Abstract This research paper looks into the emerging issues of terrorist threats in Africa and especially the Northern African region. The paper tries to answer whether the U.S. has the ability to counter the emerging terrorist threats in Africa through military co-operation missions with aligned countries.
As a result the research paper looks into how the United States can participate both militarily, and diplomatically to combat the emerging terrorist threat in Northern Africa. Additionally, the paper discusses the disposition of the threat and where it is going.
Some of the issues the article looks at are:
increasing kidnapping cases for ransoms that fund terrorism;
the AQIM (Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb) and Al Qaeda relationship;
emergence of Al Shabab in the horn of Africa,
the transitional federation government in Somalia and its implication on the state of lawlessness;
the AQIM using Torgs as protection and logistical support;
the un-official truce between AQIM and the government;
the situation of the anti AQIM movement in Mauritania;
the research will also cover the U.S. involvement in Africa, the State Department and DoD.
Other important issues that will be considered will include the foreign internal defense mission that the U.S. is conducting, military agencies like: -Special Operations Command Africa -Special Operations Command Europe -EUCOM -AFRICOM and all of their participating efforts.
In line with the 2001 Anti-Terrorism Resolution 1373 by the Security Council, all states are required to work on combating and suppressing terrorist activities within their regions. This is through the suppression of financial help to terrorist groupings and organizations, improvement of cooperation between states and monitoring of implementation of these resolutions.
Introduction The possibilities of terrorist threats taking place within any particular country are now more than ever very alarming. In the last decade or so, there have been increased terrorist activities in the Middle East and more so, the region covering Afghanistan, Iraq and Iran.
This has not gone unnoticed as, Africa and in particular Northern African and northern horn of Africa (Somalia) countries have been sucked into this quagmire.1 The United States in particular is becoming more and more uneasy with the increasing frequency that terrorist cells are taking root in the northern tip of Africa.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Political upheavals, social problems, economic imbalances, the ever widening gap between the rich and poor are some of the dynamics being exploited by terrorist organizations in the Middle East. Terrorist cells such as Al shabaab have now turned to abduction for ransom to finance their terrorist activities.
The transitional federation government in Somalia and its implication on the state of lawlessness has also lead to constant strong and sudden change in political, social, and living conditions within the country leading to a thrive in terrorism.
Another point worth noting is that the Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) movement has strong ties and affiliations to Al Qaeda. AQIM’s use of Togs as protection and for logistical support; the uneasy, un-official truce between AQIM and the government of Mauritania have all lead to the United State’s interest in Africa. And in particular, its ability in combating this ever growing threat to its interest in the region.
These growing concerns have seen the State Dept and Dodd; the United States foreign internal defense mission; military agencies like: -Special Operations Command Africa -Special Operations Command Europe -EUCOM -AFRICOM and all of their participating organs, pool together their efforts in finding ways to combat terrorism in North Africa both militarily and diplomatically.
Research question Thesis statement: – Can the U.S. counter the emerging terrorist threats in Africa through military cooperation missions with aligned countries.
Discussion of research questionThis research has been carried out as a result of emerging and ongoing state of affairs within the Northern African region, which have led to this research being carried out. Africa for a long time has been a very focal point in the U.S’s policies and has been regarded as a friend.
Major economical, political and social changes that are observable within the region have led to an upsurge of terrorist actions within the region.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Terrorist Cells and Groups within the Northern Region of Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There has also been noticed an emerging trend among Northern African states, where terrorist organizations for example; Al Qaeda in the Middle East are engaged in recruitment and establishment of terrorist cells such as Al Shaba East Africa, the AQIM (Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb) movement in Mauritania and so forth.
The inclusion of African states in global issues and especially the focus put on it from the United Nations and the European Union has opened up serious obligations concerning civil liberties protection arising from a number of ratified global pacts. To this point, the reaction from the UN has brought out various important weaknesses in the population strategies and legislation, predominantly relating to minorities’ matters.
The issue on the increasing terrorist threats, has become the target of both, international and national interest, due to recent events (for example: The AQIM and Al Qaeda relationship, emergence of Al Shabab in Somalia, rampant piracy in the Indian ocean off the shores of Kenya) witnessed in Africa.
This has warranted the world, the United Nations, the European Union and other world bodies, to reconsider and revise the whole population policy and human rights legislation.
Davis (2010, 16) notes “these aforementioned reasons and the overall need to put a stop on emerging terrorist activities and threats in Africa requires updated current legislation and a revision of national policies by the U.S and aligned countries.” This offers the basic background for motivation to discuss the issues that have generated interest in the emerging terrorist threats in Africa and America’s ability to combat this.
Methodology A random number generator was used to assign participants with number identities to facilitate the research. But before this was done consent forms were given out to all the participants and they were asked to fill out the necessary details. All participants were given the required and necessary instructions.
The research was based on finding out impact of terrorist threats and implications of these threats in North Africa and in regards to America’s foreign policy. Research respondents were asked a number of questions in regards to current issues and political matters within their country. The participants were all provided with information regarding the effects of terrorism threats on the region.
They were asked not to look at the names of participants on the consent forms. The participants were asked to remember a sequence past and ongoing events that are either directly or indirectly related to terrorism within their countries. They had one full minute to encode the information that was supplied to them and they had two minutes to record their answers in the same sequence.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Terrorist Cells and Groups within the Northern Region of Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The experiment was carried out between a subject design consisting of the group of respondents being exposed to the independent variables and dependent variables at various times during gathering of information for the study.
Research findings The research found out that from the results, most local inhabitants of the northern region of Africa are aware of the looming threat from terrorist activities. There is a general feel that the international bodies such as the United Nations, the European Union are not doing enough to combat terrorism.
Another vital point to note is that, the United States despite it trying to beef up its efforts to counter terrorism, the constant problems faced in Africa, are a hindrance. The research found out that Africa is faced with a myriad of problems such as political instability social problems, economic imbalances, and the ever widening gap between the rich and poor.
Discussion Back ground study of terrorist threats in Africa
Terrorism refers to the violent acts or attacks perpetrated by a group of people for religious, political, or for ideological goal. Most the terrorism acts are usually instigated politically or emotionally. Terrorist’s threats in Africa started way back in the 19980s and 1990s.
In 1989 Sudan power was taken by the National Islamic Front (NIF) whose presence led to an increase in terrorist groups in Africa as it provided safe havens for the well known international terrorist groups. It is believed it was once home to Osama Bin Laden he had established a base where he conducted his operations until he went back to Afghanistan in 1996.
During a period which one of the greatest terror leaders Osama bin Laden was planning an attack against Hosni Mubarak the then Egyptian president. They tried to assassinate him while in Addis Ababa Ethiopia.
During the same decade, three years later in August 1998 the al-Qaida planned an attack on two of the East African capital states blowing off the American embassies in Nairobi , Kenya and Dar-es-Salaam ,Tanzania killing hundreds of innocent people and injuring many others.
It was an awakening call for the Africans and from that time, the United States sought to find those who were behind the attacks in the two countries. During their search they destroyed a chemical plant in Sudan which they claimed was supplying chemicals and weapons to the malicious organization.
They also implemented another policy that thoughtfully concentrated on searching, capturing and killing of the perpetrators of the attacks in Somali where the U.S believed they were seeking refuge.
In September 11 2001 the al-Qaida planned another attack but this time they destroyed the world trade center in New York and Washington an event that marked the reaffirmation of a trend that had been evident for several years. After four years since the august 1998 attack, in November 2002 the Al-Qaida planned another attack on an Israeli-owned hotel in Mombasa, Kenya killing 15 people.
The attacks also included the firing of artillery to an Israeli passenger aircraft that was departing from Mombasa airport. Many government administrators believed that Africa stood as the best breeding ground for terrorism acts (Rothchild and Keller 2006, 100-8).
The attacks in Kenya and Tanzania placed Africa right in the middle of war on terrorism siting that more attacks would take place in Mombasa and the terrorist acts carried out by the Al-Qaida not only affected the states in East Africa but also other states in the horn of Africa and the west African states since most of the African states are weak and are regarded as failures.
The main aim of attacking these states is so that the countries can allow al-Qaida to establish radical Islamism from one state to another. For example Somalia one of the states in the Horn of Africa is a country that has long stayed without a stable government for over a very long time and the opportunities present in this country to the international terrorist are limitless.
The horn of Africa acts as a bridge to the greater parts of the Middle East hence the tight relationship between the two continents. The absence of a central government in Somalia has generated a very favorable environment for terrorist and extremist groups to thrive in.
Al-Qaida has evolved to form other terrorist organizations that carry out terrorist acts in Somalia, the common terrorist organization is known as Al-Shabab a militant group which gained support from the Al-Qaida through provision of power, stability and order to the group, these small terrorist groups have warlords who control the activities of the group.
In the current time the Al-Shabab group is directly working with Al-Qaida in forming training camps and recruiting people to join the organization in its territories.
The fact is that the Al-Qaida group is spreading out its network and the threat in Somalia encompasses both the international and local fields as the organizations continue to influence even the local politics. In one report, there is evidence that there is possibility that Kenya is home to 17 training centers for the Al-Qaida affiliates.2
The most recent example is the kidnapping of two Kenyan citizens in Mogadishu by members who were alleged to be associated with the Al-Qaida linked Al-Shabab group whom were later released.
The attack proves that the Islamic terrorist organizations feel they have the power to control areas in Somalia and conduct attacks with impunity. The disadvantage is that the organization will use its influence over Somalia as a strategy to impose threats to the surrounding regions causing destabilization of various states.
Threats from the Somali based Al-Qaida commanders were directed to Uganda and Burundi when they deployed their army to bring security to Somalia and the threats are taken seriously as stated by the army chief of Burundi Gaudefroid Niyombare “We take the threats by the Al Shabab seriously…It was something we are aware of since deploying our troops in Somalia and we know that we have to be vigilant to protect our country”.
Sub-Sahara Africa is home to unstable and failing Africa states as compared to other regions in the continent. Nigeria in West Africa is a state that faces major terrorist threats considering that the country is home to over 65 million Muslims and the country is considered as the second largest Muslim population state in the continent. For this reason, the country is under attack from radical Islam and tribal wrangles.
It could be the strategic state in war against global terror but the increase in Islamic militancy makes the country have fruitful grounds for extremist recruiters. Presently the Al-Qaida operations are said to have been established and are active in Nigeria.
According to an article in the new York times, Douglous Farah points out that during the capture of fighters in Iraq a quarter of the total came from the sub-Saharan region in Africa mostly from Nigeria, Niger, Mali and Mauritania. If nothing is done as soon as possible it is likely that Muslims in sub-Saharan Africa will be become the fundamental part of Al-Qaida terrorist network.
Africa is not an exception to terrorists’ threats, a combination of weak and poor states in addition to this , it is known to have dynamic religious and ethnic practices with many of them (states) experiencing “ungoverned space” leading to a sufficient vulnerability to the growth of radical connections with terrorists.
The reality is that international terrorism in Africa is awakening and many of the African countries have links to these organizations from countries in the south, South Africa to the countries in the north, Algeria. U.S. can counter the emerging terrorist threats in Africa through military cooperation missions with aligned countries
The United States has over the years shown concern about the probable signs of Africa fetching a breeding ground for terrorists. Thus the United States has been in the fore front on the war on terrorism all around the world. African states that have been confronted with terrorist’s threats have considered help from the U.S.
The aid provided by the Americans acts as a positive response to the activities conducted by malicious terrorist groups. The U.S. military operation that considers a number of about 18000 U.S forces in most parts of terrorist’s zone like Africa, Afghanistan, Colombia are one of the initiatives the United States is using to fight the War on Terrorism in the world.
The military operations that started in October 7, 2001 are believed to cover up a broad range of warfare and non combat missions that include combating rebels and civil affairs and reconstructing the old operations to training of military personnel of other countries in efforts to counterterrorism.
The military operations are considered as one of the aspects that will help fight the global war on terrorism as it involves diplomatic intelligence and law enforcements intended to defeat terrorists around the world.
African leaders have shown concerns in dealing with terrorist threats in their states. After the bombings in Kenya and Tanzania, the African states adopted the African Convention on Terrorism although the signing of this chatter is slow.
The contradicting matter is that while the African leaders are more concerned with fighting local terrorism the western countries are more concerned with fighting terrorist who threaten westernized interests while operating in Africa.
When the Algerian president visited United States in November 2001 he stated that “terrorism is one and indivisible and that for the world to be able to counter it, then there was need to work together”.
During the recent attacks in Mali which were initiated by the Islamic rebel led to the death of 28 Malian army soldiers.
The U.S. government promised to help Mali fight the war against terrorism as they promised to give the government about $5 million to help the military purchase vehicles and communication equipment in a bid to reduce the growing of the Islamic rebel groups.
The U.S. military have also considered several countries to provide camping sites for their troops to frequent their rotation around the continent and also deploy the troops quickly in troublesome areas in the vast African continent. To manage the emerging terrorist threats the U.S. has to network with the African militaries in provision of information and gathering facts.
In October 2002 the United States established Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF) in the horn of Africa in the bid to combat terrorism in the region. Since the area provides entry routes to various countries like Kenya, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia and Yemen the U.S. military headquarters are in Djibouti and it has approximately 2000 military personnel and Special Forces and other U.S. civilians.
In addition there are naval task forces consisting of military ships from Australia, Canada, Germany, Italy, Pakistan, Spain, United Kingdom and the United States who keep watch over the borders of the horn of Africa region and promote the support for ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’.
The United Nations Security Council, “under terms of the text (UN Security Council Anti-Terrorism Resolution 1373 of 2001), decided that all States should prevent and suppress the financing of terrorism, as well as criminalize the willful provision or collection of funds for such acts.
The funds, financial assets and economic resources of those who commit or attempt to commit terrorist acts or participate in or facilitate the commission of terrorist acts and of persons and entities acting on behalf of terrorists should also be frozen without delay”3.
In the west of Africa, the U.S. EUCOM launched an initiative that was intended to help the surrounding governments improve their marine time security and the initiative was referred to as ‘Gulf of Guinea Guard Initiative’.
The initiative according to the U.S government will help them focus on the near lands since most vessels that are used by terrorists need a shore-base that is well supported and it acts as advantage to the continent since most of African states lack ocean-going forces.
United State’s ability to participate to the left of the line militarily and diplomatically to combat terrorism threats The United States must adopt a more holistic approach to fighting terrorism in Africa. Other than just trying to shut down the existing Al-Qaida groups they should also help the continent states with their everyday problems that include economic difficulties, ethnic and religious wrangles, weak democracy and continuous abuse of human rights which provide a suitable environment that terrorist thrive in.
In addition to that they can support African countries by providing these states with funds, arms and strategic advice on how to combat terrorism in their countries. Former united states president George W. Bush, on November 6, 2001 stated that “no group or nation should mistake America’s intentions: “We will not rest until terrorists groups of global reach have been found, have been stopped, and have been defeated”.
The United States has a distinctive way of putting up partnerships and motivating project power to counter attack terrorism. The U.S can become used to their previous alliances and has created affiliations which assist regional solution that further isolates terrorism uprising.
The success being experienced in the fight against terrorism may project new forms of enemies hence, there is need to come up with strategies that will also be used in the future.
African countries are being encouraged to take aggressive actions against both the individuals and groups of possible terrorist alliance in order to understand where their enemies are weak and where they are strong to use to their advantage in battling the war on terrorism.
Africa together with United States and other international partners will have to come up with a good strategy that would be used effectively to respond to the regular threats in Africa.
Foremost, the African states should have strategies for long term support and develop on the construction of up to date and efficient state institutions that are capable of protecting their own territories and confronting violation of local laws that could have international consequences.
Secondly, the United States ought to unite with other foreign partners and set up their own intelligence law enforcers and military work force to variety African states to assist in addressing terrorist and criminal dynamics which creates threats to U.S homeland.
Lastly, the African leaders are required to strengthen their political will and deploy their evolving security personnel to uphold the rule of law.
Even though nothing is putting a stop to the increased commitment of both the United States and the African states in the quelling down of the continents terrorists threats, the United States and other nations should make the commitment with the right reasons and with their eyes open.
The United States has to carefully understand the magnitude of the problem and its complexity together with the limitations experienced in African states in coping with their problems and in solution implementation.
Respective actions that countries are using to combat terrorist activities
The United Nations through its security council is at the forefront of countering terrorist activities all around the world. All courses of action taken by the Security Council to try and tackle this growing phenomenon that leads to development of war in Northern African states are all based on the United Nation’s security mandate in peacekeeping operation within the country.
Rothchild and Keller note that the UN Security Council Anti-Terrorism Resolution 1373 of 2001 “called for an, unanimous suppression of financing, improving international cooperation and creation of a committee to monitor implementation”.
From time to time, the mandates governing the Security Council’s decision and actions are formed in accordance with a general attitude that is usually neutral, consequently making a contradiction that has the possibility of destabilizing UN operations en bloc.
Rothchild and Keller note that “the Council also decided that States should prohibit their nationals or persons or entities in their territories from making funds, financial assets, economic resources, financial or other related services available to persons who commit or attempt to commit, facilitate or participate in the commission of terrorist acts”.4
The call for an Anti-Terrorism Resolution by the Security Council, is a show of formally and officially stating of the Security Council’s “unequivocal condemnation of the terrorist acts that took place in New York, Washington, D.C., and Pennsylvania on 11 September” through steps and strategies to combat international terrorism.
Davis notes the Security Council’s wish is that all states should be able to “suppress and prevent financing of terrorism, as well as criminalize the willful provision or collection of funds for such acts”.
The United States in its case has four major identifiable counter-terrorism goals: “1) defeating terrorist organizations with global reach; 2) denying sponsorship, support, and sanctuary to terrorists; 3) diminishing the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit; and defending U.S. citizens and interests”.5 Oudraat notes that this “can be achieved through unilateral action alone.
The United States adopted a strategy in February of 2003 referred to as the U.S. National Strategy for Combating Terrorism that acknowledges that an effective counter terrorism campaign necessitates widespread multilateral cooperation.
To this extent America is constantly looking for ways to work together with aligned countries by leading military co-operation missions to counter the terrorist threats.
America’s dilemma is based on how it can be able to participate both militarily, and diplomatically to combat the emerging terrorist threat as the 2003 adopted strategy does not offer guidelines on how “to bring about such cooperation and next to nothing about the role of the United Nations. Oudraat notes that “the UN has set a precedent, legitimizing unilateral force against terrorist attacks”.6
Britain understands that terrorist attacks in the last two decades or so underline a great threat to peace and security to “the UK, British nationals and British interests abroad, and that it is current and very real”.
The United Kingdom has had anti-terrorism laws in place for more than thirty years for instance, The Prevention of Violence Act 1939 arose as a result of Irish Republican Army (IRA) campaign of violence. This act was replaced later by the Prevention of Terrorism Acts 1973.
After the September 11, 2001 attacks in America, the severity of terrorist threats from outside the UK became evident, this has seen a revision of terrorism prevention laws resulting in the Terrorism Act 2006 which “creates new offences related to terrorism, and amends existing ones. The Act was drafted after entrenched liberal democratic traditions 7 July 2005 London bombings”.7
Australia on its part uses much of legislation to combat emerging terrorist threats. Oudraat notes that several anti-terrorism acts have been passed since 2004 when “a bill comprising three acts Anti-terrorism Act, 2004, (No 2) and (No 3) was passed and later the Anti-terrorism bill, 2004 was introduced by then Attorney-General, Philip Ruddock, on March 31.
The bill was described as a “bill to strengthen Australia’s counter-terrorism laws in a number of respects — a task made more urgent following the recent tragic terrorist bombings in Spain”.8 This came about after calls on the updating and reviewing of Australian anti-terrorism laws so that the creation of legal framework capable of “safeguarding all Australians from the scourge of terrorism” both locally and abroad was in place.
In 2005 the government introduced The Australian Anti-Terrorism Act 2005 which enhanced the powers of the earlier acts. Through this Act Australian laws permit the police “to detain suspects for up to two weeks without charge and to electronically track suspects for up to a year”.
Here is a clause within the Australian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2005 that offers for “shoot-to-kill” when there is necessitated need. In a nation with deep rooted liberal independent customs, the measures are contentious and have been condemned by civil libertarians and Islamic organizations. Relationship between the AQIM, Al Qaeda and Al Shabab in the northern horn of Africa (Somalia)
The Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb movement referred to as AQIM has strong affiliations with Al Qaeda. It is a radical grouping whose main aim is to replace the Algerian government with Islamic law and transform Algeria to an Islamic state (Davis 2010).
Recent developments in the Middle East have seen terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda establishing cells in African states.9 All this terrorist organizations have one thing in common, there constant engagement in insurgent campaigns.
Somalia one of the states in the Horn of Africa has long been without a stable government thus this scenario creates a favorable base of operation for international terrorist organizations. The horn of Africa acts as a bridge to the greater parts of the Middle East hence the tight relationship between the two continents and subsequently terrorist organizations.
The absence of a central government in Somalia has generated a very favorable environment for terrorist and extremist groups to thrive in. Al-Qaeda has evolved to form and establish other terrorist cells in different regions of the world that carry out terrorist acts worldwide and in particular Africa, especially in Somalia.
The most common and preferred to terrorist cell in the northern horn of Africa is the Al-Shabab; a militant group which gained support from the Al-Qaida through provision of power, stability and order to the group, this small terrorist group, has warlords who control the activities of the group.
In the current time the Al-Shabab group is directly working with Al-Qaida in forming training camps and recruiting people to join the organization in its territories. Difficulties of combating emerging terrorist threats
The lack of proper implementation strategies of resolutions passed on counter- terrorism. Only 12 countries in the 1990s had established laws that enabled them to put into effect financial sanctions. Similar problems had surfaced in UN sanctions regimes in the 1990s.
For example two noted scholars who reviewed UN sanctions regimes in the 1990s estimated that only 12 countries had enacted laws enabling them to enforce financial sanctions. In September 2002, the UN group monitoring sanctions on the Taliban and Al Qaeda reported that the latter continued to have access to considerable financial and other economic resources.10
The report noted that, even though $112 million had been frozen in the first three months after the September 11 attacks, in the following eight months only $10 million of that amount had actually been blocked. The report concluded that “Al-Qaeda is by all accounts ‘fit and well’ and poised to strike again at its leisure”11.
Analysis of the main issues that lead to increasing terrorist activities in northern Africa
A major hindering block to combating of terrorist threats is the constant political upheavals within the region (Africa). Political upheavals, social problems, economic imbalances, the ever widening gap between the rich and poor are some of the dynamics being exploited by terrorist organizations in the Middle East. Lack of political goodwill is also a big problem.
The terrain is also a major hindrance to combating emerging terrorist threats. This is so because of the vast dryness of the region, and the climatic conditions. The terrorist groups are well versed on the detail of their area of operation and this creates a difficult task for counter terrorism forces.
An example of this is the situation in Afghanistan. Davis notes there are numerous cases where states nether do they “refrain from providing any form of support to entities or persons involved in terrorist acts; nor take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts; deny safe haven to those who finance, plan, support, commit terrorist acts and provide safe havens as well”12.
Recommendations and Action Countering terrorism involves various techniques that governments, militaries police departments and corporations should adopt to respond to the growing terrorism threats and acts. There are different recommendations that can be implemented in the global network of countries trying to defeat the terrorist. They include:
Governments should come up with ways that would ensure the authority and the public cooperate instead of having an authority in place that is hated by civilians. Efforts should be made to make the people trust the authority instead of fearing them as many terrorists create a gap between the people and the authorities as their best strategy in carrying out terrorism activities.
Once there is a relationship between the authorities and the people it becomes easier to uncover individuals and groups associated with terrorists helping in the reduction of terrorism activities both locally and internationally.
Improving the international cooperation in the investigation and prosecution of terrorist’s acts. By improving the corporation of investigating and prosecuting terrorists among the inter-states will be vital in combating war on terrorism.
All states should work towards ensuring the implementation of comprehensive and relevant international and regional counter- terrorism legal acts that are relevant with UN, since terrorism cases are related to complex intersections of human rights.
Different states are obligated to come up with well researched counter-terrorism measures which will involve coping up with basic susceptible aspects such as economic anguish, ethnic and religious wrangles, weak governance, fragile state structures and uncontrolled human rights abuses which in turn will effectively take away terrorists havens and recruiting grounds especially in Africa and other third world countries.
For this reason, the ability of the states to make certain that there is enough security to its citizens and also that they preserve their territorial veracity and sovereignty will be strengthened.
For instance the reinforcement of regional security as a counter-terrorism measure in West Africa, will serve as a way to put off a variety of border-linked crimes in the sub- Sahara region and their effects in another region around the continent and the world.
Conclusion From the study, one thing that stands out is that terrorist attacks in the last two decades or so, underline a great threat to peace and security globally. This is not a problem faced by the United States, the UK or United Nations alone. The terrorist threats are real and this can be evidenced by the emergence of terrorist cells and groups within the northern region of Africa.
Such groups as the Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb movement referred to as AQIM whose operational base is in Algeria, Mauritania and parts of the Sahel; Al Shabab whose operational base is in the northern horn of Africa -Somalia are examples of a few threats.
These groups have strong affiliations with the Al Qaeda in the Middle East. As found out by this study, a number of problems faced within the region act as points of reference for the establishing and sustainment of this threat. Political upheavals, social problems, economic imbalances, the ever widening gap between the rich and poor are some of the dynamics being exploited by terrorist organizations in the Middle East.
Lack of political goodwill is also a big problem. Efforts by the United States and its ability to counter terrorism in Africa through military co-operation missions with aligned countries have resulted in various methods being embraced both militarily, and diplomatically.
For example, the establishment of a Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF) in October 2002 in the horn of Africa in a bid to combat terrorism in the region; launch of EUCOM in the west of Africa (to deal with marine time security concerns) are some of the initiatives being implemented by the united states to combat emerging terrorist threats to the region.
The initiative according to the U.S government will help them focus on the near lands since most vessels that are used by terrorists need a shore-base that is well supported and it acts as an advantage to the continent since most of African states lack ocean-going forces.
Bibliography Davis, John. Terrorism in Africa: the evolving front in the War on Terror. Lexington: Lexington Books, 2010.
Oudraat, de Jonge Chantal. “Combating Terrorism”. The Washington Quarterly, 26 (2003): 163–176.
Rothchild, Donald, and Keller, Edmond. Africa-US relations: strategic encounters. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006.13
Footnotes 1 Jonge, Oudraat. “Combating Terrorism”. The Washington Quarterly, 26 (2003): 163–176.
2 John, Davis. Terrorism in Africa: the evolving front in the War on Terror. Lexington: Lexington Books, 2010.
3 John, Davis. Terrorism in Africa: the evolving front in the War on Terror. Lexington: Lexington Books, 2010.
4 Donald, Rothchild and Edmond Keller. Africa-US relations: strategic encounters. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006.
5 Donald, Rothchild and Edmond Keller. Africa-US relations: strategic encounters. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006.
6 Donald, Rothchild and Edmond Keller. Africa-US relations: strategic encounters. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006.
7 Donald, Rothchild and Edmond Keller. Africa-US relations: strategic encounters. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006.
8 Jonge, Oudraat. “Combating Terrorism”. The Washington Quarterly, 26 (2003): 163–176.
9 Jonge, Oudraat. “Combating Terrorism”. The Washington Quarterly, 26 (2003): 163–176.
10 Jonge, Oudraat. “Combating Terrorism”. The Washington Quarterly, 26 (2003): 163–176.
11 John, Davis. Terrorism in Africa: the evolving front in the War on Terror. Lexington: Lexington Books, 2010.
12 John, Davis. Terrorism in Africa: the evolving front in the War on Terror. Lexington: Lexington Books, 2010.
13 John, Davis. Terrorism in Africa: the evolving front in the War on Terror. Lexington: Lexington Books, 2010.
Article Analysis: “What Muslim Consumers Expect” by Miles Young Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu
Introduction The article by Miles Young, called “What Muslim Consumers Expect”, published in the journal of “Market Leader”, discusses the special considerations that marketers should put in place when selling to Muslim consumers. This paper analyzes the issues raised in the article.
The article The focus in the article is how to sell to Muslim consumers; the writer is of the view that the western nations and companies have sidelined this market segment in their marketing practices. The articles sends some light to the approach of the market segment where the writer is of the opinion that there are some ideologies, related to the practices of the religion that need to be looked into when marketing for this segment.
The writers starts the article by criticizing western marketing approach which he is of the opinion that the market segment has been taken as any other market segment, a factor that has challenged efforts to tap the market effectively.
The writer after diagonising the approach taken by the westerners, he comes up with suggestions on how the market can be tapped effectively. He brings the issue of the influence that religion and culture have on how people behave and the kind of choices they make. According to the article, Muslims are special market segments that need some special recognition if one has to build a strong brand name.
The writer in the article is of the opinion that despite the market segment being like any other section, the influence that their religion has should be considered, a marketer should develop marketing policies that seem to be in line with the needs of the muslims religion.
At the beginning of the article the writer is of the view that the market is one of the largest market segment that the world has, it can assist marketers in numbers abd has a strong financial base.
The theory that prevails When Mile was writing the article, there is one theory that has stood out and needs to be considered when dealing Muslims; the theory of culture intelligence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cultural intelligence is a marketing strategy management tool with an organizational psychology, which emphasizes that understanding or individual, group, communal and national culture enhances strategic management; it influences the capacity for a business to engage successfully in a certain environment.
In this case the most dominant aspect of the Muslims is the culture and religion that they subscribe to; to have an appropriate marketing campaign a marketer needs to understand the dynamism of the market. According to the managerial tool, human behavior is to a large extent and element of their culture, consumer behavior, attitude, beliefs, suppliers and country of origin perception has an influence on business.
An analysis of the character John Nash in the movie A beautiful Mind Term Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Various theories have been fronted by psychological professionals to explain the reasons why individuals respond to changes in their lives in a particular way. Elizabeth Hutchinson has particularly provided extensive studies on different theoretical perspectives that can be used to analyze an individual’s situation in her book titled, “Dimensions of Human Behavior: Person and Environment.”
This essay is based on a study carried out on the character John Nash from the film A Beautiful Mind. Hutchinson’s theoretical perspectives will serve as guides in the analysis assisted by the work of various other writers.
Five theoretical perspectives have been used to analyze Nash’s situation in relation to the society in which he lives. These five theories are part of the eight perspectives which Elizabeth Hutchinson has explained in detail in her book Dimensions of Human Behavior (2008).
Synopsis of the movie A Beautiful Mind John Nash (Russell Crowe) is awarded the prestigious Carnegie prize for mathematics and joins Princeton University. Initially, he is supposed to have a room to himself but he is surprised to find that he has a roommate by the name Charles. Charles is a literature student and the two soon become friends. Other than Charles, members of Nash’s social circle at Princeton are either Mathematics or Science graduate students, amongst them his greatest rival in class, Martin Hansen.
For his thesis paper, Nash works on a theory in mathematical economics; a concept that is inspired by an unsuccessful attempt to chat up a woman at a bar. He finally graduates and accepts an offer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
A Beautiful Mind 4 (MIT). While working as a Mathematics lecturer at MIT five years down the line, he falls in love with Alicia Larde (Jennifer Connelly), one of his students, and they eventually get married. Later, Nash returns to Princeton where he meets Charles, his former roommate and Charles’ niece, Marcee.
He also meets William Parcher (Ed Harris), a mysterious agent who invites him to the United States Defense Department located at the Pentagon for an assignment. He (Nash) is expected to crack a very complex encryption code to an enemy’s telecommunication network. His fellow hackers are amazed and at the same time impressed by how easily he cracks the code.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After this incredible success, Nash is assigned a new task to look for patterns in various publications; information which would be used to stop an invasion plan by the Soviet. He is instructed to deliver the report of his findings to a particular mailbox. The
Russians become aware of his involvement and hunt him down with the aim of killing him. The danger he finds himself in makes him paranoid and he starts making inconsistent decisions.
While giving a lecture at Harvard University, he notices a group of people watching him and attempts to flee. His pursuers soon catch up with him and after putting him under sedatives, they send him to a psychiatric hospital. His paranoia causes him to perceive the attendants at the facility as Soviet kidnappers on a mission to obtain unlisted information from him.
Alicia, goes to the mailbox and recovers the documents that Nash had deposited months earlier and uses them to confront him. It is then that he is convinced that he has been hallucinating. He discovers that the meetings with Marcee, Charles’ niece as well as the encounters with Parcher have all been
A Beautiful Mind 5 figments of his imagination. He receives insulin shock therapy and is released from the facility on condition that he promises to take antipsychotic medication.
Unfortunately, the drugs that he is prescribed to negatively affect his intellectual capacity and the frustration that ensues puts a strain on his marriage. He finally gets off the medication and relapses into psychosis. The situation is so bad that he almost drowns his son while bathing him. His wife takes the child and attempts to run away for fear of losing their lives but he blocks the car’s path.
It suddenly occurs to him that Marcee never grows old since the first time he met her and he once again accepts that he has been hallucinating. He finally resigns to the fact that he has to live on medication and even gets a job at Princeton courtesy of his old-time academic rival, Martin Hansen who happens to be the head of the institution.
We will write a custom Term Paper on An analysis of the character John Nash in the movie A beautiful Mind specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Eventually, he is allowed to teach again and wins several accolades including a Nobel Prize in economics for his work in Mathematics.
Character analysis The analysis character John Nash can be approached from perspectives which include psychological, social and spiritual (Hutchinson, 2008: Carter,
“Devil in a Blue Dress” By Carl Franklin Essay writing essay help
“Devil in a Blue Dress” is a movie produced in 1995 depicting the dramatic experiences of an African American novice private eye in 1948 Los Angeles. The movie falls under the Neo-noir category as it is set in the classic era between 1940 and 1950 and has the characteristic neo-noir theme of a major African American character that is faced with a tough life situation compelling him to make difficult choices out of desperation.
The major themes in the film are violence, crime and love (Brode 114). The movie is outstanding due to the historical accuracy achieved because of director Carl Franklin’s in-depth research and the impressive cinematography. The impressive acting by two of Denzel Washington and Don Cheadle also adds to the film’s appeal.
The movie’s main character is Ezikeal Rawlins, also known as Easy, who is an African American Second World War veteran seeking employment in the Los Angeles after losing his job in the aircraft manufacturing company. He gets a client named DeWitt Albright, who commissions him to find a missing woman by the name of Daphne Monet.
Easy sets out to track Daphne, who is rumored to frequent illegal black clubs. However, as he continues with his search for Daphne, Easy realizes that he has got himself involved in a dangerous political rivalry where the big players are trying to set him up. When he realizes the danger he is facing, Easy confronts Joppy, his bartender friend who introduced him to DeWitt Albright, and blames him for his current troubles.
Joppy retorts that he is not responsible since he was only trying to help Easy, who was desperate, make some money. Easy is able to unravel the mystery, which involves political blackmail and murder. Eventually, he solves the case and is paid for his work.
Devil in a Blue Dress is, actually, a very amazing phenomenon in the movie industry, mainly because of its success, since there are a number of elements that might not and should not have worked. The story of a detective who is in search for a mysterious and beautiful woman has done to death by that time, and it would have taken a miracle to make this plot work.
Thankfully, the director was perspicacious enough to understand how the clichéd story must be updated to meet the demands of the 90s audience and put a very strong emphasis on the characters.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When it comes to defining what works for the movie’s advantage, one must admit that the lead character is easily the most notable element of the movie, no pun intended.
Easy is not simply the character of a film noir – he is noir, because he incorporates the elements of a noir genre. Easy is what movie critics call “a private eye” (Ebert para. 3), he wears the kind of clothes that one would expect a noir character to, and he has the laid back attitude of a noir character that Nicholas ray from Lonely Place would have died for.
Though Denzel Washington has obviously put a lot of effort into making his character credible and likeable, Don Cheadle as Mouse nearly steals the show. Cheadle is perfect as a lead character’s buddy straight to the point where critics claim him to be the best character in the film.
However, it is not simply Mouse who turns the movie into a stylish neo-noir universe – these are the interactions between Easy and Mouse that push the movie forward and make the film unique: “This ain’t your friend’s car? What’d you do Mouse?” – “Just drive this sumbitch!” (Devil in a Blue Dress 37:02).
The atmosphere of the movie created with the help of original setting is also worth mentioning as a staple of the neo-noir genre. In most of the important scenes, the light is dimmed and shadows are used as a major tool for creating a noir atmosphere.
Picture 1. Easy at the Ambassador Hotel. (Devil in a Blue Dress 1:05:17).
Finally, the story also deserves being given a mention. Despite the fact that the idea is very stale and has been used by any director shooting a film noir, Carl Franklin managed to make a few alterations that helped push the film noir genre forward without changing it to the point where it stops being recognizable.
We will write a custom Essay on “Devil in a Blue Dress” By Carl Franklin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, the fact that the romance between Easy and Daphne went nowhere was a very risky move that would not have worked in a traditional film noir. However, by creating unique and memorable characters, Franklin managed to fit it into the neo-noir genre esthetics.
It would be wrong to deny that the movie has its flaws. Carl Franklin could have conjured a better and a less clichéd story instead of tying together a bunch of staple plotlines with the help of more than traditional plot devices.
However, the characters created by the actors are so strong and enjoyable, that the movie miraculously works and attains a unique flair. One of the most memorable movies of all times, Devil in a Blue Dress will clearly be remembered for long and is bound to become a classic example of a neo-noir genre.
Works Cited Brode, Douglas. Denzel Washington: His Films and Career. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1997. Print.
Devil in a Blue Dress. Dir. Carl Franklin. Perf. Denzel Washington, Tom Sizemore and Jennifer Beals. TriStar Pictures, 1995. Film.
Ebert, Roger. Devil in a Blue Dress. 29 Sep. 1995. Web. .
Virgin Blue: Marketing the corporate plan Case Study best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Virgin Blue which is currently known as Virgin Australia is an airline company situated in Australia (Ranson, 2006). Analysis of literature has shown that this is the second largest airline in the country. The company is also based in Queensland, Brisbane and Bowen Hills (Raggatt, 2009).
These are the numerous brands which were founded by Virgin Blue’s Chief Executive Officer Sir Godfrey Brett. The airline was established in 2000 and was later expanded in 2001(Ranson, 2006). Since then, the airline has developed numerous brands located in some of the cities in Australia.
Having operated for several years, the company has established a corporate plan for marketing its services at low cost. Consequently, this has made the airline to become a new world carrier, a factor that has equally improved its competitiveness with other companies of its status within the airline industry (Ranson, 2007).
It is against this backdrop that this paper discusses and evaluates the company’s background, marketing plan and numerous changes that have taken place in its operations.
Background of the company and its marketing plan
After the company was launched officially in 2000, it began its operations with only two single types of Boeing 737aircrafts (Ranson, 2006). This made it possible to make approximately seven flights daily from Brisbane city to Sydney. After a short while, the company expanded the flights by covering all the major cities in Australia.
Ranson (2006) observes that the expansion was triggered by stiff competition that existed among sister airlines in Australia. The entry of the brand to the market was a significant development within the Australian market since it replaced the gap left by Ansett Australia which collapsed in 2001.
Having replaced the Ansett Australia airline, it effectively dominated the market taking over the already established players, a factor that made it to rank second among the distinguished airlines in Australia. The airline grew rapidly to a point that it was able to access the entire terminus in Australia (Francis, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to increase its marketability, the airline initially acquired new equipment that enabled it to phase-out its old aircrafts. In this case, it replaced the Boeing 737-400 series with 7000 and 8000 series (Ranson, 2007). Moreover, the aircrafts were equipped with winglets, modern glass cockpits and had greater fuel efficiency.
It is imperative to note that in terms of flight cost, Virgin Australia faced stiff competition from other airlines (Knibb, 2005). As a matter of fact, it developed new cost models in order to elevate its marketability. For instance, the company adopted the best cost strategy that enabled it to offer differentiated services for relatively low costs than other brands (Anila, 2007). Therefore, the airline marketing strategies experienced a change since it focused on its crews to advertise new operations.
From a careful review of history, it is definite that the brand has faced numerous marketing challenges. For instance, as an international and domestic company, it has to devise ways of changing its marketing strategies to make them convenient and compatible with the prevailing market competition (Ranson, 2006).
Moreover, the adopted changes had to be attractive to travelers and the market at large bearing in mind that the company could lose its customers’ share. Studies have shown that the marketing changes made in the last five years have not sufficiently hit the target due to the increase in costs and new entrants in the market (Anila, 2007).
Notably, the flights conducted by the airline are leisure-based and hence are largely affected by economic crises. Therefore, irrespective of the marketing strategies, there comes a time when consumption declines. At this juncture, the company relies on government agencies, departments and business travelers who rely on travelling as a basic necessity (Raggatt, 2009). For this reason, Virgin Blue airline has ensured that effective marketing is one of its core activities.
Describe and evaluate the most recent changes to Virgin Blue which included dropping the Blue part of the Virgin brand and responses by competitors within the Australian market
The most recent development noted in the company is the change of its name from Virgin Blue to Virgin Australia. This change occurred in 2011 when its executive officers opted for the new brand name in order to redefine the airlines’ position in the local market. In addition to rebranding the company’s name, the management also opted to modify the staff uniforms and business-class seat (Ranson, 2007).
After effecting these changes, it is anticipated that it will help to make the new brand peculiar from other extensions such as Pacific Blue and Polynesian Blue (Francis, 2006). It is important to note that before the changes were implanted, the brand name had been fragmented to the extent that it could not be distinguished from other brands. In this case, it is definite that the change was also meant to transform the brand into a business class category which is largely perceived as a benchmark for success of the airline (Anila, 2007).
We will write a custom Case Study on Virgin Blue: Marketing the corporate plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research has shown that this change is stage managed to ease the company from stiff competition. Furthermore, most of its competitors have branded their airlines with similar names. Some of these changes have been executed deliberately in order to attract more travelers who are often undecided on the choice of flight to use.
It goes without saying that the competition posed by other brands such as Qatar airlines led to stiff market rivalry (Anila, 2007). Additionally, even the unveiling of a new brand name, logo, staff uniforms and business-class seats led to more rivalry. Notably, the company could not accomplish the intended changes at once and therefore, it had to be implemented in stages. The other companies responded by improving certain features in their brands in order to keep the pace set by the Virgin Blue airline.
Evaluate Virgin-Blue’s changes to strategy using Ansoff’s matrix sand their best cost strategy and whether the strategy is being maintained within the present competitive environment, if not how best would you describe any changes?
According to Raggatt (2009), Ansoff’s Matrix is a tool that is used to develop marketing strategies in a business. These strategies include improving existing products, pricing and market environment. Therefore, the tool recognizes four major strategies such as market penetration, product development, market development and diversification. It is apparent that Virgin Blue airline has heavily applied the strategy of market penetration to increase its sales (Moynihan, 2003).
This has been made possible by product promotion and reduction of prices. It is arguable that the company understands the risks and products required in the market. For example, it has established business-class equipment such as new craft designs and staff uniforms. This has significantly improved the image of the company to become the second best world carrier in Australia (Ranson, 2007).
Besides, Virgin Blue has developed its products and services to meet the consumer need in the existing markets. Knibb (2005) notes that product development is one of the medium risks since every business employing this strategy understands or is familiar with marketing new services and goods. In this case, the airline was quite aware that the existing market required new models and efficiently designed aircrafts.
This made it easier to replace the Boeing 737-400 series with those of 700 and 800 series (Ranson, 2007). Besides, the company has employed market development strategy in order to maintain its position in the excising market. In this case, it employed the best cost strategy in order to attract more passengers. The company has used this strategy to enhance differentiation of services hence offering quality services at low costs.
Nevertheless, the airline has tried to create a balance between differentiation, quality and cost in order to evade price war that might occur due to competition (Raggatt, 2009). This strategy has continued to be maintained even in the current market situation since it has enabled the company to maintain a top position amid its competitors. Therefore, a best-cost strategy is recommended since it guarantees future success of the company.
For a business traveler who may traditionally select a legacy/full-service carrier such as Qantas, evaluate how Virgin Australia may present a value proportion that could attract a customer to this airline
There are numerous ways through which Virgin Blue airline can present its value proportion to attract customers. For instance, in order to boost its legacy, the airline expresses its value proportion by creating a strong marketing and sales team who are able to market the company’s services directly to the clients.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Virgin Blue: Marketing the corporate plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Ranson (2007), this will enable the company to acquire corporate clients who will be extremely important in contributing towards its success. In the process of marketing its products, Virgin Blue should offer discount for given volume of travels and can also partner with other agencies that offer additional services to travelers (Moynihan, 2003).
Moreover, the company can also lower costs of operation which is an added advantage for overhead expansion in numerous regions. This will help it to capture corporate clients in diverse destinations. The latter strategy will boost flexibility of travelers in spite of geographical barriers.
That notwithstanding, Virgin Blue company can employ or develop superior services and products that will attract large masses of travelers who will prefer the airline to traditional ones (Raggatt, 2009). For instance, if the company can reduce the overall time taken for travelling by disembarking on the use of modern aircrafts, it will not merely attract new clients.
It will also ensure that there is a good flow of return customers. A particular attention should be paid on improvement of cabin designs, travel processes, technology and product quality. This will help the company to stand out among other competitors and traditional airlines such as Qantas.
Conclusion To recap it all, Virgin Blue has registered considerable success in the past 10 years since it was established in 2000. Moreover, its one-time performance has increased significantly by developing new brands in different cities both in Australia and abroad. Effective marketing strategies have enabled the airline to rank second in Australia. Despite stiff competition facing the airline, it has employed numerous strategies such as development of new products, rebranding and market development.
References Anila, A. (2007). Virgin dumps budget image. B
“Power and Powerlessness” by John Gaventa Essay college essay help: college essay help
Power generates authority and powerlessness reinforces subjection. This is the simplest summary of the article Power and Powerlessness written by John Gaventa. In every society, people struggle to be in powerful positions. Individuals struggle to be in position where they can dictate every single aspect human life. Leaders use the power they have to preserve the status quo. The weak in remain fragile because they are too feeble to compete with the powerful.
Moreover, because they are too weak, the powerful would always ensure that they do not overcome the limitations surrounding them. The world of status quo, which is a situation where the strong get stronger, as the weak get weaker, is the world that John Gaventa talks about in the article. It is the world, in which the powerful would do everything to retain power.
In this article, we are introduced to politics of inequality and the pathetic working environment at Appalachian Valley. The society is unjust to many members in various ways. To begin with, the level of poverty in the society is very high because there is a massive lack of employment in society. However, the relevant authorities are comfortable with the situation. They know very well that poverty is one of the best weapons of retaining power.
While ensuring that the poor remain poor, the powerful are sure of retaining power, as the rich would not have the time to think about retaining power. The poor would be too busy fighting for survival but not competing with the rich. To justify the unemployment in such societies, the leaders, as presented in this article, would ensure that the poor is denied education. As such, the inability of the poor to acquire good jobs would be justified by the fact that they have limited education.
The society has the majority suffering from malnutrition. The poor cannot till land because they have small parcels, which can hardly generate enough food to sustain them. The intrigue comes in the fact that there are huge tracks of land lying idle because the owners are too busy with other businesses. Those who could till them for economical gains are denied the opportunity to do so because the powerful wants to retain their power, by ensuring that the powerless remains defenseless.
The coal miners work under pathetic conditions. These miners are exposed to various dangers at the mines. When mining, miners would be prone to lung infections, dismemberment of body parts and even death. The environment is exposed to massive pollution. The owners of the companies have very little concern as regards to the well-being of societal members.
They pay workers wages that are hardly enough to feed them and their families. In contrast, companies generate huge sums of money to owners. The owners might not be in a position to spend such monies in their entire lifetime. However, because of the need to ensure the status quo remains, they would come up with ways to ensure that workers continue working in deplorable conditions. They would always use threats and intimidations to ensure that power remains within their grip.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is more fascinating is the fact that the workers have trade unions with leaders who are supposed to represent them. However, the leaders play the game of politics meaning they make a lot of noise, make empty threats to the management team and empty promises to members. What therefore comes to mind from this article is the politics of poverty, the working class consciousness, and corporate power.
A Strategic Plan to Involve School-Family-Community Partnerships via Service Learning Essay writing essay help
Service Learning is a learning and teaching strategy that combines essential community service with formal instructions received from class. The process focuses on strengthening communities through the development of civic and personal responsibility. It makes the students reflect and focus on the needs of the community while at the same time improving their academic skills. (Follman, 1998).
Through service learning, students develop a commitment to their communities and gain skills to handle real-life issues. The principles and practices gained through formal teaching are enhanced when they are applied to the social context. Students are able to reflect concurrently when they learn through experience. The process makes students responsible citizens who actively contribute to the needs of the community through the practical application of their formal instructions.
Service learning promotes academic development, social growth, and community involvement because it integrates learning from schools and colleges with organizations that are either faith or community-based. The students participate actively in the community development projects. The community benefits in improved public health and safety, a more sustainable environment, better social education, among others.
The interaction of the students, members of the community and the educators creates a unified society. The benefit gained is mutual because the youth gets educated by the community while they address the concerns and needs of the community. For instance, the students may decide to collect trash lying in the environment. By so doing, they may use information they have learned formally to determine the source of the pollution.
When the results of their findings are shared with the community’s residents, they collectively address the problem (Pearson, 2002). Through the collaboration of the school, parents and members of the community, everyone enjoys a better environment. Service learning therefore effectuates a fundamental shift in traditional pedagogy to make classes interesting and engaging. When students apply their formal knowledge and skills to make the community a better place, they become inspired, motivated and ultimately empowered.
Service Learning promotes academic development because it offers students a platform where they can apply the knowledge they have acquired in the classroom practically. The strategy enriches the formal learning that takes place in the classroom by applying it through doing service to the external environment.
The academic development of the students is also enhanced because they are provided with an avenue to showcase their ability. They come up with a service to be delivered, design a strategy to deliver it, implement it and monitor what they initiated. This encourages them to seek more knowledge in the field because it instills a personal sustained interest.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The strategy promotes social growth because it supports the operation of the social agencies that are created to develop the community. It is a philosophy pedagogy that develops the community through the use of a learning method that satisfies the academic objectives. When practical learning strategies that satisfy social needs are developed, social growth becomes evident.
Some of the student learning activities that may improve social growth are the provision of portable toilets, unclogging the drainage systems, among others. Parents should encourage their schooling sons and daughters to get actively involved in service learning because it benefits them as well as the community as a whole.
Service Learning promotes community involvement through community partnerships. A community partnership is whereby the residents partner with the community agencies to identify the needs that are urgent, then mobilizes resources required to complete the relevant projects. The partnership becomes successful when students are engaged in the community agency to offer the relevant skills and services.
Reference List Follman, J. (1998). Florida Learn and Serve: 1996-1997 outcomes and correlations with 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Tallahassee, FL: Center for Civic Education and Service, Florida State University.
Pearson, S. (2002). Finding common ground: Service-learning and educational reform. Washington, DC: American Youth Policy Forum.
Discussion Question: One hallmark of professionalism is self-reflection. The ability to reflect back on your learning will allow you to continue to synthesize new learning with current knowledge. Plea college essay help online: college essay help online
The ability to reflect back on your learning will allow you to continue to synthesize new learning with current knowledge. Please review the course objectives in the Syllabus. Reflect upon your learning in this course and describe in detail how you have met each of the course objectives.
Your initial posting should be at least 400 words in length and utilize at least one scholarly source other than the textbook
Create a 7-9 minute video that reflects upon the clinical problem that you have identified in your area of nursing practice (as identified in Module 1). Critically appraise the research and summarize the knowledge available on the clinical problem (minimum requirement of 6 scholarly journal articles reviewed and appraised for application to practice problem). Outline a strategic plan for implementation of a practice change in your clinical practice environment based upon your findings. Describe how you intend to operationalize the practice change in your practice environment. What theoretical model will you use and how will you overcome barriers to implementation? What sources of internal evidence will you use in providing data to demonstrate improvement in outcomes? Describe evaluation methods of implementation clearly. Are there any ethical considerations?
The presentation should be a simulation of what you would present to your unit staff in an effort to gain buy-in as you initiate the practice change in your area of practice. Use a recording platform of your choice and either upload as an mp4 or share the link directly to the video in the dropbox. ***Please do not record as voice-over PowerPoint because this cannot be saved in mp4 format or a link.*** If you submit your assignment as a PowerPoint with voice over recording you will not receive credit for your assignment (or partial credit as you did not meet the full requirements of the assignment.)
If PowerPoint is used for the presentation, include the reference slide; if PowerPoint is not used in the presentation, please submit a list of the references in a Word document utilized to develop the presentation in APA format to the dropbox in a separate submission (be sure to orally cite your sources if no PowerPoint is used to identify the sources)
Length: 7-9 minute presentation (with or without PowerPoint slides); if no PowerPoint used submit APA Reference list separatelyStructure: If PowerPoint is used: Include a title slide, objective slide, content slides, reference slide in APA format. There is no specific slide number required. References: Use appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. A minimum of six (6) scholarly journal articles are required for this assignment.
OHS in the Australian Offshore Petroleum Industry Report online essay help
Introduction An examination of the study presented by Parkes (2012, pp. 1636-1651) reveals that the offshore petroleum/gas extraction industry is ranked among the most dangerous industries for workers due to the rather volatile nature of the extraction process (Parkes 2012, pp. 1636-1651). As Parkes (2012, pp. 1636-1651) explains, possible hazards in relation to working on an extraction platform include:
possible pump failure resulting in an explosive pressure build-up
hazardous weather conditions creating the possibility of the platform being battered by hurricane-force winds
the inherent dangers of working on a raised open platform within a constantly damp environment
various natural disasters (i.e., earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, etc.)
Current estimates on the number of deaths per year within the industry vary due to a large percentage of offshore platforms often existing in countries, such as Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Mexico, and a variety of other states where the regulatory environment can best be described as “spotty” due to the relatively lax safety regulations that are implemented in favor of increased profitability (Chakhmakhchev 2010, p. 32).
Current estimates place the number of injuries that have occurred on a global scale between 2001 to 2010at 5,281 with several dozen dead (primarily, within Mexico and the U.S.; however, due to the relatively high number of reports originating from such countries, it is not truly indicative of the sheer scale of the deaths that occur within the industry on a daily basis) (Chakhmakhchev 2010, p. 32).
Fortunately, Australia has experienced relatively few deaths within its offshore petroleum extraction industry in the period of 2008 and 2012 with incidences, primarily, isolated to these of the Western Australian Coast and those within the Victorian coast. It does not mean that the potential does not exist for a significant amount of causalities to occur.
What you have to understand is that there is a significant disparity between the workplace health, safety and protection rights between workers on offshore drilling platforms and those that work on dry land (Outlook for Australian offshore remains bright 2012, p. 42).
An examination of relevant text on the issue reveals that workers on offshore platforms are exposed to a variety of adverse work stressors which impact their ability to perform and result in a higher likelihood for accidents to occur (Offshore oil
Assistive Technology Outcomes and Benefits Case Study best college essay help
As the disabled people population increase, technological advancement has kept the pace to cater for their needs. As a result, it has become easier for disabled or impaired people to access technology. This is in the context of their daily lives as well as academic acquisition.
Various stakeholders including the government, organizations, and employees have been active in facilitating or helping the disabled by either offering humanitarian assistance or implementing law to protect the disabled.
In addition, the improvement in technology has resulted in devices and equipments that can assist the disabled to access facilities and services that other people can access. More so, the Assistive technology has helped the disabled to be less dependent to others with easy accessibility to services and products using assistive devices.
For instance, people with impairments can use “curb cut in architecture, standing frames, text telephones, accessible keyboards, large print, Braille, and speech recognition software” (Orpwood, 1990, p. 73).
In addition, disabled people have commonly used wheelchairs and consequently governments have instructed that buildings should have facilities that will meet the movements, and accessibility requirements of the personal effects. However, these assistive technologies face hostility as people criticize some of them. For instance, cochlear implants for children face many controversies from public. Nevertheless, most of these assistive technologies are important to people in need.
Case study 1 Academic or behavioral issues
Emily is virtually impaired or she cannot see well under various aspects. As a student, she has suffered much because of her low vision and sometimes she has to consult her friend. This may cause an academic problem to her because she cannot match with the rest of students in class, especially when reading from far.
As a result, she requires assistive technologies that can amplify letters for her to read easily. In addition, she require some assistive technologies that will help her participate in various activities that require good visibility so that she does not result in hurting herself or hurt her friends during these activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Assistive technologies that will address the Emily’s academic or behavioral needs
To start with, Emily may use “software that reads text on the screen in a computer-generated voice” (Schlosser,
Carrefour Management Strategies Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Carrefour is a French retailer operating in several countries in the world. Its biggest markets are situated in Asia and South America. However, the country operates outlets in Europe, particularly France. The retailer has also been a case of success since it is the second biggest retail company in the world.
Several strategies have made Carrefour’s success possible. On the other hand, the company also suffers some problems that threaten its dominance in the retail business. In general, Carrefour has been one of the most successful retailers in the twentieth and the twenty-first centuries.
How is a strategic plan defined and what examples can you provide the board from your chosen company?
A Strategic plan is a detailed outline of the future intentions of an organization. This outline analyzes the position of the business entity in question. In addition, it defines the measures that are to be applied by the business entity in order to move in the desired direction (Grünig
The International Trade Risks for Global Businesses Report essay help free
Introduction Globalisation and the expansion of international trade have significantly increased the volume of world trade. This development has seen the volume of international shipping increase yearly. Now, new business practices such as outsourcing, lean manufacturing, and just-in-time inventory (among others) form the conventional business paradigm.
Through the adoption of these new business paradigms, organisations have found themselves increasingly stretching their supply chains. Unfortunately, this growth brings new challenges and risks. These challenges and risks often lead to supply chain disruptions that can significantly affect a company’s bottom-line by reducing revenues, reducing market share and inflating operational costs (among other business setbacks) (Stanley 2008).
A past FM global study sampled 600 executives around the world who identified supply chain disruptions as the greatest threat to their revenue incomes (Bosman 2006, p. 2). Supply chain risks for operating in the global market have also been investigated by professors from Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of Western Ontario who explained that organisations could take up to two years to recover from disruptions brought by supply chain risks (Bosman 2006, p. 2).
Even with such statistics, some managers do not understand that the changing nature of the business environment (brought by globalisation) has brought new dynamics in their business risk profiles. Unfortunately, managers who recognise the new changes in their business risk profiles still operate under the mistaken belief that they are helpless to the new supply chain risks brought by globalisation (Bosman 2006).
This paper explores the dynamism that globalisation has brought on supply chain management by identifying new risk elements that international trade poses to global businesses. This report also highlights risk dimensions, best practices, critical issues, challenges, and trends in international supply risk management.
Preliminary Information about Risks It was easy to contain risks at the start of the industrial revolution. However, with the onset of globalisation (in the eighties), it has been difficult to contain such risks.
As mentioned in earlier sections of this paper, the supply chain process has been affected in this regard. Risk profile changes have especially been informed by the quest for international companies to seek the cheapest markets for developing their products and services (Stanley 2008). It is therefore unsurprising that global corporate giants such as Apple Inc. outsource some of their business processes to Asia and ship back their products to America and other parts of the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With expanded supply networks, companies have paid dearly for the increase in supply perils. As mentioned in earlier sections of this paper, some managers have accepted these new risks as a new cost of doing business, while others ignore them as ordinary business risks. A past study that surveyed 800 corporations that suffered supply chain risks (between 1989 and 2000) reported a 30% – 40% lower stock return among these companies (compared to the average industry standard) (Bosman 2006, p. 3).
This statistic was true, regardless of the type of industry and the time when such risks occurred. Furthermore, public companies that experienced such risks experienced a share price volatility of more than 13% (Bosman 2006). From the same study, it was reported that companies, which suffered supply chain risks experienced a 7% drop in their sales revenue growth.
Similarly, these companies experienced an 11% surge in operation costs and a subsequent increase of inventory costs of not less than 14% (Bosman 2006). From these statistics, the new risk dynamics brought by global trade have a significant impact on the sustainability of company operations.
Review of Literature Risk Dimensions
With the proliferation of international trade, companies now face a host of new perils such as currency fluctuations, piracy risks, political risks, failed communication with business partners and cyber fraud (among others). These are just a few examples of the new supply chain risks that globalisation introduces.
The severity of these risks are scattered around different geographical areas. For example, piracy risks are rampant in unmanned shores of Somalia (East Africa). Political risks have also hampered shipping operations in trading routes along the Middle East (such as the close of the Suez Canal during the Egyptian revolution).
Within Western circles of trade, terrorism risks have been most profound. Regardless of the new risk profiles, companies still have to manage traditional risks such as natural disasters, fire, breakdown of equipments and other conventional supply chain risks (Stanley 2008).
Best practice in supply risk management is aimed at adopting a coordinated approach to risk management (which is built by acknowledging the importance of adopting a holistic approach to risk management). Best practices in supply chain management are hailed because they adopt a more rigorous approach to identifying and analysing risk failure points within a company’s supply chain.
We will write a custom Report on The International Trade Risks for Global Businesses specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Lynch (2011), the best practice in supply chain management is encompassed by seven core principles. These principles are: gaining visibility (up and down stream), simplifying complexities, establishing accountability for risk activities, establishing third party custodial risk, risk incentives and penalties, creating a business case from investments, providing holistic insurability, and maintaining relevance.
The principle of simplifying complexity is defined by understanding resources as tools for creating value. Alternatively, this principle may be understood under the lens of improving a company’s service offing (or product lines). The principle of establishing accountability for risk activities should be understood within the context preferring a company’s profit and loss standing as opposed to the ascertainment of the company’s assets.
The principle of creating a business case for investments is given a lot of importance as a key component of supply chain management (Lynch 2011, p. 6). In addition, like other risk mitigation strategies in different risk management profiles, providing holistic insurance is explained as a core component of supply chain management (best practice) because it safeguards against risks, which have already occurred.
However, Lynch (2011) explains that holistic insurability should be implemented beyond physical cover to other risks such as political risks, legislative risks, and financial failures. Finally (and most importantly), best practice in supply risk management is also hinged on ensuring the risk profiles identified have a direct bearing on the supply chains of greatest value. Here, Lynch (2011) advises that companies should give priority to qualitative metrics and refrain from focusing on only those risks that pose a threat to their operations.
Even as companies grapple with the problem of new risk dynamics, the Supply Chain Council (SCC) contends that there are exceptional challenges, which pose a problem to the overall management of new risk dynamics (Supply Chain Council 2012). One such challenge is the rising costs associated with operating on a global context. Globalisation has indeed expanded the market and companies now have to meet the demands of these new market segments.
However, other operational costs are still on the rise. For example, labour costs remain sticky upwards and new technologies involved in global trade demand newer upgrades to a company’s information technology platform (thereby increasing the overall costs of operations). New regulatory demands (especially occasioned by the changing political environment) and rising freight charges also bring new costs to the overall cost pool already incurred by companies.
These new cost dynamics pose new challenges to the measurement and control of supply chain costs but the Supply Chain Council (2012) explains that to control such costs, companies can adopt several metrics. The most commonly advanced metric is for companies to identify their main cost drivers and focus on controlling them.
Another notable challenge to risk mitigation and management in the supply chain process is the lack of sufficient talent to address the changing risk dynamics that businesses face from globalisation. Indeed, organisations have scaled their operations to meet the changing business demands of new markets (especially developing markets) but there has not been a measurable response from the talent market to provide the necessary skills for managing these new challenges.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The International Trade Risks for Global Businesses by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This shortfall is witnessed when the importance of training, talent management, and development is becoming increasingly important in supply chain management decisions. Supply chain leaders are therefore left with a major skill gap that threatens their efficiency in managing new risks dynamics brought by changing business operations (Supply Chain Council 2012).
In a 2000 book written by Lambert and Cooper (titled, Issues in Supply Chain Management), the understanding of supply chain management is voiced as the greatest issue in supply chain management.
The changing face of supply change management (brought by globalisation) has further compounded this definition but Supply Chain Council (2012) elaborates that managers should understand supply chain management to include “the integration of key business processes from end user through original suppliers, that provides products, services, and information, that add value for customers and other stakeholders” (p. 3).
In this regard, the efficiency of supply chain management should be perceived in the context of value addition (to customers and stakeholders). It is therefore untenable for managers to misunderstand the scope of supply chain management because it undermines the efficiency of their decisions in this regard.
Despite the existence of supply chain management in business processes, there has been a continual failure for managers to establish distinct supply chain departments in their organisations. From this weakness, there has been a resultant weakness in merging supply chain decisions into company decision-making processes.
This way, critics have found it easy to criticise the importance of supply chain decisions and their effectiveness in complementing managerial decisions (Supply Chain Council 2012). To improve this situation, it is important for managers to realise the importance of supply chain management processes and understand the importance of integrating this process into the overall decision-making process of the organisation.
The current trends in managing supply chain risks are skewed towards moving the supply chain closer to home. Albeit current supply chain decisions have been motivated by the prospects of benefiting from low operational costs in developing countries, recent statistics reported by Iowa State University (2010) show that labour costs in these developing countries are quickly growing.
For example, labour costs in China are increasing by about 20% every year and different companies are now moving their supply chains to low-cost countries (as opposed to countries that have low labour costs) (Iowa State University 2010). This is the current trend in supply chain management.
Conclusion Supply chain risks have increased with the increase of global trade. This paper identifies increased costs in supply chain management as a prevalent issue in the practice. Indeed, many organisations find it expensive to build back-up operations, buy insurance policies for new business risks such as terrorism and piracy, or even employ new technologies in supply risk management.
Initially, such costs prove to be expensive, but if such cost measures protect organisations from the adverse effects of new supply chain risks, it is worth the investments. Therefore, company managers should understand that the benefits of managing the new dynamics of supply chain risks outweigh their possible costs.
References Bosman, R 2006, The New Supply Chain Challenge: Risk Management in a Global Economy, FM Insurance Company Limited, Berkshire.
Iowa State University 2010, Emerging Trends In Supply Chain Management, Iowa State University, Iowa.
Lynch, G 2011, Supply Chain Risk Management: What’s working? What’s not. Web.
Stanley, E 2008, ‘Benefits, barriers, and bridges to effective supply chain management,’ Supply Chain Management: an International Journal, vol. 13 no. 1, pp. 35 – 48.
Supply Chain Council 2012, The Five Most Common Supply Chain Challenges. Web.
The Doctrine of the Christian Life by John M. Frame Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help
People are inclined to find the definitions and characterizations for almost each situation, aspect or phenomenon. That is why, there are always a lot of questions about different objects or concepts, and it is important to find the answers to these significant issues. In his book The Doctrine of the Christian Life, John M. Frame discusses the most controversial aspects of ethics from the point of the Christian tradition, stating that all the ethical questions are based on the religious or biblical fundament (Frame 2008).
Having concentrated on the opinions and explanations in relation to the most controversial ethical questions provided by the author in Part I and Part II of the book, I determined several points significant for their further discussion and analysis. These key points are the question of good works which is discussed in Chapter 3, the problem of understanding the Bible, and the issue of atheism discussed in the chapter about the connection of ethics with religions.
The argument of John M. Frame is not difficult to follow because all the concepts and explanations depend on the basic idea that ethics should be discussed with references to the Bible. From this point, the concept of good works is based on the personal desire to follow the biblical principles.
Thus, according to Frame, the definition of ethics is correlated with the notion of God’s blessing when only definite persons, their acts, and their attitudes can be discussed as good or ethical because they respond to God’s will (Frame 2008, 10).
It is rather difficult for me to correlate the difference between good and bad actions with biblical principles which can be discussed as liberal or conservative. However, Frame draws the readers’ attention to the fact that good works depend on the right motive, right standard, and right goal which are associated with God’s control, authority, and presence (Frame 2008, 26-28).
That is why, I understand good works in their connection with the virtue ethics, basing on the inner personal qualities, and with references to Frame’s explanation of living the ethical life and doing good works. Thus, to follow the ethical life means to be biblical (Frame 2008, 6-7).
The next problematic question which I could answer with the help of Frame’s work is the problem of understanding the Bible and, as a result, ethics. Thus, “a person who understands the Bible is a person who is able to use the Bible to answer his questions, to guide his life”, and the author explains the issue of understanding the Word of God and its reference to ethics as the active usage of moral principles which should guide the person in his or her life (Frame 2008, 31-32).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Now, I can consider the ethical life as the life which is built according to the principles presented in the Bible because they emphasize the devotion to God.
Many people who study the problem of ethics and its connection with the issues of Christianity are inclined to discuss the question of atheism as rather controversial. Having started the reading of the book, I was interested in the author’s opinion on the problem and his position, and the following explanation helped me to understand the point and examine it from different perspectives.
Thus, I agree with the statement that “nobody is really an atheist, in the most serious sense of that term” because everyone believes in something, and it can be God, idol or idea (Frame 2008, 52-54). From this point, non-Christian ethics and philosophical conceptions are also related to the ideas of biblical ethics.
Having read the first parts of The Doctrine of the Christian Life by John M. Frame, I could start the examination of the most important questions in order to find the balance between the theoretical concepts presented in the Bible in their connection with the ethical issues and their realization in the everyday life.
Reference List Frame, John M. 2008. The Doctrine of the Christian life (A theology of Lordship). Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2008.
Experience in Problem Solving Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Problem solving is a process that people go through to determine, analyze and solve problems. Problem solving requires some creative, analytical, and mental skills in order to solve a problem. Logical or analytical thinking skills include, comparing, ordering, selecting and evaluating which provide an agenda for problem solving that helps to decide on the best alternative solution, identify the problem, gather formation, choose the cause and identify the best possible solutions for implementation and finally review.
Group Work At the beginning of the new semester, the lecturer gave us a topic to discuss on drugs affecting the youth. The assignment was to be submitted by a certain deadline and the best one was to take a price. No student had an idea on how to go about it. I came up with an idea of forming a group to discuss the issue that is the problems that affect youth who are using drugs.
Each member in our group gave various ideas and solutions on the matter, what is more, each point was carefully written down. Some of the ideas such as punishing the victim involved in drugs or jailing them were not an appropriate solution for such victims. Some of the obstacles that hindered the ability of solving problems effectively were lack of relevant information, Ignorance and assumptions.
The students tried to come up with solutions that were all not applicable in this case. Therefore, I came up with an idea that every student should identify the problem, search for information about drug abuse, choose the cause, identify the possible and the best solution which can be applied.
On the next group discussion, every member had some points to support their facts, which we were discussing in detail and recording important points; the aspect that made this discussion enjoyable is that every member was able to contribute his or her thoughts that improved social interaction, sharing of values and culture from different members; self esteem was raised for the members who felt inferior and a lot of knowledge was exchanged.
In the group discussion, members were able to contribute their ideas with confidence because every member was free to give his or her own opinion. As I presented our work, it scored the high marks and was rated the best one.
Conclusion The members were very happy with the approach I used to tackle the problem we were facing for finding solutions and they were thankful a lot. During the semester, we used the group work in our academics and other activities that improved our skills, social interactions, and grades making everyone happy about it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This also helped me in my college entrance exam. The group work discussion method improved our social skills and I would recommend it for people who find it difficult to follow the process of problem solving and search for assistant from people who are experienced in this area.
Innovation, Change and Leadership Essay cheap essay help
Abstract Innovation involves creation of new customer value by developing solutions that satisfy emerging needs, unarticulated needs, as well as, existing market needs in a different manner. This can be achieved by introducing new products, processes and technologies. Change, on the other hand, involves initiating and managing the consequences of new business processes, organizational structure and culture. In most organizations, change and innovation often occur simultaneously.
Thus, the two can be conceptualized as two sides of the same coin. Change and innovation can be realized if the process is guided by effective leadership. This paper presents a critical review of various innovation and change theories. An assessment of my leadership skills will also be discussed.
Critical Review of Innovation and Change Theories Theory E
The aim or purpose of this theory is to facilitate creation of economic value inline with the expectations of the shareholders. According to this theory, creation of economic value is the most important objective of the firm. Thus, it is the only objective that should be pursued. Additionally, financial incentives are used to motivate members of the organization to achieve the sole objective of creating economic value. Leaders using this theory focus on changing the organization’s strategies, structures, as well as, systems.
Since these aspects of the organization can readily be changed, quick financial results can be achieved. Since market expectations drive change, the change process must be pragmatic and well planned. In order to develop these plans, the organization has to engage large consulting firms for professional advice. This is expected to enable the organization to realize rapid and outstanding improvements of its economic value.
The main strength of theory E is its ability to facilitate high returns on investments. In this regard, it promotes sustainability since the high returns can be used for further investments and programs that benefit all stakeholders. However, the theory has several drawbacks. To begin with, the focus on strategies and systems is less likely to be effective, especially if employees are not involved in the process of changing the organization’s structures.
This is because the employees are not likely to identify with structures that are imposed on them. Besides, ignoring the ideas of employees prevents innovation. It is apparent that not all organizations can afford the services of large consulting firms. Besides, the solutions developed by the consultants can be ineffective if the needs of the organization are not clearly understood or the solutions are not properly implemented.
While financial incentives can motivate achievement of change, skill-based incentives have to be implemented to facilitate innovation. Skill-based incentives will promote acquisition of advanced skills which must exist if meaningful innovation is to be achieved.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the theory provides a narrow view of the firm. In modern economies, objectives such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and good corporate governance are just as important as the financial objective. Thus, the financial objective cannot be considered in isolation of other objectives which often facilitate its achievement.
According to theory O, the purpose of change is to enable an organization to develop capabilities such as employees’ ability to identify and solve problems associated with their work. In this regard, the main objective is to develop a work system that promotes emotional commitment among employees in order to improve the firm’s efficiency and effectiveness.
Thus, the management has to articulate and promote the values and behaviors that inform the organizational culture and emotional commitment. Theory O advocates for non-pragmatic and emergent planning for change. Planning is led by the employees and is done through experiments which facilitate innovation.
Motivation is developed by engaging employees. Thus, financial incentives only play a supplementary role in motivating employees. Proponents of theory O prefer a consulting model that focuses on process. The rationale of this preference is based on the premise that small projects and engagement of a handful of consultants will facilitate a lasting cultural transformation that promotes innovation.
The main strengths of theory O is that its focus on organizational culture helps in implementing a lasting change which all stakeholders identify with. By promoting commitment among employees, innovation and improvement in the organization’s performance can be achieved even in the absence of financial incentives.
Additionally, it is easier to innovate if emerging issues are taken into account during the planning process. Similarly, a consultancy model that focuses on process promotes innovation by enhancing employees understanding of new processes. The culture of experimentation and innovation is internalized by the employees and this promotes the creation of economic value.
Theory O is often criticized due to the following flaws. To begin with, the fact that non-financial objectives are equally important does not mean that the organization should not focus on creating economic value. It is apparent that a firm that performs poorly in terms of returns on investments will be less attractive to investors.
We will write a custom Essay on Innovation, Change and Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides, poor financial performance will hamper the implementation of programs that promote commitment among employees. In this context, theory O can not promote sustainability in the long-run. Cultural transformation and development of emotional commitment often take a long time.
Thus, theory O can not be used to implement revolutionary change. Finally, ignoring expert advice from consultants can hurt the organization. In most cases, product and process innovation requires expert advice and ideas which can only be obtained outside the organization.
Leadership of Change and Innovation According to theory E, change and innovation should be led through a top-down leadership approach. The leader does not involve his or her management team and other employees in making key decisions. Thus, change and innovation decisions such as restructuring and adoption of new technology are only made by the chief executive officer.
The rationale of this approach is that the delays associated with consultations during decision making can be avoided. In addition, the organization can avoid the risk of entrusting lower-level staff with the responsibility of making strategic decisions during turbulent times.
The weakness of the top-down approach is that leading change requires a powerful coalition that consists of change advocates, targets, sponsors and agents. The leader as the change advocate can not achieve meaningful change by excluding the coalition members. A top-down approach also jeopardizes innovation by discouraging ideation among employees.
Finally, a top-down approach exposes the organization to the risk of failure, especially, if the leader is not a visionary and an effective change advocate. His failure to consult other members of the organization will certainly lead to failure.
Proponents of theory O believe that effective leadership of change and innovation should involve collaboration with employees. Thus, employees should be actively involved in identification of problems and finding solutions to such problems. This involvement is expected to facilitate creation of trust, and commitment that is fundamental for performance improvements.
It also promotes ideation which informs innovation. Besides, long-term change can be achieved if the employees are committed to the change process. However, participative leadership can be a slow way of achieving change. It can also be interpreted as a way of manipulating employees to achieve pre-determined goals.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Innovation, Change and Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Examples of Change Successful Change at Barclays Bank UK
Between 2000 and 2003, Barclays managed to spring back to profitability after years of poor financial performance. In 2004, the bank hired a new CEO, John Varley, who realized that the bank had to change in order to make its strong financial performance sustainable.
The change that Varley believed would facilitate sustainable growth was to focus on employee engagement, as well as, customer satisfaction. He used theory O to effect this change by shifting the focus from financial performance to non-financial indicators of growth. Varley worked with his management team and developed a set of metrics for measuring the bank’s performance in the marketplace (customer satisfaction), organization (employee engagement), and communities (network).
Initial analysis revealed that Barclays performed poorly on these metrics and this prompted a culture change in 2004. These metrics were incorporated in the bank’s medium term targets and the bank managed to record steady growth in profits from 2004 to 2008.
The success of the change can be attributed to the CEO’s ability to create a strong change coalition, and a sense of urgency (Kotter 1995 1-18). He also had a clear vision by using the non-financial metrics to define the bank’s future. Engaging the employees helped the bank to realize the mistakes that underlay its poor performance. Additionally, the focus on non-financial indicators became the main theme in the bank’s cross-group communication.
The measures to be taken by each employee within a specific timeline were identified. These new imperatives were aligned to the reward, as well as, recognition system to promote motivation and emotional engagement among employees. The CEO led the change through selfless leadership which was based on organization-wide consultations. Thus, the focus on these indicators became part of the bank’s organizational culture, thereby facilitating a lasting change. By 2008, the bank boasted of a highly motivated staff and excellent customer service.
Less Successful Change at Citygroup Bank
In order to strengthen its performance, Citygroup merged its investment bank, Solomon Smith Barney, with Schroder in 2001. This move was based on recommendations made to Citygroup by financial analysts and consultants. The decision was made by top managers and junior employees were not consulted.
The change focused on strategy, by restructuring the operations of the two banks and consolidating their resources. Hence, the change was based on theory E. However, the change did not succeed in boosting the bank’s performance as was expected due to the following reasons.
The change ignored the organizational cultures of the two banks. Schroder had a culture that focused on long-term employment, client service, soft perspective and Japanese management style. Solomon Smith, on the other hand, had a culture that focused on American style, hard perspective, and product development.
The culture clash not only lowered the morale but also precipitated a mass exodus of talented employees from the two banks. This increased the cost of labor turnover, and lowered productivity. The bank’s attempt to use financial rewards to retain staff from Schroder failed. This is because the staff believed in greater involvement in the bank’s affairs rather than financial rewards.
Conclusion Change and innovation are essential and inevitable in every organization. In order to realign themselves to market dynamics and improve their competitiveness, organizations must consistently innovate and implement change. Successful change and innovation depends on how well the process is led by the change advocate. Additionally, the theory that informs the innovation and change process determines success.
In general, innovation and change can be based on theory O or theory E. Each of these theories has its weaknesses and strengths as discussed earlier. Thus, the change advocate must make deliberate efforts to address the weaknesses of the adopted theory. This will help in avoiding failure.
Works Cited Aitken, Paul and Malcom Higgs. Developing Change Leaders. London: BH Press, 2010. Print.
Beer, Michael and Nitin Nohria. Breaking the Code of Change. Boston: HBS Press, 2000. Print.
Goffin, Keith and Rick Mitchell. Innovation Management. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Print.
Hayes, John. The Theory and Practice of Change Management. London: Palgrave Macmillan , 2010. Print.
Kotter, John and David Cohen. The Heart of Change. London: HBS Press, 2002. Print.
Kotter, John. Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail. London: Harvard Business School Press, 1995. Print.
Stamm, Bettina. Managing Innovation, Design and Creativity. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2008. Print.
Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire) Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire) was a French philosopher and a writer. Voltaire was born in the year 1694 in Paris. As a young boy, Voltaire received his education at the Jesuit school between the years 1704 and 1711. At the school, Voltaire learned Latin, Greek, English, and Spanish.
Between the years 1711 and 1713, Voltaire studied law while working as a secretary in Paris. Later on, Voltaire quitted the law school, and concentrated on writing contrary to his father’s wishes. As a writer, he wrote several writings in all major literary fields. It is estimated that he wrote more than 1800 books, 20 000 letters and numerous brochures. Through his works, Voltaire became prominent for his wit and hilarious verses.
During the Voltaire’s time, Europe was going through the age of enlightenment. With contribution from various intellectuals, advance knowledge spread across most urban areas in Europe. In spite of the advanced knowledge, it should be noted that stern and suppressive laws with severe consequences were practiced at the time. Similarly, it was blasphemous to champion Christian dogmas.
In spite of this, Voltaire became a social reformist, and criticized religious intolerance, war, and social injustices in French institutions. As a result, Voltaire was arrested severally and imprisoned by the authorities. To date, Voltaire works are considered absurd. His works portray him as a racist individual, who has no respect for the Jews and the Africans. More often, he questions the Africans’ intellectual ability due to their involvement in the slave trade. Until his death, at the age of 83, Voltaire worked as a writer.
In writings, satire refers to the art of using irony, mockery and sarcasm to provoke individuals’ or society’s behaviors. For a writing to be acknowledged as a satire, it must possess the following five characteristics: be targeted at the crooked, be humorous, be reform oriented, be ironic, and be exaggerated. Satirical writings try to point out faults in society and organizations. By doing so, actions, injustices, shortcomings, and policies are denounced.
Most writers do not choose to express their thoughts through satire to cause harm or damage, but rather to expose the vices in the society through humorous and comical ways. As a result, appropriate use of satire is considered as the most effective way of exposing evil traits in the society.
In my opinion, Voltaire through Candide uses satire to condemn the world’s evil, Christian dogmas, and war in the society he lived in. Candide ridicules a variety of secular and idealistic theories. He sarcastically illustrates several inherent evils in the world such as earthquakes, diseases, and storms. Through this text, religious leaders and the authorities felt offended.
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In-room Technologies Used in the Hotel Rooms Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction The following research paper analyzes in-room technologies used in the hotel rooms, which have been used by most hotels globally. It also looks into how the technological advances all over the globe affect the hotel industry and how the industry is prepared to adopt the in-room technologies which are used inside the hotel rooms specifically for the guests. The hotel management directly provides the technologies by installing the devices in all the rooms.
The management can also facilitate the use of such technologies by installing the necessary hardware and software to enable the guests to use their devices when in the rooms. The research highlights the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities as well as threats presented by these technologies to the hotel industry, and hotel rooms services in particular.
The first part of the discussion touches upon different factors that have facilitated the development of the in-room technology as part of the background information. The second part explores different types of in-room technologies used in hotels. The final part of this essay is a SWOT analysis of the in-room technologies to determine their benefits and costs that they bring to the hotel industry.
Background information In the past hotel would provide a bed and a linen and the guests would be fully satisfied with such things. However, nowadays the hotels have intensified the marketing and competition for the travelers in the hotel industry. The gyms or spacious rooms are not enough to provide comfort when travelling (Clow, 2003).
The modern technologies have been integrated into everyday life and most of the guests cannot agree to live in an area where there are no technological services such as the internet, television or power connections to charge their cell phones. This means that the modern technologies must be accounted for when taking care of the guests.
The hotel markets have also changed drastically due to the increased availability of information for the travelers on where they can get fair rooms services enabling the guests to compare places where they can receive the utmost value for their investment.
This has reduced customer loyalty hence programs previously offered by the hotel companies to loyal customers have not been effective as they were previously. The baby boomers’ generation that is considered loyal and has been the target of the hotels service providers has diminished and there are new markets from generation X that is people born between 1960’s and 1980’s (Nicholas, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the increased competition among the hotel service provides, the need to provide in room services has been on the rise. Days when the recreation and hotel rooms were for people on transit and leisure alone, are gone. Hotel rooms need to accommodate the travelers’ preferences (Schultz, 2000).
The modern day guests in the hotel rooms are not concerned with the outdoor experiences only but want a place where they can be entertained while in their rooms. This means that the hotels must have ways of providing in-room entertainment to the guests.
The hotel room technologies The first technology is the television, which is important in the hotel rooms. The guests prefer hotel rooms that will keep them abreast with what is happening outside the rooms, in other words, in the world. Although guests prefer hotels with mainstream television channels, hotel service providers who want to cut a niche in the market and develop return customers, have to provide cable television to the rooms.
This is preferable for the customers who want in-room entertainment and may prefer to watch movies or cable programs through the cable television. For guests who prefer to watch movies a Video player or VCR player is preferred (Ming, Yang
The Major Leadership Principles of Teacher Essay (Critical Writing) essay help
Leadership is one of the most important factors that contribute to organizational development. Researchers have analyzed a variety of strategies that could be used in various cases. It becomes apparent that teacher/school leadership can enrich leaders’ skills. It is possible to single out two major principles of leadership which are the basis of teacher/school leadership and can become decisive for any organization. Thus, leadership should be based on instruction and support.
First, it is necessary to provide a definition of leadership. Leadership is a set of “activities… designed by organizational members to influence the motivation, knowledge, affect, and practices of other organizational member” (as cited in Spillane, 2005, p. 384). When analyzing teacher/school leadership, it is possible to see the same trends that occur at workplace. Thus, a teacher should gain respect and become a model for the students (Mulford, 2006).
This authority becomes a basis for every leadership incentive. Likewise, inspiring leader is the one who is respected and seen as an expert by other members of the organization. The best way to gain the leadership is to reveal extensive knowledge on major issues. This respect will be essential in case of the necessity to implement changes. Members of organization will not resist to changes if they trust their leader.
Admittedly, leadership is not confined to authority. Teacher/school leadership is instructional. Teachers instruct students to help them cope with the assignments. The instructions should be adequate and complete. At this point, it is important to note that Spillane (2005) states that it is not that important to understand what leadership is but to understand how leadership should be distributed. This is quite important as sometimes leadership is ineffective due to the wrong distribution.
Instructions should be given in accordance with the abilities of the recipient. Teachers do not give too complicated tasks to those who will not cope with them; teachers also provide perfectly clear instructions for each student (using students’ language, so-to-speak). Likewise, leaders should make sure other members of the organization are capable of coping with the given tasks and they have the necessary instructions to complete the tasks.
Apart from instructions, support is of paramount importance in teacher/school as well as organizational leadership. Thus, teachers provide their backup and they support incentives of students who strive for development. Horng and Loeb (2010) claim that teachers tend to support students.
However, the researchers add that this is not enough as teachers should have support on the part of principals. Innovative techniques and support of students’ incentives should be supported by principals. When it comes to organizations, support should be manifested on every level. Leaders should be able to listen to each member of organization and support incentives that contribute to development of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On balance, it is possible to note that teacher/school leadership can help organizational leaders work out specific tools to influence other members of organization properly. Organizational leaders should remember that it is important to establish proper image to become a model for other members of the organization.
Proper instructions and support should also be used extensively. It is also important to remember that support should be manifested on every level and each member of organization should have voice. Each incentive should be supported and appreciated. These all principles and factors should be taken into account when developing leadership at workplace and especially when introducing some changes.
Reference List Horng, E.
Mitsubishi and Sony companies Report writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction A business report is meant to provide investors and other stakeholders with information that is important in running a particular business. Specifically, business reports give the stakeholders an idea on the status of their investment. These reports also highlight problems encountered by the business. They also contain the strategic plans that will be put in place to solve the problems in the future.
This paper is an evaluation of two companies’ annual reports. The paper takes into consideration all factors in business reporting, such as services, products, the environment, and the internal and external stakeholders. The paper will be based on the annual reports of Mitsubishi and Sony companies.
The two companies have come up with reports to create awareness among all the stakeholders. This is as far as corporate social responsibility (herein referred to as CSR) in the two companies is concerned. The reports also address the CSR strategies that the companies are planning to undertake
The Report Scope and Limitations of the Report
This paper will focus on the differences between the reports of the two companies. This is in terms of the range of issues dealt with in the reports and how these issues are addressed. Specifically, the report will cover the following issues:
Explain the differences between the reports of the two companies in terms of such factors as country and industry of focus.
Assess the quality of reporting in the two companies based on Zadek’s 1997 criteria (Zhong 2009).
Evaluate the appropriateness of using standardised reporting procedures in the two companies.
Make recommendations on how each of the two reports can be improved. The need for such improvements will also be highlighted.
These are addressed below:
Identifying the Differences between the Reports of the Two Companies in Terms of the Range of Issues Dealt with and how the Issues are Addressed
In this section, the author will try to identify the issues addressed by the two companies in their respective reports. The author will also try to analyse how each of the two companies address these issues.
Mitsubishi Materials’ CSR Report for the Year 2011 A critical analysis of the report reveals that it was intended to provide information to investors and other parties interested in Mitsubishi Materials Group. It was also formulated to create awareness on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities undertaken by the Mitsubishi Materials Group.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The report was structured using clear, precise, and simple language. This is to make it easier for the stakeholders to understand (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010). It is also noted that the report covers nine different areas that were selected to highlight the best strategies to acquire materials in the 2008 fiscal year.
The report has gone a step further to elaborate on the company’s medium-term management plan, which was put in place on August 2011. Additionally, it addresses the initiatives taken by the group to deal with the damage caused by the infamous ‘Great East Japan Earthquake’ and its devastating effects.
The report is not a mere summary of the company’s CSR initiatives. On the contrary, the report is aimed at improving and diversifying these initiatives. To this end, the report is presented in a precise and accurate way to provide the reader with relevant and meaningful information that is significant for the growth of the company. The report meets the requirements of the Global Reporting Initiative (herein referred to as GRI). This is required given that the company is affiliated to CCMM (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010).
The disclosure of information touching on the company’s operations is not limited to the report on material CSR. It is noted that information about the company can also be found in the CSR section of the company’s website. This is all aimed at effectively reporting on the company’s extensive CSR activities.
An undiscerning reader may form the opinion that the report focuses more on 2011 fiscal year than on any other period. This is not the case, given that the report has incorporated information related to activities before and after that time.
Being a member of the ICMM, Mitsubishi has assumed the responsibility of publishing the Metals Company Supplementary Data Book, which is a significant online report that extensively reviews the undertakings of various metal companies. This is all aimed at enhancing full disclosure of information in the industry (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010).
The review also addresses the actions taken by the company’s three smelting subsidiaries. These are Hosokura Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Onahama Smelting and Refining Co. Ltd. (Sony Global 2012), and PT Smelting in Indonesia.
We will write a custom Report on Mitsubishi and Sony companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has adhered to version 3.0 of the Global Reporting Initiative’s (GRI) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. The report contains a disclaimer to the effect that any individual wishing to invest in the company on the basis of the information provided in the report will be held liable to any damage or losses accruing thereof. This is given that such a decision should be personal.
Sony’s Annual Report for the Year 2012- Business and CSR Review The report is structured in such a way that it provides the reader with information on the company’s activities during the 2011 fiscal year. The report addresses the company’s corporate social responsibility initiatives, as well as the business and investment initiatives taken. The report also introduces the new CEO and president of the company, Kazuo Hirai.
The company provides information on the three major businesses that it is running. These are electronics, financial services, and entertainment. The financial and entertainment sectors recorded a positive growth. It is also noted that the two sectors are expected to grow further in the future (Sony Global 2012).
However, the electronics market is unpredictable. The proceeds from the electronics sector were relatively low as a result of the effects of product commoditisation. This is in addition to the effects of the deteriorating foreign exchange rates. It is for this reason that the biggest task for the incoming CEO should be to reposition and reconstruct the electronics business. It is a matter of urgency as far as the stakeholders are concerned.
Sony Corporation has a reputation for ground breaking innovations and products, as well as high quality entertainment services. The company has over the years inspired many investors. Its scope of operations and methodology has made various stakeholders very curious.
However, it is noted that the group now aims at revolutionising its most valuable resource, which is the Sony’s DNA. This is the strong will, ability, and desire to come up with high quality products and services. This has been in place since the inception of the company. The group now aims at ensuring that every employee owns and expresses the Sony DNA individually so as to enhance growth of the company (Sony Global 2012).
In the fiscal year 2011, the company’s operations, especially in the electronics field, were adversely affected by the earlier mentioned Great East Japan Earthquake. This is together with the infamous Thailand floods of 2011. The situation was made worse by the economic crisis that negatively affected many foreign currencies.
This in turn led to a decrease in the prices of the goods and services offered by the company. The company recorded an operation’s loss of approximately 67.3 billion Yen. This is in comparison to the 199.8 billion Yen in the previous fiscal year. This was as a result of the decline in the net sales.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mitsubishi and Sony companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company also reported on the measures put in place to address such situations in the future. This is especially so the measures put in place to revamp the electronics business. The directors expressed the need to act fast and decisively to restore the company’s lost glory and improve its performance.
Included in the report was the corporate strategy adopted by the company. This is in efforts to restore the entity. The company identified various core areas of operation. The main pillars that were identified included digital imaging, games, and mobile business. These were identified as the key areas in restructuring the electronics business.
The business highlights was another significant area that was addressed by the report. It was noted that consolidated sales were decreasing from one year to the other due to the unfavourable effects of the deteriorating foreign exchange rates.
This is in addition to the shrinking of the markets in developed countries, as well as the Great East Japan Earthquake and the floods in Thailand among other catastrophes (Sony Global 2012). There were also the operation losses incurred during that period. This led to a huge net loss on the part of the Sony Corporation’s stockholders.
As part of the company’s CSR initiatives, the management entered into an agreement with Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta, stage name ‘Lady Gaga’, a singer and song writer. It is noted that this artist had performed really well in the past. She received financial assistance from the company. The report also provides the reader with information on the performance of the company’s shares in the market. The figure below is an excerpt from the report:
Figure 1: Sony Global’s Stock Information
Adapted from: Sony Global 2012
An Analysis of the Differences between the Two Reports in Terms of Country and Industry Based Factors
Mitsubishi Report The company mainly focuses on the manufacture and distribution of products that address the social aspects of the community. It aims at providing the most basic needs for individuals in the society. This is to help them survive or make their life better (Mobile Reference 2010). It is for this reason that the company has invested heavily by assisting the victims of the earthquake.
There is also the copper mining business that the company is involved in. The Copper Mountain Mine rejuvenation project was initiated in 2009. However, actual mining has been taking place since 1996. The corporation is aiming at mining as many minerals as possible. It has invested heavily in the sector (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010).
The company has also made initiatives to recycle waste materials and come up with products that are useful to the community (Tsimhoni et al. 2005a). At the company’s Kyushu cement plant, plans are underway to start recycling incinerated ash from the waste generated by the municipal council. The project was supposed to begin on April 2012.
This will solve the environmental crisis that is likely to result from the process of melting ash into slag. The company is also involved in the metal smelting business. It is currently putting in place plans to recycle scrap metal.
The company has also put in place measures to safeguard and protect the environment. It is committed to the creation of a self sustaining community. It is as a result of this that the company initiated the Eco Contest award scheme, which aims at recognising and awarding the most efficient and outstanding ideas and contributions in the development of a low carbon or recycling-oriented society. In the first Eco Contest Award Ceremony held in April 2011, there were a total of ten award categories (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010).
Sony Report The Sony Company is known for its ability to manufacture and distribute high quality products. Moreover, the company is well known for the high quality entertainment services. The company has diversified its operations by coming up with innovative hardware. As a result, the company has a remarkable collection of film, games’ content, and music (Lyons 2006).
The Sony Group has vast interests in the electronics business. However, during the 2011 fiscal year, the business was facing many challenges. As such, the profits declined. This was largely instigated by the deteriorating foreign exchange rates and the competition brought about by product commoditisation. It is for this reason that the group finds it very important to act swiftly and restore the lost glory.
The group is also trying to put in place measures that will revamp the industry. The company has identified several key areas in the electronics business. These are digital imaging, gaming (Andresen 2002), and mobile operations. As a result of this, the company will focus its investments in these areas.
Sony is going a step higher by engaging in activities that are more innovative than those undertaken by the various competitors. The activities are likely to improve the performance of the company. This is through the growth of set apart technology, which is better placed to improve the quality of the products.
One of the company’s major undertakings is in the medical field. Currently, this involves the production and supply of printers, cameras, monitors, and other peripheral products specifically designed for the medical field (Hockerts 2008).
The Sony Group is also engaged in the provision of financial services. This sector is expected to record a positive growth. This is considering the performance of this sector in the recent past. In an effort to uphold high standards of operations and maintain a sound financial standing, the various companies under the group’s umbrella have continued to provide high quality financial products. This is through the adoption of an inventive business model.
The companies include Sony Financial Holdings, Sony Life Insurance Co. (Zhong 2009), Sony Bank Inc., and Sony Assurance (Tsimhoni et al. 2005b). Sony Life, for instance, has maintained its successful operations with a lot of ease. As a result, it has recorded an increase in its ‘policy sum in force’ (Ohga 2008).
The company has attained this through its enhanced interaction with the customers. It is also able to design and sell customised life insurance products that appeal to the clientele. According to Guerrier (1999), Sony Assurance enjoys a broad spectrum of customers as a result of its reasonable premiums. This is in addition to its segmented risk and high quality services that have led to increased market share.
An inclusive report focuses on all aspects of a given agenda. For instance, an inclusive report will take into consideration such factors as services, products, and the environment within which the company is operating. It will also take into consideration both internal and external stakeholders (Mitsubishi Zaidan 2009).
To this end, Mitsubishi has designed its report to create awareness among all stakeholders in an inclusive manner. This is especially so with respect to the CSR initiatives that the company is planning to take (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010).
In the report, the management talks about the employees and their overall approach to CSR. Moreover, the report highlights the framework used by the company to promote CSR and corporate governance.
In addition, the report talks about the company’s medium term management plan, which runs from 2012 to 2014 (Mitsubishi Corporation 2010). This adequately informs all stakeholders on what to expect (Mitsubishi Motors 1985).
The company has highlighted other issues in its report. The report addresses the important role played by the society in providing resources. In addition, the report highlights the importance of the environment. It also mentions the company’s efforts in combating global warming, as well as the company’s promotion of eco- friendly products and technology. At the end of the day, Mitsubishi report can be considered as inclusive, given that it mentions and takes into consideration almost all the aspects of an annual report (Mishima 2009).
However, Sony’s report is more inclusive than that of Mitsubishi. It starts by introducing the company’s envisaged corporate strategy. Though this can be compared to the strategic management plan adopted by Mitsubishi, Sony’s corporate strategy stands out. This is given that it features some of the company’s products. In addition to this, Sony addresses the issue of management and its overall approach to CSR.
This is under the internal stakeholders section. The report also highlights the major areas in the corporate strategy, which will transform the company’s future. Moreover, the report highlights the framework that will be adopted to promote CSR and corporate governance. This adequately informs all stakeholders. It also helps them appreciate the efforts made by the management (Choquette
Non-verbal Communication Theory Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
The shopping event
Expectancy value model
The theory of planned behaviour
The self-cognitive theory of communication
Introduction Communication is the process of conveying information, which requires the sender of the information, the receiver, and the message to be delivered to the recipient. The process plays an important role in passing of information and interaction between human beings. This can be either verbal or non-verbal and the choice between the two depends on the suitability to the users and the environment.
In nonverbal communication, the use of body language is essential where effectiveness in this type of communication depends on the user’s understanding. This essay analyzes non-verbal communication by looking at the use of body language as well as the actual communication using communication theories basing on observations made.
The shopping event The communication event took place between a friend who was a customer and a shopping mall attendant in a busy downtown shopping mall where both non-verbal and verbal communications were used for effectiveness. To begin with, the customer walked to the counter and begun addressing the mall attendant and after the attention of the attendant, he pointed to the Corner of the store where different types of shoes were displayed.
He again looked at the shoes that he was wearing and continued talking to the attendant who listened attentively. At one point, the attendant nodded his head and raised his right hand towards the corner where shoes were displayed to confirm that the type of shoe that the customer required was available.
The attendant then left the counter and directed the customer to the position where shoes had been displayed as the customer followed him. The customer then selected the type of shoes he required then went to the counter together with the attendant.
A discussion between the two people followed and it seemed as if there was disagreement between them. Later they reached an agreement and the attendant packed the shoes for the customer. At this point, they smiled at each other and finally the attendant waived his hand to the departing customer.
Expectancy value model In any communication, there are expectations from both the sender and the recipient of the message. These expectations determine the behaviour of the two parties and their attitude towards the message. In the observed event, the customer expected the attendant to respond and listen to him carefully while the attendant expected the customer to describe the type, size and the quality of the pair of shoes required.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Expectancy value model therefore apply in the conversation where Palmgreen (1984) states that, “People orient themselves to the world according to their expectations, beliefs and evaluations”. Expectations determine behaviour of a person, which then plays an important role in determining the person’s attitude towards the message or the other person.
The theory of planned behaviour Bandura (1986) stated that, from experiences, people are able to plan, which also applies in communication. Getting the attention of the listener is important to the speaker and at the same time, impressing the listener is of equal importance. The speaker avoids a situation whereby the message he or she passes becomes irrelevant or lacks attention.
The theory of planned behaviour suggests that the intention of a person determines his/her behaviour and attitude determines the intention. In the shopping mall communication event the attendant seemed to have a good experience of what the customers’ needed where the attendant gained this experience from interacting with several customers.
On the other hand, the customer seemed to know that the attendant offer useful guidance in the selection process and from his experience, the customer explained the details of the pair of shoes to the attendant accurately expecting him to listen to the details. Pajares (2002) found that, prediction plays an important role in communication and it is a direct consequence of the theory.
In communication, a person predicts the reaction of the other where these predictions are usually on other person’s response, reaction, and choice of words. In the mall conversation, the customer and the attendant sometimes predicted the next action of the other person. For example, when the attendant walked back to the counter, he expected the customer to follow him.
The self-cognitive theory of communication According to Parraga (1990), the environment plays an important role in determining a person’s behaviour and therefore affects communication. Environment determines people’s behaviour, which in turn determines their attitude. Human beings on the other hand have the ability to counter the effects of the environment through self-organization.
Contemporary issues in Multimedia and IT Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Ethics are the principles that dictate right and wrong, and act as agents of decision making guidelines of behavior. On the other hand, laws are rules developed by an administrative system to combat crime. Most ethical issues are consequences of individuals trying to make decisions within or without the law that govern a system.
When computers were first invented , scientists said that the whole of America would only need six computers for its operations. A couple of decades later, information highway has grown so fast that every household at least owns a computer. Computers have evolved from the bulky gadgets they used to be, to pocket size gadgets, making it easier for individuals to own.
Businesses are run easily through computers, for instance shopping malls and food joints have created sites through which people can select items and have them delivered to them. Marketing has been made easier as consultants don’t have to meet with their clients face to face.
Introduction of e-learning in most academic institutions has helped create more learning opportunities while saving time and space. Academic research by students has been simplified because they no longer need to carry bulky books. Besides, many job opportunities have been created for information technology specialists. Just like any inventions, Information technology has its merits and demerits.
Therefore, it is in order for governments to come up with strategies to regulate the use of information technology gadgets as a precautionary measure against information technology stress caused by security breach in the private or public network systems. Though the invention of internet networking has facilitated the transformation of the world into a global village, eminent threats on security of information systems is real. Thus, this reflective treatise analyses contemporary issues in information technology and multimedia.
A big wave of positive change was seen in various fields such as education, business, and politics among others. Unfortunately, Criminals saw this as an opportunity for fraudulent deals. For instance, hackers, crackers and stalkers took advantage of this wave of change to unlawfully access private information that could harm companies (Moore, 2006, pp.101-105). In response, the government introduced the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.
As stipulated by this law, trespassers of protected computers were to be prosecuted. The CFAA merged with the National Information Infrastructure Act to create a compact regulatory law on information technology. Given that dependence levels on technology have increased, the advances in data storage have made the process cheaper, hence are used by local retail firms to identify customers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the, major search firms such as Google, yahoo, and messenger generates more than 200million searches per year. Therefore, a lot of information can be found about an individual through their profiles and blogs. Information perceived as private can viewed in public social sites. This heightens ethical concerns because a lot of information is out and can be misused.
These laws made it illegal for any unauthorized person to access private computer network for financial gains. CFAA in its current jurisdiction protects users and operators against computer related crimes such as obtaining national security information through illegal entry into Federal computers with the aim of harming the state, and for the benefit of another state. This law is punishable whether information was acquired or not.
Besides, the law is clear on the illegal entry of a protected computer to access financial or credit information, including credit card fraud (Solove and Schwartz, 2009, p. 43). Moreover, unauthorized access of any protected computer used by the Federal government or the government computer agencies is also included. It can be considered as treason if one is found hacking into the state’s security systems.
Since data has become easily accessible, government security agencies have come up with detailed and advanced security systems. They can obtain information on suspects of terrorism and security threat. In the automated scan systems, possession of illegal weapon, drugs, and other material perceive harmful to the public can be detected.
At global level, intentionally damaging, either through corrupting by viruses or physical destruction of a protected computer and worms program that can make information disappear or even disable a system intentionally is punishable in the International Law Court. Physical destruction includes trashing or removing some parts of the machine to put a halt to normal functioning ability (Solove and Schwartz, 2009, p. 50).
Illegal trafficking of passwords or any other information which can be used to gain access to a protected computer for whatsoever purpose is illegal. This law was mainly put to stop the hackers from cracking passwords and accessing information systems for information, and using them to corrupt the information systems.
The above laws makes it illegal for one to access information without permission from the owner, the operator or the management information system, especially information on business operations or national defense. This covered all the data on atomic weapons manufacture and storage in the United States (Solove and Schwartz, 2009, p. 55).
We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary issues in Multimedia and IT specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The electronic communications privacy act is a law which was passed to regulate efficiency of Information technology. This law makes it illegal to tap information without authorization. Besides, it protects information transmitted through wire, radio, electromagnetic waves, and optical wave tracks that affect business transactions of the state. Cyber Security Enhancement Act was passed together with the Homeland Security Act to increase penalties set in the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.
CSEA reduced the thoroughness of privacy and made it easier for the ISP to hand over information to the government whenever the relevant authority suspects unlawful dealing in the local networks.
This law passed harsh punishment on persons who knowingly committed computer crimes that resulted in physical injury or even death (Solove and Schwartz, 2009, p. 53).Those who have established their careers in business, should sensitize their employees ICT departments to safeguard the quality of the systems and hence protecting privacy of society.
The digital millennium copyright act mainly protects programs and soft wares against piracy. This law was put in place to help people who operated their businesses online from having their products duplicated. This law promotes the sale of soft wares and programs that help parents control what their children view in the interne (Tim and Paul, 2004, p.46).
Traditional laws can also be used to prosecute crimes committed on computers. For instance, Economic Espionage Act makes it illegal for one to steal information or ideas from another business through copyright or duplication for any reasons whatsoever. This law also spells out the boundaries of benefitting from other information systems in place by either competitors or perceived rival.
The Virginia internet policy act advocates for freedom of information, penalties on persons who commit computer crimes, and protection of children from explicit pornographic materials and indecent images on the internet. Before, children were used by perverts to boost business and the websites at the expense of their rights.
Another law is the software privacy and control act. This act deals with the criminals who register online under false identity, and commit online fraudulent crimes on the domain receptor. However, providing false information without getting involved in criminal activities is excused (Tim and Paul, 2004, p.46).
Despite the numerous efforts by the government, internet criminals somehow find a new route in committing cyber crimes frequently. Factually, it is not very easy to detect a cyber crime until its consequences surface. Smarter hacking minds have developed complex ideas of invading the snares and traps constantly revised by the government information technology experts (Warren and Louis, 1989, pp.89-97).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary issues in Multimedia and IT by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even the most secured sites such as that of the homeland security and Microsoft report numerous attempts of hacking on their websites. Funnily, some of these crimes are only meant o draw attention and disapprove the security system of the targeted sites.
In the recent part, a group in America threatened to close down face book site for what they called breach of personal privacy and stalking by the government. Hackers have decided to corrupt the system with graphic images, just for satisfaction of having control over this global site (Trout, 2007, p.43).
This however does not mean that we are completely hopeless against finding solutions to deal with these intelligent minds who find pleasure in putting a halt to global growth and development on the facets of information exchange.
The existing laws may not be perfect, by some how are effective in minimizing the intensity of information system abuse. In the recent past, many successful abuse cases have passed through the court system on sms or email abuse. Governments still deal with threats to life and properties sent via email, as punishable under traditional laws.
Governments also need to introduce e-governance, like in Bangladesh, which make control and review of laws of the internet much easier to implement. Through this, governments will easily deal with the increasing innovative techniques of web piracy hacking and cracking (Tim and Paul, 2004, p.49).
The implementation of these laws may be hindered by administrative obstacles. For instance, lack of trust and faith on a government by its citizens may make fighting cyber crime a hectic procedure. Due to this, citizens may shy away from reporting instances of cyber crimes committed or fail to cooperate with the authority in investigations.
However, the overhead cost of adopting e-governance is very heavy on most governments. With the current unfavorable economic climate, the priorities of most governments are to ensure costs of any project are within manageable limits. Besides, there is an inadequate specialized skill in information technology across the globe to monitor and constantly track the ever complex crimes undergoing metamorphosis.
Reference List Moore, R. (2006) Cybercrime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime, 1st ed., Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson Publishing
Solove, D. and Schwartz, P. (2009) Privacy, Information, and Technology, 2nd Ed., New York, NY: Aspen Publishers
Tim, J, and Paul, T. (2004) Hacktivism and Cyberwars, Alabama: Routledge
Trout, B. (2007) Cyber Law: A Legal Arsenal for Online Business, New York: World Audience, Inc.
Warren, R. and Louis, B. (1989) The Right to Privacy, 4 Harv. L. Rev. 193., Massachusetts: Harvard University Publications
Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and Information Technology Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The ability to create, modify, store, send, and link digitalized information is the most notable invention of the twentieth century. This phenomenon is widespread in all spheres of life around the globe. The continuing proliferation of information technologies and services has presented many legal, social, and ethical issues. These issues are the subject of discussion among government officials, academics, and others. This essay examines the contemporary issues that are facing multimedia and information technology in the modern world.
Since the early 1960’s, Information Revolution has been the buzz word. The world has been experiencing, at an accelerating pace, an unprecedented Third Wave-fast forward movement. The Information Revolution is characterized by information becoming the central and most significant commodity.
An interesting offshoot of the Information Revolution is Information of Society, on the one hand, and the commoditization of information on the other. The significance of dawn of Information Revolution is underlined by the number of information-related terms it has risen. These include, but not limited to, ‘Information Society’, ‘Information Technology’, ‘Informatics’, and ‘Informatization’. Information has become a catalyst for economic development, and a key resource for literacy, education, and social development.
An Information Society is a society characterized by abundant information in terms of both stock and flow, quick and efficient distribution and transformation of information, and easy and inexpensive access to information for all members of society. The primary role of the workforce in Information Society is in the areas of information production, processing and distribution .
The Information Age has brought with it a myriad of issues proportionate to the number of contributions it has made to society. As such, discussing all the contemporary issues brought by multimedia and Information may take more than the limitation of this paper. Consequently, the scope of this paper will be limited to an overview of a number of legal, social, and ethical issues in the Information Age. These include privacy, intellectual property, and computer crime.
With the vast amounts of data and software available in the modern world of technology, individuals or companies are prone to theft of intellectual property. This crime consists of violation of copyrights, patents, trade secrets, or the terms of license agreements. It also entails unauthorized duplication of materials. This latter phenomenon is common in academics, whereby people might be tempted to reproduce other people’s works, views or invention as their own working for commercial or scholarly purposes.
Companies or individuals, therefore, should strive to obtain software, or information legitimately instead of coping it. There are several benefits associated with legal acquisition of software or information. Legal acquisition of software or information ensures that the company is kept abreast with the bounds of the law in their business practices and day-to-day operations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This ensures that the company’s professionalism and reputation are maintained. Another fundamental reason why companies should go for legal software is because the legitimately purchased software comes with crucial benefits such as technical support, patches, upgrades and documentation. These properties cannot be found in pirated software. Companies or individuals who engage in illegal acquisition of intellectual risk fines, expensive settlements or serious legal action.
Intellectual property just like any other controversial contemporary issue in multimedia and information technology has its proponents and opponents. Those who argue for the private ownership of intellectual property base their arguments on well-known scholars such as John Locke (1632-1704). Locke held that one has a natural right to the things they have removed through their labor.
Another philosopher, Hegel (1770-1831), argues that property enables an individual to put his or her will into something . As such, property is an expression of an individual’s personality in the world. Another argument to support the private ownership of intellectual property is that it is a necessary incentive to create and to work. This idea is dated back to David Hume (1711-1786). Hume argued that people should own their creations in order to encourage useful habits and accomplishments.
The opponents of private ownership of intellectual property question the validity of the assumption that an idea can be owned solely by one individual. They hold that probably any idea that people have are not their own. Most of the ideas that people have come form other people, or place.
As such, originality can be viewed as the combination of existing ideas in new ways. Basically, when someone is original, they are expressing an idea in a new way, may be seeing new associations between ideas that were not noticed before. Anything creative that is achieved is the adding of something to pre-existing ideas, which have been obtained from others .
Like physical property, intellectual property implies that someone can access certain ideas, or information. However, the notion of private ownership of an idea or concept is highly controversial. This is because it implies that others are excluded from the use or development of those ideas.
Ownership of ideas in the modern Information Age will remain a mammoth challenge to the free society, not unless there is a balance between rewarding innovators for their creative ideas, while still allowing those ideas to be shared for the benefit of the community and for human progress .
We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and Information Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When thinking about the contemporary issues that are facing multimedia and information technology, privacy is, perhaps, the single issue that concerns people the most. Personal information is gathered in various ways such as profiles left to credit-checking companies, and supermarkets. The kinds of information held by credit-checking companies include names and addresses, former addresses, and current credit ratings.
The information in these databases has invariably being collected through a wide range of sources and organized so that it constitutes a history and assessment, of one’s trustworthiness as a debtor. Supermarkets are now compiling vast databases of information about their customers. This is done through their loyalty cards, in conjunction with records of credit card transactions at their stores .
Information in such databases is used to analyze the shopping patterns of customers and to target them with precise advertising based on their demographic profile and spending patterns. Still on privacy issues, another trend in the use of personal information is data matching.
This is the combination and comparison of information from different databases Personal information that is supplied, or collected for one purpose and stored in a particular database is cross-referenced to information in other databases, where data may have been gathered for an entirely different purpose.
This trend has been of significant concern to privacy advocates and civil liberties, who view it as prone to misuse. There is an unlimited number of misuses of information that is obtained form the databases. It could lead to vetting for jobs, denying someone a bank loan, based on their current health, their propensity to certain conditions, or their family medical history.
New technologies, including computers, offer new opportunities for committing a crime through the development of more expensive commodities for theft, devising novel ideas of stealing them, or harming others. This phenomenon is referred to as computer crime. It is a contemporary issue in the Information Age that has left many puzzles than the invention of computers have solved. Criminals can access a company’s financial records and wire unfathomable amounts of money in their bank accounts .
In addition, computer abuse involving spamming is proving a very expensive affair. This is in terms of resources and time dedicated to dealing with such unwanted and irrelevant e-mail messages. Although spam filters may be used to block unwanted messages, the strategy is not foolproof as it may end up blocking legitimate messages .
In conclusion, information technology has given rise to many unexacting possibilities which the existing law has not yet found solutions. The Information Age is coming up with changes that call for new ethical, legal, and social debates in societies in order for solutions to be found.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and Information Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These issues revolve around ethical, social, professional, and political principles. In terms of privacy, it is clear that contemporary information systems technology is posing a tremendous challenge to the traditional paradigms of safeguarding individual privacy, as well as intellectual property .
Technologies used in storing and analyzing data are easing the ways firms are collecting data on individuals from various sources and analyzing them in order to come up with an in-depth electronic profile about an individual and his or her conduct. The widespread use of computers also increases opportunities for computer crime and abuse . Given these myriad of issues, there is a need to approach Information Technology with a degree of professionalism and try, where possible, to act in the most ethical way possible.
References Bynum, T. ,W.,
Ethics in IT Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Ethical dilemma
Regulations of IT
Regulations and business
Value of IT
For several years, most debates about ethics and information technology (IT) have focused on issues of professional ethics and issues of privacy and security. The professional aspects of ethics in IT concern preserving and developing a successful reputation through tasks completions. In this context, the worker is constantly behaving well i.e. a case of character and action. Ethics now seems to be an inclusive term covering morality, value and justice, in addition to character and action.
However, the recent developments in IT and business have created cases of new concerns in ethics. Critics now wonder whether removing a job from one country to another in order to exploit lower paid workers and probably avoid heavy tax are ethical, business or economic issues (Schultz, 2006).
Offshoring and outsourcing of jobs creates the advantage of a social context by providing lower wages. These have become new ethical problems created by flexibility of the IT concept of “availability at any location”.
These new developments have made IT rise beyond organizational borders in covering end users, supply chains, partners, countries, and continents in the broad picture. These are among the issues which have necessitated the governments across the globe to collaborate and develop comprehensive and detailed laws regarding the use of information technology.
Ethical dilemma As new and unpredictable uses of information technology arise with the regulations, so do new and unpredictable ethical problems. IT is a part of the human world of relations, actions and institutions. Therefore, we expect interactions with the world of IT neither to bring predictable ethical problems nor predictable solutions.
For instance, the creations of online downloading sites of copyrighted materials to promote sales, or as a form of charity, or to promote mediocre contents demonstrate how users can manipulate IT systems where ethical principles are not clear. People can make digital copies at will, and these copies are available to anyone on the network.
The issue is whether it is a mere act of a friendship sharing information, which is ethical, or whether it is an illegal act, which is an unethical practice violating copyright laws. These instances are likely to create ethical dilemma to the comprehensive laws regulating IT industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conversely, if the comprehensive laws cover such unpredictable uses and results of IT industry, then the users are acting ethically and legally. Some problems of ethics associated with the development of social media, such as dating and readily available sex partners and spamming raise serious issues of ethics and the role of IT in perpetuating them (Robert, 1995).
Regulations of IT There are diverse cultural and ethical perspectives created by information technology and communication around the global and their possible resolutions. These are genuine global information ethics, which need to be regulated as the industry continues to experience exponential growths.
Therefore, the governments of the world in coming up with comprehensive laws to regulate the global IT industry is on the right step in protecting individuals, organizations, partners, territories and nations. This led to the development of a framework for global ethics provided in the form of the Earth Charter so as to realize a shared vision of a sustainable global society.
Information technology ethics use this framework to determine how information and technology can be used responsibly to develop a future that is economically and ecologically sustainable, and culturally and socially just (Hongladarom and Ess, 2007).
The regulation formalizes expression of values and embodies cultural norms, which sometimes may clash with the values in information technology. The IT and regulations are contiguous with the normative ethics of the originating culture. Therefore, both the law and technology can constrain behaviour according to the value system that they express. These are significant implications of the spread and adoption of the IT around the globe.
Technological developments presuppose the availability of informational content to be stored, communicated and processed. Adopting and using such technology is, therefore, essentially dependent upon the legal and normative rules that determine the accessibility and regulation of information to be stored, manipulated and disseminated through technology.
Regulations that specify the legal and technical factors for use of information are necessary so as to control the adoption and usage IT systems that process such information. As the IT information availability increases, the provision of informational content has equally become a matter of interest to both the nations that generate information and those that are net information consumers for different reasons, of course.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethics in IT specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The nations that develop and export information technologies enforce their particular ethical and legal standards for regulations of end users. Thus, they effectively spread their value systems and regulations requirements alongside their technologies to other nations. Issues of ethical and control of information tend to rotate around the development of contents and gathering of personal information.
Regulating controls label the requirements, and in some instances, the authors of informational contents protect them under intellectual property or data privacy. However, the US and the European Union economic and political dominance tend to influence regulations of information technology.
Each of these powers has aggressively tended to promote their own approaches to information technology control. This way, they have displaced and overwhelmed the development of other countries from developing their informational control systems.
Regulations and business Government regulations can be useful or harmful to businesses. The nature and degree of the comprehensive laws developed by governments in regulating the IT sector can have both positive and negative effects across the globe. Nations which have enormous controls, and influences on the regulations will tremendously benefit. At the same time, some degree of the regulations may results in developing of moral, social and just society.
In order for IT to grow globally, the comprehensive laws developed should be essential regarding intellectual property, sensible approaches to contract laws, willingness to enforce the contracts, and efficient systems of handling bankruptcy in case of rapidly changing technology overtakes a business. At the same, the law should provide strong protections for freedoms of persons and expressions (Gentzoglanis and Henten, 2010).
IT business represents unpredictable changes and developments. The structure of the laws should accommodate the future course of the information revolution in different nations. For instance, the law should ensure availability of funding for new IT ventures and linear concepts in the manner of funding processes. This is because such instances affect the growth and development of new IT ventures in all nations. Therefore, it is an issue global concern.
This is a critical concept of new developments in IT and businesses, which usually upsets and challenges the old models of businesses, monopolies, and introduces new ways of tasks performances. The idea is that players in the IT sector should also operate within the laws when raising capital for their new ventures. The concept of law to ensure funding is an enabling factor for the growth, adoption and proliferation IT.
Value of IT In developing regulations and ethical use of IT systems, we should always have in mind the positive feature of information technology as its potential to contribute to the increase in human consciousness by making more knowledge available in wide setup. Conversely, we must also beware of its questionable applications that can propel destructions of human or the environment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in IT by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Regulators must realize that the functional characteristics that make IT so valuable do not operate in a restricted or highly regulated environment.
Valuable applications such as speed of information processing, information storage capacity, availability of information at any location, and straightforward reproduction of information, can work well provided the users operate within the global laws. Such applications work better with a scope of the organizations as a whole, and potentially well with global scope where information sharing is part of the business.
In realizing the value of IT to human and environment, governments should focus on the prevention of harmful practices in serving needs of human and environment. Therefore, preventing harm in information technology use becomes an essential element of fixing serious problem that causes the greatest harm to human and environment. Therefore, ethical use and regulation should also focus on protecting vulnerable groups within a society to prevent IT harm from coming to end users (Richard, Robert, Tora and Neu, 2003).
Users and regulator must take into account that IT is not neutral. Its use provokes various changes that can result into consequences beyond human comprehension. Technological innovations often strive to build a new and incompatible order on top of what exists. We should use it as a means and enabler for other ends.
Bibliography Gentzoglanis, A. and Henten, A., 2010. Regulation and the Evolution of the Global Telecommunications Industry. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Hongladarom, S. and Ess, C., 2007. Information Technology Ethics: Cultural Perspectives. London: Idea Group.
Richard, O., Robert, H., Tora, K. and Neu, R., 2003. The Global Course of the Information Revolution: Recurring Themes and Regional Variations. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
Robert, A., 1995. Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications. California: RAND.
Schultz, R. A., 2006. Contemporary issues in ethics and information technology. London: Idea Group.
Pepsi Cola International Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Executive summary The assessment analyses challenges experienced by Pepsi Cola International in Ukraine. Distribution channels and logistics challenges have affected the business, which is the reason this assessment identifies four challenges and gives possible solutions. While using the available literature, challenges include poor transport and infrastructure.
The ports are congested and delays are common. Burglary is a challenge for transporters. The distribution channels are not effective in distributing the product to all parts of the region it is required to. There is because of competition from other brands. Long distribution channels and economic slowdown make the prices increase.
Warehouses are scarce as well as forklifts. The management can reduce the challenges by engaging in research and use recommendation to make changes that correspond to the environment and developments. Investment and long-term decision can be encouraged.
Introduction Pepsi Cola International in Ukraine has been operating for over twenty years. The distribution of the soft drink determines the sales and the business development. Unlike other European states, Ukraine is lagging behind in development and this has affected the business. Moreover, Ukraine is a potential target for the company and the senior management of Pepsi Cola International in Ukraine should investigate and make changes that encourage business growth.
This paper will identify four challenges the senior management of Pepsi Cola are facing in relation to distribution Channels and logistics. The paper will also recommend solutions for the four problems.
Key challenges that Pepsi cola senior management is facing Menachof (2001, p. 2) reveals that distribution of Pepsi is done via arrangement with different franchise and other arrangements. The methods of distribution may require changes that correspond to the transforming economy. The company has conducted business in the Soviet Union for a period that exceeds twenty years.
Pepsi Cola international senior management in Ukraine has exerted efforts to investigate the distribution as well as pricing policies in Ukraine. Ukraine office in Vienna bottles and distributes in Eastern and Central Europe.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Transportation and infrastructure
One of the challenges for Pepsi Cola international is gaining access to the huge markets. The number of users of their soft drinks remains relatively small, when compared to the consumption rates of the large markets.
In 1994, Soviet law made trade arrangements that prohibited Pepsi Cola International from banishing income to United States. Ukraine partnered with shipyard. Consequently, Pepsi became the dominant soft drink. International Directory of Company Histories (2001, p. 1) notes that Ukraine sees Pepsi Cola as their choice. However, Coca cola has opened a bottling plant in Ukraine that has been operational since 1995.
The economic development of Ukraine has been slower than in other parts of Europe. Transportation of goods is slow owing to the slow railway services. There are numerous cases of delay. There is state transport composed of large companies that offer transportation.
Private companies which are small have transportation trucks. Other business men use own vehicles that are not trucks to transport. Any truck can be used for transportation and earn an income for the owner. At the port of Ukraine, imported goods take long owing to payment complications.
Importers have been affected by inflation and have lost purchasing power; hence the price is very high. Accumulation of goods at the port is common and obstructs operations. Space at the port is rare. Banditry and theft are on the rise as some of trucks are forced to offload their goods. Cargo insurance companies have failed to cooperate by withdrawing from insuring cargo for inland beyond the entry of the port.
Private property laws are not fully developed and affects how landlords relate with tenants. Warehouse space is limited. Shipping containers, basements and any available space in the buildings are considered as warehouses. Landlords may breach the contract and the property owner may not be fully protected by the law.
The distribution equipment has been used for more than twenty years. Although the port is being upgraded, the facilities do not match those in the developed part of Europe. While lagging behind at the port, the case is the same for inland facilities. Forklifts are not available and people lift the load by use of hand.
We will write a custom Assessment on Pepsi Cola International specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Channels of Distribution
The distribution channels in Ukraine perform poorly compared to other countries. In other countries, there are Pepsi trucks. The drivers of the trucks ensure that they have enough supplies for specific areas. There are also Pepsi machines that provide drinks. The trucks, drivers and machines are absent in Ukraine.
Pepsi Cola international receives concentrate which is sold and delivered to the twelve authorized bottlers. Pepsi cola international use rail or tracks to deliver to the bottlers. During winter, Pepsi cola has to make arrangements with the rail to ensure that it delivers the concentrate. Since roads are impassable, rail is the only means of transport.
Another challenge is preventing the product from freezing by ensuring that the cars are heated. When the concentrate becomes frozen, it cannot be useful anymore. Different distributers obtain Pepsi Cola from the bottlers. The distribution of Pepsi in major towns and city is regular. In small towns, shortages are common. Retailers then sell the product to consumers. Some retailers, like kiosks, do not have the product until they make trips to the city or major towns.
Finances and politics have an impact on Ukraine. Investors invest limited capital in their businesses and their plans are often shorter and middle term plans. There is fear and uncertainty about the future. The justification is that unrest may rise up again. Western investors in the Soviet Union have hardships with the law.
They are not protected by the law. Moreover, decision making in business takes a long time and favors shorter plans. Decisions in business last around three months and change of mind can occur at any time before the time is over. Three months is a short time for one to realize quick money as they often wish for.
Business practices are secretive. Business men keep two records for official use and actual transaction. New investors venturing into partnership experience frustration. They have difficulties trusting foreign investors. The locals have been frustrated before and cooperating may take a long time.
Aldin and Stahre (2003, p. 272) mention that the use of distributers eradicates the inconsistencies in the schedules for manufacturers and the pattern of consumption for consumers. Consumers tend to use certain products during a certain season and when the season is ended, the consumption is reduced.
Manufacturers may be required to use wholesalers or retailers to acquire finances. Selling directly to the customers may take a longer period of time to sell. Retailers and whole sales will pay before obtaining the product. The retailers and wholesalers may be in a better position to perform specialization functions than the manufacturer.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Pepsi Cola International by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Perner (2008, p. 1) adds that the manufacturers are specialists in manufacturing, while the retailers specialize in distributing. Efficiency is obtained if the manufacturers effectively distribute to a wide range of retailers. In turn, the retailers will distribute to the customers.
According to Coughlin et al (2001), for the distribution of same product, a parallel distribution structure may be adopted. The product can be obtained by using a different channel other than the traditional distribution channel. Consumers may prefer to buy from the manufacturer to save on cost and sell for a less costly price. Those using the traditional channel will see this as unfair competition.
The prices of Pepsi Cola increase as people move far away from authorized bottlers. The distribution channel is long. From Pepsi cola international, the product is bought by the bottler, then by the distributer, then the local retailer and finally the consumer. The long chain makes the price of Pepsi Cola products costly.
The prices of the drink are also interfered with by the economic slowdown. The cost of fuel has increased and transporting the product has become more costly. The glass bottles are delicate and cumbersome to transport and are expensive, as Ramez (1990, p. 1) mentions.
Larson and Halldorsson (2002, p. 37) state that selling directly to the consumers enables the consumer save. However there may be challenges and inefficiency when it comes to direct distribution from the manufacturer to the consumer. Retailers and the wholesalers make distribution efficient. The customers can get the products at a convenient location.
Carter and Narasimhan (1996, p. 13) indicate that the consumers can buy small quantities of the product as opposed to buying in bulk. Customers can obtain a variety of products from a retailer as opposed to getting a specific product from one store, then move to the other store for another product.
The stores with variety are also located close to the consumer. On the other hand, the customer buying directly from the manufacturer travels a long distance to obtain one product. Intermediaries such as wholesalers make deliveries to retailers with products from different companies. They save on the cost that would have been used in the delivery of individual goods.
Before a product is known by the consumers, the distribution is likely to be slow. Later on as the product is known, the distribution is expected to grow steadily. When the distribution of a particular good is diverted, the market is affected.
Possible solutions for Pepsi Cola International For economic development to occur, the senior management should consider engaging in research to view possible ways of dealing with the challenges. The senior management policies should be in line with the changes in society as Bruce (1995, p. 230) suggests.
According to Fugate et al (2008, p. 2), understanding the market trends and environment enables the top management to make plans that will enhance distribution of a product. With the understanding of the market trends, it is possible to make strategic plans and implement them.
Transportation and infrastructure
Increasing efficiency while saving on cost is an effective way of solving transport challenges. The company can use own trucks and employ drivers, who would manage the distribution. The drivers will keep record and make necessary arrangements to reach the remote parts and deliver Pepsi products. The driver, as part of the human resource management, can get training on customer relations and increase knowledge. During winter, the concentrate can be kept at the right temperature to prevent cases of freezing.
If the government improves infrastructure, the road network will be efficient and products can be delivered. Development can be encouraged to improve infrastructure in warehouses and storage. The channel can be integrated to reduce the long distribution channels and enhance distribution of the product. The Company can purchase forklifts to assist in loading trucks (Srivastava et al 1999, p. 168).
Rutner and Fawcett (2005, p. 56) argue that distribution of a product is one of the most important processes in a business. Distribution of a product consists of moving a product from the manufacturing company to the ultimate consumer. Consumers determine what retailers will stock. The retailers stock what the consumers ask for.
The retailers give a large shelf space to products that are known to consumers. The retailers fail to stock new or less prominent products to avoid a situation where customers do not buy the product. Retailers have confidence in products that have sold before. Marketing and advertising can be done to encourage more buyers, so that retailers stock Pepsi products.
Channels of distribution
When distributing, the business can adopt a multichannel distribution that will allow for planning using data. The use of catalogues, field sales, trade counters, pricing offers, call centers, mailing lists, websites and trade shows is significant. While distributing, the distributers can use one system to control different channels.
This will reduce the challenges posed by different catalogues for different clients. Creating own ware house will increase efficiency, reduce costs and enable distribution. Customer’s service is important and retailers, as well as distributors, should consider fulfilling the needs of the customer.
Stern (1997, p. 14) notes that the manufacturer has the challenge of ensuring that the product is available all the time. Customers move to another brand when their prefer brand is not available. A number of customers will not move to the next retail shop to obtain their preferred brand and would rather settle for a different. Some manufacturers may be selective and choose their distributer if the product is designed for a classy store.
Market research is an important practice that Pepsi Cola International can adopt. The management is involved in conducting research and making changes where necessary. Research will enable the senior management make informed decisions (Mentzer 2001, p. 19).
Gundlach et al (2006, p. 430) suggests that the product should be availed all the time close to the consumer to ensure that the customer gets the product they desire. The competitors pose a threat if their products are available, since consumers go for another product if their preferred product is not available.
Business operators can be encouraged to take risks and invest for long periods. They can also be encouraged to follow standards business protocols. They can make appropriate decision on the new location to venture in and ensure that select the best distributers. Coming up with a strategy on marketing will assist them stay ahead of their competitor. Flexibility in the business plan will enable the business make changes when necessary and avoid delayed decision making.
The channels and structures in distribution are largely dependent on the type of product, demand, location of customers and environmental factors. Manufacturers require the product to be in as many retail shops as possible. They also need the retailer to have the specific products that customers need. In Pepsi Cola, they would require the retailer to have different flavors of the soft drinks so that the customers choose their favorite flavor.
Lambert et al (2005, p. 49) adds that pricing of a product positions a product in the market, is a competitive tool and brings revenue to the company. Changes in price may bring resistance and affects sales and thus, companies need to make appropriate decisions.
The prices should remain at reasonable rates. This can be achieved by creating efficiency in the distribution of product. The reduction of the number intermediaries can be reduced so that the prices do not remain high (Perner 2011).
McNamara (2011, p. 1) says that the manufacturing companies can implement price control by recommending the retail price. The prices should be low and should not be below the cost of production. Large discounts should be given to bottling companies, only if the bulk buying enables the manufacturing company to save on cost.
The behavior of customers towards pricing is important to understand consumer behavior on price. Some customers compare prices and when prices change, they buy products at close rate as before. Where there is little difference between competitive products, the consumer has a perception that the product is better and therefore the prices can be increased (Ballo, 2011).
The distribution trends have changed recently. The prices of commodities have increased and sometimes decreased with different pricing as the quality diversifies. The global slowdown has also affected the sales of products. Changes to accommodate change should be adopted as Gerth (2004, p. 1) notes.
Conclusion Pepsi cola international has operated in Ukraine for two centuries. The challenges are transportation and infrastructure. The port is congested and needs expansion to accommodate cargo. Accumulation of cargo leads to consumption of time before the cargo is released. Concentrate is transported on poor roads and railway.
There is increased burglary on the roads. The cost of fuel is also high. Warehouse and stores are not readily available. There is need for additional forklifts. Distribution of Pepsi products is another challenge. Distribution is done via roads and trains, which are unreliable. Truck drivers are not employed by the Pepsi cola company hence; coordination of demand and supply becomes a challenge.
The channels are long since the manufacturer sells to the bottler, then the wholesaler, then retailers and then the customer. The business environment is challenging. Coca Cola Company has established itself since 1995 and poses competition. There is uncertainty in political and financial processes. Business men keep two records of accounts. Pricing is challenging since there is a long chain in the distribution.
The economic slowdown has also affected businesses. To overcome the challenges, policies that enhance economic development can be adopted. The senior management should also engage in research to discover the market trends and developments, which can be adopted to enhance operation and increase efficiency.
Owning trucks and training staff can increase the sales and distribute to the city and remote areas. Ware houses can be built to increase safe storage. The product should be available all the time. Investment can be encouraged. The price should be able to give revenues and be affordable to the consumer.
Reference List Aldin, N.,
Bostic, B., (2014). Does social media perpetuate youth violence? [web log post]. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center. Retrieved from http://yvpc.sph.umich.edu/social-media-perpetu custom essay help
, (2014). Does social media perpetuate youth violence? [web log post]. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center. Retrieved from http://yvpc.sph.umich.edu/social-media-perpetuate-youth-violence/ (Links to an external site.).
Read the above article, in 1-2 pages, answer the following: Does the media perpetuate youth violence? If so, how? How has it changed over time?
Human Resource: performance evaluation systems in organization Case Study best essay help
The performance evaluation system of Maple leaf shoes is so ineffective hence affecting the overall performance of the company. Performance evaluation system must be one which creates motivational opportunities to employees. What happens in Maple leaf shoes is discouraging to workers.
More than 75% of company’s employee had negative feelings about the system. This means that many workers are not satisfied with the manner in which they get assessed. Supervisors fail to meet their obligations by not conducting the assessment process as expected. It is said that some supervisors fill in appraisal forms in three minutes. In fact, there is no way an employee can be assessed in three minutes. This shows negligence among supervisors in doing their work.
The company’s management also has played a role in poor assessment. This is because actions are not taken to reflect employees’ performance. Since no promotions are effected based on the assessment reports, supervisors consider the assessment as a useless exercise. As a result, they fill in the assessment forms just to amuse their bosses but not for the best of the company.
I would recommend that supervisors receive thorough training in order to understand the essence of carrying out employee assessment. Then management should take actions depending on the reports drafted from the appraisal forms. For example, performers should be rewarded by either promotion or monetary gifts.
Those not performing well should also be involved in discussing their performance, and this can help identify their areas of weakness. Once the weak points are identified management can provide possible solutions hence increasing employees’ performance. The system of assessing employee performance should be restructured to ensure that employees accept the outcomes. When these changes are implemented, employees can enjoy healthy working relationships hence giving their best to the company.
For the case of Canadian Pacific and International Bank, a 360 degrees performance evaluation system has been faced with opposition from some section of managers. If I were in Mary Keddy’s position, I would work with the managers supporting the system to pull the rest into supporting it.
The first step is to engage middle managers in a discussion regarding the new performance system. Make them understand the benefits of successful 360 degrees performance evaluation systems. The managers should be allowed to air their fears about the new system and then all issues discussed. She should make sure that all fears raised are satisfactorily addresses and then together with the managers they should lay down strategies for implementation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next step should be training employees on how to evaluate their seniors and their fellow colleagues in the right direction. This ensures that backstabbing is not given a chance in the process of evaluation hence concentrating on areas suited for the best of the company. Since this system involves everybody in the company evaluating their colleagues, managers and their juniors, the evaluation forms should be guided by the human resource representatives.
For example, questionnaires meant for evaluating managers should contain areas which concerns performance. This helps control circumstances where workers may be bitter with their supervisors and would like to express all their feelings on the evaluation form. After everyone is convinced about the introduction of the new evaluation plan, Mary can proceed and introduce the evaluation system in the company. She should give details of when assessment will be done and make sure everybody takes part in the process.
Effects of Music in Advertising Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Literature review
Music has been recognized as a powerful stimulus affecting people’s mood and even health since times immemorial. Realizing the potential of using the music elements in advertizing for affecting the consumers’ perception and purchasing behavior, marketers use music in supermarkets and as a background feature in commercials.
The findings of the latest empirical studies have revealed a positive relationship between the use of music elements, concentration of attention and proper perception and interpretation of commercial messages by consumers. The music in the supermarkets created favorable mood in the consumers and encouraged them to make purchases.
Taking into account the findings of the previous researches, this study will conduct semi-structured interviews and test the hypothesis whether there is a positive relationship between the uses of music elements in advertisements and their brand preferences and purchasing decisions.
Literature review Modern marketers view music as an important background feature which can be effectively used for enhancing the viewers’ arousal and effects produced by advertisements.
Even though most consumers denied the impact of music upon their brand preferences, the findings of empirical studies have shown that there are significant differences in the brand attitudes, purchase decisions and emotional responses of viewers to the advertisements of music and non-music groups (1). The results of experiments conducted by Gorn have shown that pleasant music, humor and attractive colors are important background features which can influence the consumers’ perceptions and attitudes (1).
Even though Gorn’s experiments were criticized by other scholars, the conclusions regarding appeal of music upon viewers remained unchanged. Kellaris and Cox who replicated Gorn’s experiments admitted that his findings could have been influenced by demand artifacts (2).
However, Gorn’s premise regarding the positive relationship between product choice and music appeal was not disclaimed. Additionally, Kellaris and Cox measured the strength of different unconditioned stimuli by using different sets of classical and popular music but did not receive any significant differences in results (2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A more in-depth investigation of music characteristics and their impact upon the consumer’s emotional responses, brand awareness and purchasing decisions was conducted by Park and Young (3). Assuming that music can activate the brain and affect the mood of t listeners, the researchers attempted to develop a complex taxonomy of music elements, including tempo, pitch, texture and duration and their impact upon individuals’ emotional reactions.
The findings of empirical research have demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between the music tempo and its emotional appeal to listeners (3). Particularly, music with low pitch can arouse the emotions of sadness in listeners, whereas the music with high pitch can be associated with happiness.
Louder music is interpreted as a mood of happiness, and soft music is attributed to the seriousness of the message. Therefore, consumers view the content of the commercial message through the lens of the overall mood of the advertisement that depends upon the tempo and volume of the background music. The maximum effect can be achieved if pleasant music is used as a background melody (3).
Success of a commercial in creating brand awareness and influencing the consumers’ purchasing decisions depends upon a wide array of factors, including the visual elements, major message, music, humor and others. However, as it can be seen from the findings of the recent studies, the use of music can be effective for concentrating the consumers’ attention and creating a positive image of the advertized brand.
Berger and Mitchell concluded that auditory persuasion in the form of pleasant background music plays an important role in communicating the key message of the commercial to the target audience (4).
It is possible to use popular hits to draw the consumers’ attention or unknown melodies created specially for the commercial which can become recognizable and associated with a particular brand in the course of the repetition of the advertisement in the media. Consumers tend to recall more details from advertisements using background music as compared to those without music (1).
Research method A semi-structured interview was conducted with eight college students for the purpose of establishing a relationship between the use of music background and their mood and brand preferences if any. The structure of the interview was flexible, and the questions were open-ended and enabled the participants to express their personal opinions and attitudes.
We will write a custom Essay on Effects of Music in Advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main objectives of this study included the investigation of the influence of music upon he consumers’ purchasing decision and brand attitudes and individuals’ acceptance of this influence. The participants were asked a series of questions regarding their attitudes towards commercials in general, their favorite advertisement and least preferred advertisement.
A convenient sampling was used for selecting the participants for this research. The interviews were conducted in the form of a friendly conversation, but the participants were informed on the purpose of study and gave their consent for participation.
Research findings Most of the interviewees denied the influence of the background features upon their brand preferences and purchasing behavior. Seven of eight participants claimed that they try to overcome the influence of marketing measures and make informed choices. When asked directly, participants admitted that the background features such as pleasant music and humor in the commercial cannot influence their attitudes to a particular brand, not to mention their purchasing behavior.
Describing their favorite commercials, six of the interviewees attempted to reproduce the songs or background melodies used in the advertisement. The remaining two participants could not say for sure if there was music in their favorite advertisement. When checked, it was cleared out that the favorite commercials of the participants, who hesitated whether there was music in the advertisement or not, contained background music.
The interviewees could recall a lot of details contained in these commercials and demonstrated a profound understanding of the key message of the advertisement.
Moreover, the attitude of the interviewees to the advertized brands was positive. However, the interviewees emphasized the importance of the quality of products upon their attitudes and denied the effect produced by the background features. Eight interviewees admitted that modern commercials using pleasant music and humor do not irritate them and can have a positive impact upon their mood.
Discussing the least preferred commercial, the interviewees pointed out at the main features irritating them. Among the traits having a negative impact upon the consumers’ perception was shameless self-promotion of certain brands and banality of the commercial message.
Therefore, most of the least preferred commercials were based on the mere statements of the advantages offered by particular brands and belonged to a non-music group. The participants could not recall specific details of the advertisements not using music as a background feature. Additionally, four participants admitted that they were irritated with songs used in one of the commercials, saying that it was getting on their nerve every tine they heard it.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of Music in Advertising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Discussion Analyzing the research findings, it can be stated that the participants deny the impact of background music upon their perception of the commercial message, not to mention their brand preferences and purchasing decisions. These answers clearly demonstrate that present day sophisticated consumers are aware of the marketers’ efforts to influence their perceptions and make attempts to resist this influence.
However, taking into account the fact that all of the most preferred commercials mentioned by the respondents contained music elements and interviewees could recall the slightest details of those commercials, it can be stated that there is a positive relationship between the use of background music in the commercial and the viewers’ emotional responses to the commercial and understanding of the main message of the advertisement.
Music became an integral element of the commercials because even not been asked to, most of the interviewees made attempts to reproduce the melodies and songs used in their favorite commercials. There is a strong association between a particular brand and music used in the advertisement.
As a background feature, music affects the listeners’ mood and concentrates their attention because all of the interviewees could recall specific details of the advertisements belonging to the music group. Regarding those participants who were not certain about the use of background music in their favorite advertisements, this peculiarity can be explained with the specifics of their individual perception of information and the preferred mode of communication.
Additionally, even though these respondents did not notice the presence of background music, they were able to reproduce the rest of details of the plot and the main message of the commercials. Therefore, the music elements can remain unnoticed but still have impact upon the consumers’ perceptions and attitudes.
Regarding the least preferred commercials, it can be stated that most of them belonged to non-music group. Though the music elements are widely used in modern marketing, the instances of non-music commercials can still be found in the media. Though the interviewees pointed out at shameless self-promotion and banality of the message as the main features they disliked about the least preferred commercials, there is a relationship between the lack of the music background and the consumers’ negative attitude towards it.
Additionally, some of the least preferred commercials contained music elements which however irritated the listeners causing their dissatisfaction. Therefore, music elements can become a powerful tool in producing an impression which can be either positive or negative. In that regard, bearing in mind the potential influence of this choice, marketers should be careful in selecting the most appropriate tunes for their commercials and deciding between well-known and unfamiliar songs (4).
Analyzing the brand preferences of the interviewees in their relation to the commercials and the use of background music in them, it can be stated that there is a positive relationship between the use of music as a background feature in advertisements and the consumers’ purchasing decisions.
Event though the vast majority of the participants of the study emphasized their objectivity in making purchasing decisions and denied the impact of particular advertisements and their elements upon their attitudes and behaviors, most of them agreed that they appreciate the quality of the products produced by the brands advertized in their preferred commercials.
Thus, the consumers’ purchasing decisions depend upon a wide range of influential factors, and music used in advertizing can have a significant impact upon their mood and perception of the main message of the commercial and contribute to their awareness and positive attitude towards the advertized brands and their products.
Conclusion Analyzing the results of the semi-structured interviews in their relation to the findings of the previous studies, it can be concluded that there is a positive relationship between the use of music as a background feature in advertisements and the consumers’ brand preferences and purchasing decisions.
Regardless of the fact that most of the participants denied the impact of music in commercials upon their attitudes and brand preferences, it can be stated that music is a powerful tool affecting the consumers’ mood, perception and impression from particular commercials and advertized brands and products. Taking into account the potential impact of music elements, marketers should be careful in selecting the tunes and songs for particular commercials.
References 1. Gorn GJ. The effects of music in advertising on choice behavior: a classical conditioning approach. The Journal of Marketing. 1982 winter; 46(1):94-101.
2. Kellaris JJ, Cox AD. The effects of background music in advertising: a reassessment. Journal of Consumer Research. 1989 Jun;16(1):113-18.
3. Park CW, Young SM. Consumer response to television commercials: the impact of involvement and background music on brand attitude formation. Journal of Marketing Research. 1986 Feb; 23 (1): 11-24.
4. Berger IE, Mitchell AA. The effect of advertising on attitude accessibility, attitude confidence, and the attitude behavior relationship. Journal of Consumer Research. 1989 Dec; 16 (3): 269-279.
Interest Groups Essay essay help
Interest groups are alliance of persons with shared common interests resolute on persuading public policy in their favour. This non-profit advocacy groups enjoy federal tax exemption under the 501(c) (3) edict and discounted mailing charges. The rules however prohibit interest groups from active politics however, the 20 percent rule allows them spend a maximum 20 percent of their budget on advocacy and unlimited funds on lobbying.
The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) started in 1871 during the Civil War in New York; is one of the most powerful interest groups with 4.3 million members. Along with the Gun Owners of America (GOA) they form the Gun Lobby pressure group, advocating for gun ownership as a civil right. They have vast influence on lawmakers in Washington ensuring firearms rights are not interfered with by opposing groups.
Based on the Second Amendment of the Bill of Rights, the gun lobby interest group has successfully fended off anti-gun lobbyists arguing that every American has a right of gun ownership, self-protection and hunting rights. Despite efforts by elected officials to tame the groups, lobbyists always prevail.
Lobbyists exert their influence in the US Congress through committees and subcommittees where most of the legislation is deliberated prior to the enactment of bills. Failing to consult these groups will mean the bill stands little chance of passage within Congress.
The NRA has effectively forestalled the restriction of gun permit issuance for concealed armaments with only seven states managing to pass the laws. Similarly, gun lobbyists have gone to court in jurisdictions like Washington, D.C. with strict gun control laws and managed to overturn bans on gun ownership.
NRA successfully opposed the reintroduction of the Federal Assault Weapons Ban of 1994 advocated by gun control lobby when it expired in 2004. During the Katrina disaster, the gun lobbyists opposed the confiscation of guns actively lobbying for legislation in Louisiana Act 275 and the Federal sponsored Disaster Recovery Personal Protection Act of 2006 that prohibited confiscation of legal weapons from citizens.
The NRA along with other gun lobbyists has effectively advanced its programs due to ability in funding federal and state candidates supporting their causes. They thus opposed the repeal of the Tiahrt Amendment seeking to trace firearms used by criminals to dealers. In 2005, NRA took the City of San Francisco, California, to court for passing legislation “Proposition H” that enacted an almost total gun ban for overstepping their mandate; and successfully reversing the ban when the court upheld this assertion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The gun lobby groups defence of rights to firearms remains one of the most controversial and polarising campaign issues with the two main national political parties either supporting or opposing the group. The gun lobby normally supports the Republican Party but is fervently opposed by the Democrats who accuse the interest group of encouraging gun violence.
Thus NRA and the gun lobby endorsed Ronald Reagan for presidency in 1980 while in 1994, there ruthless onslaught on House Speaker Tom Foley and Congressman Jack Brooks led to defeats in long held seats.
The influence of interest groups and their lobbyists on politics and the government has continued to plague the US administrations for centuries. The ability of the gun lobby group to block legislation that does not favour their interests exemplifies the pervasive power of these pressure groups as selfish interests override the public good. There is therefore an urgent need to curb their ascendancy.
How children of incarcerated parents are affected Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction When parents are incarcerated, children tend to face difficulties associated with the lack of close relationship with their parents. As a result, some of these children face trauma due to the separation. Other problems include anger, depression, fear and anxiety. Incarceration also leads to a cause where the child is moved from one care giver to another, which results to behavior change among them.
The problem is more severe when the children’s mothers are incarcerated, because the relationship between them is broken. At times, these children result in failure to withdraw emotionally, and some even fail to go to school. At the time of arrest, policemen do not care to ask about the children’s fate, or what they are going to do with their lives once they lose their parents to incarceration.
The same can be said about the judges and agencies involved in correction, because normally, no one raises these questions. The fact that there are no many agencies involving themselves in collection of this information means that there is unclear knowledge of the number of children who face this problem. The importance of families and parents is undeniable as at times, it affects the social goals, and is a preventive measure of delinquency behaviors among children.
The purpose of the study The number of children who have their parents incarcerated as per report released in the recent years shows an alarming number. In year 2007, it was estimated the children who had their parents incarcerated was over 1.7 million, which represented about 2.3 percent of all the children population in America.
Between years 1991 to year 2007, it is estimated that the number of children who had parents incarcerated increased by 77 percent (Christian, 2009). During the same year, the percentage increased in mothers, which was about 131 percent. This paper tends to look at the effects those children who have incarcerated parent’s face, and provides a solution to improve the situation of these children.
Hypothesis H (0) Children of incarcerated parents are affected by incarceration of their parents.
H (1) Children of incarcerated parents are not affected by incarceration of their parents.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature review Race and age of the children
The data obtained from the reports released in 2007 had a relationship between the race and the age of the children. The report is also clear to show there lacks relationship between the incarcerated parents and race in reference to mothers. The incarcerated parents of white children showed that in every 1 child whose parent was incarcerated, there were 110 of the white population who were not.
Half of the children that had their parents incarcerated were 9 years or below, while thirty two percent of them were between the years 10 -14 years. The rest of the percentage was between years 15- 17 years (Council of Justice, 2006).
Incarceration of the parents affects almost all the aspects of life of the child left behind. It affects the emotional behavior and the overall behavior of the child. When researching about the effects of incarceration on children, it is usually hard to know whether the way the child turns out to be is due to consequences of incarceration of the parent. Sometimes, the effects of the children may be due to certain things that happened before the child was incarcerated.
It may range from previous mistreatment of children, in case the parents were using drugs or alcohol, or if the parents were suffering from mental illness. Since most researchers do not consider most of these risks that exist before the parents are incarcerated, it is usually very hard to know the effects of incarceration on children.
Though there is no empirical evidence to support some of these claims, it is claimed that children whose parents have been incarcerated have six times likelihood of being incarcerated in future. Some studies have also been keen to show that incarceration has only an independent effect on the behavior of the child, the academic performance as well as the health of the child.
The way the child is going to be affected by incarceration of the parent is usually affected by various factors. Among these factors include: the living arrangement before incarceration of the parent, the degree by which the parent was involved in the life of the child before incarceration, the age of the children, the gender of the child, to mention but a few. The factors discussed below express the level of effect on children due to incarceration of their parents.
Living arrangement before incarceration
According to the data acquired from the justice system, about half of the children whose parents had been incarcerated were living with their parents a month or just some time before the incarceration take place. Also, about a half of the children whose parents were incarcerated were being financially supported by the parents before they were incarcerated.
We will write a custom Research Paper on How children of incarcerated parents are affected specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another seventy percent of the mothers who were incarcerated were caregivers to their children before they were incarcerated. However, only about twenty six percent of the children were receiving daily care from their fathers. According to this data which was obtained, it was evident the parents had a great involvement in the lives of their children before they were incarcerated.
They did this through living with them, providing them with daily care, as well as providing financial support to them. The results from the data showed there was a considerable number of children who were living with one parent who was later incarcerated (Simmons, 2007).
For those children who were living with a single parent after incarceration, their living arrangement completely changed. Due to incarceration, there is also a very high likelihood of existence of financial hardship, especially if the parent was involved in taking care of the child. The resultant of this is that the standard of living of the children is likely to fall when the provider is no longer there to provide financial support he/she used to offer.
On the same point of economic strain, the household is also likely to bring about instability as there is likelihood of moves which may become often. The health development is also likely to be affected. Poor development of the child is likely to come about due to family instability, which comes about due to incarceration of the parent.
Children who are living in stable households with concerned caregivers usually end up with better behavior than the children who are living in a family facing instability. Foster care causes several risks to children who have their parents being incarcerated. There is a risk of a loss of connection to school and community due to having the children not being close to their parents.
The bureau of Justice Statistics shows that for every parent who is incarcerated, there is another parent who takes care of these children. The biggest numbers of children who are left behind are left with the grandparents, and this accounts about fifteen percent.
Incarcerated parents contact with Children
When contact is kept between the incarcerated parent and the child, it is of a benefit to both the child and the parent. Although there is little evidence to prove that visits by the children to their parents when they are incarcerated is beneficial to the children, it would be generally important to ensure that a relationship exists.
Research indicates that maintaining the relationships where the child visits the parent when he/she is incarcerated ensures that there is a successful reunion between the two when the parent is released.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How children of incarcerated parents are affected by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Further, the research shows that there is likelihood of post-release success when the parent is released and a parole violation lows when the relationship between the child and the parent is maintained after the parent is incarcerated. Research also shows that about seventy seven percent of the parents had some contact between the parent and the child (Christian,2009).
However, there were certain barriers, which were brought about that reduced the contact in existence. One of such policies is the correction policy, which is in existence. Though the officials who run the correction centers campaign for existence of these visits, security concerns usually minimize these visits.
The correction officers usually ask the people including children for birth certificate to prove that they are the biological children of these parents. Prisons also tend to charge high rates, which are not usually affordable to some of these parents, and at times discourage the visit by children to their parents.
Unfriendliness of the prison environment is the other thing that leads to a lack of existence of relationship between parents and children. Some of the incorporated things that can be considered unfriendly include: frisking of the people visiting the incarcerated, rude treatment by some of the officers, the dirt which is in some of these places, and also the fact that these activities involve children.
Other effects of incarceration of the parent
As earlier noted, incarceration of the parent causes emotional behavior change in the children. However, these are not only the effects that occur to these children. Other problems result from the child welfare law which has been put into practice. The law severely affects the relationship between the parent and the child due to the actions of these agencies. The safe family act of 1997 calls for petition in case one of the children is abandoned.
The act may result in a scenario where the rights of the parents are terminated to the child if there is a proof of the child being abandoned, or the child being in foster care for about 15 months (Christian,2009). Though this act exists, there is an exception to it in case the care giver’s role of the child is left for a relative, and when termination of these rights is not in the best interest of the child.
Methodology According to the hypotheses put across, it is clear that incarceration of the parent has effects to the children massively. To start with, there is a loss of the parent-child relationship that is necessary for better growth of a child. The fact that there are acts which ensure children who do not have their parents around them are likely to be put for adoption or taken care by foster homes does not make it any better. Incarceration alone does not constitute to denial of rights of the parent.
The loss of child rights to children due to incarceration comes about due to certain factors that are inclusive of the following: The length of the time that the parent will be incarcerated, whether there is provision of the required child care services, the relationship between the parent and the child as well as whether the incarceration of the parent is often.
The effects of children due to incarceration do not end just because the parent gets out of prison. Even though the child is united with the parent, the problems do not end there. The challenges that come about are both internal and external to rebuild the time that was already lost during incarceration (Jarvis, 2007). At this time, life may become hard as the parent has to look for a job and provision of housing and health care for the child/children.
Since at the time of incarceration the parent was not earning anything, there is usually of a likelihood of existences of debts that may need to be cleared once the parent is out of jail. Other financial needs may include child support arrears, criminal fines and penalties that may need to be paid to the courts.
Children may also face the difficult of re-entry of the prisoner; in this case, it may be stressful. Children may at that time have formed relationship with other parent figures who may be even relatives or other individuals in the society.
At times, these people may be reluctant in allowing rekindling of the relationship which existed between the child and the parent before incarceration. The resultant of this is destabilization of the family, which at this time is time, may be fragile in nature. The threat is even more if the parent in question is among the violent ones, as the child might live with that fear.
Stigma and a feeling of shame also tend to exist among the children whose parents have faced incarceration. People tend to relate the crime the child did to him/her, and tend to treat these children as crime offenders (Harris, 2010). To say the least, these children can only be victims of the crimes the parents were involved in.
Treating these children as criminals is not fair at all to them. In turn, there are even cases where these children feel ashamed of the actions of their parents. The shame may even be more if the child is the victim of the crime committed by the parent. At times, this results to lack of self-esteem of these children and takes a lot of encouragement to regain it.
Conclusion There are so many challenges that affect children whose parents have been incarcerated. The effect is more if the child was very close to the parent, or if the parent was single. At times, matters of the law come in as the parent is likely to lose the rights he/she has of the child, in case the time of incarceration is long.
Depending on the age of these children, it is important to put into consideration the best interest of the child so that whatever decision is arrived at, it may be aimed at providing the child with the best care available. When the parent is released from jail, the challenges do not end there.
Some children find it hard to deal with their parents due to the fact that they might have grown away from their parents. Since some children may not be in a position to cope with this, it is important to derive a coping mechanism that seeks to make it easy for children whose parents have been incarcerated. It would be therefore necessary to find mentoring programs which aim at ensuring that the children get all the motivation they need in improving the relationship between them and their parents.
Support and encouragement should be also be incorporated in the lives of these children to make sure they are improved from the state they are in. There is also a need to have an adult who believes in the strength of the child in quest to ensure that the child’s self-esteem is maintained. Helping the children cope may also be better if they maintained a relationship with their parents when incarcerated.
There is a need to the connection between the child and the parent for easier re-entry of the parent in the child’s life. It is therefore necessary that since most of the decisions about the children welfare are made in courts, the children are given a family oriented set up.
References Christian, S. (2009). Children of Incarcerated Parents. National conference of State legislators. Pp 1-7.
Council of Justice. (2006). Children of Incarcerated Parents. Council on Crime and Justice. Pp 8-16.
Harris, Y. R. (2010). Children of incarcerated parents: theoretical, developmental, and clinical issues. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Jarvis, A. (2007). Children of incarcerated parents: An application of the stress process model. Texas: ProQuest.
Simmons, C. (2000). Children of Incarcerated Parents. California State Library. Sacramento, CA: Carlifornia Research Bureau. Pp 9-13.
Egypt and Canada Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
The international community embraces presence of laws that protect people’s ideas, patents, copyrights trade secrets and plagiarism trademarks. Egypt and Canada are not an exception to these laws and are also bound to register the applications by their citizens protecting their intellectual properties against people who may use them to benefit themselves economically.
Unlike Egypt, the government of Canada developed rules pertaining the protection of intellectual property in 1985; this was seven years prior to formulation of laws dealing with intellectual property in Egypt. In both these countries, protection of patents is similar in reference to the period a patent lasts.
A patent lasts 20 years after application after which it is let out to the general public and anyone who wishes to use that work to benefit publicly can do so (Kaphahn, 2009). However, registration in Canada for a patent requires the patent holder to prove that the patent has three characteristics. For one, the work must be a novel. The focus here is on the detail of the invention in question and the seriousness it contains.
The patent should also not be obvious. Special skills are needed to create the object or the thing that needs to be patent, and anything that anyone can come up with cannot be patented. Finally, the thing that is to be awarded a patent needs to have utility. The basic meaning of this is that that thing needs to be able to satisfy a want (Zvulony, 2002).
Copyright registration in these two countries protects the reputation as well as the good will that is attached to the products or the services that are being offered. However, though there is full protection of the goods or services provided, a clause that allows usage of part of the work exists (Kaphahn, 2009). For example, a book a fair dealing clause is in provision. It allows people to partially use the original work and it entirely falls on education bases.
The positioning of these two countries geographically provides an almost similar ways of transport. The main means of transport in these two countries is by road, by rail by water and by air. However, there is a big difference when it comes to the quality of the services in provision in the countries.
When it comes to the road network, Egypt has a notably badly maintained network, while the same cannot be said about the road network in Canada. There was massive investment in the road network after the Second World War in Canada. Due to the fact that it is one of the most competitive means of transport in Canada, especially in short distance, it is well maintained. Development of air transport is also very different countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While Egypt may have three major air ports, Canada on the other hand has a staggering 515 airports. The rail network is also available in these two countries. Notable about these two countries in reference to the rail transport is the fact that it is not a common means of transport and is mainly used in transporting of commodities and goods to different regions.
However, the rail network in Canada in more developed than the one in Egypt, which is even aging. The two countries also have water transport as part of their transport systems. The networks in these two regions are found in their big rivers as well as the lakes found in the countries.
As earlier noted, the two countries enjoy transportation of both people and products within and outside their borders. When it comes to transportation of cargo goods in and outside these two countries as a requirement there needs to be an insurance cover that is meant to compensate for any perils that occur during transportation. Each mode of transport has its own insurance coverage that covers any risk that may come about.
The premiums that are paid to these insurance companies are to the respect of the risk that is likely to be encountered when goods are in transit. However, variable and precious goods or jewelry have their portion of premium, which is notably higher than any of the other goods that are covered about by the insurance policy.
The distance that needs to be covered while transporting the cargo in question is also a big contributor to the amount of premium that needs to be paid to the insurance companies. Furthermore, the authorities in these two countries have a provision that is meant to bid those companies that are involved in transportation to ensure that they confirm their transit carriers, so as to avoid any complications in terms of payment, in case there is occurrence of risks.
Egypt and Canada share similarities when it comes to matters of Trade documentation requirements. Such similarities are evident when it comes to releasing of goods from the custom department. Certain documents need to be there for the goods to be released from the ports. Among these documents is the bill of landing.
The information that is contained in this document should be such that it should be corresponding to other documents like the invoices and the way the goods are packaged. Certificate of origin also forms the other type of document that need to be present before the imports are released from the ports (Zaki, 2005).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Egypt and Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The importance of the certificate of origin is to ensure that certain information is contained. Among the type of information that may be contained include the following: the weight of the goods in question, the full address of the country and the company that manufactures the goods. Similarity in these two countries extend even when it comes to exportation of the goods.
An export card is required in both countries, which is issued by the ministry that is concerned with imports and exports, for example the ministry of industries when it comes to Egypt. Taxation card is also a requirement when it comes to the two countries. The importance of this card is to ensure that taxation is carried out for any imports brought about in the country and the right amount charged. Other trading documents needed when carrying out trading in these countries is the insurance certificate.
Both countries highlight on the importance of having insurance, especially when it comes to importers (Porter, 2011). Pro-Forma invoice is also important and a requirement, and comes in four copies. Among the contents is the country that the goods originated from the quantity, as well as the price charged on the goods. The type of commodity that is being traded as well as value of the commodity in foreign currency is also a requirement.
However, there is a difference on the way valuables are treated in both countries. While not special attention is paid to them in Canada, Egypt has such a policy that highlight on the importance of stating valuables like jewelry and electronics. In fact, failure to do so may lead to a scenario where the valuables may be confiscated awaiting charges on why the goods were not stated.
Regulations regarding foods are also common in the two countries. The policies are put in place in protection of health matters. Such policies are put into place to ensure that there is no food that is advertised or sold to the general public, which is poisonous in nature or in case it contains harmful components.
Foods that are manufactured or packaged in facilities that are not sanitary friendly are also not fit for advertisement, and selling the same to people is prohibited. Agricultural chemicals are necessary for growth of some of the agricultural products, which further constitutes food. However, both countries highlight on the importance of ensuring that the set standards on the maximum number of chemicals food products should contained is maintained.
The standards that the chemicals used in agricultural food products should be contained are set out by the authorities and should be limited to a certain maximum level. Further, the two countries share opinions when it comes to advertising and provision of foods, which are packaged in such a way that they cause misleading impressions to the general public. Misleading information in this case is inclusive of erroneous values, quantity and the components of the products.
The laws are also similar to the ones concerning foods when it comes to drugs. Any misleading and deceptive information is discouraged and there are laws put in place to ensure that such does not happen. Deceptive information includes information that gives untrue information about the value of the drugs, the components of the drugs as well as the safety standards incorporated in manufacturing of the products.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Egypt and Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Drugs that are also packaged in a sanitary unpleasant area and drugs that are unpackaged in a sanitary unpleasant area are also prohibited from being sold in both the countries. Packaging as well as advertising of drugs that do not meet the standard set out by the authorities is also prohibited in these two countries.
The laws of the two countries also against any advertising that is meant to cause a mistake of the substances that are used in the manufacture of these drugs.
Sanitary conditions are also required to be observed when packaging these drugs, and if these drugs have been packaged in conditions that do not meet these drugs, then they are not presumed fit to be advertised, leave alone being sold for consumptions. Distribution of drugs that are meant to be samples is not also allowed in any of these countries, as it is required that the right standards for the drugs should be there for them to qualify to be sold or advertised.
The government of the day is an important player when it comes to protection of the consumers of the product that are put in the market by the various firms and organizations in the country. Egypt and Canada are also actively involved in ensuring that the consumers of the products produced locally or imported are protected against from producers and manufacturers who are not genuine in offering their products.
The laws put into place also ensure that the individuals who come across such products report in case they come across such manufacturers. In addition, there is need to ensure that incidents that lead to death or serious incidents get reported to the government to ensure that information is used to promote safety. Further, testing is important in both countries to ensure that only products that fit the set standards are traded.
The two countries also have hard fines and penalties to individuals who fail to comply with the laws set by the authorities (Antario, 2011). The aim of having these fines is to ensure that manufactures abide to the laws laid down, and put the acts set aside as priorities in manufacturing of the goods. Labeling of products should be such that it conforms to the laws that are put across.
Labeling of products which do not fit the standards is forbidden and there is need to ensure that only products of good quality are put in the market for consumption (Antario, 2011). The language that is used is advertising products that are meant for use by general public should be free of errors and should also not be misleading.
Erroneous messages when it comes to advertising are considered breach of laws that ensure there is protection of consumers of the products. In both countries, English is a language that is used to advertise. However, the case is different when it comes to Egypt as Arabic is incorporated in both communicating and advertising the products in the market. The same language is used in defining the rules that concerns protection of the customers.
References Antario, S. (2011). Consumer Protection Act, 2002. Web.
Kaphahn, D. (2009). Understanding Intellectual Property Rights in Egypt. GAT Pp 1-2.
Porter, L. (2011). Transportation in Canada. Web.
Zaki, A. F. (2005). Documentation for customs requirements – egypt. Pp1-2.
Zvulony, G. (2002). Intellectual Property in Canada. Web.
Global economy during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Term Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Specification of an Economic model
What benefits did the globalization affect?
At what costs did the globalization occur?
How did that affect the global economy today?
Globalization is the integration of regional economies through trade by reduction of international trade barriers in order to increase material wealth of the people and improve the economies of the nations through good global relations, competition and specialization. The objective of globalization is to enhance the interdependence, business operations and connectivity on an international level with respect to the socioeconomic, cultural, religion, biological, environmental and scientific aspects (Fiss,
Potential Investment in Georgia Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract Georgia’s economy is emerging from the 2008 internal displacements and is currently being supported by the international community to improve its economy, thus, providing potential investment opportunities to investors. This document discusses investment opportunities in the tourism and agricultural sector in Georgia.
Introduction Agriculture plays a significant role in Georgia’s economy, and according to FAO, Georgia and the Ministry of Agriculture, Georgia, the agriculture sector’s contribution to Georgia’s economy was 12.5% in average 2006-2009 (FAO Georgia 4). On average, the agricultural sector’s contribution to the country’s foreign exchange earnings between 2006 and 2010 was 21% (FAO Georgia 4). Georgia’s tourism sector has also been on the rise recording a 16% increase in 2009 (Georgian National Investment Agency 1).
Agriculture The government acknowledges the importance of agriculture in ensuring food safety and poverty reduction and therefore is investing massive resources and engages in partnerships to promote agriculture in the country. The future of Georgia’s agricultural sector is positive given the country’s lots of fertile soils, subtropical climate, diverse agricultural species (National Investment Agency 2), and support from the international community such as the European Union.
There are several investment opportunities in Georgia’s agricultural sector. Animal production presents a great opportunity for investment in the country. FAO (24) notes that the total meat, milk as well as egg production have declined as compared to the levels recorded in 2009.
In contrast, a new slaughterhouse, IberMeat Geogia, was established in the country in 2010 (FAO Georgia 9). Besides, meat processing enterprises have been established in Kakheti, Gurjaanitwon and in Telavillage funded by the Millenium Challenge Georgia Fund (FAO Georgia 9). These present an opportunity for investing in beef cattle. Again, dairy cattle have been on the decline opening an opportunity for investment in dairy production.
Georgia has also become a member of the Wine World Trade Group opening opportunities for investment in production of vine and wine manufacturing to be exported without additional barriers to the US, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and Argentina (FAO 9). Besides, many agricultural manufacturing plants have been opened or revived to open up associated agricultural activities in the country. These include Sugar plant in Agara, New Nuts Works in Zugdidi and Geoplant tea production in Guria and Samagrelo (FAO 10).
Again, export opportunities for Georgian persimmons, bay oil, and lemonade have been on the rise. Lemonade is currently exported to 14 countries, while persimmons is exported to Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus and Moldova (FAO 12). Georgian Bay Oil is in high demand in Australia (FAO 12). These present investment opportunities in production of bay, lemonade and persimmons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tourism Georgian National Investment Agency (1) reports that there is an increasing interest in the number international tourists who are seeking to experience Georgia’s unspoiled nature as well as quality service. The country has numerous tourism opportunities which include high snow-capped mountains in the Caucasus range, Black Sea’ sub-tropical lushness, hot thermal waters, and nine climate zones which matches the desires of diverse tourists who travel to the countries among other opportunities.
Georgia had more than 1.5 million visitors in 2009, “an increase of 16% compared to 2008” (Georgian National Investment Agency 1), and the number continues to increase. Georgia is ranked as “the most competitive tourism destination country” by the World Economic Forum (Georgian National Investment Agency 1).
Georgian National Investment Agency (1) reports that Georgia’s hotels are becoming crowded and therefore more hotels are needed to accommodate tourists who visit the country. In May this year, a US-based research company, STR global, reported that high-end hotels in Tbilisi “reached 100% occupancy” (Georgian National Investment Agency 1). This presents a great opportunity for investment in Georgia’s tourism infrastructure especially hotels.
Conclusion The agricultural and tourism sector in Georgia provides numerous potential investment opportunities. These two sectors receive the greatest government support which makes them more suitable for investment.
Works Cited FAO, Georgia. Georgia. Agricultural Sector Bulletin Winter 2011. Web.
Georgian National Investment Agency. Hotel occupancy reaches 100% in Tbilisi. Invest Today 4 (June 2011). Web.
National Investment Agency. Panel Discussion
Library Information System Improvement Report (Assessment) essay help online free
Table of Contents Executive Overview
Analysis of the current system
Needs of the new system
Proposed configuration and specifications
Justification for new system
Installation / Implementation Plan
Executive Overview The current situation in business across the globe indicates a major relationship between performance and communication. In this regard it has been observed that to improve business performance there is a major need to improve communication and access to services. The current information system within the institution library is computerized but falls short of requirements of students and staff due to delays in upgrading the service. The current service is supported by a database stored on the library server.
This database is used to locate, book and keep records related to the books in the inventory. However, the system can only be accessed at one point, which is making it especially difficult for students and staff of campus to access books. In addition to that, the books are only in one format which limits the number of users who can access the books.
It has been suggested that if changes were made to allow additional formats of books to be stored on the system, and an increase in access to the library system major both staff and students can benefit significantly from the resources provided by the system. It is for these reasons that this proposal will provide a suitable alternative to the current library system.
Analysis of the current system As it has already been mentioned earlier in the report this proposal seeks to improve the current system in use within the library. The current system used in the library is computer based and serves both students and staff within the library. The system allows information to be stored on various database relations and uses this information to manage the borrowing of books and resources from the library. The records pertaining to students and staff are entered into the system by accessing the main registration database.
When new books arrive they are scanned and entered into the system. The system is also used to identify appropriate rows within the library to arrange the books. When a student/staff comes to the library they can either locate the books on the shelves using the information on the bulletin board or ask the library assistant to help them locate the books. Once they have the books they go to the counter where a library assistant uses their identity card to enter the details of the transaction into the system.
Upon return of the book or other resource to the library the student/staff must visit the library assistant’s counter. The library assistant will use the student/staff identity to enter the completion of the transaction into the system. The system has a mechanism to print out a list of books that are overdue. However, this list is not very useful as the existing system does not allow the library department to communicate with the borrower.
The current system also has a mechanism that is used to calculate fines and penalties for lateness after the due dates have passed. This facility allows the library assistant calculate what payments should be made by students/staff who have over stayed with books or other resources. However, it has again been noted that this facility does not serve the student/staff well as it does not allow for communication between the library and the student/staff in question.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It has also been noted that the need to make a physical visit to the library to borrow a book is not very favorable for students and staff who reside off campus. The current system does not allow the users to query the database to find out if the resource they require is available.
As a result of this it has been observed that students and staff off campus are forced to make trips to the library sometimes while unsure if the books they need are available. Based on the above shortcomings it has been observed that the institution could greatly benefit from improvements to its existing library system.
Needs of the new system Information technology has been defined as the use of a combination of hardware, software and services for the management, communication and sharing of information (Shelly
Importance of an EU Regional Policy Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Arguments for EU regional Policy
Introduction The European Union was created with the aim of contributing economic growth and development of European countries through establishing a common currency and a single market. According to economics, breaking down existing barriers will cause the escalation of positive economic effects through efficiency and redirection of resources to cost-effective investments.
However, equal distribution of profits among the members in freely competing markets is not possible. Newly entering member states having different conditions received different end results from the integration. This uneven distribution within the integration may be hindered by cohesion thus a need for regional policy.
The European Union regional policy covers all European regions and consists of three objectives: employment and regional competitiveness, convergence as well as territorial cooperation (Cini, 2003). The regional policy environment has however become very complex and regional policy makers at the national and EU levels are facing the key challenge of globalization.
The increasing internalization of economy, the removal of trade barriers within the EU, technological change and the shift towards knowledge-based economy has been actively restructuring the competitive advantage of regions and countries (Boldrin
Educational Strategies for Fourth Grade English Language Arts students Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Learning and applying the English Language Arts content
Preparing for the New York State English Language Arts test
Introduction Fourth grade is the fourth year of school for students after kindergarten. Students in this grade have ages of between nine and ten years. Teachers must use effective educational strategies and instructional methods in teaching English Language Arts.
This discussion explores the strategies and methods of instruction that the teachers can use in order to ensure comprehension and application of the content by fourth grade students. The strategies used should also ensure that the students perform well in the New York State English Language Arts test. The teachers should also use teaching strategies that ensure that the New York English Learning Standards for fourth grade are met.
Learning and applying the English Language Arts content English Language Arts is supposed to polish the reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills of students. At each grade, there are certain expectations that students should meet in their mastery of the English language. At fourth grade, students have already learnt reading, writing, listening and speaking skills from earlier grades.
They use these skills to comprehend more complex texts. In order to sufficiently master English Language Arts in this grade, the students need to be exposed to opportunities that will enable them to have active involvement in reading, research, speaking, and thinking about relevant topics in their grade.
Fourth grade teachers should incorporate games and interesting activities in their lessons in order to capture the attention of the students and to engage them in learning activities. Various vocabulary and reading activities and games can help the students to grasp facts in a fun way (Moore and Moore 2004).
At fourth grade, students are supposed to improve their reading skills. At this stage, students are exposed to different kinds of literature, plays, poetry, speeches, drama, fables, folktales, short stories, myths, legends, and autobiographies, among others. The students can read these texts on their own without the teacher’s intervention. They use these literary texts to observe the use of words by authors to bring out a particular meaning, text structures, and the use of graphics to explain the text.
They read these texts and draw conclusions. They also learn to differentiate different authors’ points of view. Moreover, they learn about various figurative features used in writing hyperbole, personification, metaphors, among others. They also use these literary texts to understand the concepts of themes, character traits, and conflicts in the text. Teachers should enhance their students understanding of these texts by asking them to respond through dramatizing or paraphrasing them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While reading, fourth grade students enhance their understanding of difficult and ambiguous text through strategies like self-questioning methods.
The teachers should engage their fourth grade students in literature response activities that are challenging, for instance, asking them to relate with the characters or asking them what they think the outcome of the story would have been if something was done differently. This encourages the students to think critically about the texts and therefore, enhance their comprehension (Eggen and Kauchak 2008).
Teachers also enhance their fourth grade students’ skills by exposing them to informational texts such as magazines, textbooks, tables, charts, recipes, maps, advertisements, and photographs, among others. The students are taught how to interpret this information and make conclusions.
They learn how to use features such as captions, print styles, chapter headings and subheadings appropriately in their writing. Fourth grade students also learn the use of structures like appendices, table of contents, index and glossary in their writing. Moreover, they learn how to construe graphic features like charts and tables. Students also learn to examine texts in order to get facts, opinions, and relationships. They can respond to these texts through writing and creative dramatization (Perullo 2003).
Students in fourth grade also learn how to build their vocabulary and analyze words in order to be able to read fluently. These students need strategies to develop vocabulary and be able to analyze and understand texts as the complexity of their texts increases. Students start to apply the complex vocabulary that they learn in their reading to their writing and speaking. They learn the meanings of complex words and words with more than one meaning.
The teachers should use strategies to enable the students to learn the use of euphemisms, affixes and roots and be able to apply them in their work. The students also learn what it means to connote and denote in text. Teachers can enhance their students’ reading skills through asking them to read texts and narratives aloud in class while checking for proper accuracy, fluency, pacing, and expression.
This will make sure that the students are actively engaged in learning and enable the teacher to identify the weak points in the students’ grammar. Correcting the students will make sure that they do not repeat the same mistakes again and therefore their grammar will be improved (Moore and Moore 2004).
We will write a custom Essay on Educational Strategies for Fourth Grade English Language Arts students specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Vocabulary building can be improved through creative ways like putting new words in word walls, vocabulary journals, and other devices in the classroom. Another strategy that teachers can use to build their students vocabulary is to use complex words as they teach and encourage the students to use those words in their writing and speech. In addition, teachers can encourage the students to read a wide variety of books because they are likely to encounter more new words.
Students should also practice reading various fourth grade level texts on their own in order to broaden their vocabulary. The more they read, the more they will come across many new words and when they try to find out their meanings, their vocabulary will be broadened (Eggen and Kauchak 2008).
The students in fourth grade also hone their writing skills in preparation for the English Language Arts test through various strategies. They need to develop writing which is well organized, clearly focused, well elaborated and with the proper application of conventions. The students continue to polish their writing skills through writing, revising and editing texts. They learn how to develop content, use conventions and organize their writing.
Teachers should ensure that the students practice writing every day so as to sufficiently sharpen their writing skills. Enough practice will enhance their mastery of the English language and thus, they will be well prepared for the English language Arts test. The students improve their grammar by identifying and using verbs, prepositions, adverbs, and conjunctions in their writing.
They also practice the correct usage of commas, parenthesis, apostrophes, italics, quotation marks, capitalization, and underlining in their writing. Teachers should engage fourth grade students in activities like brainstorming and using literary models and graphic organizers to organize their ideas before they start writing. They should also practice writing proper paragraphs by stating the main idea and providing details to support it (Moore and Moore 2004)
Fourth grade students also learn how to develop focused writing using different words to ensure clarity. They incorporate various transitional features in their writing like conjunctions in order to maintain the flow of their ideas. They also learn to use revision strategies to edit and proofread their work to ensure clarity and eliminate any mistakes. They proof read to ensure the proper usage of commas, punctuations, capitalization, and spelling, among others.
Teachers should train the students to use technology to develop their documents. They should show a mastery of the English language by writing compositions that are comprehensible and free from mistakes. Teachers can help sharpen the writing skills of their students by giving them assignments to write compositions describing certain experiences, events or objects.
The teacher should then mark the compositions and include corrections to the mistakes made so that the student can learn from them and write better next time. Writing skills can also be improved through strategies such as writing conferences, shared writing and peer response and writing. In shared writing the students and the teacher contribute their ideas and thoughts during the writing process to compose a text. In peer response and editing, students evaluate each other’s written work and give response and feedback.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Educational Strategies for Fourth Grade English Language Arts students by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This enables the students to learn from each other. The teacher is also able to gauge whether his/her students can identify writing mistakes made by the others and therefore determine their level of mastery of the English language (Perullo 2003).
In this grade, the students also learn how to write for different audiences and purposes. The teachers should teach them how to develop communications like blogs, emails, and flyers, among others. They also need to develop skills for reflective and descriptive types of writing.
Fourth grade students also need to learn how to create writings like narratives, biographies, songs, plays, poems, reports, among others. Students can improve their skills in writing different types of sentences through interesting activities and games that enable them to identify and differentiate between interrogative, imperative, declarative and exclamatory sentences. Games and activities can also be used to teach transitions to the students in order to improve their essay writing skills (Flood 2003).
Speaking and listening skills are also polished in fourth grade. Students learn to verbally communicate with different people through engagement in conversations with their fellow students and teachers. Their speech should have appropriate pitch, phrasing and accent. They learn how to engage in effective group interactions by speaking one person at a time instead of every one speaking at the same time. They should also learn the appropriate manner of speaking to different audiences.
Having proper verbal skills enables the students to participate effectively in group discussions. This enables them to learn new ideas from others. The students with good speaking skills are also able to participate in class by asking well-formulated questions and responding appropriately to questions asked. They are also able to seek others’ opinions about various issues and give their own opinion with reasons to support it.
The students are also able to respond to questions asked by the teacher and give proper clarifications and illustrations when asked to do so. They should be able to explain points in class while using examples, details, and proper accent, gestures and phrasing to enhance the clarity of the message. In addition, they should have proper presentation skills in order to be able to introduce a concept, explain it and conclude appropriately.
Teachers can improve their’ students speaking skills through giving them assignments that require them to do oral presentations and recitations in class. This will enhance their speaking skills as well as build their confidence. The students can also hold dialogues or debates on controversial issues. This will ensure that the students air their opinions and support them.
During the presentations, the teacher should ensure that the students are able to articulate the ideas about a certain experience or event and be able to catch the attention of the listeners. Having proper speaking skills enables the students to express themselves and share ideas with others, which is essential for successful learning (Eggen and Kauchak 2008).
Fourth grade students also learn how to access and use information for different purposes. They learn to access information from other sources like books, newspapers, magazines, dictionaries, atlases, thesauruses, encyclopedias and other materials. They paraphrase the information gathered from these sources and use it in their writing. They also learn to support the ideas in their writing through the use of charts, pictures, or diagrams.
Moreover, they learn strategies for organizing their information such as categorization and classification. The students learn information gathering skills like using the internet to search for information and interviewing skills. They are able to correctly reference their work by listing the sources of their information.
At this grade students should be taught how to write from other sources of information by paraphrasing and providing references in order to distinguish between their ideas and those from other sources. They learn how to use other sources and technology to seek information (Flood 2003).
Preparing for the New York State English Language Arts test The English Language Arts test is done every year by students in fourth grade in New York. The purpose of this test is to determine how well the students have mastered the New York State Learning Standards of English and Language Arts at fourth grade.
The test also reviews the class level of the students and establishes whether it meets the standards of the No Child Left behind Act. This test consists of short fiction and non-fiction stories from which multiple-choice questions are derived. The students’ mastery of grammar, spelling, punctuation and reading comprehension are tested (Flood 2003).
There are four New York State English learning standards. In standard one, the students write, read, listen and speak in order to acquire, understand and transmit information, while in standard two they learn in order to be able to express themselves and respond to literary texts. In standard three, students read, write, listen and speak in order to be able to analyze and evaluate information, ideas and information critically. In standard for, the students learn in order to be able to interact effectively with different people (Whiting 2003).
In order for fourth grade students to meet the New York State English Learning Standards on the English Language Arts test and perform well, the teachers need to use several educational strategies and instructional methods. To effectively prepare students for this test, the teachers need to ensure that they read frequently to enhance their skills in fluency and reading comprehension. Teachers should provide entertaining books to the students to practice with.
The teachers can also give sample practice tests to the students in preparation for the English Language Arts test. These sample tests can be acquired from the New York State Department of Education. Doing sample tests enables the student to get an idea on the type of questions that will be asked and will therefore feel comfortable and well prepared for the test.
The teacher can also guide the students to explore websites that offer a variety of educational activities, games, worksheets, homework, reading help and puzzles to enhance the students’ mastery of the English language Arts in a fun way. This helps to catch their attention and also enhance their understanding. The students can also visit learning centers and libraries for additional knowledge on English Language Arts (Perullo 2003).
In order to efficiently prepare for the English Language Arts test, the students should polish their writing skills through thorough practice on correct spelling of words, correct use of punctuation marks and proper use of grammar. Writing activities and games can help the students to improve their writing skills in preparation for the test. Students should practice writing compositions on different events and experiences in order to have excellent writing skills by the time they sit for the English Language Arts test (Whiting 2003).
Text comprehension is important for the students to perform well in the English Language Arts test. Therefore, the students need to use various strategies in order to enhance their comprehension of texts. They should practice comparing and combining information from different sources.
As they read texts, they should use strategies like questioning, summarizing, supporting or disagreeing with the author’s opinion and clarifying ambiguities for further understanding of the text that they are reading or listening to. They should also practice rereading, cross-checking, and confirming to check their progress in comprehension of the text.
The students should also read various texts as they try to understand the deeper meaning and try to distinguish between the different techniques of writing used in various information sources. Teachers should ensure that the students are grasping the English language arts by administering tests that evaluate their mastery of various concepts.
They should test their vocabularies, administer comparison tests and excerpt questions to measure their reading comprehension, grammar, among others. Through these tests, the teacher will be able to find out the areas in which the students are experiencing difficulties, and therefore spend more time teaching them (Flood 2003).
In order to enhance their literary response and analysis, teachers should ensure that the students practice reading fourth grade level literature and answer questions that are derived from it. They should respond to the literary text through dramatizing, writing and oral presentations. They should try to understand the author’s purpose for writing the text and the main message being transmitted. After reading the text, the students should have a personal point of view and use evidence to support it (Moore and Moore 2004)
Other strategies that teachers can use to ensure that their fourth grade students are well prepared for the English Language Arts test include using flash cards, question exchange and mock testing.
Flash cards can be used to broaden the vocabulary mastery. Vocabularies relevant to fourth grade level students are written on the cards together with their definitions and students will engage in a group activity of trying to tell the meanings of the words. This activity will keep the students actively engaged and will enable them to retain the vocabularies learnt in their memory (Whiting 2003).
Question exchange strategy is important in helping the students to understand the test questions. In this strategy, the students and the teacher will go through sample tests questions and learn how to interpret them correctly by paying attention to sentence structure, formatting and punctuation.
They should practice altering the questions to derive a different meaning and then try answering it. This exercise will enable the students to learn how to correctly interpret questions so that they can give the required answers. Failure to pay attention to the structure of the question might lead to misinterpretation and therefore giving the wrong answer (Whiting 2003).
The teachers should also use a mock testing strategy. This will ensure that the students get to understand the nature of the English language arts test and what is required of them to score good marks. The teacher should administer a mock test and mark it. Then he/she should review it with the students. This enables the students to gain confidence and get acquainted with the English Language Arts test setting (Whiting 2003).
In preparation for the English Language Arts test, fourth grade students should be taught lessons to help them identify suffixes and prefixes and learn the correct word meanings. Their vocabulary lessons should include antonyms, synonyms and homonyms. They should also be taught literature-based topics to broaden their vocabulary.
They also need to learn different nouns. Various games and activities can be incorporated in lesson plans to enable the students to learn in an enjoyable and engaging environment. For instance, activities in which a teacher reads out a text and asks the students to write a list of nouns that they hear. The student who writes the longest list of nouns wins. This enables the students to grasp concepts more easily and remember them during the test (Eggen and Kauchak 2008).
For students to be fluent readers they need to be able to automatically recognize words, read with expression, break up the sentence into meaningful parts, change the emphasis and tone where required and incorporate pauses at the middle and end of sentences.
To ensure the students master fluency, teachers should engage them in activities that expose them to words, letters and letter combinations. These activities and games, such as tracing, writing and copying words should help them form a connection between auditory and visual representations (Whiting 2003).
Conclusion The English language Arts test is very important for fourth graders and therefore, they should be well prepared for it. This test evaluates the mastery of the English language at this level.
Teachers should therefore use appropriate strategies and methods of instruction in teaching this course in order to ensure that the fourth graders understand the content and are able to apply it in their English Language Arts test. Several teaching strategies and instructional methods such as incorporating games and fun activities in the lesson plan can go along way in catching the attention of the students as well as enhancing their comprehension of the content.
Reference List Eggen, P., and Kauchak, D. (2008). Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms. 8th ed. USA: Prentice Hall
Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. 2nd ed. USA: Routledge.
Moore, R. and Moore, M.A. (2004). Active Teaching and Learning Strategies: Creating a Blueprint for Success. UK: Trafford Publishing.
Perullo, D. (2003). Roadmap to 4th Grade English Language Arts, New York Edition. New York: The Princeton Review.
Whiting, D.S. (2003). Let’s Prepare for the New York State Grade 4 English Language Arts. USA: Barron’s Educational Series.
Childhood Schizophrenia: Causes and Management of this Mental Disorder Research Paper college essay help
Introduction Background Information
Judd (2009) tells the story of a seven-year-old girl named Jani Schofield. When producers of Oprah Winfrey show lived with Jani’s family for one week, they realized just how hard the parents were struggling to bring her up together with her younger brother Bodhi. The parents told the producers how their daughter slips into ‘psychotic moments’ as a result of apparently harmless triggers such as calling her by her full name ‘January’.
During such moments, the girl will instantly change from a sweet little angel to a shrieking and violent little girl. Michael and Susan Schofield narrate to the producers how they were forced to separate their two children to reduce the likelihood of the girl injuring the little boy during such moments. The children will spend the days together, but during the night, they will be boarded into different apartments each accompanied by one parent.
Jani’s life is unlike that of any other seven-year-old girl. The parents narrate to the producers how their little daughter experiences many hallucinations and how she hears strange voices in her head. At times she will stare at one spot for a long time claiming to see things that are not visible to other people around her.
Jani Schofield suffers from childhood schizophrenia. She is among the less than 1 in 30000 children under the age of eleven years who are diagnosed with the condition in the United States of America every year (Bender, 2010).
The symptoms of this condition are not unlike those among adults suffering from the same condition. According to Maatai et al. (2011), approximately 1 percent of Americans suffer from this condition. They report hallucinations accompanied by irrational thoughts and at times, violent behavior like that reported in Jani above.
Seese et al. (2010) define schizophrenia as a form of a mental disorder that is accompanied by breaking down of thought processes in the individual as well as other emotional disorders such as violence, extreme fear or withdrawal. Many patients suffering from this condition report incidences of auditory and visual hallucinations.
Their speech and thinking processes are also disintegrated as indicated above. The patient also suffers from social and occupational dysfunctions as a result of their condition (Seese et al., 2010). This means that their social and occupational life is impaired as a result of the effects of the mental condition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Maatai et al. (2011) are of the view that most of the symptoms associated with schizophrenia appear during young adulthood. This is from the age of 12 and in some instances, even before. According to Bender (2010), about 0.3 to 0.7 percent of the world population suffers from schizophrenia. The condition can be diagnosed from behavioral observations made on the individual as well as from the experiences that are reported by the patient.
The exact cause of this mental disorder is not well known. However, experts in this field are of the view that a combination of several factors may be the possible cause of the condition. This includes factors such as genetics, the social and psychological environment within which the individual is brought up as well as some other factors touching on the patient’s lifestyle such as abuse of drugs among others (Hardman, Drew
Manipulation and Deception in Language Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Propaganda is frequently used by politicians and in the media to influence our attitudes and perceptions on key issues (Orwell1). Propaganda is commonly used to temporarily distract our attention from the real issues at hand (Kemerling 8). For example, Joseph Goebbels (a former Germany minister for propaganda in the Nazi regime) once stated that it would have been impossible to use propaganda against the masses if they knew how to differentiate between rational arguments from propaganda.
This in effect means that politicians usually employ propaganda against an unsuspecting audience. People are easily swayed because they are unable to make out propaganda when they see it (Cross1). This paper will discuss deceptive strategies used to sway the perception and mindsets of the masses on critical issues.
Name-calling is one of the deceptions used by propagandist to sway our mindset about a particular issue or person without considering the significance of the person or the issue at hand. For instance, a politician vying for political office may describe his/her opponents as “two-faced liars” or “foolish idealists” (Cross 2). Politicians employ name-calling in order to prevent the targeted audience to think rationally but rather accept his/her propaganda categorically and blindly.
Glittering generalities is also a deceptive tactic used in language. Examples of glittering generalities include “our constitutional rights,” the American way” or “justice” (Cross 3). Many people are unaware of the adverse effects of glittering generalities on their way of thinking and end up agreeing to everything they hear. It is worthy to mention that glittering generalities are employed by politicians seeking elective positions in the government to provoke emotions of the masses and obscure their ways of thinking (Cross 3).
Another common manipulative strategy used in language is known as Plain Folk appeal. This strategy is also commonly used by people seeking elective posts in order to gain political mileage from the masses. Politicians use this strategy when they depict themselves as ordinary plain folks.
For instance, a politician soliciting votes from industrial workers may visit a factory and move around shaking hands with employees. The plain folks appeal is obviously a deceptive strategy. Although the politician may claim to be just an ordinary folk, he/she may not be interested in addressing the various problems facing the electorate once he/she is elected (Cross 4).
Argumentum ad populum is also another manipulative strategy used in language. It is a common strategy used by politicians as well as in media adverts. Politicians usually employ Argumentum populum when they dwell on issues that appeal to the targeted population.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, a politician may tell university or college students that the future of the country is in their hands or tell cultivators that they constitute “the backbone of the economy” (Cross 5). The main intention here is to sway the targeted group from making critical analyses about the politician and what he/she stands for. The wellbeing of the masses is thus an irrelevant issue in this context (Cross 5).
Many companies also employ manipulative and deceptive language to advertise their products. The main reason for doing so is promote their products as the best in the market. For example, the phrase better is commonly used to demonstrate that a particular product (e.g. mango juice) is superior over other rival products that fall in the same category.
For example, a company may claim that its mango juice products are “the better breakfast drinks” (Schrank 5). There are several other deceptive and manipulative strategies used by companies in the media to market their products.
The Wiesel Claim is one such example (Harris 2). The phrase weasel is a modifier that basically contradicts the consequent claim. Examples of weasel phrases that are commonly used in adverts include “strengthened,” “enriched,” “virtually,” or “fortified” (Schrank 8).
These phrases are used to create an impression of supremacy of the product. Examples of weasel claims include “leaves dishes virtually spotless,” “only half the price of many color set.” These claims are used to convince buyers that the products are superior and cheaper than other sets in the same category (Schrank 8).
Another commonly used deception is known as The Unfinished Claim. It is a common marketing strategy that asserts the superiority of a particular product. However, it does not complete the comparison. An example of unfinished claim include “Anacin: Twice as much of the pain reliever doctors recommend most” (Schrank 9).
One can observe that this particular assertion suits in several product categories. Nonetheless the ad is incomplete because it does not make a comparison of Anacin with any other similar product in its category (Schrank 9). An unsuspecting buyer may be lured by this claim to buy the product believing that it is the best in the market.
We will write a custom Essay on Manipulation and Deception in Language specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In certain types of writing (especially literary criticism) it is not unusual to find a number of sentences that employ deceptive phrases. For example, the phrase “Fascism” has lost its original connotation and it is currently used to refer to anything that is undesirable. Other expressions such as democracy, justice, socialism and freedom bear different connotations which cannot be synchronized.
For example, the word “democracy” is now used to refer to good governance. This word may thus be used (in a deceptive way) by a repressive regime to sway the mindset of the masses from the crucial issues at hand (Orwell12).
Works Cited Cross, D. Woolfolk. “Tricks of the Propagandist.” Nov 10, 2000. Web.
Harris, Robert. “Fallacies associated with Language.” Jun 8, 2000. Web.
Kemerling, Garth. “Fallacies of Ambiguity.” Nov 12, 2011. Web.
Orwell, George. “Politics and the English Language.” 1946. Web.
Schrank, Jeffrey. “The Language of Advertising Claims.” N.d. Web.
David Cameron’s first 18 months as Prime Minister Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
After bagging around hundred additional seats in the General elections in May 2010, the Conservative Party came into power together with the Liberal Democrats in Britain and David Cameron became the Prime Minister leading the Conservative/Liberal Democrat Coalition Government (David Cameron, n.d.).
The aim of this coalition government was to form a sturdy and progressive government whose sole objective would be to give preference to the common good and national interest. The values of freedom, fairness and responsibility are the key inspirational factors of this government (David Cameron, n.d.).
Modernisation of his party has always been the prime concern of David Cameron. He was first elected Leader of the Conservative Party in Dec.2005 and ever since he has been giving emphasis to issues like, NHS reforms, adopting environment friendly measures, encouragement to social actions and social justice as Leader of the Opposition. The number of women and tribal minority candidates for the Conservative Party raised significantly during this period (Prime Minister David Cameron’s Biography, 2011).
David Cameron always believed that the society comes first and the politicians are there to work for the people and not to rule them. As the Prime Minister also he has always given importance to social responsibility.
In the first 18 months of his leadership the government has acted in accordance to its mandate by presenting a picture of the Big Society by assuring more power to the common man. Moreover, Britain’s deficit, educational reform policies, health and welfare are some of the other powerful actions taken in the initial few months of David Cameron led coalition government (David Cameron, n.d. ).
Despite the fact that Cameron has a great personality and his performance in the Commons has always been that of a confident leader, his political accomplishments raise a serious question on his role towards the office. Cameron’s focus is observed mainly in keeping the coalition unabated (Many Miles to go, 2011).
He might celebrate some success on the issues like an improved credit rating, success in the half –war in Libya and leading a strong coalition between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats but he seems to act sluggishly in fulfilling the two big promises that he made before last year’s general elections i.e. to combat Britain’s deficit and to provide a makeover to the state.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though, measures have been taken and bold and clear strategies have been outlined to reduce Britain’s huge deficit by George Osborne, the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
The process has just initiated and has saved British sovereign from losing faith in the markets but the progress is unexpectedly slow and unemployment is higher. Mr. Osborne is too stubborn to make alteration in his blueprint as it would indicate government’s incompetence to fight the crises. It would not be wise also with the deficit equal to 9.3%of GDP in 2010-11 (Many Miles to go, 2011).
David Cameron admitted that the government has to hasten with its deficit reduction plans as it was proving “harder than anyone envisaged” while speaking to business leaders at the CBI conference in London (David Cameron: deficit harder to clear than first thought, 2011).
The second promise of redesigning the state is also experiencing problems. It is evident that at a time of hardship announcing public services is quite challenging. Reformation demands lubrication for a smooth progress. But here, the progress is hindered more by the political incompetence and weakness of the government rather than the scarcity of funds (Many Miles to go, 2011).
The coalition government led by Mr. Cameron had initiated a radical reform agenda last year. The state-funded free schools and abundance of independent academies are some of the successful programs. More private providers are assured extended funds on the basis of payment –by—results in the cases like the treatment of drug addicts. Tackling the biased inducement in the universal welfare system is also a major concern of the government (Many Miles to go, 2011).
But there has only been partial success in these arenas. The implementation of these programs is not flawless. The government has not been very strict in taking action against the profit making schools. Rich pensioners are still enjoying the benefits and refurbishment of the broader welfare is going to be complicated and expensive.
The new commissioning structure has left the health reform programs in a disastrous state. Lifting the limit on the university tuition fee left the exchequer with a huge liability. Moreover, the ineffective idea of the “Big Society” wasted much of government’s time and fund. David Cameron’s policy of the rehabilitation program for the criminals also had to face much criticism by the tabloids.
We will write a custom Essay on David Cameron’s first 18 months as Prime Minister specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All these setbacks are Tories’ own doings so they cannot deceive themselves by holding the Liberal Democrats responsible for it. In spite of all this it is commendable that the people holding top positions in both the coalition parties are likeminded in redesigning the state to make it more accountable and pluralistic (Many Miles to go, 2011).
David Cameron’s successful venture in Libya is praiseworthy and his tactics in used in the Libya victory has convinced many of the disbelievers. His caliber and competence in tackling the riots has also proved him a proficient leader. Rick Nye of pollsters Populous says, “You have seen the hacking, the riots, and Libya, but they are not really game-changers when it comes to their fundamental assessment” (Underhill, 2011).
Recently, Prime Minister David Cameron and Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg announced a £400 million fund for the house building sector. The idea is to support the construction industry and fulfill the desire of many people of having their own home. Besides this, development would be done on more public land funds are reserved for renovating the old and empty houses to bring them back into use. Thus, upto 16,000 homes will have a new start in construction and 3,200 would be reasonable properties.
Officials believe that it will also endorse around 32,000s job. Before this a £500 million Growing Places Fund was also announced by the coalition government. Though Labors consider this move as” small beer” and the government should put in more efforts to uplift the sinking economy which can fight the “perfect storm” in housing ever since the Second World War.
The Prime Minister and Mr Clegg said “With this strategy, we will unlock the housing market, get Britain building again, and give many more people the satisfaction and security that comes from stepping over their own threshold. These plans are ambitious – but we are determined to deliver on them.”
This move has been welcomed by Shadow chancellor Ed Balls. He stated that it is necessary for the government to recognize that the deficit cannot be reduced without getting growth and jobs in our economy and “so I think it probably does show that at last the Government is starting to shift.”
David Orr, chief executive of the National Housing Federation, also praised the Government for trying to deal with the issues. But he added that it is important to show boldness and strength in setting up the wrecked housing market (Government to underwrite mortgages fro first time buyers, 2011).
Another weakness of the coalition government lies in the handling of the health care reforms. Considerable opposition is being experienced by the coalition government over the policies regarding health care reforms. It was necessary to keep on finding ways to benefit the people by providing authentic healthcare and proving that NHS is safe in the hands of the Tories.
Not sure if you can write a paper on David Cameron’s first 18 months as Prime Minister by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently some changes were made to the legislation and amidst criticism from some Liberal Democrats along with the Labor the health bill cleared its Commons stages in September. It might face further criticism in the House of Lords (David Cameron’s NHS ‘support’ claim disputed by staff, 2011).
This plan makes the GPs and other clinicians more accountable regarding the use of the budget in England and promotes competition with the private sector. This has proved to be the most controversial and revolutionary plan in the history of health service (Lords debating NHS shape up bill, 2011).
It is important for Mr. Cameron to realize that his competency would be judged in handling problems tactfully at the domestic front or else the coalition government is going to be in much trouble.He will have to go further in evaluating the problems of budget deficit, flooding immigration, dealing with the issues like collapsing eurozone and the police force not functioning properly (Harris, 2011).
The party leader of the Conservatives is expected to be very responsible and competent owning the party traits like sharp sense, self–discipline, attentive attitude making him more powerful. David Cameron can prove to be a virtuous Prime Minister as he is intellectual, sophisticated and full of energy.
But it is important for Mr Cameron to understand that the Conservatives have showered trust on those leaders only who have shown respect for the party as he seems to be more comfortable with the ideas of the metropolitan liberal elite in spite of having a typically Tory background (Harris, 2011).
It is true that he is a good prime minister and dealing with the current scenario with great courage and confidence. He has worked very hard in the first year for repositioning his Party ideologically. The reduction of some sensitive issues like immigration, Europe, and single parenting he has portrayed Conservatives as an understanding and comprehensive Party.
Issues like work- life-balance, helping the socially dispossessed, promoting environmental friendly measures to deal with the growing climate changes and global warming have been major concerns of the government. Cameron has also given much importance to the betterment of public sector.
Cameron and government his coalition government may be happy with the point they have reached but many of his colleagues seem to be unconvinced and proclaim that he has a long way to go to reach the zenith of his political career (Dorey, 2007).
So, Mr. Cameron needs to put forth all his strength and competency in making this government trustworthy and to prove himself as a leader of an extraordinary and daring administration (Many miles to go, 2011).
Works Cited “David Cameron”. n.d. Conservatives. Web.
“David Cameron: deficit harder to clear than first thought”. 2011. The Telegraph. Web.
“David Cameron’s NHS support claim disputed by staff”. 2011. BBC. Web.
Dorey, P. “A New Direction or Another False Dawn? David Cameron and the Crisis of British Conservatism. 2007”. British Politics (2007) 2, 137–166. doi:10.1057/palgrave.bp.4200051
“Government to underwrite mortgages fro first-time buyers”.2011. Yorkshirepost. Web.
Harris. R. “Dave is intelligent and polished- but he doesn’t understand the Tory party”. 2011. Mailonline. Web.
“Lords debating NHS shake-up bill”. 2011. BBC. Web.
“Many miles to go”. 2011. The Economist. Web.
“Prime Minister David Cameron’s biography”. 2011. 10. Web.
Underhill, W. “David Cameron’s Holiday Boost”. 2011. The daily beast. Web.
Higher Education Funding Essay writing essay help
Developed countries owe their success to higher education, and thus third world countries must emulate this concept to advance themselves. Third world countries have poor education systems that further complicate higher education. Most universities do not have their own income generating projects which leaves them at the mercy of international donors and federal governments (Akkari 34).
The governments put more emphasis on primary and secondary education while ignoring higher education. The governments direct majority of their money towards funding free primary and secondary education. They construct many secondary schools without considering the number of universities that are supposed to absorb those students.
There are few institutions of higher learning that are unevenly distributed in administrative regions. Some provinces do not have their own universities and thus students from such regions have to relocate when they are admitted into the learning institutions.
There have been many instances when the funds meant for higher education projects have been squandered, and since the governments in developing countries are not committed towards ending corruption the donors are discouraged from giving monetary hand outs (Baker and Wiseman 179).
Both teaching and non-teaching staffs are poorly paid and thus learning is regularly halted due to the strikes that are staged by these personnel in their bid to demand for better pay. The lecturers use outdated teaching models but then they are not blame because the governments are supposed to budget for their continuous training programs.
In addition, the learning institutions do not have enough money to construct more structures for the purpose of accommodating many students. In fact, most universities in third world countries have inadequate boarding facilities and the ones that are there are in a sorry state.
This is because they are hardly renovated. Inadequate resources cause the universities to limit the courses that can be studied in their facilities. For instance, only a few universities can offer training in the faculty of medicine and thus such students have to be congested in one or two institutions. This causes the learning institutions to adopt poor university admissions which eventually lead to overcrowded institutions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The poor remuneration packages that are offered to the lecturers do not motivate them but instead causes them to be engaged in other private institutions that offer better pay (Chapman and Austin 174). This causes a negative impact on the quality of education because the learners cannot contact the educators. The other problem revolves around tuition fees, which tend to be constant. Most universities have tried to hike tuition fees, but contrary to their expectations, the learners have never collaborated.
Furthermore, the learning institutions do not manage their own revenue because they are placed under the ministry of education. The officials from the ministries are given the mandate of allocating budgets to the universities. Many intellectuals have criticized this approach because government ministers do not understand the priorities of universities. This constitutes to poor governance in public universities.
The problem involving funding of higher education can be remedied by allowing the university staff to draft their own budget because they know the areas that need more emphasis. Transparency with regard to handling of money should be enhanced through the installation of monitoring systems as well as watchdog committees, which would ensure that money is used for the intended purpose.
The universities should focus on being self reliant instead of depending on handouts from government agencies. This can be achieved by commissioning income-generating projects within and beyond the learning institutions’ compounds. This will ensure a steady supply of income.
Works Cited Akkari, Abdeljalil. “Education in the Middle East and North Africa: The Current Situation and Future Challenges.” International Educational Journal 5.2(2004): 34-36. Print.
Baker, David and Alexander Wiseman. The Worldwide Transformation of Higher Education. Bingley, WA: Emerald Group Publishing, 2008. Print.
Chapman, David and Ann Austin. Higher Education in the Developing World: Changing Contexts and Institutional Responses. Massachusets: Greenwood Publishing, 2002. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Higher Education Funding specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Apple Store Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The market structure of Apple store is oligopoly. In the market, the Apple store’s iPod represents a vertical monopoly. This is a situation where a particular company has the control of all the aspects of distribution, production and product sales. Although Apple store is not a company on its own, the iPod hold a dominant position in the market1. This paper therefore seeks to discuss the market structure where Apple store operates and why it is in that market.
What the economic theory says about the role of advertising in this particular market and the observation made on the data. The economic profits for the firm both in the short run and long run will also be discussed and whether the data supports the economic theory and how the profit stream can change over time (Zielenziger, 2011).
As stated in the above paragraph, Apple store operates in an oligopoly market structure. The company is also associated with a vertical monopoly market structure. The Apple store company sells its products in various markets across the globe. It does this through its retail outlets like its online store where the company has sold numerous products to consumers and other business enterprises2.
The Apple store has invested in programs that promote reseller sales including ASCP which focuses on certain reseller locations and APRP which provides expertise in products and customer service (Deffree, 2011). The Apple store company also sells some computer products to the agencies of the government and the creative markets falling within its geographical location. These markets are considered fundamental to the third party computer applications and hardware developers.
The better-quality extension and computing recital of the Apple store products turn up to be the major attraction of the consumers within the market location. In addition, the Apple store company provides computer products to the customers within the scientific market just as it does to the information technology markets (Apple Inc., 2011).
The economic theory says a lot in the role of advertising of the Apple store company. According to the economics theory of pricing and revenue, it is very logical that if the price of a product increases, the revenue should increase as a result. Due to the improvement of technology, the Apple store company has been able to produce high quality product which have quite a show of demand.
Even though, the prices of the new products such as the Iphone4 and the new Mac handbook are high, consumers seem to be quite interested in the product3. The hiked prices of the new products should therefore, bring an impact in revenue during a particular period. According to the company’s reports, the revenue has risen from $99.9 billion to $108 billion as at the year 2011 because of the adverts. It is now evident from the economic theory that the role of advertising is very significant in the revenue accruals (Deffree, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the economic theory, the role of advertising is sensitive to issues such as in the appreciation of how the customers predispose towards the effects resulting from adverts. Advertising makes an impact to the customers about the products, it creates awareness, evokes an immediate response from the customer, it communicates messages to the target market, it creates favorable reputation and impression about the product and reminds the customer of the features of the product that is offered4.
To economic theory, advertising is important in fulfilling the needs of the customers as far as information about the product is concerned, it consolidates position, encourages product trial, and changes perceptions about the mental repositioning and overcome prejudice. It also reinforces attitudes as well as enthuse the trade and the staff (Apple Inc., 2011).
Economic theory links advertising to the elasticity and inelasticity of demand of a product, the Apple store’s Iphone is easy to analyze. Elasticity in demand of product relies in the accessibility or availability of products that can substitute the basic commodity, income of the consumer which enables him to consume the good and time that a consumer may use to stop using a particular commodity5.
This is observed in the company’s data. It is evident that whenever the product availability to the customer increases, more sales are made and the company realizes more profits and hence positive escalations in the profit data (Zielenziger, 2011).
The economic profits of this company according to the company’s reports rose from $99.9 billion to $108 billion as at the year 2011. This is a positive margin which may have resulted from the opportunities and issues that face the Apple store company. The Apple store continues to expand globally although the universal shortage of expertise and skilled labor continues to affect its competitive edge.
However, the Apple store has the opportunity to exploit emerging markets such as Brazil and India besides utilizing cheap labor available in these economies6. The Apple store has grown to be a market leader in computer and electronic industry based on its humble background. Due to the fact that the Apple store has immense market globally, it has outdone stiff competition in the industry (Apple Inc., 2011).
Conclusion To sum up, the market structure of the Apple store is oligopoly. The paper has described the market structure of the company and stated the role of advertising from the view point of the economic theory as well as the economic profits of the firm as it appears in the short term and long term. It is also evident from the paper that the Apple store represents a vertical monopoly in the market; this is because of the sole control of all the aspects of distribution, production and product sales.
We will write a custom Essay on Apple Store specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the illustrations in the paper, it is clear that the company’s profit may change overtime if it considers government regulations and issues that might affect its future. This is clearly supported by the data on its annual report concerning its annual profits. In order to remain competitive and keep a positive profit margin, the Apple store should consider exploiting all the marketing opportunities resulting from the emerging economies (Zielenziger, 2011).
References Apple Inc., (2011). The new, faster MacBook Air. Retrieved from: https://www.apple.com/
Deffree, S. (2011). iPhone 4 supply and demand issues could hurt Apple brand. New York: Cengage Learning.
Zielenziger, D. (2011). Apple’s Report: Annual Revenue Tops $108 Billion. 18th october 2011. Washington : International business times. 11th november 2011.
Footnotes 1 Apple Inc., (2011). The new, faster MacBook Air.
2 Deffree, S. (2011). iPhone 4 supply and demand issues could hurt Apple brand. New York: Cengage Learning.
3 Deffree, S. (2011). iPhone 4 supply and demand issues could hurt Apple brand. New York: Cengage Learning.
4 Zielenziger, D. (2011). Apple’s Report: Annual Revenue Tops $108 Billion. 18th october 2011. Washington : International business times. 11th november 2011.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Apple Store by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 5 Apple Inc., (2011). The new, faster MacBook Air.
6 Apple Inc., (2011). The new, faster MacBook Air.
Krause Corporation’s Supply Management Case Study cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
To make or Buy
Introduction Management positions entail making of decisions most of which have great effects on the image of an organization. A mistake in decision making committed by one person turn out to be quite expensive to an organization as it may lead to organizational image tarnishing and customers losing trust in the organization. One of the areas that requires careful observation of details in regard to decision-making is outsourcing services to an external party in an attempt to reduce costs. In this paper, a case study on Krause Corporation is discussed.
To make or Buy In the case study, Steve was been instructed to find ways of cutting down the cost of the pipes which were required (Meyer, n.d.). One of the ways to cut down the costs was to opt for purchasing of the pipes required in contrast to making them.
He, however, knew too well that the quest for cost reduction was never to overrun the need to uphold quality. Quality was of top priority; cost reduction, actually, took the second priority. The need to ensure that the quality of pipes was guaranteed was therefore, the very first factor that was to be observed (Meyer, n.d.).
After carrying out a survey, Steve discovered a supplier who seemingly was in a position to meet the needs of Steve of supplying high-quality pipes at a price which was seemingly below the market price (Meyer, n.d.).
If Steve was to go for this option then it could be assumed that he would have achieved his objective of getting quality pipes at a reduced cost. However, with 14 years of experience on supply management, Steve knew that this deal was too good and therefore, there was a need to countercheck the details before he could make a commitment.
The purchase option offered more promise than the make option. It should be noted that with the purchase option the pipes of the specific quality needed would be supplied; another factor to note also is that the standard of pipes that the supplier promised to deliver was seemingly above that which the company could make consistently. The price which was below the market price was another significant factor, which made the purchase option the best to pick.
Considering that the two utmost significant factors were observed in the purchase option, there was a need for Steve to dig for more information about the details of the supplying process in order to ensure that the supplier would be reliable. It is always advisable to ensure that when outsourcing services to a third party, attempts are be made to interact with the third party to clarify the stakes involved (Burt, Petcavage
Decision Making Models Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Application of Rational Decision Making Model to Advertisement
List of References
Introduction In management, it is very critical to make rational decisions that help to minimize challenges associated with investments. Human judgment is an important aspect in the decision making process because it helps to determine the relevance of the decision made, as well to interpret the findings.
However, human judgment leads to misdirected strategic planning in cases where it is faulty. Therefore, to avoid faulty human judgment in the decision-making process, it is imperative for a firm to reflect on adopting a viable decision making model that would facilitate an increase in their sales volume. This paper will focus on a discussion of rational decision-making model, and then delve into its application in the advertisement area of the hotel industry.
Discussion Rational decisional making model takes an approach of highlighting the best decision among a number of alternatives. A case in point for this model is the six-step decision-making process, which involves following six steps before coming up a viable decision. The first step involves defining what the decision maker wants to achieve (Williams 2008: 182).
This necessitates recognising the need for change or decision-making. In this respect, the decision makers should endeavor to answer the following questions: what do we want to accomplish with the decision that we are about to make? Will this decision directly affect the workers or the clients?
How will the workers or clients react to this decision? What will be the pros and cons of making this decision? Will this decision lead us a step higher to achieving our dreams? How will we know that the decision made is successful? After all these questions are addressed, the decision makers can use their personal preferences, values, and interests to determine what is relevant.
A decision criterion that would facilitate achievement of goals should be identified shortly after the decision makers define the problem (Eisenführ et al. 2009: 210). This entails carrying out a research using various alternatives in a bid to analyse how to achieve the proposed decision.
The decision makers have a role of reviewing and weighing the previously identified alternatives in order to award them with the correct priority. This is normally followed by developing a number of viable alternatives for problem solving strategies. However, the alternatives are only listed, but not appraised.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next stage involves rating the alternatives against the criterion. The already set criterion facilitates a thorough evaluation of the strengths as well as the weaknesses of every selected alternative. Finally, the decision-makers compute the optimal decision based on its strengths and weaknesses. The strengths of this model stems from the following factors:
Situations facing a company can only be successfully analysed if the decision makers come up with ways of defining them explicitly;
Coming up with a number of alternatives facilitates an increase in the level of information, thus creating many options to choose from; and
Effectiveness in the decision making process is enhanced by combining the managers’ knowledge with the specialist expertise of internal and external consulting teams, thus eliminating emotions in the process (Phillips
Industrial Relations: Conflict and Cooperation Report (Assessment) college essay help: college essay help
There is no doubt that both conflict and cooperation are part and parcel of employment relationships. There are different forms of industrial conflicts. These include: Overt (boycotts, pickets, sabotages, strikes, bans, etc); covert (absenteeism, work to rule, theft, go-slow, indifference, etc); individual or collective conflicts; and proactive conflicts.
There are several reasons suggested to explain why industrial conflicts occur. In many cases, industrial conflicts are caused by lack of employment security, moribund managerial control and poor remunerations. In addition, an industrial conflict may emerge when the interests of the employer and his/her employees collide. For example, this may happen when the employer wields control and demand enhanced productivity from his/her workers.
On the other hand, employees may expect an increased remuneration to compensate for their efforts. As a result, an industrial conflict may occur when employees’ earnings are not increased to reflect their efforts. It is thus imperative that employers provide their workers with excellent working environment, increased participation, job security, good management strategies and better earnings in order to avert an industrial conflict.
The state plays an integral role in industrial relations. The characteristics of workplace industrial relations are directly affected by adjustments in the character of state interventions in the labor market. The state intervenes in the labour market by imposing restrictions on managerial prerogatives as well as protecting the reproduction of labourforce.
In the last three decades, the Australian government adopted a corporatist regime as an intervention strategy in the labour market to foster social partnerships between the labour unions, state and employers. During this period, economic concessions (such as wage reductions) were done by the state.
On the other hand, business organizations gained from subdued industrial conflicts as well as low inflation. However, the corporatism accord came to an end when the Howard administration took helm in 1996. The new government modified state policies in order to diminish the role of the state in the economy.
Some of the policy changes included privatization of some sections of the public sector (e.g. abolition of Public Service Board), marketisation of state services and reduction in state expenditure. Although the federal government adopted managerialism and marketisation strategies from mid 1980, it still plays a vital role in the labour market to date.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The basic role of management is to merge, distribute and utilize resources to realize the objectives of the organization. Business organizations employ different management control strategies. Some of these management control strategies are:
Direct control: examples include tight supervision and industrial discretion.
Responsible autonomy: employees are granted autonomy and status at work.
Other forms of controls include: technical control; personalized control; commitment-based control; and bureaucratic control.
There are a number of factors that influence the choice of management control strategy. Some of these factors include: state regulations; market forces; and employee acceptance/resistance. An organization may choose to adopt a management control strategy for a particular group of workers based on several factors. These include:
The need to sustain good working relations with workers: For example, eliminating union workplace may hurt existing relations with workers.
Cultural factors: The choice of the management control strategy is determined by the cultural factors both at the organizational and national level.
Labour market and product market conditions: This entails competition based on quality, price and innovation and surplus or shortages of labour.
State regulations: the state play an important role in the determination of the management control strategy to be adopted by an organization.
The Chronicle of North Korea’s Nuclear Power and Diplomacy Research Paper scholarship essay help
Introduction The war against nuclear weapons developed by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, DPRK remains a delicate and sensitive issue in diplomatic relations between DPRK and other countries around the world. With several nations opposed to the nuclear development program, DPRK has gone through a series of steps and encountered countless challenges in its quest to produce and develop nuclear weapons.
This has led to international conferences and treaties aimed at limiting the progress and chances of North Korea becoming a nuclear power threat to the rest of the world in future (Wampler, 2003). With all these efforts, research indicates that the country’s leadership has had a deaf ear on the calls and maintained their development programs to-date.
In this regard, this research focuses on the historical progress of nuclear strategy in North Korea and how North Korea’s foreign diplomacy and Nuclear affected each other. Of special significance is the nuclear development in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, encompassing both its on-table and under-table activities.
The research furthers synthesizes how DPRK’s pursuit of Nuclear weapons has affected its relationship with countries like the United States, Japan, China, South Korea and other European and Asian states throughout history. Lastly, the paper analyzes the Six-Party talk in terms of its successes and failures with special focus on the current status of the nuclear development program in North Korea.
Nuclear weapons These are highly lethal armaments with the highest known potential of destruction in the world. This ability emanates from fusion and fission reactions which take place in nuclear reactors. Although it later gained its use in the mid 20th century, nuclear weapons breakthrough were made in early 1930s and later applied by several countries during the Cold War.
It is believed that the first fission weapons were developed by the union between the United States, Canada and Britain as a way of counteracting the threat that was being posed by Nazi German bomb scheme during Cold War (World Nuclear Association, 2011). After some of the bombs were dropped on Japan in 1945, the Soviet Union began its development of the Hydrogen bomb.
The U.S and Soviet Union acquired nuclear weapons, which were used during the Cold War. Since then several countries, totaling to nine have acquired these weapons and their proliferation remains a global security threat. Moreover, of substance, controversy and great attention is the nuclear development in DPRK.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More North Korea and Nuclear weapons North Korea is an isolated and relatively small country in Asia but it has remained in the limelight for decades with regard to nuclear power exploration and development of weapons. Its thirst for nuclear weapons has sparked chilly relationships with countries like the United States and South Korea, having been criticized and highly condemned for the manner in which it handles human rights issues. DPRK government is considered to be quite secretive and its borders are highly guarded and sheltered.
North Korea was created after the Second World War, when the DPRK declared its independence in the year 1948 (Kimball, 2011). Early 1950s witnessed the Korean War when DPRK invaded the South after their declaration of sovereignty. The war claimed more than two million Koreans and came to a halt after a peace agreement that was reached in 1953.
Nuclear development in DPRK It is believed that North Korea, also known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korean has nurtured its interest in nuclear power and weapons since 1950s. Although there are no known operating nuclear reactors in the country, there are massive development programs which have remained part of the epicenter of global nuclear power threats (Wampler, 2003).
While others argue that North Korea developed its nuclear plants and weapons decades ago, the following segments summarize some of the steps which DPRK has undergone to achieve its current global ranking in nuclear matters.
Chronology of events DPRK’s nuclear program began in mid 20th century, precisely 1950s during the reign of Kim il-Sung, a time when most scientists from North Korea received practical training in the Soviet Union (Moltz
The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even Against the Wind Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The essay is based on the book The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even against the Wind. To accomplish the desired task, the two questions are being answered purely using this book. The book generally tells a story of a woman known as Wabi who resorted and sought to become religious.
In her quest to doing so, she faces various huddles as well as difficulties. Ideally the story is told of her experiences as she worked towards being a maechi (Sid 23). The first question is with regards to why did Maechi Wabi ‘go forth’. According to the author, Wabi decided to go forth after realizing that she was fully discontented and dissatisfied with the idea of reaching adulthood and becoming a mother like her own mother. She hated the idea of constantly taking care of the others and working (Sid 74).
It was predetermined during her time that when she grows up, she is to assist her mother to take care of her siblings and work hard to earn money to buy food. In Buddhism, going forth simply means the act or situation where one, especially a monk or a nun, leaves his/her homes and decides to lead a homeless life, so that they can be deliberated from lust. Based on Buddhism, those who go forth are usually individuals who seek to get rid of the sorrows of birth and diseases, old age and death.
According to Buddhism, Buddha decided to go forth so that he could teach people what he had learned and discovered. The four major things that he taught were the following ones.
First, life usually ends in death; second, the cause of human suffering in life is because of our bad deed; third, end of desire results in end of suffering, and the last issue is that the man has to follow the right way and seek for divine truth which is within us. The story is indeed basis for Buddhism as it tells us about the day to day activities of those who practice the faith (Sid 34).
Maechi Wabi developed a very negative attitude towards men because the society honored religious men and scorned at religious women, thus disrespecting the females. The behaviors of her father contributed greatly to her resentment of men, this is because her father was greatly opposed to her will of being a nun because he wanted her to grow into a woman who would be able to take care of her own family and raise her own children, thus contributing to the societies development.
Wabi’s father was not pleased with the way the society and the women in particular were transforming. This is evident from the change in the roles and behaviors of the Thailand women. He stated the society to become promiscuous and females to begin developing anti-social behaviors that were not expected of them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is the issues that Wabi expressed in the book later on. Wabi’s father played a very significant role in developing his daughter’s religious life and also making her more determined to meet her goals; this is a result of his constant resent to her idea of being a nun. Wabi’s father realized that his resentment to his daughter’s decisions would not change her view, but would only contribute to her desire to fulfill her dream and support her in her quest of becoming a nun (Sid 98).
As suggested by Sid (100), Wabi’s father encouraged his daughter to be what she wanted to be without backing down on her ambitions. These words of encouragement definitely played a significant role in ensuring that she would become a nun and thus achieve her goal; her father is also involved in altering the mindset of the men in the society, thus they should have started appreciating the religious females in the society. This definitely changed the society’s perception on religious women.
I think that Wabi’s father was a role model to her in some way. This is because he was a very hard working man who would not take anything to chance and would also stand straight to his words without changing his mind. This attitude gave her the courage to pursue her ambitions without second thoughts.
Work Cited Brown, Sid. The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even Against the Wind. New York: State University of New York Press, 2001. Print
Request for Specific Levels of Funding and Resources Report (Assessment) college admission essay help: college admission essay help
The product we are going to implement is absolutely new for consumers, so internal investment may be available for business. Requesting for internal investment, we are going to point to new marketing strategies and expansion where funded resources are going to be spent.
The chocolate business which is going to be led has financial resources to undertake internal investment (Sprague, 2008). The business should try to spread as much as possible information about the specifics of the business to the potential internal investors to make those interested in the revenue they are going to receive in the future.
A corporate business sponsor is a good opportunity for the company. Having conducted a research it was concluded that there is a sponsor who is ready to finance this kind of business. ING Australia Holdings Limited and ING Australia Pty Limited are the Australian departments of the ING Corporate Investments B.V.
This organization is ready to invest its corporate finances in business which is a strong niche player. Having developed a new niche on the market, the organization should show the priorities and benefits of this business. Having only a business plan, this organization should show its best sides to ING, pointing to the minimal risks.
The development potential should be shown as well. Robust cash flow substantiated forecast is obligatory if “Indulge” wants to get corporate investment from ING Corporate Investments B.V.
This organization also declares other requirements for the company which is interested in being invested, namely engagement of other shareholders, experiences and skilled management, the possibilities for the creation of the value and main requirement is that h business should be understood for the company (ING 2011).
Other Required Resources Except for funding and financial resources, business requires other types of resources, like people, assets, and a business plan. Having searching for investment, it is obvious that we are going to use other people’s resources. Thus, the rent of the space and equipment with the opportunity of further buy-out is a good start for the shop.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Being a simple business, the use of outside advisors may be a good alternative as, still, some decisions should be made in marketing, management, advertising, shop running, etc. Dwelling upon other resources in business, it should be mentioned that it is possible to reduce the costs by means of employing graduate students.
Their services are not very expensive as they lack experience, but the fresh ideas they have are really great. There should be a person responsible for business liability, harassment, and risks. The services of attorney may be used if they are necessary, thus this resource should be outsourced only in emergency cases.
An accountant is a human resource which is inevitable in our case. Internet resources also become important for business development and modeling dynamic online services. It is necessary to create a web site of the company with the novelties offered in the shop and an opportunity to place orders for delivering in the near located offices (like an additional service).
Thus, using only the necessary activities in the organization, it is possible to minimize and marshal resources, which is a guarantee of a successful business. There is no necessity to keep much staff is a shop, different human resources may be outsources when they are necessary. But, it is important to draw the line and employ the required number of resources (Stevenson 2007).
Reference List ING 2011, ‘ING Corporate Investments B.V.’, Commercial Loans, https://www.ing.com.au/home-loans/commercial-loan.html
Sprague, C 2008, ‘Cash Flow’, Cash Flow — Research Starters Business p. 1.
Stevenson, HH 2007, ‘Resource requirements’, in JA Timmons
Smoking Ban in the State of Florida Essay argumentative essay help
Florida enacted a policy to regulate indoor tobacco smoking in July 2003. The aim of this policy was to outlaw smoking in some specific enclosures except in private residences and other selected areas.
The state spends about $ 60 million yearly in controlling tobacco and its related diseases. There is room to reduce this amount substantially if the state puts in place an effective smoking ban policy. This paper looks at policy options and suggests the best.
Of the 17.5% of the Florida’s population who are tobacco smokers, 18.5% are male while 16.4% are female. The state has an annual mortality of about 28,600 people because of tobacco related ailments. It also incurs an expense of up to 25% of its revenue from excise taxes to control tobacco. The majority of smokers in Florida agree that smoking bans are justified.
The current policy came into effect after some amendments of a policy on smoking ban. The quest to come up with such a policy started in 1985.
This current policy only affects workplaces and restaurants. Its major aim is to protect people from the effects of secondhand smoke. The policy, however, leaves out other players in the game, the supplier and the retailer.
Three policy options exist from which the administration can choose. These are the Total Ban Policy, the Partial Ban policy and the Liberated Smoking policy.
The total ban policy entails abolishing smoking in all public places and increasing sales tax on cigarettes. As much as this policy is authoritarian, it aims at protecting the interests of the public whose majority are non-smokers. The policy is in work on about 48% of the American population (Taub, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rationale of this policy is that since tobacco smoking causes killer lung diseases, it is important to protect the people from such smoke and allow only those who intentionally expose themselves to the effects of the smoke.
The policy is authoritarian and ignores the interests of the smokers. It also suggests increase in taxes, which is likely to lower the profits of tobacco companies and hence make them to oppose the policy.
The partial Ban policy suggests an exemption in smoking ban by licensing some areas or establishments. It also proposes an increase in sales tax and the exemption of some public smoking zones by the municipal authorities.
The proponents of this policy suggest that proper ventilation can mitigate the effects of second hand smoke. The rationale of this policy is that people choose to smoke for various reasons, some of which are justifiable medically.
The Liberated Ban policy suggests a partial ban to all public areas and establishments, an increase of the sales tax to $ 1 per pack, registration of all establishments allowing smoking and these should provide well-ventilated smoking zones.
The rationale of this policy is that people smoke voluntarily and therefore the state should not interfere with their freedom. The only thing the state can do is to restrict the extent to which an individual’s freedom affects others. This policy is likely to face criticism from anti smoking campaigners because it does not hold the interests of the public.
The first policy is inappropriate for Florida because the state’s smokers are aware of the effects of smoking and are willing to stop. The second policy is viable because it provides options that are within reach.
We will write a custom Essay on Smoking Ban in the State of Florida specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it will make the smokers secluded just like the first policy. The third policy changes the approach to the fight against smoking making people to take it as their own problem. It is also economically feasible. This makes it the best policy option for Florida.
In conclusion, the best policy option is that which can bring all the involved parties into harmony and help people to participate in governance by civil obedience and positive involvement in policy enforcement.
Reference List Taub, D. (2006).California Town Makes It Tougher to Smoke in Public. Web.
Business strategies in action Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help
Introduction The recent years have been characterized by dramatic business shifts, from equity-based to non-equity based structure of partnership. The great shifts are attributed to research and development activities that have recently dominated the world with an intention of improving scientific and technological knowledge.
The environment of business has also experienced drastic changes, requiring business ventures to take a direction that enhances its competitiveness in a dynamic world.
More over, change is always inevitable since it paves a way for new strategies implementation within business environments. The transition is also responsible for more business productivity and performance (Cantwell and Molero, 2003).
This assessment is aimed at providing a critical assessment of the major causes of business shift from equity-based to non-equity based partnerships. It will also consider the broad changes in the business and technological environment, as well as the features of both equity and non-equity based inter-firm partnerships.
Features of both equity and non-equity based inter-firm partnerships. Two basic models of partnership have been in existence in the business environment. The equity and non-equity based partnerships, though operate in similar business environment, have quite distinct features.
Equity-based partnerships are defined by a linkage of two or more companies forming an organizational unit that is controlled by two or more parent companies. They resemble semi-independent ventures, which are organized hierarchically.
At the same time, they can act independently to perform specific typical functions, including manufacture of products, selling, marketing functions etc. They are mainly characterized by a legalized firm formation that operates indefinitely, where the parent companies share resources, knowledge and collaborate in all activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More More over, operations management is shared equally among the firms in the control of the independent firm. The long relationship firms established are geared towards enhancing competitive advantage, access to markets and business sustainability (Contractor, 2002).
On the other hand, non-equity partnerships are characterized by relationships that are informal since are formed on contract foundations. They are usually short-term agreements between ventures of choice by a particular company.
For instance, Magna International Inc, a known distributor of technologically developed automotive systems has joined hands with other companies, specifically those that manufacture automotives, i.e General Motors, Ford Motor, Honda companies etc.
These ventures require minimized kind of commitment unlike the equity-based ones, since are based on the principle of outsourcing. This entails engagement of companies in activities that can create value and primary support, in areas that are hard for operation by a single venture.
Less experience is needed since the organizations in contract do not have to share equally their knowledge, resources and control in addition to market and equity shares. Thus, their formation is simple and their formation is aimed at accomplishing a specific project within a given period of time (Contractor, 2002).
Changes in the business and technological environment Modern developments have paved way for rampant transitions in both the business and technological environment. Competition has dominated the business environment in the recent years due to the increased number of ventures producing similar products.
At the same time, acquiring competitive advantage in the business field has become quite demanding to an extent of overwhelming single businesses in their operations. The fast-paced world today has embraced outsourcing as the best business strategy to gain competitive advantage, a reason for formation of non-equity based joint ventures.
We will write a custom Assessment on Business strategies in action specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More over, there is an arising need for enhancement of corporate social responsibility in the current environment, which calls for more outgoing strategies that the former (Uddin
Economics of New York Essay essay help online
Introduction New York is one of the globally recognized cities due to its high economic development. The city’s economic growth has undergone several developments from the previous decades to date. This essay highlights most of this progress. The first section explains the city’s overall economic performance.
The second section focuses on the city’s current state with respect to sectoral distribution. The third part highlights the evolution of the city’s economy in the immediate past. The fourth part describes the drivers of the economic changes.
The fifth section focuses on the part played by public authorities in the city’s structural changes. The sixth part is about the city’s main problems and suggested economic strategies that can be applied in addressing the problems. The final part is the conclusion.
The overall performance of New York City’s economy The improvements of New York City’s economic development have benefited both households and firms. This is from 1975 during which New York encountered a serious financial crisis. From that time New York ceased depending so much on debt finance, lowered property based taxation besides improving its financial reports.
Although the overall tax burden has been high, there has been a sharp reduction in the amount of tax used in offsetting short – term loan. Firms and households have also greatly benefited from development in the city’s public transport network which occurred especially towards the end of the nineteenth century.
A location’s attractiveness especially to investment is enhanced by public safety. During 1980s when New York City experienced an economic boom, crime rate was quite high but reduced drastically in 1991 during a recession. This trend went on for the next decade.
Study shows that a sharp decline in the city’s crime rate was experienced in its poorest areas (Okuyama