Teenage Pregnancy In The Modern World Research Paper College Essay Help

Introduction The modern day adolescents are becoming of age in a world that is contrary opposite to that of their parents. The communities around the world are rapidly transforming, thereby bringing about challenges and new responsibilities to the modern age adolescents of 10 to 19 years. However, this change varies differently in the various regions of the world. The birth of a child creates celebration, joy, and astonishment, which are some of the great experiences in the life of humans.

These celebrations occur naturally and easily in the sense that it is difficult for most of us to resist the primal energy released when we are around a newborn. In addition to this, the process of giving birth solidifies the bond shared with the newborn, to one another, to our history, and to the future ahead of our children. Intuitively, perception is created that suggests that every child is part and parcel of the society and a connection to eternity.

In this sense, it is important to understand experiences undergone by children not born inside particular community. Teenage pregnancy is considered as one of the situations affecting celebrations of a child’s life, the people around the child and the community at large (Cherry, 2001).

According to REPROSTAT 2, teenage pregnancy is defined as pregnancy that takes place between 13 to 19 years (Wilpers, 2010, p. 4). Teenage pregnancy was considered a social and public health menace in the past decades of the 20th century by majority of the developed nations. In the United Kingdom for instance, teenage pregnancy was considered a problem that needed intervention, and the British programme was introduce as a long-term initiative of tackling this problem.

In the past, the childbearing age of a woman was not significant as her marital status. This is because economic protection was offered in marriage in a time when the motherhood burden fell ultimately on local communities thus creating stigmatization of unmarried parenthood. The focus later changed from marital status of mothers to their age, thus creating the problem of teenage pregnancy.

The shift of the marital status of the mother to their age was contributed by a number of factors. Popularity increase of cohabitation among the working class made it difficult to condemn unmarried child bearing. Dependency of the youths on their families for economic support and the extension of their adolescence have also contributed to making youthful parenthood a problem (Arai, 2009, p. 3, 4).

The research on this family issue of teenage pregnancy will be conducted with the aid of information derived from the internet and current university programs and measures. Interviews will be undertaken to elaborate how these university programs are used and their effectiveness in sensitizing the public on teenage pregnancy. Examples of programs undertaken in these study institutions will also be expounded on.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Teenage pregnancy in the modern world In the US, teenage pregnancies became a central point of policy concern at an earlier stage than in the UK. In 1975, anxiety had already encroached the US on matters relating to teenage pregnancies. A highly influential report was later on published in 1976 that stated “11 million teenagers: What can be done about the epidemic of adolescent pregnancies in the US” (Arai, 2009, p. 4). This hence led to a widespread of the word epidemic in reference to teenage pregnancy thus initiating further policies (Arai, 2009, p. 4).

The unwanted pregnancy problem had an immense impact on the US congress in the sense that it ceased to be a problem that only affected people who were poor and black to one that affected the young whites. Not only did this menace affect the young whites, the daughters of the congressmen and their neighbors were not spared (Checkland and Wong, 1999, p. 93).

Although adults criticize teenagers of being in a hurry to grow up fast by engaging in a lot of sex activities, the reality indicates that the lowest teen pregnancy of the century were recorded in 1970s,1980s and 1990s.

These pregnancies involved teenagers of 15 to 19 years old (Hawes and Shores, 2001, p. 22). Teenage pregnancy rate in America is among the highest among the developed nations; although the teen pregnancy rate is said to be dropping in the past years in the developed world, in the US, rate is contrary, as it is suggested to be increasing.

The teen pregnancy rate in America for girls of 15-19 years is 96 per1000, in comparison to 35 in Sweden, 14 in Netherlands, 43 in France and 45 for both England and Wales. This hence reflects the dominant position of teenage abortions held by United States. The high rate of teenage pregnancy is a clear picture of family modernism and family modernism. In modern time, majority of teen pregnancy happen out of wedlock, this reflects a portion of modern dimension of the family.

Low levels of teen pregnancy rates are connected to nontraditional perception towards sexuality. According to a research conducted by Alan Guttmacher institute, it was found that countries with the lowest teen pregnancy rates had a liberal perception towards sex. In addition to this, these countries have adequate access to sex education comprehensive programs and free access in attaining contraceptive services.

The same study found out that the United States of America had relative traditional perceptions and practices. The focus on American attitude was based more on sexual morality as opposed to pregnancy prevention. In United States, sex education was found to be limited as the American teenagers were not likely to use contraceptives (Popenoe, 2009, p. 290)

We will write a custom Research Paper on Teenage Pregnancy in the Modern World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to males, the problem with teen pregnancy is not composed of rational behavior of minorities who are poorer but social policies that have been privatized and invented for the sole purpose of avoiding the question at hand.

In addition to this, Males (2010) suggests that teen pregnancy has turned out to be a racial issue as the high rates of teen pregnancy is indicated among black, Hispanic, and Native teens. The distinctive factor is indicated as the high levels of poverty. Males goes on to suggest that the high levels of birth rates in Canada, United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia are mainly attributed to the minorities as well.

In comparison of whites with whites, Males suggests that U.S teen pregnancy levels would be lower than other English speaking nations and among the Western mainstream. Although some people can term the U.S teenage pregnancy rate as not unusual, the fact of the matter remains to be; the economic and demographic structure of the U.S is what is unusual.

This is because, if the United Kingdom possessed the identical demographic as the U.S, then it would be having teen pregnancy rates closer to those of the U.S (Males, 2010, p.117).

Modern efforts of dealing with teenage pregnancy Having attained a deeper understanding of the numerous and adverse effects of pregnancy among the teenagers, a distinctive approach must be undertaken in order to alleviate this problem. The fact that teen pregnancy has multiple causation and dimensions, this means the efforts must be multifaceted. Instantaneous solutions should not be expected as long term goals have to be established.

These goals should be accompanied with objectives designed to meet these goals. Macro as well as micro planning should be undertaken essentially at the local community level as well as the federal government level. The outcomes of the programs undertaken should be shared with all stakeholders.

This can be done through concerned professional vehicles as well as existing mass media. Of most importance is that the programs undertaken that have succeeded should be emulated throughout the nation. In order to succeed there must be commitment from both the federal and the local government by making teen pregnancy one of the top priorities .Additional funds must be incorporated in these programs and their research and demonstration projects (Jones and Battle, 1999, p. 6).

Among the strength of these multifaceted strategies is that education will develop having attained basic skills. A strategic dimension should also be incorporated that will deal with skills building and jobs, so as prepare these teenagers for the future labor force.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Teenage Pregnancy in the Modern World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is through the realization that education will play a significant role in not only enlightening the teenagers on various social issues, but also enriching them with the right skills and competencies that will go a long way in enhancing their future independence. Social support and extracurricular activities should be emphasized to improve self-esteem and provide a strong basis of family values and ties among the teenagers.

The comprehensive health care in question should incorporate parenting skills and sexuality. In this case, the teenagers will not only feel energized to lead normal and complete life, but also have a psychological and emotional confidence and attachment that will allow them to be socially nourished.

Educative workshops should be emphasized to the parents and teenagers as well. In these workshops, educative manuals and curriculum should be adhered to. A good example of these curriculums is “Saying No and Meaning It: A Guide for Parents” a project developed by The National Urban League (NUL).

Sexuality adolescent issues and skills of importance in terms of maintaining proper communication between the child and the parent should also be addressed in these workshops. In the policy sector, the legislation should have an impact on matters pertaining to the welfare and health of teenagers and children as whole (Jones and Battle, 1999, p. 7).

Jones and Battle indicate that in his article, Bruce Hare had suggested that there should be a structural determination in terms of viewing the social system of America. This is for the sole purpose of understanding the disproportionate in allocating the social system lowest slots to the African-American.

In addition to this, Hare indicate that classism, sexism, and racism have had a negative impact on the African-American community and hence they should organize themselves by offering collective activities to the teenagers and demand protection and enforcement of their rights from both the local and federal government in order to save the youths.

Poverty and Racism are the two-twin evil that should be combated in America, as they are responsible for social stratification. The social stratification prevents equal sharing of products and benefits of the community by the African-American citizens.

In order to combat these twin evils there should be responsive militancy as both the tactic and set of the mind should be used by the African-American teenagers to bring the change they yearn for. Moreover, it is through elimination of this social stratification that the society tends to live in harmony and with less conflict of interests.

Schools have a role to play in preventing teenage pregnancies. The special role played by the school in prevention of teen pregnancy is by availing information on sexuality and providing services like counseling. In addition to this the schools should emphasized on the quality of education starting from the levels of elementary school and preschool. Education will hence create a positive experience that will later result to responsive behavior as it enlightens the individual as well as giving him/her a wealth of knowledge.

The church also has responsibility in alleviating teenage pregnancy. According to Jones and Battle, the church should undertake a progressive stance position on issues pertaining to teenage pregnancy as opposed to the conservative position taken (Jones and Battle, 1999, p. 8).

The identified efforts should be embraced not only by the local and federal governments but also by the community at large. Roles played by both the church and the schools should be emphasized. Although there might be some weakness in the church trying to take a conservative position, the fact remains that teenage pregnancy is with us and if we do not do something, nobody will.

The strength of these efforts can be emphasized by the role played by both the local and federal governments. With the government involved in efforts of alleviating teenage pregnancy, issues like availability of funds will be taken care of.

Family planning associates medical group

Family planning associates medical group is one of the institution that is at the forefront in terms of combating issues affecting women. It is recognized internationally as some of its functions include family planning, abortion and women’s health services. The institute offers 24 hour services and is equipped with professionals specialized in gynecology (Family planning associates medical group, 2010)

Planned parenthood

Planned Parenthood is an organization based in US that deals with health care provision and education to millions of women, teenagers and men. The focus of this organization is mainly on women as over the past 90 years the organization has enhanced women’s health in terms of making informative decisions. In addition to this the organization also offers high quality medical care (Planned Parenthood, 2011)

Future policies and community based efforts of alleviating teenage pregnancy Government involvement

The government has a major role to play in alleviating teenage pregnancy among its citizens. The twin evil identified as the main cause of teenage pregnancy is poverty and racism. These evils are subject of eradication if only the government has the goodwill. In the 21st century, the government is not supposed to be still fighting poverty and racism; instead, it is supposed to be focused on other social menace. This therefore indicates that the government should first ensure that the basics of alleviating racism and poverty are tackled before progressing to enhance policies that alleviate teen pregnancy.

Dispelling of myths

Commonly held misconceptions should be challenged and done away with to refuse the notions that tend to assert the evils of poverty and racism. In the future myths concerning teenage pregnancy ought to be a thing of the past. This is because these myths tend to apply the notion of a thin line between adolescent system value and poverty. By doing away with these myths, the nation will be achieving by reducing the rate of teen pregnancy.

Media coverage on teenage pregnancy problem

Media coverage of the issues affecting the community is crucial in alleviating the teenage pregnancy problem. The media is a tool that if used correctly it can play a great role in educating and transforming the community at large on issues pertaining to teenage pregnancy. Highlighting the aftermath of pregnancy at a young age and the effects that accompany it are just but a few ways of tackling the teenage pregnancy problem. In this 21st century, information technology is the key to development.

This therefore indicates that information can be transferred and made available at any moment or time. With the use of the available advanced technology, the teen pregnancy problem can be highlighted thus the exchange of different experiences will open doors to solutions.

Conclusion In the developed nations, the United States is considered as a land of partially family traditionalism, as opposed to a land based on family stability. In comparison to majority of family trends taking place in these societies, the United State is suggested to be a laggard. When compared with other developed nations that reside on the west, the Americans are found to marry more at an earlier age. In addition to this, the Americans possess families that are slightly larger in that, the levels of non-marital cohabitation are partially low.

In respect to family stability, the Americans boast of the highest rate in marital dissolution. In this sense, the United States is trying to reach other advanced societies while on the other hand the rest of the advanced societies are trying to reach the standards of United States. In general, the standards of family change in America are slightly different as compared to other developed nations. While the marriage age is ascending, the rate of marriages is descending.

References Arai, L. (2009). Teenage pregnancy: the making and unmaking of a problem. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Checkland, D., and Wong, W. (1999). Teen pregnancy and parenting: social and ethical issues. London: University of Toronto Press.

Cherry, A. L., (2001). Teenage pregnancy: a global view. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group Inc.

Family Planning Association Medical Group. (2010). Family Planning Associates Medical Group: Personal and Confidential for Women since 1969. Web.

Hawes, J. M., and Shores, E. F., (2001). The family in America: an encyclopedia, Volume 1. California: ABC-CLIO.

Jones, D. J., and Battle, S. F. (1999). Teenage pregnancy: developing strategies for change in the twenty-first century. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.

Males, M. M., (2010). Teenage Sex and Pregnancy: Modern Myths, Unsexy Realities. California: ABC-CLIO.

Planned Parenthood. (2011). Planned Parenthood: Who We Are. Retrieved from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/about-us/who-we-are

Popenoe, D. (2009). Disturbing the nest: family change and decline in modern societies. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.

Wilpers, B. (2010). Teenage Pregnancies in the UK and Their Perception in the British Print Media. Berlin: GRIN Verlag.


Statements about Justice Compare and Contrast Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

To Kill a Mocking Bird

The Merchant of Venice


Works Cited

Introduction For many years drama has been used as a means of altering social perception with regard to various social issues. For example, literature on the issue indicates that effective use of drama can change student attitude towards various pervasive issues such as bullying (Belliveau, 136). In this report an analysis will be performed on two classic texts to identify statements about justice woven within them. It is hoped that such statements can be crafted into plays and used to teach social justice throughout society.

To Kill a Mocking Bird In this text one of the statements about justice that becomes apparent as the story builds is the presence of racial prejudice in Maycomb (Lee, 25). This is made evident by observing the description provided in the text about the trial of Tom Robinson. The accused is a black man and has been charged with the rape of Mayella Ewell, daughter of Bob Ewell. Despite the fact that there is little evidence that can conclusively prove guilt of the accused, the court proceeds to find him guilty and sentences him to prison.

The manner in which the trial is carried out and the judge’s attitude indicate that the trial of a black man especially in a case against a white lady was influenced to a large extent by expectations of the community instead of the facts. Further the reaction of the town people towards Atticus and his family after his decision to represent Tom indicate the existence of racial prejudice in the Maycomb community.

Another statement on justice that appears in the text is the lack of fairness in the Maycomb community. In the course of the trial it becomes apparent that despite the fact that Mayella has been raped and bruised, her bruises could only have been caused by a left handed individual (Lee, 26).

The text proceeds to establish that her Father, a drunkard is left handed and most likely is the perpetrator of the crime. This unfair trial is embarrassing to people such as Ms. Maudie who decline to attend (Lee, 26). Such suggestions in the text allow the conclusion that the text exhibits the absence of equality in provision of justice in Maycomb.

The people of Maycomb as portrayed in the text indicate that the community was not established in equality. This is witnessed in the scene that describes the common and respectable folk of the town ganging up and making an effort to lynch Tom Robinson. This attempt is only thwarted with the intervention of Atticus which sees him branded a “nigger lover” (Lee, 61).

This fact is further pointed out in an analysis of the facts of this era that indicates that during this period over 600 similar incidents were reported (Lee, 61). It is also indicated that these events were perpetrated by normal and respectable town folk alike in a bid to maintain the superiority of the Anglo Saxon race (Lee, 61). This information only goes further to prove the veracity of the story in relation to the era.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the story also provides a good example of statements about justice in the actions of Boo Radley. Following the embarrassing trial Bob Ewell vows to take revenge on Atticus and his family for allegedly damaging his reputation. In the events that follow an enraged Bob Ewell attacks the children Scout and Jem in a secluded spot (Lee, 69). In the confrontation that follows an unknown stranger comes to the children’s aid and saves the day.

This unknown stranger turns out to be the reclusive Boo Radley. In the course of the text this character has been portrayed as a reclusive individual lurking behind the shadows. This action by Boo to protect the rights of the innocent provides a bold statement about justice. Unfortunately in the process the attacker is severely injured and looses his life providing us with a situation that provides a mild statement on punishment of the guilty.

The Merchant of Venice In the tragic comedy depicted in this text the theme of prejudice is indicated in the action of Antonio towards Shylock. In the text, Shylock, is in the business of lending money with interest to people of the town. Antonio is a rich merchant and also on occasion lends money to the town folk without interest. It is possible that the anti Semitic attitude Antonio exhibits by spitting on Shylock is as a result of unscrupulous business practices (Stevens and Shakespeare, 33). The Jews in Europe during this era were shrewd business people and as a result there was much envy between them and the local population.

The text also provides scenes that depict unfairness in society. This is witnessed in the text illustrating an encounter between Antonio and Shylock in a hearing on the debt owed by Antonio. On this occasion Shylock behaves unfairly probably in revenge for a past disagreement (Stevens and Shakespeare, 33).

The section of the text describes how Basanio upon hearing of his comrade’s dilemma rushes to his aid. In an attempt to resolve the issue Basanio offers to settle the debt by offering two times the principal amount. Shylock promptly refuses this offer stating that the contract between him and Antonio allows him to extract a pound of flesh as compensation.

Shylock in a statement that exhibits his unfairness by refuses to accept the offer by Basanio and insists on the extraction of flesh to repay the debt (Stevens and Shakespeare, 34). It should be noted that by law the duke is entitled to arbitrate and must see to the honoring of a contract. The duke is therefore bound by the contract despite Shylock’s unreasonable demands. This shows the degree to which the society regards the importance

The duke being bound by the contract accepts the efforts of intermediation by Balthazar. This Balthazar happens to be Basanio’s bride who in disguise makes a clever attempt to arbitrate (Stevens and Shakespeare, 134). The Duke by conceding to this option shows fairness in standing firm in enforcing a legal contract.

We will write a custom Essay on Statements about Justice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As earlier stated the Duke plays a role of the highest legal authority in the land. If the Duke were to allow Antonio to breach a contract that was legally made in his presence it would set a bad legal precedence. For this reason the Duke is forced to stick by the law with regards to contracts.

Fortunately for Antonio the clever plot by the impostors reveals a flaw in the legal contract. It is established that though the contract allows the extraction of flesh it makes no mention of blood (Stevens and Shakespeare, 166). The impostors thus demand that Shylock extract the pound of flesh without drawing any blood or risk forfeiting the debt.

This scenario also provides another example of fairness. Shylock having been adamant in receiving his due in the manner stated in the contract is unable to enforce it in the manner stated. What follows is Shylock grudgingly accepts defeat and accepts to receive cash payment in lieu of the debt. However, since he had declined it the law now requires he forfeits the full amount (Stevens and Shakespeare, 170). This also portrays a statement about fairness.

The text also provides a statement on prejudice on the occasion when Jessica, Shylock’s daughter elopes with Lorenzo (Stevens and Shakespeare, 64).

The young man, Lorenzo is a Christian and Jessica elopes with him taking a substantial amount of her father’s wealth in the process (Stevens and Shakespeare, 64). This fact that his daughter will convert to Christianity causes Shylock much anger suggesting his dislike for Christians. This fact is supported by Shylock’s statement on meeting Antonio describing his dislike for Christians (Stevens and Shakespeare, 28).

Conclusion In this report the discussion presented has attempted to provide information that reveals various statements about justice woven into the text. Both texts can be used to represent communities around the world and their relations. It is possible that through observation of these communities and how they relate we too can learn to improve our present situation.

It has been reported that arts, especially drama can be a good medium for creating awareness and altering perceptions about perverse social issues. It is hoped that through the analysis of these texts our schools may be encouraged to seek new means to educate the young generation on social issues.

Works Cited Belliveau, George. “An Art Based Approach to Teach Social Justice: Drama as a Way to Address Bullying in Schools.” International Journal of Arts Education 3.2 (2005): 136-165. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Statements about Justice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird: Blooms Guides: Comprehensive Research and Study Guides. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2010.Print.

Stevens, John, and William Shakespeare. The Merchant of Venice. Clayton: Prestwick House Inc, 2005. Print.


A Just War: Where Fake Faces the Reality Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Plato’s Concept of War: Learning to be Decent

Augustine: Leading a Christian War

The Two Ideas Compared



Plato’s Concept of War: Learning to be Decent In spite of the fact that the mankind has been leading wars all the history long, the periods of peace and quiet changing with the devastating fights, most philosophers take the humane approach when considering the idea of war, thus regarding the latter as inappropriate.

Among them was the great Plato, who understood that even the resilience of the world could not take constant battles one changes with another. Claiming that war can be neither just, nor rescannable, he claims it to be one of those inevitable but destructing things.

In his early works, Plato seemed to take the position which nowadays could be called a humanistic one, considering that the states at war are destined to face terrible disorders. Plato considered that there were actually no winners in this game, for even the states which win the war are to face the devastation, the famine and the misery of the war.

Plato’s logic was that both countries are destined in be in ruins as the war ends, and the tasted of victory would be far too bitter to triumph. In his dialogue with Alchibiades he says that he finds the war unjust and contradicting human’s nature. Arguing Achibiadus back his reasoning of war as an action completely unjust, he says:

Soc.: Now, what of this? Whom will you advised the Athenians to wage war against, those behaving unjustly, or those practicing the just things?

Alc.: What you are asking is a terrible thing; for even if someone had it in his mind that war ought to be waged against those practicing the just things, he would not admit to it, at least.[1]

The sarcasm of Socrates cannot but be admired. With controversial statements he pushes his opponent to thinking that war is an unjust witch with an ugly face, a thing which has nothing to do with humanity and decency.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Augustine: Leading a Christian War Whenever there is a need to balance the justice between the states, either ruler has to resort to strict measures and to call people to protect their homeland and fight for the ideas which they appreciate most. According to Augustine, war can be used as a defense mechanism against the invaders or a weapon to fight with for people’s beliefs and faith.

Augustine’s doctrine suggests that war can be just, and, moreover, that it has to be just. In his understanding, the sacred idea of protecting the homeland and the faith from the pagans and the unfaithful means more than the earthy life. The ideas of Augustine proclaim fighting for justice, and it seems that he was more than determined to win in his fight. Considering the just war as the means to restore the peace on the earth, he interpreted the idea of war as the idea of serving the homeland and the religion of the forefathers.

Taking into consideration Augustine’s understanding of peace and the peace in a state, it is possible to presume that Augustine considered war as another means of piece-making:

Because the name “peace” is also frequently used with respect to things which are subject to death, where there is certainly no eternal life, we prefer to call the end of this city, where its highest good will be, “central life” rather than “peace”.[2]

Thus, Augustine was gear up for war much more than Plato with his ideas of justice as peaceful problem-solving. Understanding that people are quite unlikely to submit to the other faith and other state ruler without struggling, Augustine considered war the only way to convert the unfaithful. To be more metaphorical, his idea of war was the position of a stronger state, while the mild ideas of Plato were the position of the strongest state.

The Two Ideas Compared Considering the viewpoints of both philosophers, it is necessary to say that Plato’s arguments on leading the war clash with the ideas of Augustine in quite a conflict. In contrast to the weighed and reasonable ideas of war which Plato suggests, Augustine molds the basis of the war ideology on the idea that war can be a means to achieve piece.

In contrast to Augustine, Plato thinks that prudence and strategic thinking is the key element of war: “Don’t you know that when we make war we begin to wage war after accusing each other of some affront and what term we use when we begin?”[3] Plato wants to analyze the war, making it closer to a chess game where the leaders have to think logically and make its course more predictable.

We will write a custom Essay on A Just War: Where Fake Faces the Reality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A brilliant strategist, Plato emphasizes the importance of the soldiers as the layer of society which will help the rulers to achieve the glory and to make the lives of the citizens safe. As a philosopher, Socrates understands that every element in the chain of state life is important; once letting one element loose, the chain will get broken for good. Thus, Plato’s strategy-and-order structure sounds as a well-thought idea of a state.

In contrast to Plato, Augustine suggests something completely different. What Augustine makes prior for the state is the faith and the religion. In Augustine’s understanding of the duty of the Christians, the latter are supposed to fight for their ideas as hard as they can. Avoiding expressing his ideas of what makes a just war, Augustine still made it clear that the three elements of justice must be present to call war a decent fight.

“The three jus ad bellum criteria of rightful (or legitimate) authority, just cause, and right intention, and even hint at the connection between the latter come to be called jus in bello”[4]. Thus, Augustine admits that war can be just, and he insists that there are certain elements which make it such.

Owing to the fact that “Augustine was never elaborate in his comments on just cause”[5], it is possible to suggest that the great philosopher was more of a tactician, while Plato was a strategist, which predetermined the difference in their understanding of war. Nevertheless, the great theories of the ancient philosophers survived the time testing and reached our epoch.

Denying the possibility if just war, Plato’s ideas prove not a bit less important than the ones of Augustine, and vice versa. The ideal war is impossible, so people had better start making the ideal peace.

Bibliography Reighberg, Gregory M., Henric Syse and Endre Begby. The Ethics of War: Classic and Contemporary Readings. New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Print.

Footnotes . Reighberg, Gregory M., Henric Syse and Endre Begby. The Ethics of War: Classic and Contemporary Readings (New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 22

. Reighberg, Gregory M., Henric Syse and Endre Begby. The Ethics of War: Classic and Contemporary Readings (New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 78

Reighberg, Gregory M., Henric Syse and Endre Begby. The Ethics of War: Classic and Contemporary Readings (New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 22

Reighberg, Gregory M., Henric Syse and Endre Begby. The Ethics of War: Classic and Contemporary Readings (New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 81

Reighberg, Gregory M., Henric Syse and Endre Begby. The Ethics of War: Classic and Contemporary Readings (New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 82


The Renaissance in Europe Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Renaissance was considered to be a time where there was exercise of a lot of inventiveness in art, structural designs, science, and writing in literature. This period lasted in Europe at an approximated period of three centuries between 1300 and 1600 which led to the interventions of the printing press as well as telescope.

There were also construction of beautiful buildings and great practice of theater thrived during this time. It is a new birth which happened through the resurrection of the dead ideas and taking a new state of action. In this exercise humanism was promoted in that there were changes which were made on the human role and figure. Therefore, humanism development during the renaissance period was considered as an attempt by the renaissance artists to perfect the perfect man.

To start with, there were visual and the literal work which were done by different artists such as the Da Vinci, Bellini, Van Eyck, and Titian among others which were meant to show man in a more perfect light. The whole reason behind the renaissance artists was the representation of nature in their work where the standards were however deviated into the reflection of the human beings as the central focus.

Through the art work, there was also the achievement of beauty which happened to surpass the humanistic values by then. In the exercise, there was the revise of the artistic treasures as well as the intellectual ones that lead to more inspirations into artistic greatness (King, 2003).

Da Vinci in his work portrayed the ideal and the real human efforts as it was possible to view into the inner essence presented in the paintings. He therefore made a change on the way paintings and the carvings or sculptures which were made by presenting misty scenery in the set backgrounds such as the Mona Lisa yet she had no eyebrows.

Bellini also a renaissance artist brought the human work of art on paintings in the realization of a different degree through the production of softening effects on his work. In his paintings, there were synchronization of colors, presentation of light, and the mood.

Van Eyck perfected the perfect man through oil painting sighting which was associated with the limitless effect. In his paintings, there was presentation of any form of emotional status. Before then, tempra which was composed of just one layer was not used in paintings but Van was among the first artist to use it followed by the use of the oil layer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In conclusion, renaissance is said to place and value human beings in the central positioning of the life’s phase and there was therefore an infusion of ideas and thoughts which were promoted by the acts of art with creation values. The art work achievement was seen as one way which indicated the human ingenuity through his efforts thus it promoted meeting of their daily needs. The civilization which happened in Greek was no longer considered as partial influence.

A return into consciousness was experienced on people’s ancient culture which was made possible by the high desires which were held in the re-production of their culture where the renaissance artists played a very significant role on the same. Therefore, the perfect man was finally perfected through promotion of order, sense of balance and also harmony in the development of the humanism and renaissance (Duiker


Social Problem: Abortion Essay college application essay help

Introduction From a historical point of view, abortion has found use as one of the ways to prevent births in the society. It was only in mid-nineteenth century that the United States legally prohibited the practice. Until the 1960s, no one appeared to challenge the laws that had been enacted to prohibit the procurement of abortion. However, during the 1960s, the abortion laws were successfully challenged by an abortion reform movement.

This led to the modification of a number of the state laws to allow physicians to procure abortions, but on the basis of the specific cases at hand (Lamanna