Testing In Language Teaching Analytical Essay Essay Help Online Free

Table of Contents Purpose and Objectives Factor

Content Factor

Teacher Factor

Learner Factor

Setting and Aids Factor

Conclusion

Reference List

Language testing stands for the identification of the level of a learner’s preparation to use their language skills and knowledge in real life situations and environments. Testing is an essential part of teaching a language and should not be viewed as a separate activity.

Since the result is crucial in teaching, an educator is to be able to measure the performance of the learners, their improvements, strengths and weaknesses and this is where testing is necessary. Testing and teaching can be seen as two sides of one coin (Widyantoro, 2013). The relationship between teaching and testing can be described as mutual support because neither of the two processes can exist without the other.

Test results determine whether teaching actually happened and how well the learners have processed and mastered the new knowledge and skills. Testing is a very important aspect of any foreign language teaching program that has an impact on other program components. This paper aims to demonstrate this impact and how it should be considered by test makers in designing and developing their tests.

Purpose and Objectives Factor Teaching is an activity that can be viewed as a process with only one direction – positive. This means that negative teaching does not exist simply because negative teaching is absence of teaching and knowledge acquisition by the learner. In other words, teaching as an activity implies the presence of positive results.

Testing is a part of teaching that helps to determine whether or not the results are present and whether or not they match the teacher’s expectations. This way, testing can be viewed as a marker that serves as the basis for a variety of important decisions of a teacher (Widyantoro, 2013). Test results are not only designed to help the teacher evaluate the progress of their learners, but also to evaluate their own performance.

For example, based on testing results a teacher makes decisions about the materials they employ, methods and techniques they implement, the way they interact with the learners. A large variety of tests is available to the modern teachers, tests of different types can be held during the learning process in order to address different needs of a teacher and their students.

A teacher selects particular types of tests based on the aspects they need to evaluate for the further decision-making. For example, diagnostic tests are held when a teacher needs to determine progress made by their students over a certain period of time. Tests of this type are normally performed in the end of a unit to test how well the students mastered the material.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another example is the use of placement tests which represent a category of diagnostic tests. These tests are conducted when a teacher needs to make a decision concerning the placement of the students in terms of the materials studied within a particular curriculum. The purpose of these tests is to save effort and time to both learners and educators and avoid going through the same material twice.

The choice of the types of tests conducted by an educator is determined by the learning objectives of their program and can be characterised by the outcomes an educator expects to achieve.

Learning outcomes are divided into three categories or domains – cognitive (includes intellectual skills), affective (incorporates motivation, values, attitudes, desire to participate), and psychomotor (focuses on smoothly and accurately performed motor activities) (Vinson, n. d.).

Tests covering cognitive domain are to be oriented at the evaluation of intellectual skills such as memorising, self-check, synthesis and analysis, summarising and discussion. Such tests may be held in forms of essays, summaries, presentation of personal opinions, tabulating.

Affective domain is rarely covered directly as it is rather abstract. It is tested based on the attitudes the learners show during the class, their level of involvement. Psychomotor domain in language learning can be referred to phonetics, pronunciation, writing skills testing.

Content Factor In teaching, language is viewed as a unity composed of several skills and components. The educators differentiate between such language skills as reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The language components are its structure, vocabulary, and sound. Language skills are built of language components.

For example, reading and writing skills consist of such components are structure and vocabulary, while speaking consists of sound plus the other two components, and listening contains just vocabulary and structure. Testing and test design rely on these skills and components. Teaching a language educators often need to check their learners’ progress on particular skills and test them separately from others.

We will write a custom Essay on Testing in Language Teaching specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the same time, there are tests designed to evaluate the learner’s language skills using integrative approach. When a teacher targets particular skills, they carefully select the assignments for the class in order to develop the skills. This way, the content of a lesson alters based on the objective of a teacher.

For example, when reading assignments prevail during a lesson, this means that a teacher targets reading skills of the learners particularly. As a result, this will influence the content of the future testing because it will be likely to address reading separately from other language components. In other words, test tasks are selected based on the skills an educator needs to evaluate.

Tests oriented at the evaluation of certain language skills separately normally contain only the tasks of one type. Such tests are referred to as discrete-item tests, their main objective is to provide an educator with information concerning the difficulties their learners may experience within a particular language skill. When a teacher intends to test several language skills in a complex, they apply integrative or global tests.

These tests address language as a whole without separating it into elements and skills. Such tests check the learners’ ability to use a variety of different skills in a combination. For example, to test reading and writing language skills a teacher may conduct close tests where learners are to fill in missing parts of sentences based on the context.

Another way to test reading and writing skills using integrative approach is written translation. An integrative test for listening and speaking skills may include an oral interview or audition followed by an oral summary or discussion. Generally, integrative tests provide an educator with a broader understanding of the progress of their learners, while discrete-item tests offer a more precise view on the difficulties the students face.

Teacher Factor During the teaching process, an educator is the one to compile tests for their learners. An educator is responsible for the objectives of their lessons and for the ways they choose to test the progress of the students and their own professional performance. Preparing a test an educator faces an important task of balancing out several crucial qualities of a test, which are practicality, validity, reliability, authenticity and wash back.

Only when a test matches this requirement it can be considered well-designed. A teacher’s competence and professionalism are the determinants of their success at test design. Preparing a test, a teacher is to identify its main objective because it will determine the balance between its qualities.

For example, when a language test is conducted with a purpose of professional selection, reliability and validity are the qualities the test designer is to prioritise; at the same time, for the classroom assessment practicality and wash back need to be emphasised (Milanovic, 2002). In a classroom assessment practicality comes in combination with transferability of a test.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Testing in Language Teaching by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This means that a test is to carefully reflect the materials studied previously and also be transferable to real life communication skills and needs of the students. A teacher needs to be competent to organise a versatile teaching process and then address its objectives in a test. Besides, a teacher is to know their learners and identify their needs which will determine the need for a test. This also requires pedagogical qualification.

Among all test qualities reliability and validity have been the most common focuses of scholarly discussions. Validity has been recognised as the most vital quality which defines to what extent the results of particular tests can be used as bases for conclusions; it can be divided into construct, content and predictive validity (Liao, 2004). The first type focuses on the performance of the examinee.

The second type involves coverage and relevance of test content. The third type of validity involves a test’s ability to predict how an examinee would do in a non-testing environment. Test reliability stands for a test’s ability to provide consistent data that is replicable after retest. Reliability is evaluated based on such markers as consistency of the test results and simulation of tasks in a test (Liao, 2004).

To design valid and reliable tests a teacher is to have a sufficient professional experience providing statistical base for reference concerning the correlation between testing and non-testing performance of the learners and the sustainability of test results and impacts. Wash back is another quality a teacher is to be properly qualified to use. Wash back refers to the influence a test has on learning and teaching processes and aligned curriculum.

In other words, educators tend to adjust their teaching and curriculum to the contents and requirements of tests. Only reliable and valid tests can integrate into the curriculum and influence it.

Authenticity is another vital feature of a test; it refers to a test’s ability to replicate the real life situation it targets. It is important because the main goal of language testing is to identify the level of a learner’s preparation to use a language in real life environment.

Learner Factor Testing is only successful when it addresses the students’ academic needs. Among these needs there are a need for motivation, a need for practice and transferability, a need for personal development and a need for optimal feedback. Designing a test a teacher is to address all of these needs in order to facilitate active learning. Timing of a test is a crucial aspect for addressing all of the learners’ needs.

The success of a test depends on the right timing. For example, motivation is to be regular and systematic in order to maintain the learners’ interest towards the language. Practice is very important for language learners. The time for practice needs to be selected is repetitive manner because frequent practice provides tighter connection between the learners and the additional language they study.

Tests fulfill these needs keeping the learners challenged and motivating for improvement. Therefore, test of different types are to be placed within a program in a way that provides ongoing feedback, practice, monitoring and motivation. Feedback is a crucial aspect of teaching and testing. For the students, feedback is a part of motivation; this is why it needs to be provided in time to maintain the student’s desire to improve.

Moreover, feedback is the learners’ basis for self-assessment. Through the teacher’s feedback direct or indirect, the students learn about their strengths and weaknesses, identify the areas which need to be improved or require particular focus.

Feedback provided to the students is important for the teacher as well, because it follows the analysis of the learners’ strengths and weaknesses which helps the educator to determine the future needs of the students. This is why the timing of feedback has to be particularly accurate. Timely feedback facilitates timely improvement and helps both learners and teachers to keep track of their progress.

One of the best ways to provide ongoing and accurate feedback is formative assessment.

The main objectives of formative assessment are to provide the learners with valid information about their progress and weaknesses, identifying the areas that require better focus, and to help the educators find out which aspect of teaching make the learners experience struggle to address them right away (What is the difference between formative and summative assessment?, n. d.).

Summative assessments are conducted frequently within a curriculum and their point value is rather low compared to that of summative assessments. Examples of summative assessments include performing summaries or schemes of the new materials in class, identification of main ideas of a text or a lecture.

To compare, the examples of summative assessments are final papers, and course exams. Formative assessment can be viewed as an ongoing flow of testing and feedback for the constant monitoring of the learners’ progress and teachers’ performance.

Setting and Aids Factor In the contemporary world technologies have penetrated every aspect of people’s life. Education is one of spheres where technologies have been used for many years already. Teaching and testing languages has benefited from the employment of technologies and their addition to the day-to-day life of the individuals.

For example, English, as the main language of the internet has become much more available for the users of computers. Besides, the development of technologies and their application in education facilitated that appearance of different types of educational software which allows faster and more efficient learning and testing. The technologies have made a large contribution into the test design and implementation.

Today, multiple tests can be conducted online or vie different computer programs, and the calculation of results is computerised and helps to save a lot of teachers’ time and effort. Besides, computerised adaptive testing (also known as CAT) is a recent innovation in the sphere of education software that helps to make testing more differentiated and flexible to be suitable for the learners with different academic performance.

CAT operates by means of adjusting the number and difficulty of test items for each particular student and stops when a targeted criterion is met (Advantages of Computerised Adaptive Testing, n. d.). The main advantages of CAT are its precision, flexibility, positive experience for the examinees (due to the adjustment of task difficulty), and an ability of retesting without repeating the tasks.

CAT is also highly accessible because it only requires software and basic computer knowledge for an examinee to be able to get tested. In general, computer assisted language testing (or CALT) has changed the nature of language testing making it more individual, and also making logistics and administration of the assessment easier and more effortless.

Conclusion To conclude, testing has a very complex and multidimensional nature and a variety of objectives in every case. In order to design a valid and transferable test an educator is to have a range of professional competencies and have the knowledge of pedagogy. Besides, the planning and design of a test depend on its purpose and the content of knowledge that is being evaluated.

Moreover, testing is equally important for students and teachers. The latter need testing to identify the challenges of the program for the learners and adjust it where necessary.

The purpose of testing is to provide motivation though timely and accurate feedback and keep the learners challenged and interested in improvement. Testing is designed to motivate learning experiences, but not cause anxieties and low self-esteem for the learners. This is why, designing a test a teacher is approach this process professionally and carefully.

Reference List Advantages of Computerised Adaptive Testing. Fastestweb. Web.

Liao, Y. (2004). Issues of Validity and Reliability in Second Language Performance Assessment. Columbia University Working Papers in TESOL

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A Revolutionary Model of Leadership Case Study best college essay help

The case study highlights the leadership philosophy of Ricardo Semler ever since he took over then the overall management of Semco Company. It is evident that Ricardo injected an innovative model of leadership that precipitated the growth of the company to international level.

From the outset, it is vivid that Ricardo is well endowed with leadership skills and management etiquette bearing in mind that he jumpstarted the performance of the marine pump business to an extremely high level of success.

For instance, he obviously worked hard at the company by devising new ideas, adopting modern methods of production and embracing continuous change (Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan

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Critical Discourse Analysis Compare and Contrast Essay essay help free: essay help free

Introduction Language may be used in different contexts and texts to create different meanings. To understand the sign, vocal, or even written language, a form of analysis is crucial in establishing both the intended and implied meanings.

This paper discusses discourse examination and critical discourse analysis (CDA) as two important approaches to analysing language use in vocal, sign, and written forms. Its main concern is to demonstrate the difference between the perspectives of language use in written and text forms.

Defining Discourse Analysis Discourse analysis (DA) is a general term that is applied to various paradigms that are deployed in the study of the sign, vocal, written, and any other language semiotics. Objects that are used in the analysis under this approach are defined in terms of an individual’s consistency in the application of prepositions, use of sentences, tongue, and even turns-at-talk (Ross

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Gardners Creek Reserve Report essay help online

Introduction Vegetation structure is an important attribute of an ecosystem because it provides primary data about a given ecosystem. Essentially, vegetation structure is a vertical and horizontal arrangement of vegetation in a space to form a three dimensional structure (Lawley et al. 2015). Vegetation structure comprises species richness, density, canopy strata, canopy cover, diversity, size, distribution, and debris materials.

Assessment of vegetation structure is very important in ecological studies because it offers information about the potential of a habitat to sustain plants and animals. Moreover, assessment of vegetation structure offers a way of determining carbon sequestration capacity and water cycling process. Ribeiro et al. (2013) state that the biomass of vegetation indicate the ability of an ecosystem to sequester carbon and regulate global warming.

The structural variables of the vegetation in terms of canopy cover, canopy strata, density, and distribution also influence water cycling in a given ecosystem.

Since vegetation structural variables relate, they are valuable in creating relationships and predicting other variables without necessarily determining them empirically, hence, saving time and resources. Therefore, the report describes an assessment of vegetation structure with a view of establishing the relationships of diverse variables using regression analysis.

Aim To assess vegetation structure of vegetation patches that are in the Gardners Creek Reserve and determine the relationships of the assessed structural variables using regression analysis.

Methods Research Design

The study used quantitative research design in assessing vegetation structure. The study determined the density of trees by assessing the number of trees, large trees, and shrubs, and assessed percentages of bare ground, plant litter, and live plants.

It also determined the number of fallen branches and logs in the selected vegetation patches. Using the data collected, the study calculated total basal area, percent live basal area, total biomass, and total carbon storage.

Sample Design

The study area is the Gardners Creek Reserve, which is located at the Burwood Campus. The study selected the area because it has heterogeneous vegetation, which exist as vegetation patches of slope, plain, and riparian habitats.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this view, the study selected vegetation patches for they are heterogeneous and representative of the vegetation structure of the reserve. The study employed convenience method of sampling in selecting vegetation patches that effectively represent the target population in the reserve.

Field Method

Three patches of vegetation, slope, plain, and riparian was selected.

A plot measuring 20 m by 20 m was measured using tapes and compasses, and then marked with poles.

The marked plots was then labeled as plot 1, 2, and 3 and associated with group names.

All trees with a diameter greater than 5 cm at 1.3 m above the ground were measured.

The basal diameter of all shrubs was measured at 10 cm above the ground.

The percentages of bare ground, live plants, plant litter, and rocks were determined and estimated to the nearest 10%.

The number of fallen branches was counted in a diameter greater than 2.5 cm and less than 10 cm.

The number of logs with a diameter of greater than 10 cm was counted.

Data Analysis

The vegetation structure data were collated by indicating number of trees, number of large trees, (dbh > 30 cm), number of shrubs, percentage cover of bare ground, live plants, plant litter, and rocks, number of fallen branches, and number of logs in each of the plot number assessed.

Basal area of each plot was calculated using the formula, which requires the diameter of each tree and an area of 400 m2.

Base area = π x (diameter/2)2

Total basal area (m2 ha-1) = total base area (cm2)*1/400

Size distribution of trees was determined by classifying the according to six categories of diameters, namely, 5-10 cm, 11-20 cm, 21-30 cm, 31-40 cm, 40-50 cm, and greater than 50 cm.

Percentage of live basal area was determined by calculating the total basal area for live shrubs and trees and total basal area of all shrubs and trees.

Percentage of live basal area = (total basal area of live shrubs and trees)/(total basal area of all shrubs and trees).

Biomass of each plot was calculated using allometrics developed by CSIRO.

Total biomass (kg) = EXP [a b * LN (diameter in cm)]

Where the variables are:-

EXP is e*

a is constant for eucalyptus tree, Acacia tree, and shrub, which can take -1.71, -1.59, and -2.68 respectively.

b is the coefficient for large tree, tree, and shrub, which can take 2.21, 2.19, and 2.16 respectively.

LN is the natural log

Total carbon storage (t ha-1) = total carbon (kg)*1/400*104*10-3

Regression analysis was done to establish the nature of relationships that exist between density of plants (large trees, trees, and shrubs) and each of the vegetation structural variables, namely, bare ground cover, plant litter cover, live plant cover, number of fallen branches, number of logs, percent live basal area, total basal area, total biomass, and total carbon storage.

Regression analysis was done to determine the relationship that exists between total basal area and total carbon storage.

Results Table 1 below shows R2 values showing the nature of relationships that exist between the density of plants (number of large trees, number of trees, and number of shrubs) and vegetation structural variables, namely, % bare ground, % plant litter, % live plant, number of fallen branches, number of logs, total basal area, % live basal area, total biomass, and total carbon storage.

Table 1: R values

Density of Plants Structural variables No. of Large trees No. of Trees No. of Shrubs Bare ground % 0.0056 0.0483 0.0310 Plant litter cover % 0.1623 0.6298 0.2507 Live plant cover % 0.1372 0.5365 0.3000 Number of fallen branches 0.1422 0.5511 0.5250 Number of logs 0.0532 0.2889 0.2057 Total basal area (m2/ha) 0.3587 0.1109 0.0366 % live basal area 0.0772 0.3978 0.0043 Total biomass (t/ha) 0.6353 0.1823 0.0034 Total carbon storage 0.6353 0.1824 0.0034 From table 1, it is evident that number of large trees have no significant predictive relationship with bare ground (R2 = 0.0056), plant litter cover (R2 = 0.1623), live plant cover (R2 = 0.1372), number of fallen branches (R2 = 0.1422, number of logs (R2 = 0.0532), total basal area (R2 = 0.3587), and % live basal area (0.0772).

Moreover, from table 1, it is evident that the number of trees has no significant predictive relationship with bare ground (R2 = 0.0483), number of logs (R2 = 0.2889), total basal area (R2 = 0.1109), % live basal area (R2 = 0.3978), total biomass (R2 = 0.1823), and total carbon storage (R2 = 0.1824).

We will write a custom Report on Gardners Creek Reserve specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the same manner, the number of shrubs has no significant predictive relationship with bare ground (R2 = 0.0310), plant litter cover (R2 = 0.2507), live plant cover (R2 = 0.3000), number of logs (R2 = 0.2057), total basal area (R2 = 0.0366), % live basal area (0.0043), total biomass (R2 = 0.0034), and total carbon storage (R2 = 0.0034).

Number of Large Trees as a Predictor

The number of large trees has a significant predictive relationship with total biomass and total carbon storage. There is a moderate positive relationship between the number of large trees in a patch and the total biomass of the large trees (R2 = 0.6353). Figure 1 below shows the moderate positive relationship, where the number of large trees predicts the total biomass of large trees.

Figure 1

There is also a moderate positive relationship between the number of large trees and total carbon storage (R2 = 0.6353). Figure 2 below depicts that the number of large trees predicts the total carbon storage.

Figure 2

The Number of Trees as Predictor

The number of trees predicts many vegetation structural variables. The analysis of data using regression analysis shows that the number of trees significantly predicts the percentage of plant litter cover, percentage of live plant cover, and the number of fallen branches.

Figure 3 indicates that the number of trees has a significant predictive relationship with the percentage of plant litter cover. Evidently, there is a moderate positive relationship between the number of trees and the percentage of plant litter cover (R2 = 0.6298). The relationship implies that the number of trees predicts the percentage of plant litter cover.

Figure 4 shows that there is a significant predictive relationship between the number of trees and percentage of live plant cover. Specifically, there is a moderate negative relationship between the number of trees in a patch and the percentage of live plant cover (R2 = 0.5365). In this view, the number of trees negatively predicts the percentage of live plant cover.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gardners Creek Reserve by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5 shows that there is a predictive relationship between the number of trees and the number of fallen branches. Essentially, there is a moderate positive relationship between the number of trees in patch and the number of fallen branches within the patch (R2 = 0.5365). The relationship means that the number of trees positively predicts the number of fallen branches.

Figure 5

The Number of Shrubs as a Predictor

Shrubs have a predictive relationship with the fallen branches. Evidently, there is a moderate positive relationship between the number of shrubs and the number of fallen branches in a vegetation patch (R2 = 0.5511). The relationship implies that the number of shrubs positively predicts the number of fallen branches.

Figure 6

Discussion The assessment of vegetation structure indicates that structural variables vary from one patch of vegetation to another. Vesk and Nally (2006) state that topography influences vegetation structure in a habitat. In this case, the structural variables vary since the study selected slope, plain, and riparian habitats.

Regression analysis shows that there is a moderate positive relationship between the number of large trees with total biomass (R2 = 0.6353) and total carbon storage (R2 = 0.6353). These findings imply that the number of large trees predicts total biomass and total carbon storage. Given the number of large trees, it is possible to estimate the total biomass and total carbon storage using regression equation.

From the findings, it is evident that large trees have the highest biomass and carbon storage. The plausible biological explanation for the predictive relationship is that large trees have huge biomass, which offer enhanced capacity to store carbon. Ribeiro et al. (2013) state that large trees have woody biomass, which store sequestered carbon.

The statement means that large trees provide an important structure in ecosystems because they sequester carbon from the atmosphere and store it in their woody biomass. From the findings, it is apparent that the carbon storage and the number of large trees have linear relationship, which the biomass determines.

The number of trees has multiple predictive relationships with percentage of plant litter cover, percentage of live plant cover, and the number of fallen branches. Regression analysis indicates that there is a moderate positive relationship between the number of trees and the percentage of plant litter cover (R2 = 0.6298).

The plausible biological explanation for the predictive relationship is that trees constantly shed their leaves and twigs. Sheley, Vasquez, and Hoopes (2009) argue that trees have extensive litter cover because they have a high turnover rates of their foliage. In contrast, the number of trees has a moderate negative relationship with the percentage of live plant cover (R2 = 0.5365).

The plausible biological explanation is that trees prevent the growth of understorey vegetation (McElhinny et al. 2005). Hence, the higher the number of trees, the lower the percentage of live plant cover. The high density of trees affects the structure of understorey vegetation by preventing entry of sunlight using their canopies (Paul et al. 2013).

Regression analysis also indicates that there is a moderate positive relationship between the number of trees in patch and the number of fallen branches within the patch (R2 = 0.5365). The plausible biological explanation is that high density of trees leads to poor growth, which make trees susceptible to disturbances such as wind and storm.

The number of shrubs predicts the number of fallen branches. Regression analysis shows that there is a moderate positive relationship between the number of shrubs and the number of fallen branches (R2 = 0.5511). The plausible explanation for the predictive relationship is that high density of shrubs leads to poor growth of shrubs, which make the fragile and delicate.

According to Roberts (2004) congested shrubs are susceptible to disturbance because competition for nutrients, light, and space makes them weak. Therefore, shrubs are the weakest plants because they have fragile stems and branches.

Large trees and trees are dominant structural variables of a vegetation, which create forest habitat for animals and understorey plants. Sheley, Vasquez, and Hoopes (2009) argue that trees produce litter and shade, which influence evaporation, decomposition rate, microbial activity, temperature, cycling of nutrients, and germination of seeds.

In this view, trees have a profound effect on habitats of understorey plants and animals. Shrubs provide scrubland habitat, where understorey plants and animals receive enough sunlight. To provide a range of different habitats, the vegetation structure of the reserve requires manipulation such as separation of large trees, small trees, and shrubs to form different habitats, and their combinations to form different habitats.

Conclusion The vegetation structure of vegetation patches that are in the Gardners Creek Reserve have different structural variables. The number of large trees predicts total biomass and total carbon storage, the number of trees predict the percentage of plant litter cover, percentage of live plant cover, and the number of fallen branches, and the number of shrubs predicts the number of fallen branches.

These relationships mean that trees comprise an important structural variable because it can predict the percentage of plant litter cover, percentage of live plant cover, and the number of fallen branches in the reserve, hence, effectively applied in the management of the reserves.

References Lawley, V, Lewis, M, Clarke, K

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Samsung Advertising its Brand Using Pancakes During the Pancake Day Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Situation Analysis February 17, 2015 was the World Pancake Day, and thus a number of organizations took the day to advertise their brands. However, Samsung carried the day. The campaign aimed at familiarizing its customers with different brands because hostility on any product could be converted into sympathy.

The self-doubters would accept the company and its products. Social media has massive following, and thus millions of potential clients would be reached via this advertisement.

Objectives The Samsung’s campaign aimed at achieving three main objectives that can be evaluated using the SMART approach.

Objective 1: make everyone be involved with your brand in a unique way

Make popular celebrities associate with your products together with your Twitter followers. This way, with your potential customers identifying with their popular celebrities, they would also identify with your products.

It also unifies everyone involved from stakeholder to customers and the employees, as there is power in unity.

Objective 2: Increase sales

With every commercial campaign, there is always the need to increase the number of sales, and this assertion was true in this case. The huge number of potential customers that would be reached via this platform means that a certain percentage would end up choosing Samsung as a brand. In turn, this aspect would improve the company’s market share as more customers start purchasing its products.

The company has a set period of operating the business campaign of one day and it cannot be decided whether the objectives serve the short-term or the long-term objectives.

Objective 3: To reach social media fans and especially Twitter

This aspect could have been approached from a total percentage expected, as it will present a more realistic case scenario.

Strategy The campaign was more of creating a buzz in the social media that would have everyone talking about and participating in large numbers. Social media has become one of the most powerful marketing tools due to the ever-increasing audience.

Currently, the total number of social media users is close to 2 billion people, with Twitter having a market share of 288 million users. Therefore, this strategy would reach many potential clients at minimal marketing budget. The following strategy outlines how it was done:

The company was able to make Pancake portraits of popular celebrities on Twitter. The fans were asked to send their pictures, which were then made into pancake forms and later retweeted for everyone to see.

Winners were selected after which their pictures were recreated using the pancakes before being posted via Twitter for the world to see.

In addition, the company decided to extend the releasing of pictures of some of the most famous people across the world after they had appeared on a certain TV show that day. This aspect captured the attention of the fans as they identified with celebrities, which is good for business.

The campaign strategy was a success as it received numerous appraisals from many celebrities and fans for the company’s different products. It captured the theme of the day and made the best out of it. The campaign captured all the Four DRIP elements, viz.

Differentiates – involving the public in the marketing procedures was a success. This approach stands out of the rest because in most cases, some selected individuals are involved in the marketing program. However, in this case, the public was allowed to participate.

Reassures – the campaign approach targeted both potential customers and their customers with the aid of Twitter. All parties enjoyed the fun created by the pancake pictures and video portraits.

Informs – the company used Twitter to inform the public of its ongoing project and brands. By creating a captivating campaign that attracted and reached millions of people, Samsung stood a good chance of letting the world know of its products.

Persuades- it was in a position to tune the pubic into some amicable fun while at the same time marketing products.

The most important customers who have the power to buy their products were reached through the fun induced by the pancake portraits, thus improving sales. All customers available on Twitter were able to receive the message. The timing was also on target, as many people tend to be online during holidays and special days to access discounts and other giveaways.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tactics Employed Media – the company was able to use social media, and particularly Twitter, to market its product. This aspect put it ahead of competition and engaged many public consumers. This strategy was also cost effective.

Electronic – By using Twitter and Television, the company was able to reach the global market in a single day.

The campaign was a success and it was made possible by the company engaging all the involved parties. It all started with producing picture portraits, which created fun then the marketing of products came naturally. The use of social media was ideal for the task on top of being cost effective.

What could have made the campaign even better? The idea of using Twitter to pass the message was ingenious, but it would have been more success if the company used all social media platforms such as Facebook and Instagram among others because not all people are on Twitter. Sometimes, individuals tend to use only one social medium, and thus using all the social mediums to do the campaigns would be successful, as it would have reached more customers.

The company should also have run the campaign for a little longer as opposed to one-day event. Campaigning on special days makes some customers to start judging the brand’s credibility. Overall, the company did a good job.

Many people received the campaign positively. In addition, the campaign became more interesting when it received several endorsements from celebrities. Almost everyone that saw the campaign was satisfied and left a positive feedback that the company can derive satisfaction.

Conclusion The campaign was undoubtedly a success and it brought forth unique creativity and innovation that captured the eyes of the public across the world. The public was engaged in a one-day fun that involved posting commentary via Twitter. In addition, the public was amused not only to see their celebrities in the pancake portraits, but also themselves being tweeted.

Credited must be given to the Samsung Company for the perfect campaign. The use of social media also ensured that they reached out to a number of youthful customers who are the ideal candidates for their products. The only shortcoming is that the company chose to use Twitter only instead of using all the available social media platforms.

Appendix Campaign source: https://www.prexamples.com/2015/02/pancake-portraits-as-samsung-celebrate-pancake-day/

We will write a custom Report on Samsung Advertising its Brand Using Pancakes During the Pancake Day specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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A Proposed Geological Disposal Facility Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction A repository for the waste that is radioactive in nature is essentially a arrangement of well-though out and naturally existing barriers that help in the isolation of waste emanating from the environment and the activities of human beings. The most profound natural barriers include the surrounding geological formations as well as the host rock, with each possessing the geochemical, hydrogeological as well as geological properties.

The barriers avail the probable conditions, in which the radioactive wastes are centrally emplaced such that retardation of the transportation process of the radionuclides may be released from the most profound, and reliable engineering systems that were to be accessible to the environment.

The ultimate process of selecting the site should carry the geochemical, hydrogeological and geological properties that are quite favorable for waste isolation as this becomes of prime importance (Mongillo and Zierdt-Warshaw 45).

There is however other additional factors that are expected to be set in place and this include the economic, societal as well as technical matters that should be placed into consideration in the site selection.

Apparently, site selection, as well as site characterization to various establishments of the repository sites, has previously been performed in several cases and this case favors the United Kingdom with absolute loyalty to outstanding bodies and organizations involved (United States Congress 57). In most cases, the underground research laboratories are quite significant as they are located near such sites.

The repository sites may further be built near nuclear plants hence facilitating the most immediate dumping site without making unnecessary movements that may further cause more problems.

The primary purpose of the underground research facilities revolves around the detailed investigation of the entire repository site, in this context; the central objective is to explore the general processes that are placed into consideration in the selection of the geological repository sites as well as deducing the characterization of the deep geological disposal of the radioactive waste (United States Congress 61).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The site selection, in this case, favors the deep disposal of the higher activity wastes in bedrock between 500 to 1000 meters below the ground level.

Site Selection

For the purpose of site selection, the paper favors the Sellafield as one of the best location where the facility can be staged. This went alongside the site assessment process that was quite stepwise and at the same time, evaluative in terms of the land use, topography, hydrology and the history of the location of choice.

A recap of the site location process gives a preview of two significant stages, which include the site characterization stage and the site confirmation stage. Brief details on the site characterization stage state that there must be need to sufficiently investigate the site before developing the preliminary site designs as well as conducting the safety assessments.

In this stage, the process demands precedence of suggested multiple sites with variance based on the country’s requirements and policies set in place to control the functionality of the sensitive plants. However, the site confirmation stage suggests on the verification of the site conditions with anticipation of the near future anticipated site conditions.

This is significantly required to prepare and at the same time, submit the application license for the repository construction.

Apart from the brief details of site location process, the paper concentrates on the location, the topography, hydrology and the recent land use at Sellafield. Preliminarily, Sellafield is one of the nuclear reprocessing sites that are close to the Seascale village at the coast of Cumbria, England.

We will write a custom Report on A Proposed Geological Disposal Facility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sellafield is further known to have incorporated the nuclear reactor at Windscale, which implies that there are possible radiations that are released and may be harmful to the public. A short background of the whole area reveals that it was initially a primitive society based in Cumbria which is one of the counties in the Northern side of Britain.

The ROF Sellafield underwent construction in the year 1942 in the Sellafield industrial site with the nearby factory, which had reached the completion stage in 1940.

Sellafield is said to have been owned as well as operated by the UK Atomic Energy Authority. In the year 2008, NDA is said to have contracted the entire management of Sellafield Limited to the Nuclear Management Partners. THORP and Magnox are some of the plants found at the site.

The topography of this part of the world takes the geographic description of Cumbria being northwesterly of the county of England. At an altitude of about nine hundred and seventy eight meters, Scafell Pike makes up the tallest point in the Cumbria.

The land is bordered by a number of English counties such as the County Durham, Lancashire, and Northumberland. The Cumbrian northern boundary is said to stretch from Solway Firth to Northumberland. The place is said to be having many large companies with Sellafield Nuclear Reprocessing plant being the most outstanding with a work force of 10000.

The land use at Sellafield is predominantly meant for in-site disposal of waste with plant operations set in place. Some of the land depressions dividing different areas were vital in building the wall in the area that was north of the Coastline. Reports from research on lands in this area indicate that there has been some seeping of liquids believed to be radioactive into the soil.

Special components of fuel processing are further said to have leaked into the ground leaving the land under many issues that are quite problematic. This is very dangerous as it contributes immensely to the deterioration of the top soil in such area.

Given the current rate at which the soil in the area is being destroyed, it is possible that soon the soil in the area will be of no importance. The soil will not be able to support other activities such as farming and livestock keeping.

Not sure if you can write a paper on A Proposed Geological Disposal Facility by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Concerning the hydrology of Sellafield, Cumbria is said to the victim of climate change with a historic downpour witnessed in 1955. Based on the statistics taken by the Lake District National Park, Seathwaite is considerably the wettest inhabited place in England. The place, in Cumbria, is said to be experiencing 3500mm of the precipitation in each year.

Flooding in autumn-winter season is a common phenomenon in the whole of United Kingdom statistics reveal that the area has been witnessing increases in river flows that absolutely lead to climate change.

However, the recent cases have been quite irregular thereby distorting the entire climate pattern. This implies that there is a big impact brought by climatic change on the hydrological nature of the place, which used to be wet all the times.

Geology It is an important feature in staging a repository facility that has to ensure full facilitation of safety to both human and the immediate environment. Geology can be defined as the study of discourse or the significant study of solid earth as well as rocks and the involved process that brings about the change of structure (Michie 54). The general case refers to this aspect as the study of solid features.

Geological materials under study include the rocks and the unconsolidated material. Putting Sellafield in mind, the section focuses on addressing tow important considerable aspects, which include the superficial geology and the solid geology of the entire area.

Superficial Geology

Superficial geology indicates geological deposits that are less than two point six million years old. They are residues that are not attached to each other but make up many of the land features that people see most of the time. This feature is seen in most parts of the West Cumbria.

The deposits are said to be closely associated with glacial re-advances in the latter stages of the renowned Dimlington Stadial that exhibits the glacio-tectonic deformation structures. Studies indicate that the deposits are present in the Sellafield drift domains whereby they can easily recognized as clay dominated lithology in the upper drift sequences.

Natural exposures, excavation together with the geophysical surveys taken at the Drigg as well as Sellafield provide an outstanding exhibit of the deformational structures. The folding and tilting of the entire strata, at the Drigg beach and Sea Scale, indicate the accompaniment of the deformation. The Drigg case gives the impact of the extensional fault thereby bringing about the post-depositional deformation.

Further details on the superficial geology lead to the preliminary deduction of distribution of the bulk lithology types. The geological conceptualization gives the feasibility of the glacial drift by the characterization of the bulk domain. The experimental bulk leads to lithology zonation that involves the lithology description that extracts the knowledge from the borehole details based on drilling records.

From the findngs, it was evident that the clay dominant lithologies were absent in the Sellafield South east section situated in the hydraulic gradient from the significant Separation Area. The drift lithology is significantly located at the western end of the entire Sellafield Buried Channel, the point where it meets with the Ehen Buried Channel.

Solid Geology of the Site

Solid geology is also referred to as bedrock geology, which has its concepts lying behind rock formation among other processes. This is different from the superficial deposits that form the ground layer through agents of erosion that drives materials from one position to another.

Solid geology at Sellafield takes the beneath characteristics with the depth description of the adjacent area that is majorly comprised of the sedimentary formations as a result of the outstanding process acting on the Triassic Sherwood sandstone.

The significant upper layer of the units of Calder sandstone formation underlies both the northern two-thirds and the adjacent offsite sections on both sides. A portion of the young Ormskirk formation that is significantly preserved in a graben structure essentially underlies a third of the southern site (Merritt and Phillips 14).

Calder sandstone formation takes the description outlined in the NIREX Sellafield 10B borehole. The exposure of the discontinuous outcrops on the bed and river banks of Calder indicates the rock bank that exists behind the Waste Encapsulation plants. The significant outcrops of Calder sandstone formation can clearly be seen on the adjacent sides of river Calder as it makes its entrance to the northern perimeter.

The conspicuous NIREX borehole BH3 that finds its location near the Calder landfill forms a 50m intersection with the lower boundary defined by the geophysical data thereby generating a correlation with the offshore boreholes. The Calder is naturally of fine texture in comparison to its counterpart sandstone Ormskirk. The latter is significantly rough in terms its texture.

For this reason, it is quite easy for one to differentiate the two sandstones and avoid unnecessary confusion. Finally, the sandstone weathered zone is considerably described as a prominent feature for both the Ormskirk sandstone formation and the Calder sandstone formation with the western section of Cumbria describing the depth of in-situ weathering region in the entire bedrock.

This layer majorly consists of the litho-fragments as well as, sand that directly overlie the competent sandstone thereby closing the remnants.

Hydrogeology Details on hydrogeology may not make sense without borrowing the introductory details from geology. From the geological description, it is evident that Sellafield largely sits on sediments that are commonly referred to as the drift or the superficial deposits that are significantly deposited by a variety of glacial, lake, river as well as the marine processes.

It can further be pointed out that the Triassic sandstone forms the large section of the bedrock in this region. The significant depth of the grained rock is accompanied with the bedding planes that deepen towards the coast from South West (Chaplow 9). The major buried channel lies in the northwest direction of the entire site that is significantly associated with the River Ethen route.

The superficial deposits mainly entail the coarse grained sand having some patchy clay layers. The layer of clay is not consistent. Clay soil is scattered in some sections of the area in small portions that are almost unnoticeable if one does not investigate the site keenly.

The boreholes drilled into sediments essentially interact with the groundwater at a depth approximated to be 5 to 15 meters below accompanied with clay layers that makes the groundwater to appear at a higher level than it would have preferably been expected. The Groundwater found below is normally located on a lower section of the essentially defined superficial deposits that look closely joined to the groundwater.

The deposits are commonly classified as aquifer. However, it is anonymous when it comes to the use made of the water resources in the vicinity of the site but the springs found along the beach are essentially fed by the ground water.

However, it is worth noting that NIREX has been playing an outstanding role in both managing and providing the national facility for the solid low level as well as the intermediate radioactive waste. There is a lot of research carried out continuously in the Sellafield area to find out its suitability when it comes to creation of repositories that are deep enough to handle the disposal of materials that are radioactive in nature.

Subsequently, a good number of boreholes that are deep enough were drilled. A survey of the seismic waves was also initiated to ensure the safety drilling boreholes in the relevant areas. The aftermath of the investigation indicated the borrowable volcanic group of rocks with the top surface beneath the Sellafield site showing a promising location that could provide the center repository.

However, much has to be done on the hydrogeology study before reaching the ultimate conclusion on the suitability of the investigated site. The procedure adopted in determining safety has to adhere to strictly. There is no entity that can be allowed to proceed with activities in any given area without satisfying all the necessary requirements under the law.

Geohazards A geohazard is considerably a geological state that may significantly lead to a detrimental widespread of risk or damage. Environmental as well as geological conditions may involve both the long term and short term processes. This may, however, be small features that may carry big dimensions thereby affecting the regional socio-economy to a relatively significant extent. Apparently, human activities like drilling in over-pressured zones could lead to risks where mitigation and preclusion measures are seen to be paramount.

Based on the GZA analysis, possible hazards that may result from siting a repository plant at Sellafield revolve around the seismic aspects.

This includes the liquefaction potential, seismically induced settlement and lateral spreading analysis that reflect on the end results that settle on the possible movement of the earth or collapse of the land during the construction process, an undertaking that may consume a significant number of lives of people.

Generally, geohazard resulting from the nuclear facilities are majorly brought by human activities that may eventually cause accidents. In most cases, preparations are always set in place to handle the emergency services that may be needed as a result of the operations carried out (Michie 25).

The most significant aspect revolves around the idea of landfilling processes that stimulate other geological processes. A nuclear repository is significantly accompanied with the land filling process that promotes outstanding activities like mass flow. Heaps as a result of the land filling process may lead to an imbalance of materials on the earth’s surface.

This may prompt mass flows that may further consume the lives of people in the nearby location. Mass flow, though unrelated to the nuclear plant repository, is said to have consumed a significant number of lives in Japan among other areas across the whole world. Large trucks that are used in the construction of the repository site are heavy enough to loosen the compatibility of the soil structure on the earth’s surface.

This means that further the ground is weakened to an extent of reaching the failing point in terms of holding earthly natural geological processes. Preliminarily, loosened ground may be subjective to the most conspicuous agents of soil erosion. This means that the movement of the earth is made possible thereby leaving the site with remnants of the original structure (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority 45).

This is too risky as it might lead to free falling of earthly materials. Secondly, loosened ground is in itself risky in that the earth can no longer handle extra processes after the construction process. Continuation of other processes that interfere with the loosened earth structure may further lead to extended risky processes that may not be easily be mitigated or handled with the available resources.

Loosened structure of the earth makes the ground be prone to such natural processes like faulting, which may have both the positive and negative impacts. The nuclear repository should, therefore, check on the possible Geohazards that may result from the pre-undertaken actions. This may provide room for evaluation of the most appropriate tools and techniques that may handle the process in a safer way.

Assessment Looking at the option made in the earlier case, it is evident that the paper addresses the major concern of staging deep disposal of higher activity wastes in bedrock between 500 to 1000 meters below ground level. The significant sight selection lands on Sellafield, a site in Cumbria with multiple large companies especially the nuclear plants.

On assessment basis, the region needs a repository site to safely damp the radioactive waste that results from the outstanding processes carried out in magnificent nuclear plants in Cumbria. Without such a repository site, such plants, among other firms may go ahead in carelessly damping the radioactive waste (Entwisle 795). This may generate a detrimental impact on both the environment and the human health.

The geological study takes into consideration two significant aspects that evaluate the stability of the ground in the surrounding area. The superficial deposits provide the basic information on the materials lying on the surface of the earth such as alluvium and the glacial materials. The solid geology analysis gives a clear impression of the stable ground that can strongly accommodate the site in the underground section.

Significant study of the Calder sandstone formation and the Ormskirk sandstone formation gives a clear picture of the bedrock underneath, which is strong enough to hold the drilling processes thereby enabling the simple and easy way of creating the site.

In this case, one should note that the presence of the bedrock is the core factor in determining the long service of the repository site that has to be located at Sellafield (British Nuclear Energy Society 10).

The deep location of the site goes alongside the sense of avoiding possible avenues on which the agricultural soil layers may be polluted. Considering the assessment of the hydrogeology, it is evident that the ground water is available just 5 to 15 meters below the ground. The site has to be located 500 meters, on the minimum side, below the ground level.

This means that the site will interfere less with the hydrological cycle of the geological structure. Lack of interference to the hydrological system is an acceptable action aimed at conserving the environment for future use. The decision made in locating the site deep enough is, therefore, valid and acceptable.

Conclusion and Recommendations The paper addresses much on the preliminary assessment for the proposed geological disposal facility. It has given the breakdown of the analytical situations stating the geological characteristics of the stated Sellafield repository site.

The primary details on the location and soil structure of the proposed site played a significant role in pre-weighing the capability of the location in accommodating the constriction of the site, which involves drilling among many other processes.

The geology details give information on both the superficial and solid geology. The assessment section provides the analyzed sections and further proves the strength of the location in supporting the repository site. The choice made in constructing a deep repository site is, therefore, valid and achievable.

Works cited British Nuclear Energy Society. Radiation Dose Management In the Nuclear Industry: Proceedings of the Conference Organised by the British Nuclear Energy Society And Held In Windermere, Cumbria, On 9-11 October 1995. London: The Society, 1995.

Chaplow, Robert. “The geology and hydrogeology of Sellafield: an overview.” Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 29.1 (1996): 1-12. Print.

Entwisle, Desmond. “The relationships between effective porosity, uniaxial compressive strength and sonic velocity of intact Borrowdale Volcanic Group core samples from Sellafield.” Geotechnical

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Collaborating with Human Services Professionals Case Study cheap essay help

Abstract This essay aims to analyze particular aspects of a psychiatric case involving a woman with three children. The woman presents to a psychiatric clinic with constant fears of something bad going to happen in her life and her children being taken away from her and taken to foster care.

Selection of a Collaboration Professional for Handling Ethical and Legal Issues The case of this woman in worsening daily and there is a need for improved collaboration between several health workers to salvage the situation, as well as address the legal and ethical issues surrounding the incident. An important person to involve in the circumstance is the Registered Psychiatric Nurse (RPN).

Typically, RPNs are trained and have a comprehensive knowledge of the ethical and legal issues that pertain to psychiatric patients (James

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Organizational Informatics Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free

Abstract Organizational Informatics is the application of both Information Technology and Computer Science in handling an Organization’s matters. With the new developments in information technology and Computer Science, organizations have recorded increase in the ease of their operation, quick execution of tasks, and reduction in the operational costs.

The adoption of informatics in firms may also have adverse effects on manpower (Bloomfield, 2000). Goal attainment and supervision of staff has eased with the implementation of computerization and information technology in many organizations.

Deterioration in creativity in some industries and automation of humans are some of the adverse impacts experienced in Organizational Informatics. This dissertation seeks to ascertain some of the developments and extent of their impacts on the organizations (Nembhard, 2011).

Organization is a term that refers to a group of individuals who operate under a definite set of principles that guide them towards achieving a common goal. There are different types of organizations that may include institutions and other types of business entities. Informatics is the combination of computer science and information science (Bouwan, 2005).

Therefore, Organizational Informatics refers to the integration of information technology in handling different information related matters in an organizational setting. Organizational Informatics has a social aspect that one has to consider when analyzing various institutions.

One examines different types of organizations redefining their distinct characteristics to come up with the best information technology that best suits them. Organizational Informatics establishes the purposeful areas in the business to come up with the best ways of conveying information. It helps in enhancing the business integration of tasks in a fast and efficient manner.

Organizational Informatics broadly elucidates the diverse information-based products. It is vital to examine the different products used within an information domain (Pulver, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organizational scope is broad, and as such, there is the need to establish a product that best fits a particular organization. The rise of many organizations having different time spans for change institutes the use of flexible information technology that incorporates changes.

Nature of Organizational Informatics The Organizational Informatics tends to be problem-oriented, incorporating different rules and practices of the respective organization. The information technology of a given organization is structured to fit the functionality of the organization.

Organization’s information technology is always programmed to yield solutions to problems that an organization is likely to face. Different organizations have different problems; information infrastructure should solve the problems in an organization.

For Organizational Informatics to hold, one should hold on to the principle of framework dependency. Context dependency lays the assumption that there is a particular direction human beings have to follow regarding the occurrence of a certain event. It relies heavily on the extent of prediction.

It may not be the case because of the high chances of manipulation due to the nature of human thought. The information-seeking behaviors may vary from one person to another. There is a likelihood of having one problem facing different people and each following different directions in seeking information (Bloomfield, 2000).

Organizational Informatics being the application of information technology and computer science in organizations has greatly enhanced the functioning of organizations through an increase in interdependence among organizations (Borgman, 2000). There have been various reasons for governing different organizations, with all the reasons having the aim of enhancing success in organizations.

They also target to reduce the operational cost of the firms. However, this has recently caused a lot of contradictions. Research has shown that organizations with high information technology standards call for less labor than those without.

We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Informatics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Over the years, firms that have notably applied information technology in their operations have recorded operational ease, as well as, increased productivity. Organizational doctrines and processes can also be clearly outlined with the use of information technology.

Many of the functions within organizations have been automated through the use of computers. In the accounting organizational environments, computation has transformed and eased through the use of computers (Bouwan, 2005). Computers have made the operations fast.

Calculations of large amounts of numeric data occur within seconds, unlike, previous times. Implementation of information technology has improved interactions between organizations.

Lesser labor is required due to the use of computers. The development of Informatics has fostered the development of the current organizations. The current development of social media being used as a tool for passing information to organizations has positively improved the passage of information.

The emergence and upgrading of information technology have fostered development in organizations. The older systems in organizations are always being replaced the newer ones that suit the needs of an organization. Integration system is also another better area under consideration regarding organizations.

Software like SAP has been used; it intensifies the passage of information across an organization while permitting many parameters to be modified. It helps in integration of operations of an organization having advanced administrative centralization to come up with the diverse parameters across the organization’s geographical locations having decentralized activities (Bloomfield, 2000).

The yields in organizations have incessantly enhanced following the integration of informatics. Incorporation of geospatial mapping application has also helped in tracking the locations of the organization’s manpower. Running any site on the internet on behalf of the organization is monitored following the use of IP addresses hence increasing transparency with the organizations (Bouwan, 2005).

The information passed to any method via a computer can be easily tracked, and thus minimizing the chances of passing malicious information in the organization. Organizations conveyance of information is thus efficient and effective with the application of informatics.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Informatics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organizational Structure Organizations are structured differently. For this reason, the role of information technology varies. Organizations should thus redefine their roles and come up with the best method of passing the information that accomplishes their intended functions. Organizational Informatics plays a central role in making the functioning of different compartments within the organization easy.

Given the socio-technical relationship of an organization, people should learn to incorporate and administer technology in organizations. Organizational Informatics is an important trend because it simplifies human efforts, and its execution method of different roles is assured. Organizational Informatics also ensures efficient record keeping in microchips.

Organizational Informatics also explores information-based industries and the relevance of their establishment in the industry. Organizational Informatics has greatly enhanced communication within businesses. It has also improved the interrelationship between companies. Organizational Informatics application in different industries has led to increased productivity (Tracy, 2014).

Organizational Informatics aims at easing the functions within an organization. Initially, all the functions within the organizations were done manually. The communication within the organizations was mainly verbal or in writing. Incorporation of technology has significantly enhanced the functioning of the organizations. It takes a few seconds to communicate with employees within a given firm through the use of email.

Record management has also been boosted following the storage of information on computer hard drives. The retrieval of information has also been improved since there is no need for accessing very many files. It only calls for typing the name of the document in the search bar of the computer (Schwartz, 2000). The application of technology in organizations targets to effectively improve communication within different organizations.

Some organizations are business entities, and as such, communication is imperative in promoting business to business relationships. Use of emails and other forms of information technology-based communications improves placing of orders and paying for the same. For this reason, information promotes the sales of businesses.

Organizational Design Organizational design explains the way the organization’s administration achieves the efficient combination of all the sections/departments to move in the same direction of achieving the set goals with respect to the uncertainty in the external environment. Organizational entails a critical examination of the workflow, administration, and duties allocation to ensure their conformity with the objectives of the organization.

A good organizational design creates an enabling environment for the execution of the tasks to achieve the goals of the organization efficiently. Organizational design aids communication, productivity and innovation within an organization (Nembhard, 2011). Different sections of the design can be linked together through the use of the appropriate communication channels to accomplish satisfactory performance.

Organizations should overcome the barriers to effective communication at all the times to ensure continued quality in all its undertakings. Organizational planning is a key to effectual design. Proper planning of the flexible design that totally utilizes the available labor and resources is essential in organizations.

The information helps in the accomplishment of the functionality of a good organizational design. Organizational Informatics has eased the functioning between different sections of the design. Quick dissemination of information has facilitated the implementation of various responsibilities of manpower in the organizations (Bloomfield, 2000).

Management Aspects Effective organizational management entails; exercising authority, making things happen, prioritizing, using control, problem-solving, and decisiveness. Organizational Informatics has enhanced the organizational management aspects.

The managers in an organization can use control easily following the automation of the processes. Technology has facilitated the achievement of results within an organization through the use of systems that increase the ease (Tracy, 2014).

The exercise authority has enhanced with the application of information technology in the organizations. Automation of processes in organizations has boosted prioritizing of tasks that have led to increased yields. Technology has resulted in efficient problem-solving in organizations through the use of systems that precisely analyze problems and provide the way out.

Decision making is also another critical development trend in organizations following the application of Organizational Informatics. Management of organizations has been enhanced through the use of Organizational Informatics (Bloomfield, 2000).

Technology Infrastructure Technology infrastructure refers to all the aspects involved in facilitating effecting of various organizations’ processes with the use of technical appliances. Technology infrastructure has eased the organization’s functions. Through the application of the relevant technology, organizations have seen betterment in information passage. Information processing in organizations has currently assumed a faster pace.

Use of computers and microchips has facilitated data storage and faster retrieval. Technology infrastructure has enabled bulk data transmission from one department to another within or outside the organization (Antonelli, 2009). It has also improved the organization’s public image through websites ads. Technology infrastructure has led to a reduction in the management costs within organizations.

Technology infrastructure is an important development in the management of organizations in the current world. It has made the organizations calculate their success in advance and, as a result, the establishment of their profit/loss. Developments in technological infrastructure have led to an improvement in surveillance in the organizations and increased productivity; as a result (Antonelli, 2009).

Information Infrastructure Information infrastructure is also an important element in the understanding of Organizational Informatics. Information infrastructure refers to everything that facilitates the flow and processing of information. Information infrastructure is conscientious in planning all the aspects of any given type of organization (Borlase, 2012). It enables fast and reliable method of passing information to the organizations.

The information passed through computers can be recorded for future references. Incorporation of technology in information infrastructure has led to reliability in the means of communication within organizations. The passing of information from one section to the other is enhanced through the use of technology.

Organizations can also reach their customers with ease through the application of technical appliances. Information infrastructure boosts the organization’s performance and increases the overall output of the organization (Bloomfield, 2000).

Learning In the context of organizations; learning can be defined as the transfer of knowledge (information) to personnel. Organizational Informatics has facilitated learning. Organizational learning is attained through acquirement, distribution, elucidation, and storage of information. Learning enables efficient information processing reciprocating effectual functioning and performance of organizations (Schwartz, 2000).

The emergence of many challenges in the information dissemination within the organization has cultivated the stakeholders’ decisions aim at ensuring continued learning. Adoption of new technology in organizations has also called for advancement in the knowledge of personnel.

Learning in organizations can also be attributed to the inventions of newer information systems. The need for the organizational best performance calls for learning to enable discovery of the best practices (Kirwan, 2013).

Remembering Remembering can be understood from the concept of organizational memory. Organizational memory can be defined as the process of reconstituting the past projects processes into the present ones.

Remembering makes an organization to avoid duplication of efforts and as well as enhancing reliable decision making through access to the same information by all the personnel. Computers have improved the memory of organizational processes and storage of information (Schwartz, 2000).

Sense-making The information that is transmitted within an organization should be measurable in the domain of sense-making. Organizational Informatics has improved the conveyance of sensible information.

The development of the technology has made the information systems to adopt a better method that ensures the data is well examined to hold meaning. Use of different software has facilitated sense-making in information (Kirwan, 2013).

Significance of Information Information is an important aspect in organizations. Information can also be defined, as the transfer of data from one person to another within the organization or from one firm to another (Pulver, 2009). The use of modern Organizational Informatics has eliminated the chances of data/information distortion from one person to the other.

Information is only passed through the use of internet/system supported platforms making distortion an error of extinct. Information systems improve the communication within different areas in the organization. The passage of information is fast through the use of emails in the organization leading to a more rapid handling of tasks in the organization.

The information enhances the decision making in the organizations. An organization that has up-to-date information can comfortably make its decisions concerning different issues that need an appropriate action (Nembhard, 2011). Organizational Informatics helps the managers to make the appropriate decisions through the use of systems that integrate information and calculate the outcomes of each decision.

Organizational Informatics also provides alternative decisions on particular situations. Information also improves the operations of an organization. Availability of necessary information that can be applied in different organizational scenarios improves on the organizational activities. Organizational Informatics has led to the reformation of the organizational operations and improved performance.

Sharing of information in Organizations leads to coordination of efforts towards achieving the set goals. It also enables the passage of knowledge concerning the handling of the organizational matters/procedures.

Computerization of the organization’s operations has cultivated improvement in related information processes that have led to high-quality work. Computer systems are precisely programmed to tackle specific tasks, and thus reducing the chances of failure in attaining the desired results.

Computerization has fostered record-keeping by different agencies. The entire firm’s related information is stored on the hard drives or sometimes in microchips.

The filing system is maintained for reference. Electronic storage of information makes retrieval easy; saving the time that could be otherwise have been wasted trying to go through all the hard copy files. More time is saved and can be dedicated to undertaking other productive tasks in the organization. Computerization, therefore, makes work easier and improves information storage and retrieval (Bouwan, 2005).

Conclusion Organizational Informatics has aided in improving the passage of information within an organization. Organization’s success can be ensured through the betterment of its communication. Proper and easier methods and tools of communication have increased the ease of the passage of information from one party to the other.

The dissemination of information in an organization is a parameter that enables effective and efficient goal attainment. Use of internet in organizational settings has improved communication within various departments. It has also led to the absorption of the best labor force in organizations and thus increasing the productivity of the organizations.

Computerization of organization functions has resulted in increased ease of carrying out operations in the organizations, and, as a result, an increment in the yields of organizations. Organizations have also been able to increase their output significantly while at the same time, also experiencing greater efficiency.

Management and data handling in an organization have also improved. Initially, the management of an organization that had numerous formal was hectic. Currently, adoption of SAP software has made management easier since organizations can be managed in one central position irrespective of the many decentralized locations within a large geographical area.

Hiring and placement in organizations is currently not a great deal, following the application of information technology. Currently, discoveries in the area of information have led to the emergence of different software dealing best with the problems of various organizations. Adoption of computer science in organizations has to a large extent improved the speed, quality and lowered production cost in the operations.

There are improvements in the organizational design through the use of efficient information in the modern organizations that has led to the practical accomplishment of the organizational goals. The management aspects in organizations have also enhanced through the use of appropriate decision making.

The objectives of the organizations are attained with ease following through embarking on the principles of learning, sense-making, and remembering in organizations. The use of the best technologies in organizations has simplified information conveyance and data handling that have seen the enhancement of organizations. Informatics has improved all the aspects of the modern organization and made goal attainment an easier task.

References Antonelli, C. (2009). Technology infrastructure. London: Routledge.

Bloomfield, B. P. (2000). Information technology and organizations strategies, networks, and integration. Oxford.: Oxford University Press.

Borgman, C. L. (2000). From Gutenberg to the global information infrastructure access to information in the networked world. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Borlase, S. (2012). Smart grids infrastructure, technology, and solutions. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Bouwan, H. (2005). Information and communication technology in organizations adoption, implementation, use and effects. London: SAGE.

Kirwan, C. (2013). Making sense of organizational learning putting theory into practice. Farnham: Gower.

Nembhard, I. M. (2011). Inside the organizational learning curve understanding the organizational learning process. Boston: Now.

Pulver, D. C. (2009). Understanding the importance of information. Chicago, Ill.: Heinemann Library.

Schwartz, D. G. (2000). Internet-based organizational memory and knowledge management. Hershey, Pa.: Idea Group pub.

Tracy, B. (2014). Management. New York: AMACOM.

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Homeland Security: Future Challenges Thesis best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Research question

Purpose statement

Privacy and civil liberties

References

Introduction Homeland security in the United States still faces numerous gaps in terms of assessment, gathering, analysis, interpretation and application of intelligence information. Although the national strategy team charged with strengthening homeland security has been articulating ideas aimed at protecting the public, there are still a lot of underlying issues that demand urgent attention.

For instance, the implementation phase lacks a concise plan owing to its vagueness. In addition, several agencies adopted under the Department of Homeland Security have apparently failed to define and harmonize their missions towards effective delivery of core goals and objectives. Worse still, the relationship between the department and individual agencies is still not clear.

Most of the agencies that are supposed to be absorbed by the Department of Homeland Security are still operational. As a result, roles are being duplicated throughout the hierarchy of the security intelligence system. The department can only be effective if roles are classified from the local, state and federal government authorities.

The partnership between the public and private sectors is also instrumental in enhancing the capability of the department (Hymans 2006, 460). This research topic is of great interest because it highlights the success parameters and failure paradigms that may continue to bedevil homeland security in the future.

Research question Which national intelligence challenges that the Department of Homeland Security will continue to face in the future?

Purpose statement This paper aims to establish both the current and future intelligence challenges that the Department of Homeland Security is anticipating to face. As it stands now, it appears that the contribution of local, state and federal government authorities as well as individuals security agencies cannot be ignored if the security of this nation is to be improved (Omand 2012, 154).

While the focus of all these organs is to enhance security at all levels of governance, this paper intends to offer a succinct discussion of factors that have either promoted or hindered their performance. It will also investigate how the independent factors have been either retrogressive or progressive in the management of security affairs throughout the nation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the same note, this paper will be keen to investigate why the Department of Homeland Security has jeopardized the operations and effectiveness of certain independent agencies and whether this trend is bound to persist in the future (Puyvelde 2013, 140).

In any case, do local authorities require any assistance from FEMA especially when handling emergencies? What is the performance of First Responders in regards to national security and intelligence affairs? These are some of the questions that this paper seeks to answer.

Moreover, the Customs Service and its working relationship with the Department of Homeland Security has been a major area of contention in the past (Honig 2007, 710). The process of gathering intelligence data may be bewildering especially if the Customs Service cannot access intelligence system of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

Owing to the crucial intelligence role played by the service, this essay explores myriads of possibilities through which the organ can either duplicate or impede the roles of DHS.

It might still be cumbersome to point out whether the Customs Service should assume extra responsibilities under the confines of the Department of Homeland Security. The essay also investigates the intelligence capability and downfalls of the Customs Service when it comes to defending and propping the key functions of DHS (Champion 2005, 1675).

The input of time is also considered in this essay as a major concern and challenging factor for the intelligence role of DHS (Warner 2012, 135). The paper offers a thorough discussion on the element of time and its effects in the efficiency of the Department. The impacts of time constraints have been explored from the present to future time.

In order to bring the readers in the same level of understanding, past intelligence constraints associated with time have also been examined in this paper. It is obvious that time factor is a priority area in the processes of gathering, analyzing, interpreting and utilizing intelligence information.

We will write a custom Thesis on Homeland Security: Future Challenges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The paper equally suggests the period within which the department can be revamped completely before positive changes are felt throughout the nation (Moran 2011, 698).

Some segments of pressure groups and members of the public often argue that the Department of Homeland Security has largely led to a misleading sense that the nation is secure.

As this delves deeper into the current and future challenges facing the department, it also inquires and looks into the public perception of the national intelligence system and whether their opinions are anything to go by. For instance, can the rising acts of terrorism be stopped at bay the department?

Privacy and civil liberties On a final note, the paper also proposes and outlines the various evolution phases that the DHS intelligence system must pass through. It is vital to mention that a major transformation of the DHS intelligence might not be an option especially in the wake of sophisticated terror schemes of the 21st century (Agrell 2012, 119).

Towards the end of the essay, the paper recaps the main ideas discussed and equally elaborates the effects of the aforementioned revolutions in the sanctity of privacy and civil liberties

References Agrell, Wilhelm. 2012. “The Next 100 Years? Reflections on the Future of Intelligence.” Intelligence and National Security 27, no. 1 (June): 118-132.

Champion, Christopher. 2005. “The Revamped FISA: Striking a Better Balance between the Government’s Need to protect itself and the fourth amendment.” Vanderbilt Law Review 58, no. 5 (October):1671-1703.

Honig, Or Arthur. 2007. “A new direction for theory-building in intelligence studies.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence 20, no. 4 (August): 699-716.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Homeland Security: Future Challenges by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hymans, Jacques. 2006. “Theories of nuclear proliferation: The state of the field.” Nonproliferation Review 13, no. 3 (May): 455-465.

Moran, Christopher, 2011. “Intelligence and the Media: The press, government secrecy and the ‘Buster’ Crabb Affair.” Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 5 (October): 676-700.

Omand, David. 2012. “Into the Future: A Comment on Agrell and Warner.” Intelligence and National Security 27, no. 1(November): 154-156.

Puyvelde, Damien. 2013. “Intelligence Accountability and the role of public interest groups in the United States.” Intelligence and National Security 28, no. 2 (May): 139-158.

Warner, Michael. 2012. “Reflections on Technology and Intelligence Systems.” Intelligence and National Security 27, no. 1 (July): 133-153.

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School Library Report a level english language essay help

Abstract The report was commissioned by the School Principal to document how the school library will be used as a learning space and resource centre to accommodate twenty-first-century learning. It was informed by the ongoing technological changes in the information age and their impacts on learning and reading.

A careful review of pedagogical developments, changes to information landscape, curriculum and learning needs, technological issues and the need for physical and virtual learning spaces was conducted. Leadership capabilities of the teacher-librarian and other staff were also reviewed.

The findings showed the need to provide the required resources to transform the library to meet needs of young learners and other patrons. It was concluded that the school library would be modernised to support learning and reading in the 21st century.

Rationale Given the transformations in the learning environment occasioned by the changing informational landscape and developments in technology, the School Principal requested for a report that documents how the school library will be used as a learning space and resource centre to accommodate twenty-first-century learning.

Changes in information landscape and developments in technology have led to scrutiny of the role of libraries and librarians.

It is recognised that Web-based contents, including eBooks and other online learning materials have transformed the information landscape for readers while electronic media such as digital reading devices have influenced how readers get and consume learning materials. These developments have transformed the dynamics of library activities and mission.

Modern libraries offer wireless services, Internet services and provide computers for visitors to enhance studying, collaboration, research and readership. These are onsite services. They also provide online access to various digitised learning materials from archives, offer eBooks, audiobooks, music, videos and other materials available on digital platforms.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The roles of teacher librarians and other support staff have dramatically changed. Teacher librarians in this changing information landscape and digital age find themselves offering access, guidance and training to users on both materials found physically and online. In addition, teacher-librarians must remain on “the leading-edge of the vast digital databases available”.

The School Principal has recognised these transformations and noted that the Internet has brought about changes to roles of the library and teacher librarians in schools. The school library must, therefore, adjust to accommodate them.

The school library must be more relevant than ever before, enhance student personal growth, promote reinvention of learning, help learners navigate learning materials in the information age and continue to play the role of collecting and preserving materials and information that relate to culture while promoting civic and cultural engagement.

Library Vision Statement A modern library that supports learners and faculty through application of information technology to provide school curriculum resources, information services and programmes that enhance lifelong learning

The school library will achieve this vision through the following methods:

Promote early learning and a culture of reading by providing a variety of collections and resources, services and programmes that would engage young learners

Adopt modern technologies to offer enhanced access to school curriculum materials, information, services and user-teacher librarian interactive sessions

Remodel library physical space to be open and flexible for computer lab with an interactive whiteboard, an Internet browsing area, moveable lounge for informal classroom setting, discussion and collaborative learning and even additional space for chatting, eating, drinking, using mobile phones, playing computerised games, watching videos and talking in the common areas. These changes would meet the dynamic changing needs, other library patrons, services and develop interests of learners.

Change the virtual space to make learning resources available to learners 24/7

Collect and preserve rich Australian history and culture and make the heritage available to society

Through these new ideas, the school library will provide a learning space that would ensure that learners and learning are more productive and successful in the long-term. It is believed that the library learning space will provide capabilities to meet new learning paradigm, needs and expectations of the technology-savvy learners.

Thus, the school library, as a critical component of the learning space, must be redesigned to optimise learning outcomes in the age of information technology and changing information landscape.

We will write a custom Report on School Library specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strategic Planning Pedagogical developments/educational change and changes to the information landscape

In Australia, like any other developed countries, pedagogical developments or educational changes are mainly driven by developments in technologies that support teaching and learning. These technologies have transformed instructional and content delivery modes through multimedia platforms.

Within the context of teaching and learning, media platforms provide the means to create, store and delivery instructional contents. These platforms include books, computers, chalk, projectors, document cameras, video projection, slide projectors, audio systems, and a combination of sound and video systems.

In addition, there are latest mobile devices such as Kindle reader, iPad and Google Nexus, among others. Multimedia instructional tools combine most of these elements to deliver instructional contents. Today, computer-based technologies have shaped multimedia for learning and teaching and even created virtual learning spaces.

The Australian Curriculum has undergone reforms to reflect new realities in the education system with the aim of strengthening the Melbourne Declaration. Within the context of resourcing, it emphasises the need to collect learning resources and equipment, organise, enhance accessibility and circulation of different school learning resources.

Second, the Australian Curriculum wants to ensure provision of resources and information for the general community. Third, it promotes accessibility of learning contents and maximum flexibility by ensuring that materials are well organised and accessible through various platforms, including online.

The school library will have a critical role to play in this new dispensation. It will continue to collect, organise and provide learning resources, materials and information in ways that meet demands of different learners, including traditional or Web-based modes (Brown, 2000).

Teacher librarians and other library personnel must continue to play their roles as experts in information who organise, acquire and retrieve learning resources and materials for various library patrons. At the same time, they must recognise their new roles within the ongoing developments to be:

Not sure if you can write a paper on School Library by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More innovative

Apply technologies in different ways to deliver resources and services

Conduct research on usability

Engage in other broader roles such as resource management, training, advisory, and selector and information technology experts among others.

Changes to the information landscape have been gradual but have transformed learning and reading. The school library will have to maintain its relevance by providing learning resources and materials in formats that meet needs of different library patrons.

Major issues that need to be addressed in terms of both curriculum and learning needs in a 21st century setting

The Australian Curriculum has established consistent national standards to enhance learning outcomes for all young learners. It highlights contents, expected achievements, contents to be taught and subsequent progresses.

It reflects aspects of future learning, growth and enhanced learner and community participation. However, there are impending gaps that must be addressed by the school to implement the curriculum. They are priority areas for teacher librarians.

It is difficult to tell whether the library meets the need of the community by providing locally relevant contents that support the Australian Curriculum in addition to other diverse needs of individual learners and the school. This is highlighted in the Shape of the Australian Curriculum 2.0.

Currently, sharing and reusing of readily available curriculum contents is generally low. The teacher-librarian will be encouraged to make the most use of available learning materials and resources. The school library will have to encourage the curriculum planning and resourcing to reduce costs associated with additional investments in selection, organisation and access on different platforms.

Access to all curriculum resources has been poor. Teacher librarians will have the key role of assisting library patrons to find curriculum resources.

While the current Australian Curriculum was agreed upon to meet current needs, it is not known whether the curriculum continues to reflect ongoing changes in the information landscape and learning needs.

It is difficult to ascertain the extent to which the current Curriculum can engage learners. Teacher librarian should assess the level of engagement.

Learners come from diverse backgrounds influenced by socioeconomic factors, and not all of them are technology savvy and therefore engaging them with technologies could be a challenge.

Learning resources may not be adequately distributed in the current school library set up, i.e., there might be few learning resources available for a given subject, class or faculty.

Issues related to technology (includes virtual services and environment)

The school must address certain technology deficiencies in order to create a library that will be used as a learning space and resource centre to accommodate twenty-first-century learning. The current school library system must be reviewed and updated to account for the following:

Virtual whiteboards for interactive learning

Wireless services to support virtual services and environment

Ensure that all learning resources and materials are accessible online

Create multimedia platforms for various content formats

Provide a variety of resources for different learners

The school library will mostly likely to experience the challenge of integrating various aspects of the new learning spaces.

At all times, virtual learning services and environment must remain safe for learners. Thus, cybersecurity will remain an important factor in modernising the school library.

Changes to the physical and virtual environments and learning space requirements

The school library will have to be renovated to meet emerging needs. A physical space will be provided to accommodate only relevant books. Therefore, some bookshelves will still be in the library. Empty wall spaces will be effective for accommodating these shelves.

The open floor will be created into a learning space to serve different learners and patrons. The open space will ensure flexibility for other roles. Several subdivisions will be created, including a computer lab area with a whiteboard, an Internet surfing section, semi-permanent lounges for informal classrooms or discussions and areas for collaboration.

In addition, there will be additional common spaces for even chatting, eating, drinking, using mobile phones, playing computerised games, watching videos and talking. Specific numbers of learners for every space will be determined based on space availability.

The library will have a multimedia lab mainly for IT learning. It will have video production, digitisation, and music production space. This will ensure that the school library can produce its own multimedia learning materials. This would meet both consumption and creation roles of the library.

The school library will ensure that a virtual library is created to meet the increasing need for digital contents. The online public access catalogues and adoption of various learning apps such as Google Apps for Education will aid the school library in delivering such contents. This would ensure that learning contents are available to library patrons 24/7.

For learners who may not have devices such as Nexus, iPad or Kindle Reader for online contents, the library may offer some devices to drive the initiative. It is believed that virtual space will enhance learner involvement and empower them to perform better because they will have opportunities to control their learning spaces.

The leadership capacities of personnel who will be involved and their specific abilities and responsibilities

It is expected that teacher-librarians will have the expertise, skills and experiences to meet the needs of the school library. On this note, teacher librarians will possess:

Leadership and managerial qualities to drive the intended changes

Thorough professional knowledge of Australia’s standards for library and information management

Curriculum advisory roles

Information professional and resource management skills

Skills as educators

Extensive knowledge on acquiring, organising and retrieving vital elements of the Australian Curriculum

In addition, there are other roles, which teacher librarians may perform, but not mandatory. On this note, the school library will account for emerging roles in the library by providing new staff.

Library patrons’ trainers

Internet trainers, technology advisors and troubleshooting technicians

Network administrators

Cataloguers

Strategic Implementation The School Principal will provide the overall leadership, management and administrative roles to ensure that the entire change process is successful. Teacher librarians will play critical roles in driving the change and they are “best personnel to take the school library into the information age”. The teacher librarian must possess the following skills.

Comprehension of appropriate pedagogies and learning styles

Collaborative, teaching practices and assistance to faculty with the curriculum implementation

Develop new information strategies for enhanced learning outcomes

Assess learner use of library services to improve programmes

Effective library management

Ensure cataloguing standards, metadata use, and database retrieval expertise

Library technicians would assist to ensure successful change process.

Observe operational and technical elements of library roles, including maintenance of all systems to ensure acquisition, organisation, storage and management of learning resources and the library.

Greater collaboration is expected from learners, faculty members and other stakeholders in the library during this change process.

For resources and other technical aspects, the school library must evaluate its current capabilities, identify areas of weaknesses, and mitigate these weaknesses for change.

Summary of Final Recommendations The school library must be developed to be used as a learning space and resource centre to accommodate twenty-first century learning

Resources should be provided for this change process

The School Principal will lead the overall change process

The teacher librarian will be the best personnel to transform the library and realise the new mission

References Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015). Australian Curriculum. Web.

Australian School Library Association. (2014). Statement on teacher librarian qualifications. Web.

Brown, M. (n.d). Learning Spaces. EDUCAUSE Quarterly. Web.

Brown, S. (2000). Growing up: Digital: How the web changes work, education, and the ways people learn. The Magazine of Higher Learning, 32(2), 11-20.

Brown, M. B.,

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Saudi Aramco Organisational Innovation Case Study college essay help online: college essay help online

Abstract This paper intends to look into the issue of innovation at Saudi Aramco. Progress is not merely based on the kind systems adopted by an organization. As for the case of Aramco, knowledge infrastructure has been understood to consist of technology, culture and structures. The importance of knowledge management in the organisation also needs to be backed by process architectures.

Such architectures should be able to facilitate acquisition, conversion and application of important organisational capabilities for the effective handling of the knowledge. Protection of the knowledge is another essential feature of these architectures. The main aim of intellectual capital and knowledge management need to be made clear through innovation in the organisation.

Overview and Objective of Case Study Implementation of knowledge management systems, as well as utilisation of intellectual capital in organisations does not indicate performance or progress on their own. Knowledge infrastructure in Aramco, for instance, has been indicated to consist of technology, culture and structures. The usefulness of knowledge management in the organisation should also be backed by process architectures.

The architectures should facilitate acquisition, conversion and application of important organisational capabilities for the effective management of the knowledge. Protection of the knowledge is another essential feature of these architectures.

The ultimate results of intellectual capital and knowledge management should be made apparent through organisational innovation. The following study explores Saudi Aramco organisational innovation.

The Concept of Organisational Innovation In the modern world, all business have to be aware of the term innovation and how they can apply it in their operations. According to Abdi and AmatSenin (2014), innovation entails creativity. Innovation involves taking action with regard to creative ideas. The successful execution of creative ideas within any particular organisation results to innovation (Dadfara, Dahlgaarda, Bregea

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Technological Challenges in Managing CSR Research Paper college application essay help

Introduction The persuasive power of corporate social responsibility (CSR) comes from the notion that it helps members of an organisation become good actors and take part in morally worthy activities. It makes them feel that they are working towards being the ideal persons in their communities. It also helps employees become better at performing their duties.

Nevertheless, most companies fail to achieve the goal of appropriate employee and other stakeholder engagement because they take on technological control bluntly. Rather than allow staffs and stakeholders to have relationships that are evolving and incremental, management in such companies restricts itself to the controlling role (Dai, Ng

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Measuring Poverty and Social Exclusion in Australia Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Social exclusion has become a critical theme in social policy research, discourses, formulation and implementation. The concept has gained a significant role globally, specifically in Europe and Australia where various governments have adopted it in their social policy agendas.

The paper highlights social exclusion and poverty in Australia and offers insights and challenges for the concept. It approaches the issue of social exclusion on the premise that measuring poverty is critical for understanding its causation and impacts on society. Therefore, policymakers can understand the kinds of initiatives required to address poverty and social exclusion.

The argument is based on critical theory and illustrations drawn from recent studies in Australia that depict that social exclusion is multifaceted but often interrelated with several other issues, such as equal opportunity, marginalisation, substance abuse and crime among others. In addition, there is a relationship between social exclusion and poverty.

Arthurson and Jacobs (2004) noted that the concept of social exclusion has brought about division with regard its meaning, problems associated with it and its applicability and implication for social policies, in particular within the Australian context.

Peace asserts that social exclusion is a ‘contested term’ (Peace 2001). Discourses over social exclusion go beyond narrow definitions and measurements. It focuses on broader perspectives of social issues with greater flexibility.

Arthurson and Jacobs (2003) have provided a simple definition of social exclusion as “an explanatory tool to understand and analyse the processes that cause poverty and inequality, compared to its use as a descriptive term to describe or label disadvantaged individuals or communities” (p. 5).

The topic, measuring poverty and social exclusion was chosen to broaden the understanding of poverty and elements of social exclusion. In addition, the paper shows that social exclusion has several indicators and has evolved within the social policy sphere and academic discourses in Australia.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A Sociological Standpoint or Perspective on Social Exclusion and Measuring Poverty Critical theory has been adopted to provide perspective on social exclusion and measuring poverty in Australia. A critical theory focuses on social issues from a critical perspective with the aim of critiquing and transforming society as a whole.

Hence, it goes beyond providing a mere explanation alone to offer solutions. It aims to dig beneath the facade of social issues to reveal postulation that inhibits society from a full and true comprehension of social challenges such as poverty and exclusion (Johnson 1995). The Frankfurt School scholars developed the critical theory.

The theory will help in understanding social exclusion and poverty because of its two core concepts. First, critical theory shall strive to provide social exclusion and poverty within the context of the totality of the society, including relevant historical elements at various points in time.

Second, the theory will enhance comprehension of society by incorporating all elements from various disciplines to explain the concept of social exclusion and poverty.

In addition, the critical theory was also chosen because it would allow the paper to explore social exclusion and poverty in an exploratory, practical and normative ways simultaneously.

In other words, the paper will explore the problem with the social exclusion and poverty, show the major stakeholders to transform them and offer both clear strategies for criticism and alternative practical solutions to change social exclusion and poverty in Australia.

Measuring Poverty and Social Exclusion According to Saunders (2003), one fundamental aspect of social exclusion is that it widens the normal framework that focuses on poverty as a deprivation of resources compared to needs. In this regard, social exclusion can be considered as a means of broadening other ways to understand the resource concept of income poverty, particularly deprived individuals in society.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Measuring Poverty and Social Exclusion in Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it is imperative for social researchers to think beyond narrow definition of poverty and more strategically on how further studies on social exclusion and poverty could result into greater influences on policymakers and to ensure social inclusion.

In the recent past, the social exclusion debate has gained attention because of several high profile conflicts that have taken place due to measurements of statistical trends in poverty and other specific measurable indicators for the concept itself (Saunders 2003).

As a result, many researchers on poverty issues have not reached a consensus on the measurement of poverty and specific poverty data because the current data are viewed with suspicion among the public. In addition, policy elites, who have abandoned the use of the ‘p word’, have demonstrated elements of contempt towards poverty statistics and measurement of poverty (Saunders 2003).

The Howard Government abolished the use of the ‘p word’ to refer to poverty in Australia (Saunders 2008). The approach, however, was not well informed. Instead, it focused on a narrow idea of encouraging economic participation with a focus on encouraging employment. In addition, the government had failed to develop a concrete policy response to the McClure Report.

The report’s goal was to ensure reforms in the “welfare system to lessen social and economic exclusion” (Saunders 2008, p. 71). On the other hand, the subsequent government adopted the concept of social inclusion in its policy framework (Saunders 2008). In this regard, the government has recognised that some citizens are still living in poverty in Australia though the word itself had been banished or remained unspoken.

In the year 2008, the Australian government declared that it would develop a new framework to promote social inclusion. Consequently, it has created a Social Inclusion Unit to promote a wider consultation and develop social policies that would address issues of marginalisation and exclusion.

The major areas of focus have been “homelessness, mental health and Indigenous health, which have raised issues of exclusion and inclusion” (Saunders 2008, p. 73).

In Australia, the poor have not been associated with a specific homogenous social grouping. That is, there are many strata of the poor and one must comprehend that poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, static descriptions of poverty may not give clear situations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Measuring Poverty and Social Exclusion in Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are sections of the poor with varied cases and such a definition may obscure the primary aspects of poverty, specifically the progress of poverty on individuals, households and long-term outcomes.

Poverty is multifaceted, undergoes changes, and is not merely a lack of income. Social exclusion aims to address issues that poverty has failed to capture. It recognises that poverty is not a homogenous phenomenon characterised by a lack of income relative to individuals’ needs.

Dimensions of Social Exclusion Several poverty researchers have focused on assessing the value of social exclusion. Consequently, many have argued that the relevance of social exclusion can be noted in its emphasis on the diverse dimensions of daily aspects of life characterised by inequalities (Arthurson

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Public Transport Infrastructure in Australia Expository Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Facilitating the communication between different elements of the city infrastructure is a crucial task, and the transportation system is what the success of communication hinges on.

With the integration of improved transportation system principles into the infrastructure of Melbourne, the environment for purring the growth of local SMEs has been created. Affecting the PPP (public–private partnership) market on an internal level, the changes within the transportation system have incorporated the key principles of the Australian economy and, thus, contribute to the advance of the Australian market.

The most obvious changes made to the Australian transportation system so far, the alterations in the process of decision making process must be mentioned.

With the incorporation of the key economic principles into the supervision of the transportation processes, a rapid increase in the flexibility of the transportation processes for all parties involved (Australian Government vi). The decision making process, therefore, has been shifted towards the reduction of financial risks and the proper distribution of liabilities among the parties.

The recent suggestion of integrating the key economic concepts into the improvement of the city infrastructure has triggered the necessity to reinvent the cost assessment strategies.

At present, the traditional CBA approach allows for estimating the approximate revenue that the Australian government and the local SMEs, as well as major entrepreneurships, are going to attain with the incorporation of the new transportation principles into the city infrastructure, is rather viable.

The new approach, however, will require a rearrangement of financial resources, since the costs for the issues related to transportation, are expected to be cut: “By reducing the comparative cost of public transport as compared to driving, we will encourage more people to use the public transport that is closest to them” (Department of Transport, Planning and Local Transportation (Planning) 101).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, with the integration of the economic principles integrated into the projects related to public transportation, the CBA analysis is most likely to be shaped considerably, with a significant shift of the emphasis onto the economic profitability of the avenues chosen and an impressive benefit acquired from the transportation fees assigned by the new principles of transportation regulation (Department of Treasury and Finance 15).

The positive changes, which the inclusion of the key economic principles into the city infrastructure in general and the system of transportation in particular will supposedly be delivered, also concern the transparency of the financial transactions carried out in the course of the transportation process.

There is no secret that the incorporation of economic concepts into the public transportation processes may lead to considerable ethical issues, including the possibility of money laundering, bribes, etc.

In order to prevent the possibility of compromising the integration of economy and transportation in Australia, it will be necessary to design a system allowing for complete and uncompromising transparency of the financial transactions within the transportation sphere.

Particularly, the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) requires especial transparency. More to the point, the key “institutional and governance arrangements” (Australian Government 6) also need to у as transparent as possible so that the tiniest issues could be located immediately and addressed accordingly.

The concept of public–private partnership is not new to the Australian government. Allowing for a considerable flexibility, the specified approach was been in use for quite a while in a range of Australian regions, including Victoria, New South Wales, etc. (Regan and Smith 365).

Largely defined as toll roads, PPPs have contributed to the evolution of the state economy, as the toll that travellers are supposed to pay makes an impressive chunk of the state budget and is used for the development of the state economy. Therefore, it can be assumed that the implications of applying economic concepts to the projects related to transportation in Australia should be deemed as rather worthy.

We will write a custom Essay on Public Transport Infrastructure in Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Naturally, the specified approach is far from being flawless.

As much space as it provides for the evolution of the Australian entrepreneurship in general and the development of more elaborate logistics approaches in particular, the Plan Melbourne Metropolitan Planning Strategy has several major flaws as well, and the lack of control over the process of using the revenues from transportation as the means to advance the state economy is the key one.

It would be naïve to expect that no money laundering will occur in the process; hence, a more elaborate supervision strategy must be designed. A specific system of reporting can be used as the basis for possible bias prevention.

Despite some of the bias related to the overly optimistic expectations, the success of the new transportation system due to its relation to the economic principles that the Australian private entrepreneurship is guided by is obvious.

The ostensible inconsistency with the standards that are traditionally applied to the assessment of the transportation efficacy in Europe and the USA does not seem to affect the success of the Australian infrastructure update.

More to the point, the changes applied to the Melbourne infrastructure open new opportunities for SMEs and major corporations’ evolution due to a stronger emphasis on the economic aspects of the solutions provided.

Works Cited Australian Government. “Productivity Commission Inquiry Report Volume 1.” Commonwealth of Australia. 2014. Web.

Department of Transport, Planning and Local Transportation (Planning). “A More Connected Melbourne.” Plan Melbourne. Melbourne, AU: Department of Transportation. 81–109. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Transport Infrastructure in Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Department of Treasury and Finance. Economic Evaluation for Business Cases Technical Guidelines. Melbourne, AU: Department of Treasury and Finance. 2013. Web.

Regan, Michael and Jim Smith. “Infrastructure Procurement: Learning from Private – Public Partnership Experiences Down Under’.” Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 29 (2011), 363–378. Print.

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Shell Canada Company Organisational Development Process Research Paper argumentative essay help

Executive Summary Organisational development is a process which entails continuous improvement of organisational procedures through designing and implementing effective organisational change. It can also refer to a scientific field of inquiry where scholars investigate and come up with recommendations on how to develop organisations both in the public and private sector.

The implementation of organisational change is accompanied by management of the change for it to be successful. If change is not managed properly, it may backfire or disrupt organisational stability. There are two theoretical perspectives to organisational change and they include evolutionary and teleological perspectives.

Resistance to organisational change is a major stumbling block to organisational development and as a result, organisations need to come up with strategies of dealing with resistance to organisational change.

Shell Canada is an example of organisations which have recently implemented organisational change through restructuring. Even though the change was successful, there were some elements of resistance which the organisation managed to overcome.

Introduction This paper is based on the topic of organisational development. It seeks to explore management of organisational change by looking at the theoretical perspectives to organisational change, resistance to organisational change, and how to deal with the resistance.

The paper uses Shell Canada as an example to demonstrate how change can be implemented and how to deal with issues of resistance. The objective of the paper therefore is to establish the link between organisational development and management of organisational change.

It is argued that effective management of organisational change is a major strategy of organisational development. The reason is that if change is managed properly, the resistance to the change is minimised and as a result, organisations are able to realise the much needed growth and attain their mission and vision.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature Review There are two main theoretical models of explaining and conceptualising organisational change namely the evolutionary and the teleological models. The major distinction between the two is the manner in which they address the issue of determinism in the change process.

The evolutionary model relies heavily on determinism in explaining organisational change while the teleological model does not. However, both models tend to conceptualise organisational change as a linear and rational process which occurs due to forces which are internal or external to organisations. Each of the models has several other approaches of explaining and conceptualising organisational change.

One similarity between the two models is that they both anticipate first and second order change, with first order change being reversible and second order change being irreversible. First order change usually aims at restoring equilibrium in organisations.

When organisations implement first order change, they do not intend to introduce new things nor are they interested in learning anything from the change but they are solely interested in maintaining the status quo, which in many cases is associated with resistance to organisational change.

Second order change is the reverse of first order change and is characterised by introduction of new procedures and adoption of different approaches in organisations. The change is necessitated by the failure of existing procedures to help organisations meet their objectives.

The leaders of organisations therefore think of new ways of doing things so as to stay on course in meeting their objectives. With second order change, employees learn new ideas, skills, and techniques and apply them to transform their organisations from dormant to vibrant entities in terms of meeting organisational goals and objectives.

Evolutionary Model of Organisational Change

The major assumption of this model is that change in organisations depends on the situations and environments in which organisations operate. The model has its origin from the natural selection theory which was adopted in organisational change with the philosophy that change is always happening and no force can effectively prevent it from happening (Armenakis

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Quality Manuals in Orbital Traction Analytical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Costly in terms of resources

Quality Manual Analysis

Product realization

Design and development

The position of quality manual at Orbital Traction

Conclusion

References

Introduction The aim of the study is to analyse the statement that “quality manuals are a waste of time, they take too long to prepare and don’t make any difference to the quality of the product” based on the Orbital Traction case study (Ai 8).

Orbital Traction is a company that manufactures high quality products using different quality manual standards that apply across each department of the company for quality assurance (Bronson

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Class Size Matters Argumentative Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Arguments for Small Classes

Arguments against Small Classes

The Position of the Researcher

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction There has been a raging debate as to whether or not class size is important in defining the value of education in the learning institutions. Some stakeholders have argued that class size plays an important role in determining the quality of education that learners get. According to Hacsi (45), class size is very important when looking for quality learning process. This view is held by various educationists.

However, there are those who believe that with the invention of assistive technologies in the education sector, class size may not be an important factor in determining the quality of learning. This school of thought has increasingly become relevant in the recent past following the rapid development of technology in the education sector.

This research will review both arguments by reviewing scholarly works and the arguments made by educators and other professionals in this field. The researcher seeks to determine the truth behind the argument that small classes are important in improving the quality of education.

Arguments for Small Classes There has been a massive support for small class sizes as a way of improving the quality of education. According to Ozmon (47), there was almost a near unanimous belief among the stakeholders in the education sector that small classes help in improving the quality of education.

In order to understand the benefits gained from the small classes, it is important to look at the specific stakeholders who directly benefit from having small classes. According to Finn (73) small classes are very beneficial to learners in various ways. Having small sized classes make it easy for the learners to have a close attention to their teachers.

The increased accessibility of the teachers makes it easy for the learners to address the specific problems with the teachers that would improve the learning process. A student would find it easy to talk to the teacher and ask the relevant questions when a concept is not clearly understood. A student is also able to discuss the personal issues that are relevant to the leaning process with the teachers.

This will make it possible to identify the personal or family issues that may affect the learning process. Small class size also eliminates the scramble for resources within the classes. In crowded classrooms, learners are forced to struggle for such facilities as the learning materials and even seats.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is very different when it comes to a small class size. When the size of the class is small, it is easy to distribute these resources to ensure that that every learner is taken care of effectively.

Teachers benefit a lot when they are assigned the small sized classes. According to Clauss (61), every teacher is always determined to ensure that his or her learners excel in their exams. They have the desire to have a team of successful students who may have positive impacts on the society in future.

Having small class sizes makes it easy to achieve success. A teacher is given an opportunity to have a close relationship with the individual learners. This way, he or she is able to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the individual learners. Small classes are always manageable. It is easier to mark the works of the learners and engage them individually whenever it is apparent that a concept is still not clear.

According to Blatchford (66), there are cases when a teacher may need to interact closely with the parents or guardians, especially when dealing with the students with special needs. This may not be possible when handling classes with large sizes. When given a manageable class, a teacher may plan on when to meet these parents so that the problems of the learners can be addressed both at home and in school.

Finn (35) says that teachers also find it easy to share the school facilities when the population is small. It is easy to assign these resources to small groups to share than when dealing with a large population.

The parents may also benefit from small class sizes for their children.

The research by Bray (33) reveals that most parents are unable to follow the progress of their children in school. In most of the cases, there is no direct contact between parents and teachers. This has been blamed on the large class sizes that make it difficult for the teachers to understand their students.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Class Size Matters specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When a parent comes to follow up on the performance of their children, it takes time before being able to talk with the concerned teachers. When the parents finally get the opportunity to talk to the teacher, it is common to find that the teacher knows very little or nothing about the learner. This is an unpleasant experience that makes some of the parents to avoid regular visits to these schools.

The school’s administration also benefits a lot when the sizes of the classes are small. According to Clauss (76), when handling small classes, the administration will find it easy to monitor and control the behavior of the learners. There are cases where learners have gone on rampage, destroying properties and inflicting injuries on their colleagues or members of the public. Sometimes this may even lead to death.

The main reason why this may easily occur is because of large classes that are not easy to control. A group of educationists who were interviewed by Finn (62) revealed that the administration always find it challenging to manage the discipline of learners when the classes are crowded.

However, small classes make it easy for the administrators to detect the problems early enough. This way, the problems get to be addressed early enough before they can escalate into major administrative issues. The administration may also benefit from such classes when developing strategic plans for the schools. The small class sizes make it easy to identify the areas that need to be addressed.

Arguments against Small Classes Despite the above arguments about class sizes, there are those who believe that a class size may not be an issue when addressing the quality of education in the learning institutions. According to Bray (23), as long as the classroom is not crowded, and that the teacher has the capacity to reach his or her audience within the classroom, issues about the size may not be problematic.

This view is shared by Blatchford (44) who says that the emergence of technology solves many problems in the education sector that existed before. When the classes are considerably large, a teacher can use the public address system. This eliminates the fear that some of the learners may not be in a position to get what the teacher says.

There are cases where learners use video conferencing in order to reach their students in various parts of the world. Video conferencing eliminates some of the problems that exist in a physical classroom set-up. This means that the issue of small class size is no longer a problem in the education sector. Blatchford (56) says that in many cases, critiques have failed to look at the benefits of large class sizes.

There are some benefits that come with such large class sizes. It is common to find a variety of talents that may be beneficial to the learning process. When the learners are allowed to interact in such environments, they are able to address some of their personal problems that may hinder their learning processes.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Class Size Matters by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Position of the Researcher Upon the review of different views of various scholars, educationists, and other professionals in the education sector it has come out clearly that class size matters when addressing the issue of quality in the education sector.

The arguments demonstrate that the only way of having a close teacher student relationship is to have the manageable class sizes. When the classes are crowded, learners are forced to scramble for the few resources which are available, making it difficult to have a quality learning environment.

Conclusion The discussion above clearly demonstrates that there are those who believe that class size is important while others have a contrary opinion. However, the researcher believes that the arguments given by the supporters of small class sizes have a stronger foundation.

Even with the emerging technologies, it is still important to have manageable class sizes. It is only through this that the teachers can have a direct interaction with the learners. Other stakeholders such as the school administrations and parents also benefit from such small class sizes.

Works Cited Blatchford, Peter. The Class Size Debate. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International Ltd, 2007. Print.

Bray, Melissa. The Oxford Handbook of School Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.

Clauss, Ehlers. Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural School Psychology. Boston, MA: Springer, 2010. Print.

Finn, Jeremy. Taking Small Classes One Step Further. Greenwich, Conn: Information Age Pub, 2002. Print.

Hacsi, Timothy A. Children As Pawns: The Politics of Educational Reform. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2002. Print.

Ozmon, Howard. Philosophical Foundations of Education. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson, 2012. Print.

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The Role of Innovation in Business Development Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The role of innovation in business development

Conclusion

References

Introduction The pressure to develop in business comes from internal and external sources. Internally, a business entity usually wants to develop in order to exceed own previous performances.

Externally, the pressure to develop comes from different sources. Such sources include competitors, and new demands from the consumers market. Business development is defined as “the creation of long-term value for an organisation from customers, markets, and relationships” (Pollack 2012, p.1). The foregoing definition is not a standard definition but it will be used in this paper.

From the definition, it is obvious that for businesses to create long-term value, it needs to relate well with the customers and the markets. In other words, businesses need to provide the customers and market with products and services that meet prevailing consumer needs.

In a fast moving world, customer needs are changing equally fast. Consequently, business development needs to cater for changing customer and markets needs hence the need for innovation.

Innovation is defined differently by various authors. The London Innovation (cited by Fitzgerald

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Small and Medium-Size Enterprises’ IT Solutions Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction The Internet of Things (Internet of Things) will grow over the next years in application and adoption. As it grows, its associated technologies will also have to undergo major advancements to accommodate customization and scaling needs of the Internet of Things.

For example, privacy, security and semantic interoperability are all features that need further attention. In addition, other IT advancements like cloud technologies and big data, as well as future networks like in the case of proposed 5G will also have to be considered when contemplating the adoption of the Internet of Things now and in the medium-term.

For Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), the IT solutions combined with the Internet of Things, promise to enhance competitiveness and to make the daily running of businesses easy. Enhancement will come through better customer relationships, better supply chain management and relationships, as well as the provision of an affordable innovative avenue that translates to better services and products.

However, the uptake of cloud computing, big data analytics, the Internet of Things, among other features faces the hurdle of overcoming sceptical thoughts about the advancements and their actual need for SMEs (Ruggieri

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The Unequal Distribution of the Ill-health Burden Problem Solution Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction Despite nations across the world seeking solutions to the international health care problems to ensure a universal access to health care, the unequal distribution of the ill health burden continues to affect the medical sector. The high cost of medical care, the increasing disease complexities, and the unequal distribution of wealth due to the varied degrees of determinants of health, are regular health care concerns (Baldwin, 2003).

Social and economic factors, physical and environmental issues, and individual characteristic factors are important determinants of health that sometimes determine health care equality. This essay analyses the unequal distribution of the health burden between nations and within populations, and focuses on the several determinants of health as the considerable factors that determine health outcomes.

Unequal Distribution of the Ill Health Burden between Nations The distribution of ill health is disproportionate across the world because the severity of the health complications depends on several economic, social, and environmental aspects. Coupled with poverty and inadequacy of health care facilities, developing countries easily face health care dilemmas from simple disease outbreaks (Baldwin, 2003).

In the developed nations, only the chronic health care problems such as cancer, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and Ebola, cause extreme fear. International health inequalities arise from the economic unfairness.

In countries with low economic stabilities, patients can easily contract simple communicable illnesses and die in the millions, because the local health care practitioners have limited expertise and health care facilities to avert the health care menaces (Bezruchka, 2010). Patients in the developed nations that have stabilized economies and competent health care workers, achieve superior health care outcomes.

While malaria is capable of causing millions of child mortalities in the developing nations due to the ineffective prenatal care and environmental issues, developed nations control this infection with ease (Bezruchka, 2010).

Communicable diseases tend to cause more fatalities than non-communicable diseases in the developing and the underdeveloped countries, because the levels of transmissions are sometimes unpreventable (Bezruchka, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the doctors in the developing and immature nations lack the resource capacity to control the easy transmission of the communicable diseases, fatalities arising from these communicable diseases are widespread.

According to Bezruchka (2010), lifestyle diseases disproportionately affect people in the stabilized economies, since their wealthy lifestyles such as alcoholism; predispose them to serious health complications such as diabetes, cancer, and heart attacks.

The Determinants of Health and Health Inequity Social and Economic Factors

Social Factors

For healthcare to be fair, the aspects of social and economic equalities are paramount. Social justice is a determinant of health care in the sense that the health outcomes of individuals in a population remain determined by several social circumstances.

Racial Discrimination- Racial prejudice can be a source of unfair access to health care and an unequal distribution of the ill health burden. In America, the segregated racial minorities face health care discrimination.

Poor Housing- bad housing and poor housing conditions as significant social aspects predispose individuals to health risks that come with the health complication that prove difficult to handle due to poverty.

Poor Sanitation- Sanitation as a social amenity is crucial in determining the health status of individuals. Poor sanitation causes poor hygiene and puts individuals at risks of contracting infectious diseases from bacteria and fungi.

Limited Access to Nutritious Foods- Health of individuals relies on food, which provides the necessary energy and protection against diseases. Poor nutrition is a significant factor that contributes to ill health.

Exposure to Health Risks- Poverty and unemployment predispose people to health risks and risky engagements. The poor people work within dilapidated workplaces, abuse drugs, and engage in crime.

Poor Working Conditions- Poverty predisposes people to risky working environments. Underprivileged people often work in the contaminated areas, risky workplaces, and uncomfortable zones.

Economic Factors

Braveman (2003) states that social stability frequently associate with the economic stability of individuals. As a determinant of health, financial stability of individuals influences their affordability of quality health care.

Health care affordability– In America, 10-15 percent of the annual premature deaths are due to poor medical care, due to the limited health care affordability of the poor patients (Lachman, 2012).

Insurance affordability– The economic ability of individuals to afford quality health care, hire competent health professionals, and afford health insurance cover, determine their access to health care (Braveman, 2003).

Physical and Environmental Factors

Health complexities are concerns that may arise from the physical and environmental factors, which are considerable determinants of health. According to Baldwin (2003), the physical environment of individuals may determine their health status or their health care outcomes.

Sunny environment– People who reside in the sunny environments with high ultraviolet radiation due to the disrupted ozone layer, are prone to skin cancer, brain cancer, visual complications, and birth abnormalities, (Baldwin, 2003).

Tropical areas– People who live in the tropical areas with high humidity, often contract tropical diseases such as the Arbo-viruses, malaria, influenza, polio, dengue fever, yellow fever, tuberculosis, and cholera, among others.

Deprived areas– Due to their economic dispossession, the underprivileged citizens tend to associate with the hazardous physical environments that predispose them to serious health risks (Baldwin, 2003).

Risky workplace environments– People who remain frequently exposed to the industrial pollutants, risky working environments, and adverse atmosphere, are prone to health complications.

Individual Behaviors/Characteristics

Health inequalities also depend on the individual risk factors, which determine the susceptibility of an individual to contract a disease and survive a treatment (Evans, Shim,

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The Status of Melbourne’s Economy Evaluation Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Melbourne’s Current Economic Situation

Key Spatial Economic Issues Facing Melbourne

Conclusion

Works Cited

Melbourne’s Current Economic Situation The economy of Melbourne City is very diverse. The city is a centre all types of transactions. Many business persons specialise in manufacturing, information technology, academics, research, finance, logistics, tourism and transport (Brain and Hylands 14). This city houses the main offices of the four largest companies in Australia. The sizes of these companies were determined basing on their market capitalisation.

Melbourne has the country’s largest port, which handles close to 40% of the country’s containers. The approximate value of goods at the port is $ 75 billion per year. The city also houses one of the country’s busiest airports, the Melbourne Airport. It serves as the main point of entry for both national and international flights (Brain and Hylands 14).

In the financial sector, Melbourne is a very crucial. The NAB and ANZ Banks have their head offices in this city. It is also the country’s centre for all pension funds. 40% of all pension transactions in Australia take place in Melbourne (Burton and Costello n.p.).

Recently, researchers carried out a worldwide study that ranked Melbourne 41st in financial transactions. The study involved fifty financial cities from different parts of the world. Among Australian financial cities, Melbourne was second.

Melbourne is the second largest industrial centre in the whole of Australia. Among the items that industries in Melbourne manufacture are Boeing, Iveco, and Bombardier. It also houses industries that manufacture drugs, petrol products, garments and food products. There are other automobile centres such as the Ford Australia Development Hub and the General Motors and Toyota centres (Burton and Costello n.p.).

Melbourne also boasts of being the headquarters of Sigma Pharmaceuticals and CSL. These two organizations are the largest pharmaceutical companies in Australia. The ICT industry in Melbourne employs more than 30% of Australia’s ICT personnel (Burton and Costello n.p.). It produces a turnover of approximately twenty billion dollars.

Tourism is also a major contributor to Melbourne’s economy. In 2004, it recorded more than 7.5 million local visitors and approximately 1.9 million foreign visitors (Burton and Costello n.p.). Four years later, the city’s expenditure on domestic tourism surpassed what Sydney spent on local tourists. Melbourne spent close to $ 15.8 billion in one year.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many of the tourists, usually, visit the Federation Square, Crown Casino, the National Gallery of Victoria and the Arts Centre (Burton and Costello n.p.). The city has hosted many local and international conferences due to its modernized hotels.

Key Spatial Economic Issues Facing Melbourne Population growth. Melbourne is one of the two cities with the largest number of people in Australia. In 1901, it had 501, 580 residents. The number rose to 2.8 million by 1981. These figures imply that the population growth rate was 1.2% per year (Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics par. 9). Between 2001 and 2006, the city’s density per square kilometre rose from 1455 to 1566 people.

The biggest part of this increase occurred in Southbank and Carlton. Research indicates that close to half the working zone population resides in the middle region while 42% of them live in the outer region. Only 7% live in the Inner region of the city (Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics par. 15).

Between 2001 and 2006, research indicated that Melbourne’s working zone population increased by 283, 000. This growth raised the total population in this zone to 3.9 million.

On average, the growth was 1.5% per year. This figure exceeded the national growth rate, which was 1.3%. Between 2006 and 2010, the growth rate increased by 0.7%, raising the number of residents by 347, 000 (Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics par. 18).

Inadequate provision of physical infrastructure. Transport around many of the growth areas around Melbourne is a very big problem. There is a great disconnection between these areas, which has led to extensive dependence on cars. The roads around these regions are in a deplorable condition.

This situation has greatly interfered with trade in this region. Worse still, the entire transport system is inadequate (Melbourne’s Growth Areas par.4). Critics have blamed the government for not accomplishing its plans to improve the transport sector. However, the main cause of the inadequacy in the transport sector is the increase of the population and industrial activities (Melbourne’s Growth Areas par. 7).

We will write a custom Essay on The Status of Melbourne’s Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The infrastructure around Melbourne has yielded to the pressure resulting from an increase in the number of people. In addition to the human population, the industrial growth has led to a massive increase in the number of vehicles transporting raw materials to the industries. These activities have rendered the existing transport infrastructure inadequate (Regional Development Australia 8).

Congestion. The working zone population in Melbourne rose by 630, 000 people from 2001 to 2010. Therefore, the total population rose to 4.2 million. The majority of these people live in the outer regions of Melbourne, mainly in Hume, Casey, Melton and Wyndham (Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics par. 20). When these areas had taken enough people, other people moved to the inner parts of the city.

Conclusion Melbourne is a city with a fast growing economy. It is among the largest financial, industrial and tourist attraction centres in the world. However, its population growth is alarming. It has been increasing at a very fast rate over the years. This increase has put an extensive amount of pressure on the facilities around the city, rendering them insufficient and inadequate.

Works Cited Brain, Peter, and Peter Hylands. “Melbourne’s North: The New Knowledge Economy.” National Economic Review 66 (2011): 14. Print.

Burton, Mark and Robert Costello. “The Economy in Space: Melbourne’s Growth Areas-Fulfilling Their Economic Potential.” Royal Australian Planning Institute, Victorian Division (2007): n. pag. Print.

Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics. Population Growth, Jobs Growth And Commuting Flows In Melbourne. Canberra: Department of Infrastructure and Transport, 2011. Web.

Melbourne’s Growth Areas Suffering From Inadequate Transport Infrastructure Planning And Delivery: Auditor-General 2014. Web.

Regional Development Australia 2012, Inquiry into Local Economic Development Initiatives in Victoria. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Status of Melbourne’s Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

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Database Management Systems in Charities Proposal college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction Background information

The modern world has become smaller and people are becoming more responsible. This trend is manifested through appearance of numerous non-profit organisations that help underprivileged people or simply people in need. At the same time, not-for-profit organisations often fail to achieve their goals and operate ineffectively due to the use of inefficient database management systems.

Modern organisations have to handle significant amount of information including data on operations, accounting, human resources, customer support and so on.

It is noteworthy that churches are now seen as organisations that also need proper information management (Carlson

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Digital Evidence Presentation Term Paper college essay help near me

Introduction The world today is characterized by advancing technologies. The amount of information generated, stored, and distributed using electronic means on a daily basis keeps on increasing. As a result, agencies concerned with security and other regulations have to constantly gather digital evidence to use for law enforcement.

Only people with specific training for digital evidence presentation and investigations are best equipped to conduct the exercise. The definition of digital evidence used here is the information and data of value to an investigation. This data could be kept in equipment.

Alternatively, users can use an electronic device to receive or send the same information. In most cases, digital evidence will be suppressed and it can cross jurisdictional borders faster and easily. Moreover, it is easy to alter, damage and destroy digital evidence, thus it is usually time sensitive.

The use of digital evidence arises when serious criminal investigations like rape, carjacking, child abuse, or exploitation arise. It is also relevant for prosecuting piracy, property crimes and terrorism. The pre and post crime information is crucial for an investigator. Crimes can also be committed entirely through digital means. When crimes like economic fraud or identity theft happen, they leave an electronic trail of information.

Although all evidence could be used in forensic investigations, not all rules accept any type of digital evidence; thus, it is important to first know how the rules apply before proceeding with the presentation of evidence. A typical presentation of digital evidence has to follow four steps of collection, examination, analysis, and reporting with each step having its own requirements.

Hard Drives Hard drives store data and the devices consist of an external circuit board, power connections, and external data. Their technologies determine the type of drive. For example a drive can be SCSI, SATA, IDE 40-pin or IDE 44 pin. Recently, there has been the development of the Solid State Drive (SSD) that does not contain moving parts (Mukasey, Sedgwick,

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Concept of Blame and Responsibility Analytical Essay best essay help: best essay help

Crises occur due to poor preparedness and control mechanisms. The drama of blaming and accountability begins whenever a crisis occurs. Somebody will have to receive the blame for allowing a disaster or crisis to happen. The public will blame another person(s) for failing to manage the crisis. Such individuals will blame their partners for the crisis. Many leaders and governments are the leading targets for these blame games.

This analysis presents the concept of blame. Leaders must also negotiate the existing disagreement after a disaster. They should do so by restoring the faith of every stakeholder. Leaders must support the existing political and institutional structures.

This situation forces leaders to navigate a responsibility-accepting position that will promote policy-oriented learning. Some leaders will navigate a responsibility-denying stance in order to deflect the blame1. The concept of blame and responsibility explains how leaders negotiate and address different crises.

Some factors will definitely influence the way human beings allocate blame. The first factor is the extent to which individuals attribute blame for mismanagement or malpractice. The leadership styles embraced by those in power will determine how the public allocates the blame2.

The manner in which such leaders respond to problems also influence the way people allocate the blame. The continued use of ineffective management strategies will also increase the level of blame.

Leaders should use appropriate strategies in order to overcome every attribution error. The first strategy is forging the most appropriate pathway. Managers can cooperate with the public depending on the nature of the blame. Politicians can also acknowledge responsibility in order to get the public’s approval. Individuals can also resign in order to secure the confidence of the people.

Public reactions should also be credible, acceptable, and adequate3. Policymakers can use new investigations in order to understand the targeted issue much better. A stronger justification of the crisis will overcome different attribution errors. The leadership strategy of a person will determine the success of every crisis management practice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bibliography Boin, Arjen, and Paul’t Hart. “Public Leadership in Times of Crisis: Mission Impossible.” Public Administration Review 63, no, 5 (2003): 544-553.

Boin, Arjen, Paul’t Hart, Allan McConnel, and Thomas Preston. “Leadership Style, Crisis Response and Blame Management: The Case of Hurricane Katrina.” Public Administration 88, no. 3 (2010): 706-723.

Hart, Paul’t, Liesbet Heyse, and Arjen Boin. “Guest Editorial Introduction New Trends in Crisis Management Practice and Crisis Management Research: Setting the Agenda.” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 9, no. 4 (2001): 181-188.

Footnotes 1 Arjen Boin and Paul’t Hart, “Public Leadership in Times of Crisis: Mission Impossible,” Public Administration Review 63, no, 5 (2003): 545.

2 Paul’t Hart, Liesbet Heyse, and Arjen Boin, “Guest Editorial Introduction New Trends in Crisis Management Practice and Crisis Management Research: Setting the Agenda,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 9, no. 4 (2001): 184.

3 Arjen Boin et al., “Leadership Style, Crisis Response and Blame Management: The Case of Hurricane Katrina,” Public Administration 88, no. 3 (2010): 706-723.

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VC Brakes Company Case Study scholarship essay help

Introduction VC Brakes specialises in manufacturing aftermarket brake components that are used in commercial and passenger vehicles. The firm has attained steady growth since its inception in 1985 despite the intense competition from Japanese firms. Lantana Industrial acquired VC Brakes in 1998, which specialised in aftermarket and original equipment.

Lantana adopted a hands-off approach in the acquisition process, which meant that managers within VC Brakes were responsible of operations of the acquired firm. VC Brakes experienced remarkable performance after the acquisition, which was driven by sports utility vehicles [SUV] and the truck market segment. The 2008 financial crisis affected the automotive industry adversely.

The industry experienced a 35% reduction in demand for original equipment motor vehicle components. Additionally, the consumers’ shift to fuel-efficient and affordable vehicles also led to a decline in the automobiles’ demand.

On the contrary, VC Brakes was not affected extensively by the crisis, as opposed to the original equipment producers due to an increment in demand for replacement of motor vehicle parts. However, the competition of Japanese aftermarket imports affected VC Brakes’ performance adversely.

The industry turmoil coupled with the poor management by the parent company led to the acquisition of VC Brakes by Crossroads Corporation, which specialised in the production of friction systems, aerospace products, heavy vehicles, and friction systems.

This paper entails a case study of VC Brakes. The case identifies some of the major participants in the operations of VC Brakes and the issues that they faced in their management process.

Description of the issues faced Resistance to change

VC Brakes had adopted a top-down management system, which affected the collaboration amongst the various functional departments such as the professional staff. Every department operated independently and it was unresponsive to the concerns of other departments. The firm was also characterised by a ‘finger-pointing’ mentality, which affected accountability amongst employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Engineering Department, led by the Vice President, Mitchell Medved, and the Senior Manager, Engineering Services, Mr. Andrew Ryan, intended to change the department’s culture in order to achieve operational efficiency. Ryan was charged with the responsibility of enhancing the firm’s new product development.

Prior to his appointment as a senior manager in the Engineering Services, the department’s effectiveness in new product development was limited by poor product designing, documentation, and concealing underperformance by blaming other departments.

Some of the projects that the Engineering Services department had commenced failed due to the high rate of turnover by some of the key project contributors because of frustration. Subsequently, the Engineering Services department was unable to engage in new product development.

As the leaders in the Engineering Services department, Ryan and Medved focused on turning around the operations of their department. Ryan was of the view that he could utilise his management expertise and experience in promoting business start-ups to rejuvenate the performance of VC Brakes.

Ryan adopted an open communication and participative management approach in implementing the desired change. The motive of adopting this management style was to ensure that all the employees’ inputs were heard in the decision-making process. Some junior employees appreciated the approach. However, some of the departmental leaders were resistant to the proposed changes.

Despite the resistance, Ryan was in a position to steer his department towards successful completion of the intended Ceramic Composite Brakes [CCB] project, which confirmed that the adoption of a different management perspective could stimulate VC Brakes’ competitiveness.

Lack of collaboration amongst managers

Crossroads Corporation intended to transform VC Brakes performance by enhancing its profitability. One of the strategies that were adopted in pursuit of this goal involved transforming the organisation into a customer-centric entity. Therefore, the organisation invested in Total Quality Management as one of the management approaches.

We will write a custom Case Study on VC Brakes Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, successful adoption of TQM as an organisational culture depended on the extent of involvement amongst the various internal stakeholders. In a bid to achieve this goal, the firm organised a management-training program, which was meant to equip managers with skills on how to transform the organisational culture.

However, lack of collaboration amongst the organisation’s managers hindered the transfer of knowledge to lower level employees, which hampered the implementation of the desired changes.

Analysis of issues faced Organisations are not immune to change due to diverse environmental pressures. Therefore, organisational leaders have the responsibility of steering their firms in implementing the change. One of the aspects that leaders should focus on involves organisational development (Brown 2011).

Kathiravelu (2014) affirm that investing in organisational development fosters an organisation’s ability to deal with internal and external environmental forces. Thus, the chance of implementing change improves remarkably. However, implementing change is often subject to resistance.

Abram et al. (2003) are of the opinion that resistance is one of the major factors that affect managers’ quest to implement organisational change. Resistance to change might be signified by different aspects such as high rate of absenteeism, lack of motivation amongst employees, and high rate of employee turnover.

Brown (2011) emphasises that resistance to change can either be organisational or individual. Some of the factors that might trigger individual employee resistance include economic, personal, or social factors. Conversely, Brown (2011, p.46) argues that organisational ‘resistance might originate from organisational structures, organisational constraints, threats to power, and influence’ (p. 94).

Ryan and Medved experienced both organisational and individual forms of resistance. VC Brakes had adopted a bureaucratic management structure, which meant that the communication system in the organisation was top-down and the lines of authority were clearly outlined. This organisational structure limited the flow of ideas amongst employees.

In their quest to turnaround the performance of VC Brakes, Ryan and Medved adopted an approach that challenged the existing management philosophy by adopting a participative approach and open communication. This approach made some of the organisational managers to develop the perception that their status quo, influence, and supervisory authority were under threat.

Not sure if you can write a paper on VC Brakes Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Brown (2011) argues that employees ‘who have been in an organisation for a long time invest a substantial amount of energy in protecting the traditional way of operation’ (p. 96).

This aspect is commonly referred to as ‘sunk costs’ of skill and energy. Brown (2011) further affirms that some individuals have low propensity to change, and thus they do not appreciate change. One the other hand, some of the personal reasons that hinder change include ego-defensiveness and fear of the unknown.

Change management theory and application Previous attempts to explain organisational change has led to the formulation of diverse change management theories. Examples of such theories include the contingency theory and the power-influence theory coupled with the behavioural and trait theory. The prevailing uncertainty in the contemporary business environment requires organisations to adjust their operations in order to succeed.

Ryan and Medved encountered remarkable behavioural challenges in their quest to implement the desired organisational change, as evidenced by resistance of some individuals in the management team. The resistance experienced in VC Brakes can be well explained by different change management theories/ models as evaluated herein.

Kurt Lewin change management theory

This model is based on a force-field analysis, which means that successful implementation of change depends on the effectiveness with which an organisation balances the opposing forces in implementing change. Cornelissen (2011) affirms that change occurs if the prevailing equilibrium situation is disturbed by favouring and opposing forces.

However, a new equilibrium must be established. The theory postulates that organisational leaders must take into account three main stages in an effort to implement change. These stages include the unfreezing, moving, and unfreezing.

Unfreezing – this phase is based on cultural influences and it argues that it is imperative for organisational leaders to incorporate new forces by influencing the prevailing human behaviour. The model asserts that organisations are motivated to change by diverse forces such as intense competition, technological changes, and poor financial performance.

However, the existence of opposing forces such as lack of adequate managerial skills, negative employee attitude towards change, and the existence of organisational culture limit the change process.

Ryan and Medved experienced diverse opposing forces in their quest to implement diverse change interventions such as implementing the Total Quality Management system. Some managers in VC Brakes did not perceive the importance of adopting the change initiative, which increased tension and collaboration amongst the managers.

Despite this aspect, it is imperative for organisational leaders to focus on developing a positive attitude towards the intended change. This goal can be attained by ensuring that all the internal stakeholders understand the relevance of the intended change by pointing the prevailing gaps. Cummings and Worley (2009) affirm that the unfreezing stage is mainly focused on reducing employee resistance.

Changing – this step involves making the necessary organisational adjustments in order to foster an organisation’s excellence and long-term existence. In a bid to succeed in implementing change, it is crucial for organisational leaders to focus on changing the employees’ attitude or behaviour.

The change process should be undertaken in phases in order to ensure that the desired change is implemented effectively (Hellriegel

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The Brenner Debate Essay essay help online free

The development of capitalism has often been discussed by historians who focus on the factors that could lead to the decline of the feudal society and emergence of the new socio-economic system. Much attention should be paid to the so-called Brenner debate because this discussion can throw light on various models that can explain the transformation of European societies.

This debate revolves around the claims made by Robert Brenner who emphasizes the idea that new class and property relations resulted in the development of capitalism. In turn, this debate is critically evaluated by other historians. On the whole, it is possible to argue that a single approach cannot account for the dramatic transformation that different countries underwent.

Much attention should be paid to the arguments advanced by Guy Bois who combines the elements of the demographic and class models. On the whole, it is vital to focus on such factors as the property relations between various economic agents, demographic trends, as well as the increase in the productivity. These are the main issues that should be examined in great detail.

It is possible to examine the arguments put forward by Robert Brenner who argues that the transformation of European societies can be explained primarily by the changing class structures1. In his opinion, much attention should be paid to the property relations. The capitalist system of production could emerge provided that economic agents such as peasants could secure their property rights.

This privilege can be viewed as a good incentive for increasing the volume of production. One should keep in mind that Robert Brenner rejects the demographic model according to which social and economic breakthrough were driven by population fluctuations. It is vital to remember that demographic patterns could significantly affect wages and the demand for products.

However, this model does not explain the differences in the socio-economic development of various countries. These are the main points that Robert Brenner makes. Overall, his work stimulated additional research on this topic. The validity of these claims should be discussed more closely.

Some of Brenner’s arguments are supported by other historians. For instance, it is possible to mention to mention Guy Bois who also examines the limitations of the demographic model2. In his opinion, this approach to the socio-economic development is too deterministic, and it cannot reflect the decisions of separate people. Moreover, this framework lays too much stress on such a factor as the struggle for resources.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, Guy Bois mentions that Brenner underestimates the importance of such a factor as productivity. In particular, he notes that the increase in productivity led to the surplus of goods. More importantly, this factor contributed to the intensification of trade between and within communities. In this case, one should not speak only about the adoption of new technologies.

One should also pay much attention to the way in which labor was organized. To a great extent, this view of the formation of capitalism is supported by Rodney Hilton3 who focuses on the pre-requisites for the development of the new socio-economic system. In his view, the differences in the productivity led to the accumulation of capital and the development of new institutions. This is why this notion should not be overlooked.

It should be mentioned that other historians such as Postan and Hatcher argue that Robert Brenner lays too much stress on political power of different economic agents. Nevertheless, one should not overlook the influence of such factors as inheritance customs or attitudes to innovation, or military confrontations4.

The main argument is that the economic stagnation of the feudal societies can be attributed to a diverse set of factors. Moreover, one should not suppose that the influence of demographic trends can be easily measured with the help of exiting research methods that require the study of quantitative data. The main problem is that these data are not always available to scholars.

Additionally, historians such as Emmanuel Ladurie5 argue that the bargaining power of peasants can be explained by the population trends. In particular, the surplus of labor could strengthen the position of landlords. In the long-term, these trends could result in the formation of serfdom. This is why the validity of the demographic model cannot be fully rejected.

Demographic trends are vital for showing how the bargaining power of different economic agents could change. For instance, the decline of the population could increase the wages of servants, as a result; these people could have more opportunities for accumulating capital. Similarly, the increasing population could contribute to increasing demand for various goods. Thus, the demographic model should not be disregarded.

Overall, the socio-economic advance to capitalism cannot be attributed to only one factor such as new property relations or the changing demographic patterns. The development of the new political and economic system is not a deterministic process that can be easily predicted.

We will write a custom Essay on The Brenner Debate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More likely, researchers should pay attention to such factors as class relations, new forms of property, demographic trends, and the changes in the productivity. Robert Brenner’s views on the formation of capitalism are important because they can show how the bargaining power of producers could increase with time passing. These are the main details that can be singled out.

Bibliography Bois, Guy. “Against the Neo-Malthusian Orthodoxy.” In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 107-119. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Brenner, Robert. “Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre- Industrial Europe.” In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 10-64. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Hilton, Rodney. “A Crisis of Feudalism.” In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 119-138. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Ladurie, Emmanuel. “A Reply to Robert Brenner.” In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 101-107. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Postan, Michael and John Hatcher. “Population and Class Relations in Feudal Society.” In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 64-79. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Footnotes 1 Robert Brenner, “Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre- Industrial Europe,” in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 30.

2 Guy Bois, “Against the Neo-Malthusian Orthodoxy,” in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 112

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Brenner Debate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 3 Rodney Hilton, “A Crisis of Feudalism,” in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 120

4 Michael Postan and John Hatcher. “Population and Class Relations in Feudal Society,” in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 66.

5 Emmanuel Ladurie, “A Reply to Robert Brenner,” in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 103.

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Representation of the Plantation Women Compare and Contrast Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction The functions of women in any given society have always been secondary and in support of the male gender. Women are believed to belong to the weak gender than even in the current civilized world are although the truth about such a claim is debatable1. Either way, their role and function from the pre-colonial periods were limited to caring for the homestead.

One of the societies with major differences between women and men in terms of the identity, functions, role and position in the community is the Antebellum South during the peak of US slavery. When one thinks of the women in the South, the idea that comes into mind is the figure of a submissive and loyal, passive and pious person who served the family and society with morality and devotion2.

According to the common perception, the southern woman was graceful, modest and obedient to her husband. She was mainly focused on the activities or behaviors that would please the farm master (her husband) and taking care of the house and children.

Innocence and restriction from taking interest in the intellectual pursuits is an idea that comes when one thinks about the position and role of the southern women during the antebellum. According to Boyd, the antebellum women were seen as the perfect resemblance of the cultural perfectionism of the antebellum moral, religious and social norms3.

However true these perceptions might be, it is worth noting that the media played a significant role in generating the ideas for the description of the antebellum women. The media, especially novels and poems written during the slavery era in the south, have developed most of these characteristics of the antebellum women.

The media has been very successful in passing these myths and ideas to the modern generations. In fact, most of these ideas and perceptions of the life and role of the antebellum women are still popular in the modern world because the 19th century author and poets have made people believe in myths.

In addition, recent films about the south have borrowed these myths and, surprisingly, made efforts to insinuate suggest that the myths were the true description of the plantation women. According to the media, position of a white woman was subtle but important to the antebellum society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A woman was a social figure associated with her background because she was grouped according to her race and social class. Thus, it is evident that the origins of the myths about the women are based on race and class. It also serves as the manifestation of the cultural attitudes of the antebellum south. Therefore, it appears that the media-described women is more mythological than real.

Therefore, the question is “what are the differences between the real and the media-portrayed women in the antebellum south?” Of course, there are several differences between what the media has been portraying about the characteristics, position, functions and roles of women in the plantations.

In particular, the media has been concentrating on the white upper class women when describing the southern women, leaving out other classes of women such as the slaved blacks, the peasant women, those in education, health and business sectors as well as the bunches of Hispanic and native Indian women in some of the plantations in the south. Do the media provide the correct portray of antebellum women in general?

The purpose of this paper is to distinguish the roles and positions of the plantation women as presented by the media from the actual roles and positions they held during the antebellum era.

Arguably, the media does not provide the correct description of the plantation women in the south because much of the ideas and characteristics given to women by the media are mythical and derived from novels and poems of the antebellum south.

The identity of the plantation woman: Real versus the media Historical background

Historically, the planation women are the wives of the plantation owners in the American south prior to and after independence. In reality, the women played a significant role in the plantations, right from working in the farms to housework, child rearing and cloth making and repair.

The social economic background of the southern states during the plantation era provides an important framework for analyzing the real description versus the media characterization of the women in the planation south. Therefore, it is worth describing the women based on the social, cultural and economic situation at the time.

We will write a custom Essay on Representation of the Plantation Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the antebellum era, the economy of most of the states in the southern parts of the United States mainly depended on agriculture. The agricultural industry in the south mainly supplied the northern industrial states with raw materials4.

In particular, cotton was the major crop in the south because of the large cloth making industries in the north that placed a huge demand for cotton. Thus, the plantations were a highly lucrative industry in the south. Labor was almost free due to the presence of a large number of slaves and pro-slavery laws.

Therefore, farmers were the most influential political icons in this period and a person’s wealth was measure by how big was his land. Land was the only factor of production and the main source of livelihood. Due to the low population, there were large pieces of land that were owned by the whites. These huge tracks of land were put under large-scale farming.

Nonetheless, the most of the black, native and Hispanic southerners did not own such wealth in their native land. Rather, the whites owned the massive plantations. The development of these plantations created a divided among the people since the natives became the labors and the whites were the owners.

Off course, the outcome was an emergence of social classes that divided the two societies depending on where an individual falls in the society. The plantation women were the wives of the white farmers who owned the plantations.

At this point, the contract between the rich and the poor was greater in the south compared to all other English colonies. The southerners were mainly the slaves, servants and workers for the whites. On the other hand, the white colonial masters owned the plantations and controlled the system. Their wives, the plantation women, are the focus of this essay.

The media’s ideas about the identity of the planation women

According to Welter, the media portrays the identity of the plantation women based on the dominant 19th century ideology5. According to this view, the ideology described women as “the cult of the true womanhood”.

To describe the plantation woman in the south, the ideology used four fundamental virtues – the women was supposed to show purity, devotion, obedience and domesticity. In addition, the term woman, as described in the popular media, includes the mother, wife, sister and daughter.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Representation of the Plantation Women by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, it is imperative to note that the “cult of womanhood” had a set of social expectations for the plantation woman in the south. It also served as a guide describe the expected behavior of the upper class women. In particular, it stated that a good woman is a female who was cultured, virtuous and compassionate.

The real identity of the plantation women

Noteworthy, the media follows the cult of true womanhood when describing the identity of the plantation women of the antebellum America. Nevertheless, this is not the real identity of women in the era. The mythical image of an antebellum woman emerged from this ideology. Nevertheless, this image fails to reflect the accurate identity of all the women during the antebellum.

Noteworthy, this ideology is based on the perceptions of the southern belle. Therefore, the historical and literal perception of the identity and position of the planation woman is relatively wrong6. In fact, it is evident that the ideology is derived from writers such as Harriet Jacobs, Frederick Douglass and Harried Jacobs.

Modern films such as “Gone with the Wind” have attempted to follow these ideologies. However, the writings of Mary Chestnut, Mattie Griffith and Harriet Stowe provide a more liberal description of the southern woman based on the reality on the ground7.

In particular, these authors describe the plantation mistresses and their roles, positions and functions in the antebellum society, which differs significantly from the media portray of the same women. In her 1982 book “The Plantation Mistress: Women’s world in the old south”, Catherine Clinton states that the cult of domesticity is wrong8.

She shows how the plantation women played a significant role in directing the success of the farm through the husband. The book further shows that women were involved in managing some aspects of the farming practices, including the selection and coordination of women slaves. It has also been shown that the farmers who had strong and commanding wives managed most of the farms that succeeded in profitability.

Women were also involved in educating the society, especially their children9. Clinton indicates that most of the mistresses determined how and where their children obtained education. As such, they were involved in ensuring the continuity of good management in the farms because the educated children of the farmers were supposed to become managers in their parents’ plantations.

In her book “Within the plantation household: Black and white women of the old south”, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese10 states that the white mistresses lead good lives in the plantations and were not necessarily meant to make their husbands happy. The author states that most of these women enjoyed the fruits of the antebellum slavery just like their husbands.

In addition, the author states that most of these mistresses determined the use and spending of the profits, including the management of their husbands’ farms. According to the author, the mistresses were responsible for some aspects of slave management, especially in terms of managing the large number of female slave workers in the plantations.

Women Roles During the antebellum: The media versus the reality

Women have always played very important roles in the society since time immemorial and in the pre-colonial period, the same was true. The roles of women at any given time depend on the period, the geographical location and the community.

Noteworthy, women were categorized into distinct groups depending of their race- the native Indians, the black slaves, and the whites. Each group had different roles spelt out for women since they were from very different backgrounds.

According to the media, the role of the white women in the south was confined to the domestic chores. The main role of the mistresses, according to the media, was to ensure proper handling of the house chores, directing black servants (the Mammy) and determining the best diet for the family11.

In addition, a mistress is portrayed as the family’s tailor and cloth maker. A woman was supposed to spend her time weaving garments, mending torn clothes, making and repairing household marts, curtains and carpets and other textile activities12.

It is worth noting that the white mistresses in the farms are thought to have played almost significant roles with the native Indian women. For instance, the native women were responsible for their families’ clothing, food and other domestic activities. However, unlike the white mistresses in the farms, the Indian women were also responsible for building their family’s huts.

However, the media has attempted to ignore some of the important roles played by the white mistresses in the antebellum south. For instance, it is clear that the development of the plantation society changed the roles of women in significant way in the south. The farm work required masculine activities, including the management chores

. Thus, the number of population of the white women in the south was significantly low compared to that of males. Nevertheless, the media does not describe the roles that women played in the south. The less number of women made them powerful since they became the center of attraction as the men sought them eagerly. Thus, most white farmers increasingly sought for the best mistresses in their farms.

Most farmers desired to marry women with the capacity to run their farms. Educated women were preferred for their ability to educate their children, especially boys because they were supposed to assume the management roles in the farms.

During the antebellum era, mortality rate was relatively high and even affected the white families. The rampant deaths and marriages dissolved as a result also created different phenomena in the society. Widows began to remarry and the outcome was a complex society of half brothers and sisters.

When a woman’s husband died, the property he owned was left under her care. For this reason, women had to learn and exercise managerial skills to help them manage the family estates. Nonetheless, women were not involved in the political platforms.

The media portrayal and description of the plantation women

The media has always covered the historic events in a way that can only be described as unfair to women. Especially with regard to the whites, the media has always covered their past in a very objective approach to portray only their negative characteristics. According to this perception, all the white women were hostile to their female slaves and secluded themselves as an elite class.

The media also tries to show that the plantation woman had a perfect life and an easy time in their homes. Going by the picture painted on our minds by the history journalists and researchers, the white women had all they needed and their live were simple.

This is not the same picture painted in the case of the black slaves and the native Indian women. Media coverage of the history of women in the pre-colonial period shows that the white women were better placed in the society than the rest.

The historic accounts of women have in past been selective and subjective. This is mainly due to the ageless opinions that the masculine gender is better than the feminine gender. Since time immemorial, women accomplishments have been seen as less important in comparison to what men have achieved.

The media deliberately downplays the roles played y the women in preparing their husbands and children every day in the morning. It lays its focus mainly on what the men did for their family and see it a way of supporting and providing for the family. On the other hand, whatever the women did is not recognized as an important activity in the society.

Poor historic account for the less powerful groups

The less powerful groups have been left to cope and deal with the historic accounts that have been recorded for them. The white women are portrayed as the ‘stay at home mums’ who did not participate in any of the farming activities.

This notion is supported by the assumption that all the white women enslaved blacks in their homes. With such a mentality, the media does not mention the involvement of the plantation woman in the contribution of the economy.

Very important information was left out about the functions of the women in the pre-historic period that could show just how much their roles were vital for the establishment of a strong economy. Women were the only group subject to this disparity in the historic factual recording.

Children and the slaves are also left out including the natives. The media has overemphasized the industrial revolution, the agricultural developments and the discovery of the sea routes all of which are the achievements of the white males.

The reality

The media has tried to cover the real historic accounts especially regarding the plantation woman’s plight and challenges. Evidently, the plantation woman did not have the perfect life as the media tries to portray in most of the historic accounts. She encountered numerous challenges everyday just like a normal human being.

The only variation was the fact the challenges were different. While the slaves African women were struggling to find a job and food to sustain their livelihood, the plantation woman had different struggles.

Women in the plantations had another level of challenges including maintaining their class. It was not automatic that the white women where all able to meet the cost of having a slave who would help in the family chores.

In this case, the woman of the house was tasked with all the family chores and this was quite a lot of work to handle. Most the plantation women had to deal with loneliness in the house since their husbands were too busy outside in the fields.

Conclusion The identity, roles and position of women in the antebellum America has long been portrayed based on the 19th century stereotypic perceptions of a woman. The ideology of “the cult of womanhood” depicted women as being loyal, submissive, kind, motherly and confined to the house.

On its part, the media has followed these ideologies in its portrayal of the antebellum women. Nevertheless, this is far from the reality because the white farm mistresses played a significant role not only in the house, but also in the farm management, management of slaves and the profits involved.

Bibliography Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford UP, 2009.

Boyd, Elizabeth Bronwyn. Southern Beauty: Performing Femininity in an American Region. Austin, TX: The U of Texas at Austin, 2000.

Cash, Wilbert. The Mind of the South. New York: Knopf, 2001.

Clinton, Catherine. The Plantation Mistress: Woman’s World in the Old South. New York: Pantheon, 2007.

Davis, Richard. Mrs. Stowe’s Characters-in-Situations and a Southern Literary Tradition. Clarence Gohdes. Durham: Duke UP, 2002.

Donovan, Josephine. Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Evil, Affliction, and Redemptive Love. Boston: Twayne, 2001

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. New York: Modern Library, 2000.

Duvall, Severn. “Uncle Tom’s Cabin: The Sinister Side of Patriarchy.” The New England Quarterly 36, no. 1 (2003): 3-22.

Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth. Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2008.

Gwin, Minrose. Black and White Women of the Old South: The Peculiar Sisterhood in American Literature. Knoxville: The U of Tennessee P, 2005.

Welter, Barbara. “The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820-1860.” American Quarterly 18, no. 2 (2006): 151-174.

Footnotes 1 Wilbert Cash, The Mind of the South (New York: Knopf, 2001), 54

2 Minrose Gwin, Black and White Women of the Old South: The Peculiar Sisterhood in American Literature (Knoxville: The U of Tennessee P, 2005), 147

3 Elizabeth Bronwyn Boyd, Southern Beauty: Performing Femininity in an American Region (Austin, TX: The U of Texas at Austin, 2000), 97

4 John W Blassingame, The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South (New York: Oxford UP, 2009), 137

5 Barbara Welter, “The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820-1860,” American Quarterly 18, no. 2 (2006): 152.

6 Josephin Donovan, e, Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Evil, Affliction, and Redemptive Love (Boston: Twayne, 2001), 38

7 Richard Davis, Mrs. Stowe’s Characters-in-Situations and a Southern Literary Tradition (Clarence Gohdes. Durham: Duke UP, 2002), 204

8 Catherine Clinton, The Plantation Mistress: Woman’s World in the Old South (New York: Pantheon, 2007), 62

9 Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave (New York: Modern Library, 2000), 69

10 Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South (Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2008), 78

11 Severn Duvall, “Uncle Tom’s Cabin: The Sinister Side of Patriarchy” The New England Quarterly 36, no. 1 (2003), 7

12 Duvall, 8

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Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting Report college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis

Summarization

References

Introduction It is without doubt that The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting will go down in history as the deadliest school shooting incident involving minors in America (Blad, 2013), and one which attracted a high number of calls to implement a multiplicity of school safety legislations aimed at protecting schools from gun-related violence (“School safety legislation,” 2013).

In this particular incident which occurred in Newton on December 14, 2012, a mentally-disturbed young man by the name of Adam Lanza forced his way into the elementary school and shot dead 20 school children and 6 adults before taking his own life to avoid arrest (Blad, 2013).

The main objective of this paper is to analyze this incident with the view to interrogating a whole set of issues related to school violence (e.g., gun control policies in schools, incident communication, and incident response) and developing a school safety policy based on the analysis.

School administrators responded to the shooting incident by calling for a change in gun laws and by requesting for the development and implementation of various pieces of legislation aimed at protecting the safety of children and workers within the school environment.

The decision to arm school teachers and workers attracted widespread attention in the wake of Sandy Hook School shootings, as it was felt that the lone gunman could have been easily overpowered if some teachers or workers had been armed (“School safety legislation,” 2013).

Indeed, some administrators and school districts requested for the training and arming of staff members to effectively deal with such shooting incidents in the future, although other educator groups felt that it was wrong for staff members to be allowed to possess guns (Blad, 2013).

Other school administrators and education stakeholders responded to the unfortunate school shooting by advocating for laws and policies that included

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More increasing police presence in learning institutions,

enhancing mental health and counseling services in schools,

introducing emergency planning measures in schools,

availing additional money to undertake school security upgrades.

Still, others advocated for loosening of general rules that make it illegal for teachers and workers to bring guns to schools, and a few advocated for proposals to change regulations governing firearms such as magazine size and purchasing limitations on particular guns (“School safety legislation,” 2013).

Analysis The Sandy Hook School shooting incident brings into the fore various issues that need to be carefully analyzed to note the weaknesses that could have played a part in providing an enabling environment for the lone gunman to attack and kill so many people.

An assessment of the policies that existed before this shooting incident demonstrates a general prohibition on the possession of guns in school compounds (“School safety legislation,” 2013), implying that no member of staff could have accessed a weapon when Adam Lanza entered the school compound and started to shoot indiscriminately.

Of particular importance here is the United States federal law known as the gun-free school zones act of 1990 and how it proscribes any unauthorized person from intentionally or deliberately possessing a gun at a place or location that may be perceived as a school zone (National Crime Prevention Council, 2014).

Although this and other related policies have acted to secure educational institutions from gun-related violence and crime, they have nevertheless failed to address a situation whereby an attacker may force his or her way into the school compound as happened in the Sandy Hook incident.

Owing to the elementary nature of the school in question, this paper assumes that the young students of Sandy Hook School were not aware of the policies related to this incident prior to its occurrence. However, although students may not have been aware of the existing gun regulation policies, it is evident that the school had implemented several policies related to the creation of a culture of safety.

The two mostly used safety strategies included (1) visible identification and screening of visitors using a security system, and (2) locking the school doors each day after the commencement of classes (“Sandy Hook shooting,” 2014).

We will write a custom Report on Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many policy changes have been proposed since the Sandy Hook shooting incident, with available documentation demonstrating that states such New York, Colorado, and Connecticut have already enacted various legislations aimed at reducing gun violence (Johnson, 2013).

According to this author, the various legislations being enacted by these states “include strengthening background checks on gun sales, bans on assault weapons and high-capacity magazines, and other laws that aim to keep firearms out of the hands of violent individuals” (para. 8).

A law passed in Connecticut, which was epicenter of Sandy School shooting, aims to address mental health concerns ostensibly because the alleged shooter was suffering from a mental health illness. It is clear that the many fatalities witnessed in Sandy School shooting could have been avoided if some of the rules had been implemented prior to the attack.

Today, most educational activities include a component of mental health, as education stakeholders come face to face with the reality that many students could be suffering from psychological disorders and hence predisposed to violence and other socially undesirable behaviors.

It is also evident that students are taught how to cope with stress, which has been known to occasion socially unacceptable behavior including the predisposition to become violent.

Lastly, most students today receive educational instructions on how to deal with emergencies that may arise in school environments (“School safety legislation,” 2013). Such educational activities, in my view, will go a long way in ensuring that students develop the capacity to deal with own life stressors and emergency situations with the view to preventing unnecessary loss of life.

The introduction of mental health services and education in most curriculums is of immense importance in assisting students to identify and deal with abusive behavior in school, which may include but not limited to bullying, threatening behavior, intimidation, and abuse (Tsiantis, Beratis,

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Worship and the Sacraments Coursework essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Holy Baptism

Holy Communion

Why God Connects His Word of Grace with Water, Wine, and Bread

Reference List

Holy Baptism The Bible teaches Christians about the importance of Holy Baptism. Matthew 3 explores the issue of baptism in details. The chapter encourages Christians to embrace this rite. John baptized Jesus Christ in order to show people the way. Christians should “be baptized in an attempt to see God’s kingdom” (Yancey, 2002, p. 49). This is the same “case when the heavens opened after John baptized Christ” (Welker, 2010, p. 9).

The Holy Spirit also descended to bless Jesus Christ. Matthew 28: 19-20 explains how Jesus Christ commanded his disciples to baptize all men in the name of God. Jesus encouraged all people to obey their God. Jesus also explained how he would remain with his people forever. The Book of Romans 6: 1-10 is a powerful text that explores the importance of baptism.

These verses give a comparison between Christ’s resurrection, burial, and death. The verses also explain why baptism remains a critical part of salvation. Colossians 2: 11-15 and 3: 1-17 gives useful verses about Baptism. The practice also makes Christians holy in Christ’s name. These verses also explain how Baptism becomes a guiding principle for all Christians.

Holy Communion Another unique aspect of Christian worship is the Lord’s Supper. Several passages and verses in the Holy Bible support the practice. Matthew 26: 17-30 explains how “Jesus and his disciples celebrated the Passover on the first day of the Festival of Unleavened Bread” (Welker, 2010, p. 11). Jesus encouraged his followers to embrace the practice. The supper symbolized Christ’s body and blood.

Luke 24: 13-35 explains how Jesus revealed himself to his disciples after resurrection. Christ appeared to his disciples and took the bread. He blessed and distributed it to his disciples. He repeated the same act that characterized the Last Supper. The early believers viewed the Lord’s Supper as the best way to come closer to their creator. They wanted to worship God and repent (Corinthians 10: 14 and 11: 1).

The practice became the Holy Communion. The book of Corinthians 11: 17-34 identifies some of the problems and misuses associated with the Lord’s Supper. Some people “failed to wait for one another during the Holy Communion” (Welker, 2010, p. 19). Some people also despised God’s Church.

Some individuals humiliated their neighbors since they nothing to eat. Some individuals decided to celebrate without honoring Christ’s body. Acts 2: 42-47 explains how every Christian called the Last Supper “the Fellowship of Believers” (Yancey, 2002, p. 62).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Lord’s Supper was a moment of remembrance. It encouraged believers to embrace new practices. It was the time to support the poor in the community. The Last Supper was a uniting factor that encouraged more people to enjoy God’s favor.

Why God Connects His Word of Grace with Water, Wine, and Bread Christians equate water, oil, wine, and water to God’s teachings. These things are readily available. They make it easier for individuals to remember their God. It is also agreeable that God created man and gave him a physical body. Christ used physical substances such as oil, water, and bread to teach new ideas. This approach makes these things holy and symbolic (Yancey, 2002).

Believers should sanctify and bless such things in order to represent Christ’s body on earth. Such physical things play a major role towards passing the message of salvation to different believers. Every Christian should embrace such things because they support his or her faith. Such “physical objects remind mankind about Christ’s promises” (Yancey, 2002, p. 98).

Reference List Welker, M. (2010). What Happens in Holy Communion? New York, NY: Eerdmans Publishing.

Yancey, P. (2002). What’s So Amazing About Grace. New York, NY: Zondervan.

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The Impact of Crisis in Decision Making Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help: best college essay help

Various studies have attempted to examine the impact that crisis can have on making decisions, whether in organizations or in the public domain. In particular, the characteristics of crises have been studied in depth with an aim of discovering how they influence the mental and cognitive aspects of decision-making procedures.

For instance, tension, stress and uncertainty are the critical characteristics of crises that tend to have a profound impact on perceptual, motivational and affective dimensions of any decision making process1.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact that crisis has on decision-making. Considering the study by Maitlis and Ozcelik2, this paper argues that decision-making procedure relies on the cognitive aspects of humans, which influenced the leadership style, communication processes and goal orientations.

A crisis is defined as an event that threatens an organization’s existing high priority value, presents limitations in time needed to make decisions and is not expected. It has a profound impact on the organizational leadership, styles of leadership, positioning of organizational goals and the process of communication.

Emotion is perhaps one of the most important human aspects that come under the influence of the situations of an event when making decisions. According to Maitlis and Ozcelik, emotion has a profound role in the process of making decisions in any organization3.

Negative decisions are through to results from widespread negative emotions among the members involved in the process of making decisions. It has been argued that the nature of a crisis determines the emotions of the decisions makers. For instance, as noted earlier, a crisis is an event that is unexpected, occurs with limitation of time and threatens the condition of an organization or a society.

The fact that a crisis places an immediate threat to the wellbeing, survival or norms of a society implies that the individuals involved in the decision making process are not only posed with a major psychological problem, but also that their emotions are greatly affected. Some studies have shown that such situations tend to illicit decisions that are made out of desperation or negative emotions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Maitlis and Ozcelic introduced the concept of toxic decision-making process4. According to their study, toxic decision-making process tends to generate widespread negative emotions in a given society or an organization. They argue that there is some interplay between the negative emotions and the action taken by the members to solve the crisis.

As previously indicated, the toxic decision-making process is a concept applied during a crisis. Studies have shown that it is a human response to desperation caused by a crisis. It elicits negative emotions, which results into major decisions that could not have been made in absence of the threat presented by the crisis. A good example of such a crisis is the 2006 war between Lebanon and Israel.

Prior to the war, both nations had not anticipated a full military conflict between them. Instead, the anticipations of a crisis were concerned with the illegal and hostile militia groups such as the Hezbollah5.

However, Lebanon’s continued support of the Hezbollah indicated that the nation’s military policy was oriented towards a possible combat against Israel. Therefore, this means that Israel was caught unaware by the Lebanese attacks.

The attacks on Israel posed a crisis to the nation’s decision-making body- the office of the prime minister. Since the attacks were sudden, time limiting and threatening, the amounted to a crisis. Therefore, it elicited negative emotions in Israel, which led to the immediate decision made by Israel to attack Lebanon as a country, killing hundreds of people, including innocent individuals.

Bibliography Das, Hari. “Impact of Crisis Situations on Organizational Decision-Making.” Indian Journal of Industrial Relations 16, no. 2 (October 2000): 181-193

Maitlis, Sally and Hakan Ozcelik. “Toxic Decision Processes: A Study of Emotion and Organizational Decision Making.” Organization Science 15, no. 4, (July-August 2004): 375–393

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Impact of Crisis in Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tür, Özlem. “The Lebanese war of 2006: reasons and consequences.” Perceptions 2 vol. 3 (Spring 2007): 109-122.

Footnotes 1 Hari Das, “Impact of Crisis Situations on Organizational Decision-Making,” Indian Journal of Industrial Relations 16, no. 2 (October 2000): 186

2 Sally Maitlis and Hakan Ozcelik, “Toxic Decision Processes: A Study of Emotion and Organizational Decision Making,” Organization Science 15, no. 4, (July-August 2004): 376

3 Maitlis and Ozcelik, 379

4 Maitlis and Ozcelik, 381

5 Özlem Tür, “The Lebanese war of 2006: reasons and consequences,” Perceptions 2 vol. 3 (Spring 2007): 109-122.

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The United Nations Millennium Development Goals Analytical Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Summary of eight MDGs and their relation to health

Feasibility of accomplishing the Millennium Development Goals

Summary

References

Introduction In September 2000, 191 members of the United Nations ratified a charter known as the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MGDs). The MDGs established goals that were to be achieved by all UN member states by 2015. The goals were premised on the desire to improve healthcare by improving access to universal education, gender equality, eradication of poverty and hunger and international cooperation.

Summary of eight MDGs and their relation to health The united nations MDGs were ratified by member states to the United Nations and this signified the beginning of a journey to improve living standards by the end of 2015. First, member states made a commitment to eradicate poverty and extreme hunger from their countries.

The United Nations noted that most member states had more than half their population living below the poverty line. By 2000, it was estimated that over 1.2 billion people were exposed to extreme poverty, hunger and deplorable living conditions. Developing countries contributed a larger number of people living below the poverty line according to the United Nations (Piebalgs, 2010).

Under the Millennium Development Goals, members made a commitment to achieve specific goals aimed at reducing the level of poverty in their countries. Based on the first goal of the MDGs, member states made a commitment to lower the number of people earning less than a one dollar per day.

Under this goal, the member states committed to providing productive employment and proper working condition for all without gender or age discrimination. Nations that ratified the declaration also committed to reducing by half the number of people living in extreme poverty.

A poor nation cannot be able to support the healthcare needs of its people due to lack of adequate facilities. By improving the economic status of the people through poverty eradication, the Millennium Development Goals sought to ensure that everyone had equal access to universal healthcare (Vilsack, 2013).

Achieving access to universal primary education by 2015 was the second goal of the declaration. Member states made a commitment to ensure that all children have access to universal primary education irrespective of their social and economic status. Before the ratification of the declaration, most developing countries lacked adequate capacity to provide universal primary education to children.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With low literacy levels, residents of developing countries lack the capacity to control and manage infectious diseases. The high mortality and morbidity rates in Africa and some parts of Asia can be attributed to the low literacy levels (Vilsack, 2013).

The promotion of gender equality and access to employment opportunities, education and healthcare facilities was the third goal of the MDGs. Elimination of gender disparity within primary and secondary education in member states is essential in achieving other goals that are part of the declaration.

By 2015, signatories to the MDGs made a commitment to ensure that all its citizens have equal access to education and training opportunities irrespective of gender. The fourth goal of the declaration sought to reduce child mortality rates in member countries by two thirds (Kjorven, 2011).

In the developing countries, preventable diseases such as malaria, pneumonia and measles are the main causes of death in children under the age of five (Lomazzi

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Susan Reynolds’s Attack on the Concepts of Feudalism Supported by F.L. Ganshof and Marc Bloch Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Traditionally, the concept of feudalism is discussed in relation to the ideas of vassalage and fiefs as the main characteristic features of the Medieval feudalism.

However, in her book Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted, Susan Reynolds states that it is inappropriate to follow the narrow discussion of feudalism with references to the concepts of vassalage and fiefs, and it is necessary to focus on the broad sense and explain feudalism in the context of the complex economic structure which affected the development of the Medieval society1.

According to Reynolds, feudalism is not directly linked to the traditional discussion of vassalage and fiefs promoted by F. L. Ganshof and Marc Bloch because of the historians’ failures while interpreting the medieval documents to support their arguments.

Thus, Reynolds tries to explore in her book “how far vassalage and the fief, as they are generally understood, constituted institutions which are definable, comprehensible, and helpful to the understanding of medieval history”2.

Reynolds’s thesis that feudalism should be discussed in the broad context as the influential economic and social structure opposes the ideas declared by Ganshof and Bloch, but the author’s statement can be discussed as successful because Reynolds provides the credible evidence to support her words while re-reading and interpreting the medieval documents.

Thus, Reynolds openly attacks the traditional vision promoted by Ganshof that vassalage and fiefs are the key features to characterize the nature of the Medieval feudalism. According to Ganshof, the vassalage based on the principles of vassals’ obedience and lords’ maintenance in the form of providing fiefs are the central institutions to determine the unique nature of the Medieval feudalism3.

Reynolds opposes this argument while noting that the term ‘vassalage’ “no longer matches either the evidence we have available or the conceptual tools we need to use in analyzing it. It is both too diffuse and too narrow”4. Furthermore, referring to the study of documents and analysis of the presented material, the author concludes that fiefs and vassalage are “post-medieval constructs”5.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That is why, when historians try to apply the documents’ terminology to their discussions, they should “fit their findings into a framework of interpretation that was devised in the sixteenth century and elaborated in the seventeenth and eighteenth”6.

From this point, Reynolds focuses on the analysis of the medieval documents in the context of the studied historic period, and her discussion of vassalage and fiefs appears to be more complex and appropriate than the traditional view of Ganshof.

In spite of the fact that Bloch admits in his works that such terms as ‘vassalage’, ‘fiefs’, and ‘peasantry’ cannot serve to explain all the complexity of the feudal society, Reynolds does not accept the historian’s position. According to Reynolds, such discussions of the terms’ meanings are abstract, and it is necessary to refer to the detailed analysis of the medieval documents78.

Reynolds’s argument sounds convincingly because the author refers to the complete analysis of the medieval texts to support her thesis. Thus, Reynolds pays much attention to the meaning of words used during the Medieval era, and she states that “even if one context suggests some content for a word, that content cannot be assumed to be inherent in the word itself in such a way as to be transferred to other contexts and other cases”9.

That is why, many historians often misread the Medieval texts and documents while referring to the common vision of feudalism as an easy system based on the concepts of vassalage and fiefs. In this context, the evidence provided by Reynolds to support the argument is more convincing because of discussing the sources from many perspectives.

Reynolds’s approach to opposing Ganshof and Bloch’s arguments is successful because the author not only avoids focusing on the traditional narrow sense but also provides the effective evidence to support her basic ideas.

Furthermore, if Ganshof and Bloch discuss the basics of the feudal society only from social and economic perspectives, Reynolds goes far and provides the discussion of the legal sphere during the medieval period in order to explain her conclusions10.

We will write a custom Essay on Susan Reynolds’s Attack on the Concepts of Feudalism Supported by F.L. Ganshof and Marc Bloch specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That is why, in Reynolds’s book, much attention is paid to the explanation of the principles of the medieval property law with references to the normative statements and documents as the background for the author’s discussion.

Feudalism is usually considered as the main institution and social phenomenon associated with the period of the Medieval history. The book Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted written by Susan Reynolds includes an effective argument that the discussion of vassalage and fiefs as the basics to explain the whole system of the feudal society is inappropriate because of the narrowness of this vision.

Reynolds states that the focus on the context and the role of the social and economic structure is necessary, and the author successfully opposes the arguments declared by such historians as F.L. Ganshof and Marc Bloch while referring to her provocative, but reliable, interpretation of the medieval documents.

Bibliography Bloch, Marc. Feudal Society. New York: Routledge, 1962.

Ganshof, Francois-Louis. “Benefice and Vassalage in the Age of Charlemagne”. Cambridge Historical Journal 6, no. 2 (1939): 147-175.

Reynolds, Susan. Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.

Footnotes 1 Susan Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), 2.

2 Susan Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals, 2.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Susan Reynolds’s Attack on the Concepts of Feudalism Supported by F.L. Ganshof and Marc Bloch by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 3 Francois-Louis Ganshof, “Benefice and Vassalage in the Age of Charlemagne”, Cambridge Historical Journal 6, no. 2 (1939): 149.

4 Susan Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals, 47.

5 Ibid., 2.

6 Ibid., 2.

7 Ibid., 4.

8 Marc Bloch, Feudal Society (New York: Routledge, 1962), 16.

9 Susan Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals, 119.

10 Ibid., 58.

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History of Feudal System Compare and Contrast Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Feudalism as articulated by F.L. Ganshof and L. White

Marc Bloch on feudalism

Bibliography

Footnotes

The word ‘feudal’ was created by the Renaissance jurists of Italy to label what they saw as the usual customary law on land. It lacks a clear definition, but it may be inferred from the meaning created by historians, economists and philosophers. It was a social and economic structure defined by hereditary social lines. All these hereditary lines possessed natural, social, and economic benefits and responsibilities.

In this sense, wealth was primarily a creation of the land as a factor of production. However, it had been subjected to the cultured political economy at that time, which saw the serfs till it at the mercy of their lords. This concept is discussed in this paper, as articulated by F.L. Ganshof and Lynn White against the concept of feudalism by Marc Bloch.

Feudalism as articulated by F.L. Ganshof and L. White Feudalism was regarded as an administrative, martial, and societal creation that brought together the classes of aristocrats in medieval Europe and the vassalage by way of land as the uniting factor.

The principal advocate of this belief was F.L. Ganshof1, who viewed feudalism as a creation of the institutions that established and regulated the duties of obedience and service, mostly in military service, from the vassal towards the lord. In addition, there were reciprocal responsibilities of protection and upkeep on the lord the vassal. The lords would give out portions of lands to the vassals as goodies.

These portions of land were commonly known as fiefs. Feudalism to Ganshof was the possession of power by the lords in the form of land and its systematic transmission to the serfs.

Therefore, Ganshof’s observation and opinion were that classes had been effectively created by the feudal system, where the class of the lords or landowners protected and granted tenure of land to the vassals. Conversely, the vassals observed obedience and served the lords.2

Professor Lynn White, Jr., on her part, spoke of technological determinism. She used a set of writings to create her own compilation in 1962, known as, “Medieval Technology and Social Change”. This pamphlet contained a detailed discussion on technology and recent inventions of the middle ages, but more importantly it had a contentious theory regarding the foregoing issue of feudalism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More White3 reckons that the presence of technology during this age enabled the growth of the ambition of many lords, who would carry out spontaneous combat attacks on distant lands more easily.

She asserted that this was the impetus that drove a renowned man by the name Charles Martel to fast-track the annexation of lands that were held by the church. The lands were then distributed to his knights, who spent martial lives by buying expensive horses to back him in battle.

Additionally, White4 argued that there was a swing of political supremacy leaving the Mediterranean end of the planet and moving to the North of Europe. This wave of supremacy occurred as a result of the growing productivity in the technologized regions, whose farming was characterized by implements, such as improved carts for cultivation, improvement in harvest storage facilities, as well as industrialization.

These developments brought about a triple-annual harvest rotation for the lands. Professor White similarly studied the medieval machinery that improved motion and energy. All of this is what White refers to as the technological determinism of the people as a result of their empowerment for better lives through technological advancements.5

Marc Bloch on feudalism Unlike the above two philosophers who wrote their opinions earlier in the ages, Marc Bloch came at a time when there was a doubling of people in the western European region, the agrarian revolution which had a three crop rotation, heavyweight ploughs, horse carts, and the windmills. All these technological advancements were used for the growth and advancement of food production.

Similarly, there was a huge growth in trade, which led to the development of urban areas and the rebirth of a cash economy.6 The progress that was achieved economically helped the rulers in Europe to get more power and developed the modern Europe.

As a result, Marc had to define feudalism according to his age and times. In 1939, he described the “feudal society” as where class was not determined as superior based on the earnings of its members, but its warrior supremacy. The warrior classes were closely knit.

We will write a custom Essay on History of Feudal System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fragmentations led to disorder, but the family set up and the state helped maintain the ties, with the state during the feudal age seeking to restore the tight bonds in society.7

In contrast to the above two writers, Marc described the feudal system as a fundamentally dysfunctional system that brought about many vices and a huge disparity in the lives and the classes of the people.

Though both F.L. Ganshof and Lynn White had criticized the structure and working of feudalism, unlike Marc, they did not view it as a failed system that ‘led inevitably to disorder’. Instead, they viewed the feudal system as inevitable in the system of life of the day and saw it as the default economic system.8

Bibliography Bloch, Marc. Feudal Society. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Ganshof, François Louis. “II. Benefice and Vassalage in the Age of Charlemagne.” Cambridge Historical Journal 6, no. 02 (1939): 147-175.

White, Lynn Townsend. Medieval Technology and Social Change, Vol. 163. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964.

Footnotes 1 Louis François Ganshof, “II Benefice and Vassalage in the Age of Charlemagne,” Cambridge Historical Journal 6, no. 02 (1939), 147-175.

2 Louis François Ganshof, “II Benefice and Vassalage in the Age of Charlemagne,” Cambridge Historical Journal 6, no. 02 (1939), 147-175.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Feudal System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 3 Townsend Lynn White, Medieval Technology and Social Change, Vol. 163 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964)

4 Ibid.

5 Ibid.

6 Marc, Bloch, Feudal Society (New York: Routledge, 2014)

7 Ibid.

8 Ibid.

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The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery Critical Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Summary

Critical analysis

Conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction Written by the American historian Eric Foner, the book “The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery” provides a detailed biographical portrait of Abraham Lincoln and his stance on slavery. Foner states that his purpose of writing the book was to examine what was Abraham Lincoln’s thought about slavery1.

The author focused on Lincoln’s public life and the speeches he made in regards to slavery and his position during the Civil War. In particular, Foner avoids engaging or referring to the previous works by historians. Instead, he focuses on the speeches and writings by Lincoln.

In this book, Foner states that the book is important in history classes as well as creating knowledge for the Americans about their history, especially by appreciating the important role that Abraham Lincoln played during the abolishment of slavery and the civil war.

The Author states that the American people have a reason to thank God for Abraham Lincoln, despite the deficiencies that the president had, because he was willing to grow. It is worth noting that the book has been written in a scholarly approach, suggesting that it was meant for scholarly work.

By the time of the book’s publication in 2010, Eric Foner was a professor of History at the Columbia University. He specializes in the American History, especially in the social, economic and political aspects of the country during the Civil War and Reconstruction Eras2.

Summary The author’s main argument is based on his review of Lincoln’s speeches and writings as well as his biography. By digging deep into Lincoln’s history, times, speeches and writings, Foner has attempted to examine the President’s stance on slavery in the United States and his reaction to the issue that greatly affected the American society and economy.

From these sources, Foner’s general argument (thesis) is that Abraham Lincoln had a moderate approach to the issue of slavery and expressed the willingness to ‘grow’, which changed his attitudes with time. Foner further argues that Lincoln’s hope was to see the slave-holding states choose preservation of the States’ union rather than defending slavery.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Foner argues that Lincoln’s speeches and writings indicate that he initially supported the idea of colonizing the freed slaves back to Africa, but eventually abandoned the idea and supported the new idea of ending slavery and recognizing the black people as equal citizens of the US. In particular, Foner supports his thesis by showing how desperate Lincoln was to win the Civil War against the southern states by ending slavery.

Thus, he argues that the president’s ability to learn and take the right stance during the period not only ended the Civil War and Slavery, but also contributed to the preservation of the union of states.

In summary, Foner starts by tracing the evolution of President Abraham Lincoln’s ideas about the issue of slavery. The author starts with a biography of Lincoln. He analyzes the president’s early career in the Illinois legislature in the 1830s, his term in Congress during the 1840s and his career as the leader of the Republican Party in the 1850s.

In addition, a deep examination of Lincoln’s presidency during the Civil war has been developed. There is a clear focus on what Lincoln said in public and his writings. The author focuses on issues that Lincoln mentioned in his speeches. For instance, he examines Lincoln’s first experience with the problem of slavery when growing up in Kentucky.

When in Illinois, Lincoln was dealing with issues related to slavery because he was practicing law in the state. Then, Lincoln’s political career has received a lot of focus in the book. Foner shows how Lincoln’s stance on slavery changed significantly as his political career changed and his capacity faced serious problems associated with slavery, the civil war and the threat to the union.

Although he was a republican, he changed from his support of the idea of repatriating the freed slaves to the African continent and started supporting the idea of making the black people a part of the American population.

Critical analysis As stated above, Foner’s main source of evidence is the writings and speeches that Abraham Lincoln made in his public career, from his days in the legal practice up to the time of his assassination. For instance, Foner states that his intention was to use these sources to examine the evolution of Abraham Lincoln’s ideas, stance and policies about slavery from his early life in Kentucky to his career in politics (Foner XVII).

We will write a custom Book Review on The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Foner states that Lincoln’s ability to grow was based on his early encounter with issues relating to slavery as well as marriage to a daughter of a slave owner. For instance, Foner indicates that Lincoln, when serving as a lawyer representing slave owner, said, “I am a natural antislavery individual. If the act of slavery is not wrong, then I do not believe there is any wrong action”.

However, Foner also states that Lincoln used such words as “nigger” and “dark” in his writings and speeches. Foner also cites cases in which Lincoln expressed his support of the idea that the black people were physically different from the whites3.

However, Lincoln states that Lincoln’s entry into politics and party affairs of the Whig party changed his perceptions towards slavery and the black communities in the US. Foner states that Lincoln steered a “middle course”. For instance, Foner states that Lincoln thought that slavery was violating the basic principles of the American constitution. According to Foner, Lincoln “remained devoted to the federal constitution of the US”.

Noteworthy, Foner’s work is based on an in-depth analysis of the speeches and writings Lincoln made in public. In addition, he examines Lincoln’s upbringing, including the issues that faced him when growing up in Kentucky and during his stay in Illinois.

It also examines the social, economic and political issues that took place when Lincoln entered active party politics. An in-depth examination of the private life of Lincoln, including his marriage, has been done.

Nevertheless, Foner’s methodology is biased because he refuses to engage or refer to other historian’s work, especially those who focused on Lincoln and his presidency.

Therefore, it is possible to develop counterarguments, especially by claiming that Lincoln hardly grew, especially on the issue of slavery because he was only responding to the changing circumstances in the American politics rather than being part of the change.

Conclusion Foner’s work proves that Lincoln experienced dramatic change in his life, especially in terms of his thought about slavery. This is demonstrated in the author’s ability to trace Lincoln’s perception of slavery from his early days in Kentucky to his presidency. Thus, this book contributes to the existing knowledge about Lincoln’s role in ending the civil war and slavery and preservation of the union of states.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bibliography Foner, Eric, and Lisa McGirr. American history now. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2011.

Foner, Eric. The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery. New York: W. W. Norton, 2010.

VanderMey, Randall Verne Meyer, John Van Rys, and Patrick Sebranek. The College Writer: A Guide to Thinking, Writing, and Researching. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2014.

Footnotes 1 Randall VanderMey, Verne Meyer, John Van Rys, and Patrick Sebranek, The College Writer: A Guide to Thinking, Writing, and Researching (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2014), 222.

2 Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York: W. W. Norton, 2010), i-446.

3 Eric Foner and Lisa McGirr, American history now (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2011), 18-64.

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Congress is a Broken Institution Evaluation Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Oversight over the Federal Government

The Health Care Reforms

Protection of Civil Liberty

Power over the National Budgeting Process

Control over the National Security and the International Wars

Conclusion

References

Introduction The unending public and political debates concerning the credibility of the present Congress House of the United States have provoked constitutional changes (Sinclair, 2009). Political analysts and some of the open-minded American citizens have considered the Congress to be an ineffective institution, because the American government seems to manipulate the organization.

Complaints against the sovereignty of the institution are diverse and range from its obvious partisanship, its demeaned civilization, to its record of numerous legislative ambiguities. America is embarking on a series of constitutional reforms that would stabilize the Congress (Sinclair, 2009). Pertinent to such notions, this essay analyzes some recently proposed constitutional amendments aimed to refurbish the Congress.

Oversight over the Federal Government The American constitution vested the executive powers upon the president (Sinclair, 2009). However, the recently witnessed close relations between the Congress and the president have made the congress seem ineffectual and partisan. The American Anticorruption Act of 2013 is a recent Congressional reform, which will probably assist the Congress to curb political corruption and bribery.

The levels of corruption have become unbearable, while the recent Democratic and Republican leaders have remained focused on raising money for elections (Ruby, 2010). The Act may thrive due to its promising power to reform the American politics, which have proven uneconomical to the nation.

The Health Care Reforms The healthcare department is one of the heavily affected national departments since the Congress became dysfunctional, and almost overpowered by the executive. According to Ruby, the government has been manipulative in its overall sovereignty in the healthcare department, since it imposes frustrating restrictions and reforms (2010).

The uncontrolled Obamacare health project has been costly and has caused severe economic crunches in America. Ruby (2010) also asserts that the Patient’s Choice Act of 2009 and the Empowering Patients First Act that may replace the Affordable Care Act might assist the Congress to have power over the executive on the important healthcare issues.

Protection of Civil Liberty The close relationship witnessed between the Congress and the president has hampered civil liberty (Sinclair, 2009). One of the proposed amendments is the improvement of the Sunset Extension Act of 2009. The Act is under the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001. The USA PATRIOT Act 2001 was an effective Congressional law that strengthened the civil autonomy over the national issues about security and healthcare (Ruby 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The amendments of this Act may happen due to the rising concern over the uprising Islamic State of Iraq (ISIS), and its terror missions across the United States (Ruby 2010). In addition, the Justice Act of 2009 will transform the sovereignty of the American citizens and their rights to exercise their civil independence.

Power over the National Budgeting Process Congress lost its national responsibility of overseeing the budgeting process of America. Such loopholes have resulted to poor government control on the national expenditure. The proposed amendments of the constitution include efforts to revamp the 1974 Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act (Ruby, 2010).

The Act allows the formation of a committee that consists of members from both the Congress and the Senate Houses. The committee is important in the control of the federal budgeting processes. According to Ruby (2010), the act will empower the Congress to reduce the direct power of the president over the budget. Such amendments may succeed because the parliament wants to minimize the budget.

Control over the National Security and the International Wars The biggest concerns of the American government are the rising levels of insurgency, the Muslim extremism, and the safety issues of America as a world giant economy (Sinclair, 2009). The American army and its security personnel have scattered across the world to counter extremists, terrorists and insurgents.

Such approaches are raising fear and national anxiety, although the government seems to ignore these tensions (Sinclair, 2009). The American parliament is seeking to reform the USA PATRIOT Act 2001, and the War Powers Act of 1973 to control the powers of the government over the national military and its engagement in the global warfare (Sinclair, 2009).

Conclusion The executive branch of America is unfair and manipulative. The close relationships between the Congress and the president have resulted to controversies that have inspired the people to consider Congress an ineffective institution. The American parliament has proposed credible amendments to the national constitution.

The reforms include Acts that support healthcare reforms, control the national budgeting process, the national and international security affairs, and protect the civil liberty. These Acts may succeed because they target the main concerns that affect the American economy, its national security, and its national cohesion.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Congress is a Broken Institution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Ruby, J. (2010). Sound and Fury, Confused Alarms, and Oversight: Congress, Delegation, and Effective Responses to Financial Crises. Harvard Journal on Legislation, 47(1), 210-252.

Sinclair, B. (2009). Question: What’s wrong with Congress? Answer: It’s a Democratic Legislature. Boston University Law Review 89(2), 387-397.

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Organizational Behaviour and Negotiations Case Study online essay help

The duties of a management demand outgoing, elite, and sociable people. A manager must create an organized society that respects his/her decisions by upholding the key ideologies he or she sets (Mosadeghrad 2012). The attainment of such an attribute does not appear stringently in a moment. It is a character that is earned through continued working experience.

It involves becoming part of that society and understanding the requirement of such a community. The problem addressed in this paper involves how people can trust and be reliant to their manager as the centre of decision-making.

How can a manager motivate and boost the confidence of employees and other people in an organization? In a bid to answer this question, a case study on the personal attributes has been evaluated in respect to management.

Personal Assessment Strength

This module has been a source of many lessons that form the base of self-assessment. While conducting a personal evaluation, I noted that I have various attributes that can lead to successful management. In my management, I guide through doing what I expect my juniors to accomplish. In this regard, I exercise participatory management where the manager participates actively in the activities of a team.

This practise helps in analyzing the capabilities of the team members in order to assign them with appropriate roles (DuBrin 2004). For example, I have been a leader to an academic group where we were conducting research on the qualities of a good manager. During the study, we interviewed various departmental heads in the university in order to obtain their opinions towards proper management.

During the interviews, I participated in the recording of data while my colleagues asked questions to the staff. I took this minor role rather than interacting with the heads orally. It allowed the group members to improve their interpersonal communication and oral skills. In addition, the other group members accomplished their roles easily because I had set the pace. It was a perfect example of how managers should lead.

In fact, it was one of the ways that my colleagues learned about humility, dedication and active participation. Secondly, I noted that I was a motivational leader who hardly gave up when situations were very tough. In regard to this study conducted with my colleagues, there were very many difficulties because the departmental leaders were busy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, we found the offices closed when trying to look for the lecturers in charge of the departments. However, I remained optimistic and persuaded my colleagues to find an appointment despite the prolonged absence.

Poor Attributes

Despite the good attributes, I realized that there were various aspects that impair my management skills. In this case, one of the main poor aspects was the lack of accommodativeness. I did not give chance to the opinions of other people. In fact, I entered into frequent arguments in order to convince them on the viability of my idea rather than understanding their sentiments. I was tempted to make decisions alone and implement them.

This personality had developed a tendency of willing to implement the opinions I had provided and discarding the ones provided by other people. This behaviour had impacted on the unity of the academic group which I was leading for one year. The effect of this vice was neutralized by the validity of my opinions because I mostly provided viable ideas. However, it was not right to believe in personal opinions resolutely.

This behaviour was one of the main attributes that I had to eliminate in order to attain a highly reputable and effective management. Another vice that impact on the effectiveness of my management skills is the incapability in solving conflicts between team members (Eunson, 2007). When I was solving conflicts, I tended to favour one party over the other in accordance to my personal preferences and morals.

For example, I was tempted to make a premature judgment on a person’s identification about whether they had made mistakes in the past. During my research for this module, I realized that conflicts should be considered individually. When solving conflict, managers should not use past perception to adjudge a case. Instead, they should consider the aspects of that conflict as a separate case from the past ones.

Analysis Creation of a Vision

The most fundamental requirement of good managers is the power to create a vision for the companies. This requirement is based on the premises that an organization is formed on the basis of a vision. The vision comprises of common objectives of the company that defines what all stakeholders should attain (Bass

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The Conflict between Boston Charter Schools and School Districts Problem Solution Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction: Where the Conflict Begins

Conflict Analysis: History, Participants and Environment

Dispute Resolution: A “Portfolio” School System

Methods Implementation: The Negotiation Process

Mediation Process: In Search for a Compromise

Key Stakeholders and Major Factors: Evaluating the Situation

Conclusion: Revisiting the Principles of the Education System

Works Cited

Introduction: Where the Conflict Begins Charter schools have been an integral part of an education system in a range of states for quite a while. However, with the evolution of pedagogy, the development of new learning theories and teaching approaches, the necessity for teachers to adopt new approaches has emerged.

As a result, charter schools are currently experiencing the necessity to grow and expand, yet this growth is halted by the lack of financial support from school districts.

It should be born in mind that the emergence of the so-called charter schools is by no means an accident. The establishment of the charter school system was a response to the flaws of the U.S. education system, and an introduction of the model, that could authorise and build capacity in the education system of the state.

A closer look at the way in which the Boston charter schools are organised will reveal that the existing system presuppose a complete independency in terms of defining the program and the teaching strategies required for addressing the needs of the target students (i.e., the necessity to assist ESL students and the students, who lack financial support from their families) (Peyser para. 1–6).

Conflict Analysis: History, Participants and Environment The conflict between charter schools and school districts is not new; in fact, the history of confrontations between the local authorities and the people representing corresponding education establishments has been going on since the day that the two phenomena emerged.

However, charter schools being a rather recent and specific innovation in the history of education, the dilemma regarding the freedom, which schools should be provided with, has taken a new turn.

Among the key participants, Boston charter schools and the local school districts must be mentioned. Neither of the opponents is willing to compromise, the schools demanding that they should be given the right to expand, and the school district authorities refusing to provide financial support from the establishments that they have practically no control over.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The environment, in which the conflict has been brewing for several years, is quite specific. Boston is a unique city with a rather rich history; however, as far as its economic success is concerned, the number of people coming from a low income background is quite high.

Therefore, the school district does not consider investing into the development of the Boston charter schools a rational step and prefers to disregard the demands of the Boston charter school teachers.

Dispute Resolution: A “Portfolio” School System The significance of the conflict specified above is tremendous. While the confrontation between the parties involved into it is not as severe as military conflicts are (Harvard Business Review 69), it still causes a lot of concern and leads to a variety of questions, including the possible changes to the financial support for Boston public schools, which may suffer as a result of budget cuts that may be made by the school district.

Therefore, it goes without saying that the method for addressing the situation must satisfy the needs and meet the demands of both charter and public schools, as well as the school district.

The “portfolio” system, which has been suggested in order to address the problem specified above, truly is an original solution customised uniquely for the benefit of both Boston charter schools and local school districts. The solution suggested by the people concerned about the issue seems perfect; it hurts neither of the parties and at the same time works for the benefit of charter schools.

The very title for the new type of schools represents a perfect solution to the problem and the satisfactory result for all the parties involved, since it presupposes that the control over the new type of charter schools will be split in equal proportions between school districts and heads of the charter schools.

As a result, it will be possible for school districts to track down the financial transactions, which charter schools make, and check what charter schools’ administration spends the finances provided by the school district on. This is the power divide strategy that will help all those involved benefit (Melamed 1).

We will write a custom Essay on The Conflict between Boston Charter Schools and School Districts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the conflict management perspective, the solution to the confrontation between charter schools and school districts is impeccable.

Though it does involve a compromise and demands it from each of the parties, it rewards a positive response with an opportunity for charter schools to expand and for school districts to control the financial transactions of the Boston schools, therefore, making the process of budget distribution much easier. This, however, raises the question whether BATNA could be developed in case the school district refuses to compromise.

Interpreted as the best alternative to a negotiated solution, BATNA actually does not require that a negotiation with the opponent should be carried out: “BATNAs are critical to negotiation because you cannot make a wise decision about whether to accept a negotiated agreement unless you know what your alternatives are” (Sprangler 1).

The incorporation of BATNA in the set of tools for addressing the problem, however, invites the question concerning the future communication between the school district and Boston charter schools.

Methods Implementation: The Negotiation Process While the solution described above seems quite obvious and presupposes that reasonable compromises should be made by both opponents, it would be too optimistic to assume that the negotiation process is going to be carried out impeccably and that the discussion procedure is going to flow smoothly.

Instead, it can be expected that the participants of the negotiation will be unwilling to accept their part of the compromise and refuse to make the final step towards reconciliation and the improvement of their relationships. Therefore, the negotiation process must be thought through outstandingly well.

Recognizing their mistakes will be the first step towards improving the situation for the Boston school district and the local charter schools. The process is not going to be easy, though, According to what Dunning’s research has shown, people traditionally fail to come to terms due to the inability to recognise their own mistakes:

“Recent research we have conducted, however, suggests that people are not adept at spotting the limits of their knowledge and expertise” (Dunning, Johnson, Ehrlinger and Kruger 83). As a rule, the unwillingness to admit the obvious failure can be explained by the fear of being socially ostracised and labelled as incompetent.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Conflict between Boston Charter Schools and School Districts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Herein the key to solving the conflict lies; it is essential to help the parties involved realise that their ability to recognise their fault redeems them as people, who are capable of telling the right solution from the wrong one. As Dunning put it, “If

poor performers are given the skills necessary to distinguish correct from incorrect answers, then they would be in a position to recognise their own incompetence” (Dunning et al. 85). The negotiation process, therefore, must be steered towards the compromising approach.

In other words, the emphasis must be put onto developing a compromising strategy instead of focusing on the competitive one. It would also be a good idea to steer the discussion to a more comfortable analysis of the financial changes with the help of accommodative approach.

Mediation Process: In Search for a Compromise Though it is desirable that the opponents in question, i.e., school district members and the people representing charter schools, should attempt at solving the issue on their own. Unless both sides of the conflict recognize the necessity to reconcile and find points of contact, there will be no point in addressing the situation.

However, it could be argued that with the introduction of a third party, which will represent and entirely objective point of view, the process of negotiation will take place faster and more smoothly.

Therefore, it will be reasonable to suggest that the mediation process should be facilitated by the Massachusetts Joint Committee on Education. As a third party that is not interested in the outcomes of the negotiation, yet is a major authority in the field of education, it will be a perfect mediator for resolving the specified conflict.

It can be suggested that charter schools should provide additional opportunities for students; thus, it will be possible to provide the schools with the status that they need.

For instance, creating courses for the students, who are willing to study specific subjects in depth, could be a way to solve the problem In addition, it is desirable that the Massachusetts charter schools should design a flexible system of upgrade based on the concept of economic and financial sustainability.

Thus, the costs will be reduced impressively, and the school districts will see the potential that charter schools and their students have. Finally, it will be a good idea to arrange basketball and soccer facilities in several charter schools so that major school sport related events could be held there.

Attracting participants from other schools will help raise the money that will be used as the means to upgrade charter schools to the necessary level.

Key Stakeholders and Major Factors: Evaluating the Situation When it comes to defining the major stakeholders involved into the conflict, one is most likely to mention teachers of Boston charter schools and the members of the Boston school districts. Indeed, these are the sides of the conflict that remain in the spotlight most of the time; they are the main participants, and they are involved in most of the discussions concerning the issue in question.

True, the Boston charter schools and the Boston school districts are obviously two essential stakeholders in the specified conflict. However, there are other stakeholders that deserve to be mentioned.

First and foremost, students of the Boston charter schools must be recognised as the key stakeholders, since their future academic life, as well as their career and success in the business world, hinges on the decision that the local authorities make in order to address the situation. Naturally, such a great dependence on the outcome of the conflict makes the Boston charter school students the key stakeholders.

However, it would be wrong to disregard the aforementioned opponents when listing the major stakeholders. The choice that the Boston school district will make will obviously affect the school staff as well, as the latter will have to alter the teaching approaches, as well as introduce new teaching strategies in order to meet new requirements.

Indeed, expansion of an education establishment presupposes that the diversity rates in charter schools are going to increase significantly, which will call for designing additional strategies for meeting the needs of children with various ethnic backgrounds, gifted children, children with disabilities, etc.

Moreover, the rise in the amount of students will also entail the necessity to hire more staff and, thus, to reconsider the school budget and the current schedule.

Needless to say, the school districts are also highly dependent on the solution that will be chosen in order to address the situation.

Using the budget funds for expanding charter schools means that the school district will have to cut costs for other issues concerning financial support of schools; therefore, it is in the interests of the school districts to address the issue in such a way that the costs should be minimised. Thus, the members of the school districts must also be viewed as the key stakeholders in the conflict in question.

As far as the factors are concerned, there are key financial, economic and social issues that may hinder the process of conflict resolution. The financial issues top the list of the key factors. Because of the need to re-establish the current principle of a charter school operation, the costs for the innovation are going to be impressive.

Carving the money out of the budget means that public schools will be left without the required support. The fact that charter schools are practically independent from school districts in terms of their education policy, in contrast to public ones, investing into the development of charter schools hardly seems reasonable for the Boston school districts.

More to the point, the fact that students from low income families, as well as students belonging to ethnic and national minorities, make most of the student population in charter schools in Boston, does not add any credibility to the plea of the heads of Boston charter schools.

Though the issue specified above seems to be financial, it, in fact, should be deemed as a social one, and related to the discrimination problems within the modern society.

Conclusion: Revisiting the Principles of the Education System Though the solution, which requires responsibilities distribution and power divide between school districts and school authorities, requires that major concessions should be made by both parties, mutual compromise is the only way to settle the conflict. Moreover, the specified strategy seems the only rational approach to be taken in this situation.

Once both sides of the conflict are secure about their control over the issue, they will be able to come to terms. The mediation process, which is the key towards reaching a compromise, must be based on the principles of cooperation and presuppose that the charter schools should use their key assets to solve the conflict. At present, to reach a compromise, charter schools need to prove that they are worth investing in.

Works Cited Dunning, David, Kerry Johnson, Joyce Ehrlinger and Justin Kruger. “Why People Fail to Recognize Their Own Incompetence.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 12.1 (2014), 83–87. Print.

Harvard Business Review. Extreme Negotiations. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review. 2010. 67–75. Print.

Melamed, James. Maximizing Mediation. 2014. Web. .

Peyser, James A. “Boston and the Charter School Cap.” Education Next 14.1 (2014), para. 1–6. Web. .

Sprangler, Brad. “Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA).” Beyond Intractability. 2012. Web. .

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Freedom of Speech and Expression Opinion Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

It is indeed true that the freedom of individual expression largely emanates from the level of autonomy granted. When our individual autonomies are restricted, the freedom of expression is also affected. This implies that autonomy is the epitome of the freedom of expression in many ways.

Nonetheless, a certain level of restriction is usually applied by authorities in cases whereby the granted autonomy may lead to chaos or disruption of peace (de Zayas

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McDonald’s and KFC Corporate Responsibility Report (Assessment) writing essay help

Introduction Organisations have a responsibility to function as good citizens by ensuring sustainability of their supply chains and protecting the interest of their shareholders. They have to establish mechanisms of enhancing corporate governance. An organisation can also protect shareholders from losing their investments by ensuring that risks that lead to a reduction of competitive advantage are proactively mitigated.

In the fast-food industry, such risks include changing the attitude and sensitisation on the sustainability of fast-food organisations and sourcing strategies from consumers and communities in which the organisations operate.

An effective supply chain arm of an organisation ensures that products and services are availed just whenever they are required in a manner that will ensure that the increasing number of products that need to be availed in the market is sustainable (Bakshi

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Bureaucratic Politics Impact on Decision-Making Expository Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Bureaucratic politics, as well as organizational dynamics are characterized by a long, categorized, and non-essential political process that involves too many players before a decision is made.

As a matter of fact, bureaucratic politics and organizational dynamics’ time consumption are disadvantageous to the political players and the political playing field, as it slows down the process and does not serve to protect or respect the best interests of a nation.

Welch (1992, 125) notes that information on Soviet missiles launched in Cuba was brought to the attention of President Kennedy on October 14, instead of three weeks earlier as a result of the routines and processes of in the organizations that made up the U.S. intelligence community.

Often, the political leadership of a nation is faced with decisions that require fast determination and arrival at timely decisions, lest the agenda of the decision is rendered nugatory. These decisions require fast thinking, reasoning, and determination.

However, long and bureaucratic processes negate this aspect and deal with such matters too procedurally. Such slowing down of the processes brings about a lot of negative effects on the analysis of the situations and decision making is made ineffective in some circumstances (Bendor and Hammond 1992, 305).

Besides, bureaucratic politics and structural dynamics may make a nation’s political players arrive at wrong decisions in their quest to adhere and follow the requisite channels of procedure.

As Preston and Hart (1990, 50) note, after the first incursion of South Korea by North Korea in 1950, President Harry S. Truman dispersed a memo to his staff detailing the changes that he decided to carry out in the arrangement and working of the presidential advisory group.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He no longer wished to receive proposals on policies regarding Korea. Instead, he ordered that such proposals be taken to him through the National Security Council body. He additionally restructured his advisory team to a limited number of trusted officials to carry out policy formulation.

The restructuring of the advisory arrangement brought about a lot of bureau-political struggle amongst factions in government, leading to a fundamentally incorrect set of recommendations being presented back to Truman.

Thus, it is undeniable that the longevity of a bureaucratic process of politics and structural dynamics will not only impact the political process by slowing it down, but it will similarly lead to confusion and incorrectness in arriving at decisions (Preston and Hart 90, 51).

Additionally, bureaucratic politics and the structural dynamic have an impact on the costs incurred in decision making, as well as policy formulation. One might argue that a single-time-period model is appropriate for crises. However, even in a crisis, the effects of options may be spread over multiple time periods.

Consider, for example, President Kennedy’s concern for the United States’ international reputation for firmness and resolve; such reputational consequences may endure for years. In estimating the consequences of any option that a government might choose, the same is to be done rationally in consideration of the costs to be incurred and the benefits enjoyed.

The benefits are spread over a long period (Bendor and Hammond 1992, 308). The application of a bureaucratic process in policy and decision making generally involves the coordinated work of a number of offices that are to be involved in rendering the decisions, instead of relying on a single entity to make decisions.

As is to be expected, the running of such many offices and personnel consumes many resources from the coffers of a nation, which deplete a lot of financial resources from a country’s treasury (Welch 1992, 114).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Bureaucratic Politics Impact on Decision-Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, bureaucratic politics and structural dynamics may also be said to be beneficial to the government’s analysis and decision-making process to a lesser extent.

This argument is based on the fact that bureaucracy respects legal processes stipulated for due decision making, thereby promoting democratic governance, transparency, and accountability. Additionally, it promotes the working culture of the teamwork spirit, where persons are united in the engagement of the task of decision making.

Reference List Bendor, Jonathan and Thomas Hammond T. 1992. “Rethinking Allison’s Models.” American Political Science Review 86, no. 2 (June): 301-322.

Preston, Thomas and Paul ‘t Hart. 1990. “Understanding and Evaluating Bureaucratic Politics: The Nexus between Political Leaders and Advisory.” Political Psychology 20, no. 1 (March): 49-98.

Welch, David A. 1992. “The Organizational Process and Bureaucratic Politics Paradigms: Retrospect and Prospect.” International Security 17, no. 2 (Fall): 112-146.

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Corporate Social Responsibility for Gulftainer Report essay help site:edu

Introduction This paper is based on the topic of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It seeks to explore the topic using a Dubai based organisation called Gulftainer. The main focus of the paper is to understand how the organisation relates to the environment, people and the community, and its management systems and whether these relations and systems are in line with CSR principles.

The paper begins with a description of the industry under which the organisation’s business falls. The description is followed by an overview of the components of CSR which is followed by an analysis of the organisation using the three aspects mentioned above, that is; the environment, people and the community, and management systems.

The analysis is accompanied by recommendations on where the organisation needs to improve.

Description of the Industry Gulftainer’s core business is provision of port and freight services to individual clients, companies, and institutions. The port and freight industry is one of the industries which are complex and sophisticated due to the nature of operations. The industry is characterized by intensive logistical operations, planning, networking, and coordination. If well managed, the industry is highly rewarding in terms of profits and returns.

The other characteristic of the industry is that it has barriers to entry owing to the huge investment capital required for a start up. However, the barriers do not guarantee monopoly for companies because of rivalry between existing competitors even if they are few. This rivalry between existing competitors calls for individual companies to have a competitive strategy so as to attract and retain customers.

The nature of the business also requires the companies to have good relations with the environment and the people. The reason is that the business has a high probability of damaging marine and other environments especially through oil spillage. As a result, developing and adhering to a strict code of ethics by the companies becomes compulsory because without doing so, there is no business success.

Corporate Social Responsibility Ethical conduct of corporations is intertwined with CSR. The concept of CSR is generally used to refer to the relationship between businesses and their environment. All businesses operate in social, political, economic, and natural environments. The concept therefore takes into account how businesses interact with these environments, either positively or negatively (Scarre 196).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The topic of CSR can be broken down into four main components namely the ethical, economic, philanthropic and legal components. The ethical component of CSR comprises the requirements or expectations of any business by the society.

Such requirements or expectations include things like doing what is just, fair and right, using the law as the basis of organisational behaviour, avoidance of questionable practices and doing business in a manner which is above the minimal requirements (Carroll 23).

The economic component comprises taking care of the interests of the shareholders, investors and customers, profit maximisation, the minimisation of the costs of undertaking a business and the formulation and implementation of strategic policies which propel the business forward (Aras and Crowther 87).

The legal component comprises the respect and compliance of a business to various laws such as environmental laws, consumer laws, laws which protect the employees, as well as the respect of contractual agreements between an organisation and its clients or employees (Kizza 20).

Finally the philanthropic component entails giving back to the society by a business. A business may do this in a variety of ways like establishing or supporting programs which directly benefit the society like health and education programs as well as programs which boost harmonious living of people from diverse backgrounds (Bratton and Gold 72).

How Gulftainer behaves in a morally responsible way towards the environment One area which is in the fore front in regard to the company’s environmental policy is the conservation of marine environment.

The reason is that most of its operations depend on the marine environment. The company has a comprehensive marine conservation policy which is clearly indicated at all the terminals where goods are dispatched and received. The idea is to make the employees and clients fully aware of the company’s high regard to conservation of the marine environment.

We will write a custom Report on Corporate Social Responsibility for Gulftainer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has established very clear guidelines in form of a policy which outlines its relationship to the environment. It behaves in a morally responsible manner towards the environment through providing support to other organisations such as the EWS-WWF.

The support is through partnership between Gulftainer and EWS-WWF in a marine turtle conservation project which has been implemented in the last three years (Mühle 82).

Through the turtle conservation project, the company has managed to save the life of many turtles and extended their life span. It encourages people to take care of the beautiful creatures though educating the people on the dos and don’ts when dealing with the turtles.

The company in partnership with the Group Middle East launched a philanthropic program where philanthropists may adopt turtles. The adoption entails visiting any turtle conservation centre in the region and donating money which goes in the turtle conservation project.

The organisation also has a marine conservation policy which ensures compliance with all laws and regulations which are put in place to protect the marine environment. For instance, it takes the necessary actions to ensure that its operations do not negatively affect the marine environment either directly or indirectly.

Such a policy is a pointer of a morally responsible behaviour because environmental pollution by corporates affects the health of the community. Having a clean environment ensures that the community enjoys a healthy environment and leads a healthy life.

Another area where the company behaves in a morally responsible manner towards the environment is through recycling of waste water. The company operates a department responsible of recycling of waste water to ensure that it is brought back to use. The recycling not only protects the environment from harmful toxins in the water but it also enables the company to reduce the cost of production.

Apart from recycling of waste water, the company has an elaborate infrastructure for disposing oil waste, used toner cartridges, steal, batteries, and other toxic by-products. The company also has an elaborate infrastructure for cleaning any spilled oil immediately to avoid damage to the marine environment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Social Responsibility for Gulftainer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the company’s managing director Mr Peter Richards, the company believes in the 3R policy of reduce, re-use and recycle. It does not only practice the 3R policy but also implements programs which aim at increasing the awareness of the community to practice the 3R policy in their homes and places of work.

The company also invests in providing its customers with services and products which help them understand their environmental challenges and how to mitigate risks associated with the environment. The company uses this approach because it believes that for sustainability purposes, it must build the capacity of the people and community to let them understand their environment and take good care of it.

The company is concerned about global warming which is caused by carbon emissions. In order to curb carbon emissions to the atmosphere, the company has installed Rubber Tyres Gantries (RTGs) in most of its terminals.

The RTGs not only prevent carbon emission but they also reduce noise pollution since they are powered by the main grid which means that when they are operational, the main engine of the company is usually switched off. The company also monitors the carbon emissions by its vehicles to ensure that there is full fuel combustion. The vehicles which are found to have faulty fuel combustion systems are repaired or replaced.

As a result of its commitment to environmental conservation and commitment to the 3R policy, the company was awarded a certificate of recognition by a delegation from Bee’ah, which is one of the largest Middle East organisations dealing with waste management.

While receiving the certificate, the company’s managing director acknowledged their partnership with Bee’ah and reiterated his company’s commitment to environmental conservation especially in the Sharjah region of the UAE.

How Gulftainer behaves in a morally responsible way towards the Community For many years since its inception, Gulftainer has engaged itself in various charitable initiatives especially in the Sharjah region of the UAE where it has sponsored various institutions in academics and co-curricular activities such as sports. Through the sponsorship, it buys school uniforms, learning, and sports equipments to the institutions with the aim of boosting their performance in academics and sports.

The organisation does not only provide sponsorship through purchase of equipments but it also encourages its staff to volunteer their time to coach and mentor communities for them to have crucial life skills such as interpersonal, public speaking, and sports skills among others.

The aim of the mentorship is to ensure that the company maintains a good relationship with the people and have a community which can sustain itself socially and economically.

Elsewhere in Iraq, the organisation has a policy of giving priority to Iraq citizens in employment opportunities. Giving the locals first priority in employment has a positive impact on the company in that it ensures domestication of the local culture in the organisation’s culture which has an overall effect of improving organisational efficiency and productivity due to cohesiveness in the organisation.

Apart from giving the Iraq citizens first priority in employment, the organisation participates in improving the welfare of the people through implementation of community centered projects such as donation of water purifiers to residents of Umm Qasr region.

Just like in other regions, the company also sponsors football clubs in Iraq with the aim of building rapport with them and especially the youth. The idea is to have a socially and economically empowered youth as future customers and employees.

The other way in which the company behaves in a morally responsible manner towards the people is through building prosperous communities.

The company believes that prosperous communities are based on prosperous economy and that is why it helps the communities to flourish by investing in industries and organisations which bring people together in groups for economic prosperity. Such groups are financed by the company to tackle various issues such as social inclusion and education.

Gulftainer’s Management Systems The company has an integrated management system which has adequate linkages among various departments. The departmental heads usually consult each other and they put efforts in ensuring that all activities are in harmony with each other.

It has also embraced the concept of total quality management which comprises good and committed leadership, excellent product design, strategic planning, process management, customer involvement, employee involvement, dissemination of information and feedback, training and the management of supply quality.

The organisation also has in place a wide range of good practices such as customer satisfaction, care for the employees, teamwork, creativity, innovativeness, and observation of business ethics. It is a member of various quality focused bodies in the UAE.

Other quality practices include promotion of green and healthy environment, preservation of natural resources, employee development and prevention of pollution of the environment.

In regard to the relationship between the company and its employees, the company has a policy in form of employee code of conduct. The policy is guided by the principle that all employees should be treated fairly and accorded the dignity and respect which they deserve.

The policy reflects a morally responsible behaviour because the respect of employees is central to the success of any organisation. Treating employees with respect and dignity not only makes them motivated but also enables them get the intrinsic value of work.

The company also embraces the concepts of cultural diversity and gender sensitivity in its employment policy. It does so by ensuring that employees are not discriminated based on race, gender or colour.The Company also ensures that employees are trained from time to time so as to enhance their capacity to discharge their duties.

The training is part of the company’s initiative to ensure that the customers get quality services at any given time. Training of employees is a morally responsible behaviour because it not only improves the quality of services but also makes employees grow in their career.

Such training is also important for the employees because once they leave the company, it serves as an asset by giving them a competitive edge over other job seekers thus increasing their probability of being employed in other companies.

The company also has a policy which ensures that employees have a safe working environment which is not prone to accidents. It also ensures strict adherence to internal procedures not only by employees but also by suppliers as well. The staffs are also accorded what is referred to as supportive supervision to ensure compliance with the set rules and regulations for quality improvement.

The company has been ISO certified for three occasions; in 2008 for the implementation of the integrated management system, in 2004 for its environmental conservation efforts, and in 2007 for occupational health and safety. These ISO certifications and awards are a pointer of an excellent performance of the organisation. It has managed to establish a market niche for itself.

The leaders of the organisation are committed to a course of maintaining the unrivaled competition in the region. They also aspire to make the organisation more customers oriented by focusing on finding better ways of improving customer satisfaction.

Review of Gulftainer’s policies from a critical perspective with recommendations Towards the environment

I agree with the company’s CSR perspective towards the environment. The reason is that it has managed to have environmental conservation programs both at the macro and micro levels. However, it needs to allocate more funds to environmental conservation. Apart from the marine turtle conservation project, there is no evidence of significant activities which the company undertakes to conserve the environment.

It needs for example to contribute towards the management of greenhouse gases which cause global warming. It can also partner with other governmental and non governmental organisations to launch comprehensive environmental conservation programs both at the national and international platform.

The company needs to not only create awareness about the 3R policy to community members but it also needs to capacity build them through provision of equipments and funds for them to effectively embrace the policy for sustainability purposes.

Towards People and Community

I do not agree with the company’s CSR perspective towards people and community. The reason is that people’s interests should be the central concern for any business and there is no evidence for that in the company’s operations. Even though the company has put in place some elaborate measures to fully engage the community, it has not done enough.

For instance, there is no evidence of its intensive involvement in programs or activities which improve the social well being of the people and communities where it has operations. Its programs seem to target educational institutions which in most cases have young people.

Such an approach is biased because the community is composed of people of different ages, education levels, and religion and therefore, there is need to come up with programs which meet the specific needs of different categories of people within a community.

For example, there is need to have programs which target married couples with the aim of providing them with guidance and counseling for happy unions. The company may also consider initiating programs which target people living with chronic illnesses such as HIV/ AIDS.

Through such programs, the company may focus on improving the social well being of such people through formation of support groups and educating the communities to become agents of fighting stigma.

Management Systems

I do not agree with the company’s management system from a CSR perspective. Even though the company has several ISO awards, there are some areas where it has not done well. According to the naked office website, the company has been accused of having poorly trained and inexperienced personnel at top leadership positions.

While it pays attention to the training of other staff, it has neglected the training and capacity building of its leaders and therefore, there is need for change so that it can have leaders who are not only experienced but also visionary and well equipped with the necessary skills and techniques of leadership. Such leadership would ensure that the company comes up with strategic business decisions which would propel it towards excellence.

There are also claims that the company places a lot of emphasis on cutting costs. The cutting on costs makes it have few employees in the branches serving the increasing number of clients. The employees therefore feel overworked without any additional compensation which is a form of exploitation.

For the company to make its customers more satisfied, there is need to recruit more employees to ensure that customers are served without delays. If it is not able to increase the number of employees, it needs to ensure that the employees are paid overtime so as to motivate them.

The company needs to as well scale up its employee motivation efforts by introducing more employee motivation programs and policies such as sponsorship programs for employees to further their studies, provision of retirement benefits, medical scheme for the workers, and promotions based on merit.

Conclusion Gulftainer is one of the companies listed in the data base of the world’s most ethical companies. The company behaves in a morally responsible manner towards the community, the environment and employees through policies and guidelines which govern its business strategy and operations.

It ensures that the communities are supported to improve their living standards through empowering them with skills and implementing programs which boost their social well being. It also has a policy which ensures that local citizens are given priority in employment.

In regard to the environment, the company partners with other organisations to ensure the conservation of marine environment. It also embraces the 3R policy which advocates for utilisation of resources in an efficient manner and conservation of the environment through proper waste disposal.

However, the company can do better through deployment of more staff, payment of overtime to the employees, widening the scope of its social programs, and provision of employees with more benefits for them to become more productive. It also needs to partner with other organisations to launch comprehensive environmental conservation programs as a way of scaling up its efforts towards environmental conservation.

Works Cited Aras, Güler, and David, Crowther. A Handbook of Corporate Governance and CSRSeries, Farnham: Gower Publishing Ltd, 2010.Print.

Bratton, John, and Jeff, Gold. Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice, Palgrave: Macmillan, 2007. Print.

Carroll, Archie. A History of Corporate Social Responsibility, Oxford: Oxford university press, 2008. Print.

Kizza, Migga. , Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age, New York, NY: Springer, 2010. Print.

Mühle, Ursula. The Politics of Corporate Social Responsibility: The Rise of a Global Business Norm, New York: Campus Verlag, 2010.Print.

Scarre, Geoffrey. Utilitarianism, New York, NY: Routledge, 1996. Print.

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Shale Inc. Code of Ethics Essay (Critical Writing) essay help

Introduction Shale Inc. is a company that has dedicated itself to being a reputable organization that is committed to upholding ethical business practices. To maintain the company’s reputable image, employers, employees, contractors, and anyone who is affiliated with Shale must act ethically at any given time.

Adherence to a specified code of ethics enables Shale to carry on with its reputation as a fair, just, community-friendly, and environmental-friendly company.

A well-defined code of ethics makes the company an employer of choice, a leading energy solutions provider, and a viable investment vehicle. All Shale Inc. employees, directors, investors, business partners, and contractors are expected to honor and comply with this code of conduct.

Violation Reporting Policies This code of ethics is not exhaustive and some matters that are outside its scope might arise. In cases where violation against the code of ethics is witnessed, it is always advisable to exercise good judgment. A violation should first be communicated to the immediate superior. However, it is advisable to ensure that one is comfortable when talking with his/her leader.

Furthermore, employees should be steadfast and honest in their violation reports. If the violation involves a superior officer, an employee can proceed to report the matter to the next leader or go directly to the human resource department. All violations should be reported without fear of retaliation because Shale Inc. has zero tolerance for retaliatory behavior.

Prohibited Items and Practices Shale employees have to operate under a hazardous environment where the risk of fire is often eminent. Consequently, smoking is prohibited to eliminate unnecessary hazards within the company’s work environment. Smoking can only take place within specified locations around the company’s premises.

The use of alcohol and drugs in the line of work is prohibited whether it occurs during regular work hours or during overtime duties. All company employees are forbidden from taking tools or equipments of any kind from the company’s premises. Any form of stealing is also prohibited and if it is discovered, legal and administrative actions should be expected.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Political Activity, Employee Unions, and Political Lobbying Shale encourages its employees to engage in healthy politics, civil courses, and charitable activities within their communities. However, employees should distance any of their political or civil activities with the company’s image. Employees who wish to engage in any major political activity such as competitive politics should communicate their intentions to the company’s management.

Employees should refrain from engaging in civil, political, or solicitation activities within the company’s premises. Any discontent within the employees’ ranks should be communicated to the management either directly or through appointed representatives. Shale Inc. prohibits the use of the company’s name in relation to the support of any political faction in a local or national capacity.

Employment Practices Shale Inc. is a company that treats its employees with outmost respect and ensures that interpersonal relationships between workers are of high standard. The company can hire any qualified individuals regardless of their religious, racial, gender, age, and regional affiliations. Furthermore, it is in the company’s best interests to maintain a highly qualified work force.

The employee hiring process involves all the relevant employee handlers including the supervisors on the ground. The company’s management in conjunction with the human resource department should ensure that all the hired employees match the expertise of the existing ones. The only exception for this rule is for trainees and other apprentices.

Harassment The company forbids any form of harassment that may be based on color, origin, sexual orientation, weight, height, citizenship, marital status, or disability. Harassment leads to abuse, which in turn degrades the quality of the company’s work force.

The company also stands against sexual harassment within the workplace. Sexual harassment refers to any unwelcome and unwanted sexual overtones.

It is the duty of the human resource department to ensure that all cases of harassment within the workplace are heard and determined fairly. The company’s overall policy when it comes to harassment within the workplace is that everyone should treat other people the way he/she expects to be treated.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Shale Inc. Code of Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discrimination Discrimination within the workplace is prohibited by the country’s constitution. Shale Inc. seeks to go far and beyond this call of duty and ensure that the company shows respect to all its employees. Therefore, Shale does not discriminate employees, clients, or business partners on basis of gender, race, religion, marital status, pregnancy, or sexual orientation.

The company will not put up with any discrimination that stems from the above factors. The company endeavors to foster equal rights for women, minorities, and the aged. Shale will take into consideration the plight of individuals with special needs such as pregnant women and religious adherents.

Safety and Health Safety is a prime issue in the company’s day-to-day operations. Both the company and its employees are responsible for safe work environments. The company is responsible for ensuring that the work environment is as per the industry’s standards. Furthermore, the company fosters safe practices in the work environment by enforcing habits such as the wearing of helmets and protective clothing at all times.

All the equipment that is used within the company’s premises guarantees the safety of the employees by being at par with the industry standards. Due to the physical nature of the work that is undertaken at Shale, employees should maintain a healthy lifestyle and remain fit.

Annual medical checkups are facilitated by the company and it is the responsibility of the employees to follow up on this provision. Employees are also provided with up to fourteen days of paid sick leave to eliminate the possibility of employees reporting to work when they are sick.

Environmental Commitment The company takes great care to ensure that the integrity of the environment within its area of operation is not compromised by its activities. The company’s founder and most employees call Wheeling their home. Consequently, it is in the company’s best interest to ensure that no damage is done to the local environment.

The company endeavors to abide to the specified environmental codes of operation. Furthermore, the company seeks to promptly report and act on any damage to the environment that may occur as a result of its operations.

Business Continuity Shale Inc. aims to continue with its activities as an energy solutions provider. The company remains open to cooperation with other like-minded players in the energy provision industry. Over the course of time, the company seeks to grow in terms of its capital base, its employee size, and scope of operation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Shale Inc. Code of Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company is also well equipped to handle disasters of any nature. To prepare for unseen events in future, Shale has collaborated with insurance companies and government agencies.

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Wawa: Supply Change Management Problem Solution Essay college essay help: college essay help

Issues Some competitors such as Tesco and Sheetz are making Wawa’s supply chain system less flexible. The company’s supply chain cannot produce the best goals. The company wanted New Jersey Distribution Center (NJDC) to become the best model for collaboration and learning. The supply chain system is currently unsustainable. Wawa Company is planning to come up with a new supply chain system (Keidel, 2011).

This fact explains why Wawa’s Supply Chain Management has constrained its business strategy. The “company lacks enough drive-through for its supply chain” (Keidel, 2011, p. 4).

The company does not have appropriate strategies to support its customers. Wawa’s culture is “no longer supporting the needs of different customers, employees, and collaborators” (Keidel, 2011, p. 12). The company’s supply chain makes it impossible for every customer to get the required products.

Alternative Solutions Use of Modern Technologies

Wawa can use modern technologies to inform more consumers about its products. Such IT systems will ensure the company liaises with both customers and suppliers. The approach will improve the speed of delivery, communication, and transportation (Keidel, 2011).

New IT systems will “ensure the company identifies the major Demand Influencing Factors (DIFs) such as promotions, weather changes, and holidays” (Keidel, 2011, p. 13).

Use of “Drive-Through” Approach

Starbucks and McDonalds use “drive-through” approaches for customers who want to get quality services while in their cars. This approach works effectively and promotes convenience. Wawa can use this approach to deal with the above challenges.

A New Supply Chain Management and Product Variety

A new supply chain management (SCM) will promote the level of performance. This new supply chain will also promote the company’s brand. The company should supply its products to more consumers in different parts of the world. The new SCM should also embrace the use of modern technologies. Wawa can use partnerships to support its new SCM.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organisational Culture

A positive organisational culture is critical towards the success of Wawa’s supply chain system. This culture will ensure every manager addresses the issues affecting the company (Keidel, 2011). The approach will ensure Wawa’s new SCM becomes more humanistic. The strategy will produce positive results at the company.

Analysis of the Above Solutions: Pros and Cons

Alternative Solutions Pros Cons Use of modern technologies Promotes performances

Improves speed

Supports decision-making

Reduces competition

Technology changes fast

Expensive to implement

Can affect current supply chain

Drive-through approach It is convenient

Attracts more customers

Promotes customer support

Expensive to implement

Customers may not get the best services

New SCM Fosters partnerships

Creates diversity

Easy to implement

May become unsustainable

The approach is costly

May fail to support Wawa’s expectations

Organisational culture Can produces positive results

Supports performance

Deals with organisational challenges

Takes long to implement

It can be costly

It might not support the company’s SCM

Recommendations Wawa should identify the major issues affecting its supply chain in order to succeed. The first recommendation is using new IT systems. The company should identify the best systems towards supporting its performance. The company should use drive-through approaches to address the needs of its customers. Wawa should hire new HR managers to support every stakeholder.

The company should also identify new locations to market its products (Keidel, 2011). Collaboration should be a critical part of Wawa’s new supply chain. These “strategic alliances will ensure every product is processed, warehoused, and marketed in a professional manner” (Keidel, 2011, p. 12).

Reference Keidel, R. (2011). Wawa: Supply Change Management. Richard Ivey School of Business, 1(1), 1-14.

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Bureaucratic Politics and Organizational Dynamics Expository Essay essay help site:edu

The effectiveness of the decision-making process is influenced by external influences that include politics, organization dynamics, and the outcome of the policies. Therefore, bureaucratic politics and organization dynamics have a profound influence on the decision-making process.

Collective bargaining by a group of individuals who are guided by available decision-making alternatives has an impact on bureaucratic politics.1 In fact, this becomes a possibility if the decision-making process attracts public interest.

However, there are individuals with different approaches on issues and abilities that can help achieve the desired goals for the organization. On the other hand, every individual possesses a different perspective on issues that have a directly or indirect impact on self or the organization.

Therefore, arriving at a decision requires a combined reaction of the people involved in the process. The following discussion explores the negative impact of bureaucratic politics and organizational dynamics on the decision-making process.

Organizations tasked with the process of decision-making cannot operate without outside interference or influence.2

The culture of a department and the individuals involved has a great influence on the decisions-making process. In this regard, organizations known to be bureaucratic impede the process due to the red tape policies. Therefore, it is difficult to initialize a change process and implement the same in bureaucratic-ridden organizations.

Bureaucratic policies involve politics and influences from governmental leadership, social, economical accountability demands. Therefore, a heightened public interest on how decision-making processes are conducted is expected. As a result of bureaucratic politics, organizational autonomy and freedom are impeded.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, bureaucratic bodies support policies that serve individual and personal interests at the cost of efficiency in the organization. In addition, policies made to serve individual interests do not benefit the public.3 From this perspective, it is clear that poor organizational dynamics and structures are associated with negative and pluralistic decisions on public policies.

Similarly, organizational dynamics has influences on the decisions that may serve personal interests and not the public. In this context, group polarization, obedience to authority, and the bystander effect are three factors that explain the reaction and choice of individuals or groups.4

In the presence of confederates who are considered of a higher standing in the society or community, the decisions made are of similar impact. Due to the external factors such as the people, the impact of the decision and the public perspective of the same influence the process.

In conclusion, the ability to make sound decisions is influenced by both the internal and external environments. Bureaucratic politics and organizational dynamics have an influence on people and institutions. In most cases, bureaucracy impedes efficiency of the decision-making process.

Bureaucratic politics inhibits autonomy and the possibility of unitary decisions since the issues discussed are represented in different perspectives and approaches. From this perspective, the decision-making process is difficult and time-consuming.

On the other hand, people from diverse social classes slow down the pace of the decision-making process. The negative influence of the two factors denies the decision-making stakeholders from providing the public with policies that suit their interests. Therefore, a critical analysis and consideration of bureaucratic politics and organization dynamics must precede the decision-making process.

Bibliography Harris, Joe. “Intelligence and Policy Making for the 21st Century.” Small Wars Journal, (February 2014): 1-2.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Bureaucratic Politics and Organizational Dynamics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pettigrew, Andrew . The politics of organizational decision-making. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Rogers, Paul, and Todd Senturia. “How Group Dynamics Affect Decisions.” Decision Insights, (December 2013): 2-3.

Footnotes 1 Andrew Pettigrew, The politics of organizational decision-making (New York: Routledge, 2014), 23.

2 Paul Rogers and Todd Senturia. “How Group Dynamics Affect Decisions.” Decision Insights, (December 2013): 2-3.

3 Ibid

4 Joe Harris, “Intelligence and Policy Making for the 21st Century.” Small Wars Journal, (February 2014): 1-2.

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“How Large U.S. Companies Can Use Twitter and Other Social Media to Gain Business Value” by Culnan, McHugh, Zubillaga Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Major Strengths of the Article

Major Weaknesses of the Article

Key Issues to Address in Class

Reference List

The targeted article discusses how companies can use different social media applications to achieve their potentials. According to the authors, firms can use social sites such as Facebook and Twitter to collaborate with their customers, suppliers, stakeholders, and business partners. Social networks can make it easier for businesses to interact with their stakeholders (Singh, 2009).

Firms can use three major elements in order to develop the most appropriate implementation strategies. These “three elements include community building, absorptive capacity, and mindful adoption” (Culnan, McHugh,

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Policies and Products of Alibaba Group, China Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

History of Alibaba Group Alibaba Group’s origin dates back to the late 1990s. Jack Ma who was initially an English instructor in Hanzhou established the Alibaba Group in the late 1990s together with almost 20 other members. They had a common conviction that small companies had the ability to influence expertise and novelty via the internet to develop and rival more efficiently in the local and international markets.

The company launched its website, Alibaba.com that assisted small Chinese entrepreneurs, manufacturers, and exporters to sell their products on the international market. Over the years, the firm has grown into a world leader when it comes to mobile and online commerce (Liu

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Work Life Balance Analytical Essay custom essay help

The ability of a person to maintain the healthy work-life balance is critical for his performance and commitment to the goals set by leaders. Therefore, managers should enable workers to attain this goal (Bogenschneider, 2014). The key issue is that non-profit organizations usually provide more support to employees.

It is important to understand why they act in this way. Overall, it is consider a wide set of factors such as inability to compete in terms of salaries, regulations, unionizations of workforce, and changes in the labor market. The analysis of these issues can be useful for understanding the methods for retaining the most skilled professionals.

At first, it is important to mention that non-profit organizations are not able to compete with various enterprises in terms of salaries that they can offer to workers. Therefore, they need to attract potential candidates by offering some non-monetary rewards (Valcik

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“The People Who Make Organisations Go or Stop” by Cross and Prusak Essay essay help: essay help

Contrary to the views held by most corporate managers that social networks are intricate webs of ungovernable networks, Cross and Prusak argue that the networks provide effective communication platforms to improve organisational productivity and performance using the right scientific management tools (105).

Results from 50 organisations show that informal networks are important for central connectors, boundary spanners, information brokers, and peripheral specialists in driving organisations towards better productivity and success using well-established social networks and analytical tools for personal network management (Cross and Parker 85).

According to Cross and Prusak, central connectors link organisations to the right information sources that are important for decision making at corporate levels (106). Connectors enable managers at the formal or informal levels to collect and map the right solutions to problems by enhancing the generation of new ideas to improve the productivity of organisations.

However, it is crucial for managers to ensure that connectors are not used to fulfill personal goals such as political or financial gain that are inconsistent with organisational objectives. The focus on personal goals can be overcome by using “boundary spanners that consist of roving ambassadors who serve as the group’s eyes to nurture the external connections of the informal network” (Cross and Prusak 110).

According to Cross and Prusak, boundary spanners provide the platform for sharing different expertise among different people such as those involved in research and development (110). However, research shows that corporate life does not provide a good environment for connectors to thrive on.

For instance, senior executives recommend the idea of lower level managers getting involved in creating links with boundary connectors to learn new knowledge such as emerging product development technologies and new project management techniques which have evidently benefited many organisations in Europe and North America that operate on large information networks.

Information “networks operate under information brokers who connect different sub networks within a company in tightly knit groups that are isolated from one another” (Cross and Prusak 110). Research shows that information brokers are important because they improve information sharing among different groups in their areas of expertise.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, to avoid the risk of tearing apart informal networks, organisations should not entirely rely on information brokers but rather emphasize on creating central connectors that are tightly linked to each organisation. In addition, peripheral specialists make use of informal networks to provide specialised information from the outside for use within the organisation to improve productivity.

Cross and Prusak maintain that peripheral specialists often operate from outside of the organisation and have specialised technical skills and knowledge that include research data, customer preferences and software skills that are critical for an organisation to use to be successful (111).

To gain from the specialised information, it is important to integrate peripheral specialists into the organisation’s information networks to optimise the information provided by the specialists for corporate success (Weick 67). In conclusion, using a good personal network management enables employees with customised views to build better relationship within the organisation to improve their productivity.

Works Cited Cross, Rob, and Laurence Prusak. “The people who make organizations go-or stop.” Harvard business review 80.6 (2002): 104-112.Print.

Cross, Robert L., and Andrew Parker. The hidden power of social networks: Understanding how work really gets done in organizations, Harvard: Harvard Business Press, 2004.Print.

Weick, Karl E. Making sense of the organization: Volume 2: The impermanent Organization, New York: John Wiley

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The Neglect of Strategic Intelligence Research Paper argumentative essay help

The success of any strategic intelligence is denoted by achievement of pre-established objectives in accordance with a country’s policies. However, neglect of strategic intelligence has far-reaching effects that are unfavorable to the expected outcomes of security operations.

It is worth noting that the role of intelligence in any jurisdiction cannot be ignored owing to its critical nature. Honig (2007, 702) is quite categorical that strategic intelligence entails complicated analysis of all the prevailing factors that dictate the actual outcomes of different actions.

As part of the holistic remedial measures, the author explores all the possibilities and methodologies available for a military group to emerge victorious when handling matters related to security. Intelligence is a major factor that should be considered by a nation whenever there is need to win the tactics of an enemy. Therefore, it is evident that any slight neglect of strategic intelligence presents numerous challenges towards effective management of security issues.

Brief background and significance of the problem

The demand to advance national intelligence and maintain the required security competence of a nation is very critical in anchoring holistic socio-economic growth and political development. Notably, the role of the US national intelligence community has been commendable over the years (Champion 2005, 1673).

However, instances of neglect of strategic intelligence are continually creating security gaps across the nation. As a result, several tactical and military operations tend to take long before succeeding. Lillbacka (2013, 300) indicates that several years of war against terrorism and related threats are yet to be concluded. The latter has been occasioned by poor research in the assembling of intelligence information and vital data on security.

According to Champion (2005, 1675), “the history of government involvement in intelligence matters can be traced to the early days of the Revolutionary War.” The above lapse has culminated into several questions regarding the role of strategic intelligence and effectiveness in gathering relevant data for managing security affairs.

There is a lot of doubt whether the current approach is being employed to collect intelligence data. Is the neglect of strategic intelligence the main reason for failure in successful containment of insecurity issues? What are some of the possible and available mechanisms that can be employed to seal gaps and minimize future security challenges? These are some of the questions that need urgent redress before effective management of intelligence information can be initiated (Scott 1999, 218).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Neglect of strategic intelligence

The neglect of strategic intelligence is indeed tragic and can be considered to be extremely perilous in any jurisdiction. In the US, some critics lament that the National Security Act of 1947 provided one of the best mechanisms for managing strategic intelligence.

This piece of legislation outlasted many hurdles including the Cold War. However, the enactment of the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 brought about amendments that negatively impacted strategic intelligence when the creation of the annual National Security Strategy took place. This provided the president with powers to produce a avail security documents to be perused by the Congress. As Lillbacka (2013, 300) notes, this officialdom unwittingly created several security gaps that ended up in a weak strategic intelligence on security matters.

The report by CIA presents a report on the role and effects of strategic intelligence towards the creation of national strategy (Central Intelligence Agency 1995, par. 3). It brings out the changing approach of the United States’ intelligence towards defeating the rise of insurgence both at the domestic and international levels. From the beginning of the article, the need for an improved intelligence community is evident.

The Central Intelligence Agency cites that strategic intelligence should always provide the last and most viable line of action to take before a president declares war or peace. Neglecting strategic intelligence might lead to devastating impacts on national stability. Lillbacka (2013, 301) builds his arguments by pointing out that during the Cuban missile crises, neglect of intelligence was evident.

The latter led to a rush decision by the military. Though it was considered an important step in preparing the country for any eventuality, it curved a major niche which almost drifted the globe into a state of nuclear warfare. Robert Stanberg’s conception of human intelligence model best explains the role of intelligence and its management. It observes that successful collection of intelligence involves three distinct and related approaches, which include practical, creative and analytical thinking.

On the same note, human beings and events exists in different contests and as such calls for the application of a variety of intelligences, mostly strategic to gather needed data. He compares current strategic intelligence in the US to a work of journalism that lack adequate investigation before reporting. He cites that this is due to the much neglect in the government to advance its national security operations.

On the same note, Krizan (1999, 38) cite that the implementation of an effective strategic intelligence platform is tangential and tied closely to administrative competence. In the 2003 war in Iraq, the US intelligence failed to account for the much-taunted Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). The military wing was rushed into action at the detriment of the Iraqi people.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Neglect of Strategic Intelligence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The aspects of neglecting intelligence, poor surveillance and politicizing security matters are largely responsible for the overall weak nature of strategic intelligence. The discord between the United Nations’ inspectors and the US intelligence personnel regarding the presence of WMDs has remained a major source of commotion with no forthcoming solution.

Furthermore, appraising the security situation and conducting research to enhance awareness and attain goals that meet the interests of a nation are some of the practical intelligence measures that should be put in place. Lillbacka (2013, 302) inquires how the United States intelligence justified the advice to President Bush to take actions against acts of terror in Iraq and Afghanistan.

The question has culminated into a major debate on the efficacy and actual aftermath of the Operation Iraq Freedom. Since the beginning of the war on WMDs, justifiable evidence is yet to be tabled in public. It is apparent that several investigations have been done on strategic intelligence owing to its importance. Krizan (1999, 6) observes that “intelligence is more than information.

It is knowledge that has been specially prepared for a customer’s unique circumstances.” The theory and practice of strategic intelligence in the United States are still crucial areas of concern. Quite a number of the theories in strategic intelligence are hardly exercised. Moreover, there is a sharp rise of academic inquiry on issues related to intelligence.

As a matter of fact, a lot of inquiry into the subject of strategic intelligence has been carried out ever since the end of the Cold War period. According to Orton and Callahan (2008, 413), there has been an altitudinal transformation in regards to official secrecy, security functions and intelligence matters.

It is pertinent to note that the responsibilities of Intelligence in international affairs and world politics are still below the anticipated levels. Needles to say, In actual sense, the society needs to comprehend the concept of “intelligence” and what its underlying meaning.. Thereafter, nations need to appreciate the elements of strategic intelligence bearing in mind that it is an effective tool of defense.

Gaps in literature

It is evident that appreciating intelligence is critical since it assists in decision-making at both the national and international levels. Many research studies ought to be carried out on a number of factors such as the input of human intelligence on technical warfare and nuclear weapons. Moreover, it is necessary to examine the aspect of collaboration in international intelligence alongside the cognitive setbacks affecting strategic intelligence (Hymans 2006, 456).

This literature review elaborates the invaluable role of intelligence in international relations and how it has transformed over the years. The trans-national cooperation on intelligence issues maps a major shift in global politics (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks 2005, 12).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Neglect of Strategic Intelligence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The inefficiency of the US intelligence is perhaps a major challenge in handling acts of terror. President Bush and the intelligence team initially thought that the war in Iraq would be a good lesson to leaders supporting terrorism (Orton and Callahan 2008, 421). However, the latter led to negative effects both to the United States and victimized nations.

The extended stay of the US troops in Iraq is a costly affair. Worse still, several soldiers have lost their lives in the war-torn countries. The capacity of the intelligence community to produce requisite data relies on the methodologies used. Collection methods are vital in developing reliable results.

It is essential to mention that data collection methods ought to be accurate for the sake of obtaining desired results. In this case, the Human Intelligence (HUMINT) and Signal Intelligence (SiGINT) methods of data collection are yet to be effectively utilized by the intelligence community. These methods may minimize inherent ambiguity during the process of collecting intelligence data on security issues.

According to CIA, “it is clear that the individual cannot expect to be helped more than half way by systems and methods” (Central Intelligence Agency 1995, par. 23). Therefore, personal responsibility and training are crucial when collecting data.

Future challenges

Challenges facing the US national intelligence community are immense. Some critics wonder whether the current intelligence system will ever be improved. Moreover, research has shown that there is lack of appropriate resources for gathering, translating and evaluating intelligence.

The political leaders in the global realm lack the understanding of the value and limitation of intelligence. Evidence to back up this claim has been obtained from the surprise attack that took place in the United States in December 1941. From the attack, more than 2000 lives were lost.

This propelled the US to wage war against Asia and Europe whereas the recent September 11 twin attacks led to the US entry into war with Iraq and Afghanistan. This implies that intelligence still demands a lot of input from the global community. It is irrefutable that the various pieces of literature reviewed in this section will help to close the existing research gaps on strategic intelligence.

Conclusion To recap it all, it is crucial to reiterate that strategic intelligence on matters related to security is a fundamental area of concern that needs to be addressed by the entire global community. In particular, the methods used to collect data should be thorough as much as possible.

Most of the lapses witnessed on intelligence issues emanate from poor data collection methods. In addition, it is pertinent for the intelligence community to realize that the current body of literature offers a large and invaluable pool of knowledge that can be put into practical use.

References Central Intelligence Agency. 1995. “A Fresh Look at Collection Requirements”. Web.

Champion, Christopher. 2005. “The Revamped FISA: Striking a Better Balance between the Government’s Need to protect itself and the forth amendment.” Vanderbilt Law Review 58, no. 5 (October):1671-1703.

Honig, Arthur. 2007. “A new direction for theory-building in intelligence studies.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence 20, no. 4 (August): 699-716.

Hymans, Jacques. 2006. “Theories of nuclear proliferation: The state of the field.” Nonproliferation Review 13, no. 3 (May): 455-465.

Krizan, Lisa. 1999. Intelligence essentials for everyone. Washington DC: Books for Business.

Lillbacka, Ralf. 2013. “Realism, constructivism, and intelligence analysis.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence 26, no. 2 (February): 304-331.

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks. 2005. “Staff Statement No. 9”. Law Enforcement, Counterterrorism, and Intelligence Collection in the United States Prior to 9/11. Web.

Orton, Douglas, and Jamie, Callahan. 2008.”Important “folk theories” in intelligence reorganization.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence 8, no. 4 (January): 411-429.

Scott, Rogers. 1999. “Territorially Intrusive Intelligence Collection and International Law.” AFL Rev 46, no 1 (June): 217-223.

Svendsen, Adam. 2009. “Connecting intelligence and theory: Intelligence liaison and international relations.” Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 5 (.October): 700-729.

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The Bilateral Relationships between the UAE and Japan Research Paper essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Economic partnership

Political regimes of the two countries

Foreign policy

Importance of these relations for both countries

Conclusion

Works Cited

Abstract The bilateral relations between the UAE and Japan have been important for the sustained development of both countries. In particular, these states have established economic cooperation involving the exchange of natural resources and technologies.

Additionally, they have common foreign policy interests such as the elimination of nuclear threats and preservation of maritime security. These countries can differ profoundly in terms of their culture or political system, but these differences do not undermine their cooperation.

Overall, these countries perceive each other as strategic partners, and the situation is not like to change in the near future because Japan and the UAE have been able to resolve several important disputes such as the question related to the taxation of businesses. These are the main issues that should be discussed more closely because it is important for understanding the relations between these states.

Introduction This paper is aimed at examining the bilateral relations between the United Arab Emirates and Japan. In particular, one should pay close attention to the economic aspects of their cooperation because it strengthens the ties between these states. Additionally, one should examine the political aspects of their relations.

Furthermore, it is critical to examine the similarities and differences in the foreign policy since this issue is important for understanding how these countries interact with one another. Overall, it is possible to argue that each of these states is interested in fostering this partnership since it contributes to the sustained development of their economies.

Admittedly, these states are not strongly dependent on one another, but they value their cooperation and try to promote it by reaching agreements that can foster the work of various businesses. These are the main questions that should be examined in greater detail. This discussion can be useful for studying the relations between Asian countries and their counterparts from the Middle East.

Economic partnership One should mention that Japan established the diplomatic relations with the UAE in 1971 at the time, when the country proclaimed its independence (Lenze 145). The partnership between these states has been critical for their economic development. Much attention should be paid to the trade between the two states.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In particular, the UAE provides oil and natural gas which are important for the functioning of the Japanese economy as well as infrastructure. In particular, the UAE provided 25 percent of Japanese oil supplies (Nusrat). In turn, the UAE government attaches importance to Japan as a buyer because approximately 40 percent of the oil produced in this country is sold to Japan.

The government of Japan strives to maintain productive relations with various suppliers of natural resources, and the UAE is one of the most important ones. In turn, Japanese companies offer vehicles and various electronic devices. Moreover, they bring technologies that are used by various UAE enterprises. One should keep in mind that in 2012, the trade between the two countries equaled $53.9 billion.

In particular, UAE imports to Japan were worth $43.9 billion while Japanese exports amounted $8.96 billion (Nusrat). Furthermore, one should mention that the amount of Japanese investment has increased dramatically during the period between 2005 and 2012 (Nusrat).

In 2005, Japanese investments in the UAE economy equaled only 19 million, but seven years later, they constituted 364 million (Nusrat). These are some of the main trends should be taken into consideration. Additionally, both countries are the members of the World Trade Organization. Thus, one can say that there are relatively few economic barriers that may hinder trade.

While discussing the economic cooperation, one should also mention, that the two countries have established closed educational partnership. For example, Tokyo University established its research centers in Abu Dhabi (Vijayan 368). The functioning of these centers is critical for the preparation of more effective labor force and adoption of technologies that increase the productivity of businesses.

To a great extent, this educational cooperation is critical for the technological modernization of the UAE economy. For example, one can speak about the adoption of renewable energy (“Co-chairmanship of two Japanese ministers in the 5th IRENA Assembly”). One can argue that the relationship between these countries have been mutually profitable. Moreover, in the future, this trend is not likely to reverse itself.

It should be mentioned that these states have recently been able to reach an agreement regarding he taxation (“UAE, Japan sign treaty on taxation”). The main goal of this agreement is to eliminate double taxation which creates significant challenges for businesses working at the international level. This step can be important for fostering bilateral cooperation between the two states.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Bilateral Relationships between the UAE and Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the future, Japanese businesses and UAE regulators will have fewer reasons for entering into conflicts with one another. This is one of the details that can be distinguished. One should keep in mind that Japan is interested in the preservation of peace in the Middle East because such events can disrupt oil supplies in the country (Miyagi 102).

This is why the government of Japan is opposed to such an organization as Islamic State (Fackler 15). In turn, the UAE wants to attract investors and businesses that have made considerable achievements in various sectors of economy, especially those ones requiring the use of sophisticated technologies.

In the long term, such partnership has been important for the strengthening of the UAE economy. It is possible to say that the economic benefits received by the two countries can be regarded as the main driver of their continued relationship. This is one of the main arguments that can be put forward.

Political regimes of the two countries Admittedly, much attention should be paid to internal differences. It is important to mention that these countries differ in terms of political regimes. For example, Japan can be described as the constitutional monarchy with a well-developed parliamentary system.

In turn, the government of the UAE has the elements of both absolute and federal monarchies (Stewart 155). It should be mentioned that the UAE can be regarded as the federation of monarchies. Furthermore, the policies of separates emirates can differ considerable. Thus, foreign companies may need to follow different sets of regulation.

This comparison has been included in order to highlight the idea these two countries have been able to overcome these significant differences. It is importantly that the diplomats accept that idea that the UAE and Japan differ in terms of their political culture. However, they do not lay much stress on these differences. This is one of the issues that one should take into account while examining the interactions between these states.

Foreign policy It should be mentioned that there are significant similarities in the foreign policy of the two countries. These countries play a critical role in the regions that they represent. Additionally, one should point out that the governments of both countries attach the importance of nuclear disarmament.

This policy can be partly explained by the fact that both countries have to face the threats of nuclear war that can be posed by such countries as North Korea and Iran. This is one of the details that should be taken into account. Apart from that, both countries lay stress on maritime security.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Bilateral Relationships between the UAE and Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This policy is also critical for the preservation of trade in the region. Apart from that, both countries recognize the need to minimize the threats that can be poses by the terrorist organization Islamic State. Some of Japanese citizens have already been affected by this terrorist group (Yoshida).

The government of the UAE also recognizes the dangers posed by Islamic State. Therefore, it is possible to argue that these countries common geopolitical goals. These objectives can be important for minimizing potential conflicts or disputes between these states.

Admittedly, there is the risk of potential conflicts which can be explained by the differences in their foreign policy. One should mention that Japanese government has traditionally provided support to American foreign policies, especially those ones related to the Middle East.

In turn, the UAE tries to act as an independent player in this region. It is possible that at a certain point, this difference can undermine the bilateral relations of Japan with the UAE. This is one of the risks that should not be overlooked.

However, researchers note that Asian countries have been able to settle potential disputes with the states representing the Middle East (Eberling 65). Yet. as it has been noted before these states have a strong economic interest that will shape the decisions of the governments.

Importance of these relations for both countries It is possible to say that the relations with the UAE have been critical for Japan because this country provides natural resources that are important for the functioning of the Japanese economy. Moreover, the UAE creates additional demand for the products manufactured in Japan.

This is one of the aspects that can be distinguished. In turn, the government of the UAE attaches importance to the partnership with Japan because the interactions with the country can be important for the economic diversification (Gorgenl 21). In particular, one should speak about the intention of this country to become less dependent on the exportation of oil.

This is one of the overarching goals that have to be attained in the near future. Additionally, one should bear in mind since the early seventies, Japanese companies have acted as important investors in the Middle East. To some degree, they spurred the development of various industries in the UAE.

This is why the UAE focuses on the cooperation with Japanese governmental institutions and private businesses. It is rather difficult to say that these states are strongly dependent on one another. This assumption would be rather inaccurate. However, each of these states values these bilateral relations.

Conclusion On the whole, this discussion indicates Japan and the UAE have established close relations and productive relations with one another. Although, these countries differ dramatically in terms of culture or religion, they have been able to achieve results that have been benefited each of the parties.

There has been no cause for considerable disputes between the two countries. Furthermore, the governments of both states have identified those areas of cooperation that are critical for both partners. In particular, one should speak about the supply of natural resources, transfer of technologies, foreign direct investment and so forth. Therefore, the ties between Japan and UAE will not weaken in the near future. These are the main details that can be singled out.

Works Cited “Co-chairmanship of two Japanese ministers in the 5th IRENA Assembly,” UAE-emb. 2015. Web.

Nusrat, A. “Building Bridges Between Japan And The UAE.” Gulf Business, 2014. Web.

Eberling, G. Future Oil Demands of China, India, and Japan: Policy Scenarios and Implications, New York: Lexington Books, 2014. Print.

Fackler, M. “Departing From Japan’s Pacifism, Shinzo Abe Vows Revenge for Killings.” The New York Times, 2015: 15. Print.

Gorgen, V. A Strategic Analysis of the Construction Industry in the United Arab Emirates: Opportunities and Threats in the Construction Business, New York: Diplomica Verlag, 2011. Print.

Lenze, N. Converging Regions: Global Perspectives on Asia and the Middle East, New York: Ashgate Publishing, 2014. Print.

Miyagi, Y. Japan’s Middle East Security Policy: Theory and Cases, New York: Routledge, 2013. Print.

Stewart, D. The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives, New York: Routledge, 2013. Print.

“UAE, Japan sign treaty on taxation.” 2012. Web.

Vijayan, S. Application of Agents and Intelligent Information Technologies, New York: Idea Group Inc.

Yoshida, R. “Islamic State threatens to kill two Japanese hostages.” The Japan Times. Web.

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The Iridium Constellation Project Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction and Summary At the end of the 20th century, when the impending alterations to the existing concept of communication seemed inevitable, the Iridium Project was conjured. In order to advance the specified realm and promote more efficient communication, the project creators attempted at building a satellite network that would permit telephone transmission of all sorts of data possible (i.e., images, sounds, texts, etc.).

The Satellite Electronic Division R

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South Delaware Coors, Inc Case Study essay help free

Table of Contents Overview

Diagnostic

Analysis

Recommendations

Overview Larry Brownlow, a master’s degree student, resigned from his job with the view of acquiring more knowledge about his business idea. He wanted to invest in a beer distributorship business in Delaware. Therefore, he planned to apply for a distributorship opportunity at Coor, Inc.

However, he lacked enough information about the market, and had to engage a research company to help him make a feasibility study before he could put his money in the business. The study was meant to test the potential of Coor, Inc. to carry out the distributorship in two counties within the region.

He arrived at the conclusion to carry out the study due to his past experience with his family business. He had to carry out the study using $ 15, 000 before he could reach his 30th birthday in order to start operating the business immediately he would reach thirty.

He sought the assistance of Manson and Associates, who came up with a proposal from which he was supposed to choose the most appropriate research for his project. However, he found it very difficult choosing one since all of them seemed important.

Diagnostic Several problems exist in this case. For example, Larry did not have enough time to study the research proposal in order to identify the most relevant study. Therefore, he had to leave everything for the research company. Secondly, he had limited time to make the decision.

Precisely, he was supposed to meet John Rome in two days for the purpose of giving him his choice. The main problem was the actual selection of the relevant study. The proposal had nine studies, and all of them looked important.

Some were needed immediately while others could be important to the business in the future. Larry found it very difficult to arrive at a particular study that would be more necessary compared to the other studies. Nevertheless, studying Coors market share estimates in the region is more important than other issues such as population estimates.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reason for this situation is knowledge of the market share helps project the likely outcome of its involvement in Larry’s business. On the contrary, using population estimates may lead to wrong projections since not everybody in the population will drink beer. Some people do not drink while others drink only some brands of beer.

Analysis The industry is very competitive. Consumers go for high quality and tasty beer. Therefore, each company works hard to produce the required standards of beer. The main competitors in the industry are Budweiser and Miller. Their strengths include their ability to consider all types of employees, especially through encouraging the activities of unions.

They also ensure that their beer is tasty and to the standards that customers prefer. However, their weakness is their inability to change with the needs of their customers. They do not know when their customers require improvements in their products. Many consumers, usually, buy their drinks in the evenings, after work, from pubs near them.

Some buy in small quantities for immediate consumption while others buy many bottles and cans for later consumption. The beer market can be segmented according to the quantity consumers buy and the amount of alcohol in the drinks. It has large scale and small scale sellers and consumers. Some of the consumers prefer drinks with little alcohol while others prefer those with more alcohol.

Success in this industry requires a keen assessment of consumer behavior in the region. Otherwise, sellers may end up incurring losses due to bringing products that consumers do not like to the market. I once, went to a cinema where people did not like the movie on display: everybody left the hall, leaving the owner to bear the loss.

Recommendations Larry should mainly study consumer behaviors and the potential of Coor, Inc. and forget about the other studies for the sake of being economical.

He should also look for ways to outdo his competitors in the market.

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Biggart and Swedberg Views on Capitalist Development Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Capitalist development The existence of systematic barriers to economic and capitalist developments poses several challenges to social economic theorists. According to Biggart (2002), capitalist development can be defined as an economic system leading to capital accumulation through privatization of property.

In his work, Swedberg advocates a gradual privatization that involves feudal relations turning to capitalists in what he terms as ‘capitalism from below’. He argues that mass privatization, viz. capitalism from above, led to an incomplete and undesirable separation of producers from the means of subsistence.

This assertion meant that capitalism from above did not necessarily lead to accumulation of capital; on the contrary, in some cases, it ended up causing massive destruction and deindustrialization. In the recent past, economic theorists have been involved in heated debates on the concept of economic development.

In this analysis, The Readings in Social Economics by Nicole Biggart will be reviewed to examine the opinions presented about capitalist development. The second article is an excerpt from the Handbook of Economic Sociology by Swedberg. In part, these readings in social economics bring forth a healthy reaction to the Weber’s mature theory of capitalism among other social economic views that present general economic development ideas.

Biggart shows the extensive contribution of institutional factors, which Weber considered as necessary in developing his overall view on capitalism. On the other hand, Swedberg’s view about capitalist development is a mission geared towards accumulating capital as well as enhancing industrialization.

Swedberg indicates that socialism came up first to demonstrate that it had the capacity to provide defense to the public sector from privatization. However, the main idea in this paper is that Biggart’s view on capitalist development as being a rationalized way of human needs’ Swedberg through enterprise outweighs Swedberg’s argument on capitalism, which entails gradual privatization of property in parts rather than as whole.

During the time of transition to a capitalist economy, socialism had caused over industrialization due to the readily available labor force. The socialism strategy emerged to be a production of excess, which led to a drop when the world manufacturing systems suffered from excess production.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a bid to emphasize on gradual privatization, Swedberg gives the case of China where the fall of socialism had no impact since the country’s agrarian sector, which was gradually transiting, remained dominant. The regimes that favored capitalism from above or radical transition to capitalist economies experienced deindustrialization and massive unemployment (Swedberg, 1994).

Swedberg’s opinion on capitalism development Strengths

Swedberg’s ideology on capital development, which advocates transition from below, brings forth one of the best options to adjust quickly to the capitalist economy. For instance, its foundations are laid on agrarianism, which enhanced a move up in the capitalist economy from the periphery of the world systems.

Swedberg underscores the impact of capitalism from above, which seems to be moving towards the edges of the capitalist world systems. In a bid to affirm his opinion, he argues that countries whose communist parties maintained political supremacy strengthened the power of socialist ideology, thus ensuring defense against the privatization of the public sector.

As it gradually happened in China in 1994, the privatization agenda was under consideration (Swedberg, 1994). In a bid to avoid massive unemployment, capitalism from below offered privatization through fair auctions with consideration focused on domestic capitalists. On his part, Baggart does not transcribe to this notion, but he holds that massive change from above may be through revolution.

Weaknesses

Swedberg’s opinion is highly conservative and indifferent to some extent. The argument is conservative in the sense that he acknowledges the inevitable forces leading to capitalist development, but he insists on moving gradually. He talks of dismantling collective farms to allow private ownership by parts and later full time.

This idea blocks the giant multinationals by only giving chance to small and conservative investors. His view invites a market transitional debate with one side claiming gradual capitalism to benefit the direct producers whilst demeaning the role of redistributors.

He fails to make a firm stand on this debate, thus leaving the readers to make their own constructions. In addition, Swedberg emphasizes that gradual capitalism contributes to slow demand and supply of major investments, which is not true in all cases.

We will write a custom Essay on Biggart and Swedberg Views on Capitalist Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Biggart’s opinion on capitalism development Strengths

Biggart’s view is substantially based on Max Weber’s work particularly the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Biggart elaborates that divergent ideas were key factors that fuelled transformation of the world systems’ economy especially in the Christian West.

Biggart’s idea emphasizes a rationalized system by arguing that the capitalist model determines its production capacity due to its simple methods and predictability. Biggart identifies some of the components that rationalize capitalism as analyzed in Weber’s work.

These components include private ownership of all means of production to ensure responsibility. In addition, decisions about their utilization can be calculated with optimum efficiency. Unlike in Swedberg’s idea about gradual transition, which involves less freedom of labor, rationalized capitalism allows free movement of labor in response to the state of demand.

Biggart elaborates the religious issues that led to the rise of economic ethics, which encouraged ties between the internal and external economies. Unlike capitalism from below, which discourages big investors and fast development, Biggart identifies how religious and social institutions eventually led to new economic systems. This aspect brings out the issue of capitalism in a sensible and ideal way rather than a set of conventional constructions about economic change.

Weaknesses

Biggart fails to capture and resolve the unrestricted competitiveness brought in by open markets. Biggart highlights the shortcomings of Swedberg’s idea and insists that capitalism does not need to rise from below, because in such a case, the need for revolution is inevitable towards capitalist transition.

For instance, the rise of capitalism in England involved revolutions of 1640 and 1688. Biggart sees capitalism as the most rationalized option because it brings freedom in markets. However, Biggart fails to acknowledge the importance of gradual capitalism, which undermines the role of small investors who are vulnerable to collapse during revolutions.

Biggart’s emphasis on religious legitimation in capitalism is exaggerated as the argument implies that in the absence of religious legitimation then capitalism will decline. Biggart focuses on the economy as being critical in the shaping of society as opposed to cultural and political factors. Biggart takes different standpoints about the issue of capitalist development by showing wavering opinions.

For instance, she views capitalism as a constructed system organized around the search of profit and individuals pursue personal interests. Biggart acknowledges that societies organized around the pursuit of individual goals are easy to dissolve (Biggart, 2002). Nevertheless, Biggart does not share Swedberg’s idea of gradual capitalism.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Biggart and Swedberg Views on Capitalist Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Biggart’s stand on capitalism is the most rationalized way of interaction in the world markets and it is well supported by showing the challenges and opportunities that exist in the system. On the other hand, Swedberg’s opinion encourages slow change, thus limiting growth.

Even though the two authors have different opinions about capitalism development, the future of capitalism depends on the regulations formulated to control the system and the criteria for making these regulations.

References Readings in economic sociology by author Biggart.

The handbook of economic sociology by author Swedberg.

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Germany’s Secret Gamble Critical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

The video, WWI Germany’s Secret Gambles, analyzes the way Germany turned to covert operations, which included sabotage, espionage, biological weapons and secret communications to win the First World War. The video evaluates the measures and strategies, which Germany adopted to undermine the authority of the British Empire.

For example, the film analyzes the outcomes of Germany’s secretive involvement with independent Irish groups. The film suggests that Germany collaborated with Irish Republicans in planning the revolt to end the British rule in Ireland. The planning of the Easter Rising began a couple of months after the British government declared war on Germany.

The planners of the Eastern Rebellion met with the German Ambassador in Washington and agreed on the involvement of a German expeditionary force to aid the uprising. The “interception of the German arms shipment by the Royal Navy” led to the quick suppression of the Eastern uprising and execution of key leaders of the Irish Republicans.1 The failure by Germany to deliver on its promises on the Eastern Rebellion enabled the British forces to overpower Irish Republican militants and curtailed Germany’s efforts to destroy the British Empire.

The control of areas such as Texas, New Mexico and Arizona was a chief WWI strategy by Germany. The pursuit of close diplomatic ties was a covert operation to facilitate a secret alliance between Germany and the Mexican government. The enticement of Mexico into a secret alliance against the U.S was one of the factors, which influenced the U.S to severe its relations with Germany.

The interception of top-secret communications between the German Foreign Minister and German Ambassador in Mexico confirmed President Woodrow suspicions regarding “a secret alliance between Germany and Mexico”.2 Germany promised to provide the relevant strategic support to recover the territories Mexico had lost to the United States in return for the Mexican government support of Germany’s First World War agendas.

Biological warfare was one of Germany’s most immoral covert operations in various parts of the world. Germany bioterrorism covert operations included the use of anthrax to infect animals or contaminate animal feed in enemy countries. The infection of livestock shipments designated for Allied countries was a core bioterrorism strategy by Germany.

The German scientists assumed that infecting a few animals would help to spark epidemics in the enemy countries. Germany was largely unsuccessful in its use of biological and chemical weapons considering the negligible effects of its biological sabotage. Germany operated spies within America with the objective to use the spies to instigate political unrest throughout the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The covert operations by German spies in America included sabotage and propaganda directed at the German-American population, culture and political institutions. Some of the covert operations by Germany spy rings in America included the New York Harbor explosion and San Francisco Bay attack.

The swift response by federal agents and local police departments led to anti-German sentiments and the “enactment of sedition and anti-espionage laws”, which targeted Germany sympathizers.3 The suspicions regarding German spy networks in America had detrimental effects on Germany’s strategic plan to turn Americans against their country.

Germany’s covert operations failed mainly due to quick counter-intelligence measures and systems implemented by the Allied countries. Germany overlooked the existence of spy programs and robust intelligence infrastructure by the Allied countries, which enabled them to detect the First World War maneuvers by Germany.

Bibliography Best, Richard A. “Leadership of the U.S. Intelligence Community: From DCI to DNI.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 27, no. 2 (2014): 253-333.

Hammond, Thomas H. “Intelligence Organizations and the Organization of Intelligence.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 23, no. 4 (2010): 680-724.

Director of National Intelligence, “An Overview of the United States Intelligence Community for the 111th Congress,” January 1, 2009. Accessed from https://fas.org/irp/eprint/overview.pdf

Footnotes 1 Best, Richard A. “Leadership of the U.S. Intelligence Community: From DCI to DNI.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 27, no. 2 (2014): 253-333.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Germany’s Secret Gamble specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 2 Director of National Intelligence, “An Overview of the United States Intelligence Community for the 111th Congress,” January 1, 2009.

3 Hammond, Thomas H. “Intelligence Organizations and the Organization of Intelligence.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 23, no. 4 (2010):680-724.

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Labor Market – Superior Energy Services Company Essay online essay help

The oil and gas industry has experienced significant growth in the past four years, becoming one of the leading employers of trained and well-educated people in the United States. To qualify for employment in Superior energy services, one should belong to a pool of qualified applicants ready to fill any vacancy that arises in the company.

Despite the company being an equal opportunity employer, it is necessary to investigate the demographic profiles and the educational status of the pool of trained people available in the USA to determine any additional training necessary to qualify them to work for Superior Energy Services Company.

An investigation into how Superior energy services and its subsidiaries recruit employees to fill open positions shows that the company is an equal opportunity employer which takes employees from the pool of prospective employees with different demographic profiles and educational status. Superior energy Services Company deals in natural gas and oil-well by providing services to oil and gas production and exploration companies.

The company verifies the eligibility of job applicants for the positions that fall vacant using electronic techniques and social security numbers. A summary of the demographic profiles of the people in the pool of those eligible to work for the company with some college qualifications but no college degree and aged 25 and above were 34,532, those with associate degree and above were 20,506 and those with bachelor’s degree and above were 65,430 by 2014.

A statistical analysis of the demographic profiles shows that the people eligible or with qualifications to work for the company were143, 929 aged 16 years and above, and 54,712 had the qualifications necessary to work at the management and professional levels. The study showed that 26,458 of the pool of eligible workers were men aged 20 and above, 28,114 were women aged 16 and above, and 27,928 were women aged 20 and above.

A statistical summary of the educational status of the labor force eligible to work for Superior energy Services based on age, sex, race, and educational attainment showed that 24,424 people had diploma education, high school graduates were 61,949, and those with associate degrees were 55,038 by February 2014.

Those with some college qualifications but no college degree were 34,532; those with associate degree and above were 20,506 and those with bachelor’s degree and above were 65,430. The study shows that the above academic and professional qualifications were critical for anyone interested to work in any industry but be hired and work for Superior Energy Services, Inc.; applicants are required to undergo further training to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to work in the industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Enhanced skills make employees to optimise their abilities and work hard to increase productivity and meet the additional requirements necessary to sustain their jobs. It is important for the workers to recognize the need to work and protect the environment, ensure a secure working environment, develop better leadership qualities, and foster cultural growth (Autor, Katz

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Human Services Organization Analysis in Canada Research Paper essay help: essay help

Introduction The majority of governments and organizations value social justice as a way of upholding quality service delivery. The objective of this paper is to evaluate ethical and social justice values in the Canadian government to show that despite the progress made towards achieving equality and fairness, there are persisting loopholes in the implementation process.

This analysis will bring forth a critical review of the emerging and enduring ethical issues facing the Canadian government and responses to these challenges in ensuring sustainable human service delivery within all sectors. Since the societal context of human service delivery is constantly changing, all-time reforms in ethical issues are inevitable.

Canada’s journey to a desirable dispensation by the public service can be traced back in 2003 when the government committed to adopt the Values and Ethics Code to govern public service delivery. However, it is necessary to define some of the major terms used in this context. Ethics refers to standards of desirable conduct in professional human service delivery.

On the other side, values are defined as beliefs by an organization, which are set to control the choices that workers make to influence service delivery. Rules are a set of certain statements agreed upon to define what is either acceptable or prohibited by an organization (Carniol, 2010).

Organizations and the public have huge expectations about the personal conduct of every worker, and thus it is the mandate of every firm to set these regulations in a bid to provide a sustainable and acceptable workplace environment. Despite the endless efforts to reform the ethics and social justice issues in the Canadian government, issues of social injustices, inequality, abuse of human rights, and oppressive working conditions persist in the contemporary times.

The role of human service delivery The Canadian public service constitutes one of the most fundamental national entities. The crucial organization of the Canadian legislatures, public officials, and the entire society has a special role in contributing to the continuity and democracy for all Canadians (Knowles

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Opening Ceremony Company Coursework cheap essay help

Channel Overview Opening Ceremony is a specialty store located in West Hollywood. The channel type that I chose is the physical (brick and mortar) specialty store. The West Hollywood store is a shop that deals in fashion, art, and traveling products.

The store has also cleverly rolled out a traditional client interaction strategy as part of its business channel. This element revolves around investing money by offering unique and diverse products to customers who buy in the store. In addition, the Opening Ceremony’s customers have better offers due to consistent and attractive discount.

The store has always aspired to provide quality products and services to customers. The store currently offers direct sales to its consumers within admirable standards of flexibility. Apparently, the success of the physical specialty store channel forms the rationale for this research.

This channel has been customized to ensure that clients are served within the most reliable and efficient methods. The success of the channel could be attributed to its partnerships and quality assurance to its diverse customer segments. I am interested in this type of store because of the unique merchandise categories it carries. Besides, I want to run a store like this in the future.

Background of Opening Ceremony in West Hollywood

The Opening Ceremony store was founded in New York by UC Berkeley graduates Carol Lim and Humberto in the year 2002 as a joint partnership venture. After a trip to Hong Kong, the dynamic duo decided to start the company through the integration of the Olympic Games mission statement, which is to adopt a multinational strategy to their retail business.

The company is renowned for retailing household and emerging fashion designs. The designs range from known brands to small brands that are emerging in the domestic and international market. The Opening Ceremony has branches in New York (headquarters), Los Angeles, Tokyo, and London.

Each year, the store in West Hollywood, Los Angeles has activities that showcase the originality and quality of merchandises form different countries across the world as a result of it strong partnership approach in market expansion. As a result, the specialist store has been able to proactively transform the Los Angeles store into an open and expansive market for international capacity and exotic souvenirs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Over the years, the company has been consistent in growth within its business mission “of exploration and friendship, working with a family of contributors to forge a creative environment that reaches far beyond the fashion world” (Opening Ceremony par 3). Among the collaborating brands that have made the Opening Ceremony to expand its scope of operations include “Rodarte, Topshop, Pendleton, and Maison Martin Margiela” (Opening Ceremony par 3).

The most renowned projects that are carried out by the Los Angeles store include “Spike Jonze, Terence Koh, and Chloë Sevigny” (Opening Ceremony par 4). As a result of the consistent growth over the years, the store in West Hollywood has become very popular with customers within the age of 15 and 40 years.

Customer Service Philosophy and Programs

The store operates from 8.00 am to 8.00pm every day. The most notable CRM strategy adopted by the Opening Ceremony is the contact management since it provides a decision support system to select the best market access on suitability, distribution structure, and integration of contact channels among the customers.

The contact management system in the store takes the form of Debit card services and a 12-hour call center to connect to their customers (from 8.00am to 8.00pm) (Opening Ceremony par 3). This system is constantly upgraded through value –added services. Keeping these channels restricted has helped the store to boost customer confidence in keeping their particulars safe.

In order to guarantee customer satisfaction, the Opening Ceremony’s contact management system is built using standard operating procedures to promote consistency in processing customer orders and all other channels. The more the consistency, the more the information that can be shared amongst various channels creating more business resources to be used in customer service delivery.

For instance, the Opening Ceremony’s call center has been successful in addressing client concerns in a timely and professional way (Best Buy, par. 5). Opening Ceremony has employed the laggard activism strategy to not only capture the global market, but also leapfrog its dominant competitors. The store operates on the Customer-to-Customer (C2C) platform and Business-to-Business (B2B) platforms.

As a result, the Opening Ceremony has penetrated the fashion market due to a balance in factors such as the Western business style, global business approach, and flexible business channel. In order to penetrate the expanding market, Opening Ceremony’s business platform includes services such as premium customer experience, compact support from the local community, and low charges for loyal customer.

We will write a custom Coursework on Opening Ceremony Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the Customer-to-Customer platform adopted by Opening Ceremony has created and successfully implemented the marketing strategy to ensure customer loyalty and market expansion. The company’s product multi-branding as a positioning strategy has enabled it to survive competition. For instance, the direct shopping is tailed to address the individual customer needs.

Besides, the company has managed to balance the elements of intangibility, inseparability, and heterogeneity in the 4Ps of its market mix due to improved product visibility for each target customer segment (Rai 23). The goal of these CRM strategies at the Opening Ceremony is to concentrate on the local market through use of an open-system business model.

The strategy was meant to take advantage of the challenge of ‘smallness’ as compared to other giant specialty stores offering similar products. The store depends on the closed-system approach in execution of its business strategies. Unlike other stores which developed a fixed entry strategy in the market that was characterized by overconfidence and inertia, the Opening Ceremony was packaged as a humble and flexible fashion products trading platform (Opening Ceremony par 5).

The Opening Ceremony store has made the shopping experience an easy task with its strategy of all-under-one-roof, from renowned designer products to upcoming designer products. A customer is in a position to literally find all types of fashion products within a single location. This saves on time besides allowing a customer to plan for a single shopping activity that covers for all his or her needs.

To support this mission, the store has one of the most attractive reward plans for its loyal customers in the form of shopping points that are redeemable, seasonal discounts, and annual rewards. For instance, the store has special promotions and discounts on holidays such as Christmas Day, Thanksgiving Day, Independence Day, Black Friday, and spring sale.

In addition, the store has special vouchers that target corporate organizations and private customers. The offers are in the form of price, quality, and quantity. The store has a 24 hour return policy for goods sold as long as the product is returned in its previous condition (Opening Ceremony par 7).

In summary, the Opening Ceremony has the best CRM strategies since they are incorporated in the offline customer management systems. For instance, adoption of the hybrid system of customer service management by the Opening Ceremony is meant to ensure direct contact with customers within the shortest time possible. The hybrid system is very successful in contact management and positive attitude reassurance at the store.

Employee Relations, Philosophy and Programs

In the Opening Ceremony store, there is a laid down structure formulated in order to keep its staff in healthy and stable mind in their duty of serving the store’s interest. A stable mind performs optimally with little or no supervision.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Opening Ceremony Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In line with this, store always work alongside its staff to promote healthy working habits by recognizing and where necessary supporting staff that make a steady commitment in practicing accepted desirable healthy habits in their work department. At the Opening Ceremony store, programs are periodically designed in line with objectives and goals for sustained happy employee-employer relationship.

The methods used at the Opening Ceremony include direct participation by the employees, who after interaction with each other identify hale and hearty workplace interventions, and promotion of health organization culture through different training programs (Opening Ceremony par 8).

The Opening Ceremony store has attractive employer paid benefits that offer health cover, mileage, work compensation, retirement, and disability among others. The compensation plan for the Opening Ceremony inspires optimal performance through job satisfaction since the total annual compensation and different benefits are relatively attractive.

Besides, the store has a continuous 401k retirement plan for employees. Each year, employees are given the opportunity to buy 1% of the Opening Ceremony stocks at a discount of 10%. The actual hourly salary for the sales associates is $50, besides a comprehensive medical cover and annual salary increment of 5% of the previous year salary (Opening Ceremony par 9).

The corporate governance structure of the Opening Ceremony store has a strong system for promoting the elements such as culture, structure, systems, and strategic alignment among the employees. The compensation plan for the Opening Ceremony store are aligned to a supportive work environment, concrete learning processes, and personal development that reinforce competency.

The company has annual promotion plan and continuous employee training program. The promotion is based on performance and academic qualifications. The training program is in-house and is managed by the HRM department (Opening Ceremony par 6).

Employee selection at the Opening Ceremony is focused to evaluate resumes of applicants for essential requirements which in this case include possession of management and analytical skills in fashion design environment. In this case, the process is systematic, and through aptitude test, elimination of those lacking analytical skills is possible within minimal prejudice or biasness. In the Opening Ceremony store, social and highly skilled employees are allocated the right duties than keeping them in a secluded environment (Opening Ceremony par 4).

Conclusion Apparently, the store has the strengths of strong brand presence, expansive distribution channel, diverse product multi-branding, and strong customer base within the specialty channel. However, there is strong competition from similar stores such as Satine, Boutique, Madison, and Kitson. Besides, the store operates in a dynamic market where changed customer preference may negatively affect its profitability.

Works Cited Rai, Alok. Customer Relationship Management: Concepts and Cases, London, UK: Kogan Page, 2012. Print.

Opening Ceremony. About Us. 03 Dec. 2014. Web.

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