lead to an in the spread of disease, increased migration, or a reduction in per capita income levels (Musa

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The Sixties (1960-1968) Essay essay help

President Lyndon Baines Johnson supported an extensive reform agenda that shaped the lives of many Americans in 1960s. It was the first constructive strategy to be instituted after the demise of Roosevelt.

LBJ instituted the changes in administration mainly to win public confidence that would further help him to capture the presidency seat. Through his mobilization and support, the law making organs approved two major laws.

The first law was the Civil Rights Act, which criminalized discrimination based on race and gender, especially in the employment quarters. The act also ended segregation of blacks in society.

The president also ensured that a law touching on eradication of poverty was passed. It was referred to as the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964.

The law came up with various strategies, among them the formation of the office of Economic Opportunity. The president established another strategy through creation of a preschool program, which aimed at helping the poor students acquire quality education.

Between 1961 and 1963, President F Kennedy committed American troops to Vietnam to aid the north, which was under attack from Minh’s forces. Historians observe that Politically, Americans lost the war.

It further changed political and cultural values of many Americans. Politically, Americans were able to extend their ideological principles by influencing the north to adopt capitalism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Without American intervention, communism could have spread at a high rate than expected. Furthermore, the USSR could have spread its communist ideas to the south and other parts of the American.

However, the Vietnam War renovated American politics and culture in many ways. Firstly, American policy makers came to the realization that national interests are important in formulating foreign policies.

Americans fought the Vietnam War unsuccessfully because nothing was achieved. The American populace detested the operation because taxes were spent on the war that could not benefit society in any way.

After the war, political leaders adopted realist approach as regards to the formation of external policies. Leaders believed that the international system had changed greatly and it existed according to the Hobbestian state of nature where life was nasty, anarchic and short lived.

In the international system, there was no Leviathan to bring peace and understanding. Therefore, it was prudent for leaders to withdraw troops from Vietnam since national interests were at risk. Since the Vietnam War, American foreign policies considered the national interests. Since then, the US can only attack another state with natural resources.

Due to harsh economic and social situations, many organizations and civil groups organized demonstrations across the world. The US was not exceptional since youths emerged to challenge the government over some issues.

For instance, the Tet offensive in Vietnam was one source of conflict that affected the government. The American people were dissatisfied with the way the state handled the war.

We will write a custom Essay on The Sixties (1960-1968) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The war was costly but Americans achieved nothing from it. Americans believed that it was a waste of resources because the cost of living went up and the economy deteriorated.

Furthermore, political assassinations and extra-judicial killings sparked various demonstrations in the state. Unknown assassins controversially assassinated the head of state, F Kennedy, but there were no serious investigation.

The leader of blacks, Martin Luther King Jr., was also killed by racists because of his radical ideas that aimed at uplifting the lives of blacks.

The activities of civil groups brought some changes to the constitution because various amendments were made, which incorporate various groups into society.

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Inflation is here to stay, as prices will always go up Essay online essay help: online essay help

Canadian economy is recorded as one of the strongest and fast growing economy in the world. In the last two decades, the economy has recorded a fall in unemployment and economic growth, but inflation persists.

With the economy, engaging in vigorous policy and structural reforms the economy has turn out to be resilient, flexible and well integrated with worldwide markets. In the recent years the economy has be able to overcome both internal and external milestones such as a housing boom, major drought and the economic and financial crisis that had hardly hit the Canadian economy.

The country is endowed with resources and with a diverse primary sector based economy. The main exports are wool, meat, coal, iron ore, gold, alumina, transport and machinery, equipment and wheat. These exports have continued to spur the economic growth since 1788.

The gross domestic product has continuously grown with it approximating to $ 1 trillion in the year 2007. Unemployment rate on the other hand has decline from a high of approximately 11 per cent in the year 1995 to less than 5 per cent in the year 2008.

The service sector leads with an employment rate of seventy five per cent followed by the industrial sector with 21.1 per cent and finally agriculture with 3.6 per cent (Rune, 213).

The Canadian economy has also had a continued budget surplus that the government has use to service its debts. The budget surplus, between the years 2002 and 2007, averaged one and six percent on gross domestic products respectively.

As per the Economic Survey of Canada of 2007, the GDP growth rate has averaged 3 per cent per annum since 2000 and the real GDI (Gross Domestic Income) registering a growth rate of 4 per cent. The proportion of people living below the poverty line has decline up to a point where in the year 2009 none of the Canadian citizen is within the bracket of those below the poverty line.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As part of the countries reform agenda, it has removed trade barriers, liberalized its financial sector, introduced local labor laws, and spreads out its labor market among others. With no trade barriers in the transport, financial and telecommunication sectors, the economy has experienced competition in different sectors.

Canada has a desirable, well-built economy with its GDP per capita equivalent to that of four leading west European economies. Stressing on policy and structural reforms, near to the ground persistent rise in price, a housing boom in the market and growing strong relations with China forms the basis of the economic expansion that Canada has recorded over the past fifteen years.

Until the recent 2008 worldwide financial crises, the above-mentioned factors have been greatly contributing to economic growth. Consumer and industry confidence and soaring export prices for primary agricultural products and raw materials accelerated the economy to a high growth rate level in the recent years.

Shortage of rain, strong currency, and a strong import demand, raised the trade deficit, as the infrastructure holdups and a rigid labor market slowed down the growth in the number of export and stirred up inflation up to the year 2008.

During the 2008 worldwide financial crisis, the economy recorded a remarkable growth through both fiscal and monetary stimulus, buoyant export demands and investors from China together with well performing financial sector contributed to the country’s avoidance of the recession.

The Reserve Bank of Canada as one of the G20 was the initial country to constrict monetary policy right after the financial crisis through the Central bank of Canada that increased its assistance rate in October 2009.

In the year 2010, the governments plan is to increase the economic outlay, maintain the symbiotic business relations with China, enacting legislations concerning emission trade and reduction of climatic issues such as droughts and upsetting bushfires.

We will write a custom Essay on Inflation is here to stay, as prices will always go up specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Policy instruments are defined as the available options that can be utilized by the government to run economic activities. Instruments are classified as either monetary policy or fiscal policy.

Monetary policy refers to the actions pursued by the central bank of a country to regulate the amount of money supply in the economy. The actions can be either on interest rates or on exchange rates.

The main objective is to check on the rate and level of expansion of AD (aggregate demand) in the nation. Specifically it is used to control the rate of inflation and unemployment rate. Monetary policy can be either expansionary or contractionary policy.

Therefore, a target is also referred to as an objective. It is the aim of any economic policy and it can be measured in reference to an economic variable like unemployment rate, growth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or rate of inflation.

To achieve these targets we use policy instruments. A change in economic policy (instruments) used will led to a change on the other variable (the target). This indicates of the relationship existing among economic variables.

The main objective of Canadian government is to keep inflation as low as possible. Therefore, the country policy makers will have to adopt an inflation targeting monetary policy. Under this monetary policy, the target is to sustain inflation at a favorable range.

The inflation target is achieved through the central bank monthly modification on the interest rate target. The economy will adopt a contractionary monetary policy where the amount of money supplied in the economy is reduced making the interest rates to soar leading to low inflation rates.

When inflation rate is higher than the expected the central bank is likely to increase interest rates (Arestis 89). This is a contractionary policy since it will ensure a just economy and a low interest rate. On the other hand, in the event of low inflation rate far below the bank will respond by lowering the interest. This will increase the amount of money in circulation; hence, the inflation will be steadily increasing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Inflation is here to stay, as prices will always go up by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Monetary policy uses a number of tools in controlling the amount of money supplied and the interest rate to manipulate variables like joblessness, price increases, exchange rates and financial growth.

Where only the central bank is vested with the sole power of issuing currency, the bank will have the power over the amounts of money that should be in circulation. With the ability to change the amount of money supplied, it will also affect the interest rate.

It is essential for policymakers to come up with realistic announcements, and protest against interest rate targets since they are irrelevant and not essential in relation to monetary policies. When consumers and businesses consider that policymakers are devoted to keeping inflation low, they will expect prospect prices to be lower (Sexton, Fortura and. Kovacs, 134).

In addition, when an employee anticipates prices to increase in the near future, the employee will find an employment with fat wages to counter for the increase in price.

Hence, the anticipation of poor wages is indicated in wage-setting conduct between employers and employees. With low wages, there will be no demand-pull inflation and cost-push inflation since employees earn less and employers pay less respectively.

To reach the intended low inflation, policymakers should have realistic announcements. This means that private agents should consider that the announcements would indicate real future policy.

When an announcement concerning inflation objectives is made and is not understood by private firms and customers, wage setting shall foresee high inflation level implying that wages will be elevated and inflation goes up. A lofty wage will augment a consumer’s demand-pull inflation and a business’s cost-push inflation.

If policymakers suppose that private individuals and businesses expect low inflation, an expansionary monetary policy will be adopted where the extra gain per unit outweighs the extra cost of inflation per unit.

However, credible announcements are done in many ways. First is to set up an autonomous central bank with minimal inflation targets and no output objective. In this case, private individuals and firms are sure of inflation being low since it is bench marked by the autonomous institution.

This can be attained through incentives such as increase salary for the bank governor as a sign of the banks commitment to its policy targets. These means that in any policy implementation process reputation of the business plays a very important role but it must not be interplayed with dedication

Despite the fact that a central bank may possess a positive reputation based on its perfect performance in carrying out monetary policy, the bank may not have necessarily embraced any particular kind of commitment for instance aiming at a particular inflation range.

Reputation also plays an important part in establishing how well would the target markets agree to the announcement of a certain dedication by the central bank to a policy aim but reputation and dedication should not be incorporated.

In addition, in rational circumstances reputation of the policymaker concerning past policy options does not count, it is only the ideologies, public statements, professional background among others of the central bank head that matters.

In fact, many economists have argued that to do away with any pathology in relation with the inconsistencies of time during implementation of monetary policy, the chief of the central bank ought to have a bigger aversion for inflation as compared to the rest of the economy.

Hence, the reputation of the Reserve bank of Canada will be tied on institutional arrangements other than past performances when private agents are anticipating on inflation (McConnell and Stanley 103)

In a nutshell, the macroeconomic policy specifically the monetary policy embraced by the central bank of Canada in its policy and structural reforms has turned out to be fruitful.

The country has been able to combat inflation resulting to a steady economic growth. In the peak of global financial crisis the Canadian government has been able to avoid recession through its central bank firm adherence to its commitment to the monetary policy.

Works Cited Arestis, Philip. An assessment of the global impact of the financial crisis. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Print.

McConnell, Campbell, and Stanley, Brue. Economics: principles, problems, and policies 15th ed. Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Print.

Rune, Stenbacka. Microeconomic policies in the new economy. Helsinki: United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research, 2001. Print.

Sexton, Robert, Fortura, Peter and. Kovacs, Colin. Exploring microeconomics. 2nd Canadian ed. Toronto: Nelson Education, 2010. Print.

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The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 and Its Effects Term Paper best essay help

Until 1978, the United States federal law controlled the aviation industry through the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). The inception of the Airline Deregulation Act marked a new dawn for the removal of government controls over fares, routes, and entrance into the market.

Initially, air transport was considered a government-regulated venture with its services being public utility. The CAB was obligated with the task of setting fares, allocating routes, and preparing schedules for the airlines.

By the active participation of the CAB in the industry, they were able to maintain low fares in the short-haul market or financially support industries in the long-haul market thus controlling the airlines rate of return.

The complicated processes of applying new routes or reviewing fares were enhanced by the bureaucratic nature of the CAB. Most of the air transport providers felt that they were being inhibited by the CAB from bringing radical changes that would meet the needs of their clients in the market.

On realising this, the congress pushed for laws that facilitated the deregulation of the airlines industries (Meyer, 1981). Their efforts bore fruit in the year 1978 when President Jimmy Carter agreed and signed the Airline Deregulation Act.

Consequently, the roles of CAB were phased out progressively until 1984 when it was completely abolished and later the benefits of the deregulation started to take effect.

Under the Airline Deregulation Act, several terms of conduct in the air industry were highlighted that would streamline the general operation of the airlines. Before the complete abolishment of the CAB, the Act stipulated that the task of setting fares was to be entrusted to airlines.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, the airline standards were liberalised such that new airlines could enter the market after meeting the terms and conditions of the Act.

In case of existence of routes that were being underutilised or had competitors that received subsidy from the government, the Act allowed new providers to join those routes.

Most barriers created by CAB such as blocking routes or introducing charter trips were expunged, and the airlines could provide services conveniently for them.

Consequently, the airlines were place in a fair arena and made flexible to serve the needs of their clients. Additionally, the role of CAB to decide on the appropriate airlines, which deserved subsidies, was eliminated, and thus airlines profitability relied on their own efforts and investment (Brenner, 1985).

To reduce the burden of CAB, the roles of maintenance of safety standards were transferred to the Federal Airline Association (FAA). After the disbandment of CAB, some of the key responsibilities that the board initially undertook were transferred to United States Department of Transportation (DOT).

Since then, the authority allowed the introduction of small carriers to replace the jets that offered domestic services increasing the efficiency in the air industry.

Similarly, other CAB duties were allocated to FAA to examine safety, and control air traffic. Additionally, the Act gave the secretary of transportation the main role of reporting to the congress on air safety and any matters arising due to the deregulation.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 and Its Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To ensure the air industry’s effectiveness from the onset of the deregulation act, the government used generated revenues to categorise the airlines. These categories include major, national, and regional airlines.

The major airlines category constituted of airlines with annual operating revenues of more than $1 billion. Due to their financial strength, they offer international and long-haul services.

National airlines usually operate with annual revenues of between $100 million and $1 billion. On other hand, regional airlines offer their services within specific regions and mostly attain annual operating revenues of between $20 million to $100 million.

Categorisation of airlines in this manner enabled the FAA to control and monitor the traffic and routes used by various airlines. Meanwhile, airlines could also be categorised depending on the services they offered like passenger or cargo airlines.

Any operational airline must have two specific certificates from the federal government authority. These certificates are the fitness certificate and the operating certificate.

The Department of Transport (DOT) is the sole authority entrusted with the issuance of the fitness certificate also known as the certificate of public convenience and necessity.

This certificate indicates that the airline has adequate finance and management capacity to handle scheduled services. Moreover, the certificate is issued to both the passenger and the cargo carriers.

On the other hand, operating certificate is issue by the FAA to indicate the various requirements critical for the operation of aircrafts with a capacity of 10 or more seats.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 and Its Effects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When the Airline deregulation act was enforced, it had dynamic benefits to both the airline providers and the passengers. Notably, the Act terms were suitable for the carriers as it streamlined the activities of airlines in the market.

The objectives of the carriers were outlined in the Act, borrowed from the initial roles of the CAB. Adequate consideration was given to the safety standards of the airlines, as it was the optimal priority in the air industry.

The Act stipulated that for the airlines to be granted the opportunity to operate in the industry, they had to comply with the safety measures of the passengers and their workforce.

Air transportation services were allowed to significantly rely on the competition that existed in the market. Thus, matters of fares were solely determined by the airlines.

Similarly, the Act emphasized on the need for the air services to put in more effort on the development of airports in the urban areas like the secondary or satellite airports.

By the act of encouraging competition in the air services, the government was able to reduce instances of monopoly where a single air service provider would increase prices uncontrollably.

Economically, the Act advocated for the easing of entrance requirements and conditions for new air carriers thus enhancing the growth of the economy.

The Airline Deregulation Act had great objectives that would foster the growth of the air industry and therefore contribute to the streamlining of the air services and improvement of the county’s economy.

To promote the growth of the economy, the Act provided incentives to American-owned international airlines to provide domestic services in the country.

After the deregulation, a major streamlining was done in the airline industry regarding the line personnel, operations, maintenance, sales and marketing, reservation and ticketing and staff personnel.

The Line personnel are individuals involved in the operation of the scheduled services of an airline. These personnel include plane mechanics, pilots, flight attendants, reservation clerks, ramp-service agents and security guards.

Their welfare and operating conditions were dynamically improved. Operations entail the flight crew responsible for the safety and effectiveness of service delivery during the flight.

The other elements incorporate the personnel in ensuring that the business of the airline is successful. Additionally, deregulation improved the conditions of operation of the airlines and the governing bodies (Miller, 1981).

Because of deregulation, there was a significant growth in the hub and spoke networks compared to prior years. Hubs refer to airports that are strategically located in the areas where there is ease of access by the passengers and cargo.

These locations are collection points for passengers and cargo. In this regard, the exploitation of small markets with a small population became realistic and profitable.

At the same time, hubs that allowed access of the planes to collect selected passengers or cargo handled variation in the destinations of the passengers in one location.

The growth of the hub and spoke networks also improved the ability of the airlines to handle numerous markets and manage the size of the fleet.

With the radical improvement of the hub and spoke networks, collection and dropping of passengers in various cities with different origins and destinations was economically handled. Nevertheless, these hubs were favourable for numerous carriers due to the convenience attached to it.

Deregulation allowed the increase in the size of the carriers due to the entrance of multiple new carriers. This was fostered by the fact that there were many cheap available second hand aircrafts, the availability of airline line professionals like pilots and mechanics and soft terms of airline operations by the government.

With time, the objectives of the congress were achieved by the increase in new entrants in the market creating a stiff competition that worked in favour of the customers.

The increase in the competition necessitated most of the airlines to offer direct, low-cost and no-frills services, which improved the air transport in general.

Notably, although over the years there have been fluctuations in the market due to the varied conditions of the economy, the deregulation act has still played a key role in retaining the numerous carriers in the industry (Morrison, 1986).

Affordable fares have been an achievable objective due to the stiff competition created by the enormous carriers. Significantly enough, most carriers have been offering discounted fares to their passengers or for cargo.

Evidently, fares have significantly decrease compared to the CAB era. This result has affected several other transport sectors like the interstate bus and rail due to the efficiency associated with airlines operations between cities.

Concerning the passengers, these changes have been significantly beneficial in various aspects such as enabling them to save on their travel expenses.

Additionally, passengers’ needs are met in the most outstanding manner because of the stiff completion. Furthermore, low costs have reduced disparity among the passengers, as most fares are affordable by many air transport users.

The stiff competition in the airline market due to deregulation has sparked innovations concerning marketing designs and styles. Major innovations have been geared towards the frequent flyer programs of the airlines.

For the airlines to retain and attract more customers, these programs have been enticing, and the benefits of such offers are paramount to the passengers.

These rewards usually offer free tickets or advancement in the class an individual is placed in the carrier. To earn such offers or gifts, it is required for one to be a frequent and consistent flyer in the airline of choice. Earning of points also at times depend on the mileage covered by an individual on his or her flights.

Additionally, these marketing improvements have led to the establishment of the credit card industry within the air transport. Possession of such specific credit cards has allowed passengers to gain promotions and other rewards that improve their welfare. Notably, these services and improvements have caused radical changes in the airline industry and thus are viewed to be beneficial and complementary to deregulation.

Computer reservation system (CRS) has been an important development because of deregulation. These systems have enabled the workforce within the airlines to handle and process effectively the numerous services that occur on a daily basis.

Activities like keeping track of fares and service changes have been possible with the use of such systems. Nonetheless, the travel agents have been able to monitor the schedules and fares of their passengers.

Similarly, the systems have enable the travel agents to not only to maintain records of schedules and fares, but also give chances to their clients to make advance booking for their listed flights. As a result, the airline owners have been successful in offering services to their clients in a systematically and convenient manner.

Another important innovation was the advancement in the code sharing agreements. Such agreements allow the travelling agents of airlines to issue tickets for the airline using a two-letter code.

These agreements enable large and regional airlines to conduct business together with efficiency in service delivery to the clients. On the same note, the U.S airline and foreign airlines can conduct business within the country’s states.

Similarly, these agreements facilitate the conduct of marketing innovations like the frequent flyer programs without the interference of other airlines. Notably, the regional airlines have been able to paint their carriers with trademarks of large airlines thus boosting their market competitiveness.

Furthermore, In the event that the large airlines cannot land on certain hubs, the regional airlines facilitate the collection of clients and cargo.

Despite the use of the code sharing agreements, each carrier is able to benefit and their working conditions or programmes are unaffected. Overall, code sharing enhances the effectiveness of the airlines and efficiency in service delivery to the clients.

In spite of the numerous benefits derived because of deregulation, there have been some pitfalls from its implementation. The benefits offered by the deregulations have been uneven in the entire national air transportation network.

Repeatedly, costs have decline in most of the high traffic and long distance routes compared to the shorter ones. In this regard, large airlines have been able to nourish in the market unlike the regional airlines, which encounter enormous challenges.

Moreover, the shorter routes carriers have been ineffective in handling financial difficulties thus most are discouraged and may be forced to quit or join the competitive long distance operators (Williams, 1994).

Another major obstacle was the exposure to stiff competition, which led to numerous losses and aroused conflicts between the labour unions and the carriers.

Because of the decline in the profits generated by the carriers, they were forced to reconsider the working conditions and reward policies in order to remain operational.

In this regard, there have been rampant disagreements between the carriers and the labour unions concerning the improvement of the working conditions.

Notably, deregulation led to the inability of some carriers to survive in the stiff competition influenced by the costs and the labour unions demands, forcing them to quit the market.

Moreover, these carriers were unable to meet the costs and cover for their liabilities and were eventually liquidated due to bankruptcy. Examples of carriers that were liquidated at the aftermath of deregulation are Eastern, Braniff, American West Airlines and Pan Am and other multiple smaller airlines.

The aftermath of such losses was detrimental to the potential entrants and some of the operators who remain in the industry. Nonetheless, the airlines’ workforce encountered numerous challenges in the transition period to other remaining airlines.

Finally, the Airline Deregulation Act led to a new dawn in the air industry by bringing in radical changes in the operation and management of the airlines.

For most of the airlines with great effort and investment in the sector, they realized their objectives. Nevertheless, it is observed that the deregulation prompted the government to be more vigilant in terms of regulating and ensuring the safety of the passengers and personnel on board every flight.

Furthermore, the deregulation enabled the growth of numerous industries within the air industry improving the economy on a general scale.

These industries have created employment opportunities and assisted most airlines in achieving their major objectives of flourishing and being competitive in the market.

From the government’s perspective, the deregulation act has simplified their roles due liberalization. The government therefore remains with precise and convenient duties of ensuring that the operations of airlines meet the set requirements.

As per the society, the Act created an overhaul in the efficiencies with which the airlines and the government conduct their business.

References Brenner, M. A., Leet, J. O.,

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Impaired waters and Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Spokane River Basin. Essay argumentative essay help

The federal Clean Water Act was an act passed for the main purpose of protecting water bodies from pollution (Younos 12). The act sets water quality standards to protect the fish, drinking water and swimming and agriculture use.

The standards were set considering the various water pollutants such as metal, bacteria, harmful nutrients and mercury. According to the Environmental Law Institute, all water bodies under the act are supposed to meet the standards set otherwise the water body is impaired (540).

The process of regulating the water quality requires the state to assess the impaired body and determine whether the water body meets the standards.

The state then lists all the water bodies that do not meet the required standard. Lastly, the state will carry out an updated Total Maximum Daily Loads (Younos 12).

To effectively address the dissolved oxygen and total maximum daily load act, the P trading system would be more effective as opposed to the regulatory approach.

The regulatory approach requires that every stakeholder reduce their emission to the level required by law. The P trading system will allow stakeholders to pay and implement the P reducing management actions on Spokane River Basin.

The P trading system is a better approach because it will improve efficiency in the running of the water programs. The stakeholders have a profit incentive and this will drive them to cut down costs and be more efficient (Chin 19).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The regulation system will require for example, a large number of human resources to conduct the annual analysis on the Spokane River Basin. This will take time and money because all the employees need to be paid.

The shareholders however, will introduce electronic systems that will run and record the oxygen level and level of pollutants in the waters (Chin 19). The stakeholders will not have political distractions interfere with the daily monitoring of the waters.

When the state runs the water program, in case of political interference the aquatic program may be intercepted (Younos 13). Because the stakeholders have profits as their main intention, it will come up with long-term initiatives to clean the waters.

This is an added advantage because the program will ensure that the standards set by law are met to restore waters. Lastly the stakeholders will hold public interest into consideration. This means that the water management programs can be improved water quality standards at Spokane River Basin.

The stakeholders’ benefit as a result of paying to implement the reduction of phosphorus in exchange they get rights to discharge it to the river.

Through the P trading system the stakeholders are able to learn more about water contamination (Younos 13). They benefit from this system because they gain a better understanding of water pollutants, effects of water volumes on surfaces and aquatic habitat and diversity.

By running and managing the quality of water at Spokane River Basin, the shareholders are able to come up with innovative techniques.

We will write a custom Essay on Impaired waters and Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Spokane River Basin. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This will bring to attention other watershed regulators and the stakeholders could be sub-contracted to handle the water impairment programs. Depending on the various state laws, the stakeholders can confidently apply for other watersheds management contracts (Environment law institute 540).

The stakeholders benefit from buying the rights to discharged phosphorus to the river because they are able to attract local involvement. Local involvement is an effective cost-cutting technique that allows the community to participate in the various water projects (Chin 21).

Once the stakeholders run the water projects the citizens show commitment by either volunteering community work or contributions. The stakeholders also attract a lot of funding to implement the Clean Water Act. Such an approach attracts lots of funding due to the effective systems placed by the stakeholders to monitor the waters (Chin 21).

The various water quality-monitoring activities introduced identify opportunities for funding by local government, corporations and environmental agencies.

Lastly the stakeholders are able to acquire environmental awards and prestigious recognitions for the efforts placed in conserving the environment.

There are many benefits associated with having water quality, and these benefits are identified by the various uses of water. While some of the benefits cannot be measured others can be calculated (Younos 14).

Clean and quality water improves aquatic life allowing better production. Quality water has both sufficient oxygen and controlled nutrients, which play a huge role in aquatic life breeding.

Quality water provides drinking water for human beings and animal. Contaminated water has to go through water treatment to make it safe for drinking. As a result people especially in towns and cities will be forced to pay more for clean tap water as a result of the many process it has to undergo to make it clean.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impaired waters and Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Spokane River Basin. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Quality water adds value to the water supplied and cuts down cost of supplying safe and drinking water to the taps. Water is important for agriculture use, because all plants need water to grow.

If the water is contaminated with substances such as mercury and phosphorus, the plants may not grow productively. These harmful substances kill the growth of the plants and if the water is too contaminated the plants do not grow at all. Hence irrigating plants with quality water ensures healthy agriculture produce (Younos 15).

The food harvested is then safe because it does not pose any risk to humans and animals. Quality water also affects the air quality content.

Water bodies that are contaminated when evaporation takes place, they release contaminated air that could be harmful. Watershed management is important to have the quality of air uptake increased (Younos 16).

Non- value benefits are also achieved due to the effect of using quality water. The use of quality water in the long run is sufficiently enough to register change and benefits.

Quality water used in the homesteads has been seen to reduce the household expenditure (Younos 16). Quality water also improves the human body in the long run because the water taken is pure and has no water pollutant substances.

In summary, the Clean Water Act has played a huge role in ensuring safe and quality water is always available. More states need to pick up the trading system to cut down water management systems cost and enjoy the benefits of water quality.

Once the costs are measured against the benefits level, the benefits prove the need to invest in water management systems. The trading system is an effective approach because it set its standards based on priority and purpose.

Once the water quality standards are set, the stakeholders then set higher standards in terms of water level pollutants. The stakeholders finally calculate the benefits and come up with water quality monitoring activities that are effective and attainable. The trading system justifies the quantification and monetarist ion of welfare.

Works Cited Chin, David. Water quality engineering systems. New York, John and Wiley Sons, 2006.Print

Environmental law institute. Environmental law desk book. Washington D.C, Environmental law institute publication. 2003. Print

Younos, Tamim. Total maximum daily load: approaches and challenges. Oklahoma, Penn Well Corporation, 2005.Print

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Comparison between Hooters Translates in China and Harry Potter and Magical Realism Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Comparison

Culture

Traditionalism and Modernism

Gender Inequality

Intent

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction “Hooters Translates in China” is a piece of literature done by Craig Simon, an American author who has done a lot of literary work in the country. Having stayed in china for a long period, Craig wanted to bring to focus the culture and the lifestyle of the Chinese.

He closely brings to focus the current culture, which he describes as liberal and compares it with the past conservative practices. To help put this into perspective, he uses a popular American restaurant, Hooters, which was contracted in China successfully.

Harry Potters and Magical Realism, what others have preferred to call Harry Potter phenomena, is a series of literature that transcends various cultural backgrounds with custom-made messages. The books have been written with some sense of mastery of different cultures across the world.

As Mims (336) notes, the author has keenly knitted his literature using materials found in the specific targeted region. From the cultural perspective to the political and religious aspects, the series brings out different societies in different ways within their right contexts. It also focuses on mass media and its role in the society.

Given a close comprehensive look, the two sets of literatures that is, Hooters Translates in China and Harry Potters and Magical Realism, compare closely not only in terms of the context but also the intent.

This essay seeks to analyze the similarities between Hooters Translates China and Harry Potters and Magical Realism.

Comparison Literature is one of the most powerful tools used to pass a given message to a specific audience. Literature has seen some transition from the time it was just orally told (oral Literature) to the current written Literature. In both cases, Literature has always been used to express some feelings that the authors seem to realize.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Zipes (54), no piece of literature comes from the blues. Literature comes from within the society we live. It is what we see and the writer experiences in the society.

The process of retelling the story may involve adding a few factious aspects, but even the factious parts are real occurrences only that they are presented in supernormal manner. For this reason, many of the current world literatures compare closely, apart from a little differences that may be caused by cultural, political, and social differences.

The essays Hooters Translates in China and Harry Potters and Magical Realism compare very closely. Below are some of the aspects that make the two essays appear similar.

Culture According to Reynolds (69), no piece of literature would go without touching on the aspects of culture. The two essays touch on cultures of different societies. Craig, in his essay ‘Hooters Translates in China’ talks about an American firm with American values gaining popularity in China.

In this essay, the director of Hooters restaurant in Shanghai once said, “Hooters isn’t just a restaurant, it is also an American culture, and that appeals to many Chinese,” (Mims 334). The author brings out the culture of American society and closely connects it to that of china. She notes that for a long time, china had been weary of the western culture but this seems to have changed.

The same idea regarding culture is also brought out in the writings of Daniel Nixon in his series ‘Harry Porters and Magical Realism’. Just like Craig’s comparison of the American culture to that of china, Nixon compares the cultural practices of the Muslims and Christians.

Basing his essays in Indonesia, Gulf States and other Islamic nations, the book has gained popularity in many Islamic societies that seem to appreciate it. As Craig notes, the culture of American people was resented in China in the past but this is changing (Mims 335).

We will write a custom Essay on Comparison between Hooters Translates in China and Harry Potter and Magical Realism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, the Christian culture was strongly resented in among the Muslim. Although this hatred is still evident, both sides are currently tolerant to each other, with each side trying to understand the other’s way of life.

Traditionalism and Modernism Both essays have given relevance to the current changes taking place in various societies, especially due to changes in technology. Both stories give accounts of societies transforming from traditional archaic way of living to ways that are more modern.

In the account given by Craig, Chinese current society is contrasted with what was there before. From the text, we are informed that because of relaxed attitude of the Chinese, they would now accept the American culture without much trouble.

We are also told that in 1960’s, the society in China never tolerated women who wore short skirts and kept long hair for this was considered a culture of the west. However, this has changed and women currently find it easy wearing short skirts and keeping long hair.

Xu, the director of Hooters in shanghai observes that, “The younger generation is very different from our parents” (Mims 334) This was in reference to the changes that had taken place in the society concerning cultural norms.

The account given by Nixon also reflects the changes within various societies in response to technological and social changes. One aspect of culture that has great impact on the lives of people is religion. Zipes (97) argues that the worst prison on earth is religion. Religion comes with very many rules and regulations that believers must observe.

Some of these beliefs are literally retrogressive. They are practices that have serious complications and restrictions in one’s social life. Nixon gives an overview of Islamic religion and how it related to Christianity in the past and how it relates presently.

There is a marked difference. In many societies, especially among the Muslim societies, women were denied several rights and freedoms. There were places they could not go without permission. They had to dress in a given manner as a sign of etiquette. This is fast changing and women are getting into the corporate world.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison between Hooters Translates in China and Harry Potter and Magical Realism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gender Inequality Both essays give an overview on issues relating to gender inequality within various states. In china, Craig notes that the perception of the society towards women has changed (Mims 333). However, issues relating to the use of women as a tool in marketing are still in practice.

This author observes that many companies within China still prefer associating some of their brands with beautiful women to attract sales. From the two texts, women have never enjoyed their rights in human history. Men have always used women to fulfill their wishes and desires.

In the Islamic world, women are never allowed to participate in political processes such as voting. In the western world, women are incorporated in the financial system as underdogs.

In society, women are not allowed to interact freely as compared to their male counterparts. Their culture is devalued and their opinions are not considered when major policies are made in government.

Many firms would also demand that job applicants attach a copy of their recent photo so that merit would be given based on the attractiveness of an individual.

This has been a concern as many communities have come strongly to oppose the culture that makes one gender appear to be a tool of trade. It is a sign that women are yet to realize their full freedom in a society that claims to offer the same treatment to everyone, irrespective of gender.

Intent Both essays had a similar intent to the target audience. The message that majorly comes out from the two essays is that the world is changing and there is need for every society to realize this fact and make adjustments as would be appropriate.

Technology has dramatically redefined the way human beings approach various issues. It has turned the world into a global village. Information is everywhere. In order to realize a harmonious co-existence, there is need to eliminate the walls created in the past that defined boundaries in terms of tribe, religion or country.

We are a single family, and therefore should live peacefully. Women should be empowered economically and politically in case the society is to develop uniformly. No sustainable growth can be realized in case the society mistreats the majority of its members.

Conclusion Literature is one of the most powerful tools that man has ever discovered. Through literature, messages have been coded in order to advise, inform, warn, or just entertain. The two essays, Hooters Translates in China and Harry Porters and Magical Realism are such literatures.

They have both successfully brought different societies into focus in terms of their culture, religion and issues pertaining to gender equality. The messages in the two essays are similar that is, we need to appreciate one another in our society, embrace the culture of unity, and work as a team in order to our aims and goals.

Works Cited Mims, Joan. Mirror on America: Essays and Images from Popular Culture. New York Bedford Martins, 2011. Print.

Reynolds, Kennedy. Children’s literature: a very short introduction. Gosport: Oxford Press, 2011. Print.

Zipes, James. Happily ever after: fairy tales, children and the culture industry, New York: Routledge, 1971. Print.

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LinkedIn as a Networking Media for Business Essay essay help site:edu

Social networking sites have become very common on the World Wide Web today (Gowel, 2011). The users of these sites are able to create individual and corporate profiles in order to search for friends, colleagues and professional assistance.

The users can be able to link up with other individuals from all walks of life within or outside their organizations. Users convey both public and private messages to many people and end up expanding their network while bringing on board a vast array of colleagues and individuals (Gowel, 2011).

Unlike social websites such as Face-book, Twitter and others, which are utilized by users of all ages for socialization or common interest, LinkedIn is quite a different site, because it is mainly used in professional networking (Gowel, 2011).

At the moment about forty five million individual professionals are using the site to share ideas, information, job opportunities and innovations (Gowel, 2011).

When a user creates an account with LinkedIn, they are able to search for contacts and link up to networks, such as the “I-O practitioners” and the “SIOP network” (Gowel, 2011).

LinkedIn which is a giant network has a specific objective of linking up professionals toward networking and provides options which allow them to add information to their individual and corporate profile.

The information added includes, work history, specific interest and references (Gowel, 2011). The network also allows the users to get in touch and get updated with any new interesting professional information (Gowel, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More LinkedIn is years ahead of the other professional social networks which are being utilized by professionals who use it to achieve their goals (Muccio, Burns

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How to Live with 15300$ Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Family and Living Conditions

Consumer basket

Things necessary for living

Arguments

Conclusion

Introduction Family income is a particular sum of money the whole family gets annually. The salaries, income from deposits and other stable and regular incomes are really important for the family as depending on this information many families plan their costs.

Having the information about the annual income of the family and the list of the obligatory costs, it is possible to calculate the expenses of the family, the cloths they can buy and the number of entertaining places they can visit. Moreover, the food and other unexpected costs should be considered.

However, it seems rather difficult for the family to pay attention to unexpected expenses and to plan them if the family income is too low. Additionally, there are a number of notions which should be considered while discussion of the family budget.

The Consumer Price Index is the notion which should not be avoided as it is the measure which points at the obligatory items people are to be able to buy on the salaries and income they have.

Family and Living Conditions The situation is the follows. The family consists of a father, a mother, and two kids, a 10 years old girl, and a 4 years old boy. The family lives in the personal house which is not that small as children do not have to share the rooms and have their personal ones.

The family income comprises 15300$ annually, which is about $1275 monthly. The task is to consider the budget of the family, and calculate their costs on the basis of the fact that these people are to live in the house, buy food and clothes and provide other expenses obligatory for an average American citizen.

Consumer basket The consumer basket is the number of categories which account the items necessary for living. There are about 200 categories which are gathered into eight great groups.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, food and beverages, housing, apparel, transportation, medical care, recreation, education and communication, other goods and services are the items which are to be involved in calculation. Thus, using this pattern as the basis for creating the budget for a family, the following data should be considered.

Things necessary for living As it has already been mentioned, the family is to be able to buy the items mentioned in the consumer basket. Here is the detailed description for each of the major categories.

Food and beverages are important for the family, however, paying attention to their low income, this category should be presented with breakfast cereal with milk, coffee or tea, chicken (another type of meat may be too costly for the family), wine, and full service meals which are comprised of a great many of different vegetables and other products.

Much attention should be paid to the prices in this category. The cereals may cost about $22.08, different breakfast bars and other snacks about $2-3 per item. This may be enough for a week or two. Milk will cost the family about $90 a week (1 pack costs $30, which is for two-three days).

The process are presented as the sample how the average annual cost of the life was calculated for the family. The prices for most of the products may vary greatly depending on the season and on the place where the products are to be bought.

This category also covers eggs, fruits, fats and oils, alcoholic beverages, meat, etc. The general expenses on this category are to be much greater, however the family cannot allow to pay more than $500 as in this case they will no have an opportunity to pay for other services.

The price means that the family is unable to eat meat every day, eggs and fresh mils appears on the table also rarely. Tasty and expensive fruits, candies, and other sweets are not eaten too often.

We will write a custom Essay on How to Live with 15300$ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Housing is another parameter which is to be paid. Thus, this category covers the expenses on the house. Being the personal house, the family is just to pay the rent and other services such as gas, water, light. The owners’ equivalent rent or bedroom furniture are not considered.

However, the family may spend some extra money of repairing or new objects which are too important. The average cost of the items may be about $200 a month.

Apparel is the third parameter in the family budget. Having too low income, the family cannot allow to buy cloths too often, the one or two items per person a month. If the cloths are not necessary right now, the family has to save this money of more expensive cloths of shoes.

To the point, this category covers men’s, boys’, girl’s and women’s apparel along with footwear. About $100 is the cost for this category.

Transportation is an inevitable part of the family. The family is unable to buy a new vehicle, however, they are to spend money on gasoline and motor vehicle insurance which s not cheap.

The costs depend on the distances the members of the family have to ride every day. Paying attention to the fact that the family is poor and cannot allow to drive too much, their costs on gasoline are minimal.

Medical care is an important aspect. People are to buy prescription drugs and medical supplies if they are ill, physicians’ services are also to be paid along with the hospital services. Paying attention to the fact that the family cannot allow substantial nutrition with all the necessary vitamins and minerals, they are more subjected to getting sick that increases the costs on medication.

However, it is presupposes that people will not be sick each month, the average sum of the medical costs should be about $100 monthly (as all the calculations are based on the average month income considered from the annual one).

Not sure if you can write a paper on How to Live with 15300$ by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Recreation services are important however, the family does not have an opportunity to but toys, have pets and pay for television annually. Therefore, the family has to enjoy the free TV and the toys and entertainments they already have.

However, the family members can allow to have a rest once a year if the cost of the vocation is not too high. The family can allow to spend about $2000 annually.

Education and communication are important as children are to study. However, it increases costs as the family has to spend money of books, copybooks, cloths and other items which are obligatory and cannot be avoided.

Moreover, the computer services are also important as having no opportunity to have the computer at home, school children are to pay for those services to be able to hand in the printed papers and submit the works on time.

Other goods and services such as the services of the haircuts and other expenses are to be considered annually due to the low income of the family these services are not too often used. The extra costs of the family are also to be covered.

The household troubles, funerals, costs devoted to unexpected loss of working opportunities, different presents for birthdays and personal birthdays of the family members are to be considered. It is hard to predict the sum of money on these events as in most cases family with such low income celebrate only too important dates.

Arguments Thus, having considered the family income and the costs it has to endure, it should be stated that the family is to pay obligatory $900 annually without considering the medical services, education and extra costs which are obligatory.

Conclusion In conclusion, it should be stated that he family is very poor and cannot allow many particular things. Children are to wear the clothes of their older brothers or sisters, they are unable to attend different entertaining facilities, they cannot eat too tasty and delicious meals as they cannot afford them due to high prices and low income.

The absence of the appropriate nutrition increases the risk of infection that raises the family expenses and puts them at risk of loosing a feeder of the family for a period of the illness.

It is essential for the family to increase the income as the living on 15300$ annually is too hard, children do not get appropriate education, they are limited in many opportunities and as a result they may get worse education than others do.

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Fragrance Wonderstruck Report essay help online: essay help online

Situation Analysis / Current Marketing Mix Current Product

The new fragrance Wonderstruck was launched in the middle of 2011. The famous singer and actress Taylor Swift launched her first perfume in collaboration with the world famous cosmetic company Elizabeth Arden.1

In press the scent is depicted as follows a gourmand floral… a charming and sparkling surprise of vibrant fruits, kissed by a bouquet of soft petals and a touch of sweet indulgence.2

The perfume is presented in an oval purple bottle (50ml). The bottle is decorated with “three gold charms” – the Moravian star, a dove and a birdcage.3

As far as the package is concerned, it features patchwork style fabrics with a gold-embossed number 13 which is the singer’s lucky number. Of course, there is only one model of the product as its uniqueness is the most competitive feature of the fragrance.

This product is usually bought by consumers, not businesses. The product is targeted at the singer’s numerous fans who are eager to buy everything connected with their idol. The singer’s name and her works make the product different from other similar products launched by other celebrities.

It is important to note that the product was launched in 2011, but there were many teasers online. Consumers were eager to wait for the product for several months. Now it is available in various stores, and it is possible to buy the fragrance online.

Current Pricing

At present perfume market is full of various offers. Cosmetic and perfume companies create numerous fragrances. Celebrities often launch their own perfumes in conjunction with cosmetic companies. Admittedly, the price depends on the demand greatly. The singer’s popularity makes the fragrance really desirable among Swift’s fans.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the price of the product cannot be very low as the demand is rather high. It is necessary to note that the price ranges from $50 up to $76. For instance, it is possible to buy the fragrance (for $49.50) at the singer’s official website.4

At the same time, the fragrance costs $75.95 at eBay.5 As has been mentioned above the price is not low, though it is not that high. The product’s price ranges within the limits of pricing of similar products. For instance, such brands as Paco Rabanne and Gucci are also sold for about $50-70.

It is also possible to claim that the product’s pricing is based on the product’s image, its quality and features. Of course, the most important is still image and the singer’s name as these factors make people want to buy the fragrance at quite a high price (which is typical for high quality products and famous brands).

Current Distribution

The product is available in many places. In the first place, it is possible to state that the product can be bought right from the business that made it as consumers can buy it at the singer’s official website. At that, the price is very reasonable there.6

Remarkably, there are lots of places where the product can be bought. Apart from the singer’s official site, the perfume can be bought at numerous online auctions and shops.7 The prices range rather insignificantly there. It is also possible to buy the fragrance in various stores, shops and boutiques.

Notably, the product was launched in the USA and now it can be bought in many other countries. The product entered Australian market in September 2011. It is still popular as the singer’s popularity is at its highest.

The abundance of places where the product can be bought is due to one of the major characteristics of the product. The fragrance is associated with Taylor Swift who is famous worldwide.

We will write a custom Report on Fragrance Wonderstruck specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Her songs are on radio, TV and the Internet. Her images are in magazines, adverts and even films. Therefore, the singer has gained really wide popularity among young girls who are eager to be like their idol. Buying a fragrance is one of the ways to be closer to an idol. Thus, such wide popularity contributes greatly to the availability of the product.

Current Promotion

The advertising campaign started with a perfectly developed commercials which were featured on TV and on the Internet. It is possible to distinguish two major messages. In the first place, the singer reveals the idea of magic. The commercial starts with the singer wearing some casual clothes.

However, a small portion of the fragrance leads to magical transformation and the singer turns into a princess wondering a beautiful and romantic garden where her Prince Charming is already waiting.8 Thus, the fragrance is meant to make consumers believe in magic and fairy tales.

Another message which can be distinguished is the idea of trying something new. The commercial says: “the journey begins”.9 Thus, the consumers are meant to long for something new. This message is very important as the consumers are encouraged to give up using other brands and to try the singer’s new fragrance.

Therefore, these themes help to accomplish several objectives. In the first place, the consumer is eager to try something new, something associated with youth, romance, love, beauty and popularity. The consumers are encouraged to give up the brands they were loyal to before the launch of the fragrance.

Apart from this, the singer promotes that idea of magic. Admittedly, females are eager to believe in magic, they also tend to use fragrance to enchant males. Wonderstruck and Taylor Swift promise to help in reaching this objective.

Brand Positioning Theory Define and explain brand positioning

The category of the brand is a very significant aspect of the position of the product in terms of how it is perceived with respect to the other brand names.10 This is defined as the major reason why consumers prefer to buy one product and leave the others.

If any company wants its brand to succeed, it must ensure that its product succeeds in finding a way to the mind of the targeted customer. In addition, it must ensure that its brand is in the targeted consumer’s mind, it offers a customer value that is persuasive and that it is better than that of its competitors.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fragrance Wonderstruck by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Taylor Swift’s Wonderstruck achieves the necessary goals. The major focus in advertising campaigns is Taylor Swift herself.11 In fact, her name becomes the brand which is sold. Fans try to become closer to their idol and they willingly buy the fragrance the young singer has launched.

The target audience is the array of young female fans of the singer. Thus, potential consumers are young, active, romantic and a bit adventurous females who are eager to change something in their life.

Admittedly, this is a very wide audience to cover. Therefore, it is possible to claim that the brand is positioned in accordance with major business conventions, which in its turn ensures the product’s popularity and success.

Draw a perceptual map for the brand your lecturer has assigned to your class

Perceptual Map for Perfumes

Explanation of positioning of 5 brands on perceptual map

From the perceptual map above, it is evident that Wonderstruck is the best perfume because it has the highest fragrance, a better demand and an affordable price. Beckham is the worst since it has a lower demand, lower fragrance and it is very cheap. Though Delices has the best demand, a slightly higher price, its fragrance is low.

Princess Diana has also a moderately acceptable fragrance; its demand is lower than that of Wonderstruck. Michael Kors is the most expensive and it also has a high demand even though it has a low fragrance. Therefore, Wonderstruck is the best product in this market segment.12

Target Market Identification Geographic description

As has been mentioned above the singer’s worldwide popularity diminishes any possible geographical boundaries. Of course, the singer is majorly popular in the USA, but she is also popular in Australia, Canada, Europe and some other countries. Therefore, the fragrance is popular in these areas as well.

Though, the product is very popular in the USA, it is also very popular in other countries. It can be explained by the fact that the singer is popular in other countries. Besides, American products are also popular in these countries. It is also important to add that the product is more popular in urban areas than in rural areas.

Demographic description

The demographic variables which can influence a product’s popularity include income, occupation, age, sex, ethnicity, level of education. Thus, the target consumer of Wonderstruck is a young female of about 13-23 years old. Age is one of the most important variables in this case. It is important to note that ethnicity does not play any significant role in the product’s promotion and its popularity.

As far as the level of education is concerned, it is necessary to note that this factor does not significantly affect the product’s popularity. The consumers may be high (or junior high) school students, college students or university students. Notably, income is one of the crucial factors.

As has been mentioned above, the product’s price is quite high. This is why females whose families’ income is quite low are unlikely to have the fragrance. Of course, this does not mean that only girls coming from high income families would rather buy the fragrance.

Psychographic description

Psychographic segmentation is based on customer’s lifestyle, activities, interests, and opinions.13 Thus, the product is targeted at young females who are romantic and sensitive. These females like modern pop music. They follow latest trends and want to be fashionable. They also like Hollywood and they are eager to learn more about celebrities.

Of course, the major group of the product’s consumers is the group of Taylor Swift’s fans. So, these females often buy various products which can be associated with the famous singer (e.g. fragrance, similar clothes, etc.).

It is also important to note that the target consumers are quite active females who are not afraid of experimenting. These females still believe in magic, but they are ready to take action to make their dreams come true. Basically, the product is targeted at those who can be a dreamer and can be ready for changes.

Behavioural description

It is necessary to note that such factors as brand loyalty and price sensitivity are very important for any product. However, they are especially meaningful for Wonderstruck. Thus, the product’s popularity is based on the singer’s popularity. Thus, the decrease of the latter can lead to decrease of the former.

Of course, the price depends significantly on brand loyalty. If the product loses some points, the price will inevitably go down. There will be only one way out to make the major focus on the product’s manufacturer, i.e. Elizabeth Arden. Keeping the image of the young, beautiful and talented Taylor Swift, the producers should stress the manufacturer’s brand.

Bibliography Ebay.com.au. Assessed April 26, 2012, https://www.ebay.com.au/sch/i.html?_nkw=taylor swift wonderstruck perfume

Schmid, Volker. Branding, Positioning and Segmentation at Volkswagen. Oxford: GRIN Verlag, 2011.

Shelburne, Craig. “Taylor Swift Names Fragrance “Wonderstruck.” CMT News. Last modified July 15, 2011. http://www.cmt.com/news/1667345/taylor-swift-names-fragrance-wonderstruck/

Sujan, Mita, and James R. Bettman. “The Effects of Brand Positioning Strategies on Consumers’ Brand and Category Perceptions: Some Insights from Schema Research.” Journal of Marketing Research 26, no. 4 (1989): 454-467.

“Taylor Swift.” Store Taylor Swift. Web.

“Taylor Swift Wonderstruck.” YouTube. Assessed April 26, 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=woiScNulLyE

“Taylor Swift Wonderstruck Teaser.” YouTube. Assessed April 26, 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-CICulOcBQE

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Norm Dicks’ Political Achievements Essay a level english language essay help

When Norm Dicks recently announced he would retire from active politics at the end of his term, his political supporters became worried. They had to contend with the reality of having to do without Dicks when he ultimately makes his exit.On the other hand, his political foes have found a reason to celebrate. His political competitors have not beaten him since 1976.

He has over the past three decades held the kind of political strength that is not easy to beat. What Norm Dicks has achieved in his political career is unequalled in the history of the United States of America. In our analysis, we are going to see what exactly has shaped his political alignments.

We shall also see how his political achievements have inspired his loyalty to the Democratic Party. It is therefore important to examine his biography and know more about his life in and outside politics. Norm Dicks was born in Bremerton in December 16; 1940.

He was the son of a dock worker. He graduated in 1959 from West Bremerton High School. He proceeded to the University of Washington where he graduated in 1963 with a Bachelors degree in Arts. In 1968, Dicks graduated from the University Of Washington School Of Law.

He practised law privately for some time. He later worked under Senator Warren Magnuson. He served as a Legislative Assistant under Magnuson until 1973 when he rose to the post of Administrative Assistant. Senator Magnuson is thought to have not only inspired Norm Dicks politically but is also thought to have shaped Dicks life as a Democrat.

In 1976, Dicks tried his hand on politics after resigning from employment under Senator Magnuson.He embarked on a successful political mission for a seat in the Congress in the 6th Congressional District of the State of Washington. He has not lost the seat since.

He has served in the Congress for eighteen consecutive terms, an achievement that many Congressmen have only dreamt of. Norm Dicks has also been privileged with high appointments. Once in the Congress, Norm Dicks served in the Appropriations Committee for the House in his first term in office.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Today, Dicks is the highest rated Democrat in the Appropriations Full Committee. He is also the highest ranking Democrat in the Defense Appropriations Committee.

Norm Dicks has been involved in national security and intelligence units of the United States. He has been vocal in issues concerning arms especially on their control. He was appointed as a member to discuss arms reduction talks of the Soviet Union owing to his experience in that field.

The sixth Congressional District of Washington has certain economic activities that distinguish it from any other district. Tourism is a major economic activity in the district.

Timber is also another of its major economic activities. Norm Dicks has been involved in conservation efforts of timber through enactment of vital policies. At the same time, he has worked with federal authorities to compensate aggrieved forest workers and stakeholders.

In conclusion, we can say that the kind of leadership that Norm Dicks has offered to his voters has influenced his voting patterns. His area of representation has leaned towards the Democratic Party more than the Republican Party.

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Antitrust Case: Wal-Mart Report essay help online: essay help online

The antitrust laws were created to enhance competition in the market. The law provides equal opportunities to all firms in the market, and regulates firms which develop strategies to hinder other firms from competing with them. The government aims at creating competition in the market so that firms can provide good quality products.

At the same time, these products should be given reasonable prices. This law protects firms and consumers too. Companies that do not comply with the provisions of these laws risk being sued and fined (Hylton, 2003).

Wal-Mart is an example of a company that has been reported to contravene the provisions of the antitrust laws. In many occasions, the company has experienced lawsuits in protest to a contravention with antitrust laws.

Wal-Mart has established retail stores and has dominated the US market. The firm has the characteristics of a monopsonist. A monopsonist refers to a situation where a single firm dictates the supply of products in the market. In such a situation, only one buyer seeks the products of several suppliers.

This gives the monopsonist the opportunity to dictate the market by offering low prices to suppliers (Besanko, 2011). A monopsonist operates at a point where marginal cost (MC) is equal to marginal revenue (MRp).

Therefore, the firm gets extraordinary profits because the demand is equivalent to the aggregate demand of supply. From the diagram below, it is evident that monopsonist gets abnormal profits because the labor demand is higher while the wage price is low.

Source: Haworth (n.d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Wal-Mart has been accused of applying the strategies of a monopsonist despite the fact that many similar firms exist in the market. For example, Coca-Cola Company has been forced by Wal-Mart to sell its products at very low prices.

Since Wal-Mart has the capacity to buy many products from Coca-Cola, the company has developed the strategy to offer low prices. Wal-Mart has also been accused of offering low wages to the workers. The company has employed many people and has taken advantage of being a top employer by offering very low wages.

This has made the employees of the company strike. Labor unions have complained about the low wages offered to workers by the firm (Lynn, 2006).

In 2005, Wal-Mart and Netflix colluded to create a monopoly in the DVD market. The two companies had developed a strategy to divide the market for DVDs. This was done to reduce competition in the market. The agreement was that Wal-Mart would not rent DVDs through the online channels.

This would offer Netflix the opportunity to sell DVDs in the market. This strategy was adopted when Blockbuster Company started to sell DVDs through online systems. The strategy developed by Wal-Mart and Netflix would make Netflix the sole marketer of DVDs.

This would discourage any other company in the industry. As such, suppliers of DVDs would be influenced to offer their products at low prices. Netflix started to offer competitive prices to its subscribers.

This aimed at driving competitors out of the market. The two companies were sued and found guilty of contravening the antitrust laws. The two companies were fined $40 million (Bloomberg News, 2010).

We will write a custom Report on Antitrust Case: Wal-Mart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, it is worth mentioning that antitrust laws were developed to protect companies from unfair business conduct. The laws give opportunities to firms to exploit the market with no restrictions from any single company.

A free market environment has been encouraged to create competition. Wal-Mart continues to practice unfair business, and this has made the company be fined for failing to adhere to the antitrust laws.

Reference List Besanko, D. (2011). Microeconomics. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Bloomberg News (2010). Antitrust suit against Netflix and Wal-Mart is given class-action status. Web.

Haworth, B. (n.d.). Monopsony. Web.

Hylton, K. N. (2003). Antitrust law: Economic theory and common law. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lynn, B. C. (2006). The Case for Breaking up Wal-Mart. Web.

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“Gender and Representation” by Chow Rey Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help

The article in question dwells upon the issues concerning representation in terms of gender. The author tries to come up with the most appropriate pattern of representation of the woman. Chow concludes that representation as well as self-representation is subjective and interconnected with such notions as ethnicity, race, class, etc. The author starts the article with a strong argument.

He states that human societies often rely on the system of signs which presupposes “hierarchization and evaluation” (Chow 38). Humans make out specific signs that stand for specific ideas, notions, phenomena, etc. The author proceeds by defining representation in terms of gender.

The researcher notes that women should be seen as equal to men (as both represent human beings), though they are often regarded as inferior to males. Thus, the author comes to a very important conclusion.

He tries to define those who are engaged in development of representation. The author claims that representation of women is worked out by men in terms of imperialistic Western cultures (Chow 42).

The author concludes that if representation is such a subjective phenomenon, people should rely on self-representation. The researcher states that people have already acknowledged benefits of self-representation as such works as diaries, memoirs and auto-biographies have gained popularity.

Chow also argues that self-representation can be regarded as the result of the democratization of Western societies (44). The author also provides Foucault’s ideas concerning self-representation. Chow also claims that self-representation has become non-representative as people tend to depict ‘imaginary’ selves. The author also refers to Spivak’s ideas concerning representation of women.

The author provides particular examples which vividly illustrate the researcher’s ideas. One of the brightest examples is the way pornography is seen by different people. The author argues that this can be regarded as a kind of representation and self-representation. Chow concludes that representation of women is closely connected with such notions as inequality, class, religion, ethnicity, etc.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article in question touches upon very disputable issues. These issues are also considered in other works. For instance, Brenda J. Allen focuses on issues concerning self-identity and self-representation (228).

The author argues that it can be difficult to find oneself, though it is crucial for self-development and self-realization. Another work also touches upon issues concerning self-identity (Wong(Lau) 267). The author notes that race, class and gender are interconnected.

The author also deals with the importance of self-identity in terms of these notions. One more work focuses on the racial aspect of self-representation (Harris 240). Notably, though the major focus is made on race, the author also pays a lot of attention to gender and class. All these works contribute greatly to the development of the overall discourse concerning gender and self-identity.

Thus, it is possible to claim that researchers have developed a particular vision of self-representation claiming that such notions as class, gender, ethnicity and race are interconnected.

Admittedly, the articles mentioned are important in terms of Communication Studies as they help to focus on really important issues that influence the way people see themselves and others. Of course, representation and self-representation shape communication strategies to great extent.

The article under consideration focuses on the issue concerning women’s representation in the human society. Interestingly, Chow mentions various scenarios that depend on ethnicity and cultural peculiarities. Thus, Chow also touches upon issues concerning oriental viewpoints on the matter (47).

However, it is possible to note that Chow is somewhat too theoretical, i.e. the author focuses on trends rather than real life experiences. Other works on the issue can become a good illustration for the ideas revealed by Chow. For instance, Bowen reveals her own experiences which can be illustrative in terms of women’s representation and self-representation (41).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on “Gender and Representation” by Chow Rey specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author recounts her upbringing and the way she adopts feminist values. Bowen claims that being a Jewish girl she had to live in the men’s world where women were seen as somewhat inferior members of the society. However, she manages to rethink her role in the society. Likewise, Hoda Al-Mutawah considers the role of women in the men’s world (36).

The author also focuses on the way women are represented in the Muslim world. The author reveals the way she has changed her perspectives. Al-Mutawah provides her own experience which can be the necessary illustration to such theoretical approaches as Chow’s perspective. Admittedly, the three works are of exclusive importance for the field of Communication Studies.

These articles provide insights into the development of representation and self-representation of women across the world. The articles reveal experiences of women who develop specific outlooks on the basis of certain cultural peculiarities and contemporary trends.

These articles also help to understand the ways contemporary women see themselves in the society. This understanding can definitely help to work out specific communicative patterns. The articles can help people understand the contemporary values to communicate effectively with people pertaining to other groups (in terms of ethnicity, gender, etc.).

Discussion question: Based on the Chow’s article, reveal similarities and differences between representation and self-representation of women in the contemporary society.

Works Cited Allen, Brenda J. “Sapphire and Sappho: Allies in Authenticity.” Our Voices: Essays in Culture, Ethnicity, and Communication. Eds. Alberto Gonzalez, Marsha Houston, and Victoria Chen. New York, NY: Roxbury Publishing Company, 2011. 228-233. Print.

Al-Mutawah, Hoda. “Women and Islam: A Muslim Feminist Perspective.” Our Voices: Essays in Culture, Ethnicity, and Communication. Eds. Alberto Gonzalez, Marsha Houston, and Victoria Chen. New York, NY: Roxbury Publishing Company, 2011. 35-41. Print.

Bowen, Sheryl Perlmutter. “Jewish and/or Woman: Identity and Communicative Style.” Our Voices: Essays in Culture, Ethnicity, and Communication. Eds. Alberto Gonzalez, Marsha Houston, and Victoria Chen. New York, NY: Roxbury Publishing Company, 2011. 41-47. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “Gender and Representation” by Chow Rey by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Chow, Rey. “Gender and Representation.” Feminist Consequences: Theory for the New Century. Ed. Elisabeth Bronfen and Misha Kavka. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2001. 38-57. Print.

Harris, Tina M. “I Know It Was Blood: Defining the Biracial Self in a Euro-American Society.” Our Voices: Essays in Culture, Ethnicity, and Communication. Eds. Alberto Gonzalez, Marsha Houston, and Victoria Chen. New York, NY: Roxbury Publishing Company, 2011. 239-244. Print.

Wong(Lau), Kathleen. “Working Through Identity: Understanding Class in the Context of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender.” Our Voices: Essays in Culture, Ethnicity, and Communication. Eds. Alberto Gonzalez, Marsha Houston, and Victoria Chen. New York, NY: Roxbury Publishing Company, 2003. 266-271. Print.

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Strategic report for Spotify Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction Music is a one of the most popular leisure activities worldwide. It is so popular that the music industry is a dynamic industry that keeps growing and advancing in the way it delivers music to the fans worldwide. Fans get to listen to their favourite musicians over the Internet through applications like YouTube.

Listening or watching music online can sometimes be very frustrating, especially when the Internet is not fast enough and buffering takes ages. The advance in technology has assisted in solving this problem. One of these solutions was created by the Spotify Company under Daniel EK, who is the founder of this popular technological innovation.

The service provided by this company also bears the name Spotify like the company itself. Spotify engages in the provision of a service that allows the streaming of music. This platform allows Internet users to listen to music on demand from their favourite artists without having to buy or own the albums (Gilmour, 2011).

Spotify is the most recent online music service that was launched in London by the Spotify company in 2006 (Miller, 2012). The service is designed to avail streaming music from internationally recognized labels like Warner Music Group, Sony, EMI, among others.

Therefore, the service gained popularity very fast across Europe and also internationally and by 2010, Spotify had about 10 million users, and the number was increasing by the day. This was an indication of how technological advancements can lead to the rapid development of an industry.

Spotify has been able to reach out to many customers through the technological advancement experienced in the global Internet connectivity. This paper provides a critical analysis of the Spotify Company in the way it has been carrying out its business.

The Spotify Company and its Resources The music industry thrives in the presence of the Internet. Spotify is a company that is entirely depended on the Internet. For the company to survive, it needs to appeal to the users and give them services that will keep them hooked. This means that Spotify always has to anticipate the needs of its users and meet them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Every business depends on its consumers to survive in the competitive market. For Spotify, it goes more than that. Its users are its own lifeline. This company literary cannot exist or grow without new account creations or new subscriptions from users.

This means that consumers are the biggest source of resources for Spotify. The company has shifted the notion of ownership from having the physical product to virtually possessing it. This also includes having accessibility to it irrespective of time and place (Jones

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Yachts Australia Economic Problems Essay best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Background

Yachts Australia operates a small fleet of charter yachts in Australia. The business operates in the Great Barrier Reef on the coast of Queensland, with eleven members of staff. It has several sailing boats with varying number of Berths. The business employs temporary employees and backpackers to handle consumer demand during peak seasons and to deal with excess capacity requirements.

A number of problems with the existing business systems are stifling expansion prospects. In addition to the primary business of charter yachts, the business also refurbishes yachts and sailboats for resale, and issues franchise agreements to people interested in the yacht charter business across Australia’s waters.

This report relates to the exploration of the feasibility of a new system that should handle the challenges of Yacht Australia.

Current Problems

The main challenges that Yachts Australia needs to deal with come from the rapid growth that the company has seen in the last few years. It has been expanding operations without expanding the systems supporting the expansion. These problems include information security, human resource management, managing reservations currently characterised by double booking, and managing the commercial aspects of franchises.

The problem with information security is that the only computers used to store information do not have secure passwords. Both permanent and temporary employees have access to the information stored there. On the human resource side, the main challenge that the business faces is the high number of temporary staff it employs.

They present a huge risk to the business system at several levels. Management of reservations has also been a big issue for the business because of overreliance on manual systems leading to eventualities like double booking.

In addition to these problems, there is no formal information storage and retrieval system, which causes frustration among the staff. At a strategic level, there is no way of telling whether the business is growing at the same rate as the rest of the industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Opportunities

The opportunities that exist in the current business include expanding the business by improving the business system. With the desire to expand the business northwards to capture the market there, there is a clear business opportunity. The company can also benefit a lot by implementing IT based systems to enhance its capacity to handle the new opportunities

Minimum System Requirements The system that yacht Australia needs should meet the following requirements. It must enhance information security while at the same time availing relevant information to the members of staff that need it. The idea here is that the business needs to have a secure and efficient information management system.

Secondly, it should assist the management with staffing decisions. This will address the current dangerous trend of using backpackers by helping to determine the optimum number of permanent employees required to run the business efficiently.

The next requirement is that it should solve the reservation bottlenecks because this has a big impact on service provision, and hence profitability. Double bookings can result in lost business opportunities, or embarrassing lapses in service provision. The fourth element of the system requirements is that it should avail information to help with strategic planning.

Technical Feasibility

The question to answer while dealing with technical feasibility is whether it is possible to develop a system that can meet the design specifications. On the issue of information security, there are simple procedures such as using a system of passwords as opposed to one password.

Other measures that can enhance information security such as multilevel passwords or passwords related to sections of the data. The issue of staffing depends on decisions taken after analysing data relating to the human resource management patterns.

It is possible to collect that information by preparing appropriate data forms each time the company hires new people, especially the backpackers and those on contract. Dealing with the reservation issues can happen if the business uses an electronic reservation system. It can be a simple online electronic diary.

We will write a custom Essay on Yachts Australia Economic Problems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the area of strategic planning, it depends on information gleaned from sources, but related business decisions require thought. In this sense, a business system cannot make decisions but can facilitate the decisions.

Economic Feasibility

The economic feasibility of this project aims at establishing whether there will be sufficient economic benefits to justify pursuing the options. Investing in information security will reduce the chances of loosing vital information about business processes, opportunities and contacts because of espionage.

Ease of access to information puts the business at the risk of losing vital business opportunities to competitors. Therefore, it makes economic sense to invest in information security. On the other hand, the information should be available to employees that need it for them to make good business decisions.

On the issue of staffing, removing the existing bottlenecks will make it possible for the business to streamline its staff requirements by retaining the minimum number of employees required for profitable business. Fixing the problems with the reservation system will improve the capacity of the business to meet the financial objectives.

It will be easier to schedule many more bookings compared to the current capacity. This is a desirable economic outcome. Finally, the capacity to make strategic decisions is desirable for any business because it assures long-term success. In an overall sense, these solutions will bring about more economic benefits compared to the costs.

Organizational Feasibility

Analysis of organisational feasibility aims at finding out whether the organization has the capacity to implement the proposed solutions. Yacht Australia has only nine employees without an established IT department. This means that the institutional capacity to handle this project is lacking. A situation like this one increases the project risks associated with handling the project internally.

There are two options available to handle this situation. The first one is to develop capacity internally or secondly, to hire external contractors to develop the solutions. Developing capacity internally has better long-term results because it has the potential to keep down system administration costs.

However, the lead-time is normally greater which may delay the project. On the other hand, using contractors increases the cost of the project especially if the contract includes a maintenance component. As the situation stands, the project lacks organizational feasibility. There are ways to deal with that, but it will be at a cost.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Yachts Australia Economic Problems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Schedule Feasibility

Managing a project schedule is one of the most challenging aspects of project management. The main issues to consider when looking at schedule feasibility include the opportunity cost related to a quick or a slow implementation of the solutions identified.

In this case, a long implementation time will increase the likelihood of the business suffering the risks identified. However, a hasty implementation may also lead to the implementation of solutions that are not well developed.

Considering that there are no external parties to this process such as regulators, the business should develop a schedule that addresses the concerns as soon as possible. However, there is no crisis as such since the business has a working system in place.

Depending on severity of the current bottlenecks, the project can work with any schedule that solves its most pressing problems first. The choices in the hands of Yacht Australia depend on the company’s priorities hence the feasibility of a schedule does not arise.

Resource Feasibility

There are two types of systems required to solve the problems at Yacht Australia. There are business process support systems and there are decision support systems. Implementing the decision support systems will require more than just IT applications.

They will require greater resource outlay to handle. On the other hand, business process support systems such as the scheduling solution or data security require fewer resources hence they will need fewer resources. Therefore, they have greater resource feasibility.

Secondly, the business has several income streams and appears to be in good financial standing. It therefore means that the business can access the resources for this project. Considering that the business has only two computers, and four locations, it is necessary for it to invest in more computers to meet its emerging needs.

In addition, the business will need to develop an IT department to cater for its business needs. For a start, a single person can take up IT duties alongside other duties, and later specialize as business expands.

Reference List Kerzner, H 2009, Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling and Controlling, 10th edn, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

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Chinese Communities Culture in Canada Research Paper essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Chinese Community in Vancouver

Conclusion

References

Introduction This research paper will discuss how the spirit of multiculturalism in Canada has impacted the Chinese community in Vancouver. The research paper will analyze the impact of allowing expression of ethnically distinct cultures freely in a multicultural society.

The essay will argue that a society that allows for freedom of expression of cultures of independent communities constituting it through multiculturalism stands to reap benefits. This is as opposed to one that discriminates or favors some communities over others. The research paper will carry out the analysis with reference to the Chinese community in Vancouver, Canada.

The Chinese Canadian history dates back to mid 19th century. Most inhabitants of Chinese origin in Canada have for the longest time occupied Vancouver. The Chinese first landed here in great numbers as laborers in Canadian Pacific Railway building.

The Chinese faced discrimination in Canada, compounded by the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1923 which allowed only Chinese merchants to immigrate. They continued to fight from within and successfully in 1947; the Act was repealed following China’s collaboration with Canada in the war.

This allowed continued Chinese immigration into Canada. Continued changes to immigration rules and regulations eventually ended the overt discrimination that persisted in Canada. In 1967, the Chinese were now fully allowed to enter Canada as independent immigrants.

This saw an influx of highly educated Chinese who could fluently speak in English easing their integration into the Canadian community (Wong, 2007). The multiculturalism policy adopted in Canada in 1971 signified a major breakthrough for the Chinese community in Canada; as it allowed ethnic groups residing there to preserve and develop their independent cultures.

This only served as a boost to the Chinese Canadians as they already had established residential patterns within the districts. They had also established sophisticated organizational communities in an effort to ward off discrimination from mainstream locals in the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, they used Chinese language in schools and the adoption of this policy only gave them an impetus to develop further. Today they have established Chinese cultural centers, memorial parks for their legends, care centers for the elderly and have been in constant pursuit of promotion of Chinese-Canadian cultural exchanges (Wood

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Netflix Company’s Strategies Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction The availability of new opportunities through which the various consumers could watch movies had greatly created a ripe environment for the development of competition in the movie rental industry. Market research indicated that the industry was very lucrative as it totaled a combined consumer expenditure of $9.5 billion in 2004.

The industry was made up of four segments. The first was the rentals via mail which raked in total revenue of $2 billion. There were also In-store rentals which brought in revenues totaling to $5.8 billion. Video on Demand (VOD) accounted for $1.3 billion while vending machines brought in $400 million.

The industry was projected to hold a higher potential for the increase by 68 per cent in the rental of DVDs between 2007 and 2011. Case 4 is about the competition that has been going on between Netflix and Blockbuster, two players in the movie rental industry.

Blockbuster launched Total Access, a concept that allowed subscribers to return the movies that they had rented by mail for a free rental.

This strategy that was employed by the firm worked greatly as the online sales of Blockbuster nearly doubled. By the end of 2006, Blockbuster had a total of 2.2 million subscribers. This was a huge chunk of the movie rental market given that the firm was started many years after Netflix had been introduced into the market.

Business Problem And Critical Issues Porter’s five forces analysis

There is a high rate of competition in the movie rental industry in the US. This is supported by first, the high power of the buyers. According to Porter (2008), when there is a variety of substitutes from which users can choose from, they gain significant power and thus they can switch from one subscriber to the other depending on the products that they are being offered.

The users could access the movie rentals via live streaming, using their TV remote to place orders from their cable providers or even use Video on Demand services. Also, there was a high threat of substitutes as the users could either go to the theatres, buy DVDs or rent s all this were way through which they could be able to satisfy their viewing pleasure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The threat of new entrants was more real in the industry as the cost of entry was not prohibitive. The suppliers also enjoyed a considerable power in the industry especially the movie production houses that were to rent out the various rights for the movies that they produced for rental services. This has been the force that shapes up the competition in the movie industry.

Industry driving forces

There exists a variety of driving forces that were being faced in the industry. First, there was an increase in the online rental of DVDs, movie file and music download and consumers were also highly interested in VOD.

This greatly increased the competition between the players in the industry as the firms that operated in the industry focused on how they could be able to provide the services that were required by the various buyers in the industry.

The online rental accounted for a big chunk thus a firm that provided the online rental services were more likely to acquire more market share in the industry where the firms operated (Porter, 2008). The industry was also being impacted on by the low prices of high definition TVs.

This has provided increased more quality viewing for the various consumers thus an increase in the viewing. The competition ill increase in the industry due to the rise in the number of players who will be involved in the provision of online movie rentals.

Industry profile and attractiveness

The industry is controlled by innovation. The innovativeness of a firm is a major contributor to the firm’s ability to be able to withstand the environment of the operations. Netflix is very innovative as it could anticipate changes in the tastes of the customers.

Those customers who were able to stream the movies direct to their PCs were given an opportunity by the discoveries that Netflix made. The firm was able to anticipate these changes and make discoveries for the technology that was needed. The workforce of Netflix is very innovative thus they are able to ensure that the market demands are met by the firm in terms of the design, production and marketing activities.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Netflix Company’s Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When such a scenario comes up, the firm will lose out in terms of both the quantity and quality of the product offering (Thomke, 2003). The movie recommendation software that was being used by Netflix also significantly increased their sales as the subscribers were given a list of movies together with their previews. This recommendation was based on the previous orders that the customers of the firm had made.

The strategy of Netflix is also long term, for instance, they properly anticipated the changes that would take place 3in the industry.

They engage in strategic partnerships for instance the partnership with LG that allowed for the instant watching of the videos direct to the television screens of the subscribers of the firm (Porter, 2008). Also, the firm was focused and anticipated that the profitability in the industry was pegged on the ability to stream content over the Internet and not the traditional method of postal delivery.

Even though Blockbuster had been the leader in the movie rental industry, it was faced with a myriad of problems which greatly affected the operations of the firm. The high costs that were incurred by the firm significantly ate into the profit that would have been enjoyed by the firm.

The firm also trailed behind Netflix in the various discoveries and innovations. The first instance is that of no limit on charges on the DVDs that overstayed and the use of online moving rentals. The firm still maintained the brick and mortar stores that were significantly incurring more costs than Netflix (Porter, 2008).

Considering the analysis, it can be rightfully said that Netflix was best positioned at it was well poised to benefits from the various changes that were expected in the movie rental industry. The innovations that the firm made and the alliances have put it in a strategic position to be able to capitalize on the changes in the climate when the changes do occur.

Parameters For Analysis Key success factors in the movie rental industry

In the next 3-5 years, there is a variety of factors that will shape the competition in the movie rental industry. The first will be the ease of access. There is a growing consumer trend towards accessing the movie rentals through the provision of Internet.

This increased level of access has increased the number of consumers who may be able to access the movies (Gamble

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Health Education Development Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Background

Concepts of Group Theory

Factors Affecting the Group Health of International Students

Challenges of Working with International Students

Using a Strengths-Based Approach

The Ottawa Charter

References

Background The number of international students is on the rise in most institutions of higher learning. This comes from various factors including a global increase in the size of the middle class, increase in marketing of courses abroad, and the increase in number of scholarships and opportunities to participate in exchange programs.

This increase in the number of international student has some consequences because of the unique issues that come with living and studying in a new culture. While these issues have been present for some time, their magnitude has not been large because they affected a relatively small population. This has changed.

The specific issues that international students deal with include financial pressure, racism and xenophobia, and lack of family support, leading reduced social participation. Financial pressure occurs in students whose sponsors are unable to cater fully for both academic and living expenses.

Such students often try to find part time jobs to meet their needs. In the social front, the biggest pressure that international students face is racism and xenophobia. There has been a lot of progress in these two areas, but almost all foreign students especially from colored races have experienced some form of racism.

Xenophobia arises from the feeling that foreigners are using up resources that the host country can ill afford. Another source of social problems for international students is the lack of social support.

In most countries, the social fabric is stronger than in the west. For someone who grew up in Asia, Africa, or South America, it is quite challenging to settle in the less personal cultures of the west. These factors all combine to produce a set of international students who cannot participate effectively in their host cultures.

Concepts of Group Theory There are important lessons derivable from group theory to explain the reasons behind the quality of social health of international students. In particular, group process and group dynamics can help shape the thinking undergirding Health Education Development targeting international students.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Group process refers to the patterns of development of a group and the way in which relationships develop. These processes include observable issues and the inferred ones.

Observable factors include speech patterns, body language, and the content of discourses. Inferred elements include the silent aspirations of the group members at individual and group level, and in some cases, at subgroup level.

The group processes play several roles. They help the group members to adapt to the working conditions. They also have therapeutic value for the members. The processes are central to the formation of stable groups.

A number of theories attempt to model group dynamics. They all aim at explaining the stages that groups go through in their development. Groups that form voluntarily have greater elements of group loyalty compared to groups that develop from forced circumstances.

Most of the theories of group dynamics try to identify the specific stages that group development follows. The theories describe the characteristics of newly formed groups, the search for purpose and position, the place of acting out the group’s purpose, and in some cases, the point where the group disintegrates.

Group dynamics concentrate on the changes that take place in the communication patterns and the activities of the group as time moves on. One model describing the impact of groups is the social interdependence theory, which asserts that the actions of one individual have the capacity to influence the actions of other individuals.

Another one of the models, developed by Tuckman identified four stages in group-dynamics theory. The first stage is forming. Under this stage, the factors precipitating group formation come into play. They can be intentional and intended or they can be purely circumstantial.

We will write a custom Essay on Health Education Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second stage is storming, where differences among group members come into play as the group tries to clarify its purpose and its rules of engagement. Differences in personalities tend to show in frequent flare-ups. After this stage comes norming. During this stage, the group’s identity, purpose, and rules become clear.

The members develop realistic expectations of what the group can provide. The group goes to the performing the stage where the group settles into its active life, and later on dies as it enters the adjourning stage.

Factors Affecting the Group Health of International Students In light of group theory, there are factors that influence the health of the international students that are addressable through face-to-face health education. These are the factors mentioned earlier which include financial pressure, racism and xenophobia, lack of family support, which all result in reduced social participation.

The international students tend to coalesce when they meet in institutions of higher learning. These institutions, and host governments normally handle them as international students, distinct from the local students, hence the international students find that they deal with similar issues.

As they live and study in the new culture. International students become close because in many cases they have to deal with the same hurdles such as finding part time jobs, finding friendly accommodation, and identifying social activities. Since many international students come from very close-knit social environments, they tend to understand their social needs better.

The risk that comes with the tight relations international students tend to form as a means of coping with their practical and psychological needs is that they become a target for ridicule, racism, and xenophobia. Their groupings tend to have distinct social characteristics, which makes them visible and objective targets.

There is also the risk that by failing to integrate with the host culture, the international students develop a victim mentality, which makes them to over react to normal social experiences in the host culture.

The use of face-to-face health education sessions can help the international students to reduce the anxiety that comes with living in a new cultural setting and make them aware of the social support mechanisms they can plug into that will not make them too distinct in the new culture. In other words, the sessions can help them to fit in better in the new culture devoid of unnecessary anxiety.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Health Education Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Challenges of Working with International Students The most significant challenge that will arise when working with this group is trust. The reasons why foreign students coalesce are that they feel vulnerable and open to abuse and exploitation. They come together to offer each other psychological support and to have a feeling of security.

In this sense, they may fear that a particular program will exploit them in some way. They must receive assurance that they will get respect and that the program is a sincere effort to offer them support. In general, there will be an ongoing need to offer them reassurance to encourage them to participate effectively.

The second challenge that international students present is that they come from very diverse cultures that inform how they interact and learn. One example is the place of women in society. Some of students, especially from cultures embracing the Muslim tradition, may have a significant difficulty taking instructions from women tutors.

In some of these cultures, women do not wield any authority over men. Another cultural element is the fact that many cultures apart from the west use informal systems for social education. The west tends to use formal structures when it comes to education.

This may be a barrier when interaction with foreign students. Finally, there is the risk that some international students may not feel free participating in programs requiring self-disclosure simply because their cultures do not encourage public expression of emotions.

Using a Strengths-Based Approach Strength based approach requires that the educator uses the strengths inherent in the group of international student to facilitate face-to-face health education sessions with them. The strengths approach, “seeks to help client groups to build skills that can lead to achieving more power over their lives”.

This approach emphasizes the capacity of the group to use its established strengths to address its challenges. The role of this goal is to identify these strengths, affirm them, and help the group to mobilize them to address existing challenges.

The specific strengths inherent in the groups of international students include the fact that they are close-knit. Since the groups form because of shared concerns that do not end, they tend to last for a long time. The continual struggle to keep up with studies, maintain contact with sponsors, and to find a social support system, makes them very loyal once they join the groups of international students.

The second strength they have is a common sense of bewilderment regarding their new culture. This sense is really the result of new cultural practices, and norms in the host country. Thirdly, they have a better feel of their social needs.

Some of the groups of international students come from certain traditions with similar cultural practices. Such groups have the added benefit of understanding the specific social needs that the other group members have. It makes the group the best place to handle those unique needs.

In this situation, a health promotion educator should guide the group to find ways of meeting its primary needs by leveraging on its unique strengths, but also using those strengths to help them to integrate with the host culture.

Generally, most people enjoy cross-cultural experiences hence international students can use their culture as a point of developing strong relations with the host culture. The general strategy will be finding ways of making the internationals students better guests to the host culture for their own health benefits.

The Ottawa Charter The Ottawa charter sought to provide guidelines relating to the provision of healthcare. The charter came up as the final communiqué from a conference that sought to define the standards of health services provision in the context of public health.

The charter stressed the need to develop individual capacity to handle individual health concerns to reduce unnecessary dependency on healthcare systems. The charter also proposed the establishment of supportive environments to support patients.

The thirds element of the charter was to encourage the establishment of positive communities. This meant that it was important to have healthy communities for people to live in.

The relevance of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion becomes clear when looking at the issues in this discussion. The approach proposed here seeks to develop individual capabilities to handle emerging health concerns. Each student will have the capacity to deal with the pressure he faces regardless of its type.

It also aim at developing an environment where the students can get support. The environment includes the institution, the community of international students, and the larger society. On their own, they will have the same problems experienced by many international students because, “unskilled group members cannot cooperate effectively”.

In other words, they will have “positive interdependence” . Thirdly, it will make the community of international students strong by enabling it to act as a positive community.

It will also make the institutions create systems that will give new focus to health services touching on the international students. The overall result will be a better-adjusted community including both the locals and the international students.

It is clear that the international students experience several challenges as they settle into a new culture and society. With some effort, institutions of higher learning can help them to develop healthy coping mechanisms. These students, with just some institutional support, can develop healthy relationships.

References American Psychological Association. (1989). Contemporary Psychology. (E. G. Boring, Ed.) Michigan: American Psychological Association.

Chapin, R. (2010). Social Policy for Effective Practice: A Strengths Approach. New York: Francis

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Otto Von Bismarck Research Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Background

Otto Von Bismarck

Bismarck’s nationalism

Otto von Bismarck, Gold and Iron

Bismarck’s role in establishing the German Empire

Bibliography

Footnotes

Background The status-quo that Germany was wallowing in and which was established by Metternich came to an end with the revolution that began in 1848. There was great need to have a strong and unified nation which would offer the kind of leadership that the region demanded.

After the revolution, instead of Prussia and Austria using their established positions in Vienna and Berlin respectively to play a unified role of shaping politics in Germany, they opted to make use of the German Confederation to assert their political interests and power in German affairs.

As a matter of fact, this was a strategic move by the two countries to gain control and power over the opposing camps. This made it impossible for the two parties to realize their endeavors of unifying Germany as it has been observed and analyzed by historians. Stern posits that the success of either Austria or Prussia in establishing a greater force in Germany required mediatization.1

This would be the only approach that would a positive difference towards their pursuit for unity. As a result, following the revolution of 1848, Prussia planned to corral both medium and smaller states in Germany into a unified body held by what many leaders had come to unanimously agree with.

This was the conservative constitution. The document provided guidelines on how the various parties who were in the union would interact and run their affairs in a more harmonious manner.

However, with issues related to different interests exhibited by arch-conservatives to have the conservative powers show national solidarity and the inevitable large scale European war, Prussia could not attain its ambitions of bringing about German national unity. On the other hand, it was compelled to sacrifice its plan to unionize Germany.

The consequence of the sacrifice as Tullock puts it in his publication was a massive defeat in managing its international affairs and in pursuing its interests in German politics.2 In any case, this proved to be a very tricky political arrangement among these states bearing in mind that each one of them had unique interests.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Austria tried to unify German by reconvening the Federal Diet and using the power of the president to have all institutions brought into a single executive body. Austria intended to have the executive body put under the Austrian tutelage. To achieve this, it had to ensure that the Federal Diet was expanded, a consideration which saw its involvement in the Prussian Zollverein.

This step of action by Austria is believed to have played an important role in establishing a strong unifying force in Germany. Nonetheless, it is imperative to note that this show of unity must have been contributed by myriad of other factors other than just the overlying reasons.

Political analysts argue that while all this was happening, including the desire to establish a status quo in political conservative status, some of the prominent interests by Austria that could be felt were its political and economical desires to use the national unity in Germany to subjugate others politically and eventually assume leadership roles in the politics of Germany.

According to Clark in his book A firewall to alms: a brief economic history of the world, such a move would only be interpreted as a source of political struggle which was entirely not founded on conservative solidarity, but whose dominant motif was indeed what could be fittingly described as political pragmatism.3

Otto Von Bismarck In his publication, Smith posits that many developments that took place in Germany and which led to its unification are considered to be the works of one of the most visible and vocal arch-conservatives and a prominent figure called Otto von Bismarck.

Scholars are quite categorical that Bismarck entrenched himself into politics as an individual who was strongly opposed to the Revolution. He was known as a formidable force towards the opposition of revolution. It is imperative to mention that his entry into German politics was through a conservative ticket.

However, his arch conservative reputation did not dictate his attitude towards the dualism exercised by Prussia and Austria or the path he took in German politics. This will be discussed in detail later in this paper.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Otto Von Bismarck specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Actually, during his early years of political involvement in the nation’s affairs, he strongly exhibited his willingness to depart from the ideals held by conservatives with little uneasiness over conservative national solidarity, in order to pursue similar interests to that of Prussia. This move was also meant to put himself at par with the politics of the wider German including that of Prussia.

One of the most important driving factors that made Bismarck pursue the political unification of Germany was to first ensure that the unfettered rights which Prussia had in Germany were met. In addition, it is worth noting that there were special interests which Prussia had reserved for German and which were supposed to be met.

Indeed, since Bismarck’s first entrance into politics in 1848, he strongly demonstrated his desire to see parity between Austria and Prussia, a consideration that even with a hard-wearing defense of the decisions by Olmutz, was seen to develop him into a tough statesman whose roles would eventually bring about the unification of Germany.

Crankshaw argues that even so, his willingness to come out of the conservative path was an act that completely depicted him as an individual who was not a great conservative preserver.4

His move as some critics concur with Crankshaw was a rejection of revolutionary and nationalistic tendencies, a departure from the maintenance role ensuring a conservative supranational solidarity and a break away from various tenants of conservatism.

While an individual may look at the actions of Bismarck against the greatest contributions of Emanuel Kant on perceiving actions taken as important ends and not means, and also oppose the move by Bismarck, it is imperative to underscore that Bismarck was driven by the need to create a sense of unity in Germany and Europe. In spite of the long period of time it would take.

In hindsight, Bismarck’s actions strongly gained massive support from utilitarianism proponents who believed that the end results justified the means.

However, it is clear that the desire that Bismarck had to preserve traditional power and order in Prussia were not motivated by political assumption that were similar those held by his arch conservative colleagues.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Otto Von Bismarck by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead, as Stelzel puts it, they were driven by practices of realpolitik which demanded his political allegiance to Prussian interests, ideals and ideologies regardless of whether they were liberal or conservative.5 This political desire by Bismarck appeared to be very tricky and challenging as well.

Bismarck’s nationalism Crankshaw indicates that on the matter of nationalism, Bismarck did not in any way give support to the Frankfurt’s parliament liberal effort of unifying Germany.6 He strongly believed that Austria and Prussia deserved to exist separately. His view extended to polish nationalism.

As a conservative, he argued that that Germany was made up of non-German lands in Austria such as Bohemia and Hungary and lands which Germany controlled such as Italy and Poland. While this view contradicted that which liberalists had on nationalism and which bordered on political institutions, national borders, language and culture, it was clear that Bismarck’s perspective on German nationalism was not aimed at creating unity, but was purely based on hatred of foreign occupation and oppression of Germans by foreign nations.

This perspective is indeed a sharp contrast in what was originally known to be the aim of Bismarck’s call for the unity of German. It is also against this backdrop that Prakke laments that according to Bismarck, nationalistic sentiments were found to have their existence on particularism in Prussia and Austria.7

One of the most important factors to consider when exploring nationalism from the perspective of Bismarck is the fact that it was not meant for Germany. Needless to say, it was largely meant for Prussia. Prakke notes that there were three critical factors which defined Bismarck’s view of nationalism in Germany.8

One of those factors was historical. According to most historical and political analysts, the latter factor was specifically meant for Prussia sine it had a direct impact on Prussia. Prakke continues to indicate that this factor was inseparably and strongly bound up with power political factors.

It is imperative to point out that Germany was historically considered as das alte Reich, an aspect that allowed one state to possess other territories including those that were non-German like Italy, Hungary and Poland.

The Prussian factor as Hiort indicates in his publication was to allow Prussia first at the European level and secondly in confederation level to deal with different states among which included Austria.9

The belief held by Bismarck which as a means in unifying Europe was that Prussia, a nation that was during that time a great power in Europe has all the rights to pursue power interests wherever it pleased.

Cherniaev points out that Bismarck and Hitler are related in the manner in which they implemented their totalitarian ideologies that were largely aimed at expanding their territories using any means available to them.10 Hitler and his ideologies fell within the valley of Bismarck’s focus of using force and authority to suppress the enemy and establish Germany as the greatest empire in Europe.

Cherniaev’s argument provides important insights on some of the elements that made Bismarck to be so ruthless ruing his era. It further creates the understanding that for a nation to move and strongly focus towards conflict and seeking to destroy its enemies completely, an illustrious past must have defined such moves.

As evidenced from Crankshaw’s resource, nations that fail to build institutional capacities and rely on personal aspirations as was the case with Bismarck and Hitler risk becoming unstable as each leader considers his views to be the best.11

Even with the constitutional restoration that took place during that time, individual aspirations from personalities like Bismarck could not allow stability to reign in Germany.

Indeed, it is evident that a country that is on the track of development, when distracted in the manner that Bismarck did to Germany, can easily deviate strongly from the voice of reason and get into the verge of destruction. This was seemingly a similar path which was taken by German.

Otto von Bismarck, Gold and Iron Bismarck’s speech on the unification of Germany is a reflection of the new orientation that Germany was taking and its aim and determination to use all means to gain control of the region.

In addition, Bismarck’s bold, aggressive and war driven motives when comparison is drawn between iron and blood, largely reflected the strength of Germany at the local and regional level in the late 19th century.

Having united Germany and making it as an empire, iron and blood was a turning point for localized focus towards war and external ruthlessness. This political scenario put German in an unfamiliar ground which later led to its instability in terms of political administration of the country.

Having served for a long period of time in the government of Germany, Bickford indicates that Bismarck appears to have learnt from history that Germany needed to equip itself with and of course get ready for military operations.12

He cites the need for German driven liberalism as opposed to inclination towards Prussia which he indicated required to prepare itself and get ready to fight and defend its territory and ideologies when the opportunity presents itself. The speech reflects Bismarck tough lessons from the past with some sense of bitterness as he expressed his determined move to use iron and blood for Germany.

The speech, which was highly speculative, appeared to underscore the critical role of preparing Germany for war. Through taxes which Bismarck argued were very critical in putting Germany at the international realm, the conclusion that use of iron and blood would be pursued at all cost indicate the ruthless model that Germany would use to conquer its enemies and strengthen itself.

Though Bismarck does not bring out the relationship that he would pursue with the enemies very well, he points out at there was infallible need for individual states to strengthen themselves. He indicated that Prussia should take away its liberalism and use it in strengthening itself.

In his view, Bismarck saw Germany to have adequate capacity in terms of manpower and resources to pursue its ruthless goals without necessarily involving the neighbors. By delivering this message to the government of the day, Bismarck intended to convince it on the need for more resources to prepare the country military.

Pointing that the treaty of Vienna had failed to anchor real politics, military as the real politics, according to Bismarck required additional taxes and resources.

Throughout Bismarck’s speech, there is strong relationship between his need for finances and his roles. Noting that Prussia refused to have the southern states in Germany to engage in the activities of liberalism reflected the need for national development and dissociation with neighbors.

Bismarck’s kind of leadership also reflected that real politics would not be determined by speeches and majorities by Gold and Iron. His relationship with Gerson Bleichroder as Stern posits in his book “Gold and Iron: Bismark, Bleichroder, and the Building of the German Empire“ is a clear indication of how much Bismarck needed funds to carry pout his operations of unifying Germany.13

His private banking transactions were carried out by Bleichroder who placed loans and carried out the transfer of credits on behalf of the German empire and the Prussian state.

Bismarck’s role in establishing the German Empire The revolution of 1848 saw the democratic and liberal character shifted to German nationalism under the pragmatic realpolitik led by Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck. Merritt indicates that Bismarck developed ideas of extending the hegemony of Hohenzollern in all the states in Germany.14

To achieve this, it was necessary for Austria, which had been a major rival of Prussia, to be eliminated and states in Germany become unified. In his mind, Bismarck had a picture of a Prussian dominated and conservative Germany.

These thoughts among other factors drove him towards initiating three distinct wars that made his endeavors successful. Merritt further indicates that the wars included that which was waged against France in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71, the 1866 Austro-Prussian war and the wear with Denmark in 1864 also called the second war of Schleswig.

It is worth noting that all these created bitter relationship between the opposing camps and was largely considered to be a betrayal by those states which had been sympathetic to Bismarck and German.

The consequence of the 1866 war led to the end of the German confederation with a split between the kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian empire, each with its own allies. Needless to say, such splits coupled with the subsequent formation of alliances harbored a healthy ground for the First World War and the Second World War that were to be fought later.

In the years that followed the 1866 war, different southern German states which had earlier been excluded from the North German confederation, were allowed to join via treaties. In 1870, the name of the northern German confederation was changed to the German empire.

Indeed, many authors attribute the success of Germany to be an empire to the role played by Bismarck. It is a fact that almost unanimously supported by many analysts that the most important legacy that Bismarck left in the history of Europe was the unification of Germany.

Ziblatt indicates that since the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire, Germany had existed as a collection of free cities and separate principalities with no one to unite them.15 Until the coming of Bismarck, many leaders and kings tried without success to unify the various states in Germany as a single nation.

The unification of Germany and the subsequent formation of a German empire made Germany to be ranked among the most powerful nations in Germany.

Despite many criticisms that have been leveled against Bismarck’s leadership style and which his paper has not looked much into, it is evident that some of the most important and valuable characteristics his leadership are his cautious, astute and wise leadership as well as his pragmatic foreign policies.

These factors played a pivotal role of bringing Germany to its unified state and its amiable diplomatic relationship with other nations in Europe.

Finally, it is worth agreeing with biography by Crankshaw who regard Bismarck as a political personality who had great skills, a transformational leader and an ambivalent character. His ambitions as a monarchist saw him bring Germany to an empire and silenced political opposition.

His tenure that lasted over 30 years witnessed his undisputed control over policies made by the government. It is also indisputable that he was instrumental towards the outbreak of several wars that were witnessed in Europe long before the major wars were fought.

Bibliography Bickford, Andrew. “Soldiers, citizens, and the state: East German Army officers in post- unification Germany.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 51, no. 2 (2009): 260-287

Cherniaev, Anatolii. “The unification of Germany: Political mechanisms and psychological stereotypes.” Russian Social Science Review, 40, no. 3 (1999): 50- 65.

Clark, Gregory. A firewall to alms: a brief economic history of the world. Oxfordshire, Princeton University Press, 2007.

Crankshaw, Edward. Bismark. New York, Viking Press, 1981.

Hiort, Pontus. “Constructing another kind of German: Catholic commemorations of German Unification in Baden, 1870-1876.” The Catholic Historical Review, 93, no. 1 (2007): 17-46.

Merritt, Richard. “Germany since unification: The domestic and external consequences.” Perspectives on Political Science, 28, no. 2 (1999): 107-107.

Prakke, Lucas. “On the rise and decline of the monarchical principle: constitutional vicissitudes in Spain and Germany.” European Constitutional Law Review, 6, no. 2 (2010): 268-292.

Stelzel, Philipp. “Working toward a common goal? American views on German Historiography and German-American scholarly relations during the 1960s.” Central European History 41, no. 4 (2008): 639-671.

Stern, Fritz. Gold and iron: Bismarck, Bleichröder, and the building of the German Empire. New York, Vintage Books, 1979.

Tullock, Gordon. “The legacy of Bismarck.” Public Choice, 139, no. 1-2 (2009): 3-3.

Ziblatt, Daniel F. “Recasting German federalism? The politics of fiscal decentralization in post-unification Germany.” Politische Vierteljahresschrift. 43, no. 4 (2002): 624-652.

Footnotes 1 Fritz Stern, Gold and Iron: Bismarck, Bleichröder, and the Building of the German Empire (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), 25.

2 Gordon Tullock, “The Legacy of Bismarck.” Public Choice 139, no. 1-2 (2009): 3.

3 Gregory Clark, A firewall to alms: a brief economic history of the world (Oxfordshire, Princeton University Press, 2007), 40.

4 Edward Crankshaw, Bismark (New York: Viking Press, 1981), 78.

5 Philipp Stelzel, “Working Toward a Common Goal? American Views on German Historiography and German-American Scholarly Relations during the 1960s.” Central European History 41, no. 4 (2008): 639.

6 Crankshaw, p. 78.

7 Lucas Prakke, “On the Rise and Decline of the Monarchical Principle: Constitutional Vicissitudes in Spain and Germany.” European Constitutional Law Review 6, no. 2 (2010): 270.

8 Ibid, p. 271

9 Pontus Hiort, “Constructing another kind of German: catholic commemorations of German unification in Baden, 1870-1876.” The Catholic Historical Review 93, no. 1 (2007): 36.

10 Anatolii Cherniaev, “The Unification of Germany: political mechanisms and psychological stereotypes.” Russian Social Science Review 40, no. 3 (1999): 65.

11 Crankshaw, p. 60.

12 Andrew Bickford, “Soldiers, citizens, and the state: east German army officers in post-unification Germany.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 51, no. 2 (2009): 260.

13 Stern, p. 130.

14Richard Merritt, “Germany since Unification: the domestic and external consequences.” Perspectives on Political Science 28, no. 2 (1999): 107.

15 Daniel Ziblatt, “Recasting German federalism? The politics of fiscal decentralization in post-unification Germany.” Politische Vierteljahresschrift 43, no. 4 (2002): 642.

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The differences between American and British English Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The English language spoken in the United States of America is what is referred to us as American English. The Americans born in this environment are considered the native speakers of this language.

On the other hand, the English language being spoken by the people living in the British Commonwealth countries is what is referred to us as British English. Although the English language may seem as just English to some people who are not native speakers, the American English differs considerably from the British variant in spelling, pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.

The first instance of differences in American and British English occurs in spelling. This is well portrayed in the way different forms of stressed and unstressed syllables are written.

For instance, in British English, the stressed form of the word ‘travel’ has a double ‘l’ syllables and is thus written as ‘travelled’, while in American English, the word ‘travel’ has a single ‘l’ in its stressed form and is thus written as ‘traveled’ in the stressed form (Hargis 64).

Grammatically, American and British variants differ in several ways. The differences normally come out in many ways; however, one in which these differences are the most evident is in the way collective nouns are applied in a sentence.

Collective noun being the general name for a group of people or things is normally followed by a singular or plural form of a verb, depending on the way the group is conceptualized by an individual. In British English, the collective noun can agree either with plural form of the verb or with a singular one.

However, in American English, the collective noun is always followed by a verb in a singular form. For example, in American English, one can only say “which squad is loosing?” while in British English, one says “which squad is loosing?” or “which squad are loosing?” (Bragg 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, American and British variants differ in pronunciations to a certain extent. The way certain words are articulated in British dialect is not the same as they are articulated in American one. The way American English sounds is called general American pronunciation; such as that heard over the radio (Bragg 1).

The British equivalent pronunciation is termed as the Received Pronunciation, such as that heard over the radio. One point in which the British and American pronunciation differs is the way ‘r’ is pronounced in words.

In the general American pronunciation, the letter ‘r’ is always pronounced and termed as rhetoric, while in the British Received Pronunciation, the letter ‘r’ is always silent and termed as ‘non-rhetoric’. Thus, in American English, the letter ‘r’ in the word ‘car’ will be loud and sound as ‘kar’, but in British English, the letter ‘r’ in the same word will be silent and thus pronounced as ‘kah’.

There is also a considerable lexical difference between American and British English. Some vocabulary use in the American context may differ in pronunciation, spelling and meaning. For instance, in the vocabulary used in transport industry, the use of some terminologies differs.

In the United Kingdom, the part of the road used by people is termed as a pavement, while in America; it is called a sidewalk (Blunt 59). Generally, there are some considerable differences in English spoken by Americans. These differences are associated with culture and environment that exist in Britain and the USA. However, despite the differences, English spoken by the two regions is generally understood by all.

Works Cited Blunt, Jerry. Special English words with American equivalents. New York: Stage Dialects Dramatic Publishing Company, 1994. Print.

Bragg, Rebecca. “The grammatical differences between American

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Drumming in Haiti and Cuba Research Paper college essay help

Thesis Drumming is practised in a different manner among various communities depending with their corresponding traditions and music1. The subject of drumming in Haiti, its transition and assimilation in Cuba, as well as its general effect on Cuban music will be analyzed within this paper.

The existence of various instruments in these two nations and the rest of the world creates another area that may require exploration. In connection, the significance of the analysis is discussed within the paper and further details given with regards to how drumming is done in the country: This led to the development of Afro Cuban jazz.

Drumming in Haiti is a section of culture that has significantly influenced music in the modern setting. A proper understanding of this art helps appreciate the Haitian culture, as well as recognize its influence on music. An extensive knowledge on the history of drumming in Haiti, the transition process, as well as the influence on modern music is essential for analyzing this topic.

In that sense, this paper will cover the history of drumming in Haiti, the different types of drums used as well as their rhythm and meaning to the cultures in Haiti and Cuba. The study also looks at the transition and effect of the art in Cuba and how other cultures borrowed from this Haitian way of life.

Introduction Music involves the use of various types of instruments in order to bring out its desired elements. The drum is played either by the use of a stick or directly by the player’s hands.According to various sources, the use of drums for musical purposes is known as drumming.

Drumming in Haiti began as a normal practice during Vodou, which is a sacred performance linked with the henotheistic religion. However, the practice transitioned to Cuba with time and led to the emergence of afro Cuban jazz. From that point, many other cultures borrowed the custom, which is currently a common practice around the world.

Haitian Vodou Brief history

As a developing country, Haiti’s economy grew from the days of slavery that was conducted by slave dealers. The slaves fetched from Africa would have a stopover in this region bordering the Caribbean Sea and Cuba. The slaves had their way of worship.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this was considered backward by the westerners who imposed Catholicism to the slaves2. The slaves, for that matter, established ways of worship that would deceive the slave dealers in order to worship their gods secretively.

The African slaves used various types of drums to call on different spirits. In addition, the assigned names to spirits, and call on them for guidance and protection. More so, they consulted the spirits that are believed to grace their ceremonies, which resulted in the emergence of voodoo.

Drumming as a culture

Haiti is a country known for its emphasis on culture and the continued practice of various rituals borrowed from the ancient Haitians. Vodou, also referred to as voodoo is a practise commonly associated with Haitian culture.

The practice is normally considered an exotic perception associated with black magic due to its involvement with the spirit world. However, it is difficult to ascertain the validity of the statement as local participants refer to it as clean practice or culture.

Haitians use drumming as a method of connecting with the spirits with an aim of inviting them into their ceremonies. The involvement of the media in practice imprints this notion of black magic to various people. However, the practice of voodoo goes back to over 6000 years and has its roots in Benin, West Africa3.

The practice of music remains an integral part of the voodoo religion in Haiti. Voodoo as practised in Haiti has rich rhythms and beats that have characterised Haitian culture for ages. The religion remains an integral part of Haitian culture to-date despite the misconceptions from other religions.

It still incorporates the use of drums and various other instruments. However, it is necessary to note that the extensive use of different drums in voodoo ceremonies has helped to transform the culture4.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Drumming in Haiti and Cuba specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aspects of Haitian music Drums

The use of drums is symbolic in many traditional cultures. They were mainly used to mark religious ceremonies. In jazz, the use of the name “drum” refers to a host of drums used to produce a rhythm or used together in a certain performance.

Drumming as a form art practised in Haiti involved the use of various types of drums. They were mainly used for voodoo, a religious ceremony unique with the Haitians.

The drums used in voodoo integrate various techniques that are distinctive to the skill of play. For instance, the Siye is a technique used by the player in voodoo. It involves wiping a drum from an edge to the centre using the fingers to produce a distinctive moaning sound that adds to the rhythm.

These drums were divided into groups in accordance with the spirits they were used to summon. The drums commonly used include the Tanbou, Ti Baka, and Maman among others.

In a real life situation, each drum corresponds to the existing spirits; hence, determines the purposes attached for each drum. Some were played in singular while others were played in groups consisting of a number of drums.

For instance, there are groups that are referred to as:

The Rada Batterie

The Petwo battier

The conga drums

The Rada Batterie:

Not sure if you can write a paper on Drumming in Haiti and Cuba by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This assembly of drums includes three drums. These are the Maman, Boula and the Segon. This ensemble included other instruments. In this study, however, the focus is put on the drums. The similarity of the three drums is their conical and slender nature, which has also been replicated among several drums globally.

The Maman:

Maman is French word meaning mother. The Maman is the tallest, as well as the deepest sounded member of the three drums within the group. For that matter, it plays the leader’s role in Haitian drumming and specifically in this group of drums.

It is believed to take its cue from the ceremony’s officiating priests, as well as the present spirits. Over several decades, the drum has been used among the people; hence, it is recognized as one of the best drums within the region. In fact, its magnificent look has attracted several replications around the world.

The other uniqueness is its play in that the weaker hand of the player taps the drum directly while the stronger hand plays it with a stick (Baget) of different shapes to produce clicking sounds. While playing the instrument, the player uses both hands, or does it in intervals.

The Segon:

Segon is derived from a French word that means second. It was the middle drum in the group in terms of the role-played and size. It served to produce a base for the Maman to generate its counterpoint. The Maman, just like the Maman, was originally played with bare hands and a stick, but the style of the stick was noticeably different.

The evolvement of music led to the Segon being played with bare hands, specifically in the USA. Recent developments have also seen the Segon replaced with the conga (see picture 1) drums, which are a common feature in both Haiti and the USA today.

The Boula:

This drum remains the smallest in terms of size and the role-played in the assembly of the three. It serves to boost the rhythm by playing the famous ostinato pattern. The player uses two sticks to play the Boula unlike the Maman and the Segon.

The Boula produces an extremely high tone but in agreement with the other two drums. However, Boula’s parts look effortless as compared to the other drums. However, first-class knowledge is required to play it correctly.

The Petwo Batterie:

This group originally consists of two drums, which include the Ti Baka and Gwo Baka. The drums resemble the modern congas but are slender and have slightly tapered bottoms than the modern congas. Therefore, it takes a fully oriented person to identify the difference between some of these drums.

They two drums resemble in appearance; however, are of different dimensions. The skins for the drums have counter hoops made from stiff vines. Their function is to stretch the skin by aid of an existing rope. In addition, there exist wooden wedges lying inside the drum with an adjustable rope for controlling the tension of the skin.

However, the evolvement of music has seen the addition of a drum referred to as Kata to this group. As such, these drums produce a high tone and lead the other instruments in the ensemble. The player uses two sticks. This drum is claimed to hugely increase the rhythm of any music it is added to by the musicians and audience who have listened or played it.

The Tanbou:

This is one of the most common drums played in Haiti. This drum traces its origin to ancient African’s systems of Vodun6. It remains a key instrument in the production of various rhythms. In addition, the Tanbou is easy to play, as its techniques are straightforward.

It is a main indicator of the continued preservation of ancient Haitian culture despite the apparent modernization in other communities. The Tanbou is referred to as the Haitian drum due to its role in culture preservation5.

Rhythm

The rhythm emerging from the various instruments used is of enormous importance to the Haitian people. Therefore, the differences existing between these rhythms determine the drums that should be used for the various functions.

The rhythm determines the drum and not the other way round. The rhythms in Haiti remain classified and grouped in families according to their regions of origin. The main rhythms include the Petwo family, Dahomey, and YaYa TiKongo families.

The Petwo family:

This rhythm family originates from the southern and central regions of Haiti. The drums in this rhythmic family are played after heating in order to generate the required rhythm.Rhythms in this order include the Kita rhythm. The Kita rhythm involves playing of dual goatskin drums by the use of hands only.

Dahomey and YaYa TiKongo families:

These two families consist of rhythms originating from northern Haiti. The Dahomey rhythm involves the playing of triple cow-skin drums using sticks. Rhythms integrated in this family include the Wandjalé and Chasè among others.

Meaning of the drums and rhythms The drums and rhythms in Haiti are mainly used for voodoo ceremonies, which are prevalent within the country. The Haitians held such ceremonies with an aim of inviting the spirits that they worshipped so that they could receive guidance and protection from such spirits.

As such, it is correct to note that different rhythms generated from a variety of drum combinations were used to summon various spirits. However, several sources indicate that the Haitians use the drums and rhythms for a number of functions other than as an inducement for spirits.

Transition to Cuba Cuba borders the Caribbean Sea Haiti.. The slave dealers used these two regions to enhance slavery as a practice. These slaves brought various cultures from their different countries to Cuba. Haiti and Cuba interacted in various activities such as trade. The interactions of various slaves with various musical cultures led to the integration of practises found in the various ways of lives in both Cuba and Haiti.

In addition, these interactions caused the filtration of various cultural practises to either side of the countries with time. Key to these cultural practises is drumming.

The afro-Cuban jazz

The afro-Cuban jazz is a form of Latin jazz that originated from the fusion of different African musical cultures. Afro-Cuban jazz involves the use of various musical gadgets such as the piano, congas and drums. These drums came about from their use by the slaves in Haitian culture.

Musicians accepted and redeveloped this form of music to afro- Cuban jazz around 1943. Afro Cuban jazz remains a common practice in modern day. It is practised both in Cuba as well as other countries such as the United States if America6.

The spread of Haiti/Cuba drumming rituals The Haiti/Cuba rituals are practised in various countries in the modern world. The use of Haitian drums in countries such as the USA amongst others shows a filtration of the culture to other nations.

This happens due to the interaction of various cultures in multinational activities that such as sports, and many other activities. As a matter of fact, these drums prevalent in the modern world, and are frequently used for varying purposes7.

Conclusion Drumming is an art that is still practised in the modern world. Various cultures borrowed from this culture due to its rich history and uniqueness. The widespread use of drumming in religion in Africa and the rest of the world serves to cement the influence of this culture.

It is therefore realistic that the Haitian and Cuban cultural practices have had a significant influence on several societies, which have adopted the use of their instruments.

Bibliography Brill, Mark. Music of Latin America and the Caribbean. New Jersey: prentice hall, 2011.

Gebert, Lizabeth. Displacements and transformations in Caribbean cultures. Florida: University Press of Florida, 2008.

Geggus, David. The world of Haitian revolution. Indiana: Indiana University press, 2009.

Kallen, Stuart. Voodoo. Michigan: Lucent books, 2005. “List of Caribbean Membranophone.” Wikipedia. Accessed from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Caribbean_membranophones.

Manuel, Peter. Creolizing Contradance in the Caribbean. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009.

Prahlad, Anand. The greenwood encyclopaedia of African American folklore. Oxford: Greenwood press, 2006.

Footnotes 1. Peter Manuel, Creolizing Contradance in the Caribbean (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009), 23-29. 2. David Geggus, The world of Haitian revolution (Indiana: Indiana university press, 2009), 55-66. 3. Anand Prahlad, The greenwood encyclopaedia of African American folklore (Oxford: Greenwood press, 2006), 102-107. 4. Stuart Kallen, Voodoo (Michigan: lucent books, 2005), 22-24. 5. “List of Caribbean Membranophone,” Wikipedia. 6. Mark Brill, Music of Latin America and the Caribbean (New Jersey: prentice hall, 2011), 33-34. 7. Lizabeth Gebert, Displacements and transformations in Caribbean cultures (Florida: University Press of Florida, 2008), 44-48.

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The Changes in Interbank Lending Rates in China, India and Switzerland Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Central Banks in Europe, China and India

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Interbank lending is a market that exists among the banks, and it is all about banks lending money to other banks. Banks usually lend out money to other banks, but the terms of the loans are usually short term. The maturity period for the loans lent to the banks is usually one week. When one bank lends a loan to another bank, it usually charges a certain interest rate which is dependent on the period to maturity.

The interest rate charged is referred to as the interbank rate. At times, banks get in situations whereby they do not have adequate cash to satisfy the demands of its clients. In such a situation, the bank has to obtain a loan from another bank to satisfy the clients. On the other hand, a bank may have excess liquid assets to the extent that it can lend out the cash and earn an interest from the assets.

Such banks lend money to other banks (Navarro, 2011). Over the last one year, the interbank rates by the central bank have been reduced significantly in Europe, Asia and India. This article will discuss the changes in interbank lending rates in the continents mentioned. A country from each of the continents is to be investigated in the article. The countries to be investigated are China, India and Switzerland.

Central Banks in Europe, China and India The central bank plays a significant role in regulating the economy of a nation. When the economic growth slows down, the central bank lowers the lend rates so as to increase the flow of money to speed up the economy.

This causes the inflation rate to increase. In the recent years, there have been a slow down in the economy which has hit most parts of Europe and America. It has also affected other parts of the globe such as India, China and also Japan.

It has been reported that, for the first time since 2009, China has experienced a low growth rate in the manufacturing sector (Davis and Orlik, 2011). In the effort to counter the slow growth rate in the economy, China central bank lowered the cost of lending so as to boost the economy. The central bank of china has the reserve requirements for the banks (The Economist Newspaper Limited, 2012).

The action by the China Central bank came at a time when the same measures were being taken in Europe. The European Central bank also cut down the lending rates in the effort to ease the borrowing burden by the other banks. The European Central bank together with the Bank of England started taking actions to lower the cost of dollar loans to the European countries (The Economist Newspaper Limited, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Several central banks in Europe lowered their lending costs. The Swiss National bank was one of the banks that took measures to lower their lending costs and also took measures to weaken their currencies.

Despite lowering its lending cost, the Swiss National Bank has accused other banks such as the European Central Bank and the Japanese bank of causing too much influence on the interbank lending cost. It accuses them of spreading the influence to other nations. The London Interbank Offered Rate is the one that sets the benchmark for lending rates by other banks in Europe and it is being accused of influencing these rates too much to benefit itself (Vaknin, 2012).

In India, the economy slowed down, and it grew with the lowest rates for the first time since the year 2009. This had substantial effects in the central bank and the other banks as well since it became difficult for them to lend out money due to the high rates which scared borrowers. In the effort to improve the economic growth in India, the central bank took measures to lower the interbank lending rates.

At the same time, it allowed international supermarkets into the country. This step was criticised by politicians since it brought too much competition in the internal market. Lowering the lending rates to the bank increases the growth rate and hence the Central bank of India was trying to boost the economic rate by lowering the interbank lending rates (Lucarelli, 2011).

Conclusion The banking crisis that hit most parts of Europe happened due to financial crisis, which started in the year 2007. In most parts of the world, the economic growth slowed down causing an economic recession. Banks went short of funds to meet the demands of their customers. The financial strains made it difficult for countries in paying the loans they acquired from other banks due to the high lending rates.

As a result, central banks took action to lower the interbank lending rates in the effort to rescue the banks and also to boost the economic growth which had slowed down. This did not achieve too much. Some countries have regained their economic strength, but others continue to suffer from the economic turbulence that was experienced. The government leaders need to embrace good economic policies to avoid the occurrence of a financial crisis.

Reference List Davis, B.

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The Bank of Canada and Economic Issues Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Fiscal policy in Canada

Monetary policy in Canada

Inflation

Imports and exports

Works Cited

The bank of Canada is central or national bank. Like in Canada, almost all countries worldwide have made sure that there is an establishment of central bank to help in dealing with monetary policy. Central bank does not help in managing the financial part of the economy (Bank of Canada 96, ).

The bank of Canada has several functions; issuing banking notes, implementing monetary policy, playing the role of a fiscal agent of the Government of Canada, and offering advice to the financial institutions in Canada.

Economy is composed of many consumers and producers who interact on a daily basis. They interact to determine which goods have to be produced, which producer is to supply goods, which consumer is to take commodities home, and what prices are to be paid for the goods provided (Wilson, Thomas , and Peter 135, 1993).

Governments in countries worldwide intervene in the microeconomics in order for them to improve the performance of their economy at large. There are two sections of the microeconomic policy that include fiscal and monetary policy. They both affect the economy of Canada.

Fiscal policy in Canada Fiscal policy is a collection of decisions made by the government, and they affect taxation, spending, and borrowing.

There is no way governments can lack this policy since they are able to raise revenue and spend it purchasing goods and services. There are a number of dimensions of fiscal policy of a government particularly the federal level (Soucy, Jean, and Marion 231, 2000).

Monetary policy in Canada This is a collection of decisions made by the government on the quantity of money in circulation, in the economy. This collection is through the government’s central bank. The monetary policy in Canada is conducted by the bank of Canada.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is only one monetary policy in Canada, “the instrument policy of the Bank of Canada is the set target for the overnight interest rate” (Revisiting the case for flexible exchange rates 7).

The bank is not in a position to set spending and taxation priorities. The changes in the overnight interest rate highly depend on the effect of monetary value to the economy. For the last two years, the central bank of Canada has been independently influencing the interest rates and the quantity of cash.

Inflation High inflation is demanding to the economy and costly to the Canadians. Also, the government has adopted inflation control and taken it as their main policy objective. The government objective is to participate in the Canadian economy that is successful and ensure the well-being of the people of Canada.

The government has been encouraging central banks in Canada to reduce unemployment. This caused a rise in the amount of income earned hence, higher standards of living of Canadians (Price adjustment and monetary policy 23).

In short, the Canadian government has its aim at maintaining economy with low inflation and a stable development. Environments with a stable inflation have individuals and firms that are able to spend, save, and invest.

Imports and exports These are elements that really affect the economy of Canada. Canada has been trading with the U.S. for a long period of time. Canada has been importing some commodities like machinery. This is an issue that also contributing to lowering the economy of Canada.

However, economy of Canada has been among the economies of the world. This is a clear indication that its government has helped in reducing the rate of importing in order to raise its economy including the living standards of the citizens for the last two years.

We will write a custom Report on The Bank of Canada and Economic Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Price adjustment and monetary policy: proceedings of a conference held by the Bank of Canada.. Ottawa, Ont.: Bank of Canada, 2003. Print.

Revisiting the case for flexible exchange rates: proceedings of a conference held by Bank of Canada, November 2000. Ottawa, Ont.: Bank of Canada, 2001. Print.

Soucy, Jean, and Marion Wrobel. Fiscal policy in Canada, the changing role of the federal and provincial governments. Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Research Branch, 2000. Print.

Wilson, Thomas A., and D. Peter Dungan. Fiscal policy in Canada: an appraisal. Toronto: Canadian Tax Foundation, 1993. Print.

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HIMSS Organization Success Research Paper essay help online

HIMSS is an organization that is dedicated to providing high quality and safe health care to people. It also ensures that the activities it engages in are cost effective. Since the organization is a non-profit organization, it adopts information management systems which enable it to provide people with quality and affordable health care.

The organization’s management comprises of a board of directors who are usually elected by the members of the organization. The management therefore ensures that the organization remains committed to achieving its objective of delivering quality health care services by adopting information management systems (Glaser, n.d).

The advancements that have been made in Information Technology have made the medical field to implement measures aimed at ensuring that the flow of information is efficient between the patients and physicians.

The ever increasing demand for health care services has made medical institutions to adopt health information systems in order to ensure that the services delivered to the patients are of high quality. The quality of health care matters a lot to patients. This is because quality health care makes patients to trust the services that medical practitioners offer to them (Friedrich, 2012).

The cost of providing health care is critical to any medical organization. Most medical organizations adopt information management systems in order to ensure that they incur less cost while, at the same time, providing the patients with high quality care. With the advancements in technology, organizations have been able to come up with initiatives whereby they have been able to carry out their operations efficiently at low costs (Ball, Smith,

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IKEA Company’s Marketing Strategy Case Study essay help free: essay help free

Introduction IKEA is one of the worlds leading retailer of furniture and household fittings. In the course of its operation, the company has encountered a lot of obstacles. Therefore, to ensure that its operations are effective and efficient, the company has always been formulating strategic plans to ensure that its operations in the short run and in the long run are effective and sustainable.

To achieve this status and to ensure that it is maintained, IKEA has developed a strong organization culture and control systems that support its short term and its long-term strategies. This paper shall therefore focus on the organization structure of IKEA and its control system and determine impacts that they have on the companys strategies.

Organization and Control Structure of IKEA and their Impact on the Companys Strategies To ensure that the operations of the company are effective and efficient, IKEA has maintained a stable organization structure and culture. The managerial strategy of IKEA is formal, non-hierarchical and it is based on teamwork (Peters 9).

The manner in which the organization operates portrays the ideology of its founder, Ingvar Kampard (Peters 11). The operations of IKEA are designed to ensure that its mission is achieved. This mission is to ensure that IKEA makes life better for masses. To achieve this, IKEA has always been producing high quality goods and services to its customers at the most affordable price.

The non-hierarchical organization structure of the organization ensures that all the employees have a duty of care and respect for one another. As a result, employees at IKEA do not have titles. At the same time, they do not get special privileges with regards to the positions that they hold.

There is also effective communication among the employees. This ensures that the correct information if passed from employee to employee and from department to department. This ensures that operations within the organization are conducted in an effective and efficient manner. IKEA also believes in recruiting young employees who are innovative and innovative (Egan 22). This ensures that the organization has the best personnel in its staff.

This in turn ensures that the strategies and opinions that these employees come up with work to sustain the operations of the company in the short run and in the long run. This ensures that IKEA stands at a competitive edge over its rivals. The fact that the organization has adopted a decentralized organization structure ensures that information within the organization flows in all directions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This therefore gives employees at all levels a chance to contribute in innovation, strategy formulation and decision-making. Thus, a strategy like self-assembly that originated from Gillis Lundgren ended up being a culture in the operations of IKEA as it is practiced at all its outlets worldwide (Egan 30).

In addition, the organization does not believe in hiring experienced individuals. Instead, it recruits young people without prior experience and integrates them to its culture. In addition, promotions are conducted within the organization. This not only reduces expenditure on salaries but also ensures that the company remains the best in terms of creativity and innovation (Jugger 51).

Furthermore, this ensures that the people who work at IKEA have love and passion for their work thus they strive to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization are achieved as well as their own personal goals and objectives.

Conclusion The fact that IKEA has adopted a decentralized organization structure that is non-hierarchical provides a serine environment for all employees to participate in decision-making and strategic planning. This therefore ensures that the strategies that the organization comes up with put the company ahead of its rivals within the market. This in turn guarantees the sustainability of its operations in the short run and in the long run. As a result, the organization at a better chance of achieving its mission, vision, goals and objectives.

Works Cited Egan, James. Relationship Marketing. ã Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2000. Print

Jugger, Simon. “The Power of Consumers.” Admap 14.2 (2000): 51-55. Print.

Peters. Jameson. Consumer Behaviour and Marketing Strategy. European Edition, Mcgraw-Hill international, 2009. Print.

We will write a custom Case Study on IKEA Company’s Marketing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Contingency Theories of Leadership Essay best essay help: best essay help

The contingency theory, as applied in leadership, considers various factors that contribute to a leader’s effectiveness by interaction with his or her leadership behaviour. According to contingency theories, there is not any particular leadership style suited for all the situations (Betts 2011, p.123).

A leadership style effective in particular situations may be unsuccessful in others. The evaluation of particular variables in a given environment such as the quality of followers, establishes the most appropriate style in a particular situation.

This phenomenon explains the observation of an effective leader becoming considerably unproductive when transferred to a different working environment or the prevailing factors in the old environment changes. Fiedler’s, Hersey and Blanchard’s, and the path-goal theories provide the three major approaches of isolating situational variables in leadership.

Fiedler’s contingency theory identifies the subordinates’ personality and attitude, task structure and the leader’s position in terms of power as the variables that influence leadership effectiveness. This model asses the performance of a leader by evaluating the output of the work group under the leader’s supervision (Brock 2012, p.1).

Moreover, the theory assumes that the level of favourability of a situation to a leader is dependent on the degree to which the situation permits the leader’s influence on the group members’ behaviour. This aspect of the theory defines effective leadership as the ability to influence others in the aim of achieving organizational goals.

According to this model, there are two categories of leaders. These are the task-oriented and person-oriented leaders. The task-oriented leaders’ main concern is the accomplishment of tasks with desirable outputs (Jarvis 2006, p. 106). In this regard, they fail to attain their results because they are less concern with the group members and thus cannot appropriately deal with ineffective teamwork.

The person-oriented leaders considerably value their team members, and this hampers their accomplishment of tasks due to minimal contribution of some members to the task achievement. These two types of leaders are effective under different conditions. The task-oriented leader achieves better results in both the extreme cases of favourable or unfavourable circumstances. On the other hand, the person-oriented leader achieves better results under moderately favourable conditions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Fiedler’s theory, effective leadership is factor of the personality and style of a leader and the working environment. These aspects considerably determine the success of leadership.

While Fiedler’s theory assumes that leadership styles are consistent and difficult to change, and thus leaders must be placed in an environment that fits their leadership style, the Hersey and Blanchard model and the Path-goal theory assume that any leader is capable of adapting to new environments and display the required effectiveness in any given situation. He or she can adjust the leadership style to work efficiently in diverse situations (Williams 2011, p. 407).

Furthermore, Fiedler’s model stipulates that if the situation is not optimal for a particular leader, the situation require change or the leader should undergo a replacement in order to improve leadership effectiveness. The situation can undergo change to fit the leader through such means as task restructuring or minimising the leader’s power over various control factors.

The Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership model focuses on three major leadership aspects. These are the task behaviour, relationship behaviour, and maturity. According to this model, leaders have to vary their emphasis on tasks and relationship behaviours in order to deal with different levels of maturity among team members. Concerning the task behaviour, the leader engages in a one-way communication by outlining each worker’s task.

In this aspect, the workers cannot give feedback to their leader. The relationship behaviour examines a two-way communication between the leader and the workers. In this aspect, there are channels for feedback and the leader can offer support and guidance to the subordinates and act as a facilitator. Maturity describes the readiness of an individual to take control of his or her behaviour considering that there are varying degrees of maturity among people about a specific task or objective in question.

Under situational leadership model, an effective leader should identify the different levels of readiness among followers concerning the performance of particular tasks and apply the most suitable style. This will enable the leader to respond with more flexibility and thus enhance followers’ maturity (Borkowski 2009, p.201). When the leader establishes a high level of a follower’s maturity, he or she can adopt the delegation style, which requires minimal interventions.

On the other hand, the identification of low levels of maturity in a follower requires the adoption of a style that emphasis on the particular task. Among other things, an effective leader will give instructions in scenarios where followers lack the capability or are unwilling to effectively accomplish the allocate tasks.

We will write a custom Essay on Contingency Theories of Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The leader should adopt styles that encourage followers to share ideas and thus gain more understanding and confidence regarding the task in question. This model enables leaders to acknowledge the need for continual followers’ skills improvement through training and other development measures (DeRue et al. 2010, p. 640).

The path-Goal Theory discusses the effects of four types of leadership styles on the subordinates attitudes and expectations. These are the supportive, directive, achievement-oriented, and participative styles.

By analysing various situational factors, an effective leader opts for the style that provides strong Path-goal indications and incentives. The leader should avoid a style that induces redundancy and aggravations within the environmental structure sources or is not congruent with the employee characteristic (Kotlyar

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The Mineral Resource Rent Tax in Australia Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature Review

Analysis of the MRRT

Recommendations

Conclusion

References

Introduction The following is an essay discussing the Mineral Resource Rent Tax introduced in Australia with the aim of ensuring that the mineral resources in Australia benefit citizens. This is because; they have benefited the mining companies due to the increase in the price of minerals.

This has especially affected large companies that deal with mining of coal and iron ore. The tax law gears towards utilization of the resources in a way that is reasonable and helpful to both the country and the mining industry in Australia. This essay will look into the effect of Mineral Resources Rent Tax on the accounting policies of the affected mining industry prior to the introduction of the tax and after the introduction of this tax.

The essay will have a literature review on the effects of the mining industry on the life of individuals as well as accounting policies of the affected companies. The essay will have a critical analysis of the tax and its effect on the mining companies as well as on the life of the people of Australia. The final part of the essay is the conclusion on the way forward.

Literature Review The Mineral Resource Rent Tax is a tax proposed by the government of Australia on the mining companies, which extract non-renewable resources in Australia. Such minerals include iron ore and coal. The reason for this tax is that the mining industry is getting a lot of money due to the increased global prices of minerals.

The government of Australia therefore found it prudent to ensure that the taxes or revenues collected by the government from the Taxes reflect the increased revenues from this industry. The revenues generated from such activities will improve the country’s infrastructure as well as ensuring that every citizen has benefited from the mineral resources available in the country.

The government proposes to obtain forty per cent of the profits generated by these companies. This is because previously the companies were paying royalties to the government and they were smaller compared to the revenues generated (Mercer 2011).

The proposal to do this has led to huge public debate on the effects of the Mineral Resource Rent Tax on the accounting policies of the affected companies. This is because the tax policy will change the accounting policies of the affected companies. The main argument however is on the implication of these changes and their effect in future accounting of the affected companies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Previously, the mining companies were paying royalties to the government. The royalties were a fixed amount of money expected from the mining activities. These royalties are similar to federal taxes and they were not fully dependent on the amount of income generated from the sales of the minerals.

However, the new tax policy on mineral resources will ensure that the companies pay tax according to their earnings. This has raised concerns from stakeholders on whether the tax will apply on the gross income or on the net income (Price Water House Coopers 2012).

Concerning whether the MRRT is an income tax the Australian Accounting Standards Board interpreted the act as an income tax with respect to the previous Petroleum Rent Resource Tax because both are similar in many ways.

The MRRT is therefore an income tax as it proposes taxation on the profits earned after deducting qualifying expenditure from the gross revenues. This then makes the tax an income tax according to the Australian Accounting Standards Board (Price Water House Coopers 2011).

The other issue brought about by this bill is the accounting for transitional tax. This is because transitional tax requires accountability as well as time to ensure that there are no losses incurred from double taxation. MRRT tax requires the financial statements to reflect deferred tax accounting (Hughes 2011).

The other tax accounting issue raised in The MRRT is the mining companies starting base. The starting base is the value of assets required by the company in order to start making profit. The companies must submit their assets value and the methodologies that they have used to determine the starting base.

This aspect is raising a number of issues, as there is need for a standard methodology to evaluate the assets. This is because some of the companies may overvalue their assets with the aim of deferring their tax payment period.

We will write a custom Essay on The Mineral Resource Rent Tax in Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since there is no formal starting base, it is wise for companies to start preparing their methodologies of calculating the assets and the starting base to ensure that there is appropriate response (Hughes 2011)

This also raises another issue where mining companies may use the starting base to defer tax for a certain period. This is especially in situations where the government may not have formulated clear starting base. This may provide the mining companies with a tax holiday where they are not obliged to pay tax until their assets value reaches a particular point (Hughes 2011).

When the market value methodology is used, the companies will be obliged to support their valuations as per the existing market value of their assets. It is necessary to note that the market value approach only applies to the existing projects. This means that the new projects will not feature as a starting base as soon as the bill comes into effect.

This is because some companies may engage in start up projects to defer their tax payments for unspecified period. This is necessary to support the deferred tax balances and to enable the company prepare market valuations. This calls for the company to have asset valuations to estimate assets before the financial enactment of the bill (Blanchard 2011).

The other issue raised by the bill regards the current treatment of the state royalties. Previously these royalties were pre tax costs deducted before as a pre tax cost. However, MRRT does not specify clearly calculation of these royalties. However, there are two options about how they may be treated. The first one is operational cost and therefore deducted as an expense before taxation. The other option that is very likely to apply is for the inclusion of royalties as part of the MRRT.

This will mean that the royalties charged by the state and federal government will be part of the tax. This means that the forty percent will be inclusive of the state royalties’ deductions. There is need for clarification on the way to handle this to reduce ambiguity (Blanchard 2011).

The other factor for consideration regards the market value of the assets as the market value is ever rising or falling. There is need for a mechanism to determine the value of an asset as per the market value. This is important to ensure that there is cohesiveness between the entity and the government methods of determining the market value (Blanchard 2011).

There is need for the preparation of tax sharing agreements between the taxpayers such that the company receives issues or regulations in a way that is responsible.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Mineral Resource Rent Tax in Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The agreement preparation regard the time in which the organization prepares for its time and opportunity of raking in revenues. This is because there are smaller mining companies affected by the PRRT and MRRT in various ways. The first issue of necessity is that of the fact that there is need to establish how tax deductions will be done (Blanchard 2011).

Analysis of the MRRT The influence of Mineral Resource Tax has many ways of interpreting and calculating the payable taxes. This analysis will delve into the various points of view that are likely to occur resulting from the MRRT proposals with the first being deferred payments.

In respect to the start up base where the company must indicate the initial capital invested in the project, new projects are not considered as starting base. Only the existing or ongoing projects will have the advantage of inclusion in the start up base. This is because there are some companies, which may take advantage of this exemption to find ways of having new projects such that this start up base allowance goes higher. The mining companies can however adopt different policies to incorporate the start up allowances (Donaldson 2011).

The first view is that of the company treating the start up capital as a tax break. This is based on the interpretation that the start up capital of one million may mean that the company is exempted from paying taxes until it makes profit amounting to $ 1million. This view holds that the start up capital is a break or government allowances to enable the mining companies have their return on investment.

This affects the manner in which the accounting policies have operated in the mining industry, as there were no such breaks. Tax calculations relied on the net income after deducting the operational expenses.

It is imperative to note that the normal taxation will apply soon after the start up capital utilization. The period in which the company takes to get to the start up base income is the tax holiday (Donaldson 2011).

The other way in which the MRRT can apply is that the start up base may be a form of government grant to the mining industry to stimulate its performance. When viewed as a grant the companies may not defer their tax arrears but will continue to pay the taxes until such a time when the government refunds the tax to fit the grants given.

This will be one of the ways in which the government can make foreign-based companies that are dissatisfied with the laws and they are looking for other countries with lenient taxation measures to remain in the country. The grant means that although the company pays its tax, the government augments the tax paid and exempts the company from paying the tax until a future date (Donaldson 2011).

The question on how the MRRT will affect the accounting policies of the affected companies is important. The first effect of MRRT on the company’s accounting policies is creative accounting. There is high possibility that the mining companies will look for ways of sheltering their taxable income to ensure that they retain much of their profits.

The creative accounting will involve several ways of reducing the amount paid to the government. The first manner that will apply concerning creative accounting is increasing the operational expenses. The affected companies may increase the operational expenses than the previous expenses indicated.

The operational expenses such as the value of the machines and the value of the goods and services may indeed reflect a deduction in the manner in which the company operates. There is need for proper mechanisms concerning the financial reporting of expenses (Blanchard 2011).

The other major aspect of the effects of MRRT is on earnings management policies. Earnings management refers to a situation where the company manipulates its earnings in order to have a stable income projection aimed at boosting the investor confidence. Nevertheless earning management is likely to apply to the companies privately owned or not listed in the stock exchange.

Public companies will have to pay their taxes, as they will have to apply different accounting policies, as the interest of the public investor is to have higher dividends. This will mean that such companies may not increase their operational costs to reduce the payable income as the interests are in the dividends not the value of capital (Blanchard 2011).

While the company may increase their operational costs such as exploration and development, the Mineral Resource Rent Tax only considered the ongoing projects as exempt from the taxation. However, new projects may not qualify as a start up capital or operational expenses and they will therefore pay tax on such projects (Wood 2011)

The role played by the earning management involves inappropriate estimate of liability. This is where the company underestimated its actual liabilities which it owed to the banks and other institutions.

The companies may use excessive provisions to justify those practices in legal terms. This shows that the management irrespective of manipulating the figures are still within the legal provisions of the company and therefore they are not liable for of any wrongdoing. These legal provisions concerning the company assets and auditing structures create loopholes, which allow the manipulation of figures (Wood 2011)

The MRRT will therefore affect the accounting procedures of the company especially the bookkeeping procedures. The bookkeeping enables the company to track its expenses, and profitability and look for situations where the company may be making losses.

However, the earning management adopted by the companies to increase their operational expenses in order to benefit from the tax base assets may rob the investors their profits as dividends that accrue to the company from after tax profits. The book keeping policies of the company reflect the internal transactions of the company.

For the company to operate effectively the records must be authentic and reflect real transactions of the company. Without this happening, there is likelihood that the company will not have the correct financial statements (Wood 2011).

The other accounting policy that is important concerns the financial reporting procedures. This is where the MRRT policies will have effect. This is because the financial reports need to indicate the real financial position of the company in terms of the profits or losses. This is necessary to ensure that the policy benefits both the investor as well as the government (Eseinhardt 2011).

Recommendations The Mineral Resource Rent Tax is indeed complicated taxation mechanism, which requires the affected companies to prepare their policies and make the necessary adjustments to cope with the changes. The companies will benefit from the policies to ensure that there is proper governance and timing for the necessary changes to take place (Eseinhardt 2011).

The second manner of dealing with the MRRT is setting the assets base so that the company may benefit from the start up capital base. The investors in the mining companies are the greatest losers due to reduced dividend as a result of increased taxes.

For the public investors to benefit, the earning management or creative accounting policies intended to reduce taxes payable to the government must be abolished to ensure that the investors benefit. This is the major reason why the bill has received opposition from the owners of the companies especially the public investors as this will reduce the huge dividends that they have been generating from the venture (Eseinhardt 2011).

Companies must prepare and program themselves through training their accounting staff to handle the new accounting procedures as indicated by the MRRT. This is necessary, as it will ensure that the companies involved anchor towards ensuring that the company aligns with the taxation recommendations of MRRT. The training will enable the companies to cope with the intense and rigorous evaluation process that is going to come after the bill is effected (Clark 2004).

The company must also conduct prior valuation of their assets before the government comes in to value the assets to determine the start up base of the company. This is important in ensuring that the company has a proper estimation of its start up tax base before the financial year begins (Clark 2004).

Informing the investors is also a very important aspect of the way forward in ensuring that the company aligns with the new tax proposals. The investors have to make decision on whether they want increased cost of operation for the company or higher divided. The increased operational costs may increase the share value of the company while reducing the taxes paid to the government as well as the amount of money that the shareholders or the investors will receive as dividends.

It is therefore imperative for the mining companies to conduct meetings or seminars with their investors to inform them of the implications of MRRT on their entity. The shareholders then may decide the way forward, either to allow earning management or to pay the tax as it should be and continue to get more money (Clark 2011)

There are however two options concerning the implication of MRRT on the revenues collected by the government resulting from the measures and the accounting polices which different companies will have.

The first is that it may result to increased government revenues if the companies comply and treat the taxation recommendations as taxable income. Nevertheless, if the companies adopt earning management policies intended to make the companies shelve its income then the government will not collect as much revenues as anticipated.

The investors may also decide to invest their money elsewhere if they feel that the taxes are high in comparison with other countries such as Columbia and Latin America. This may lead to closure of many mining companies that have threatened to do so in protest of the taxation law.

This is because the tax will affect the cost of operation when there are state royalties that the mining companies pay to the state governments. The other aspect of consideration is that if the companies may decide to relocate there will be massive loss of jobs in mining as major industry in Australia (Clark 2011).

However, the law intends to ensure that every Australian benefits from the resources available in the country. Most of the mining companies located in Australia are foreign based and the profits that they obtain from the venture benefit foreign countries. The Mineral Resource Rent Tax is therefore a milestone in ensuring that the mining industry contributes to the infrastructural development of the country. However, it is important to ensure that there is more clarity concerning the manner of paying tax (Clark 2011).

Conclusion Taxation is a major part of accounting and the taxation measures and procedures adopted by a government determines the policies which the companies affected by the measures adopt. The taxation policies proposed by the Mineral Resource Rent Tax law will affect the terms of taxation policies especially on how to account for the start up base capital.

The other way is adopting the best means of ensuring profitability without increasing operational costs. The third way is reducing profits by increasing the company equity. MRRT will change the accounting policies of the affected companies. The investigations on the effects of MRRT on the accounting procedures of the mining companies are of importance to all stakeholders in the mining industry and the people of Australia.

References Blanchard, T 2011, Preparing for MRRT: Deloitte’s perspective, Deloitte Australia, pp. 4-11

Clark, T 2004, Theories of corporate governance: The philosophical foundations of corporate governance, Rutledge, London.

Clark. T 2011, Mineral resource taxes in information age, Long Range Planning Publication, pp.1

Donaldson. L 2012, MMRT on governance and shareholder returns, Academy Of Management Review, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 5.

Eisenhardt, K 2011, An assessment and review of MRRT, Academy of Management Review, vol. 14, pp. 57-74

Hughes, S 2011, Effects of MRRT on public shareholders, Earnest and Young Reports, pp.1-8

Mercer, P 2011, Australia new mining tax and its implications, International Resource Journal, vol. 11 pp. 2-3

Price Water House Coopers 2011, Complexity of MMRT on accounting policies, Price Water House Coopers Reports, pp. 1-17

Price Water House Coopers 2012, Complexity of MMRT on accounting policies, Price Water House Coopers Reports, Vol. 2, pp.1-8

Wood, L 2011, Implications of mineral resources rent tax, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney.

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Aspects of American Aviation Industry Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

American Aviation History

Positive Aspects

Negative Aspects

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Aviation has increased mobility and made travelling to some of the places where other means of transport would reach an easy task. In conjunction with that, aviation has changed the way people conduct their lifestyles because, due to its speed and ability to navigate almost all places in the world, cultural factors and lifestyles can easily be transported from one place to another. But aviation has not only expanded but also impacted our society in different ways both positively and negatively.

American Aviation History Though airplanes were fast used by other countries for military purposes, America was the first country that used airplanes for commercial civil and non-military functions which were mostly aero-photography, crop spraying and delivery of mail. America was among the first countries where airplanes were discovered in early 1900’s but the government showed minimal interest, and the industry did not expand as fast as it did in other countries in Europe.

For years therefore, America remained behind technologically as Europe was improving its technology in the aviation industry. Fortunately, America started picking up in early 1930’s and by late 1930’s America’s aviation industry had expanded very much that America was the largest manufacturer and exported the largest number of aircrafts than any other country in the world (Crouch 314).

After World War II America’s aviation industry increased the rate at which it was expanding with the government injecting money for research and development leading to discovery of advanced aircrafts. By late 1980’s America’s technology had tremendously improved making the country the most advanced in the world in terms of aviation technology.

Positive Aspects Aviation expansion has helped in propelling economic growth in America because of the economic benefits that are associated with it. The number of passengers being transported has been improving from the years following World War II therefore, increasing the demand for air transport thus increasing revenue for airlines.

Aviation has also gone a long way in influencing the expansion of trade by making importation and exportation faster and convenient, hence boosting international trade and this has helped in increasing aggregate income of Americans (Verhovek 141).

The deregulation of the airline industry in 1978 enabled increase in competition and efficiency in the airline industry, leading to reduction of fares and increase in areas covered thus benefiting the stakeholders. In addition to that, aviation industry has led to the discovery of military jets that have put America in a good position to defend itself from enemies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More America has the most advanced and fast military planes which make it afford one of the most well equipped and strong military sector in the world. In conjunction with that, during 1980’s through to 1990’s America produced wide bodied aircrafts which reduced the costs of operation for airlines due to economies of scale and economies of scope (Crouch 531).

Furthermore, discovery of jet engines helped in increasing the speed of air planes and though the initial jet engines were not fuel efficient, advancement in technology led to emergence of piston engines which were more fuel efficient.

Negative Aspects The increase in aircraft operations has also led to some negative impacts in the American society. To begin with, airplanes release gases from their fuels when they fly thus contributing to global warming and ocean acidification. Carbon dioxide and other nitrogenous gases are released by airplane engines due to fuel combustion as well as from ground airport vehicles, emissions from energy demanding activities in airport buildings and in the manufacturer of aircraft.

Additionally, aviation industry contributes highly to greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to ozone layer depletion. Research conducted in 1997 showed that aviation industry contributed up to 3% of US greenhouse gas emissions from human activities, implying that aviation plays a significant role in depleting the Ozone layer (Wolfe 353).

On the same note, the growth in aviation has brought with it the effect of noise pollution. Aircrafts produce a lot of noise when they are taking off or landing and this highly affects people who are living close to airports. Besides the direct effects of noise pollution, it is also a financial expense since money has to be spent in combating and reducing its effects.

Since the end of the Cold war, the aviation manufacturing has been declining with manufacturers reducing to just about five manufactures from the once high number of 47 (Verhovek 98). Consequently, employment has reduced in the aviation industry by around half during the same period.

On top of that, the quality of plane produced in America has been declining in recent years, and in 2003 the secretary of the air force and the air force chief of staff general warned that their pilots were doing better if they were flying imported airplanes. This has been partly as a result of people viewing aviation negatively and also the lack of enough research. It has also been noted that in recent years the number of students who want to study aviation engineering is declining sharply (Wolfe 254).

We will write a custom Essay on Aspects of American Aviation Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Aviation industry has gone through testing times in America to gain the market share and public confidence it enjoys today. On top of that, aviation industry requires constant technological advancement therefore the government should be ready to invest in research and development so as the country may keep up with other countries. Nevertheless, aviation plays an important role in our economies and should therefore be given adequate attention.

Works Cited Crouch, Tom D. Wings: A History of Aviation From Kites to the Space Age. Washington: Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, 2003. Print.

Verhovek, Sam Howe. Jet Age: The Comet, the 707, and the Race to Shrink the World. New York: Penguin Group, 2011. Print.

Wolfe, Tom. The Right Stuff. New York: Picador, 2008. Print.

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Research Proposal /Autism Essay college essay help near me

Qualitative research design was chosen as the survey design appropriate for the study on autism. According to Strauss and Corbin (1990), qualitative research refers to as every type of study whose result is not based on any statistical approach or any other quantification method. According to (Patton, 2002, p.39), qualitative research produces findings arrived at from real-world settings where the “phenomenon of interest unfold naturally”.

This survey design was chosen because it sheds light on the study subject while allowing for in-depth understanding and extrapolation of the findings to other situations as opposed to a quantitative survey design that seek casual determination, prediction, and generalization of findings.

One normal method of improving the validity and reliability of research is through triangulation. Mathison (1988) asserts that triangulation has improved to become a crucial technique used not only in naturalistic and qualitative studies approaches, but also in evaluation so as manage bias and institute valid plans.

This is because the conventional scientific methods cannot be compared to an alternative way of doing a qualitative study provided by triangulation.

Golafshani (2003) supports triangulation technique because it makes a qualitative study strong. Despite the importance of Reliability and Validity as a measure for quality in quantitative studies, the terms Neutrality, Credibility, Dependability and Applicability are crucial measure for quality. Golafshani (2003) continues to argue that the use of the term “dependability” in qualitative studies is a close match to the idea of “reliability” in quantitative research.

Moreover, the author suggests that another method of improving the dependability of qualitative research is through the use of an assessment method called inquiry audit.

In this way, the reliability of a qualitative study can be assessed at process and product level. Similarly, (Fowler, 1993) approves of the concept of dependability with the concept of consistency or reliability in qualitative research. Through assessment of study items like raw data, data reduction products, and process notes dependability of data will be realized (Fowler, 1993).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This survey will be based on interviews with about 1,000 respondents, although many high-quality surveys are substantially larger because of the need to cover extensive areas, many subgroups of interest, and other considerations. However, a sample size of 1,000 has a margin of sampling error of plus or minus 3 percentage points, which is precise enough to suit the purposes of most researchers.

A sample of 1,000 cases also permit making of statistical comparisons among some sub-groups of the population, such as, comparing the responses among different gender categories (men and women) , with a margin of sampling error of about 6 points. In the case where the survey findings are reported to the press, the findings will produce good round number that captures the interest and possible support of news people and the public.

The population of interest will be defined as all the patients suffering from Autism in a particular hospital during a specific time period. The patient list to generate the sample will likely include information about the patient’s age, duration of stay, and reason for admittance. The parameters of time, age, hospital, and duration of stay will be used to limit the scope of the study.

Semi-structured questionnaires administered in an interview schedule will the preferred method of data collection in the qualitative study. In order to reduce bias, a list of patients (sample frame), will be subjected to randomization in selecting a sample that is representative of the whole population.

References Fowler, F. J., Jr. (1993).Survey Research Methods, 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-606. Retrieved from https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol8/iss4/6/

Mathison, S. (1988). Why triangulate? Educational Researcher, 17(2), 13-17.

We will write a custom Essay on Research Proposal /Autism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Strauss, A.,

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Video Report “China’s Capitalist Revolution” Essay (Movie Review) college essay help

Chairman Deng Xiaoping is the one who succeeded Mao after his death in 1976. After Deng Xiaoping became the Chairman of China, he has resisted the use of force in capitalist revolution for four months. He said that it was true that they needed democracy, but they had to ask for it in a calm manner. In the 17th of May, he agreed but was then reluctant to send troops to the capital city of China.

He asked his Prime Minister, Li Peng, to hold a last statement meeting with the school leaders to talk to their students to stop being violent. This did not work since the students refused to move from the Square until their conditions were met. The people’s liberation army was sent to the capital city on the following day.

However, pathways and roads were blocked by a large group of Beijing citizens. Most of them were demonstrators while others were army troops who gave up their uniforms and joined the demonstrations.

One of business leaders in China pleaded with the students to back off the demonstrations, but this did not work. The students were very angry. After the hunger strike, it became very difficult to organize things. It was beyond the control of the party leaders. The army and the demonstrators faced one another in a tense scandal.

However, the party of leaders made up again and was focused to end the crisis. By the end of the day, Deng had already ordered the army to clear the Square in the capital. An extremely large number of soldiers were gathered at the central of Beijing. Deng kept on telling the citizens of Beijing to stay in their houses.

He argued that democracy changes slowly by slowly. This is when the army troops started sending demonstrators back to their homes violently since they could not return peacefully. Some of them did not fear the army troops. Those who were on the front line of the demonstrators even mocked the troops telling them to go home and leave them alone.

These are the people who forced Deng to order the setting of fire in the streets. The work of ending the crisis was a serious event that caused death to a number of citizens. However, this was the only way that Deng could do to end the chaos in Beijing. In his exercise of power, farmers had started working in their farms that were returned to them as he only way to provide food to their families.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There was corruption, inflation, and hardships. In addition, democracy was also an issue that led to demonstrations in China. All these caused the strike of workers, students, and other people of China. They confronted the government together with the Army. The army killed approximately two thousand people. This forced Deng to give the order on fire in the streets in order to stop the demonstrations.

According to the movie, in the nineteenth century, Chinese economy had deteriorated completely. This was contributed by very many factors. Maoism is the one that significantly contributed to this problem in China. There was poor leadership by Chairman Mao. Hunger was a disaster that seriously faced the Chinese citizens.

This was caused by taking away peasant farmers’ plots for farming. Therefore, Deng first dealt with this issue. He ordered the return of peasant farmers’ lands so that they could cultivate them and get food and money to cater for their families. Through this, he helped in reducing hunger in China.

This contributed to lack of relying on external relief for food in China. Therefore, he raised the economy of China and has been one of the greatest economies worldwide today. Hence, China’s today’s economy was initiated by Deng and is still there.

Despite the deaths that occurred during the elimination of crisis of demonstrations, the efforts have led to a well up economy where there is no hunger, lack of employment, no denial of rights to citizens, and many other issues that are found in a poor economy. Deng’s capitalist revolution has made China one of the most developed countries in the world.

The way Deng acted in dealing with demonstrators is a good way since he first pleaded with the citizens before he took the violent action to deal with the crisis. In his argument, when he told Beijing citizens to go back to their homes, he said that democracy is a thing that comes slowly by slowly. This is an event that clearly indicated his character of hard work and determination in reforms that have made the economy of China a great one until today.

The clearance of the army troops in the capital is a revolution that has brought a good change in Beijing until today. The students in Beijing did the right thing when they demonstrated violently. This made the government think on the issue of democracy in Beijing and start changing the way of exercising power to the citizens.

We will write a custom Essay on Video Report “China’s Capitalist Revolution” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Never Say anything a Kid Can Say Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

During the early days of his teaching career, the author of the article took a lot of time to prepare for his classes. He then taught with the conviction that he was making a difference in the understanding of the students, but they were often left confused. The principal commented that he was a good teacher although the students were capable of doing better than they did, so he decided to change his teaching strategies. This essay analyzes the article; never say anything a child can say.

In this article, the author is compelled by the low performance of the students to find out what is wrong with his teaching methods. After doing intensive research, he discovers that there is a fundamental flaw in his teaching methods and embarks on a journey to change them. He makes a list of strategies that work and ones that he revisits regularly.

He says that it is important to create a plan, share with students the reasons behind asking questions, be non-judgmental about responses or comments by students and avoid repeating the answers of students .

The author takes a strong position that, participation is not optional in the class room. Based on the long-term experience in teaching he has, participation is one of the strategies through which students can perform well. This is an expectation that he reminds the students every time for them to know that they are expected to contribute. It is a valid and useful position since through participation, he is able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the students. Consequently, the best ways of assisting them can be devised.

In my opinion, it is important for teachers to ensure that they do not teach for the sake of teaching. A teacher should be in a position to determine whether the students understand or not. The strategies of teaching well outlined by the author are very important and practical. I would therefore advise other teachers to follow them in order to ensure that students understand all the content taught.

Reference Reinhart, S. (2000). Never Say Anything A Kid Can Say. Web.

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Fire Codes of National Fire Prevention Association Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The world Trade Centre Fire

Improvements in fire codes

Works Cited

Introduction There is a great reduction on fire deaths in the last 10 years. The government has come up with different solutions to curb fire impacts and fire control measures. Government has empowered departments concerned with fire fighting agencies shaping code formulation and enforcement of the formulated policies.

United States has recorded a significant decrease in the number of fires that has occurred between 1997 and 2009 from 3.2 million to almost 1.6 million. Civilian fire has followed suit and decrease by more than 50 percent. Fires in different places such as skyscrapers buildings, atrium buildings, nursing homes as well as fires experienced in assembly places.

These fires have brought substantial impact on fire services requiring the need to rewrite the fire codes. Different fires have brought considerable changes in fire codes. Such fires include.

The world Trade Centre Fire This fire resulted as a result of terror attack on 11 September 2001. This fire led to death of 2752 people and damage to millions of property. It resulted in much scrutiny in high-rise buildings. Building owners and fire fighting agencies realized that these buildings have become a target of terrorists.

This makes it worth to design New National Fire Prevention Association codes that can curb any fire challenge, which may be experienced in the future. Notable changes incorporated after this fire is the use of elevators as a means of evacuation. NFPA Annex B recognizes the use of elevators as a fast and efficient way to evacuate people incase a fire catch up.

The code stress on the importance of installing elevators, which are capable of withstanding fire without being damaged. This is argued that will make elevators to continue evacuating people for long hours in the fire, which is believed, will reduce the fatality rate.

New codes include provisions to ensure sprinklers do not jet water in the hoist ways. This is agreed to avoid contamination of hoist way a thing that may bring problems in the evacuation process. The provision in new code have highlighted a curbed ramp to ensure no water is found in the hoist way. There are also provisions meant to keep off smoke in the hoist way and elevator lobbies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More New codes also states that the stairways should be wide enough to ensure the number of people leaving flaming building is large enough. This is crucial as it will prevent stampede which mostly results to death of those leaving the premise. Widened stairways will provide enough space to fire fighting personnel to enter the building in a large number.

This is essential in order to minimize the time required put off the fire. The new codes require stairways to be easily accessible from elevator lobby. These elevator lobbies are required to contain barriers to prevent smoke from entering them. In every building, there is a need to have an elevator hardened against smoke and fire infiltration to be used for egress by responders who arrive first in the scene of a fire.

NFPA new codes states that high buildings need to leave the third floor empty. This is essential as fighters can use this area to curb fire comfortably. This area need to have ample space to allow many fire fighters and bright lighting as stipulated in code 101.

Tall buildings should ensure they install automatic water sprinklers in their buildings. The fire fighting equipments stored in the buildings should be in satisfactory working conditions. Staffs and occupants should be educated on ways to fight fires. Experts in fire fighting services should carry this out.

Improvements in fire codes After the Twin Tower fire NFPA, codes have gained much approval from the public. The codes requiring constructors to make wide stairways to facilitate fast evacuation of people in the building is implemented well. Building owners are not resistant to occasional analysis of their fighting fire machines approval tests.

Organizations have acquired loudspeakers to allow fast communication in case firebreak. NFPA code 5000, which has received much approval from different people. Builders have increased the number of arrows leading to fire assembly points (Ching, 312-342). Evacuation chairs are also improvised in tall buildings making it easy to rescue disabled people with ease.

Government has improved the implementation of codes by agitating that guests in motels should stay in hotels that comply with NFPA codes. The codes are widely recognized forcing hotel chains to comply with codes easily. NFPA 13R requires every occupational house above three storey building to install sprinklers systems in these buildings.

We will write a custom Essay on Fire Codes of National Fire Prevention Association specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The new code NFPA 750 which is an improvement of NFPA 13R. The new code agitates use of water mist fire protection system to curb fire cases. This system is effective and economical compared to the latter. It is superb in that damage related to water will reduce drastically. They act rapidly since they activate on smoke alarm making them fight fire when it is still small.

New codes require exits of high-rise buildings to always remain open with the exception of doors that open to dwelling units. The owners can adopt the use of fail-safe electronic lock release system as an option. Doors leading to residential areas are required to have self-closer and lock.

Moreover, it states that there should be no residential house should have a self-locking hardware. NFPA 471 has been revised to help curb hazardous material incidents in the best way possible. This is veritable importance to help fight fires caused by hazardous materials (Schnepp, 54-56).

Works Cited Ching, Francis. Building Codes Illustrated: A Guide to Understanding the 2012 International Building Code. Chicago: Wiley, 2012.Print.

Schnepp, Rob. Hazardous Materials Awareness and Operations. London: Jones

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Causes and Development of Sociopathic Tendencies in Early Childhood That Would Be Carried Into Adulthood Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Over the past century, the study of human behavior has gained prominence. To this end, various scholars have formulated different theories that seek to explain how human behavior is developed from childhood to adulthood. One of the most influential theories in this regard is Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development.

This theory aimed at explaining how different behavioral tendencies are developed through various developmental stages in ones lifespan. Research indicates that ones personality plays a pivotal role in determining the behavioral characteristics an individual will exhibit. Similarly, there is a general consensus among behavioral scientists, which indicates that personality is developed from childhood and consists of biological and environmental influences.

This paper shall set out to explore and describe the causes and development of sociopathic tendencies in early childhood that would be carried into adulthood. This shall be achieved by analyzing various theories and performing a literature review of credible sources focusing on this issue.

Sociopathic Behavior development: A brief overview Juvenile crimes have been on the rise over the past few decades. As such, most parents are concerned about sociopathic behaviors exhibited by children. In most cases, parents attribute these tendencies to defiance and aggression. However, research indicates that there is more to it than meet the eyes.

Johansson et al (2005) define sociopathic behavior as a product of personality disorders, which is characterized by total disregard for authority and social norms. From this definition, a sociopath can be described as a manipulative and exploitative individual suffering from long-term behavioral problems indicative of an antisocial personality disorder.

As mentioned earlier, sociopathic behaviors may result from biological or environmental influences during childhood and in most cases, individuals display these behaviors even in adulthood. Some of the common indicators of sociopathic behaviors include but are not limited to violence, aggression, sadism, vandalism, suicidal, and homicidal tendencies.

Causes of sociopathic behavior Biological causes

According to Siegel and Senna (2004), biological causes of antisocial personality disorder in children include abnormal development of the nervous system and genetics. Results from the Texas Adaptation Project indicated that a person’s tendency to exhibit certain sociopathic behavior is to some extent innate.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The results conclusively suggested that sociopathic tendencies are inheritable. To support this statement, Pratt et al (2002) state that an average of eighty percent of all ADHD variations are transmitted genetically from the parents to the children. As such, a parent with antisocial behavior is more likely to pass the same to his/her children.

Siegel and Senna (2004) reiterate that in most cases (2/3), fathers of delinquent boys have criminal records and there is a high likelihood that if a father is a criminal, his sons may become criminals too. On the same note, research indicates that abnormal development of the nervous system may induce sociopathic behavior in children, which if not treated, may manifest in adulthood. For example, brain studies have suggested that there is a close link between abnormal secretion of serotonin and aggressive and impulsive behavior.

In addition, Johansson et al (2005) state that differences in brain functions may result in sociopathic behavior during childhood and later in adulthood. For example, the brain of a normal person react faster to emotional words such as love or hate than it does to neutral words such as house or car. However, the brain of a sociopath cannot effectively process these words. This means that a sociopath’s ability to process emotions is limited, which explains their apathy, callousness and lack of remorse towards others.

Environmental causes

According to Erikson, childhood is the most important stage of personality development. The theorist argues that during this stage, a child learns how to interact and adapt to his/her environment by observing and emulating different influences. As such, a child brought up in a loving, trusting and caring environment will most likely develop these traits.

On the other hand, a child who observes violence, hatred and mistrust emulates these traits even in adulthood. In the oral-sensory stage (below 1year old), the child develops trust. As such, if parents are consistent, reliable and loving, the child will trust them and view socialization as a positive thing.

However, if the parents are unreliable, inadequate or harm the child, he/she develops mistrust and withdrawal tendencies characterized by depression, paranoia and in some cases psychosis. Depending on how children are treated during this stage, they may learn to trust their bodies and their urges or develop withdrawal tendencies due to mistrust.

If this is not changed at the early stages, it may develop into a sociopathic trait even in adulthood. For example, a person with trust issues developed during childhood may try to hide from others and may find it hard to establish meaningful relationships with others even during adulthood.

We will write a custom Essay on Causes and Development of Sociopathic Tendencies in Early Childhood That Would Be Carried Into Adulthood specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the same note, Pratt et al (2002) state that peer influence has been linked to the development of sociopathic behavior. The authors attribute this to the fact that most children (teens in particular) are concerned about their identity. As such, they are more likely to be influenced by peers as they try to fit in. as such, if children associate with criminals; they are most likely to develop criminalistics tendencies. The same applies to children who associate themselves with sociopaths.

Additionally, Johansson, Kerr and Andershed (2004) assert that while environmental factors that cause sociopathic behavior in children remain unclear, child abuse has been cited as being the most probable cause. Child abuses include an inappropriate home environment, use of corporal punishment, inadequate emotional bonding between children and their parents and domestic violence. A child who grows up in this environment is more likely to develop sociopathic traits and display them even in adulthood.

Discussion and conclusion Rarely do sociopaths seek help at their own accord. As such, it is the duty of the parents to seek professional help whenever they observe antisocial tendencies in their children. According to Johansson, Kerr and Andershed (2004), antisocial personality disorders can be treated and managed effectively during childhood.

However, if the condition continues to adulthood, there is always the possibility that it will escalate thereby making an individual more dangerous to society. This paper set out to describe the factors that lead to the development of sociopathic behavior in children, which would continue manifesting even in adulthood. Using specific theories and a review of relevant literature, it has been revealed that genetics and environmental factors are the main cause of this antisocial personality disorder.

The characteristics of a sociopath have been highlighted and explanations as to why children may develop sociopathic traits discussed. Due to the severity of the issue, parents and other caregivers should look out for various indicators and ensure that their children get the best care in order to avoid the situation from escalating during adulthood.

References Johansson, P., Kerr, M.,

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Rem Koolhaas and Jan Gehl Theories in City Planning Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

People take different positions when debating on a subject and this is not any different in the architectural world. The two architects presented in this paper have taken very different positions concerning how cities should be designed as outlined below.

Rem Koolhaas, in his interview with Spiegel Online titled An Obsessive Compulsion Towards the Spectacular, seems to be for the construction of large sophisticated buildings in the cities. For Rem, spectacular should be the main guiding concept when designing buildings in cities and not sustainability as being advocated for by environmentalists.

He asserts that experience and intellectual force are there in the world, for example in Middle East and the West, which can be utilized to come up with spectacular buildings. However, he is also aware of the challenge that exists in merging the experience from the West with intellectual from the Middle East (Koolhaas side 1). Rem seems not to like the idea of similarity in buildings designed by different architects, but also notes that it is sometimes inevitable.

He notes that the large architectural buildings in most cities are almost the same design. He, however, blames this on time limitation for research when designing buildings, which often force architects to borrow from existing buildings rather than coming up with new designs. He does not like this similarity, but also acknowledges that sometimes architects are forced by the customers to domesticate existing designs especially in air conditioned buildings.

This is because the owners of the buildings have pinned down the architects to what they want and not what the architects want to design (Koolhaas side 1). The constructions nowadays are meant to create ambiguity and complexity in order to escape the challenges that come with being explicit (Koolhaas side 3).

Jan Gehl, on the other hand, is also for large buildings in the city, but he insists that there has to be space put aside for people. In his interview with ASLA-The Dirt, Jan insists cities have to be planned for the people and that buildings have to be designed for the people to be able to live healthy lives (ASLA-Dirt side 3). Jan insists on sustainability as the guiding concept when designing cities. He notes that buildings have filled the landscape.

This has led to planning becoming a profession. Architects take care of the buildings and the planners do the planning. A building’s ground floor should be rich and the whole city will be rich. It should be designed to fit people’s interaction and communication (ASLA-Dirt side 2). He considers Pizza del campo in Sienna as a place where human care has been observed (ASLA-Dirt side 3). For Jan, similarity of buildings designed by different architects is not an issue so long as the buildings are designed with sustainability in mind.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two architects, however, have some converging positions. They both agree on the fact that there is a need for a people’s space in the cities. Rem acknowledges trying to design Dubai as a true public place. He wants to create a city in Dubai that has space for people and not the place you find in every city like shopping malls, but also maintain an urban life for the people (Koolhaas side 1).

He notes that urban centers are not lacking anything, but are confused in that they are too densely populated that in future the cities could be insecure to live in (Koolhaas side 2). This could make the European city a history since nobody will live there anymore. “Biggest not tallest” is the common phrase that people use nowadays (Koolhaas side 2).

The difference between a science centre and the development going on in Dubai is the political environment and the amount of freedom and latitude the architects are given (Koolhaas side 3). The two main typologies of buildings today are houses and towers unlike in the 20th century when there were many types (Koolhaas side 3).

He thinks that competition between buildings to be the tallest is just a ridiculous idea. He notes that length is becoming less of a concern as architects focus on size so that the building can be multifunctional (Koolhaas side 3). T

he factor of big multifunctional buildings makes people to always be in motion while the buildings are constantly being renovated (Koolhaas side 3). He notes that the larger the space, the better, but the buildings should have a place where people could meet to interact (Koolhaas side 4).

Just like Rem, Jan too feels that the cities are too much filled with buildings instead of being planned for the people. Nobody takes care of the people living in the buildings (ASLA-Dirt side 2). He says that it would be better to take care of the people than to take care of the buildings.

Cities should be designed in such a way that it facilitates a healthy life, for example, encouraging people to cycle to work not to just sit and move in motor vehicles (ASLA-Dirt side 3).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Rem Koolhaas and Jan Gehl Theories in City Planning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More We should always build for human scale not for structure scale. It is, however, very difficult to build considering human scale while the buildings there at the moment are built to structure scale (ASLA-Dirt side 4). This challenge is worse in third world countries where cars and motor cycles increase by the day (ASLA-Dirt side 5). This makes it difficult for city planners as they are forced to constantly revise the plans.

Critical Discussion Rem’s point of view is good as it would lead to better developed cities with the best and most complex designs. This would also lead to better services and delivery of goods in an easy way as the infrastructure is well taken care of. However, the problem with Rem’s position is that his position does not concentrate on the most important idea of taking care of people and making cities secure for the people in the future.

Jan’s point of view is that the cities should be planned for the people, but also notes that buildings are an important part of cities. The weakness of this way of thinking is that there will be less development in terms of infrastructure especially in third world countries where cities are growing in population day by day. Leaving spaces for people in the cities would compromise city development.

The two positions can, however, be combined to make a wonderful idea. That is, combining spectacular with sustainability. Construction of complex buildings in cities can be encouraged so long as the architects have people in mind. This way, there will be more economic developments in our cities as the people are comfortable and healthy (ASLA-Dirt side 3).

Works Cited ASLA-Dirt. Interview with Jan Gehl. American Society of Landscape Architects, April 13th, 2011. Web.

Koolhasa, Rem. An Obsessive Compulsion Toward the Spectacular. Interview in Spiegel Online, July 18th, 2008. Web.

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Management: Effective contemporary quality Management practices Report best essay help

Introduction Management is considered the most important aspect of operation in the organization. There are several factors that opt to be effectively managed and coordinated to ensure that the organization effectively and efficiently operates or function. There are several resources that an organization or company require to effectively and efficiently operate.

However, human resources are considered the most important resources in an organization. This is because human resources are directly in charge of execution of duties and achievement of results in an organization. Basically, human resources are in charge of formulation and implementation of policies in an organization.

Organizations require effective and realistic policies to efficiently operate. Furthermore, the human resources or employees must be competent to ensure that the formulated policies are effectively implemented. This is a report paper discussing or debating the relationship between employees’ competency and organizational efficiency.

Employees’ competency and efficiency in an organization Today, there are four major impediments that may affect the level of productivity in any given organization. These challenges include call to satisfy clients, need for innovation, call for a speedy response to the ever-shifting market requirements, and augmented levels of competition.

Consequently, both managers and workers ought to be committed to the attainment of a company’s objectives in order to overcome these impediments. It is therefore necessary for management to come up with effective strategies to deal with the issue at hand, for instance, management should ensure that all aspects of a company’s operations are supportive and encouraging to employees.

They can achieve this by first ensuring that the organization’s basic requirements are put in place. Such requirements may include high quality of goods and services that employees can easily advocate for. Generally, such requirements require competent employees to ensure that they are met.

Employee competency ought to begin with the top management and enforced among the junior employees too. Furthermore, an excellent system of delivery that guarantees that pledges and promises made to the customers are met, effective practices which are sincere, clear-cut and executed with honesty. Most importantly, management should consider the manner in which it should provide thrust to motivate workers as this influences their level of commitment to the company (Ferguson 36).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are several factors that are considered while evaluating efficiency of an organization. These factors should be effectively coordinated and implemented to enhance efficiency of the respective organization.

Basically, an organization requires competent staff or employees to achieve its goals and objectives, and effectively and adequately respond to market changes, produce quality goods and services and create or enhance good relation between the company and the public and enhance consumers’ satisfaction.

Generally, efficiency of an organization is derived from the quality of goods and services it produces or offers in the market, its response to technological changes and market changes, consumers’ satisfaction and relation the company has with the general public among others. Therefore, an organization requires competent employees to enhance efficiency in operation. Furthermore, efficiency in organization is enhanced by competency of employees of the respective organization (Gowdy 28).

Even though technology is known to dominate the current corporate section throughout the world, a lot of focus has recently been put on employees as well as the manner in which they are handled by their seniors. Basically, relationship between the junior and senior employees is determined by competency of both the junior and senior employees.

It has been proved that competent employees professionally relate irrespective of their position in the respective organization leading to efficiency in the organizational operations. It is often said that the best managers produce the best results from their employees. As a matter of fact, throughout history, managers have devised several approaches and strategies which have been aimed at enhancing performance of employees.

In addition, a lot of research has been carried out with regards to employee engagement. For this reason, there is need to critically examine employee engagement and competency as well as roles played by managers and relationship between employees’ self-efficacy and managers’ effectiveness.

This will help to explain the impacts as well as benefits of enhancing employee competency through engagement. Moreover, it will help to illuminate on various ways that may be used to enhance employee competency through engagement in the respective organization (Bret 37).

We will write a custom Report on Management: Effective contemporary quality Management practices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizational objectives, organizational efficiency and employees’ competency Businesses or organizations are formed with objectives or goals. However, there are different types of organizations, for instance, profit oriented and non profit organizations. Though non profit organizations are not after maximization of profits, they require competent employees to meet their goals or objectives.

Objectives and goals are set by both profit oriented and non profit organizations. This is because objectives and goals govern operations of individual organizations in the respective industries and market where they operate. Basically, organizations require competent employees so that they can outline or set realistic goals or objectives that can be achieved within the stated deadline (Uche 35).

Objectives and goals set or outlined by an organization may lead to efficient operation of the respective organization or company. Achievement of the respective goals and objectives within the stated deadlines also reflects efficiency of not only the organization, but competency of the employees of the respective organization.

Therefore, an organization requires a competent staff or management team to set or establish realistic objectives. Furthermore, organizations also require competent employees or staff to achieve the respective goals and objectives within the stated deadlines. This is because achievement of goals and objectives requires competent employees who understand the nature of each objective and time required during the implementation period to achieve the respective goals and objectives (McCarthy 42).

Objectives and goals of an organization may also determine the efficiency of the respective organization. However, this can only be realized in case the respective organization employees competent employees to enhance realization or achievement of the respective goals or objectives.

An organization may establish effective goals and objectives, but the respective goals or objectives may not lead to efficiency of the respective organization. This can happen in case the organization lacks competent employees who can effectively implement the respective goals and objectives, and ensure their achievements within the stated deadlines by the respective organization.

Generally, an organization requires a competent human resource team that can formulate realistic goals and objectives, which can lead to efficiency of the respective organization. However, formulation of effective goals and objectives may not be useful to an organization in case it lacks a competent human resource team to implement the respective goals and objectives.

Therefore, an organization should develop and maintain competent employees who can effectively work towards achievement of the goals and objectives, and enhance efficiency of the organization by ensuring that the goals and objectives are achieved within the deadlines stated by the management team during formulation of the respective goals and objectives (Singleton and Singleton 52).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Management: Effective contemporary quality Management practices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Employees’ competency, organizational efficiency and technological changes In operation of businesses, management has to consider both internal and external business environment factors. Organizations have direct influence over internal factors, but not the external factors though both affect operations of an organization, for instance, technological changes.

There are several uncertainties in the business environment that organizations ought to effective respond to enhance efficiency in operation in the respective market and industry where they operate. Failure to adequately and effectively respond to these uncertainties may lead to losses or even closure of operation of the respective organization.

Technology is dynamic and frequently changes and this also affects operations of organizations irrespective of their line of business or nature of businesses they transact. Generally, technological changes affect delivery of services and production of goods by organizations and companies in the market or globally (Silverstone and Sheetz 48).

Organizations must effectively and adequately respond to changes in technology that directly affect their nature of business. Failure to respond to these changes may affect income levels of the respective organization. Furthermore, it may also affect operation of the respective organization.

Efficiency of an organization is determined by the response the organization has towards changes that affect their operation. Basically, failure to respond to technological changes may lead to production of goods using outdated technologies, and delivery of low quality services in the market.

Technology frequently changes due to developments and frequent research on technology. Furthermore, developments in technology influence production processes and delivery of services. Moreover, effective and adequate response of an organization to technological changes enhances efficiency of the respective organization.

However, an organization requires a competent human resource team to effectively and adequately respond to these technological changes. Generally, effective response to technological changes may enhance efficiency of an organization because it may lead to adoption of better production methods and delivery of quality services, which meet the market requirements and demands of the respective consumer in the market (Bret 44).

Effective response to technological changes is determined by competency of employees responsible for technological department in the respective organization. Employees need to frequently and regularly review technological changes and adopt or adjust to changes that directly affect their operation in the respective market or industry.

Effective review of technological changes requires a competent human resource team that can effectively and adequately review technological changes and effectively advise the organization on how to adopt the new changes and enhance efficiency in operation by meeting market demands and requirements.

Therefore, organizations require competent employees to effectively and adequately respond to technological changes that directly affect their operation in the respective market and industry. This can also enable an organization to meet demands of consumers by producing quality goods and offering quality services (Gowdy 55).

Ensuring that Employees’ competency facilitates the Achievement of an Organization’s Goals Managers should ensure that they connect the employee competency strategies with the realization of the company’s objectives. As a matter of fact, employee competency should be seen as a means to an end but not an end in itself.

Consequently, managers should ensure that they first establish the company’s main objective as it is pointless to have employee competency without linking it to the organization’s goals. Effective linking of the organizational objectives and employees’ competency may lead to increased efficiency in an organization.

This is because it can lead to achievement of the outlined goals and objectives by the management team within the stated deadline. An organization should ensure that competency of its employees facilitates achievements of goals and objectives leading to increased efficiency in the organization (Mouse 72).

In addition managers should ensure that they show their commitment to the ideas of competent employees, for instance, they should always make sure that they respond and act on employees’ propositions for improvement of the organization’s performance. It is indeed very exasperating to employees when they are asked for suggestions and their responses disregarded.

Competent employees may positively contribute to increased efficiency in an organization through suggestions of ideas that can lead to improved operations within the organization. Generally, competent employees may suggest effective strategies that can lead to efficiency in operation in the respective organization, if the suggested ideas are effectively implemented (Silverstone and Sheetz 82).

Moreover, supervisors should always volunteer to teach employees more about the business or organization itself. Employees can only contribute positive suggestions that can enhance efficiency in the organization if they are well versed with the organization where they work.

This is because lack of enough knowledge on how a company runs may influence employees to give unsuitable suggestions. Basically, employees’ suggestions in an organization may be used to enhance efficiency. Ideally, knowledgeable and empowered employees are likely to produce best outcomes from employee competency programs.

Employees are only empowered to give productive suggestions if they are competent and are well versed with their roles in the respective organization and how the organization operates too. Generally, employees’ competency can only contribute to the achievement of organizational goals and objectives if they understand the objectives and goals of the respective organization.

Therefore, for an organization to reap from its employees’ competency, management has to enlighten its employees on the goals and objectives of the respective organization, and how the organization operates (Hopwood, Young and Leiner 73).

Drivers of Employee competency Even though we can determine the level of employee competencies through employee surveys, we may not be in a position to identify necessary areas that need to be improved within an organization through surveys. It is therefore important for managers to consider a variety of factors, which are also referred to as drivers, which are said to improve general employee competency and enhance efficiency in the respective organization.

In case these drivers are effectively handled, a company can successfully deal with increasing employees’ degree of competency. These drivers include effective communication, performance intelligibility and response, organizational values, incentives as well as appreciation, excellent relationships between employees and managers, professional advancement prospects and familiarity of a company’s objectives are some of the major aspects that enhance employee competency hence enhancing efficiency in the respective organization (Hopwood, Young and Leiner 86).

Employee perceptions of his/her job and company According to a recent study, a worker’s attitude towards his/her work in a particular organization has a major influence on his/her on loyalty to the organization which has a tremendous impact on customer satisfaction. Generally, it is believed that competent employees have positive attitude towards their work in respective organization and effectively undertake their duties.

This may lead to improved services to customers and production of quality goods leading to increased customer satisfaction. Additionally, this may enhance efficiency in operation because individual employees understand and value their job in the respective organization.

An organization requires competent employees because competent employees understand their job leading to positive perception about their job and the respective organization where they work in case they understand the values and culture of the respective organization too. Therefore, positive perception about a company or job by an employee may enhance his/her competency leading to increased efficiency in the respective organization (Manning 75).

The clarity of job expectations in the employees In case the management’s expectations are not clearly outlined to employees, and the entire fundamental resources are not adequately provided, unenthusiastic feelings such as boredom or bitterness may crop within employees and they are therefore likely to shift their attention from the organization’s general wellbeing to survival mechanisms.

Employees should be well informed on the job expectation. This makes the employees prepared to carry out their respective duties. Better understanding of an organizational job expectation may also enable an employee to utilize his or competency in carry out respective duties in the organization.

Generally, employees may not be able to effectively utilize their competency if they are not aware of job expectation in the respective organization. However, if employees are well informed on the job expectations in the respective organization, they may easily utilize their competency towards improvement of the organizational efficiency.

Moreover, though an organization may hire competent employees, benefits of their competency might not be realized in case the organization does not effectively and adequately inform the respective employees on the job expectations. An organization’s management should enlighten employees on job expectations in the respective organization.

In return, this can enhance competency of the respective employees because they adequately understand their job leading to increased organizational efficiency. Therefore, clarity of job expectations may enhance employees’ competency leading to increased efficiency in the respective organization (McCarthy 63).

Professional development opportunities Research has shown that career improvement opportunities often have a positive impact on workers attitudes as it contributes to employee motivation. As a matter of fact, in many organizations, this is often suggested by employees and made effective through management. In most cases, career improvement has a positive impact on an organizations general performance.

Generally, professional development opportunities are meant to enhance employees’ competency in respective organizations. Employees enhance their performance by undergoing different trainings related to their area of profession. Organizational efficiency greatly relies on employees’ competency.

Since professional development opportunities leads to increased employees competency; therefore, it also contributes to efficiency of respective organizations that have established employee professional development plans or programs. An organization requires competent employees to enhance efficiency. However, employing and maintaining competent employees or staff may be difficult.

Organizations need to establish a professional development plan or program so as to enhance competency of the respective employees to enhance efficiency. Professional development plans or programs are essential in boosting employees’ competency leading to increased efficiency in the respective organization. Therefore, professional development plans or programs may enhance employee competency leading to increased efficiency in the respective organization (Lenox 45).

Regular and effective communication between employees and managers Management should always strive to present an opportunity for dialogue where employees air their views, are appreciated and reminded of management’s expectations. This way, employees are likely to develop a feeling of belonging and hence likely to influence their productivity positively.

Communication is an essential management tool that positively contributes to efficiency in organizations. Employees and managers should frequently and constantly communicate to enhance efficiency in the respective organization. This is because effective communication between managers and employees enables both the managers and employees to understand the organization better.

It may also enable the employees to understand changes in the organization and how to adjust to such changes without affecting operations within the respective organization.

Furthermore, regular and effective communication between and among employees may enable employees to decide on the necessary changes that the respective organization require leading to increased efficiency. Basically, regular and effective communication between managers and employees may enhance employees’ competency leading to increased efficiency in the respective organization.

Therefore, an organization requires regular and effective communication between junior and senior employees to enhance their competency leading to increased efficiency in the respective organization (Silverstone and Sheetz 74).

An effective relationship among workers and with superiors An effective relationship among employees and with their superiors is a vital ingredient ‘ in an organizations general performance. In case employees do not relate with their fellow employees as well as managers in a cordial manner, then they are not likely to perform at their best. As a matter of fact, employee adequate incorporation of their competency is a direct manifestation of workers feeling towards their relationship with their colleagues and superiors.

In addition, such a relationship moves management closer to workers and they are thus in a better position to understand workers grievances and respond to them appropriately. In such instances, management is able to depict when performance is not at its best in good time and thus act promptly.

In return, this may lead to increased efficiency in the respective organization. Efficiency in an organization can only be enhanced by performance of employees in the respective organization. Furthermore, competent employees are most likely to enhance efficiency in the organization because competent employees effectively perform their duties.

Generally, efficiency in an organization may only increase if employees effectively and professionally relate with their supervisors. This is because it leads to good working relation and enhancement of competency. In the long run, this may enhance efficiency in the respective organization (Mouse 94).

Perceptions of an organization’s culture and values An organization’s culture and values postulates a vital inspirational factor of employee engagement and competency. Absence of the two is likely to affect a company’s performance negatively. Organizational values and culture stipulates on the expected codes of conduct among employees in the respective organization.

This might enhance efficiency of the respective organization if employees adhere by the culture and values of the respective organization. An organization need to enhance employees understanding of their culture and values to enhance their operation in the respective organization.

This might also increase competency of employees in the respective organization leading to increased efficiency in operation. Therefore, organizations need to enlighten employees on their cultures and values so as to increase their competency in operation leading to enhanced efficiency (Uche 62).

Reward for competency In any organization, it is important for managers to reflect on the benefits that an organization stands to gain if they offer incentives to employees. This is an important way of improving employees’ drive and thus improves their engagement and competency.

In order to achieve this, it is important for supervisors to set sensible goals for employees, pick the most appropriate rewards for the incentive program, constantly address reward issues, come up with several and different winners and different rewards, support constant effort, present awards in a transparent manner and assess incentive programs on a regular basis.

Rewards to competent employees or best performing employees greatly motivate employees to work hard to be recognized by the organization’s management.

In return, this enhances employees’ competency because individual employees will have to work towards achievements of respective goals within the stated deadlines to be appreciated and rewarded accordingly. This increases employees’ competency hence enhancing efficiency of the respective organization (Singleton and Singleton 86).

Conclusion Organizations operate to enhance efficiency hence increase their market share and profit level. Basically, organizational efficiency relies on employees’ competency. There are several factors that an organization has to effectively respond to so as to enhance efficiency, for instance, technological change, market demands and requirements, service delivery and production of products among others.

Furthermore, there are drivers that may increase employees’ competency leading to increased efficiency in respective organizations, for instance, professional development plans or programs, competency reward system and regular and effective communication among employees among others. Considering relationship between employees’ competency and organizational efficiency, organizations need to promote employees’ competency so as to enhance efficiency in the respective organization.

Works Cited Bret, Sharon. Essentials of Human Resource Management, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.

Ferguson. Management: Effective contemporary quality Management practices. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2010. Print.

Gowdy, John. Organizational Efficiency and Employees’ competency, Chicago: CRC Press, 2010. Print.

Hopwood, William, Young, George, and Leiner, Jay. Management and employees’ Competency. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2011. Print.

Lenox, Marcel. Effective Management towards organizational efficiency. New York: Springer, 2009. Print.

Manning, George. Management: Organizational efficiency. Chicago: CRC Press, 2010. Print.

McCarthy, David. ‘Contemporary Human Resource Management: Competency Based Approach.’ Cambridge; Cambridge UP, 2011. Print.

Mouse, Mika. Management: Competency based approach. Indiana: Pearson Education, 2010. Print.

Silverstone, Howard and Sheetz, Michael. Employee competency and Organizational Efficiency. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print.

Singleton, Tommie, and Singleton, Aaron. Contemporary Management, Organizational Efficiency and employees’ competency. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2010. Print.

Uche, Austin. Human Resource Management. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009. Print.

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Controversy Surrounding Immigration Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

For several years, debates have occurred on whether illegal immigrants should be allowed to stay in the United States. Laws used to regulate both legal and illegal immigration have caused debates in social and political settings. Some leaders have supported measures aimed at controlling the influx of immigrants.

Recently, republicans in Kansas differed on whether or not to extend work permits for some immigrants. The immigrants were required to have no criminal records in a period of five years (Ziegler, 2012).

The American population has a large percentage of immigrants from different continents. Europeans came to America several years ago in search of resources. Other immigrants were brought as slaves and others were allowed in through legal means.

There are benefits associated with immigrants in the United States. It is known that immigrants are a source of cheap labor. Most illegal immigrants do not have enough education.

Therefore, they have to do blue color jobs which are despised by Native Americans (Lynch and Woodyard, 2006). Most construction companies and farms rely on immigrants for cheap labor. Pessimistic economists argue that giving immigrants jobs, transfer wealth from Americans to foreigners.

Diversification of culture, food, customs, believes, religion and talent of Americans was contributed by immigrants. Today, people go to Chinese, Korean, Mexican, Ethiopian and Japanese restaurants to enjoy traditional foods. These foods and other traditional activities were brought by immigrants.

However, several people believe that immigrants jeopardize American cultures, customs and economy (Hirschman, 2006). On the other hand, several ideas which have been used in technology, medicine, politics, education and administration were generated by immigrants.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whether immigrants are legal or illegal, they have valuable attributes which are beneficial to the United States. Some technological developments which are currently enjoyed by Americans were contributed by immigrants. Technology has helped Americans to develop at a higher rate.

Immigrants have also contributed negatively. This has made Americans to have a poor perception towards immigrants from some regions in the world. What happened on September 11 was an unfortunate event in history of the United States. People who carried out the attacks were immigrants who had been trained in American institutions. As a result, most people changed their perception towards such immigrants (The New York Times, 2011).

Use of drugs in several states has been attributed to increased number of immigrants from foreign countries. Illegal immigrants are used by drug dealers to bring drugs to the United States. It has been argued that without illegal immigrants, use of drugs would be lower (Shah, 2008). However, some of the drugs in question have a positive effect in medicine.

Opiates have been incorporated into several pain killers which are prescribed by medical practitioners. It was initially brought from Asia as a stimulant but researchers used it to develop pain killers. Marijuana is illegal in most states but it is prescribed by doctors to patients who suffer from glaucoma and other chronic diseases.

This drug was introduced to the United States by immigrants from Central America and Caribbean countries. Some American people believe that illegal immigrants use social amenities without paying tax. This is not entirely true because when immigrants buy products, they pay taxes indirectly.

If they are accepted into the American system, they can pay taxes like American people. Government started keeping records of immigrants in 1820. The records show that over 80 million people have immigrated into the United States (Hirschman, 2006). Therefore, people should know that most Americans are descendants of immigrants who were despised during their time.

Works Cited Hirschman, Charles. The impacts of Immigration on American society: Looking Backwards to the Future. Border battles; the U.S. Immigration debates. 2006. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Controversy Surrounding Immigration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lynch David J., and Woodyard Chris. “Immigrants claim pivotal role in economy.” USA Today. 4 Nov. 2006. Web.

Shah, Anup. Immigration. Global Issues. 2008. Web.

The New York Times. “Immigration and Terrorism.” The New York Times. 5 Oct. 2001. Web.

Ziegler, Laura. “Controversy in Kansas over Proposed Immigration bill.” Kansas City Public media. 7 Feb. 2012. Web.

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Experiences of Japanese Americans and African Americans Essay essay help

Living mainly in California and Hawaii, Japanese Americans traces their origin to the first group of Japanese who moved to the United States of America as contract laborers in the sugar cane plantations. Encouraged by treaty signed by Japan and the United States, the first generation of the present day generation of Japanese Americans arrived in Hawaii in 1869.

Their numbers continued to increased until after World War II and at the beginning of 1980s when Japan’s economy began to blossom presenting more employment opportunities and better living standards. Since the first Issei (first generation Japanese) arrived and settled in Hawaii and California in the 19th century, they have contributed immensely to the political, social and economic development of the United States of America.

This is still being reflected in all aspects of development of the United States even today. However, their predicament began as immediately they arrived in the United States. Their upsurge was not welcomed by some politicians fearing the occurrence Yellow Peril.

This set a stage for a racial discrimination trend against all immigrants from Asia including Japanese that has stood the test of time and civilization. The politicians proposed a variety of measures with the most radical being total blockade on any immigrants from Japan. Others argued that the immigration of the Japanese into the United States should be allowed but in a controlled manner.

To curb the Yellow Peril, the politicians passed laws barring the Japanese from marrying from other races while at the same time limiting their access to basic needs such as quality education and housing.

To further suppress their dominance, the laws passed mainly in the western states where they first arrived to work in the sugar plantations ensured that the Japanese Americans had as limited employment opportunities as possible.

They were also denied access to such public utilities such as bars and public parks and beaches. These Japanese were hardworking farmers thus many farmers in United States felt threatened as their agricultural ventures were growing at a very pace. Towards this front, the farmers pushed for oppressive laws to be passed to ensure that the immigrants do not advance agriculturally.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This reached a crisis level forcing the two countries to sign the 1908 Gentlemen’s Agreement. Together with the 1924 National Origins Act, the discriminatory laws were repealed with the borders of the United States being closed to the Japanese immigrants. However, these immigrants were still discriminated against and forced to embrace English as their language and Christianity as their religion.

Discrimination heightened when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor during World War II as many Japanese were tortured as they suspected to be spies of their motherland. They were declared enemies, taken to internment camps which had poor facilities and lacked privacy and denied citizenship1. Their condition only changed after Japanese American returned from the war with honors of valor.

Unlike the Japanese Americans, the ancestors of African Americans arrived in the United States as slaves. However, they also comprise of those individuals from Caribbean, Central and South American countries. Their first ancestors arrived in the United States in the 16th century as slaves to work in South Carolina in 1526. What followed was a steady flow of slaves whose numbers surged in the Southern States where oppressive laws were passed.

Despite their great contributions to the economic, social and political development in the United States, African Americans were one of the most oppressed minority groups in the United States right from the time their ancestors arrived in as slaves. They were denied access to quality education, social amenities, churches, banks and equal economic opportunities forcing many of them to open their. Moreover, they were not allowed to vote or vie for any elective pubic post.

They were segregated as they could not use the same services and amenities used by the whites while many lost their lives and were injured in racial attacks2. Interracial marriages between the African Americans were forbidden as they were only permitted to intermarry within their race and indigenous Americans.

Their chances for legal redress were made even harder since even the United States Supreme Court upheld these laws. All these were despite the fact that these African Americans have been on the forefront of every war including the American Revolution War, World War II and Civil War.

The Japanese Americans and the African Americans, even though living in different locations and their ancestors coming to the United States under different conditions and reasons, shared similar experiences during the mid-twentieth century. They were oppressed and discriminated with others losing their lives during racial attacks.

We will write a custom Essay on Experiences of Japanese Americans and African Americans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They were denied access to basic essential services and facilities while access to economic and educational opportunities where immensely limited.

Despite the continued oppression, the African Americans and Japanese Americans continued to contribute immensely to the development of the various sectors of the American society including sports, music, politics, army and economy among others. These laws, upheld by courts of law, where only repealed through activism activities of such great mean as, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. among others.

Bibliography Gruenewald, Mary and Michelson, Maureen. Looking Like the Enemy: My Story of Imprisonment in Japanese-American Internment Camps. Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press, 2011.

Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dell, 1992

Footnotes 1 Gruenewald, Mary and Michelson, Maureen. Looking Like the Enemy: My Story of Imprisonment in Japanese-American Internment Camps. Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press, 2011.

2 Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dell, 1992

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Domestication Essay college essay help

Discussion Domestication is a process where wild animals and plants are transformed in a genetic state to adjust to certain characteristics which benefit humans. In a simplest sense, it can be described as the early stage of human mastery of wild species of plants and animals.

The basic difference between domesticated plants and animals from their counterpart wild species is that they are produced by human activities to attain particular characteristics and are adjusted to the conditions of constant care from initial transition to full transition.

Certainly, wild animals must possess enough abilities to compete and survive in the wild and should often be on the watch for their predators. Wild animals should be fast and strong to safeguard themselves from their predators and must use their senses of touch, sight, and smell while searching for shelter, water, food, and to warn them from danger.

While domestic animals do not require all these abilities and senses to search for food and protect themselves from danger since all they need are provided by humans. Wild animals live liberally and are not reliant on human support, while domesticated animals are reliant on human interference. Most wild animals are either afraid or hostile to humans since they consider humans as dangerous killers.

The most significant outcome of domestication of animal species includes a rapid transformation in their seasonal biology. Most wild animals are distinguished by their precise seasonal reproduction and molting sequence, while most domesticated animals, in contrast, may reproduce themselves at any period or season of the year and may not molt at all.

The main deference between the domesticated species and the wild species of animals and plants is that wild plants and animals develop under control of natural factors and domesticated species evolve under control or influence of human factors or activities.

Certain behavioral characteristics may be changed through this process since human serves as the shield between the plants or animals and their environment. One example which is noticeable during the process is a decrease in responsiveness to changes in environments of wild species. Food availability and human’s regulation over the breeding system have decreased competition for essential resources and therefore allowed selection for the preservation of juvenile features.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The morphological variations between plants such as maize and its wild related species, teosinte, are somewhat intense since teosinte generates just 7 to 12 kernels in two with interspersed rows guarded by a firm layer. While the domesticated maize produces a cob which contains more than 20 rows with several uncovered kernels.

Actually, teosinte is extremely different from maize in the structure of its ear that most botanists were not successful to identify the close link between these species and another difference is their seasonal reproduction. The reproduction of the teosinte is strict and precise during the year, while maize reproduction is manipulated by humans and mostly depends on the rainy season.

Self-reproduction is another factor which makes these species to be deferent. The domesticated species only reproduce through human interference and the cultivated species mostly produce low seed shedding, produce more seeds, and rapid continuous germination. However, most wild plants has 50% to 60% harvest index, sum seed weight divided by sum plant weight, which is more than the domesticated plants. Unlike domesticated plants, wild plants rely on seed propagation to exist.

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Deskilling Phenomenon in Modern Society Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Deskilling is a phenomenon that has come about due to agents of globalization such as technology, multinational corporations and increased bureaucratization, which are aimed increasing efficiency and effectiveness in both private and civil service. In other words, it is a process where workers in various organizations in both government and private sectors are eliminated due to the introduction of technology.

Due to technology, semiskilled workers are preferred since they can easily be controlled and can as well be paid peanuts. The organizations aim at utilizing resources maximally by reducing the human capital. Because of this aspect, workers have been reduced to paupers meaning that they cannot afford capital that can make their life better.

The owners of the means of production prefer working with the semiskilled since they cannot claim their rights as opposed to the skilled laborers who are always aware of their rights. However, due to deskilling, work has turned out to be mechanical since human skills are never applied in manufacturing goods and services.

In this case, the quality of goods and services are decreased. The consumers of goods and services are forced to take in substandard goods (Mossberger 14). The emergency of free market economy and ownership of property has even brought about serious problems as regards to employee importance.

This article traces the origins of deskilling, its effects to employees and how the issue can be addressed to bring back the skills of workers, which are required to achieve innovativeness and inventions. In government for example, the public is given a raw deal in terms of service delivery since those delivering services are not professionals. In other words, they are not imbued to service delivery. The capitalist society treats such workers in the same way as machines.

The modern society, an individual is deskilled in many ways. The process can be in terms of technology, work and leisure, and ideologically. The ruling class defines how leisure is utilized in society. In terms of technology, the ruling class owns it. The ruling ideology in society, especially in government, emanates from the ruling class.

In this paper, work and leisure will be analyzed as one of way of commanding conformity from the worker. Scholars criticize the way work alienates the worker from self and from other people in society. In this case, the works of Marx are frequently invoked to explain the plight of workers in society. In 1844, Marx posted his views regarding work and alienation in the capitalistic society. Workers in industries are forced to work for long hours without extra pay.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, employees in many industries and organizations lack time for leisure and self-fulfillment. As Marx had earlier observed, workers lack time for themselves implying that they are only left with little time for conducting animal related activities such as eating, sleeping and procreating. From this understanding, capitalism creates a passive consumer and also shapes the leisure activities of workers.

In the modern society, leisure is not meant to help the worker but it serves to provide a means of escape from the problems. In other words, workers are made to live with the problem but not finding the problem. The modern worker is alienated from his or her own work and leisure since he or she is not in control of the two variables (Life

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Emerging issues – GASCO Essay essay help free

Introduction Various organizations uphold environmental protection obligations. In fact, they have enacted policies to steer and regulate their involvement in environmental issues. This is an important provision in the ecological context. This paper discusses Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Limited (GASCO), which is a natural gas manufacturing company based in Abu Dhabi, UAE (GASCO 1).

The discussions relate to its environmental protection policies, enduring impacts on the environment, legal obligation on environmental protection quests, rivals environmental policies, and whether the company is environmentally friendly. Other aspects of apprehension are whether its environmental concerns have any business benefits.

However, what is important is whether the company is environmentally friendly or not. Additionally, unveiling what benefits it gains from such missions is vital in this context. Evidently, most organizations have managed to consider various environmental issues in the realms of becoming energy efficient, observing the aspects of global warming, reducing hazardous gas emissions, managing pollution, and recycling wastes for a sustainable environment and preservation of energy resources.

These mandates are fostered by relevant and adoptable environmental policies usable in various contexts. As a component of its social responsibility, GASCO has enacted Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) movements to ensure that it attains its environmental sustainability mandates. Precisely, GASCO has a real commitment in improving the environment, embracing the safety of the people, and instituting appropriate environmental and health concerns.

GASCO’s Environmental Policies GASCO has realized the significance of a sustainable environment. Consequently, it has incorporated its aspects into its operations and mandates as an environmentally conscious organization. As indicated earlier, the company established HSE as a component of its visions, in the realms of HSE Policies as well as HSE Management System (HSE MS).

Precisely, the company has policies that allow it to uphold environmental sustainability discussed in this paper. Since it deals will petroleum gases, the company has policies that limits emission of hazardous gases into the environment. These environmental policies demand every employee to be observant and contribute immensely in the environmental protection quests.

Relevantly, this has helped the company to attain a massive market presence, competitive advantages, global limelight, and other lucrative provisions beneficial to its business endeavors. Policies meant to eradicate gas spillage and other dangerous chemical from reaching the environment are quite considerable in this context.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although most organizations participate in the environmental mission with the aim of marketing themselves, GASCO is genuinely environmentally friendly besides the need to have a comprehensive market share in the natural gas industry, both locally and globally (Oxford Business Group 125).

Through its HSE policies, it has programs of cleaning the environment, planting trees, sponsoring environmental programs, reducing hazardous emissions into the environment, promoting public health, and recycling wastes into useful products. These roles and mandates indicate how the company is environmental friendly and is able to enact viable environmental concerns to help the public. Contextually, the company has managed to uphold its environmental concerns since its inception decades ago.

This has been possible through the ratification of stringent environmental policies to help in governing the ecosystem and protecting the environment for sustainability as indicated earlier. From this context, it is possible to concur that environmental policies are coherent with the business strategies since they help in promoting businesses, enhance their brand names, and increase their market shares. Nonetheless, the business aspects of this should come second after attaining the environmentally targeted mandates.

Precisely, GASCO has policies that govern its HSE programs with the intent of attaining a sustainable ecosystem, uphold its business strategies, commit to the aspects of CSR, and promote its global presence. Additionally, the company has policies that govern environmental impacts of their operations.

GASCO’s potentiality in making a lasting impact on the environment Evidently, GASCO has a massive potentiality in making remarkable impacts on the environment. This is an important observation following its obligations, policies, and concerns over the environmental issues. Additionally, the fact that the company deals in the production of natural gases is a massive environmental concern.

Its mandates to protect its operations, limit gas emissions, restrict the use of harmful gases, enact safe gas transportation mechanisms, and safety concerns are of critical consideration. In fact, if the company observes safety and environmental issues, it will contribute considerable to the aspects of environmental protection and sustainability.

Its policies equally signify its long-lasting potentiality in conserving the environment. This is evident through its HSE programs mentioned earlier. It is important to recognize the criticality of its obligations in the realms of environmental protection despite the business provisions in it. However little its inputs are to the aspects of environmental protection, its contributions still matter considerably. From this concern, it is obvious that GASCO has the potential of making a lasting impact on the environment.

We will write a custom Essay on Emerging issues – GASCO specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Both Business and environmental benefits of the policies Principally, the established environmental policies are mandated to offer a remarkable, sustainable, and safe environment to the entire community. It is through viable policies that an organization can attain its environmental mandates (through CSR) and involve other stakeholders towards the achievement of a sustainable environment.

Consequently, it is crucial to consider various aspects of these policies with regard to environmental protection. Conversely, there are business aspects of all these endeavors. An organization might aspire to demonstrate to the public that it is environmentally conscious (Oxford Business Group 125).

Consequently, it captures the attention of the public, build its market visibility, global presence, brand name, and enhance its operations and profitability in the long run. Through environmental concerns, the organization will obviously promote its operations, businesses, and enhance its marketplace acceptability.

GASCO competitors’ environmental policies- Is the firm doing more or less? Other competitors in the natural gas production industry (both in UAE and globally) have established similar policies to help in the promotion of environmental sustainability. It is from this context that the entire environmental protection emerges.

Additionally, other competitors like TAQA, ADNOC, and other firms in the oil and gas industry have managed to establish environmental protection programs and sponsorships to enhance their environmental friendliness. If compared, GASCO is doing considerably better in the realms of its environmental mandates and protection obligations.

Is the firm doing more than it is legally obliged to? According to the environmental laws and demands of the environmental activists, GASCO still need to do more in its roles to enhance environmental protection. From this context, it is evident that the law requires more than anticipated (GASCO 1). Despite the efforts to meet these demands, there are some challenges that might hinder the company from realizing its environmental obligations. Precisely, the firm is averagely doing what it is legally obliged to do. It still needs to do more.

Conclusion Conclusively, GASCO is environmentally friendly following its endeavors to protect the environment through its HSE policies.

Works Cited GASCO. Health, Safety and Environment. 2012. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Emerging issues – GASCO by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Oxford Business Group. The Report: Abu Dhabi 2007. London: Oxford Business Group, 2007. Print.

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Social Media Issues Relating To Race and Religion Proposal best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Social Media

Social Media and Race

Social Media and Religion

Works Cited

Social Media Communication is one of the most important aspects of human being. Emerging technologies have completely redefined the way human beings communicate with each other. The internet has come out strongly as one of the most sophisticated tools of communication.

The social media is the most recent of the forms of communication. When Facebook came into existence in the year 2007, many critics thought that it was another passing wind, just as other technologies that never made it to see the light of the day (Luther

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Google and Yahoo – Detailed Business Comparison Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Yahoo!

Google

SWOT Analysis for Yahoo!

Reference List

During the drastic change in the United States economy, Google began to nose ahead of its prime competitor Yahoo. In 2007, Yahoo changed it processes, from its strategy to its mission statement. Historically Yahoo was the grandfather of search engines until 1998, when Google stepped in with simplistic focus and changed the path for technology.

Although Google and Yahoo have the same audience, it can be argued that they have taken completely different directions in the last 5 years. This paper will detail the current mission, vision, social responsibility and strategic planning of both companies. It will also compare the direction of the companies and indicate the suggested need of improvement. Lastly, the paper will conduct a SWOT analysis for Yahoo!

Yahoo! Yahoo!’s mission is to be the most essential global internet services company for consumers and businesses. The mission statement clearly defines the goals and objectives of the company.

According to the company’s investor relations website, its vision resonates around being the premier digital media company which is focused on creating deeply personal digital experiences that keep its customers and users connected to what matters most to them, across systems and around the world (Yahoo Investor Relations, 2011). The company’s vision is customer-centered, concerned with delivering the digital experiences the customer way.

This statement has been changed multiple times, since the company entered business in 1994. As technology continuously evolves, Yahoo! continues to rethink and reformulate its strategies, as well as update its objectives and strategic decisions. In recent times, the company has announced the laying off of over 2000 employees with the aim to restructure its business into 3 core components.

Yahoo! recently announced a new business direction with the view to intensify its effort in its core businesses and redeploy critical resources to its most urgent priorities in line with current competition trends. The ultimate goal of this alignment was prioritize the needs of users and customers (Carlson, 2012). In this regard, Yahoo has attempted to join social media services and the company is working hard to maintain its presence in online advertising business (Deka

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Business Performance Measures Essay college essay help online

Introduction The world has become very competitive in almost all aspects of human life that has necessitated the need to boost performance in order for businesses to continue with their daily operations. Governments, non governmental organizations and individual firms have had to devise cost effective ways of ensuring their business operations are viable despite the high rate of inflation that seems to run out of control.

It is common knowledge that modernization has brought stiff competition in the quality and quantity of goods and services produced and those firms that meet the required production standards remain in operations. While some companies have taken to monopolization others have merged under different banners in order to increase efficiency in their delivery of services.

Regardless of the approach taken by a company to boost its performance there are various measures it must put in place in order to assess its performance. This essay outlines some of the performance measures a company may adopt, benefits such measures bring to the company and the actions it can take with regard to the outcomes of these measures.

Performance is a common term used in business to refer to the value of business out put that is used to assess the viability of any business venture in terms of profits or losses. It is measured in two ways in terms of the volume of goods and services produced and profits or losses generated from the sales made.

A measure is any approach taken towards realization of any goal by a business (Cokins 2009). Therefore, performance measures are steps taken by a business organization in the attempt of seeking to identify its position as far as business operations are concerned.

This discussion covers the human resource and product and service measures as essential tools of evaluating the performance of any business.

Human resource plays a very important role in the daily running of business operations in all organizations. Therefore, it forms an important aspect that can not be isolated from performance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is due to the fact that human beings constitute a grater percentage of sources of labor in all operations and in areas where machines are used human beings are in charge of controlling them. Performance measures in terms of human resource has various dimensions that include, performance evaluations, productivity reports, turnover, absenteeism and employee satisfaction surveys.

Performance evaluations are important measures that businesses undertake in order to assess the levels of production of its workers. Performance is evaluated on the basis of worker’s academic qualifications, experience, interests and skills that are essential in ensuring workers deliver quality work (Luecke 2006). Any worker who does not have the required skills is more likely to deliver poor quality work while an experienced person stands high chances of better performance.

This is an essential tool of evaluation as it enables the management to identify the worker’s potentials and this helps them in allocation of duties and responsibilities according to the worker’s abilities to perform. A business may decide to train its employees further in order to increase their skills and knowledge by sponsoring their part time education programs and giving them more off duty allowances in order to attend their classes.

Timely and accurate information regarding employee’s performance will help the management identify its weak performance areas and plan on how to develop them in order to ensure all workers do their best.

Worker’s productivity reports may be prepared by the management as measures towards assessing business performance. It should be noted that every employee plays an important role in determining the productivity of a business regardless of the person’s position in a company. All positions in a business are created with a view of boosting performance and there is no department or position that should be treated as inferior to others.

The business is like a body while workers are like the organs that make the body to function properly and be healthy. Worker’s productivity reports help management identify the specific abilities of every worker and avoid generalization of workers performance (Cokins 2009).

Employees who consistently perform below the company’s expectations should be given essential advice and warned in advance but if they seem not to improve they should be laid off and other people with prospects of better performance hired. This measure helps management plan on future expansions of the company in terms of its work force and production.

We will write a custom Essay on Business Performance Measures specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All workers are supposed to spend quality time at their work place in order to boost production and efficiency. It should be noted that time is a very important factor in the process of production and should be spent wisely (Luecke 2006).Therefore, employees should ensure they do constructive activities when at work. Work attendance records will help the management assess their employees in terms of the number of hours they dedicate to work.

Those frequently absent from duty should be sacked immediately as this shows laxity and lack of interest and personal initiatives by employees. This measure helps to identify the amount of work an individual is capable of doing in a given time. More time spent at work means more service or goods will be produced and vise versa. The company is able to plan a head with regard to production of its services or goods.

A company may also conduct turnover surveys to identify its ability to produce goods and services within a given time frame. This survey helps the company to identify its potentials and assess whether it is performing according to its expectations.

This measure will help the company identify areas that are productive and those that are dormant. It gives management an insight into future planning in terms of budgetary allocation to various departments to boost their efficiency in production.

The second approach of measuring performance is through the use of product and service measures. The first step in this approach is conducting surveys on the levels of customer satisfaction with regard to the quality and quantity of goods and services offered by a company (Cokins 2009). This may be done through questionnaires or through conducting interviews that aim to establish the levels of satisfaction their clients attain with regard to the company’s services.

This measure helps the company to identify weaknesses of a product or service and correct them as soon as possible. It helps a company in planning on how to avoid the occurrence of such errors in future. It enables the business to know the tastes preferred by clients.

Rates of returns help businesses asses their performance as it offers an insight to the level the product or service has penetrated the market. Through conducting this survey the management will identify the various marketing strategies that will enable it deliver its services to almost all regions accessible by it. Timely awareness of the problems arising from this survey will help a business change its marketing strategies or use different strategies to market their products.

A company may choose to asses its performance through surveying the product rates of failure that will enable it identify the effectiveness of its services. This will enable the company to know the reasons why the products are failing and analyze whether it is as a result of poor quality or lack of information on the use of the product and thus address the issues as soon as possible (Cokins 2009). Products’ rates of failure helps to eliminate future assumptions by correcting the client’s current perceptions regarding the quality of services offered.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Performance Measures by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The number of clients served within a particular period of time is an essential step in measuring the performance of any business. This measure offers relevant information regarding the volume of sales made in a given time. This survey measure will enable a company to assess whether the price of goods, timing of their sales, efficiency of employers or the volume of goods produced determine the number of clients served (Luecke 2006).

Timely and accurate information obtained through this survey will help the management plan ahead and decide whether to increase the number of workers to eliminate long queues of clients waiting to be served or extend the time of operations in order to serve many clients within the shortest time possible.

Conclusion All business investments are founded on the basis of utilizing all opportunities to make profits and at the same time offer quality goods and services to their clients. If essential steps are not taken early to monitor the performance of a business huge losses may be incurred leading to termination of its operations. Therefore, it is important that businesses conduct performance surveys to determine their viability.

References Cokins, G. (2009). Performance Management: Integrating Strategy Execution, Methodologies, Risk and Analytics (Wiley and SAS Business Series). New York: Wiley Publishers.

Luecke, R. (2006). Harvard Business Essentials: Performance Management: Measure and Improve the Effectiveness of your Employees. Boston: Harvard Business Review.

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A Review of the Book Human Resource Management Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Rationale

Summary and conclusion

Reference List

Introduction In the writing of a book, an author always has an objective in mind, which he hopes to have achieved by the end of the writing. This applies to both fiction and scholarly writing, classifications which make books meet the needs of varied audiences. This essay seeks to analyze a scholarly writing on human resource management.

To this end, a general overview of a particular book shall be provided before the discussion narrows on the key reasons that drove the authors to settle on the particular topic as well as the objectives that they intend to attain. The methodology that they use in the meeting of the objectives has also been given a critical mention, in the latter part of the discussion.

In the provision of support to various elements of discussion raised, a number of external sources shall be considered. These include other books and electronic journals. The contents of these sources shall, however, serve a reinforcement purpose, to give strength to the theories raised by the primary authors.

Rationale Human Resource management is a key component of all properly working establishments (CNN, 2009). This is because even for the most technologically savvy establishments there needs to be an input of human labor in order to get the systems to operate at utmost efficiency levels (Jonathan, 2010).

Over the years, it has come to the realization of various scholars that the human component of any given institution is the most vital in guaranteeing its stability (Conaty and Ram, 2011). This basically means that if the workers are not working up to the ideal optimum, then the inadequacy will be well reflected in the image of the company (Merkle, 2002).

In the book Human Resource Management, by Angelo DeNisi and Ricky Griffin, the authors seek to explain how a company’s manpower can be well managed through a combination of both traditional and modern approaches for maximizing output.

In their writing, the authors help the readers understand learn the functions of the human resource department in a company, which range from staffing to the enhancement of the motivation of the members of staff, as well as the addressing of payment and other associated benefits (DeNisi and Griffin, 2007). The targeted audiences of this book are individuals whose career focus is directed towards general management.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, the authors ensure that all components of effective human resource management are covered including the proper management of diversity, and the fostering of proper relationships between the members of staff and the institution.

The authors argue that a healthy human resource department is the key to a well functioning company (DeNisi and Griffin, 2007). They support this assertion by providing practical examples, which show how companies properly weave the activities of the human resource management department into their key business strategies.

In the opening chapters of the book, the authors give an overview of the importance of human resource management as it applies in different areas across the globe. They then go ahead to outline how the recruitment of employees pans out to be a determinant of the success of the establishment.

Still in the early chapters of the book DeNisi and Griffin focus on the traditional strategies of managing the members of staff as well as the enhancement of performance within the enterprise. The categorically declare that all principles of traditional human resource management have to well entrenched

In the last half of the book, the authors focus on the theoretical items of human resource management including the writing of job descriptions as the advertisement of vacancies, as well as the conducting of job interviews (DeNisi and Griffin, 2007). Understanding the labor laws, in relation to their application in the proper running of human resource departments, has also been given prominence and it forms the base on which all other items in the book are founded.

The authors ensure that they explain the laws which apply in various business establishments, as well as illustrate how if the laws are well applied, they can help make the running of the institutions more fluid.

The authors of the book make it a point to note that by the end of the reading, students should be in a position to apply the theoretical concepts picked from the discussion in practical managerial situations. To make sure that this goal is met, they make it a point to arrange the components if the book in such a manner that one item explains the next, with the succeeding chapters offering solutions to problems identified in previous chapters.

We will write a custom Term Paper on A Review of the Book Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This book, being targeted at a select class of individuals aims at meeting a number of specific goals and targets. These goals are as listed below:

To explain the relationship between the human resource department in a company and the general productivity.

To help the students understand the best strategies for the enhancement of the output of a company’s human resources.

To help the student understand the key concepts of human resource management, including the advertisement of available vacancies and the identification of the most deserving members.

To help the students develop a grasp of the techniques required in the drafting of technical papers such as resumes and job descriptions.

To help the students develop ways of applying learned concepts to practical situations.

In order to meet these requirements, a number of key objectives will have to be met.

First, the students should be in a position to indentify the extents covered by the human resource department, within the general institutional framework.

Secondly, the students should be able to list the best approaches in the running of Human resource departments such that the ultimate efficiency levels are met and sustained.

Third, the students should be in a position whereby they can draft vacancy announcements as well as conduct proper job interviews.

Finally, the students should understand the labor laws and illustrate how they can be used in the resolution of issues involving a company’s members of staff.

Summary and conclusion In summary, the book under review had set out to illustrate that no institution worth its name can operate efficiently if the human resource department is not well coordinated, and this agenda was met. The authors, in a stepwise manner, explained how the human resource departments of companies work and went on to detail the basic fundamentals required in ensuring that the offices work as per institutional desires.

Any individual, scholar or otherwise, going through the writing can easily be drawn to the conclusion that the human resource department is the one element of a company’s structure which must be stabilized if its mission and objectives are to be attained.

Reference List CNN. (2009). “Human Resources Manager”. CNN Money. 2009. Retrieved

Conaty, B.

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United Federation of Teachers and DC 37 Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

United Federation of Teachers (UFT)

Achievements

DC 37

Disadvantages and Challenges

Effect on Productivity and Performance in Schools

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Unions are legally formed to serve as the voices of all workers in New York City or entire country. They act as representatives of public and private employees in several industries in the United States. Their main aim centers on cooperative negotiations in issues related to wage increase, workers’ benefits and better working conditions for their members and addressing other issues like disputes with administration about infringement of contract conditions.

Most unions in the United States are adjusted to one of two major unions, Change to Win Federation and AFL-CIO that was legally formed in 1955. These two unions represent or bargain guidelines and legislation as they represent employees in America and contribute a major part in the country’s politics (Moe 66).

The paper discusses the achievements of United Federation of Teachers (UFT) and District Council (DC 37), as well as their challenges and shortcomings that are involved in their membership. United Federation of Teachers has played a huge part in addressing the rights of teachers and nurses in New York City. Since its formation in 1960s, it has solved several issues related to educational matters, such as wage increase, workers’ benefits, and currently the reduction in class sizes.

They also take part in the political affairs through financing most campaign activities. Some critics have stated that American teachers’ unions undermine the performance and productivity of schools through disregarding the issues related to students, management, and parents, while serving as a voice for teachers.

Some studies have reported that increase in teachers’ wages does not improve the productivity and performance of students and schools in general. DC 37 has played an important part in matters of women’s rights and equal pay among all employees in public sectors.

United Federation of Teachers (UFT) Since 1960s, the management of United Federation of Teachers (UFT) has ensured that it portrays itself as union of expertise that exercises the rights and privileges of its members. UFT serves as a voice of more than 200,000 teachers, home daycare employees and nurses in New York City and consider that children are worth of secure schools, provision of social and health requirements, and appropriate instructions from the teachers and the government.

In 2005, there were around 18,000 paraprofessionals and 120,000 in-serves teachers in United Federation of Teachers, together with around 55,000 retired teachers and other participants. At the end of 2007, 28,250 home daycare employees selected to be part of the union, making the sum number of members to go by the 200,000 mark (Moe 66).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Achievements UFT was very active in decreasing the size of classrooms and directly intended and led to advanced teaching arrangement and system which permitted for professional association and teaching background. The union was also powerful in legalizing charter school acceptance policy to guarantee an unbiased assessment application procedure.

Currently, the union is in opposition to merit pay for its members and favoring seniority-based payment, but became involved in 2007 in approving a voluntary incentive system for performing schools with higher population and greater requirements.

The United Federation of Teachers does not favor a recommended reform of the seniority-based LIFO (education) policy. The union powerfully supports the lessening of class sizes for every grade stage and subjects in all public schools in New York City to provide quality and standardize education program.

In 2005, in the contract negotiations, the United Federation of Teachers effectively included language to the agreement that precisely safeguard teachers from experiencing penalty due to the planning of the classroom furniture, the arrangement of the bulletin boards, and finally the precise length of lesson units.

Annually, the union provides scholarship opportunities to undergraduate and graduates and around $1 million are awarded to these students according to their academic achievements and inability to finance their college expenses. In 2011, 250 high school graduates were awarded $5,000 each to gather for their higher education expenses (Haskins 116).

United Federation of Teachers has embarked to start charter schools of their own and there are some reasons why they want to begin this process. United Federation of Teachers claims that Charter schools permit teachers to innovate and experiment in approaches that are complex in common government schools. Charter schools operators are aware that their members have the privilege to create unions if they consider it important since organized and prepared teachers can produce valuable partnerships.

In the 1980s and 1990s, the lobar and civil rights which had experienced destruction and set backs during 1960s and 1970s were restructured as labor unions that came together to address the issues of quality and acceptable education for every student, standard class sizes, and provision of safety nets to families.

We will write a custom Research Paper on United Federation of Teachers and DC 37 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The United Federation of Teachers was an active follower of landmark school aid court case recorded by the Campaign for Fiscal Equity in 1993, an alliance of education activists and parents who were concerned about the welfare of their children. The legal clash resulted in a decision forcing the state to offer not less than $2 billion above the normal in educational funding to public schools around New York City (Meyer 3).

Another field of which the United Federation of Teachers has shown well-built relationship with its structured members and has achieved its goals is with the Municipal Labor committee. This committee is an affiliate alliance for government employee unions that serve as a negotiating representative for health coverage with the New York City.

In 2011, the health insurance bargained for domestic daycare providers, who are members of United Federation of Teachers, in their initial contract with the city and will soon come to action. Family care providers are expected to obtain health coverage under the UFT Family Health Plus system, this is a health coverage project funded by New York City and provided completely to providers of United Federation of Teachers under health coverage of EmblemHealth.

Other than health benefits provided through this plan, providers engaging in this program will also obtain an influential medical advocate that will be under the United Federation of Teachers. Often, bargaining the medical coverage arrangement is challenging and this is the reason the union is regularly examining the UFT Health Care Plus plan keenly are prepared and accessible always to support every member in it who considers that he has not received or his rights are limited (Wright 4).

The benefits provided through this program are wide-ranging containing dental and inpatient hospital, specialty, and primary care, together with prescription medicine insurance to their members who need these services.

Remarkably, and regardless of the direct allocating of $700 million to decrease class size and significant projects of the community by United Federation of Teachers and its new alliance parties, the sizes of classes in the government schools in the city really improved in the years after obtaining this sum of money. Incensed, the union filed a case against the New York City DOE for not utilizing the funds allocated by the state to decrease the class sizes (Meyer 3).

The UFT applied the court case to inform the people, especially the parents, about the inability of City Administration to utilize taxpayers’ monies appropriately. The initial rulings in the lawsuit, during the mid 2010, were showing positive potentials.

The first achievement of UFT was in 1969 when they successfully won the privilege to represent around 11,000 government school paraprofessionals in the state of New York. Even though different AFT (America Federation of Teachers) locals had served as the voice of most librarians, school nurses, and other members of education structure, the United Federation of Teachers election officially inaugurated the first main growth into non-teaching staff (Wright 4).

Not sure if you can write a paper on United Federation of Teachers and DC 37 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More DC 37 Launched in 1944, District council 37 (DC 37) has expanded from union of not more than a thousand members in the state’s health care, business, and parks to the national biggest union of government workers, with above 130, 000 employees participating in state’s cultural and agencies organizations.

In 2005, the officials of DC 37 wrote to the mayor addressing the challenges that the members of DC 37 are undergoing. Working jointly with the mayor, and some banks, DC 37 generated the MEHP, the earliest and the greatest widespread labor-sponsored reasonable priced housing projects among all other states. With the help of DC 37, the members received mortgage and the union housing plans provided comprehensive services, which includes mortgages, development loans, and other services for the city employees who are experiencing shortage of housing.

The members of the union can qualify for the funds and mortgage support to buy co-ops, second home within the city, and even condos. In November 2010, DC 37 started contract bargains with the New York City for a new economic accord and has examined the budget of the city and revealed the intensive contracting-out misuse and corruption. For instance CityTime, along with the policy of the city, did not intentionally receive particular taxes and charges to which it is warranted.

Some of the major important activities executed by DC 37 in 1980s were in the area of rights of women. In early 1980s, the court ruled that the New York City Employee Retirement System might no longer locate specific points for gender for pension compensations and donations, and this disagreement had taken a decade to be decided. Women municipal employees who had been ordered to pay more due to their anticipated permanence were repaid some of their earlier pension donations.

Another success of rights of women appeared also in mid 1980s with a case presented by DC 37 opposing the lower wages of mostly women 911 workers in the Police Department as matched up to the raised wages of men’s Fire Department workers executing comparable tusk. This successful case filed by DC 37 simplified the process of paying workers and presented equal pay for both men and women executing comparable tusk, even when the titles of their job are different.

DC 37 contributed a major role in this movement and led the first demonstration in the country due to the pay equality matters; along with a successful court case in opposition to the Washington state who had won a case to pay women low wages in their titles, but this was overruled after an appeal. Employers were forced to include gender pay equity in their new contracts and this success was mainly contributed by DC 37 (Budd and McCall 479).

DC 37 continued to fight for the benefits of members that included raised protection for temporary employees, pension for workers on part-time basis, and policies directing admission of on-the-job protection risks to employees.

The union went extra mile to celebrate Black History Month and acknowledged different ethnic cultures, and created a Disability Advisory Committees to address the issues of disability within and outside the union. In 1985, they participated in activities related to Women’s History Month and were engaged in national position in agreement to gay rights.

Disadvantages and Challenges The drawback of being a member of United Federation of Teachers union and DC 37 is that the members have limited expressions in processes of educational institutions they work in and the procedures of teaching they intend to execute. They also have to contribute some money to sustain the union.

Teachers’ unions available in America, especially United Federation of Teachers, are most influential and well structured in issues related to education policies and politics. However, they take advantage of their powerful position to block reforms required to advance the country’s education system through placing their emphasis on teachers instead of focusing on the children or students. Unions, sometimes, are blockages to school selection and other important policies.

In all the issues that unions, such as DC 37 and American Federation of Teachers, express about students, their concerns are more to their adults and dues-paying constituencies. Teachers’ unions have been seen as big businesses handling huge finances with real political powers. United Federation of Teachers, DC 37 and other unions in the country have been greatly contributing to political campaigns and using most of their funds to support the contenders who think they will support them later.

DC 37 experienced various challenges at the end of 1990s, when surveys by Manhattan District Attorney exposed different cases of fraud within the council and its members. Particularly, very serious cases were disclosures in 1998 that top-most officials of the union had fixed an endorsement vote on the contentious 1996 contract that contained payment freezes for the opening two years. This led to restructuring of the top officials of the union after some members revealed that they were involved in the corruption case (Cannato 572).

DC 37 experienced some significant challenges in 1970s as most cities were facing huge fiscal crisis, where public employees underwent decrease in benefits, wage freezes, and work termination. Regardless of these demanding periods, the council, however, was successful to go beyond the 100,000 membership mark in 1975.

All through history, DC 37 has dynamically held social movement unionism through connecting its efforts for better pay and benefits to other matters related with political economy and social issues. DC 37, represented by some delegation, participated in various other strikes in opposition to segregation and inequality, the council and its partners demonstrated also in opposition to the Vietnam War.

Effect on Productivity and Performance in Schools Haskins (116) did research on the connection between teachers’ unions and education systems. The research concluded that teachers’ unions hamper the productivity through raising the institution inputs as they reduce the performance of the students. The existence of unions of teachers and other unions in employment sectors are likely to raise school funds and that the raised finances are dedicated to superior standard wages and reduce class sizes.

Actually, the raised salaries for teachers may not raise the performance of students and quality of education. The Unions should address also the issue of performance and quality of education to portray their quality representation to both the teachers and students. Some have argued that teachers’ unions take reform control away from management, students and parents, together with exploiting the city’s resources as they only address the issues experienced by teachers.

Conclusion Unions in the United States have reported significant achievements since they were established in 1950s through addressing the issues affecting teachers and other members, such as nurses and home care providers. From above discussion, we can conclude by stating that unions, such as United Federation of Teachers and DC 37, have played a significant role in resolving some issues that were traditionally experienced by employees in their workplaces, including benefits, wage increase, reduction of class sizes, and other school-related issues.

There are various disadvantages faced by employees who are members of these unions. Their members have limited expressions in development in their educational institutions and the way they should teach in schools. They also contribute huge sum of money to maintain or finance the activities of these unions that they are later contributed to various political parties.

Works Cited Budd, John and Brian McCall. “The Effect of Unions on the Receipt of Unemployment Insurance Benefits.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 50 (2007): 477-491.

Cannato, Vincent. The Ungovernable City. New York: Basic Books, 2002. Print.

Haskins, Justin Trask. Saving America: From Global Warming to Immigration. New York: Lulu, 2007. Print.

Meyer, Heinz-Dieter. “Trade, Profession or Entrepreneurs? The Market Faithful Raise Important Questions about the Future of Teacher Unions.” American Journal of Education 112 (2005): 1-7. Print.

Moe, Terry. Special Interest: Teachers Unions and America’s Public Schools. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2011. Print.

Wright, Carol. “Unions and Teachers: Differences in the State of the Nation.” ALSB Journal of Employment and Labor Law 10.2 (2001): 1-12. Print.

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An Effective Manager Needs To Be an Effective Leader Essay college essay help

In a formal setting of an organisation, managers oversee the execution of duties by other people in the organisation. The theory of management is arguable among experts. There are several theories on how to become an effective manager in an organisation.

The classical theory advocates the perspective that there is a single way to run an organisation. According to this theory, a manager either has to be a strict manager in the organisation, or has to adopt leadership as a means of guiding the organisation to its success.

The use of strict and coercive management tactics is supported by the theories regarding management styles. Two antagonistic theories analyse the concept of work, and help identify the two major styles of steering an organisation to success. One theory supposes that work is unpleasant for any individual.

This means that an individual will only work due to the necessity to fulfil personal needs, and that majority of individuals are not self-motivated enough to take on their tasks without coercion. Due to this theory, some experts maintain that strict management practices are always necessary to realise performance in any organisation (McGregor, 1960).

Another theory postulates that work is a natural phenomenon and that in the right environment humans can be motivated to work towards organisational goals without any form of coercion. This theory advocates that for people to work towards the organisational goals, they just need a leader to instil a sense of direction in them.

In that case, the leader does not provide the motivation directly, but creates a vision for the subjects he or she is leading (McGregor, 1960). In “The theory of social and economic organization”, Weber and parsons say that the organisation must gain the trust of the workers for in to get maximum output from the labour force (Weber

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The International Federation of Football Association Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Introduction The world has undergone various transformations that have made it easier for people from various regions of the world to meet and share many aspects of their cultures. Modernization has forced almost all countries in the world to share common beliefs and practices that identify them as one block.

The use of modern technology in communication and other aspects of human life have made it mandatory for people from different countries to adopt similar practices to enhance their interactions and boost relations among nations of the world. This has led to the formation of international bodies that oversee interactions in various fields are carried out with minimal barriers.

These bodies have been set up to ensure all member countries enjoy same benefits without oppressing others on grounds of their levels of development. One of these organizations is the International Federation of Football Association commonly known as FIFA. This research paper explores the structures, membership, functions and benefits of this association to member countries and individuals.

FIFA is an international association that governs all the sporting activities that involve football and soccer played on the beach by men and women. Many countries in the world are members of this association. It is estimated that two hundred and eight nations are registered members. The headquarters of this association is found in Switzerland and is headed by Sepp Blatter (Elvis 2010) who is considered the president of this association.

This association is responsible for coordinating and organizing various tournaments including the World Cup and continental tournaments which are events known world wide and command majority of the population as fans. It is believed to have begun in the twentieth century when there was great need to have one institution to handle and coordinate football matches that were gaining popularity all over the world.

Therefore, in 1904 this association was formed by four countries including France, Denmark, Belgium and the Netherlands with its structure run and managed by the FIFA congress which is in charge of forming rules and regulations governing world football and the operations of FIFA. These members have their meetings annually but they may also have some emergency sessions when need arises (Tumlin 2006).

It has a wide international organizational structure that consists of other sections that are supervised by the supreme organ. In addition, FIFA has six components that oversee the progress of football activities in all continents and act as a link between FIFA and other nations of the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, FIFA has a total of three hundred and thirty seven active football teams of which one hundred and twenty nine are women’s teams while two hundred and eight are men’s teams from various regions of the world. FIFA plays a major role in promoting football in all parts of the world through awarding nationals and individuals with various prestigious gifts and recognitions.

Through these awards nationals as well as individuals are motivated to do their best as far as playing football is concerned. It also plays a vital role in ensuring that national teams are managed properly and that governments do not interfere with the running of its grass root organs and also suspends teams in cases where these organizations failed to do their work.

FIFA plays an important role in ensuring that referees, players and coaches exercise the highest levels of discipline. FIFA being a world association means that it requires huge amount of money to run its activities effectively throughout the world.

Therefore, it seeks assistance from multinational companies in order to boost its financial position for effective running of internal and external operations. Many companies have offered to partner with FIFA in the process of providing essential football services to office holders, referees, coaches, players and football fans.

They include; Coca-Cola Company that deals with soft drinks, the Adidas Company that specializes in sports wear, the Emirates Company that deals with air transport, Hyundai-Kia Motors that deals with the manufacture of automobiles, the Sony Company that deals with electronics and the Visa Company that deals with funds transfer services. These companies provide essential services like sponsoring teams to international and local matches, construction of stadiums and sponsoring players to other teams.

FIFA provides its members with immense benefits ranging from the advantages a country gets by being a member of FIFA to individual benefits gained by players. Nations affiliated to FIFA have good football teams since the association oversees their management and running of their programs.

It ensures that national teams are accorded all the necessary material and financial support in order to meet the international standards outlined by FIFA. The existence of stiff penalties to member states that do not follow the stipulated laws acts as guidelines as to how football activities should be conducted.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The International Federation of Football Association specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also plays an important role of ensuring that all football players get the benefits they are entitled to and at the same time uphold the highest standards of morality (Menary 2007). FIFA plays an important role in ensuring that the standards of football are improved world wide. It is a unique association due to the fact that it operates on the principle of hard work and transparency.

It is an international association that strives to bring equality among states by offering equal opportunities for them to showcase their talents through competitive fixtures. It is a non political association whose main aim is to improve the standards of football in all regions of the world without overemphasizing on profit making.

Even though it offers avenues for countries to compete these competitions are vital in promoting regional and international relations among people from different backgrounds. FIFA contributes immensely to the development of economies in almost all regions of the world. The most common way of promoting economies is through organizing matches where millions of fans pay to watch live matches played in stadiums or through millions of televisions in their homes and movie theatres.

All these fans have to pay for tickets that permit them to enter the stadiums or cinema halls to watch football matches. Hundreds of thousands of people earn their living through direct or indirect contact with football. Football players are among the best paid in the world making football a highly ranked profession. Millions of traders deal with sports items like boots, kits and balls from different manufactures and this helps in reducing the problem of unemployment.

In addition, many countries of the world where major football events are held benefit greatly through construction and renovation of infrastructure to be used when competitions are about to start. South Africa is one of the countries that benefited from the 2010 World Cup competitions that were held in a number of its cities. It is estimated that she got a 30% infrastructure boost from the many stadiums and roads that were constructed and renovated prior to the commencement of the competition.

Therefore, it plays a great role in developing Saudi Arabia due to the possibilities of offering jobs to thousands of people who trade in sports gears. It also promotes cultural exchange between citizens of Saudi Arabia and those from other regions of the world.

This means that there will be open spaces for foreign investors in the near future as there will be high prospects of international tournaments being held there. In addition, Saudi Arabia is developing its road, air and railway transport system that is aimed at providing reliable transport services to its citizens and foreigners.

The main programs offered by FIFA include training current and upcoming players as well as coaches and referees in order to improve football standards in Saudi Arabia. Attraction of World Cup to Saudi Arabia takes two approaches that are necessary in shaping the world’s perception regarding this country.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The International Federation of Football Association by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The first approach is through peace promotion that will aim at portraying citizens as friendly and social to strangers unlike the past that has been tainted with perceptions of war and unending conflicts. The second approach is promoting football popularity through boosting the performance of the national team to be recognized among the best performing teams in the world.

The government should also be encouraged to invest in football in order to boost the morale of football players, coaches and fans. FIFA can play an important role in promoting any upcoming business through advertising it during matches that are aired in millions of televisions world wide. It can also promote a business through advertising it in billboards and posters located in major highways and in stadiums that host major sporting events.

The major strengths that are accredited to FIFA include their ability to influence governments to promote local football teams and this encourages career developments (Mason and Pierre 2005). It controls the running of its affiliated organs and encourages transparency in affairs that involve players, coaches and countries (FIFA 2007). Discipline among football coaches and players have improved due to the presence of stiff penalties for those who break football rules.

However, cases of corruption abound in the management of the association and this discredits its value. In addition, election malpractices have been reported in many instances and this threatens fairness in the running of their programs. The association has failed to control internal wrangles in many of its affiliate associations therefore making football teams from these countries perform below their abilities.

This association has also failed to create a balance between all teams of the world resulting to great rifts between well paying teams and poorly organized teams. Lastly, the association has been linked with application of double standards as far as sanctions and other disciplinary measures are concerned making some members to feel neglected and discriminated against.

Conclusion FIFA is an association that has brought justice and sanity to football in almost all regions of the world. It enhances interactions among individuals and states that in turn promotes peace in the world. Even though this association is facing challenges that threaten its effectiveness it is still ranked among the best international associations.

References Elvis, M. (2010). 2010 Fifa World Cup South Africa Official Book. New York: Carlton Books.

FIFA. (2007). Official Rules of Soccer. New York: Triumph Books.

Mason, T, and Lanfanchi Pierre. (2005). 100 Years of Football: The Fifa Centennial Book. New York: WN Publishers.

Menary, S. (2007). Outcasts: The Lands that FIFA Forgot. Kansas: Pitch Publishing.

Tumlin, R. (2006). FIFA Levies and the Collection of Judgments in Georgia. New York: AuthorHouse.

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Exchange Rate Market Report college admission essay help

Executive summary Our corporate J was a large financial company in Australian doing foreign exchange business. For doing the gambling business we need to change money to US dollar and EURO. We started trading with an amount equivalent to $400 AUD. This was to be used in purchasing and thereafter selling of foreign currencies in accordance to the fluctuating rates and tap the difference to earn profit from it.

This led to an in depth analysis on the currencies we were to trade in and the economic implications to these given currencies that might lead to the fluctuating prices. We analyzed among other factors Exchange rate expectations, International speculation and investment, Commodity prices, Relative interest rates and Purchasing power parity and Relative inflation rates.

These factors were to influence our trade in the currencies. We invested the amount and traded as we thought best but ended up making a loss of $1,025,444. The net loss was due to some wrong decisions that were arrived at after an analysis of the above mentioned factors. (Barro 2008)

Introduction Jupiters corporate j objectives

The objective is to figure out how to raise EUR 480m in addition to raising USD 200m for purchase of gaming equipment. This is only possible if we make right investment for purposes of future profits for the company. Analysis of the movement in the market was very critical before the market opened in order to come up with a trading strategy to make profits and knowing the right time to sell. (Blanchard 2008)

Market view

The inflation rate at this time is not very high and the purchasing power parity was generally average. However, the demand for the Great Britain pounds fell to a very low point (Mankiw 2006). This was due to the inflation experience in this Great Britain. The spot rate we were dealing with indicated an exchange rate of about 1.6130.

The selling and buying influenced the price leading to slight fluctuations depending on the commodity currency that the exchange rate would be conducted in. Generally, the prices of GBP reduced and were selling at a lower rate. The USD on the other hand performed better, while we started at $0 we ended up with $207,638,640. This is because of the high demand of the currency both as a commodity and terms currency.

It may be used to indicate that the American economy was doing well with the purchasing power at stable position. A similar scenario was reflected at the Euro, the demand for the currency was high and this lead to a high price giving us a good profit margin. Having started at £0, we ended up with $583,424,646 which is generally a good margin. A complete analysis of these transactions is provided below at the strategy employed section. (Beins 2004)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A high inflation rate in the commodity currency host country would lead to a fall for demand for the products produced in the host country leading to the lesser demand of the currency and the value of the same would fall. This lead us to taking serous considerations to the inflation rates of the commodity currency host countries in order to make informed decisions on how to trade on the same. (Mcneill 2009).

The factors that influence exchange that we considered included: Ask and Bid/offer factors

Asking for a price of a given currency from a bank influences the success or failure of the exchange rate. When one rings a bank and asks for a quotation for a given currency and the bank agrees on a given quotation, the decision to buy the given amount of currency at that rate relies on the buyer in this case us. And as such, we were at liberty to choose where and at what price we would buy the currency.

For the bid/offer factor, the bank also aims at selling at the highest price and buy at the lowest price in order to have a bigger spread since the exchange market does not have discounts (Krugman 2009)

Relative economic growth rates

An increase in the economic growth rate of the commodity currency host country would lead to a higher demand in the commodity currency and hence higher prices. For instance, if the Australian economy was to increase at a higher rate than most of the world economies, it would mean that there would be a higher demand for the AUD currency to purchase the imports since there is a higher purchasing power among the Australians.

This leaves the market with less AUD and hence an increased demand for the AUD and a limited supply leading to the shift of the prices of the currency. The economic growth rate therefore informed an important part of our decision on whether and when to sell or not.

We took a research on the economic growth rate on host countries of the currencies we were to deal with. These included the United States of America, Australia, Great Britain and the European Union. (Cohen 2007)

Purchasing power parity and Relative inflation rates

A high inflation rate in the commodity currency host country would lead to a fall for demand for the products produced in the host country leading to the lesser demand of the currency and the value of the same would fall. This lead us to taking serous considerations to the inflation rates of the commodity currency host countries in order to make informed decisions on how to trade on the same. (Mcneill 2009)

We will write a custom Report on Exchange Rate Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Relative interest rates

This is formed our biggest mistake in the factors that we considered affecting the exchange rates. We assumed that a higher nominal rate would translate to higher investments into the country and therefore a rise in demand of the country’s currency value this should in turn lead to a rise in the value of the currency in question. However, the real situation is not as we thought. We ignored the fact that a country with a high interest rate would also have a higher inflation rate (Cohen 2007).

Australia cut the interest rate from 4.25 to 3.75. Once the interest rate decreased, the expert return is getting lower so that the demand of AUD is getting lower. This is because of the reasonable assumption that the real interest between countries is constant. The increase of nominal interest rate of Britain from 7.5% to 9% which attracted our interest and lead to believe that real interest had arisen.

But we ignored that inflation rate had risen from 4.5% to 6.2%. This meant that the inflation rate had really hampered the real interest rate which had reduced by 0.2%. It reasonable since if this were not the case, capital would flow to the country with high interest rates until the interest rates are constant in the world.

It is however important to realize that nominal rate is different from real interest rate. Since normal interest rates do not take into consideration the inflation rate in the given country’s when coming up with up with the rates while real interest rates do. i.e.

Real interest rate=Nominal interest-inflation rate

As such, considering only the nominal interest rate of a country and making trading conclusions about of it is dangerous. In our analysis of the various countries and their interest rates, we only considered the nominal interest rate and did not calculate the real interest which we were to consider in making decisions on the trade. (Mankiw 2006)

Commodity prices

An international change in the prices of a commodity would lead to a change in the demand of that commodity. If this commodity is an export of the given country, due to a higher inflation in that country, the prices of that commodity will rise in the international market which will eventually lead to a reduction in the demand for that commodity and as such reduce the demand for the commodity currency of the given host country. A reduction in the demand for the currency will also lead to a reduction in the price of that currency. This is a factor that we took into consideration while conducting our analysis. (Arnold 2010)

International speculation and investment

Global speculation influences the price of currencies as investments drive it. For instance, speculation on the default of the US economy has lead to the preference of the Australia as an alternative investment destination. This leads to a rise in the demand of the AUD and therefore a rise in the price of the currency. In however leads to a reduction in the price of USD as investors shift their focus to more friendly economies. (Krugman 2009)

Exchange rate expectations

Another very important factor we took into consideration was the exchange rate expectation. This has been known to influence the market a great deal. When investors expect the price of the currency to fall, they will sell the currency to avoid making loss of selling the currency later. This will increase the supply of the currency in the exchange market and hence reducing the price of the currency. The reverse is also true. (Barro 2008)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Exchange Rate Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Trading strategy and performance analysis

Opening Position Open Pos in AUD Net Trades Current Pos Curr Pos In AUD Change AUD $143,097,090 $143,097,090 -$140,636,019 $2,461,072 $2,461,072 -$140,636,019 USD $0 $0 $208,926,000 $208,926,000 $207,638,640 $207,638,640 EUR $0 $0 $454,312,772 $454,312,772 $583,424,646 $583,424,646 GBP $425,000,000 $681,417,348 -$406,299,070 $18,700,930 $29,964,637 -$651,452,711 JPY $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Trading strategy

The following are the trading strategy we employed when trading in each of the currency traded. The factors considered and guided the trade are the speculation that was surrounding each of the currency, the economic situation of the commodity currency’s economy, interest rates economic growth rates and commodity prices in the given countries (Mcneill 2009). We embarked on the activity of getting to know who our sellers were and analyzing their offers against others.

We would also target the lowest offer by the banks and the RBA on the average prices of the currencies and identify the lowest bidders from which we would then buy from. Getting the lowest bidder in the market demands a very good knowledge on the sellers and their prices. Being the price takers, we would have to wait for the price of the currencies to be fixed and then identify who was selling at the lowest price. (Cohen 2007)

Performance Analysis As a corporate, a price taker, we started with a good attitude from the market. Most of our clients were from our gambling games recommended us to other people, cooperate and banks. We went therefore to buy at the lowest prices offered price by the bank since we are a price taker and sell at the highest of prices to our clients.

We had a team of two people (Arnold 2010), one of us would be engaged in looking for buyers that we would sell the currencies to while the other would focus on looking for the lowest bidders to whom we would sell the currencies. The first thing we had to do was to analyze the factors that shape the prices of the currencies and speculate on most likely prices of the currencies.

We would then call banks and take the lowest prices they offered to us since we are a price taker. At the instance, the prices for the currencies exchange rates were standing at USD=1.0682 EUR= 0.8016 GBP= 1.6130. The USD increased to 1.1202 and the EUR was selling at 1.2101. This helped us gain profit as we called banks and they were really interested in buying at our price of 1.10 for the EUR and 1.0 for the USD.

We sold a considerable amount of the currencies and gained a total of about $791,063, 286. This boosted our earnings and motivated our trade. Due to the hype, we started selling the GBP even though their prices had fallen to 0.999. This was because of the increase of nominal interest rates of Britain from 7.5% to 9% which attracted our interest and lead to believe that real interest had arisen. But we ignored that inflation rate had risen from 4.5% to 6.2%.

This meant that the inflation rate had really hampered the real interest rate which had reduced by 0.2%. We speculated that their prices would go down further due to the rising inflation in Britain. We had to sell all of them at a loss of about 0.614 leading to a loss of -$651,452,711.

The next day it turned out that we were right as the prices of the GBP went on declining. We however learnt that before buying any of the currencies, it is important to keep sober and analyze all factors that might shape the shift of the prices in the future (Krugman 2009).

Lessons and Possible Improvements

The float of exchange rates are influenced by inflation rates a big deal. When inflation rate rises, prices of the commodities from the commodity currency country rise above the normal price prompting buyers of these commodities to shift and purchase such commodities from other competing countries which in turn reduces the demand for the currency. A reduction on the demand of the currency means a reduction in the price of that currency.

As such, we learnt that inflation is an integral part of that determines the prices of currency and should therefore be carefully considered. The demand and supply of the currency in the exchange market also shapes the price. When the RBA reduces supply of USD for instance in the market, the prices of the USD will rise due to the forces of demand and supply.

Forces of supply and demand are determined by the supply and demand of the same by the RBA. The RBA comes in as a player to regulate the prices of the currencies depending on the current rates. High exchange rates might lead to inflation in the country and therefore to protect the economy, the RBA comes in to buy or sell currencies in order to stabilize the prices (Barro 2008)

We learnt that it when trading nothing should be taken for granted and that every factor should be considered into the finest of details. One should not assume that member states of given unions have an identical economy to the union itself, e.g. one should never assume that the economy of Britain is performing similarly to the European Union economy simply because Britain is an active member of the union.

When considering the nominal rates, one should always subtract the inflation rate and remain with the real interest rate on which one should make their decision. The real interest rate should be the basis on which decisions are anchored (Blanchard 2008).

Conclusion Even though we made good trades in most of the currencies we traded in, we made a mistake and placed a risk where we shouldn’t have leading to the loss we had. The Great Britain Pounds made us have a huge loss that could not be compensated by the profits we made from trading in the American Dollar, AUD and the Euro. (Trochim 2006)

References Arnold, A 2010, Macroeconomics, Cengage Learning, Chicago.

Barro, R. J 2008, Macroeconomics: A Modern Approach, Cengage Learning, Chicago.

Beins, B 2004, Research Methods: a tool for life, Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, Michigan.

Blanchard, O 2008, Macroeconomics, Pearson Hall, Carlifonia.

Cohen, L 2007, Research Methods in Education, Routledge, Washington D.C.

Krugman, R. W 2009, Macroeconomics, Worth Publishers, New York.

Mankiw, G 2006, Macroeconomics, W H Freeman-Usa, New York.

Mcneill, P 2009, Research Methods: Third Edition. Cengage Learning, Chicago.

Trochim, W 2006, Research Methods Knowledge Base, Cengage, Chicago.

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Promotional Program at Skyways International Airlines Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Skyways International Airlines had registered a net loss over the past three years. This prompted the company’s chief marketing executive, Eric Hale, to act on a program that would reverse the situation. This move by Skyways was intended to bring about expansion through increasing international flights to the South Pacific routes as Australia, New Zealand and also domestically within the United States.

Although the South Pacific route operated on a net loss, the management of Skyways was hesitant in terminating its operations along this route. Their argument was supported by current substantial cash flow from the South Pacific which was much needed for sustaining the company’s business position.

This was the driving force behind realization of the airliners’ marginal costs. Growth prospects especially from New Zealand and Australia due to Olympic Games scheduled for 2000 in Sydney was, according to Hale, an opportunity for making profits.

Competition was however, seen from other airline service providers plying same South Pacific routes. Among key players in the industry were United Airlines, Qantas and the third competitor was Air New Zealand. These competitors relatively found market favour due to their superior machinery and travelling programs.

Having both direct and indirect flights to the South Pacific cities of Sydney, Auckland and other feeder cities within the region was a major boost for them. There was more comfort for passengers using the Boeing 747-400 aircraft, a more superior plane series offered by Skyways’ competitor companies. This meant that customer preference was favouring the competitors to the disadvantage of Skyways.

An advantage that Skyways enjoyed over the three competitors was back in its domestic setting, within the United States. It was a result of better network for feeder flights which linked to Los Angeles as a collection point before setting for the South Pacific regions.

Skyways initially had no direct flight from Los Angeles to Sydney or Auckland but with the introduction of McDonnell-Douglas aircrafts, this achievement was made possible. The improvement started its operation four years ago and this meant that planes would not have to take a break at Honolulu for refuelling.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to prepare an appropriate promotional program for Skyways, Eric Bale had to sample some of the company’s research findings on marketing studies. From these reviews, he fund out that the company commanded 15% market share for flights from the United States to South Pacific cities. Further in-depth analysis showed that the flights were at peak during the season of Northern Hemisphere winters with the majority of passengers being rich couples travelling for pleasure.

Determinants of this transport activity were air ticket price, travelling schedule, place or intended destination and nature of travel agents. 1990s was a bad time for Skyways as well as other airline operators due to frequent flight deregulations, low traffic, Asian depression and exorbitant costs.

An incentive by Skyways to reduce its fares was matched with an immediate response by competitors forcing Eric Bale to formulate an effective promotional program. Describing South Pacific region as a growing market important for the future of Skyways, Bale believed in a special promotional approach.

This evoked mixed reactions from company executives with others suggesting the improvement of service delivery to attract more customers. Comprehensive promotional program proposals for the coming year were to be presented by Eric Bale to the company’s president within two weeks.

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Strategic Planning at the Multistate Health Corporation Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The Multistate Health Corporation religiously directed to provide health services to the unprivileged in society. Its headquarters located in Michigan; it owns four secondary establishments and thirty hospitals located in seventeen states, with more than 10000 employees.

The Multistate Health Corporation centers on providing health care to the less privileged in society. The Multistate Health Corporation hospitals denoted as divisions, and each division has a Chief executive officer who reports directly to regional executive vice president (Blanchard

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Concept of Millennial Generation Research Paper argumentative essay help

Generation y, also referred to as the Millennial Generation, Echo Boomers or Net Generation describes the demographic group succeeding generation x (Hira 1). The date of the start and end of this generation has been a matter of speculation with some suggesting that its birth occurred between the mid 1970s and the late 1980s. Some individuals argue that the generation comprises of individuals born in the early 21st century (Hira 1).

In all definitions, the term Net Generation is specifically used to refer to the age group of individuals born between 1983 and 1988. It is argued that a child born in the early 1980s was mature enough to father an offspring before the beginning of the millennium (Hira 1). Within this period, it is quoted that the US Census Bureau referred to this generation as Echo Boomers since it brought along a drastic increase in the birth rates from the early 1980s to the late 1990s (Hira 1).

The generation y attributes varied based on the region, economic and communal conditions. However, one autonomous attribute concerning this generation is the extensive use and familiarity with modern technologies, media, and communications. In the political arena, the generation witnessed an increase in neoliberal advancements.

A Similar approach was also realized in the economic sectors although their effects on the environment are unclear. Overtime, there has been a great deal of facts and misinformation in the media regarding generation y with newspapers, journals and books focusing more on the generation than any other generation.

Background of generation Y In the media fraternity, the tem generation y initially appeared during the onset of the early 1990s (Maxwell 1). The term was a succeeding term to generation x. Generation x specifically comprises of individuals born between the early 1960s and the late 1970s.

This generation can be said to have witnessed the cold war and contributed to the rise of technology and the internet (Maxwell 1). The end of generation x in the late 1970s paved way for generation y that comprises of more than half of the world’s population currently. This generation is considered to be in the youthful stage of life.

Characteristics of generation y In an attempt to define generation y, the media has come up with several attributes distinguishing the generation from other generations. Currently, the bulk of the generation y individuals are in their 20s. They are just joining the workforce (Kane 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With a population of up to 70 million, they are the fastest growing group in any organization’s workforce. As companies and Industries compete for the available talent, employers cannot ignore the generation’s needs and talents. The generation’s characteristics are distinct from other generations in a number of ways (Kane 1).

Tech-savvy

Generation y can be considered tech-savvy as its members grew up in an era of new technologies. The group heavily relies on technology to perform daily tasks (Kane 1). Armed with sophisticated gadgets, phones and laptops, the generation is considered as best suited to tackle the current tech-savvy issues in the workplace (Kane 1). Another major attribute of this generation is its form and means of communication.

Unlike generation x, which preferred face-face communication, the group fancies e-mail and text –messaging (Kane 1). Online technologies such as online learning, marketing and telecommuting techniques are more preferred by the group as compared to generation x. Similarly, generation y professionals are able to operate with flexible work schedules, work better and receive huge earnings from their fewer billable hours (Kane 1).

In my opinion, the media’s description of the group is valid as market research indicates that most buyers of modern electronics and technologies are the persons between the ages of 20 and 30 years. This age group comprises of the generation y individuals (Kane 1).

Achievement oriented

As the media asserts, generation y parents can be considered as individuals who never compromise on the previous generation’s mistakes while bringing up their children (Kane 1). Thus, the generation can be considered as confident, determined and goal-oriented unlike generation x. In the workforce, the generation has high expectations, confront new challenges, and act and ask questions with authority.

Unlike generation x, individuals belonging to generation y are known to have changed workplaces more often (Kane 1). However, in my opinion I disagree with the media views describing the generation as more goal oriented. In the contemporary society, generation x members can be considered to be more focused on their achievements than generation y. Thus, the media’s perception is not entirely through on this generation.

Team-oriented

The media suggests that generation y spent its early years preoccupied with team sports and numerous group activities. In this regard, individuals in this group have grown up to become people who value cooperation in their daily activities. Unlike other past generations, the generation can be considered more loyal, committed and team oriented (Kane 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Concept of Millennial Generation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In my view, the media’s attributes on generation y regarding cooperation and teamwork is true. Evidenced by the continuous involvement of the generation in team buildings and social networking, the group can be considered more team-oriented than any other generation.

Diversity

Children belonging to generation y have experienced a more diverse society than any other generation. The society has increased its multicultural values altering the traditional family believes and values. As a result, the generation and their families have witness several sexual alignments in the society. In the early 1980s, at the birth of the generation, homophobia was rampant in the American society (Kane 1).

On the contrary, today’s society is less opposed to the homosexual behaviors. This is because of the increased number of less conservative and diverse generation y individuals in the society. Researchers have noted that the greatest achievement brought about by this generation in the American society is the diversification of American cultures (Kane 1).

The generation has overturned the older generations’ believes as it has redefined its own cultural styles, permissions and linguistics. In its lifestyles behaviors, the generation has appeared to be more tolerant to cohabitation, single parenting and comprehensive families unlike generation x. Similarly, in the political arena, generation y has proved to be more democratic and liberal than the past generations (Hira 1).

To hold up to the media’s views, I do think the generation diversity is undoubted. This is true because the generation’s lifestyle is unique and assorted unlike any other generation indicating its diversity.

Social evolution for generation y Generation y individuals are responsible for the global evolution and spread of information technology (Ponce 1). With the drastic social media evolution, technology has become part of the daily activities. Businesses and other related workforce have undergone a major restructuring in order to position themselves at the competitive edge (Ponce 1).

In the workforce, generation y has facilitated communication and networking through mediums like Facebook, Twitter and other social channels of communication. Challenging the use of the old means of communication, and appreciating and accepting the generation’s technologies, ideas, and concepts will significantly enhance companies’ workforce (Ponce 1).

Currently, companies that have adopted the generation’s social tools and concepts have a greater chance of gaining new knowledge, enhance teamwork, save time, communicate, and overcome information gaps (Ponce 1). The generation’s attitude coupled with its creativity and ambitiousness has revolutionized the workplace. Therefore, I consider the media’s analysis on the contribution of this group to be valid.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Millennial Generation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly, in my view, through the evolution of the social media instigated by generation y, business ventures have had improved productivity coupled with efficient workforce. As seen from the human resource shift to social media as a tool for recruiting generation y workers, the social media is a successful and innovative product of this generation (“Interview Questions” 1.)

Conclusion In my opinion, the media’s definition of generation y is appropriate. This is because the media’s method of specifically distinguishing this generation from other generations is fully substantiated (Joella 1). Thus, one can easily identify and distinguish a generation y individual from other generations.

Due to its current immense contribution in various sectors ranging from economic to technological sectors, the group’s contribution is undoubted. Thus, it is appropriate for companies and business ventures to allow the generation y labor force into their premises if they want to remain viable and increase productivity in the current market system.

Works Cited Joella, Annabelle. “English Investigative Journalism: Newspaper Articles: Gen Y more gracious than Gen X: Survey AND More giving to charity from the grave.” English Investigative Journalism. Version 1. no publisher, 2012. Web.

Hira, Nadira A. “Generation Y – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. wikipedia. Web.

“Interview Questions

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Financial Challenges in Companies Expository Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review

Conclusion

References

Introduction Though managing an organisation involves long-term thinking and careful consideration of the organisational dynamics, many corporations cannot handle untimely alterations of the business environment. This is because the global monetary crisis comes at an unprecedented time, making it difficult for some organisations to put their operations in a manner that helps them cope with such financial challenges.

Despite the reality that financial challenges have hit global business operations in one way or the other, and at different times, the horizon at which the companies operate has not been so proactive (Gustavo, Michaely

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Income Inequality in Marxism, Structuralism, Neoliberalism, and Dependency Theory Essay college essay help

Table of Contents The Institutionalisation of Inequality in the Context of Marxism

Structuralism and the Aspects of Economy

Dependency Theory and the Factor of the Economic Inequality

Neoliberalism as the New Approach to the Economic Inequality

Reference List

Footnotes

The peculiar features of every country’s development should be discussed from the point of the character of the economic relations within the country and from the point of the country’s position within the global economic environment. Thus, one of the main criteria according to which it is possible to analyze international relations theories in their connection with the sphere of economy is the notion of income inequality.

Such theories as Marxism, Structuralism, Neoliberalism, and Dependency Theory discuss the notion of economic inequality according to their specific concepts which differ from each other and have a lot of variations. That is why inequality in the sphere of economy is a multidimensional concept which can be analyzed in various contexts with references to different international relations theories.

The Institutionalisation of Inequality in the Context of Marxism Examining the economic inequality as the main criterion to determine the major aspects of Marxism, it is important to pay attention to the fact that in the case of Marxism the inequality is discussed at the country’s level. The distribution of the necessary means among the population in the Marxist’s society is based on the individuals’ needs1.

This principle of distribution makes people be rather equal in their economic status within the society. However, the opposite approach to the distribution of means is the base of the Capitalist’s society where class relations function. Thus, the economic inequality is the main condition for the development of the class relations. The ideas of Marxists were further developed by Structuralists with determining the additional categories.

Structuralism and the Aspects of Economy Basing on the Marxist’s ideas on the class relations as the key factor of the domestic economic development, Structuralists focus on the global economic progress and make accents on the position of the country within the world context. From this point, the world is divided into the developed and developing countries, and there are definite relations of dependency among them which are connected with the issue of class relations2.

The developed countries have the fundament of their economic progress in following the principles of capitalism which is based on the economic inequality of classes and individuals. The income inequality as the economic injustice is the main characteristic feature of the Capitalistic society.

The distribution of the world resources between the developed and developing countries is unequal and contributes to the progress of the economic polarization within the global market. That is why it is possible to state that according to the principles of Structuralism the world relations are based on the rather unjust rules provided by the Capitalistic countries which impose the relations of inequality at the global arena. Such relations provoke the dependency of the developing countries on the economic state of the developed countries. This aspect becomes the key one for working out the Dependency Theory.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dependency Theory and the Factor of the Economic Inequality Dependency Theory operates the notion of the economic inequality at the world level and discusses it as the global inequality which is realized in the unequal relations between the developed and developing countries3. According to the Dependency Theory, it is almost impossible to speak about the notion of justice in the relations between the classes within states and between the definite countries because there are always dominant countries and the dependent ones.

In this situation the relations of dependency are based on the fact that the developed countries are inclined to enrich their potentials using the developing countries with the high level of poverty which emphasizes the notion of global inequality4.

Neoliberalism as the New Approach to the Economic Inequality The principles of Neoliberalism are often discussed as the possible measures to restrict the level of the poverty in the developing countries5. Thus, Neoliberalism argues any governmental restrictions and barriers between the countries as the ways to limit the economic possibilities of the individuals and states6.

That is why the only way to the economic progress is the establishment of the free markets and free trade between the countries. It is the first step to the globalization when the low income of the societies of the developing countries can be explained by the fact of the existing barriers which separate these countries from the global market7.

Economic inequality is the category which determines the peculiarities of the development of the countries as an independent state and the part of the global market. In spite of the fact the notion is characteristic for all the international relations theories in connection with the sphere of economy the approaches to its discussion are rather different.

Reference List Devetak, R, J George

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