Introduction To most people, communication is about exchanging information from one party to another but looking from a deeper perspective there is more to communication than to what we usually perceive. Communication is defined as a learned skill; since a majority group is born with a talking skill but there is always need to learn how to speak and communicate with others effectively.
Our ability to speak, listen and understand verbal and nonverbal meanings develop in various ways and depends on different situations. These situations rely on observing, teaching in the class, and practicing what is learnt to be evaluated by others (Anon, n.d). Effective communication is always advisable in order to convey the desired information to the receiving party.
Information Communication Revolution As time has progressed so has technology; this has made things much easier for human beings. Researchers have divided communication into three revolutions. The first revolution consisted of drawing immobile objects while the second revolution was associated with transfer of information to others. The third revolution consisted transfer of information through waves and electronic signals and this is the generation we are still in.
Types of Communication Nonverbal communication:
This is the process of receiving wordless messages from one entity to the other and these non-verbal forms of communication are usually determined by the posture, gesture, body language, eye contact, and facial expression among others. Non-verbal communication plays a key role in every person’s day-to-day life from ordinary life to other special engagements in life. Speech as a non-verbal communication may contain elements of non-verbal communication such as Para-language, which may include voice quality, emotion, and speaking style. The features of non-verbal communication can be divided into static and dynamic. Static features of non verbal communication include posture (e.g. lying down) while dynamic features include facial expressions frowning and yawning among others.
This is the process of conveying message in a form that can be read; primarily, it is involved with two-dimensional images e.g. signs, drawings, and graphics. Visual communication relies on vision (what can be seen). It explores the notion of power in visual messages. Visual communication is mostly reliable when a case of future reference is needed or when similar message need to be sent to many receivers and when conveying of the message requires a step-by-step procedure.
The process of conveying messages or information through the word of mouth is defined as oral communication. This method of communication is mostly used when discussions are needed and when immediate reaction is needed from the other side. Among the above methods the best depends on the purpose of conveying the message, resources required when stressing the importance of the information needed among other requirements.
Principles of Communication Listening
This is an art in communication and has rules to be followed. Researchers say that when we listen, we learn, and we grow. Listening involves mutual acknowledgement of the other party and also creates an emotional atmosphere. Acknowledgement of the other person presence enhances better communication.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is always advisable to listen first to whatever you are being told and then you acknowledge before you can express what your point of view is. Acknowledging at least confirms to the other party that atleast you were listening. Listening and repeating the information in your own words makes it easier to understand the situation by putting yourself in the other person’s shoes.
Among the many problems that are faced in the communication process, perception is one of the worst. It usually happens when we judge people by the way they look but not by their deeds or by the information they present. Some people are written off during presentations just because of the way they appear or the way they are dressed. Prejudice hinders the effectiveness of communicating with other parties since the cloud is formed at the first instance of what is expected.
To connect with the audience is also a very important principle during communication. The presenter should always have prior information of who his or her audience will be so as to enable him prepare psychologically in advance of what to present and what the audience expects from him.
Before the presentation of any information, the informer should be well versed with all the details about the topic to avoid embarrassments from the crowd who may be curious about more information and as the conveyor, you find yourself being cowed of not knowing much about the topic (Hall
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The assignment instructions and information have been given in a document in the files section. Read all instructions thoroughly and answer the questions with a high degree of accuracy.
The following are some examples of the types of sources the writer can use for the assignment; scholarly sources, government sites, NGOs and media sources. Be sure to use reliable sources of information.
Business Ethics Explicatory Essay best college essay help
Ardent scholars of religious history will realize that St. Augustine’s assertions concerning Christianity and business are contradictory to the message advanced by this book. For those who have not heard about the fifth century cleric, the author mentions him on several occasions, albeit with contempt.
This is because of his ideologies and the sentiments he espoused, terming business a sin and arguing that Christians should neither own nor run these ventures. As a result, he interrogates the credibility of this allegation and sets out to establish if a business venture can be operated successfully within parameters set be the Christian religion.
The writer acknowledges that business operators are faced with unending challenges, most of which are controversial and may be contradictory to the core beliefs of Christianity. He cites the example of a business venture run by Christians that prioritized service instead of profits.
Fiscal uncertainties forced a merger with a similar minded firm, which in turn merged with another bigger establishment. The result was a clear contrast from the initial objectives of the business as operational principles were utterly overhauled (Chewning, Eby and Roels, 2010).
The writer attempts to address the issue of Christianity among business operators in capitalist societies. He cites the profit driven nature of this set up and the way it contradicts fundamental Christian beliefs of charity and sharing with the less fortunate. He argues that the nature of business is determined by the political and economic environment.
It is disappointing that he fails to advance this argument further and opts to draw conclusions from the bible that he feels address the issue conclusively. He concludes that people should discern the parameters of the socioeconomic system carefully and make decisions that will extol the Christian beliefs they profess (Chewney et al., 2010).
He further argues that accomplishments are not determined by the titles held by persons denoting the capacities in which they serve. He advocates for a different method of measuring success by establishing personal goals, as opposed to indiscriminate competition with rivals. He concludes that prosperity and profitability in business should not be equated to God’s approval and favor, rather it should be perceived as due reward for diligence and discipline in the course of running the business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He supports this by citing that Christians should set realistic goals for themselves, which are easily attainable and will not tempt people to engage in sinful practices. He closes this argument by citing cases in the bible where Israelites underwent tribulations but still had God’s favor and protection with them, urging Christians to be patient at all times (Chewney et al., 2010).
A new concept is also introduced when he talks about having covenant agreements with employees as opposed to contractual agreements. This implies that employers should focus on what is fair and right when transacting with employees as well as clients. By doing this, all the necessary privileges will be accorded in right proportions to persons who deserve them, ensuring fairness.
Kindness should accompany justice at all times. All situations should be resolved with kindness, irrespective of the factors that initiated the occurrence. Disputes should be settled in the same matter in order to uphold decorum, hence efficiency at the workplace (Chewney et al., 2010).
Employers should exhibit humility when dealing with their juniors. This includes many acts, like giving positive rewards for negative outcomes. Drawing reference from the bible, the author supports this argument laying emphasis on civility when handling negative behavior in the workplace.
The management should be legitimately concerned about employee affairs and communicate their requirements clearly. He chides those with a tendency of participating in simplistic arguments, warning that correction should be administered fairly without bias.
By following these guidelines, the Christian entrepreneur identifies with God and His preferred way of doing things. This makes them competent stewards with the desired administration capacity, hence giving them an authentic identity and behavior fully representative of true Christian entrepreneurs (Chewney et al., 2010).
Reference Chewning, R. C, Eby J. W.
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Table of Contents Introduction
Research Design and Methodology
Suicide Cases among the Youth
Introduction The issue of increasing cases of suicide incidences among the youth in the contemporary society has attracted a lot of attention from sociologists and other scholars. A single theory cannot adequately explain such a complex issue as suicide. Biological, genetics, psychological and social factors work together to influence the decision to commit suicide (Holmes, 2010).
The adolescent age is characterized by much discord, mayhem, and identity crisis. Suicide has been attributed to various causes ranging from broken relationships to impulsivity. The question remains whether these are the precipitating factors or the actual causes of suicide among the youth in the world today.
Scholars formulated theories that attempt to explain the reasons for suicide. Sigmund Freud attributed suicide to unconscious forces and hostility that was directed inward (Holmes
Starting Your Own Business Essay (Article) essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Summary of the article
Summary of the article According to Statistics Canada, about fifty percent of new businesses close within the first four years of their existence (Jarman 17).
In order to prevent the beginning entrepreneurs from immediate failure in the world of business, several guidelines are provided by experienced and successful businesspeople. Initially, it is significant to establish a client base even before one quits one’s old job and sets up a business. A good client base includes sufficient quality and quantity of customers may take several years to build.
That is why it is advisable to start working on a client base in advance and to use a number of possible client sources, such as: one’s previous job contacts, community and business clubs, and various professional associations (Jarman 17-18). References from one’s previous job may be of great help when establishing a client base, since they add credibility to the business owner.
Another way of creating a credible image of a new business is possessing multiple designations. For one hand, this imparts an air of expertise to one’s business card. For another thing, it allows to succeed professionally in several overlapping areas, which increases one’s competitiveness.
In any case, it is advisable to take time and enter a mature age before starting an own enterprise. The reason for this is that once a person is older, financial obligations are settled and more money is available for the needs of the new business (Jarman 18). In addition, mature age can boast more references and contacts, as well as results in higher credibility. Last but not least, mature people do not have to care for dependant children and therefore have more time and energy for setting up a business.
Family support is a vital factor for the success of a new business. Once a business is started, the family should realize that the business-owner cannot maintain an ideal work-life balance and therefore he or she should obtain more help with the domestic tasks. Care should be taken when entering into a partnership with a family member, since it may lead to a collapse of both the relation and the business.
As for gender stereotypes, Jarman claims that being a male or a female does not matter for the success of a business (19). The last guideline for beginning entrepreneurs is not to ignore the opportunities of a franchise, since despite the necessity of paying fees and royalties, a new business can benefit from the training, marketing, and referential help obtained within a franchise (Jarman 19).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Business topic The article under discussion is most closely connected to concepts and ideas presented in Chapter 3, “The Challenges of Starting a Business” (Collins 49–70). The subject highlighted in the article is the way beginning entrepreneurs can increase their chances for success. Jarman provides simple yet efficient advice based on the experience of self-employed professionals who have prospered in their business initiatives.
The author of the textbook emphasizes the idea that small business ownership can be very rewarding: it provides the business owner with such benefits as independence, financial rewards, lifestyle advantages, learning opportunities, as well as creates freedom and personal satisfaction (Collins 55).
The article echoes this idea in a similar way, stressing the especial value of personal satisfaction voiced by successful entrepreneurs (Jarman 19). In spite of the existing financial risks and the necessity to bring one’s lifestyle in accordance with the new business requirements, the independence and the personal freedom obtained by self-employed businesspeople provide sufficient compensation for the possible inconveniencies.
Both Collins and Jarman discuss the factors that should be taken into account before starting a new business. Among the possible options, starting from scratch is described by both authors as risky, since the beginning entrepreneur does not possess the necessary background and reputation among customers (Collins 58; Jarman 18). Building a loyal customer base is named as one of the key priorities for a beginning businessperson.
Franchise is seen as an attractive business opportunity by the authors of both the textbook and the article. Among the advantages of franchise as an ownership option, both Collins and Jarman name the expertise of franchisor head office that can provide guidance on many aspects of starting and developing a business (Collins 58; Jarman 19).
The disadvantages of franchise, agreed upon by both authors, are the necessity to follow the general company rules even if they do not seem attractive to the business owner, and to pay rather high fees for participation in a franchise.
Business terms Entrepreneur is defined as “an individual who identifies a business opportunity and assumes the risks of creating and running a business to take advantage of it” (Collins 51). The article is addressed to beginning entrepreneurs who need guidance with starting their business.
We will write a custom Article on Starting Your Own Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise (SME) is defined as “a business that is independently operated and employs fewer than 500 people” (Collins 51). The article addressed the issues of starting a small enterprise.
Business is defined as “an activity that provides goods or services to consumers for the purpose of making a profit” (Collins 3). The article focuses on the principles of starting a new business .
Franchise is defined as “a form of business in which a franchisor (a seller) grants a franchisee (a buyer) the right to use a brand name and to sell its products or services” (Collins 59). In the article, franchise is discussed as one of the attractive opportunities for beginning businesspeople since it provides a lot of highly professional guidance on starting and running a business.
Marketing is described as “everything that a company does to identify customers’ needs and design products to meet those needs” (Collins 4). In the article, marketing is mentioned among the areas where starting entrepreneurs need guidance in.
Self-employed is defined as “not working for an employer but finding work for yourself or having your own business” (Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary). The article provides advice on self-employed people.
Personal impact The article has confirmed many of the key principles of starting a business that are laid out in the textbook. The lively and down-to-earth style used by the author of the article, together with a scientific approach to research, sounds the more convincing and produces a deep impact on me as a reader.
Examples of successful or unsuccessful decisions for starting a business provided by the author serve as convincing proofs to support her guidelines. The article has summarized and extended my knowledge about the possible pitfalls faced by beginning entrepreneurs and about the ways to avoid those pitfalls.
In terms of future, the information learnt form the article can serve as a guiding material for me in case I want to start an own business. Knowing the necessary background for small entrepreneurship, I can access the risks better and therefore can prepare myself for a business career much more efficiently.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Starting Your Own Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Cambridge Dictionaries Online, 2010. Web. .
Collins, Karen M. Exploring Business. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Education Canada, 2010. Print.
Jarman, Samantha. “Thinking of starting your own business? Six tactics for increasing your chances of success.” CMA Management 83.9 (2010): 16-19. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Web.
Types of Psychological Disorders Research Paper argumentative essay help
Psychological disorders are set of mental illnesses that primarily cause distress to individuals’ hence, negatively affecting all spheres of their lives. These disorders are manifested by a set of behavioural or psychological symptoms exhibited by individuals under undue distress. In most cases, psychological disorders result from an alteration on an individual’s normal development process, caused by an interaction between genetic factors and environmental stressors.
According to the World Health Organisation and other Global Psychiatric organisations, there exist more than one hundred and fifty types of psychological disorders that fall into different classes that include: eating, somatoform, factitious, cognitive, learning, trauma, disruptive, psychotic, dissociative, psychiatric, schizophrenia, adjustment, anxiety, and ,impulse control disorders (World Health Organisation 24-42).
As research studies show, as compared to other health problems, globally, psychological disorders are the most common form of body disorders that affect most individuals.
For example, in the United States alone, more than 46% of individuals have been victims of a mental illness at one point of their lives; of these 26.2% adults of over eighteen years. Further, by 2005, the global mental illness actual lifetime prevalence was almost 85% (Kessler, Berglund, Demler, Jin, Merikangas, Walters 593-599).
Therefore, considering the detrimental effects of psychological illness on every aspect of an individual’s life, it is important for individuals to seek quick intervention measures, once they experience any psychological distress.
Types of psychological disorders Eating Disorders
Majority of individuals with eating disorders are compulsively concerned with their body weights and sizes. Hence, these individuals will do anything at their disposal to make sure they maintain or reduce their body sizes to sizes they or the society perceives to be the most appropriate. The common types of eating disorders include bulimia nervosa, obesity, compulsive eating, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating.
Individuals suffering from bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are obsessively concerned with any weight they gain; hence, these individuals excessively control their eating habits, to avoid fattening. It is important for individuals to note that, sufferers of anorexia nervosa are the worst affected, because most of them are thin and exhibit signs of amenorrhea; hence, most of their weights are below the standard body weight.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to this obsession, most sufferers of these conditions may involve themselves in abnormal behaviours, for example, abuse of laxatives and anorectics, self-induced vomiting, binge-eating, starvation, avoidance of certain foods. Bulimia nervosa is common in more than 4.6% of women globally, whereas anorexia nervosa affects approximately 2% and 0.2% of women and men respectively.
These psychological problems that may result due to continuous family conflicts between spouses, the need for self-identity, societal and media influences, or in some cases they can be learned behaviours. Unless controlled, these disorders can cause anaemia, malnutrition, and death (mostly in starvation cases).
Contrary to bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa, obesity and compulsive eating sufferers are obsessed with eating. These individuals have poor eating habits; hence, they always find themselves consuming beyond recommendable quantities, which unless controlled can cause excessive accumulation of fats in the body. Such accumulations are detrimental to an individual’s wellbeing; as this may result in other complications for example, type two diabetes, stroke, the heart, liver, and gallbladder complications.
Therefore, because of the complex nature of health complications that may result from these disorders, it is important for individuals to seek treatment, which can be inform of mental health and cognitive behavioural therapy, or nutritional counselling (National Institute of Mental Health: NIMH 1).
Dissociative disorders are a class of disorders that affect the normal functioning of individuals’ consciousness and acuity of their immediate environments, because of trauma. These disorders may also affect an individual’s memory identity, which can be gradual or impulsive, temporary or persistent.
Therefore, most sufferers of these disorders are faced with problems of coping with life’s challenges. Common types of dissociated disorders include depersonalisation disorder, depersonalisation NOS, dissociative fugue, recovered memories and false memory, ganser, and cultural syndromes, and dissociative amnesia.
Most suffers of Dissociative amnesia have a tendency of forgetting their personal information, whereas those suffering from dissociative fugue sometimes forget about their surrounding; hence in most cases their state of mind will be in an imagined world. In addition, Individuals suffering from the depersonalisation disorder will tend to assume their personalities hence, they will take an external observers’ personality and read their mental processes and characters.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Types of Psychological Disorders specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The worst type of the dissociative disorders is the dissociative identity disorder, as most suffers of this condition have high suicidal tendencies. Primary treatment remedies to these disorders include psychotherapy and counselling, as most of these conditions need careful handling and proper understanding of a patient’s state of mind (Nijenhuis 7-17).
Somatoform Disorders Somatoform disorders are a group of disorders that have symptoms that almost resemble those exhibited by individuals suffering from some form of physical diseases. However, unlike physical illnesses that has physical causes, this form of disorders lack physical causes. Symptoms associated with somatoform disorders are triggered by mental factors; hence, to diagnose these individuals, medical doctors must perform all required diagnostic tests.
The most common types of somatoform disorders are conversion disorder (a severe condition caused by psychological problems, with no recognisable physical cause), undifferentiated somatoform disorder (conditions that illicit signs of some form of physical illness, which are non-existent in reality), and Hypochondriasis (a mental state characterised by fear of underlying diseases that do not exist).
Other somatoform disorders include body dimorphic and somatoform NOS disorders. Common characteristics of these disorders include vomiting, body aches, and vision problems. To deal appropriately with this conditions, suffers have to undergo cognitive therapies and education trainings on how to cope up with the condition (Wise and Fava 1002-1003).
Unlike in somatoform disorders where individuals exhibit signs of some non-existent physical illness, individuals suffering from fictitious disorders exhibit faked symptoms of physical illnesses for psychological contentment. Most of these patients can move from one healthcare centre to another in search of medical care, although in reality they are not sick. This condition can result because of an early traumatic or deprivation experience that individuals might have suffered during their early stages of life.
Majority of these sufferers have higher likelihoods of becoming drug abusers, as most of them do not mind the risk of taking multiple medications. Common types of this disorder include malingering (a premeditated faked sickness), Munchausen syndrome (involves deliberately mentioning of a person when they fake sicknesses for consideration purposes), and Munchausen syndrome by proxy (a condition where individuals force their close family members or friends to fake illness for attention purposes).
Due to the severe nature of consequences that may result from this disorder, it is important for sufferers to seek psychological help, which may include psychotherapy (for purposes of reforming the thinking way of the sufferer), family therapy (for warning purposes on the dangerous nature of these condition), and cognitive –behavioural therapy (for purposes of helping the suffers deal with the condition) (Taylor and Hyler 82-92).
Cognitive disorders are mental illnesses that impair the brain from performing its cognitive functions, which include memory processing, acuity, and problem solving. as research studies show, these from of disorder are the primary causes of other complications, for example, dementia, delirium, phobias, anxiety stress, and other anxiety disorders.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Types of Psychological Disorders by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In extreme cases, these disorders can cause other complex medical problems, for example, growth of malignant tumours, kidney problems, and schizophrenia. Main types of cognitive disorders include Huntington’s disease (a condition that is caused by the wearing out of the brain cells), mental retardation, Parkinson’s disease (a brain nerve anomaly that results in problems of muscle movement), and Amnestic disorder (a medical condition characterised by memorising problems).
Because of the complex nature of medical complications associate with this condition, it is important fro caretakers and families to offer this individuals the kind of help they need, as most of these individuals are prone to many health complications (Long 1).
As research studies show, approximately 18% of United States adults have been victims of anxiety disorders once in their lifetime. These are a form of mental illnesses that are primarily characterised by too much fear, worry, and nervousness. Due to heightened anxiety, most sufferers of this disorder may have heart palpitations, sweat excessively, feel dizzy, have chest pains, and experience heart problems. As research studies show, this is a condition that be caused by the hypersensitivity of the locus or effects of a stressful childhood experience.
There exist three common types of anxiety disorders namely phobias (characterised by intense fear of occurrences such as death, failing in a test, certain animals, suffocation, and addressing a multitude) and post traumatic stress disorder (mostly caused by a traumatic event; hence, characterised by traumatic dreams, hyper vigilance, lack of self control in some traumatic occurrences).
Another common type is the Obsessive compulsive disorder (characterised by intrusive thoughts and recurrent longings to perform certain events). This condition can be caused by caudate nucleus malfunction or an early stressful experience. The primary treatment of these disorders is avoiding of stressful environment, which should be accompanied with psychological counselling and guidance (Long 1).
Schizophrenia is one of the most dangerous mental conditions, because the disorder can seriously affect the thinking process and emotional alertness of individuals. Its primary characteristics include auditory phantasms (accounts for 66% of schizophrenic cases), bizarre delusions (accounts for 44% of schizophrenic cases), and speech and thinking problems (accounts for 65% of all schizophrenic cases).
Of all the mental illnesses, this is the most common mental illness that affects most individuals. This condition affects approximately forty million individuals globally, and d in most cases unless well diagnosed, it is very hard to give it the desired treatment remedy. As research studies show, approximately 50% of individuals with schizophrenia cases remain untreated, as individuals never discover that they are schizophrenic.
The most common subtypes of schizophrenia include the paranoid, disorganised, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual type. To treat this illness completely, individuals have to go through an electroconvulsive therapy or numerous sessions of occupational psychotherapies, or they can use some medication to control the disease (NIMH 1).
Learning disorders are mental illnesses that affect the knowledge comprehending capacity of individuals, or their ability to correctly apply spoken or written language, or the capacity to control and coordinate movements in an appropriate manner.
The most common types of leaning disorders include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (a condition characterised by lack of concentration), Dyscalculia (inability to solve mathematical problems), and dyslexia (reading problems). Primary remedies to these illnesses include speech and language, and psychological therapies, which should be accompanied with some medications (Schulte 598-608).
In conclusion, considering the fact that, mental disorders are causes by either genetic anomalies or agents in the environment, individuals should reduce stressors in their environments, and in case they suspect an individual is suffering from a mental illness, it is important to help such individuals seek early medical intervention.
Works Cited Kessler, Ronald, Berglund, Patricia, Demler, Olga, Jin, Robert, Merikangas, Kathleen and Walters, Ellen. Lifetime prevalence and age of onset distributions of DSM_IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey republication. Arch General Psychiatry, 62.6. (2005): 593-602. Web.
Long, Philip. Cognitive disorders. Internet Mental Health. 2009. Web.
National Institute of Mental Health. Eating disorders. NIMH. 2010. Web.
National Institute of Mental Health. Schizophrenia. NIMH. 2010. Web.
Nijenhuis, Ellert. Somatoform dissociation. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 1.4 (2000): 7-32. Web.
Schulte, Ann. Learning disorders. 2010. Web.
Taylor, Stuart, and Hyler, Steven. Update on factitious disorders. International Journal of Psychiatry, 23.1 (1993): 81-94. Print.
Wise, Thomas, and Fava, Giovanni. Issues fro DSM-V: psychological factors affecting either Identified or feared medical conditions: a solution to somatoform disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164 (2007): 1002-1003. Print.
World Health Organisation. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. 1993. Web.
Kite runner as a metaphor Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Kite running refers to the act of manipulating the spool of the kite in order for it to move and beat other kites. This sport is quite common among children in Afghanistan and normally entails two boys who each have separate roles.
One is responsible for determining the actual direction that the kite will run while the other one changes the threads such that the movement is made possible. The kite runner is responsible for the latter task and he often does most of the hard work. Nonetheless, when declaring a winner, competitors normally acknowledge and award the controller of the kite and not the runner.
The metaphor Having looked at the concept of kite running itself, one can clearly see how the title is metaphorical. First, because the kite runner never really gets much appraisal for his work, one can argue that the sport is a bit unfair. This may be likened to the situation in war. Parties involved in a conflict barely fight fair and square.
Such unfairness was especially replicated in a number of conflicts that the book covers including the US-Taliban war as well as Soviet occupation. The helplessness of the victims in the story is symptomatic of the injustice brought about by war just like the kite runner who never gets justice for his contributions. War has caused a lot of the main characters a lot of problems hence signifying the injustice inherent in war.
First, Baba was a wealthy individual who lived a fulfilling life back home in Afghanistan, however after the Soviet occupation, he had to escape to the United States and start from scratch. Not only did he have to leave his property in Afghan for a strange place, he also lost his status there (Hosseini, 45). Back home, Baba was a very influential merchant who changed the lives of members of his community through a number of initiatives.
However, this soon came to an end when he fled to the US because he became nothing more than a gas station employee. Additionally, he was forced to display some goods at a flea market in order to make ends meet. He and his son had to rent a worn out house in this foreign nation. The tale of Amir’s family is quite synonymous with the stories of many other Afghanis who have lost their status and wealth because of the wars.
Perhaps most importantly, one can say that the unfairness of war was manifested through the death of many innocent victims. Hassan was one such individual. During the reign of the Taliban, he had been confronted by one of them concerning Baba’s house. He attempted to salvage this piece of property and instead lost his life for it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was indeed great injustice because the Taliban had no right to simply take property that belonged to other people or to take their lives but they still went ahead and did it. Another individual who bore the brunt of war and its unfairness was Ali. This loyal servant to Baba lost his life as a result of land mines that had been placed at Hazajarat. Such incidences would not have arisen if there was no war and if it was not conducted in an unfair manner that leads to the death of innocent lives.
Alternatively, one may look at the characteristics of the kite as a metaphor for the characteristics of war. The kite by its very nature cannot move unless another person is controlling it. This means that even though the kite appears to be at one with nature or to be totally free, it never really is.
The kite runner and the kite fighter restrict the movement of the kite in order for it to move in an orderly manner. In fact, without the intervention of these two parties, the kite can never really be in motion. If these restrictions are too much or disorderly, then it may lead to chaos. Also if the restrictions are too weak then the kite will barely move.
Similarly, governments are supposed to restrict the activities of their citizens so as to maintain law and order. If a government overdoes this then it may result in chaos or war. The novel is set against the backdrop of the Afghan civil war of 1996 to 2001 that was spearheaded by the Taliban (Despain, 56). The fact that children can be bought from orphanages is a sign of the degree of lawlessness that had pervaded Afghanistan as a result of the Taliban rule. Assef wanted to exert his revenge upon Hassan and therefore chose to vent this out onto his son Sohrab.
This boy was bought from an orphanage using a certain amount of money. He was then made to perform heinous acts in front of Assef. Assef also defiled this young boy using his position as a member of the Taliban. The lack of control and general disorder in the country led to such acts being committed against innocent children like Sohrab.
This failure of the Afghan government to control its own people can also be witnessed through the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan that started in 1979 and lasted for ten years. The author of the novel frequently states that this war was the reason behind the immigration of the latter family to the United States. At the time, the Afghan army could no longer contain the frequent uprisings that were occurring in different parts of the country.
To this end, it requested for assistance from the Soviet Union. The latter state obliged and sent its troops to fight resistance forces against the government. The operations were mostly carried out against the Mujahideen. However, because the Soviet had enemies such as the United States then the latter country started getting involved. It was reported that the US did this through government opposition forces.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Kite runner as a metaphor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This war proved to be a tall order for the Soviet Union which was having logistical problems as well as problems with the geographical landscape of the Afghans. Also, continuous aid granted by the CIA to their enemies further complicated this matter. In the end, the Soviet had to come out of this territory and left Afghanistan under the leadership of Najibullah. In 1992, his reign came to an end when rival parties decided to form the Islamic State of Afghanistan.
However, because this arrangement was not all inclusive, it soon became clear that the country was not going to enjoy peace any time soon. One opposing party known as Hekmatyar started another civil war in order to gain power for himself. Things were worsened by the existence of two separate militias that were backed by foreign governments like Saudi Arabia and Iran. The situation became even more complex when a different force, the Taliban entered the scene with the backing of Pakistan in 1996.
They started taking over and controlling the latter city. They imposed several unrealistic rules such as requiring men to always wear their beards, stoning of adulterous individuals and the like. The Taliban unleashed a lot of terror especially because they considered a certain community in Afghanistan inferior to others so they abused their rights. This went on terrorizing others while Mahmoud was still president (Vogelsang, 39).
The latter individual started asking for help from the external world in order to overcome the Taliban forces. In 2001, the United States chose to participate in the affairs of Afghanistan. Through the support of the US army and anti-Taliban forces, the latter group was ousted in this very year. As can be seen, the history of Afghanistan is laden with several wars and conflicts. These conflicts were the backdrop against which the novel was set.
The numerous deaths, escapes and exiles revisited in the novel were brought by these conflicts. The author therefore preempts this through the use of his title the kite runner. In the same way that the kite depends on its runner and fighter to fly, the Afghan state depended on its government to survive.
As stated earlier, only the right amount of manipulation of the kite can ensure that it rises and stays up. Similarly, the right degree of restriction and law was needed in order to make Afghanistan a peaceful sate. The failure of its many governments to control and lead their people well is what led to the chaos that has pervaded this nation for decades. The relationship between Hassan, the kite and Amir was a metaphor for the conditions that can lead to war as witnessed later in the novel.
The title also testifies to the warlike nature of Afghanistan through the actual acts of kite fighting. In this sport, boys often fly the kites using strings made up of bits of broken glass. These often rub against the hands of the participants who still continue outdoing each other despite this obvious pain.
Additionally, the sport often focuses on putting one’s opponents down. In fact, it can be interpreted as some sort of battle between the contestants. These children will try to cut the others’ kites so that they can fall down. Once those kites fall, the person responsible for it will retrieve it and claim the kite as his own. Even Hassan tells his counterpart Amir that there are “No rules. Fly your kite. Cut the opponents. Good luck!” (Hosseini, 34).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Kite runner as a metaphor by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These activities are quite similar to those that apply in war zones. Adversaries normally focus on putting each other down so that they may be in a position to claim victory. War is very violent in nature and this can be seen through certain incidences in the novel. For example, as an adult, Amir watches in horror as a couple gets stoned to death by the extremists in his nation for committing adultery.
He is visibly shaken by this act of violence. Such an incident would not have taken place if Afghanistan was a peaceful nation. However, the general atmosphere in this nation is such that it preempts such actions. It was under the Taliban that many violent acts were committed against individuals.
For example, one learns that Assef was a member of Taliban and as such he could get away with torturous acts such as physical violence and rape. Here, readers are told that Assef had raped and abused Sohrab – Hassan’s child. Violence can also be seen when we learn about the daughters of Farid the taxi driver (Darhis, 228). They lost their lives as a result of land mines that also mutilated his own body parts.
In times of war, members of one nation must unite so as to fight a common enemy. Even though these citizens may have their own personal differences, they normally have to leave those aside in order to put up a fight in war. Hassan and Amir were very different; Amir was the child of a wealthy businessman while Hassan was the servant’s son.
Hassan used to cater to Amir’s personal needs like washing and cleaning. Hassan and Amir also had very divergent interests and values. However, all those things were easily forgotten when they were kite fighting. In the same manner, citizens of Afghanistan would unite in order to fight a common adversary in many of the wars mentioned in the novel.
Conclusion The kite was a metaphor and an indication of things to come in the novel. It can be interpreted as a depiction of the unfairness of war similar to the relationship between the kite fighter and the kite runner. Alternatively, the title can also be a metaphor for the characteristics of war as was seen in the violent nature of the sport.
One may also see the kite runner as a metaphor for the preconditions of war which entail a failure to exert the right governmental restrictions in the same manner that the kite runner does to the kite. Alternatively, the title may be understood as a way of bringing together diverse people against a common enemy as is the case in war and in kite fighting.
Works Cited Hosseini, Khaled. The kite runner. NY: Riverhead trade, 2004
Darhis, Manhola. From memories there is no escape. New York Times, 14th December, 2008
Vogelsang, Willem. The Afghans. NY: Blackwell publishers, 2002
Despain, Dori. A brief history of Afghanistan. School Journal, 53(9), 56
“Common Sense” by Thomas Paine Essay essay help free
Common sense can be expressed as good sense and ability to make reasonable decisions. It entails what people view as knowledgeable. According to Paine, in his book titled “Common Sense”, all humans were equal at creation which is quite true according to Christianity (1). An overview of the bible shows that God intended to be a universal leader for all creatures under the sun.
Hence all humans were to co-exist as one big community. The following paragraphs explore why Paine’s theory of common sense is important in the formation of governments.
Paine does not see the necessity of a government because to him the government is the worst tool of oppression. Paine uses the American government in his argument and he commences by explaining the differences between the government and the state. Paine says that the society comprises of good things achieved and possessed by the society as opposed to the government whose main objective is to withhold society’s vices. Paine suggests that governments are formed with the objective of protecting society’s possessions, freedom, and life.
Paine moves on to explain the details of the situation in America. Paine is opposed to the idea that America has flourished under the surveillance of Britain.
He supports his argument by stating that Britain uses patronship as a scape-goat to secure its own interests. Some people articulate that Britain has helped America in a great and commendable way and therefore America owes its success to Britain. Paine adds that in the latest past Britain has shifted from protecting its colonies to attacking them, hence under serving American trustworthiness.
Paine challenges colonies to disengage with Britain and consider conducting business with the rest of Europe. According to Paine prosperity can be achieved by first ensuring America has attained its Independence. Independence is very crucial because it will prevent the recurrence of mistakes that happened in the past. He suggests the kind of government structure that should be adopted by the colonies after they have attained independence. Paine argues that this kind of governance will ensure equal representation in the colonies.
He describes the military capabilities of Britain and acknowledges the same abilities for America. Although at the moment America is still less populated but assures that the current feeling of unity would not be shaken by the change of time and increase in population. The present time tends to favor America because if there was any debt incurred, America would use some parts of its land to pay for those debts (Michael 12).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Paine argues that Britain has made America to lose its respect from other countries and recommends colonies to fight for liberation because it is the only way colonies can experience success. This freedom will make it possible for America to seek help from other countries.
In his own view Paine does not see the relevance of a government because even with a government in place people still encounter the same problems that were experienced before the said government was actually formed. He points an accusing finger to the government because it has failed in its mandate to protect its citizens leading to the introduction of anarchies. Paine believes that regardless of time America will attain its independence.
Paine points out that even though America may resolve its issues with Britain the problems that were associated with the king will still be experienced. These problems will arise because Britain will introduce new taxes and also interfere with the smooth running of the government. This fact is backed by the unwillingness of Britain to set its colonies free. Paine states the advantages that come with establishment of trade relations between America and the rest of Europe in exclusion of Britain.
He quotes that the present arrangement of government hinders America from participating in relations with other nations in Europe. He further insists that colonies independence is quite vital in establishing this trade ties with other nations in Europe because it will enable the colonies to enjoy the goodies that are attached to these relations.
Paine goes on to condemn monarchy by using the British monarchy as an example of problems that are brought about by monarchy. He refers to biblical text to illustrate how evil monarchy can be. He is opposed to the idea of succession hereditary which was very common in Britain monarchy.
It was normal for a father to pass on leadership to his son, and this was to be practiced from one generation to another. This in return brought an attitude that some people were born to hold certain positions in the society. Paine quotes the bible as the origin of monarchy (Wood 67).
The people of Israel are believed to have made the worst mistake by demanding for a king through Samuel. Samuel discouraged Israelites from having a king because he was informed about the consequences of being under the authority of a king. He later gave in to their demand. God was also aware of the problems that will come with kingship and although He gave them a leader He warned them accordingly of what to expect.
We will write a custom Essay on “Common Sense” by Thomas Paine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Paine disapproves hereditary succession because he feels all humans are equal at creation hence there is no family that should exercise authority over others. This he says is because when a given person is accorded authority his children do not deserve the same authority as their father because all people were created as independent entity. Authority that has been passed on from one person to another by hereditary succession is there by considered not genuine.
Paine is puzzled by kingship because he does not understand where it comes from. He suggests that if the first king was chosen by elections, all the kings that will follow must go through the same procedure. Any king who will skip the process should be declared illegitimate. Paine says that hereditary succession is evil as opposed by many who see it as a way of avoiding leadership battles. He further supports his point by explaining that succession has done more harm than good.
Paine uses biblical verses to explain his displeasure with kings. He uses these verses to disapprove people who consider kings to be godly when it is very clear they are not. This thought is seen to be the underlying reason as to why people do not object to decisions made by kings.
Paine advises although America may have flourished under Britain, it should detach itself from British rule. He uses a child as an example and states that although the survival and growth of a child depends on its mother’s milk, the child should not be limited to eating other kinds of food.
Britain claims that it protected its colonies but Paine says this is not true because the main reason behind this was to ensure Britain’s interests were safeguarded. He argues that if the colonies did not rely on Britain, there would be no enmity between the nations that were enemies of Britain and its colonies.
Paine discourages reunion because he feels that reunion will cause the current situation to recur. It is difficult for Americans to accept British rule again due to the oppressions and battles associated with it (SparkNotes 1). Paine adds that America is very big to be governed by an island like Britain and that matters that concern America should be handled from close proximity.
Paine argues that if the current generation does not fight for complete liberation the children of the present leaders will have to revolt against British rule which does not leave a good impression to the generations that will come after them. Paine comes up with a proposal of government structures that he believes will satisfy the society’s expectations.
He suggests that all colonies be separated into districts and each district must send its chosen representatives to the congress. A president should be elected from one colony. Then the next time elections another colony will be given the priority to produce a president. This process is to be carried out continuously until all colonies have been given a chance to elect a president to head the congress (Craig 45). This is an important concept in the formation of arguments.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Common Sense” by Thomas Paine by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Paine says that the world expects America to unplug from Britain but no one knows when it will happen. Paine says that America is able to construct a naval vessel that can challenge the British navy. He states that American navy need only to protect its waters unlike British that covers a wide range. The American’s army sole purpose is to increase America’s business projection.
Therefore every person must be treated equally and government structures should not be constrained to one family channel. Pane’s theory is a good representation of how people should think about forming governments. For instance, Paine explains that if America was to continue being under British rule, the situation in America would have worsen with time; this is a true because America has improved on its own since independence.
He says that it is important for America to have authority on its own resources while there is still more land that lays idle. Paine argues that it is easy to unite people while the colonies are still small because once people increase the current unity will be very limited hence the fight for liberation will be difficult to launch (Paine 1).
Works Cited Craig, Nelson. Thomas Paine: Enlightenment, Revolution and the Birth of Modern Nations. New York: Penguin Books, 2007. Print.
Michael, Isaac. The Thomas Paine Reader. New York: Penguin Classics, 1987. Print.
Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. 14 Feb. 1776. Web.
SparkNotes. Common Sense .n.d. Web.
Wood, Gordon. The American Revolution: A history. New York: Modern Library, 2002. Print.
The Negative Effects of Wealth in Society Argumentative Essay essay help free: essay help free
Wealth brings far more significant problems than depriving people of beauty. This is because once the rich in society set eyes on a given item or property, they will do anything within their means to ensure that they get it irrespective of the adverse effects that their actions may have on the lives of the poor.
This essay seeks to analyze the other adverse effects that wealth can bring to society apart from the aspect of the destruction of beauty. To this end, examples from modern day living shall be drawn and coupled with proper explanations to illustrate the weaknesses of wealth-driven society adequately.
Wealth leads to the creation of frustrated individuals in society. For instance, a wealthy man driving on a highway through the countryside will see a large farm with animals grazing peacefully, and instead of appreciating the calmness of the region, he would probably see how he could turn the farm into an out-of-town shopping mall.
The owners of the land may not be willing to part with their property, but this rich man could easily come with ridiculously vast amounts of money and ensure that he has convinced them to leave. Eventually, high story buildings will go up and concrete structures replacing the trees. In this instance, the rich man would have interfered with the beauty of the land.
However, and even more disturbing is that he would not care where the farmer and his family relocate to because it is almost apparent he (the rich man) is not going to offer them an alternative settlement. Consequently, the farmer may find himself in an urban region where the costs of living are very high, and in time at all, the money he had received from the sale of the land will have gone into rent and food.
With time the farmer and his family will have to go back to the rich man to look for menial jobs at his shopping complex and in a way signing to lifetime slavery. From this example, it is easy to see that wealth also ends up creating a few happy persons at the expense of many frustrated individuals.
The acquisition of wealth results in the breaking of family and societal linkages. An individual will generally tend to relate very well with members of his extended family as well as his neighbors as long as they don’t have a lot of money. However, once this individual lands an extreme amount of wealth, he will turn on the people that he used to share good times with and convert them into his laborers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a way, he will strive to ensure that even the people who helped him get where he is don’t get the opportunities that would make them arrive at his level. A good example is a way politicians in third world countries behave. Before the election, they will meet with the people, share meals and even relate positively with them.
They would spend a lot of time pledging to improve the lives of poor citizens as soon as they get elected. However, once they get to the office, they move into posh houses and buy huge cars with dark windows to ensure that the people who elected him/her do not get to know of his whereabouts.
If a person, even his/her uncle wants to meet him to seek some slight help, the now-elected Member of Parliament or counselor will demand that they make appointments with his secretary and most of the time he/she will not make an effort to see whether the matter was attended.
The desire for wealth also brings with it very many societal vices. One good example is corruption and bribery within public service. Individuals who work for the government are generally always complaining that they are not well paid. Since they are in the office for most of the day, they do not have time to do something else on the side, and this leads them to come up with ways of getting the extra dollar while still at work.
So instead of following a given protocol while serving individuals who come seeking assistance from their offices, they will do things slowly and sometimes withholding certain relevant documents only to release them once the client has promised to give a few extra dollars to get the work done on time.
The same applies to police officers who can catch an individual in the midst of committing a crime and instead of arresting him/her, they let the person go after receiving a huge amount of money as a bribe. This desire for wealth is the primary factor that drove western countries to invade the nations in Africa during colonial times.
The colonialists discovered that Africa had a lot of natural resources and since they (colonialists) had the tools for accessing things like minerals, they invaded the countries, turned the natives into their slaves and shipped all the mined products to their mother nations.
We will write a custom Essay on The Negative Effects of Wealth in Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, it is easy to see that the adverse effects of wealth in society are much more than just the destruction of beauty. As has been shown above through various examples, wealth can lead to the development of many unwanted characteristics in individuals which sometimes leads them to lose all sense of humanity such that they see other individuals as lesser humans. I, therefore, agree with the fact that apart from the destruction of beauty, wealth also generates many adverse effects in society.
Human Resources: Knowledge of Relevant Legislation Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Different countries have different legislations, which define rights and relationship between employees and employers. They are contained in human rights as well as terms and conditions set by different companies regarding their employments contracts. Knowledge of these rights and legislation is important to employee, employer and third parties who have an interest in an employment contract.
External and internal laws should be in harmony at any one time; this is the only way that the company can develop an efficient team. Internal legislations and guiding principles are shaped by legal legislations; they must follow a legally accepted approach.
Gay Marriage in the U.S. Term Paper college admission essay help
Same-sex marriage in United State is not allowed or recognized as a legal reunion in some States due to the enactment of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) in 1996 (Domawatch.org). Section 2 of the DOMA law elaborates on the definition of the marriage which it states is “a legal union between one man and one woman for purposes of all federal laws..” (Domawatch.org).
By design and for all purposes this Act also outlaws imposition of gay marriage rights in a State that does not consent to gay marriage in it jurisdiction and categorically states that “States need not recognize a marriage from another State if it is between two persons of the same sex” (Domawatch.org).
Theoretically DOMA law was enacted to counteract a possible legalization of gay marriages especially in States that were vehemently objecting to it legalization in the aftermath of the Supreme Court Ruling in the case of Baehr v. Lewin/Miike (Lambdalegal.org).
In this case the Supreme Court judges ruled that States that wished to continue banning gay marriages “must show compelling interest in prohibiting same-sex marriages” thereby shifting the burden of proof to the State and offering a lifeline to gay activists for possibility of legalization of same-sex marriages (Lambdalegal.org).
But with the introduction of DOMA law three years later many States that objected to legalization of same-sex marriage obtained a reprieve as far as acceptance of gay marriages in their jurisdictions was concerned.
However, Article Four of the United States Constitution which summarizes the code of conduct between States and the federal government provides a different recourse when it comes to imposition of legal rulings and laws in another State.
Section 1 of Article Four, also commonly referred as Full Faith and Credit Act requires other States to uphold the laws and judgments of other States when required to do so and states in part that “full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every State” (Liptak). This Act is entrenched in the constitution and supersedes the DOMA law in more than one way due to the fact that it predates the enactment of DOMA law which was done very recently.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since legalization of same-sex marriage is often done through enactment of public Acts within States that approve it, all other States have an obligations to uphold this law in their jurisdiction according to Article IV notwithstanding existence of any other contradictory laws. The importance of the States to abide by these obligations as outlined by Article IV is far more crucial than the option provided by the DOMA law for the following reasons.
Foremost, it is impossible to discriminate on the type of the laws that one State must enact in order for the other States to uphold them given the impossibility of such an initiative in addition to the fact that this will amount to micromanagement of another States internal affairs. Even if exceptions were to be made on which type of laws that each State was liberty to uphold, a form of framework would be required to guide this process which would be impossible to develop since the issue of law in this case is very relative.
In any case recognizing gay marriages as legal unions in their jurisdictions does not in any way impose any obligations for other State to enact similar laws. More importantly Article IV provides a national reference of code of conduct between States and the federal government which cannot be modified to allow reservations from particular States.
The proponents of the DOMA law asserts that the Act only exemplifies what the United State Constitution has always held to be the case for 200 years, where marriage is a union between a man and a woman.
But the same constitution provides the right for any person intending to enter into marriage to choose “a partner of one’s choice”, in any case the Equal Protection Clause in the Fourteenth Amendment also supports this reasoning (Mount). Another faulty argument advanced by DOMA proponents asserts DOMA act can be enforced by the virtue of the same Article IV Section 1 which says “ States have certain reciprocal obligations to one another specifically to recognize public Acts, records and judicial proceedings” (Liptak).
The argument is that the enactment of DOMA Act can be respected in the same way as any other public Act; this argument is faulty given that the legality of the Act itself has been quashed by the Supreme Court. Just recently in 2009, the Supreme Court ruled that DOMA was unconstitutional in a dispute resolution during tribunal hearings; the same Act is challenged in not less than six States nationally.
Works Cited Domawatch.org. The Federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), 2010. Web.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Gay Marriage in the U.S. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lambdalegal.org. Baehr v. Miike: Summary, 2010. Web.
Liptak, A. United States Constitution: Article IV. 2006. Web.
Mount, S. The United States Constitution, 2010. Web.
Experience of Taking Online Courses Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Online learning is an education program that is often referred as e-learning; it is a form of education that is facilitated by electronic technology. There are two components that are involved in E-learning which distinguishes it from other forms of learning; exchange of knowledge and utilization of computer and networking systems which provides the medium in which the transfer of knowledge takes place (Gary).
Generally the elements of E-learning usually include virtual classrooms, computer-based learning and web-based learning (Gladen). My personal experience with online learning is in the area of Internet-Based Training (IBT) which often involves learning through internet medium. In this paper I am going to discuss the reasons that made me choose this mode of learning over the others and the experiences that I have encountered so far from learning electronically.
By far the most compelling reason that made me to choose E-learning program was because of the flexibility of the program that I was undertaking in terms of time, duration and pace. This meant that I had the leeway to structure my timetable of learning around my work schedule rather than the other way round which is often the case for programs that are not done online.
This latitude to structure my learning time table also enabled me to set the pace at which I wanted to pursue the program; this was especially advantageous since it enabled me to fast track my learning process during those periods of two months when I always take leave from my work. On the other hand when I was busy with work or the times when I had taken up more difficult classes it was possible to scale down my learning process to cover the remaining time only.
Overall I have also found the online learning process to be less costly, time efficient and convenient; as a matter of fact I don’t incur transport costs since all that I need is access to internet which enables me to log on the virtual classroom. Through this interface there is a portal that I can initiate discussion with my peers, access the subject notes from the teacher, review questions with the teacher, download recorded lectures of the day and upload required assignments that are due. All this I do remotely from the comfort of my office space which I have fitted in my house. In addition since I don’t have to attend the virtual classes on line as they occur live, it means that I can access the lecture classes at any time that is most convenient to me. What is more, I can replay the recorded lecturer instructions in part or whole over and over to grasp a concept that I am experiencing difficult to assimilate without concern of appearing retarded to my peers who are of course not in the same room with me.
In addition I don’t have to bother the instructor to repeat a section when I drift off because of exhaustion since I can always take a break and come back refreshed. The online program also offers me the ease of combining several courses for purposes of tailoring my skills and knowledge to fit a specific portfolio; a luxury that would be impossible to achieve in most regular programs due to site limitations.
If I was taken back in time and told to choose the kind of learning program that I would prefer I would still choose the E-learning program despite the few disadvantages that online learning entails such as technological hiccups that at times limit and hinders the learning process. But this is a small price to pay for the many advantages that this mode of learning provides me with.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Works Cited Gary, J. Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Learning, 2002. Web.
Gladen, N. Online College Courses, 2006. Web.
Financial Reporting Practices and Ethical Standards in Health Care Finance Research Paper best essay help
The issue of professional ethics has always been important for the health care workers but with the recent changes in the society, this issue has become especially topical. Financial accountability and reporting is important for meeting the ethical standards within the health care organizations and protecting the patients from the financial burden and unnecessary services.
Planning, controlling, organizing, and decision-making are the four major elements of effective financial management though some researchers do not recognize organizing as a separate component. Still, proper organization is significant for the effectiveness of the whole project, and requires special attention of the financial managers.
The planning element presupposes identification of the main objectives of a particular project and selecting appropriate measures that need to be imposed for meeting them. The controlling element requires analysis of reports from all the divisions of the organization and evaluation of the existing state of affairs. On the organizing stage, the manager chooses the most effective ways for using the available resources.
The element of decision making presupposes deciding between various alternatives after analysis of possible consequences and evaluating the positive and negative sides of every option. Baker and Baker (2010) noted that “decision making actually occurs parallel to planning, organizing, and controlling. All types of decision making rely on information, and the primary tasks are analysis and evaluation” (p. 5).
The field of accounting is of crucial importance for organizing the financial information on a particular health care organization, for making the informed choices after the analysis of this data. Working on the external reports, the financial managers should consider the generally accepted accounting principles so that the processes in different organizations could be compared according to similar metrics.
These standards depend upon the type of a particular health care organization, and the majority of them is non-for-profit and does not pay income taxes though a number of for-profit organizations delivering health care services increased recently. “A common misunderstanding is that nonprofits are not allowed to make any money, when in fact they must generate more revenue than expenses to stay in business” (Barker, 2009, p. 210).
However, it is important to take measures for handling the conflict of interests and to protect patients from the financial burden, meeting the general financial ethical principles for health care organizations. It is important that the physicians should resist the temptation of providing the unnecessary services, disregarding their financial self-interest.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the same time, the organizational ethics is even more important than the moral of an individual practitioner. Weber (2001) noted that “the issue here is not so much how the individual behaves as how the organization is managed” (p. 52). Meeting the generally acceptable ethical principles, health care organizations improve the quality of their services and protect patients from paying for unnecessary services.
The realities of present day hospital or clinical settings predetermine a number of challenges for nurses and physicians who face ethical dilemmas in their professional practice day by day. The issue of meeting the ethical standards is related not only to personal choices of health care workers and management of organizations but to the state of affairs in the sphere as well.
“In today’s changing practice environment, third parties have increasing control in the delivery and financing of care and in treatment decisions” (Povar et al., 2004, Ethics in practice). In other words, there are a number of additional factors which complicate the physician-patient interaction and may become a hindrance for considering the ethical principles while providing the health care services.
Thus, even focusing the health care plans on the patients’ interest and disrespecting their financial self-interests, practitioners have to handle the issues of financing their research projects. For example, pharmaceutical companies appear to be one of the most influential third parties.
Within the recent decades, the conflicts of interests of physicians and pharmaceutical companies have become widely spread. It is obvious that drug manufacturers are interested in increasing their revenues by selling more medicine. Still, physicians should remain focused on the patients’ interests and the quality of the health care services.
At the same time, the importance of cooperation with pharmaceutical companies should not be underestimated because of their support of the research projects. “The pharmaceutical industry spends approximately $ 12 billion annually on gifts and payments to physicians” (Studdert et al, 2004, “Financial conflicts of interest”).
The physicians’ accountability and procedures of financial reporting are of crucial importance for controlling the health care organizations. “The financial matters for which [providers are] (or could be) held accountable include the price of services, the efficiency with which they are provided, assurance that services billed for were delivered, and the overall financial performance of the [providers]” (Emanuel and Emanuel, 2004, What is accountability in health care?).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Financial Reporting Practices and Ethical Standards in Health Care Finance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the changing professional environment, the principles of professional ethics have to prevail and physicians have to avoid providing unnecessary services to their patients.
Effective management and financial reporting are important for meeting the ethical norms within the health care organizations and providing high-quality services.
Reference List Baker, J.J.
Aspects of Self-Concept Essay essay help
Abstract Self concept is made up of different self aspects and has the following characteristics: Central vs. Peripheral; Salient vs. Non-salient; Conscious vs. Automatic; Actual vs. Possible vs. Ideal. This paper discusses self aspect belonging to different self concepts, i.e. Personal, Relational, and Collective. One self aspect for each of the two self concepts, i.e. Personal and Relational, is separately discussed along with their above mentioned characteristics. All these aspects and concepts are discussed with reference to social psychology.
Aspects of Self-Concept Self concept is a very important part of personality and reflects many personality traits in a person. According to Fox, self concept is a “self-description, whereby a series of statements are used such as ‘I am make’, ‘I am student’, to formulate a multifaceted personal picture” (Fox, 1990). Self concept may reflect a person’s personal, relational, or collective identity (Sedikides
The State of New York’s Disaster Emergency Preparedness Plans Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Disaster Preparation Plans in New York
Strengths and Challenges
Role of the Government
Introduction Disturbing events like natural disasters and terrorist attacks have made societies concerned about the level of emergency preparedness and disaster recovery. Natural and manmade disasters occur at an alarming rate. The magnitude of disasters is widespread and are damaging to infrastructure. The likely hood of attacks by terrorists in the United States is a paramount concern.
Disaster recovery is the way that leads to resumption of normal business operation after a disruption. The September 11 attacks on America have made organizations grow the need to get ready for disaster recovery. In this regard, the US government has allocated many resources in preparation for such attacks. The public health and department of homeland security receives a lot of money from the government to deal with such.
In 1996, the New York City Office of Emergency Management was established. It has the responsibility of planning and carrying out management of emergencies. New York City OEM regularly conducts tests and reacts to emergencies. OEM is working with partners all over the city of New York to come up with strategies that improve the ability of the city to recover from disasters (Pinkowski, 2008).
Disaster Preparation Plans in New York Homeland security and the department of health are working together with an aim of preparing for disasters that can be either manmade or natural. The damage that caused by such disasters can affect lives of the people of New York, the infrastructure and the economy of the United States at large. It is essential that preparation for such be at bay as it may take the city a number of years to recover from these disasters should they occur.
In 2009, the health department in New York confirmed the first case of H1N1 virus infection among students from a local college. The OEM worked together with various bodies and individuals to ensure that there is minimization to the spread of this virus. Revision of health regulations already in place on a yearly basis has been their priority.
A task force was formed to concentrate on eliminating the spread of infections from this virus. The OEM has qualified health professionals in place to oversee outbreak of diseases and deal with any kind of disease that may be a threat to the people in New York.
The administration in New York established a Coastal Storm Plan (CSP) that deals with issues arising from storms especially hurricanes. This coastal storm plan is revised every year and has illustrations on the plans the city has should there be a storm.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effects of storms including inadequate drinking water, destroyed communication media, electrical faults and blocked roads are some of the issues discussed in this plan. The city of New York is well prepared for such calamities and already has a plan to deal with them should they occur.
The city of New York has a disaster housing recovery plan. This plan focuses on providing shelter to post disaster victims. The government is ready to provide shelter to New York City residents should there be a disaster that leave them homeless. Already in place is an emergency shelter program that has constructed buildings to accommodate more than 600,000 people (Philips, 2009).
The mayor’s office in New York has a laid out strategy to tack flash floods and their effects on the city. The 2007 floods that affected New York City saw the establishment of a task force from various arms of the government. A significant responsibility of this force is restoring the transport system back to its state of operation. Assistance areas were quickly set up and basic need given to the affected individuals.
The City’s Donation and Volunteer Management Plan created in 2009 defines the mobilization of volunteers and donors to assist people affected by disasters. Creation of an online portal to ease the helping process and a call center is in place. These make donating easy as information on requirements by a majority of the victims is easily accessible.
An emergency stockpile consists of medical supplies, clothing, blankets etc. OEM has set up an emergency stockpile within the city of New York. These necessities are released within a period of 48 hours to different areas of New York to help the affected persons. The emergency stockpile can sustain thousands of individuals for up to a week.
Strengths and Challenges The city of New York has recently encountered a variety of disasters. This has helped the government in preparing against future recurrence of these disasters. Coming up with these plans and strategies has seen the establishment of task forces that discuss in detail the situation before hand and come up with solutions. The people of New York become aware about possible calamities and the necessary steps followed should they strike.
One key challenge is insufficient finances and human resources. Funds are only available to provide for a specific number of the population in the event of a disaster. The resources available cannot be enough for the majority of people in New York. Laying out strategies and plans is one thing but their approval is another. It takes time for the government to approve these disaster preparation plans because of their financial impact on the economy.
We will write a custom Essay on The State of New York’s Disaster Emergency Preparedness Plans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Role of the Government The United States department of treasury through the IRS counsel and assist individuals who have lost their property to disasters. The department of Homeland security in conjunction with the health department has the overall task of managing the disaster preparedness plans.
The departments of housing and urban development give loans to victims of disaster to enable them buy new homes in cases where there is destruction of houses. Department of Health and Human Services offer health services to needy as well as aged people without health insurance cover whenever there is a disaster.
Conclusion Natural disasters and terrorist attacks have been in the news a lot lately in the United States. This has raised concern about America’s level of emergency preparedness and disaster recovery (Bradbury, 2008).The impact of such disasters on the economy is immense. It is therefore vital that a city such as New York embark on preparations to recover from such attacks and calamities.
The United States government through the Homeland Security and health departments has set aside resources for disaster preparation. These departments are working together with other organizations to ensure recovery from natural disasters and terrorist attacks. New York City prepared well for recovery from most natural disasters and attacks. There are however challenges of funds to effectively achieve this.
References Bradbury, C. (2008). DISASTER! Creating and testing an effective Recovery Plan.
The British Journal of administrative Management, 14
Philips, B. (2009). Disaster Recovery, New York: CRC Press.
Pinkowski, J. (2008). Disaster Management Handbook, New York: CRC Press.
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Concept of the Automobile-Free Environments in Society Research Paper essay help
Imagine what would happen if, starting tomorrow, all motor run vehicles were banned in the United States Introduction There numerous social, cultural and economic social workable benefits of automobile as opposed to renounce its usage, but the main reason why various countries are advocating for vehicle-free environments falls upon the consequences to the surroundings. Today the motor-run vehicles pose as much threat to social lives as the advantages.
How would one consider a situation where most of the urban streets lack driveways or garages for vehicles due to current renovations that ensure maximum utilization of available space? Some states have taken a step to bun driveways, home garages and street parking spaces to ease congestions.
Current government policies allow car ownership, but harsh conditions such as existence of few large garages or parking lots away from the central business districts and implementation of costly parking fees are a clear indication that it is time to consider elimination of automobiles (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, p.133).
Effects of Car-free Environments Even amidst the escalating fuel prices, loosing a car would not go down easily in America. It is one of the strategies for enhancing the go-green campaigns, but major social effects include the immediate loss of a sense of time and navigation. The environment is not in favour of people without cars, due to the much-needed efforts to navigate from one point to another. Lack of a vehicle can turn what was a thirty minutes shopping event to a two hour and tiresome ordeal.
To most American owning an automobile is an intrinsic affair since it assists in planning events and performing majority of the personal tasks within the least time possible.
According to (Fox, p.106), a car is a desire for any teenager in America, since it is a luxury and driving to school is linkable to a certain rite of passage. Mobility defines the sedentary lifestyles of most Americans than priority. Global warming is definitely a de facto among most people, but urban lifestyles and jobs seem daunting due to needs for easy movements from one point to another.
The challenges of not having cars are causing a drastic change of social behaviours such as giving up some luxuries for instance comfort (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, p.133). It calls for more budge of time to cater for walks and moments to memorize routes. Daily life without automobile is cumbersome, tedious and dull. The cars are a source of freedom for travelling among people of all classes in United States.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the cars cause some negative social problems. Currently, there is more crime related to car theft due to increase in numbers. It is also an avenue for moral laxity since young people are able to escape and find scapegoats for parental supervision. Immorality associable to automobile such as drunken driving is causing preventable deaths through accidents (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, p.133).
Economically, automobile is a huge support to the fuel and tire industries. Mobility also has a strong impact on fast food industries. There are thousands of drive-in fast food restaurants and theatres near gas stations, which would suffer economically from the car-free environments.
Automobile manufactory industry has a wide range of profitable products and is a support to millions of professionals. Doing away with cars would mean loss of job to many people. Roads improvement from the gravel to the smooth surfaced concrete tarmac is also for the reason of situation demands due to more vehicles (Fox, p.106).
Culturally, the automobile changes lifestyles for instance change of the traditional role of women from the house-based woman to a working class woman. On the other hand, currently women are not producers of well-prepared food today but consumes of ready-made or refrigerated foods, which negatively affects health of the family (Fox, p.106).
Possible Car-Elimination Procedures There are various harsh conditions or laws that would indirectly convey a message that, car-ownership are more costly, too demanding and stressful in comparison to life without. There is urgent need to separate the suburban lifestyle from automobile usage as a way of planning smartly on the social-economical needs.
Advantages of Automobile Elimination There is a huge fight for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the car exhaust systems. This measure would contribute to the clear necessity to reduce global warming. Statistics by the European Environment Agency indicates that private cars are responsible for 12% of the greenhouse gases emissions in Europe (Herzog, p.90).
The studies also indicate that 50% of the gas emissions are from car intensive regions in United States (Herzog, p.90). Therefore, one of the special advantages of car-free environments is reduction of emission. According to Herzog (p.90), “emissions from an increasing number of private cars owned by the burgeoning middle class are choking cities.”
We will write a custom Research Paper on Concept of the Automobile-Free Environments in Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Getting rid of cars decreases the density or congestions in cities as well as suburbs and provides better and healthier spaces for walking. The areas will also be easily accessible through more effective and environmental-friendly means such as public electrical trains with less emission and occupy fewer parking spaces (Herzog, p.90). The product stores will also be easily accessible due to possible placements on the walkways of main streets, other than in shopping malls, which are often at distant highway localities.
If forced, would Americans make adjustments for automobile-free conditions? Majority of the world activities are based on the functionality of automobiles, therefore people highly depend on them. Mostly the government has to utilize various ways of influencing people choice to in favour of automobile-free environments. Majority of the users or owners understand the hazardous risks automobile pose, but ignorantly do nothing to reduce the effects.
If the government would emphasis on the need for environmental-friendly practices such as avoiding automobile usage, then some people would make the necessary adjustments. Hundreds of groups such as environmental activists in the United States formed a coalition called ‘Transport for America’, to promote new automobile-free communities (Stave et al, p.221). Their campaign policy is that the amount of driving must depend on whether one has a hybrid vehicle.
The ‘Environmental Protection Agency’ also promotes the car reduction policies. Majority of the American citizens would not comply with such emphasis, but on the other hand would never break laws. If worse comes to worse, then the government must implement prohibition by-laws to all road sectors. New government provisions may rationalize scales by ensuring all the newly developed structures are accessible through public transport systems, as a comprehensive effort to discourage car ownership and usage.
Some of these major developments include designing easy access to shopping, jobs, leisure and other necessary services. The public service transport system ought to be the only realist way of access majority if not all residents. New regulations can turn down operation permits for restaurants, fast foods or shopping malls that fail to implement housing designs that support automobile-free environments. Narrowed roads and passageways may also discourage automobile usage or ownership.
Some of the possible adjustments Americans would need to make in order to facilitate automobile-free environments include provision of community-based malls or shopping-stores villages, that people are able to access without need for cars. Rapid and reliable alternative transports systems should also come in handy in major public utilities such as hospitals, campus or schools. Current home designs should moreover assist in elimination of cars (Stave et al, p.221).
Americans would need to bring down the old buildings and erect stylish ones. A building should have a couple of stories and stylish balconies as opposed to the freestanding homes that support ample garage and parking spaces.
With such measures in place, people would find other appropriate means of quicker and easily accessible means of transport other than walking, such as bicycles with hauls for shopping. Communally rented hybrid cars may also be an alternative for various activities such as shopping. If children got accustomed to an implemented automobile-free environment, then the next generations would have an easy time in enhancing some of these necessary adjustments.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of the Automobile-Free Environments in Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Major effects over implementation Most mortgage firms are still worried about compromising the value of houses especially those meant for resale. They therefore fail to implement designs meant to curb automobiles. Home without provisions for cars are therefore not practical for most mortgage firms. Majority of the state laws in the U.S. still support existence of two parking garages spaces per residential house.
People have high suspicion over implementation of automobile-free environments, thus the reason why no major projects are in place today (Fox, p.106). Secondly, it is not easy to share hybrid automobiles in some communities due to high rates of transfers. Some people move in and out rather quickly for an enhanced sharing.
Lastly, the main reason to give up the automobile ownership or usage depends on the need for quality and healthy lifestyles. How would it feel to know that your children are safe form automobile related accidents, which are possible occurrences even by the doorsteps? The decision depends on specific personal reasons.
Disadvantages of Automobiles Cars have various negative effects such as reduction of revenue on the railroad due to reduction of passenger trains. The cities transport systems that use electric lines also fell out due to availability of cars as a cheaper, comfortable and easily accessible means (Aldrich, p.213). Cars also affected the trolley system. Problems of congestions and pollution are definite indications that America is better off without automobiles. We should advocate for better, healthier automobile-free environments.
Works Cited Aldrich, Mark. Death rode the rails: American railroad accidents and safety. New York, NY: JHU Press, 2006. Print.
Fox, William. International commercial agreements: a primer on drafting, negotiating, and resolving disputes. Netherlands: Kluwer Law International. 2009. Print
Herzog, Lawrence Arthur. Return to the center: culture, public space, and city building in a global era. Texas, TX: University of Texas Press. Print. 2006.
Stave, Bruce., Burmeister, Laura., Neagle, Michael., and Papa, Leslie. Red brick in the land of steady habits: creating the University of Connecticut. England: University Press of New England. 2006.Print.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Elimination of TRIMs, the experience of selected developing countries. New York, NY: United Nations Publications. 2007. Print.
My Values in Life Personal Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Values are qualities that one considers to be worthwhile and as such, act as the driving force in their lives. A person’s values take precedence over other qualities and therefore dictate the manner in which an individual may act in particular instances. In my life, I have a number of values that I hold dear.
These values are as a result of my upbringing, my principles in life as well as my socialization. In this essay, I shall identify the core values that I hold and the manner in which they influence my everyday choices, actions and plans that I make.
One of the educational values that are fundamental to me is achievement. This is as a result of my belief that what defines me most as a person is my determination to succeed and my desire to make a positive contribution to society through my career. Achievement is therefore one of the values that is most important to me since in today’s world, achievement and success are mostly tied together with educational success. As a result of this, I hold my educational exploits in high esteem since education is one of the avenues where one’s determination leads to quantifiable success.
I greatly value close relationships with my friends and constantly seek to cement the same. This is because good friends can assist one achieve his/her goals in life and can sometimes even be closer than family. For this reason, I invest a lot of time and effort in my close friends. I make it a priority to be a part of the significant moments in my friends’ lives such as their birthdays, wedding days and even baby christening ceremonies. In addition to this, I always ensure that I inquire as to their well beings periodically.
Growth and personal development for me is a very fundamental value and its importance in my life cannot be understated. It is my believe that my life is not worth much if I do not strive to constantly improve on my achievements as well as in becoming a better person. This value of personal grown and development greatly impacts on my day to day living especially when it comes to establishing new relations. It is generally my rule that if a new relation will not add any value to my life, then I should not waste my time exploring it.
One of the constant realities in human life is that we will always be surrounded by needy people. As such, on a social level, I always strive to give my services to the less fortunate. In my opinion, a life well lived is one that is lived in such a way that it makes a difference to someone else’s life. This is the philosophy with which I have led my life up to this point and at all times, I try to make a difference in the lives of the people that surround me. Helping other people is therefore a value that I value not only in myself but also in other people.
While modern day living has somewhat lead to a degradation of the value of family from what it used to be in gone years, I still hold the value of family to be very important in my life. To me, one’s family members are the ones who will stand by you no matter the situation and encourage you through life’s troubles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While I reckon that family may not always be supportive or as ideal as I envision it, in my experience my family is closely knit and always stands up for me. I therefore always have my family in mind when making my decisions and consider how my actions will affect them. In addition to this, I try seek guidance from members of the family who are more experienced than I am before making monumental decisions in my life.
It has been argued that honest men and women are a dying breed. This statement holds true in our capitalistic society where profits and personal gains are the primary objectives. The means by which one goes to achieve success is often overlooked and as such, the ends justify the means.
Even in the midst of such an environment, I still hold honesty as one of my core values. Without a doubt, this is mostly as a result of my upbringing whereby honest was applauded and dishonesty shunned. Also, I have come to realize that when one achieves success though honesty, the level of satisfaction that comes with it is truly unrivaled by any other feeling.
Owing to my upbringing, I have a huge regard for religion. As such, one of my spiritual values is engaging myself in some religious organization. While it is true that most of my religious values are as a result of my upbringing, I have over time come to embrace them as my own and therefore make it my personal duty to be actively involved in my religious organization.
To me, this brings about a sense of balance and helps me be more reflective and appreciative in my life. My religious values impact on my decision making since I try not to make choices which are contrary to my religious beliefs.
In this paper, I have identified some of the values that I hold dear to me. I have also identified how this values impact on the choices that I make as well the actions that I take. From this deep exploration of my values, I have come to the realization that my values greatly dictate how I treat the people around me as well as how I prioritize on matters. I believe that as a result of my values, I strive harder to achieve the things that I want in life and as such, I am a better person as a result of them.
Human Rights: Analysis of Ludlow Massacre and the “Valour and the Horror” Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Ludlow Massacre
The valour and the Horror
Introduction Human rights movement and activists rely on historical information in finding the nature and extent of historical injustices in the society. The future of the society depends on their clear reflection and view of the historical background as the society tries to navigate the daily challenges.
The contemporary society is the product of the history hence historical events and injustices are integral factor that determines the bearing of the society. The importance of historical information begs a question of how valid is the historical information and how credible are the historians.
According to Zinn, “everyone is biased, whether they know it or not, in possessing fundamental goals, purposes, and ends (48). Due to inherent biasness and partially in historical information, Zinn is caution us not to rely on historians and journalist but be flexible to consider omissions and de-emphasis of vital information before making any conclusion on a historical event (49).
Zinn conclusively argue that, “All written history is partial in two senses. It is partial in that it is only a tiny part of what really happened …it is partial in that it inevitably takes sides, by what it includes or omits, what it emphasizes or deemphasizes” (49). This essay is going to describe Zinn’s argument in detail and evaluate its validity using two major historical events: Ludlow massacre and the “Valour and the Horror” documentary.
The Ludlow Massacre The events that lead to the Ludlow massacre were the series of coal workers strikes at the Colorado mines under Rockefeller’s Corporation. The workers were under strict watch by the police not to form any labor union to champion their rights and the Rockefeller Corporation detectives shoot dead the labor organizer Gerry Lippiatt.
His death enraged coal workers in the Trinidad, they held meeting to condemn his killing, and they vow to continue to fight for the rights. The organizer of the United Mine Workers, Mary Jones addressed them saying, “What would the coal in these mines and in these hills be worth. Unless you put your strength and muscle in to bring them….You have collected more wealth, created more wealth than they in a thousand years of the Roman Republic, and yet you have not any” (Zinn 52).
The workers resolved to strike and were evicted from the Rockefeller company houses and they moved to the tents at the United Mine Workers where they were they were threatened by the gunfires at their tents so that they can end their strikes but they persisted. The workers were lured into the massacre after a series of fights with the detectives that made the mine owners to resort to massacre, by brutally attacking and killing innocent children, women and men because they demanded their rights (Zinn 54).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Zinn, the reason why this historical massacre was not in the historical books nor taught in the class is that, politically, the Rockefeller Corporation was a more important industry than workers rights and industrialization was everything no matter the bloody cost on the lives of the workers.
To harmonize the view of historians and industrialists, Zinn concluded that, there is “a certain unspoken understanding lay beneath the writing of textbooks and the teaching of history: that it would be considered bold, radical, perhaps even “communist” to emphasize class struggle in the United States” (58).
Hence, there is a culture or ideology of focusing only on economic achievement rather than social impacts of the industrialization because the objective a high school book entitled Legacy of Freedom is to “aid the student in understanding the economic growth and development of our country” (Zinn 59). So here, legacy of freedom is not human right but it is an economic growth and development, which is a partial and biased objective of the freedom legacy.
The Ludlow massacre is an example of a historical event that was omitted by the historians since the source of the story did not come from the historical books but from the song artist and English literature. The story is about labor struggles of the Colorado coal miners that eventually lead to the massacre.
The important historical event that shows how the Americans suffered and endured hardships during their labor conflict struggles. I wonder why such an important historical event that depicts the labor conflicts and the cost of the lives of the Americans was not part of the college history curriculum. I think is due to political and historian deliberate deception not to reveal how the government blundered in the brutal killings of innocent workers instead of championing their rights.
The valour and the Horror The valour and the horror is a documentary showing Canadian involvement in the World War II. The documentary aimed at provoking the society to ask “hard and critical questions” about Canadian involvement in World War II where together with the Britain they bombed German civilians. The documentary summed up that, “Let us celebrate the valour, but speak the evil and the horror” (Dick 254).
The historical documentary has stirred differing views of interpretation from journalists, politicians and the public depending on their values and interests.
We will write a custom Essay on Human Rights: Analysis of Ludlow Massacre and the “Valour and the Horror” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The documentary received great reception in the media and public arena but great resistance from political arena. The controversy ensued over the historical interpretation of the World War II participation by the Canada. The critics of the documentary argued that, “the series was unfair and inaccurate and denigrated their role in World War” (Dick 253) and they launch a strong campaign against the broadcast and the documentary.
This controversy evokes lot of questions as to why and how can a historical fact be subjective to many interpretations. The broadcast protested about the Senate subcommittee decision to investigate the controversial documentary arguing that, “we believe it will be difficult for fair-minded people to take any notice of findings arrived at in such an obviously biased process and we regret that the Senate has chosen to proceed in this fashion (Dick 255).
With much pressure, they were compelled to review the documentary to reflect “greater journalistic balance” (Dick 256). The radio and television commission carried out their review and concluded that, “history cannot be considered as a single immutable truth” (Dick 256).
The historians were ironical in that they have been actively criticizing Canadian military involvement in the World War II in their own books and articles but this time round, they have strongly protested against the documentary (Dick 265). The controversy over a factual historical event, even by historians themselves has clearly proved beyond reasonable doubt that historians and their records are partial and biased in their entire objectives and can never be relied upon.
Conclusion Basing on the two historical events, historians and historical records are biased. The reporting and analysis of an historical event depends on the historian interest and the overriding political interest. The Ludlow massacre was neither found in the historical books, nor taught in colleges, because the American political ideology was at that time focusing mainly on economic development, nobody had much concern about the civil rights, and champion for the interest of workers.
In the “Valour and Horror” documentary, the political interest overrides the public interests in the quest of the truth about historical injustices that led to bombing of innocent German civilians in World War II. Hence, the validity of any historical information is subject to powerful political figures and biased historians who would otherwise change history to suite their ends.
The great controversy that ensued in the documentation of the military involvement attracted more political interest and public to the extent of recommending the regulation of media. History deals with factual events but the problem lies in the subjectivity of the interpretation and documentation of important historical events.
Works Cited Dick, Ernest. “The Valour and the Horror” Continued: Do We Still Want Our History on Television. Archivaria, 1992. Web. https://archivaria.ca/index.php/archivaria/article/view/11901/12854
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Rights: Analysis of Ludlow Massacre and the “Valour and the Horror” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Zinn, Howard. Declarations of Independence: Use and Abuse of History. Harper Collins, (1976): 48-66.
Stem Cell Research Implementation Essay essay help online
In this century, the advance in knowledge has led to the increase in curing of many ailments. One of these breakthroughs is the advent of stem cell research.
This technology has raised the expectation of many medical professionals in treating people who have endured suffering or died prematurely because their diseases were regarded to be “incurable” some years ago. Stem cells are capable of growing until they form mature specialized body cells. They are found in embryos at the initial developmental stages in fetal tissues and sometimes in some mature tissues.
Doctors and scientists have proved that by the use of stem cell technology, it is possible for organisms to grow from a single cell. In addition, they have also discovered that cells that are in good physical condition are capable of restoring damaged cells in mature organisms. Nevertheless, the lack of adequate funding from the government has deteriorated the efforts of the researchers in embracing the benefits of this technology.
Since the first isolation of embryonic stem cells occurred during the last decade, stem cell technology has emerged to be a major advancement in the field of science.
Nonetheless, the breakthrough is a major public debate topic concerning its use in treating patients with “incurable” ailments (Korobkin and Munzer, 3). Throughout this period, the United States government has approved what is considered as the worst restraining policy in scientific investigation in modern times: it has refused to provide financial assistance to embryonic stem-cell research.
Some government officials hold the belief that the people encouraging this type of research are becoming deceitful in making known to the public this hope in medical science and affirm that adequate proof for the sustainability of this technology is still lacking. However, such sentiments are in themselves deceitful since people, who do not meet the criteria, make such ill-conceived statements.
The public does not have adequate information on this. For example, a recent public poll, conducted by the International Communications Research in Media, Pa, revealed that “47 percent of Americans oppose federal funding of embryonic stem-cell research, while 38 percent support such funding. Only 21 percent favored funding all stem-cell research, including research that involves killing embryos” (Catholic News Service, para. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it is important to note that on scientific issues, the so-called “opinion polls” are less significant. In such cases, the public normally vote based on their tastes and preferences while disregarding the real impact of the issue.
Doctors and scientists, who are the authority in this field, have asserted several times that the implementation of stem cell research would bring many benefits to humanity, especially those who are suffering from diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, spinal cord injury, certain forms of cancer, or even ailments of the heart. So, who should make for us decisions in this critical issue, is it the ill-advised public or the scientists?
Some people who are opposed to this technology claim that the introduction of stem cell research in medical laboratories can result in the annihilation of human life. The religious community maintains that the life of a human being commences at conception; therefore, they oppose the use of such embryos in research.
However, it is of essence to note that the embryos used in stem cell research are mostly the left over ones kept in fertility clinics that eventually would be discarded if they were not used for the intended purposes. Those against the research assert that embryonic life is holy and necessary for the persistence of lives in this planet. Therefore, they are faithfully not willing to give up embryonic life, regardless of the numerous advantages it would bring to the medical field.
Or, should we let our loved ones to die of “incurable” aliments like the ones mentioned above simply because stem cell research is unnatural? Investigation into this field of study should be encouraged by providing more funds to assist the investigators. In addition, who knows, may be one day we will wake up and find ourselves living in a disease-free world thanks to the funding accorded to these investigators who work relentlessly to this end.
In conclusion, it is evident that the implementation of stem cell research can bring several benefits to the human race. The world is seriously in need of the treatment of medical conditions that has troubled it for a long time now.
However, the current political temperature and lack of adequate government funding is a major obstacle towards the realization of this dream. By looking at the whole picture, this technology should be adopted as long as some restrictions are placed upon it to prevent scientists from misusing the breakthrough.
We will write a custom Essay on Stem Cell Research Implementation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This research is thought to be the most promising in curing ailments and the lack of funding continues to derail the activities of the scientists. To this end, we should continue to raise our voices and make sure that this great medical research breakthrough succeeds and saves thousands of lives from early graves.
Works Cited Catholic News Service. “Poll shows opposition to federally funded embryonic stem-cell research.” The Boston Pilot.com. 24 Sept. 2010. Web. https://www.thebostonpilot.com/
Korobkin, Russell, and Stephen, Munzer. Stem cell century: law and policy for a breakthrough technology. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007. Print.
The experiences of the Aborigines Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Executive Summary The research paper entails a research that was conducted by David Mellor to ascertain the experience of racism of by the Aboriginal Australians.
The research was contrary to the previous usual researches that dwelt more on perpetrators of racism rather than the people whom racism is inflicted upon. Non-probability sampling technique was used to identify the subject participants of the research. By interviewing participants, the researcher was able to categorize racism in four categories: 1) verbal 2) behavioral 3) discrimination 4) macro-level.
In his discussion, Mellor indicates that racism occurs on broad interactive system and since the social scientists had turned a deaf ear on the victims input in their analyses of racism, the knowledge of racism is deemed partial. The qualitative method of research was used in attaining and compiling the data of the research. Mellor indicates that the method of research was qualitative and hence it meant the results presentation should be descriptive (Mellor, 2003, P4)
Methodology used The methodology used was qualitative research method. The research paper has incorporated a system of inquiry where a combination of interviews and documented reviews has been used to bring out the researcher’s comprehension of cultural and social phenomenon. Mellor indicates that the research method is qualitative; hence, the results should be represented in a descriptive manner (Mellor, 2003, P.4).
Creswell indicates that in qualitative approach, the researcher employs participatory knowledge claims, open-ended interviewing, and narrative design. Thus, in the study of an inquirer examining an issue concerning oppression of people, collection of stories from the people and use of a narrative approach is the approach to be used (Creswell, 2003, p 21)
In the case at hand, the researcher interviewed victims of oppression in a bid to hand the victims a chance to explain their experiences on racism. Mellor also indicates that the primary data of the investigation was retrieved from narratives that were collected through thorough interviews (Mellor, 2003, p 3)
Procedure: The inquirer used various means in the qualitative method to achieve the objective of the research in viewing racism at different angle, which included:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Use of past literatures
Mellor cites authors like Harrison, Jones, Lalonde, and Cameron who share the same sentiments as him that exclusion of experiences of the victims of racism in analyses results to partial accounts of racism (Mellor, 2003, p 2). This hence indicates the use of past literature.
Mellor indicates that non-probability technique was used to select the participants that would take part in the interviews. He further elaborates that the interviews were open ended and conducted in the participants’ territory. The interviews were audio taped to give the participants a relaxed environment (Mellor, 2003, p 4).
In the research case, the researcher describes the various forms of racism attained from the interviews. In the first category of racism, Mellor describes in detail in the sub category of name-calling of how the color (black) has been used to enhance racism (Mellor, 2003, p. 4).
At the end of the research, Mellor tries to interpret the data acquire in the research by discussing it. Finding out that the data attained indicates that the racism victims experience is pervasive, Mellor tries to discuss this issue by indicating that the victims agree that it’s normal for non-Aborigines to have negative stereotypes (Mellor, 2003, p 10)
Why the method used Sense of reality
Morse and Field indicate that qualitative analysis creates a sense of reality, gives a description, and explains the social world (Morse and Field, 1995, p 1). In the research case, Mellor describes of the social world of the Aborigines of Australia hence creating a sense of reality of the scenario of what it means to be an Aborigine in Australia.
In qualitative analysis, one normally focuses in attaining an explanation of an observed phenomenon to develop a solid theory as the result of the research (Morse and Field, 1995, p 2). Mellor has developed a description of the various levels of racism towards the Aborigines of Australia.
Morse and Field suggest that researchers in qualitative research start by exploring researches from the past and consider it suspicious (Morse and Field, 1995, p 2). In the qualitative research used by Mellor, he had the liberty of exploring previous researches, which he did. The case scenario criticizes the past researchers for dwelling more on the perpetrators of racism instead of the victims of racism.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The experiences of the Aborigines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The researcher concludes by indicating that racism is a hot topic in the political and social sectors. In normal scenarios racism begin as expression of attitude which later converts to unacceptable racist behaviors.
The categorization of racism creates a sense that indicates that racism is more acceptable than it once was; this is courtesy of interviewing perpetrators who provided vital information on the trepidations they have gone through over time. On interviewing the victims, racism is indicated as being ripe in the current world and in an advance manner.
Criticism of past research Mellor suggest that the account of racism is distorted due to the past researches dwelling heavily on the perpetrators of racism instead of the victims of racism (Morse and Field, 1995, p 10).
Mellor also suggests that although the study of racism from the perpetrators’ perspective assures politically reducing of racism, the situation is contrary on the victims perspective (Mellor, 2003, p 11).
Alternative method The alternative method that could be used in the current case scenario is quantitative method. In quantitative research, knowledge from day to day life and from previous research is developed into theory (Morse and Field, 1995, p 2).
In the case scenario at present, Mellor indicates of the previous knowledge acquired from past researches and the current knowledge gotten from interviews conducted. Quantitative method also involves use of positive claims from the past in developing claims, in addition to this there is use of survey and data collection (Creswell, 2003, p 18)
Justification of alternative method The quantitative method is suitable because it involves both surveying and collection of data. Specific variables are also reduced in this method thus narrowing to the specific variables needed for the research. Creswell indicates that in quantitative method data is also collected followed by in-depth explanation of interviews (Creswell, 2003, p 17, 18).
The collection of data will provide a basis for proper understanding of the research as an in-depth explanation is also assured in this method. In quantitative research, attitudes are tested both before and after experimental treatment. The data and information collected is then analyzed statistically and using hypothesis testing (Creswell, 2003, p 18).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The experiences of the Aborigines by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Creswell, W. J. (2003). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Web.
Mellor, D. (2003). Contemporary Racism in Australia: The Experiences of Aborigines. (Attached material).
Morse, M. J. and Field, A. P. (1995). Qualitative research methods for health professionals. Web.
Contemporary Racism in Australia: the Experience of Aborigines Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Why the Methodology Was Used
Conclusions Drawn From the Study
Alternative Research Methodology
Introduction This study provides a critique of a research paper called Personality and Psychology Bulletin by Davis Mellor. The paper was a research study encompassing 34 respondents from the aboriginal community (Mellor, 2003, p. 473). The research focused on analyzing racial experiences by the Australian aboriginal community.
Its findings were largely based on the premise that racism occurred at many levels of social interaction and because many researchers have neglected the victim’s point of view, the analysis of racism on Australia’s aboriginal community has been largely incomplete. The paper therefore sought to analyze how the aboriginal communities, who are the victims of racism in this case, perceive racism. This study provides a selective analysis of the paper.
Methodologies Used To obtain the racial experiences of the participants, a questionnaire was used to record the in depth experiences of the participants. Parts of the interviews undertaken were recorded in audio format through a tape recorder so that the respondents would be more relaxed in giving their responses.
The interviews were structured in an open ended manner but were also semi structured to tabulate data relating to the examination of racial experiences of the respondents, their feelings towards racists experiences and an analysis of the respondents’ answers. The data was later analyzed through the NUD*IST software which categorized various similar elements to come up with specific categories of racial variables. This system was also used to come up with racial subcategories which summed up the derived racial behaviors in totality.
Why the Methodology Was Used The above methodology was used because it was a quantitative technique of obtaining data, arising from the sole fact that racial analysis is a qualitative subject.
The methodology also enabled the research to have a descriptive element of racism. However, the biggest motivator for Mellor to use this methodology was so that he could be able to make sense of massive volumes of data and deduce significant patterns that best conceptualized the essence to which the data was meant to expose. In addition, the methodology enabled accurate collection of data because respondents were questioned from their own home environments.
Conclusions Drawn From the Study It was concluded that the aboriginal community experienced varied forms of racism in various contexts and environments. Perpetrators of these racial elements were also interestingly varied. Racism was also noted to manifest in a number of behavioral and verbal forms which included discrimination and violation of societal norms.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evidently, it became clear that previous studies majorly focused on the Perpetrator’s point of view as opposed to the victims’. Also, more surprising was the fact that racism turned out to be a very common thing for the aboriginal community and it also occurred more frequently than previously thought.
As opposed to newly advanced views that racism today was much more subtle and modern, the study found out that most of the racial instances being evidenced today among the aboriginal community was overt and old fashioned (Mellor, 2003, p. 473). It was also concluded that if the data used in the study was a true reflection of the real Australian intercommunity interaction, scientific researchers who perceived racism as more subtle and modern may have adopted such a theory prematurely.
More specifically, the study identified that racism currently occurs through name calling, verbal abuse, threats, jokes, ignoring certain people, avoidance, patronization, selective looking, segregation, harassment, denial of identity, assault, over application of the law, lack of concern, cultural domination, and wrong media information (Mellor, 2003, pp. 473- 483).
Alternative Research Methodology An alternative methodology which could be effectively used in this study is the discourse analysis which is quite effective in the analysis of a multidisciplinary racial analysis research project (Ischool, 2010). A discourse analysis methodology is especially used in a semiotic environment. A discourse analysis has a number of bridges that enable the final information to be well communicated. They include: writing, talking and speaking which are to be analyzed in a coherent manner.
Contrary to most methodologies, the discourse analysis incorporates the study of naturally occurring factors as opposed to invented examples by respondents. In a more detailed manner, discourse analysis can be viewed as more than just a research methodology because it specifically characterizes how a problem should be approached and what channels of thought may be used to solve a given issue.
Discourse analysis does also not give a solid solution to a given problem but instead, it provides the ground through which given assumptions may be formulated (regardless of whether they are of an ontological or epistemological nature).
In more conventional terms, the discourse analysis is expected to expose the various motivations that prompt people to undertake certain actions. A discourse analysis methodology will therefore be able to interpret given problems and not necessarily provide us with their answers but the motivations behind them.
We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary Racism in Australia: the Experience of Aborigines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Justification Using the discourse analysis to analyze racial practices among Australia’s aboriginal community poses a number of advantages. This methodology will expose the relations between different structures that perpetrate racism; like the way verbal abuse and discrimination have been pointed out as aspects to racism. Also, since the discourse analysis is closely related with the linguistic discipline, racial prejudices associated with grammatical structures will be exposed in line with ethnic biases which different racial groups’ posses.
Also, because part of the racial divide in Australia is partly caused by historical discourses, the discourse analysis can be used to point out existing relations of today’s racial practices with past events and ethnic relations. In this manner, we can be able to make inferences regarding the attitude various ethnic groups have in comparison to past events.
Conclusion Personality and Psychology Bulletin by Davis Mellor derives a lot of inferences about racial experiences of the aboriginal community in various ways. As much as the study exposes an unexplored area of research (victims’ point of view), there is still more room for further studies to be undertaken about other aspects, like the historical connections to racism and such like variables. These factors can be best analyzed using the discourse analysis, although the methodology used in the study suits the objectives of the research in a perfect manner.
References Ischool. (2010). Discourse Analysis. Web.
Mellor, D. (2003). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Pers Soc Psychol Bull, 29 (474), 473-485.
Attorney Client Privilege: Alton Logan’s Law Case Essay college essay help near me
Moral and legal ethics differ significantly. People should not mix up those notions. While moral ethics states that one action is inadmissible, legal ethics assures that there is no other way of dealing with the case. Considering an example of Alton Logan who had to spend 26 years in jail for the crime he did not commit, the problem of legal ethics is going to be considered in the light of the cultural relativism theory.
No one denies the hazards of cultural relativism, but there are no ways out in some cases. Having considered the case and the supporting information, it should be stated that two attorneys who remained silent about the innocence of Alton Logan were right from the point of view of the legal ethics; this opinion may be supported with the cultural relativism theory, no matter how failing and unmoral it seems from other points of view.
The legal ethics is a notion which stands for a set of rules of conduct which exist in the attorneys’ world. One of the main rules which attorneys should follow is keeping a client’s secret. In case if this rule had not been established, an attorney would not be able to serve a client effectively.
If a client is not assured that his/her secret is going to be kept, he/she is unable to trust an attorney. When attorneys deal with the information received from a client, attorneys are to be aware of “their ethical obligations to maintain client confidences and the court-imposed protections provided by what is known as the attorney-client privilege” (Currier and Eimermann 2009, 277).
Considering this problem for a particular case, one may doubt this set of rules and find it as unmoral. The case is as follows, a person, Alton Logan, was convicted for murder and condemned to imprisonment for life. Twenty-six years two attorneys, Dale Coventry, and Jamie Kunz knew that he was not guilty, but they could not say a word.
The main reason why they remained silent is that their client, Andrew Wilson, confessed that it was he who committed a murder. Two attorneys could do nothing. Protecting their client, they were unable to say the truth (Lawyers Keep 26-Year Secret). On the one hand, the actions of the attorneys are unmoral, but it is so if to consider their actions for moral ethics, but they had to use another ethics, legal one.
If to consider the problem from legal ethics, the cultural relativism theory should be checked. To be clear about what we are to consider, here is the definition of cultural relativism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cultural relativism is a perspective that aims to understand – not condone or discredit – foreign behavior and thinking. [It is] the perspective that the standards of home culture should not judge a foreign culture and that behavior or way of thinking must be examined in its cultural context (Ferrante 2008, 77-78).
Thus, if to consider the actions of the attorneys from the cultural relativism, it is possible to state that they were right. An attorney is a person who must keep secrets which a client says him/her. This is one of the main rules in legal ethics. As Dale Coventry noted in the interview, “…if you check with attorneys or ethics committees, it is very, very clear – it is not morally clear – but we are in a position to where we have to maintain client confidentiality… It is just a requirement of the law.
The system would not work without it” (Lawyers Keep 26-Year Secret). This is so if to check the problem from the side of the attorneys if to consider the rules of conduct for attorneys it is clear that Dale Coventry and Jamie Kunz could reveal the truth only after the death of their client. It is understandable from the interview that attorneys tried to find another way to tell the jury that Alton Logan was innocent, but they could not.
In conclusion, it is impossible to consider the problem correctly if not take into account all the aspects of the case. The main idea of the cultural relativism is that the issue should be checked from the cultural side of a person who was involved there. Thus, considering the case of the attorneys who kept a secret about Alton Logan’s innocence, it may be stated that they were right from the side of the legal ethics and if to take into account cultural relativism.
Those who try to understand this problem only from the side of moral ethics may never accept attorneys’ position. Moral and legal ethics should not be confused as these are two different notions. Thinking morally, some attorneys are unable to act in a way their hearts tell them; they are to follow the rules dictated by the legal ethics. An attorney should keep client’s confidentiality in defiance of their desires and convictions.
Reference List Currier, Katherine A., and Thomas E. Eimermann. Introduction to Paralegal Studies: A Critical Thinking Approach. Aspen: Aspen Publishers Online, 2009.
Ferrante, Joan. Sociology: a Global Perspective. Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2008.
We will write a custom Essay on Attorney Client Privilege: Alton Logan’s Law Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lawyers Keep 26-Year Secret. [Video]. 2008. 60 Minutes Overtime. Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/
Speech in “Speaking ‘Like a Man’ in Teamsterville” by Gerry Philipsen Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Gerry Philipsen, who is commonly referred to as the father of The Speech Codes Theory, did an ethnographic analysis to establish the different meanings that are shared in a culture and he published his findings in the Quarterly Journal of Speech in an article entitled “Speaking ‘Like a Man’ in Teamsterville: Culture Patterns of Role Enactment in an Urban Neighborhood.”
For about three years, Philipsen interviewed the people of this community so that he could get the definition of speech codes. And after the successful research, he defined speech codes as forms of speech patterns that adhere to given rules and structures within a community of speakers.
Therefore, Speech Codes Theory strives to elucidate on the ethnography of communication since there are several cultures in the world, which have distinguishable set of communication patterns. In every special culture, speech codes, or rather the conversation itself, are stressed in different ways as illustrated by the study Philipsen performed in south Chicago involving the white males.
Philipsen study indicates that speech codes are found in every culture and they serve different purposes. The culture of a particular community states how its members can engage in a conversation. Philipsen notes that “cultures are not only varied but are also internally diverse in the emphasis they place on the value of talk” (13).
For developing a better understanding of individuals in a particular culture, knowing how their speech code is interpreted is of essence. Some cultures maintain the value of communication through conversation while others maintain that silence is more beneficial. “Each community has its own cultural values about speaking and these are linked to judgments of situational appropriateness” (Philipsen, 13).
In the study, which was based on a community he nicknamed the “Teamsterville,” Philipsen notes that “One manifestation of cultural outlook is the local view of the appropriateness of speaking versus other actional (such as silence, violence or non-verbal threats) strategies in male role enactment or self-presentation” (13).
The symbolic interaction in Teamsterville is valued most by the male figure since it is of essence for men in the community to assume the major responsibilities and cover certain boundaries so as to show that they are the dominant beings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The understanding of this cultural pattern is that the men assume dominant status within the community. At Teamsterville, the importance of the reputation of men concerning their attributes is rated through their interaction with one another.
In addition to having a clear understanding of individuals, a strong cultural pattern in communication ought to maintain clarification of its values. The findings concerning the behavior of the inhabitants of Teamsterville reveal that its values were determined by the male sex.
“Whether and how well a man performs in a manly way is a principal criterion in Teamsterville for judging whether his behavior is appropriate and proper to the social identity ‘male’” (Philipsen, 13). The people held the belief that men were dominant in almost every way.
As illustrated in the article, a speech code is intended for a particular kind of people to understand. For the success of a conversation in Teamsterville, the participants should have similar identity characteristics such as “age, sex, ethnicity, occupational status, and location of residence” (Philipsen, 15).
In addition, they should have formed cordial relationship with one another for sometime. In the study, Philipsen noted that speaking is a dominant focus for all male social interaction in which the boys sat at the corner of the street while the men sat at the corner of the bar so as to engage themselves in a conversation.
Normally, the boys and the men have strategic places for sitting whereby speaking forms the dominant activity and outsiders are not invited or welcomed in such informal meetings. “Speech is the currency of social interaction when participants have similar social identities, including membership in a close-knit friendship group; speech purchases an expression of solidarity or assertion of status symmetry” (18).
“Speaking like a man in Teamsterville” provides a couple of instances in which speech patterns can be either appropriate or inappropriate. Essentially, the study found out that speaking is appropriate for expressing male dominance. However, it is not appropriate and it is not effective when it is used as a method of demonstrating power in interpersonal circumstances.
We will write a custom Essay on Speech in “Speaking ‘Like a Man’ in Teamsterville” by Gerry Philipsen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Philipsen came to understand and observed that the use of speech depends on a number of circumstances. In the eyes of Teamsterville residents, the use of speech is appropriate when a man is engaging in a conversation with another man who is seen as his peer. Typically, the participants have to have similar attributes mentioned above. In this type of a situation, the participants usually engage themselves in heavy talks among them.
Talking is effective for the Teamsterville male when it is employed within the framework of an already thriving or a continuing association founded on personal ties. The conversation is encouraged by the strength of the already existing relationship. This is what functions as a reinforcement of that relationship.
For example, in a situation in which a member of the town’s group goes to visit another member of the group in his home and it happens that the guest abuses the mother of the boy whom he came to see. In such a circumstance, since the two boys normally hang out on the same corner in the street, the offended boy would talk to the guest to avoid such offensive statements and admit for the guilt, instead of beating him. In this type of a circumstance, talking is considered more appropriate.
Speaking is less appropriate for the Teamstervillers when the relationship is seen to be “asymmetrical’’ such as interactions between husband and wife, father and kid, and an employer and a worker. The least speech is employed when a man wants to exert dominance over another. For instance, in a situation in which a Teamsterville man was walking with his wife in the streets and another man knowingly abused the wife.
Because of the need to assert power over another person, the man would resort to physical violence and beat the man who had abused his wife. A man attempting to “sweet” talk the other in order to be forgiven is regarded as a “homosexual.” In Teamsterville speech code, such an attempt to persuade the other for favours was considered immoral. Therefore, in this “power” situation, the use of talking is the least suitable.
Other similar instances include when a man wants to exert influence over another with a lower status and when a man maintains his position concerning issues such as politics or economics. In these ways, the speech code was designed in such a way that it could include some people and exclude other members of the town.
The use of the code created various problems for users. Some users misinterpreted the code and misused it. For example, a number of boys in the town refused to give Philipsen audience simply because he was not talking in a manly manner.
In another instance, a settlement group worker took a group of boys on a trip and when he did not give them a convincing answer concerning a question they asked him on how he would treat a person who has insulted his wife, the boys suddenly made a decision to go back home and forfeit the trip. These instances show that the residents of Teamsterville misused the code without any clear logical reason.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Speech in “Speaking ‘Like a Man’ in Teamsterville” by Gerry Philipsen by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, despite the problems of the code, it was especially good in a number of ways. The implementation of the code in Teamsterville tied together the ideas of the people, clarified their values, and resulted in commonality of the lifestyle in the town. Engaging in a conversation through either verbal or non-verbal means is an important aspect of life.
Speech code was an essential aspect of the culture of the residents of Teamsterville since it bound them together in a unique way that other cultures or societies were not able to relate to comfortably. Communication establishes a guide for
interpretation of thoughts as well as the free will that an individual requires so as to communicate freely with the rest of the world. This implies that the uniqueness of the society at Teamsterville could probably be non-existent if speech codes were not present. In conclusion, the study, as a descriptive datum, illustrates that talking can carry different functional loads within the communicative economies of different societies and that communication aspects in these societies are culturally diverse.
Works Cited Philipsen, Gerry. “Speaking “like a man” in Teamsterville: Culture patterns of role enactment in an urban neighborhood.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 61.2 (1975). 13-21. Print.
Appendix Boy 1: (hanging out with the other boys at the corner of a street) My mum is not feeling well, she has been sick since last month, could you guys come so that you can see her, perhaps this will boost her health.
Boy 2: (After an extended period of time in which no one seems to take interest of the invitation) I will come after taking care of some errands in the home.
Boy 1: (Leaves the meeting place and rushes home) Bye everyone, I hope to see you at home, my mum will be very jubilant to my friend coming to see her.
Boy2: I promise to come. (He then shows up later at the home of his friend).
Boy 1: Welcome home, friend, I am pleased to have you here.
Boy 2: It is my pleasure to be here, so where is your ever-sick mum, I wonder why these old people always get sick!
Boy 1: (Assuming the negative remarks) She is at the bedroom, she has been sleeping since morning.
Boy 2: Still sleeping? I thought she was awake now, that is why the disease has never left her. You should tell your mum to stop behaving like that.
Boy 1: (Infuriated) Stop it! She is my mother; refer to her with some respect.
Boy 2: I am sorry for offending you, I though we were having another street talk.
Boy 1: It is okay. Let me now call her so that you can see her.
Technology as a Macro-environmental Force that Affect Marketing Related Decision Report (Assessment) writing essay help
Introduction It is evident that macro-environment forces have had an impact on the way organizations behave; this is because of their uncontrollable significance to business environment. Technological change is one of the macro-environment; almost all organizations in the world are affected by changes in technology.
The influence of macro-environment is normally beyond the controlling capacity of organizations especially in the market perspective. Technology has enhanced dissemination of information more than ever imagined; today’s buyers have a wide range of information at their disposal unlike in the past. It is with this respect that technology as one of the greatest macro-environment forces will be explicitly discussed.
Technology as a Macro-environmental force In order to comprehend the significance of technology in the market, it is imperative to fully understand the meaning of macro-environment forces. In this sense, macro-environment simply means the environmental forces or factors that indirectly alter the operations of an organization. Organizations cannot change these forces since they are external, some of the common macro-environment force includes but not limited to the following factors; economic changes, political changes technological, and socio-cultural changes.
In the modern world, one of the leading forces in the macro-environment sense is technology. The rationale for this is because of its influence on the buyer’s choices. In essence, a buyer today has a range of choices unlike before the development of technology. The internet is the world hub of information that can either benefit or disadvantage an organization. Leveraging on information can make a small firm appear larger.
More so, it creates a balanced competing environment for all the firms involved. In this sense, considering that consumer have adequate information about different products and the expected quality which includes the manufacturing materials and their effects with respect to health, consumers are more cautious as compared to the past. This is the reason why the effects of technological changes cannot be over-emphasised.
With the ever increasing globalization, technology is a pertinent of strategic alignment of many organizations. Since globalization creates both opportunities for new market venture and also increases the number of competitors, the products and services of a company are easily threatened. In this perspective, technology has the ability to change consumption rate of consumers and therefore imperative in market decisions of the firm.
A firm can use the information acquired from the customer’s opinion to improve their services and products. The internet is also an imperative marketing tool that can increase the market of a product or service globally. The strategies chosen by an organization are therefore critical for the success of the marketing process. More so, it is worth noting that technology has created a global village and hence a global market, most organizations that do not adapt to this vital marketing tool are easily eliminated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion As discussed in this analysis, it has been clearly shown that technology is pertinent to market decisions in the modern world because of its inevitable significance. Technology can therefore be considered to be one of the most vital macro-environment forces in the modern world. As also discussed, the consumers buying ways have been significantly shaped by technological changes due to the information provided to them.
This means that the modern consumers are cautious on what they purchase and make more informed decision on their buying habits unlike in the past. With this perspective, it is important to note that market decision of many organizations are influenced by technological development as a one of the macro-environment forces more than other forces because of the technological significance in the market.
Racism By Thomas Jackson Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Racism can be defined as favor of one culture, race and color by undermining other people’s cultures, races, and color. Historically racial discrimination was perceived to be committed primarily by whites especially towards the black population living in the United States and other European countries.
The emergence of civil activists like Martin Luther and Malcolm X was because of the increased racial concerns. In order to give an explicit reasoning about racism with respect to the words of Thomas Jackson, it is imperative to understand both the current and the past historical issues concerning racism; this will give a clear and unbiased argument about racism based on my own understanding.
My perception of Thomas Jackson racism I personally agree and at the same time disagree with the argument presented by Thomas Jackson about racism. To commence my argument about this issue, I will first point out what I personally believe that Thomas Jackson missed about racism. Thomas concentrates only on the current issues and concerns that seem to discriminate on the white race. In doing so, he forgets the historical injustices that whites have shown especially towards the black community.
A large percentage of the black communities living in the United States were taken as slaves for the white people. The reverse has never happened anywhere in the world. The propagation of racism was evidently done by the white community. In the early 1960’s at the rise of civil rights movements, most African-Americans and Hispanics were clearly discriminated by their fellow white citizens in most aspects of social life.
There were schools for the whites and hospitals for the whites among other necessary social amenities. Thomas seems to forget these past injustices committed by the white communities. If the black and other races had not been discriminated, the word ‘racism’ could not have attracted much attention as it is in the modern world.
By stating the history of racism and the past injustices committed by the white people, I do not support discrimination against the white community regarding their own cultures and identities.
However, there is one factor that is clear when talking about racism, the whites triggered racism and blacks and other races have disseminated racism through their over-sensitivity to any act that seems to support or favor the white community. In this respect, there is discrimination against the white community since they cannot exercise their own private practices without attracting overwhelming attention from the media and the ‘modern civil activists’.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As painfully explained by Thomas in his argument, this side of the argument is true. It is also true that the white community has to be more cautious in their actions more than other races. This perception can be explained by considering historical events that led to racism, in summary the hunter is more or less becoming the hunted.
More so, Thomas emphasizes on the growing number of immigrants flocking the United States especially from developing countries. On the contrary there are minimal number of white immigrants to the United States as compared to the number of blacks and other races. This clearly indicates the decreasing dominance of the white community.
Conclusion Based on my analysis, Thomas Jackson is neither right nor wrong; his argument seems to be a reaction to the growing sensitivity from other races. There is more reaction to the actions of the other races rather than a comprehensive argument of racism and its origin. In this perspective, Thomas is wrong in his approach about the whole concept of racism.
He ought to analyze the genesis of racism to account for the current actions. In another perspective, the growing concern for any white actions should not be taken as a sign of racism; I personally detest this perception from other races about the white community in support of Thomas argument.
Bibliographical Strategy in Michael Meyer’s “The Compact Bedfort Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing” Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The chapter of Michael Meyer’s “The Compact Bedfort Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing” discusses the bibliographical strategies. This critical strategy for reading lies in juxtaposing the content of the work of literature with the biographical data about its author. As a result, bibliographical strategy allows the reader getting a deeper understanding of the work.
The peculiarity of the bibliographical strategy is that it demands some additional work to be done by the reader; this work includes finding the facts about the author’s personal life and comparing the date of work creation with a certain period of the writer’s life.
However, all the reader’s efforts will be rewarded with a profound understanding of the plot. In addition, based of the efficient analysis of the biography, the reader can develop his or her analytical skills, and perceive the plot not as a separate phenomenon, but as a reflection of the author’s personality.
The application of the bibliographical strategy changes the conventional way of book perception. Thus, for an ordinary reader the “Childe Harold Pilgrimage” would be an excellent example of the use of language and poem composition.
However, a more critical reader who uses the biographical approach will know that the poem is based on the notes, which Lord Byron took while traveling to Spain, Malts, Albania, Portugal, etc. This points to the fact that, unlike other romanticists, Byron saw the romanticism in reality, but not in imaginary countries.
Another example of the strategy application is the analysis of the literature heritage left by Aurore Lucile Dupin, known more as George Sand. It is obvious that the writer dedicated most of her works to the fight against the social inequality.
This fact can be easily explained by some information about the woman’s biography. It appeared that George Sand was a daughter of an aristocratic father, while her mother was a commoner. For this reason, she often was discriminated and laughed at in aristocratic communities, which served as a determining factor in the writer’s themes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As it can be seen from the examples given below, the biographical method is rather effective, and using it is rather helpful. However, not in all the cases one can find a straight connection between a work of literature and it’s author’s life. Here it would be relevant to mention the Meyer’s statement: “Sometimes biographical information does not change our understanding so much as it enriches our appreciation of the work” (Meyer, 1543).
Indeed, while some critics advise to analyze the work apart from the author’s life, it has to be remembered that the facts from personal life of the author influence their writing both consciously and unconsciously. Depending on personal emotions, states, and experiences, the writers and poets can choose a certain theme, mood, tone, and style of writing. Let us remember the Picasso’s “blue period”, when his paintings were all moody and pessimistic.
This period coincides with the death of the artist’s best friend, Casagemas. Thus, even on the works where the painter does not depict his grief or the dead body of Casagemas, the viewers can see the mourning mood. Even the casual portraits created at that period seem to be pessimistic. This proves once more that the work of art, whether it is a painting, a musical composition, or a work of literature, cannot live a life separately from its creator.
All in all, it has to be said that the bibliographical strategy is always relevant while reading a text. I believe that bibliographical strategy will develop my critical and analytical abilities. What is more, this strategy will help me to improve my writing style, as far as knowing it will induce me to choose the language tools more carefully. Consequently, my writing will become more effective and skillful.
Works Cited Meyer, Michael. The Compact Bedfort Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. New York: Bedfort, 2002.
A Good Society and the Economy Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Economics as a discipline focuses on laws that determine how economies work. Usually, this entails looking at a balance between human wants and the scarcity of resources as reflected through goods and services. Economics essentially dwells on tackling these two issues in order to derive maximum satisfaction. Sometimes markets can solve their own problems or government interventions can be made. Economic interventions may appear essential to society’s functioning but their unforeseen consequences make them unreliable
The issues Government interventions have not always led to desirable results especially in monetary intercessions. Issues of hyperinflation (a state of exponential decrease in the value of a currency) have affected a number of societies very negatively. One such example was the South African country of Zimbabwe. At its worst economic times, that nation got to a point where citizens could not estimate how much they were going to purchase a kilogram of sugar in one evening even after buying it a certain price that morning.
This changed such a society from being a net exporter to net importer and eventual dependant. The country could not feed its people and started relying on humanitarian aid for survival. Continuous government involvement in Zimbabwe’s monetary policies is what led to the problem and contributed to its propagation (Bean, 58).
Government solutions may not always work because governments tend to depend on economists to base their decisions. However, economists tend to disagree on even some of the basic economic issues affecting nations.
For example, in 1930, the United Kingdom was going through a very tumultuous time. Unemployment was rife and the economy was doing very poorly. Experts and analysts in the Treasury advised the then Prime Minister McDonald to increase taxes and reduce social benefits especially for the unemployed (Boettke (a), 225).
The net effect of these actions was that citizens no longer had the monetary ability to keep purchasing commodities and businesses eventually had to close because of low purchasing power. In other words, the economic depression only got worse. It was at this point that another economist came up with his theory of expansionary policies.
The theory focused on income, money and the economy. The latter approach served the UK well and put it back on its feet. However, expansion has not always been the ultimate solution that it has been marketed to be because some countries have tried it and failed. The United States has struggled with the revival of its economy even after President Obama set out to inject more investments into it upon his election.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has not worked well for the country and has even led to the waning popularity of the leader (Taylor, 15). The lack of consensus on important matters such as how to handle a recession put into question the ability of the government or its stakeholders to solve some of society’s problems through economic intervention.
Some people argue that efficient management of the economy is critical to existence of a good society. However, this kind of management can be done on a micro level and on a macro level. The macro level leans towards government intervention while the micro level leans towards free market economics. Since resources are scarce, a good knowledge of how the economy works allows for optimization of these resources and hence enjoyment of efficiency.
Good societies should therefore be those ones that use fewer resources or waste even less; issues that can best be implemented on a micro level. Furthermore, citizens that manage their economies well will allocate their budgets more efficiently especially as a result of the opportunity cost principle and this will lead to better growth (Financial web, 22).
This principle refers to the benefits that have to be foregone by a decision maker when shifting from one opportunity to another one that may be better. To understand the argument, consider a person who had a certain amount of money in the bank, choosing to take this money from the bank into the stock exchange would mean that the person will forego interests in the said bank but will be looking forward to the benefits of owning stock.
The opportunity cost would therefore be represented by that decision to change investments. A good society is often run in the same manner. Policy makers cannot always keep recognizing the opportunities that are likely to benefit their citizens so personal initiative by the said members should be advocated. It should be noted that although consumption leads to economic growth, this can only occur when the right choices are made on what to buy and what to save by market players.
A well functioning society should be one that produces results for its inputs. In other words, if a society injects certain amounts of cash into the economy then the expected outcomes should be profitable.
Once no change is recorded or a negative one arises then such societies will start degrading. Issues such as unemployment and higher poverty rates are common in societies that reported no economic gains. One can therefore say that prosperity is highly determined by a stakeholder’s ability to plan for these gains. Failure to do so may create a breeding ground for a number of social evils.
We will write a custom Essay on A Good Society and the Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When a country’s economy is poorly operated by specific economic players such as lending institutions then such a society is likely to report immense levels of instability. This is because a poorly operated economy directly translates to monetary impacts among specific individuals and severely limits their ability to maintain their standards of living. A case in point was the US economic downturn that started in 2007.
The lives of Americans were affected directly because they had to forego some of their essential needs such as housing and the like. Statistics show that the amount of foreclosures in that year alone reached an overwhelming 1.5 million (Ivry, 2). Poor decision making amongst market lenders led to the crisis; which was an issue that could have been prevented if the market played by the rules.
If governments continued with interventions that were economically inclined then such societies are likely to report greater incidences of negative externalities (outcomes created by businesses that affect communities negatively) compared to those societies that do not make economically based interventions.
As such, a government that over stimulates its businesses would result in higher environmental degradation than one that does not bother with these issues. Additionally, a society with too much economic intervention would also have very minimal social goods and services. For example, public transport would be unattractive to investors and may therefore be severely lacking in such kinds of societies.
Issues such as universal education and public healthcare would be put at the periphery because they focus on increasing social well being over profitability (Sadowsky, 47). Therefore one can argue that sometimes the way to having a prosperous society is not just to focus on the economy because humans are concerned with other issues as well.
The phenomenon of globalization has become a common topic in almost all spheres of life. Staunch economists would argue that globalization favors greater resource efficiency and better production so it should be encouraged. These economists would therefore advise governments to perpetuate globalization.
However, non economists hold that globalization is unfair because it benefits owners of capital or wealthy nations at the disadvantage of poor ones. Developing nations get stripped further by expanding multinationals and this may not always be a fair way of solving society’s problems. If government interventions endorse it then this could lead to greater income disparities between nations.
Economic policies and interventions may sometimes focus on profitability over the overwhelming social good. Most policies in this arena are likely to lead to greater social inequality; eventually, this may cause social conflict. For example, if there was a developer who wanted to transform a local county by building a shopping mall, he may need to clear play grounds for children and increase traffic in the city.
Not sure if you can write a paper on A Good Society and the Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An economist would support such a move even if it would cause pollution and deny orphans or poor children spaces to play. If the government were to make economic decisions, then it would allow such a developer to build his land. When the least disadvantaged are ignored then society only puts itself in a position where clashes between one class and another can result.
Matters of accessibility to better opportunities may also be a challenge in the economic arena because here, economic experts often pay minimal attention to matters of social justice yet they are just as important as the economy when handling these challenges. Before endorsing a certain way of doing things, it is always essential to look at the repercussions of using that method on social organization.
The manner in which things are done in this realm may sometimes cause controversy on the role of economic interventions in the functioning of a good society. In the discipline dedicated to this subject of the economy, most theories are often made based on a number of assumptions.
One of them is ‘putting other factors constant’. This assumption has severe repercussions because sometimes analysts may forget about that assumption or may not seriously take the result of having the other factors in the equation variable. This leads to misleading policies and unwanted results that contribute towards the detriment of society. Matters of the economy rarely have straight forward responses (Boettke (b), 95).
For example, one cannot simply say that implementing minimum wage laws will result in greater unemployment. This is because if the market wage rate is lower than the minimal wage law then some degree of unemployment may result. However, the degree of unemployment cannot be predicted. Also the effect and execution of that unemployment is difficult to determine as well.
Some employers may opt to adjust their wages to the legal requirement while others may not and this could substantially alter the effect that their decisions have on the economy. A government intervention such as the one above is therefore not a guarantee to sound economics or a well functioning society.
Conclusion To some extent, economic management contributes to better living standards and better monetary benefits because without it, resource utilization and need satisfaction will be placed on the periphery yet these are essential parts of human living. However, these are best done on an individual level.
One can argue that too much emphasis on economic interventions leads to reduced attention on social issues such as poverty, environmental hazards as well as social inequality. Additionally, experts in this field of economics (who always advice governments) tend to have divergent views on the things that matter the most thus leading to controversial solutions.
Works Cited Boettke, Peter (a). After Samuelson, who needs Adam Smith? Political economy journal, 3(1971), 225.
Ivry, Bob. Foreclosures hit 1.5 million in US housing bust. Web.
Boettke, Peter (b). Analysis and vision in economic discourse. History of economic thought journal, 14/919792): 90-95.
Taylor, John. How government actions caused and prolonged the financial crisis. NY: Hoover institution press, 2010.
Bean, Charles. Lessons for monetary policy. Inflation and monetary policy report, (2008): 368.
Financial web. Importance of the economy. 2010. Web.
Sadowsky, James. The constitution of economic policy. American economic review 77(1987): 47.
Water Distribution System in Spain Report essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
History and Recent Developments
Water Source and Usage
Water Treatment and Distribution
Introduction Among European Union countries, Spain emerges as not only one of those with cheapest water tariffs but also where clean and safe drinking water is accessible to all its citizens. Statistically, approximately 98 percent of the town or city inhabitants and 93 percent of the countryside inhabitants are linked to sewers, whereas the rest are provided by on-site hygiene schemes for instance septic tanks.
Municipalities in Spain are charged with the duty of supplying water and they do so by contracting both private liability companies and qualified public companies or supplying themselves. Because of contracting others supplies, 60 percent of total water used in Spain is supplied by private water suppliers under dispensation of these municipals with Aguas de Barcelona claiming 50 percent.
History and Recent Developments Spain government passed Royal Decree-Law in 1926 that allowed creation of river basin organizations which marked the beginning government’s commitment towards providing clean water to its citizens.” The first river basin agencies (Confederaciones Hidrográficas) were created in the Ebro basin and in the Segura basin in 1926, followed by the Guadalquivir in 1927 and the Eastern Pyrenees in 1929” (Advanced Purification Engineering Corporation 1).
Later in 1961, river basin organizations were formed in the whole nation, which continues to serve most Spain nationals up to now with few exceptions.
Water Source and Usage Depending with geographical location and prevailing weather conditions, different parts of Spain receive water from different sources. However, on average “approximately 74 percent of water supplied by Spain municipalities come from surface water, only 19% in surface water and 7% in springs and desalination,” (Bartram 2).
Since southern part of Spain is frequently hit by droughts, desalinated seawater is the common source of water. As asserted by International Water Association, desalination plants were increased to over 700 in 2004 thereby increasing accessibility to clean and safe drinking water to southern inhabitants.
Information on annual water usage in Spain differs depending with the source and method used for sampling. Research done by International Water Association in 40 cities reflects, “Water use as between 169 l/c/d in Valencia and 192 l/c/d in Valencia, including industrial water use” (Theilig 3). These consumption statistics level tally on average with that of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. On the other hand, according to report published in 2008, “water consumption about 280 liter per capita and day (l/c/d)” (Bartram 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Water Treatment and Distribution Presently, Spanish government has stepped up its efforts to ensure sustainable access to safe water for all its citizens and there have been deliberate efforts to “increase number and size of desalination plants in order to meet growing water demand. The goal of this program is to obtain drinking water from the seas and rivers, as well as to improve the re-use of treated wastewater” (Bartram 4).
In Spain, reverse osmosis water treatment technology is commonly used with up to 50% of total water used being treated by this technology. This has been specifically beneficial to the four independent communities adjacent to the Mediterranean Coast.
Reverse osmosis is whereby “water is moved across the membrane against the concentration gradient, from lower concentration to higher concentration i.e. pressure is exerted on the side with the concentrated solution to force the water molecules across the membrane to the fresh water side” (Theilig 2)
Depending on the water source, there are different treatment methods that can be used and therefore, municipalities and private companies employ different methods to sanitize water (Theilig 5). For instance, water drawn from either underground aquifer or surface water supply like a river is first pumped in a reverse osmosis unit where water undergoes treatment. According to Advanced Purification Engineering Corporation:
The treated water is then pumped under pressure into a distribution system, which typically consists of a network of pipes (water mains) interconnected with ground level or elevated storage facilities (reservoirs). As it is withdrawn from the source, surface water is usually screened through steel bars, typically about 1 in (2.54 cm) thick and about 2 in (5.08 cm) apart, to prevent large objects such as logs or fish from entering the treatment facility(2)
Water is used for many purposes ranging from domestic, irrigation, industrial and as fire extinguishing agent. The main water supply for firefighting processes in Spain is the hydrants. By definition, “a fire hydrant is an above-ground connection that provides access to a water supply for the purpose of fighting fires” (Cavette 1).
If the hydrant is linked to the water hidden in the street, it is always pressurized to provide enough pressure to fight fire. Pressurized hydrants are classified as either dry-barrel or wet barrel. There are various diverse types of hydrants used in Spain currently; Smith low-pressure hydrant, Dresser low-pressure hydrant, Chapman and Eddy hydrants and high-pressure hydrants (Brisaboa and Martínez 8).
We will write a custom Report on Water Distribution System in Spain specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are situations where there are no hydrants; in this case, Spain has acquired booster tanks, which come in to fight fire emergencies. Booster tanks have the capability to draft water from stagnant sources for instance lakes, pools, or rivers.
Water-circulation structures that serve Spain cities, towns, and industries are generally categorized as being of the tree, gridiron, or loop type. They either can be combined or used individual depending on the complexity of design and application. By definition Gagliardi and Liberatore states that:
In the loop system, large feeder mains that surround areas many city blocks square serve smaller cross-feed lines connected at each end into the main loop. In the gridiron (or grid) system, the piping is laid out in checkerboard fashion, with piping usually decreasing in size as the distance increases from the source of supply.
In the tree system, there is a single trunk main, reducing in size with increasing distance from its source of supply; branch lines are supplied from the trunk. The grid and loop systems provide better reliability because of their multiple paths (1)
The loop and grid structures are commonly used in Spain since they offer enhanced dependability because of their numerous paths. These piping systems are regularly boosted with feeder pipes coming directly from “water pumping station to remote distribution centers serving to bolster the supply to meet increased demands with growth of population” (Gagliardi and Liberatore 2). Below is a diagram showing how piping in Spain is done:
Source: Gagliardi and Liberatore 2
Conclusion Spain is among the top on the list for those nations, which provide affordable, safe and constant water to its citizens in the European Union community. In areas, which often face drought spells particularly southern part of Spain, the government has built over 900 desalination units for treatment purposes.
Concerning disaster preparedness, municipalities have thousands of hydrants placed strategically in near buildings. This is backed by firefighting tanks where have the capacity to draft water from any stagnant source be in a river or a lake.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Water Distribution System in Spain by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Advanced Purification Engineering Corporation. Reverse osmosis drinking water systems. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 2010. Print.
Bartram, Jamie. “A global network for water professionals. “ Journal of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Development, 4.1(2010): 1-10.
Brisaboa, Nieves and Martínez, Antonio. “The E.I.E.L. project: an experience of GIS development.” Water Distribution System Journal, 43.1(2003):1-16.
Cavette, Chris. “Fire hydrant” How Products are Made, 4.1(2010):1-3.
Gagliardi, Michael and Liberatore, Louis. “Piping Water system.” Piping Systems Journal 3.1(2008):1-14.
Theilig, Susana.” Naval station rota Spain drinking water.” Consumer Confidence Journal, 4.2(2010):1-5.
Appendix Fig.1 Dumping Site and Sewage Treatment Plant in Spain (Brisaboa and Martínez 11)
Source: Brisaboa and Martínez 12
“The Lesson” by Toni Cade Bambara: Analysis Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
“The Lesson”: Brief Summary
Literary Analysis of “The Lesson”
Introduction The issue of inequality of people who come from different social backgrounds has been central for many people in politics, social studies, and literature as well. An American author and social activist, Toni Cade Bambara, develops the topic of inequality in one of her short stories, “The Lesson.” This paper contains a brief summary of “The Lesson” and attempts to analyze the main literary devices used by the author to reveal the theme.
“The Lesson”: Brief Summary A teacher takes an unusual approach to give a lesson and leads a group of sick African-American children to a costly toy store, which serves as the main setting of the story. The price of the playthings sold there could easily cover all the daily expenses of the children and their families. Therefore the children are astonished at the possibility that there exist people who could buy such outrageously expensive trifles and not get bankrupt.
For the first time in their lives, the children learn the lesson of economic inequality based on racial and class prejudices. The necessity for educating poor children about the injustice of their situation is the main idea of “The Lesson.” The importance of the conflict can be traced through the ways Bambara handles her story in terms of style, audience, and purpose.
Literary Analysis of “The Lesson” The most prominent element of Bambara’s story is the style she applies to render her ideas and point of view. “The Lesson” is told from the first-person perspective, which allows to bring the readers closer to the events described in the story and to make them empathize with the narrator. From the very first lines of the story, the readers can observe the way the narrator perceives the surrounding world and the people.
Toni Bambara employs a wide range of slang vocabulary to emphasize the background of her characters. Numerous samples of informal speech can be found in the text. Words as “nappy hair,” “junkman,” “winos,” “boring-ass things” are indicative of the narrator’s social origins from the outskirts of the city (Bambara 1148). The rudeness of such words as “bitch” and “goddamn” suggests that the narrator has not got any proper upbringing in terms of good manners (Bambara 1149).
Preserving the original colloquial constructions like “some kinda shape” or “whatcha gonna do,” the author succeeds in creating an illusion of live speech addressed directly to the reader (T.Bambara 1148, 1150). Thus, through vivid vocabulary and unceremonious tone of the story, Bambara creates a character of a poorly brought up child from a bad neighborhood.
In connection with the stylistic features of “The Lesson,” it appears reasonable to assume unsophisticated, battered by the hardships of the everyday struggle for life, such people are that the target audience of the story is the people who are like the story narrator. Simple, not interested in deciphering all the complicated phrases of proper language.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They should be addressed in the way that is familiar and understandable to them, and Bambara — through the narrator of the story — treats such people as equal, speaking to them in their language. Appealing to such an audience helps Bambara to achieve the primary purpose of her writing: to make it clear for the poor and the suffering that their living situation is not fair. It is not incidental that the initial reaction of the children brought to the store is astonishment and shock at the ridiculous prices for such simple and seemingly unnecessary things as a paperweight or a toy sailboat (Bambara 1150–1151). On the example of this excursion into the world of the rich person, Bambara demonstrates the unfairness and injustice when some people have barely anything to eat, and others can afford to buy expensive trifles just for fun.
Conclusion This essay aimed to make an analysis of “The Lesson” by Toni Cade Bambara. The main idea of the text is the necessity of demonstrating the enormous gap that separates the rich from the poor. Once the sick children see this gap, they start analyzing the reasons for such a situation. And once they know the reasons, they can take the needed action for eliminating their suffering and for improving their lives and the lives of their families. An end should be put to living in the dark about the actual state of affairs; only in this way can poor people hope for a better life.
Works Cited Bambara, Toni Cade. “The Lesson.” Making Literature Matter: An Anthology for Readers and Writers. 4th edition. Eds. John Schilb and John Clifford. Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009. 1148–53. Print.
Suffering is Optional Personal Essay writing essay help
Suffering is a worldwide experience of which no human being has the capacity to evade. Nevertheless, suffering can also be optional at times and get to totally depend on how one chooses to look at a tragedy.
Every now and then, different unfortunate happenings that could include loosing money and many others related to constant depression keep on occurring to different people. Suffering actually has the capability to initiate anger and bad temper or at the same time, be the most opportune and perfect learning experience for a soul, that will result in more maturity and more experience in life.
On the other hand, suffering at any given time is always optional for those individuals who choose to look at it from the bright side. Nevertheless, the world is filled by a number of pessimists, who would grade a tragedy as bad luck, an omen and nothing but hell for them.
The most unfortunate issue about such people is that they always end up realizing the criticality of their actions, when they are already too deep in to the turmoil. Such an alarming epic was permanently written in the minds of family and friends by my friend Sharry a couple of years back. Sharry went through the unfortunate experience of braking up with her boyfriend immediately after she had busted him getting friendly with a different girl.
The happening caused an unexplained magnitude of pain to Sherry that no words of consolation or assurance from both her family and I, would restore her hopes for a better and happy life. There are countable times when Sherry tried to take the unexplained direction of hurting herself; a venture that saw her being admitted in the hospital after eventually trying to commit suicide by overdose.
As if that was not irresponsible enough, she at some point surprised her family and friends when she cut herself on the wrist, making us wonder about how much she had gotten used to the idea of torturing herself, to the extent that she needed an additive in the form of physical pain.
Matters got more serious when Sherry started blaming herself every now and then, suggesting that she was not good enough for her now unfaithful boyfriend while looking at herself as not having enough beauty. She constantly insisted on pointing fingers at herself for the separation. The escapades of pain that Sharry was taking herself through would only see me wonder at how much pain one can decide to inflict upon herself, apparently after loosing a boyfriend not to death, but to another girl.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While Sharry was looking at her experience as being a tragic one, without any chances of getting back her joy, my friends and I always discovered that this is the most reasonable happening for Sharry to learn the tricks of independence and live life outside the realms and personal space of another person, for once.
One surprising thing about Sharry is that she had gotten used to her ex- boyfriend so much that everything in her life always rotated around him. There are times when friends would have major parties set up or road trips to go to, but unless Sharry’s boyfriend was coming, Sharry herself would not dare.
She basically ate what he ate, slept when he slept and laughed at only his jokes, which were even not funny to the rest of the world. Total dependence could be a very destructive lifestyle because in the event of the host’s absence, the dependant would end up being incapable of seeing another day. This is basically the story that was beginning to unfold in Sharry’s life.
My friends and I would take sherry out on weekends for ice-cream, where we ate both cups and cones with tantalizing flavors. There are times in the evenings when we would pick her up and take her to coffee shops and restaurants for enticing brands of soothing coffee.
We would also stroll while making intermittent stops at shopping malls to buy interesting apparels that any girl would yearn to have in her closet. During these unwinding and comforting moments, we would look straight in to her face once in a while and with a light touch on her shoulders enlighten her on the truth about life and how positive one should take it even in the occurrence of a tragedy.
When our talk took a very formal direction I would throw in random jokes so as to give her a gentler and lighter moment, even though our talk was of an utterly serious matter. Eventually, she slowed down a little bit and so we brought her to church so that she could meet more caring friends.
Church proved to be the place that would ultimately see Sherry forgive herself. She would fellowship together with other members a thing that brought happiness to her.
We will write a custom Essay on Suffering is Optional specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The church organized group meetings geared towards cheering her up. We made it a never- ending trend to keep the outings and the shopping sprees going. Once in a while we would go for swimming, where Sherry surprisingly discovered that she was a better swimmer than all of her friends; a talent she never would have discovered if she had continued dating her boyfriend.
Eventually, she felt better day by day just by hanging out and having fun with us. She ultimately got to forgive herself by constant visits to the church; she even turned out to be more active in church activities than all of her friends. Sherry discovered that she too could be dependent and got to love her life more.
Eventually, she met a very handsome boy who is faithful and loves swimming as well. This lucky moment made me realize that my friend’s tragedy ended up creating the best opportunity for her. She has been a great friend, who supports me more than ever before.
American Association of Retired Persons Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Bureaucratic Characteristics of Organizations
Introduction Social organizations refer to social institutions that are established to serve a specified task usually in the interest of the society at large. Over the years social organizations and groups have played important role in enlightening and mobilizing individuals over various issues facing the society hence contributing to society transformation. In the United States, these groups have significantly influenced the way of life as well as governance.
American association of retired persons (AARP) is one of the leading global organizations whose purpose constitutes promotion of positive social change in society. It was founded in 1958 at a time when the elderly experienced a lot of difficulties while acquiring life insurance. John Rother, the organization’s vice president for policy, strategy and international affairs, approximates the number of members aged fifty and above to be over four million (AARP, 2010).
This organization does not approach aging as a negative component in the society but analyses the world ageing demographics as the driving force to enhance transformation of the social policy that aim at improving the quality of life among people of all generations and all ages (AARP, 2010).
The organization supports and promotes the ageing process all over the world through encouraging aging members to reside in places that promote decent living with affordable housing and accessible services, empowering and encouraging individuals to maintain their health and productivity, as well as promoting policies that provide healthy older people with opportunities to continue contributing towards the work force (AARP, 2010).
This helps the older generation to maintain a source of income and provides diversity in the labor market. The organization further believes improved standards of living are directly related to longer lifespan.
AARP provides an opportunity in which diverse societies can share the challenges and opportunities encountered as the members advance in age (AARP, 2010). The organization deals with issues that relate to improvement of the overall welfare of the population that is advancing in term of age and advocates for issues such as the elderly population access to affordable health care.
In addition, the organization advocates for availability of retirement security through pension schemes as well as ensuring a firm background for traditional informal support system and creating effective policies around the global aging agenda (AARP, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Improved welfare among the elderly people in the society is associated with economic growth, social equity in distribution of resources as well as ecological maintenance and preservation which are the key pillars of overall development in any society (AARP, 2010). AARP is a secondary social group whose functions are geared towards achieving high quality of life among the population. The organization has significantly transformed the attitude of Americans towards old age.
National association for the advancement of colored people (NAACP) is a civil rights organization that diligently fights for the social justice of the minority groups in America. It was founded in 1909 and it’s the largest of its kind in the United States (NAACP, 2010). Ever since 1941, the organization has been the driving force behind civil rights advocacy in the United States.
The organization spearheaded the enactment of 1964 civil rights act, the voting rights passed in 1965, and the1968 fair housing act among other achievements. It aims at promoting voting and voter education among the youth as a way of airing their preferences as well as promoting voting rights (NAACP, 2010).
The organization further focuses on diverse issues such as climate change facing the country e.g. the hurricane Katrina. It has established climate justice initiative that was created for the purpose of mobilizing and educating people on the climate issue to enable them address the problem of climate change facing the society (NAACP, 2010). The organization has also devised mechanisms to uplift civil and human rights as they relate to economic opportunities (NAACP, 2010).
It aims at ensuring that there is just and fair allocation of resources as the country embarks on a road towards economic recovery. It further promotes national education program by ensuring that American students have access to equal and high quality public education by discouraging racial and ethnic disparities prevalent in public institutions (NAACP, 2010). This organization is also a secondary social group whose aim is promoting the rights of the minority groups in America.
Bureaucratic Characteristics of Organizations The above bureaucratic organizations are characterized by division of labor where all tasks are classified into highly specialized fields which are allocated to qualified personnel (Lunenburg, 2007). The organizations also have an outlined hierarchy of authority that flows from the board of directors to the employees through senior staff.
Bureaucracies are characterized by Impersonality (Lunenburg, 2007) which checks favorism and prejudice among staff members. In these institutions, recruitment, employment and promotions are based on competence and qualification and every task in the organizations is governed by outlined rules to ensure uniformity.
We will write a custom Research Paper on American Association of Retired Persons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, extensive division of labor kills innovation and promotes monotony. Reliance to rules in these structures often results in inertia and rigidity and the organizations practically promote downward communication only.
Conclusion Social groups play an important role in the society as they strive to ensure that the rights of individuals are not violated against. To ensure their effectiveness, the government and the society should support them in their activities. However, the organization should minimize bureaucratic procedures in order to achieve better results.
Reference List Lunenburg, F. E.
Writing Argumentative Essay with Computer Aided formulation essay help site:edu
The course has a principal thesis that caters for origin and description of argumentation. Students need to learn the purpose and style of writing an argumentative essay. With the help of amplification of opinions, a good professional argument demonstrates effectiveness and purpose.
The school argumentative essay must follow key features of a good writing style. These are emphasis from the collage or school tutoring systems. In comparison to professional argumentation in the work force, Chryssafidou (n.d, 2), indicates that it is challenging and often difficult to write an argumentative essay especially within an applicable area such as the workplace.
One has to see ideas in a systematic format in support of one position of the argument and disproval of the other. Essential skills taught in school covers components, schemes or patterns that are essential for easy and academically related essays. Professional style of writing proposes the dialectic form of essay, which utilizes computer supportive setting to support the position of the argument.
This assists in captivating an argument as a procedure to solve differences of opinions by supporting opinions with arguments, while anticipating counterarguments, instead of critical analysis of specific characteristics of an argument Chryssafidou (n.d, 2). One has to find ways of refuting the counter-arguments to strengthen personal opinion.
According to Chryssafidou (n.d, 4), computer systems support opinions through provision of illustrative arguments. They also assist in engaging professional in formulation of illustrations and encourage dialogue through exchange of comments. This procedure assists in entangling difficult situations.
The formal education on essay writing lacks the opportunity to build up experiences as a critical aspect of solving challenges. Students often forget to substantiate their side of the argument at the beginning of the essay. They either lack enough understanding or ignore requirements to have a stand of opinion, to build up a logical debate within the essay.
The evident difference between professional and academic argumentative essay is that students will engage in an argument to refute a certain point-of-view and reject the opinion without proper justification. In line with Chryssafidou’s article (n.d, 5); proper formalism of an argumentation is imminent in a computer system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The system is a procedure that consists of various elements and connectors to construct the argument. The elements are “claims, data, warrant, backing, issues, position and arguments” (Chryssafidou, n.d, 5). Various suggestive efforts of the software tool relate to formulation of arguments and assists in identification of a relationship between claims and supportive evidence.
The article assists students on matters concern with formulation of professional arguments. It helps one in choosing an opinion when initiating an argument, formulating clear disagreements through clarified structures, enhancing procedures for planning and writing the essay. The article also offers the option of writing an essay in a virtual context through online tutorials and provides guidance over formulation of collaborative appraisals as opposed to cumulative assessment of a situation.
By analysis of this text, I have learnt that one should not assume familiarity of argumentation skills and schemes when that knowledge lacks developed experience and substantive support. Strong arguments have well-built support such as the dialectic essays that are computer aided.
The academic essay may have strong support from various resources but lack the required characteristics to synthesis them into a coherent scene. There is a difference between developing an opinion followed by a reason for the choice, and developing an argument together with high-levelled standards in support of the position.
This article raises various concerns over significance of argumentative analysis. The author presents a different perspective to the academic guidance of written argumentative essay, which is the use of computer-aided models. The main question is whether the arguer has the ability to determine the critical aspects of an argument and state the presumptions or principals of an argument. These features often face implicit omission in school writing and guidance.
Which aspects of an argument lead to deeper and consultative disagreements that can provide better understanding of the argument? According to Chryssafidou’s article (n.d, 9), it is possible to present different parts of a large argumentative transcript and merge the results to a unified structure. Is it possible to present basic elements of a contrasting argument? Is it feasible to have an illustration of interdependence between common or otherwise conflicting conclusions?
Other concerns raised by the article points out on existence of errors connected to assumptions that arguments consist of single datum. While the structural representation of arguments in a computer system brings out details clearly, the legitimacy of an opinion depends on the structure of argument.
We will write a custom Article on Writing Argumentative Essay with Computer Aided formulation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The computer-aided system however lacks policies and governing procedures. Does lack of policies compromise viability? The extra support of structuring problems and revealing possible solutions or options of designing and recording decisions is an excellent way of availing proposals to a problem for future reference.
The main weaknesses connected to the computer-aided designs for projecting a problem lies on details pertaining components of the argument, since there is compromise on overall goals and argumentative text. Other limitations concern reconstruction procedures. Formalism indicates that critic’s assist is reinvention of better arguments (Chryssafidou, n.d, 11).
Reference List Chryssafidou, Evi. “DIALECTIC: Enhancing essay writing skills with computer supported formulation of argumentation.” Kodak/Royal Academy Educational Technology Group Journal, School of Elec.
Analysis of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18 Explicatory Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
There are 154 sonnets written by William Shakespeare, and each sonnet is a unique collection of thoughts and emotions which inspire the reader and give rise to human imagination. It is hard to define which sonnet is the most powerful because each person has his/her own taste, and Shakespeare succeeded in considering all aspects of human life. However, Sonnet 18 remains to be one of the most famous and recognizable pieces of Shakespearian work.
This sonnet touches upon numerous issues inherent to human feelings: the necessity to compare a beloved person with some natural events or things, the desire to prove that love is a powerful feeling that can change a person, and the abilities to demonstrate various approaches and writing techniques to disclose the chosen topic.
Sonnet 18 is an amazing part of Shakespeare’s sonnets that addresses a number of crucial issues like human beauty, the power of nature, and writer’s abilities to engrave an image of a man in the reader’s memory in order to prove how influential a word could be.
Shakespearean sonnets are probably the most controversial literary works because the vast majority of them are devoted to homosexual romantic relations developed between Shakespeare and one young man. Sonnet 18 is a kind of culmination of Shakespeare’s thoughts where he celebrated the power of love between two people and underlined unearthly beauty of feelings.
Human beauty may be described by writers in a number of ways, and the way chosen by Shakespeare seems to be the most powerful example. The beauty of a young man can hardly be compared with the beauty of the warmest and colorful season of a year. The writer makes numerous attempts to prove how miserable the image of summer is and how powerful the image of a young person may be.
Summer is short and sometimes too hot, so that it creates many inconveniences for people. And the beauty of a person is perfect and can never fade under any conditions. If a person already possesses some power and beauty, he will never lose it but continue developing it and amazing other people around. Human beauty is a subject for writers to admire, to be devoted to, and to fall in love each time this beauty is observed.
Shakespeare’s attention to the power of nature is a straightforward idea to attract reader’s attention. When people are in love, they like to focus on numerous details in their life, and the nature is one of the most considerable details in life. Songs of birds, weather changes, each season’s beauty – these issues become the major themes to be discussed by the people who are in love. This is why it is not a surprise to observe Shakespeare’s attempt to rely on nature while telling about romantic feelings and emotions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the power of writer lies in the fact that he does not find it necessary to describe and admire nature’s beauty. What he decides to do is to prove that the power of nature is despicable in comparison to the power of human beauty. It is not enough to admit that human beauty is stronger than nature beauty. It is more important to prove that summer’s peculiarities are miserable, weaker, and not really interesting.
The finale offered by Shakespeare to underline the power of human beauty is the statement of the fact that in comparison to summer that may lose its beauty, be hidden behind the clouds, and just be over, the image of human beauty and youth will never be forgotten because it will live in a sonnet and come to mind each time a person read the sonnet.
This is why this beauty is immortal, unforgettable, and incentive. It helps to understand how amazing the world around can be in case love, feelings, and emotions fulfill a person and influence the understanding of everything around.
To make something immortal, it is necessary to have several powerful evidences and points in order to make the reader believe in the idea and accept it the way it is accepted by the writer. Only in case a person grasps the reasons of writer’s passion to the chosen object, the idea of a work will be stored forever. And William Shakespeare demonstrated how it is possible to choose one issue among the rest and prove its worth, richness, and power.
William Shakespeare made a successful attempt to express the emotion of love in his Sonnet 18. He made use of numerous aspects and perspectives to prove that the beauty of human youth is a treasure each person should take care of.
Our world is full of beauty and perfection, however, some kind of beauty cannot last forever as well as summer is over one day, and the beauty chosen by the author is powerful and, what is more, immortal because it is not only stored in a written form but it is also stuck in reader’s memory, and such kind of preservation is priceless and the most effective.
Interviews, Questionnaires and Observations Report (Assessment) essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In the management process, there are a number of roles which are undertaken. One of the most important roles is decision making. In most cases, the decision being made is aimed at solving a particular problem. Alternatively, the objective of the data may be to exploit a particular opportunity, passing information or for record keeping.
To improve the quality of the decision, a considerable amount of information is required (Punch 2005, 160). Research is one of the ways through which the required information can be obtained. The data collected from the field must be evaluated to determine its credibility and relevance to the problem at hand.
Collecting data is one of the most important components of research. Good data plays a significant role in gaining insight on the on the existing problem or opportunity. Lack of good data limits the effectiveness of other data tools. Data is vital in every step of the entire process.
However, data is most necessary at the initial step since it helps the researcher to narrow down the scope of the problem being investigated. There are a number of methods which are utilized during the data collection process. Some of the most common data collection methods include use of interviews, questionnaires and observations.
Questionnaires Questionnaires can be defined broadly. For example, in management, questionnaire is a type of research instrument which entails a number of questions which are aimed at gathering a particular type of information from the respondents. Alternatively, ‘questionnaire’ refers to the set of questionnaires which are administered to respondents for completion purpose (Phillips and Stawarski 2008, 34). Uniformity in conducting a research is paramount.
Through use of questionnaires, the researcher is able to obtain answers based on the same context. This arises from the fact that the interviewer is able to ask similar questions to different respondents. The researcher writes down the question which he or she intends to obtain answers for. Effective designing of the questionnaire is paramount. A poorly designed questionnaire limits the researcher’s ability to obtain the required data. In extreme circumstances, the data obtained may be incorrect (Phillips and Stawarski 2008, 38).
To ensure that the questionnaire is well designed, it is paramount for the researcher to clearly define and understand the objective. The questionnaire designed depends on whether the objectives involved are exploratory or specific in nature. For each specific objective, there should be a corresponding research question.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, designing a questionnaire involving an exploratory research is challenging (Phillips and Stawarski 2008, 3). This arises from the fact that the task is not well predetermined. However, the researcher is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that he or she makes a decision on the type of data to be collected.
In order to attain this, the researcher should conduct a preliminary study of the targeted population. This will enable him or her to gain insight on various aspects which should be incorporated in the questionnaires. For example, the language to use and the type of questions to be asked.
There are various types of questions which can be incorporated in the questionnaire. These include open-ended, closed-ended, contingency and matrix questions. Contingency questions are dependent the response given to another question. This makes it possible for the researcher to customize the questions.
Through questionnaires, the researcher is able to obtain answers with regard to a specific subject. This makes questionnaires to be considered as a medium of conversation despite the fact that no direct communication is involved. The resultant effect is that the researcher is able to interpret the data collected. In the process of collecting data using questionnaires, it is paramount for the researcher to consider diversity amongst the respondents.
One of the ways through which this can be attained is by through effective wording. The questions should be tailored depending on the respondent’s knowledge or vocabulary. However, the question should be focused towards a particular answer. Lack of proper tailoring may limit the researcher’s capacity to obtain all the relevant information. This arises from the fact that the communication between the two parties will be hindered.
However, tailoring questionnaires to meet the respondents’ requirements is only effective if only a small and discrete group is involved in the survey. If the survey involves a large number of respondents, it is challenging to customize the questionnaires to the respondents’ requirements.
Therefore, a standardized questionnaire should be utilized. After designing the questionnaire, its appropriateness should be tested. This can be attained vial conducting a pretest of the questionnaire on a small group of the target population. This aids in determination of its ability to obtain the required information.
We will write a custom Assessment on Interviews, Questionnaires and Observations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Interviews Talking to people is one of the ways through which an individual can be able to understand other peoples’ world and way of life. An interview refers to a controlled situation whereby a particular person (interviewer) asks a number of questions regarding a particular issue to another person (the respondent).
For interview to take place successfully there must be mutual consent between the parties involved. As a research method, interview must have a well defined purpose and structure. This means that it is beyond a normal conversation or exchange of views which occur on daily basis. Instead, an interview is a process where cautious questioning and listening are involved. The interviewer listens to the respondents’ opinions regarding the issues asked thus gaining insight on various issues.
In most cases, interviews are the most common method of gathering data in relation to qualitative interviews. There are various types of interviews which the researcher can adopt. Their classification is based on the structure involved (Punch 2005, 169). The three major categories are illustrated below.
Structured interviews This form of interview is quantitative in nature. It is mainly used when conducting a survey research. In most cases, a face to face interview is conducted. Alternatively, the interview can either be conducted via the telephone or online. The core objective of structured interview is to ensure uniformity in all the interviews conducted (Punch 2005, 169).
As a result, it becomes easy for the interviewer to compare the response of various subgroups or responses which were conducted between different time periods. Structured interviews do not give the respondent freedom to answer the questions. This arises from the fact that closed-ended questions are used which limits the respondents from giving their own opinion.
The respondent is required to restrict his or her response to the answer provided by the interviewer. This enables the interviewer to mitigate the probability of context effects occurrence.
Context effects refer to a situation where the respondents’ responses are influenced by various environmental factors. There are various environmental stimuli which might influence the respondents answer to the question asked. Through closed-ended questions, it becomes possible for the interview to keep context effects constant considering the fact that they cannot be fully eliminated.
Through closed-ended questions, the interviewer is able to hold constant context effects across all the interviewees. However, open-ended questions can also be integrated in the structured interviews. Open-ended questions give the respondents discretion to answer the question asked according to his or her opinion.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Interviews, Questionnaires and Observations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Structured interviews can also be qualitative in nature. This type of interview is mainly common where the respondents are expected to compare and contrast certain issues so as to answer the interview questions. In this type of structured research interview, an interview schedule is vital since it helps the researcher during the wording and sequencing process.
The resultant effect is that credibility and reliability of the data collected is increased. In summary, structured interviews can be considered to be formalized. In addition, minimal questions are asked (Punch 2005, 169).
Semi-structured interviews This type of interview is characterized by a high degree of flexibility. This arises from the fact that the interview has the freedom to ask another question which is based on a previous answer of the respondent. This contributes towards attainment of an in-depth account of the respondents’ perceptions and experiences (Punch 2005, 169).
In most cases; there are various frameworks of themes which the interviewer can explore. In addition, the frameworks are usually open thus allowing two way communication to take place effectively. In most cases, semi structured interviews are mostly guided via formulation of an interview guide. The flexible nature of the semi structured interviews does not only enable the interviewer to obtain answers for the questions asked but also the reasons.
Unstructured interviews In most cases, unstructured interviews are mainly utilized by individuals who are not professionally trained with regard to interviewing. Similar to semi structured interviews, open-ended questions are mainly utilized. This core objective of using open-ended questions is to enable the respondents express their views effectively.
The success of unstructured interviews is dependent on the interviewers’ and interviewees communication capability. The interviewer has the freedom to change the interview questions so as to align them with the respondents’ level of intelligence and understanding.
Observations Observation is a data collection technique which entails use of senses to collect data from the external environment. Observation mainly entails looking at the behavior of an individual, a group or a thing. This means that observation does not consider the attitudes and opinions held by parties under observation.
Observations act as a very important complement to questionnaires. There are various forms through which observation can be conducted. Some of these include direct observation, self observation, physical traces such as documented books and interview record devices. With regard to direct observation, the researcher should not influence the subject of the study. In order for data obtained via observation to be effective, observation bias and other sampling problems should be eliminated.
Two main forms of conducting observations include structured observation and unstructured observation. Unstructured observation entails a data collection method aimed at providing a systematic explanation of the units’ observation. Structured observation is effectively conducted via use of instruments such as rating scales and checklists.
Checklists enable the observer to identify and record certain specific conditions or behaviors in relation to the subject under observation. Therefore, checklists aid in controlling the observation process. On the other hand, unstructured observation is mainly used when conducting exploratory studies. This enables the researcher to attain a more detailed account of the phenomenon under study. Unstructured observation is characterized by a high degree of flexibility compared to structured observation.
Conclusion Considering the dynamic nature of business environment, it has become paramount for managers to be vigilant of the environment. This will enable them to make necessary changes in their operation in an effort to survive in the long run. One of the ways through which this can be attained is by effective decision making.
Availability of data is a vital element in making decisions. In order to attain this, observations, questionnaires and interviews should be considered as some of the methods via which firms can be able to collect data. The three methods are interrelated. For example, despite questionnaires being one of the ways via which data can be collected, it is also a key component in interviews. In addition, the types of questions adopted in the two methods are similar.
In order for data collection to be effective using these methods, the questions to be asked should be well designed. One of the ways through which this can be attained is by ensuring that they are inline with the objective of the study. On the other hand, observation is unique from questionnaires and interviews since the researcher does not have any influence on the element under study. The appropriateness of how these methods are adopted will determine their validity and reliability of the data.
Reference List Phillips, Patricia and Stawarski, Cathy. 2008. Data collection: planning for and collecting all types of data. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Punch, Keith. 2005. Introduction to social research: quantitative and qualitative approaches. New York: Sage.
“The Lesson” by Toni Cade Bambara Essay college essay help near me
A short story is a specific type of literary writing which reveals the author’s message within a few pages. Thus, the story “The Lesson” by Toni Cade Bambara raises the issue of unfairness in society and the way children learn about it. The title reveals the main idea of the story, i.e., the lesson about injustice. The purpose of the story is to depict how children can be taught to understand something more than mere mathematics, how they can see some essential social phenomena.
The story also shows how children perceive quite serious, so to speak, difficult experiences. “The Lesson” depicts a scene from a schoolgirl’s life, the girl and her classmates are taken to an expensive toy shop by their teacher who wants to show children the social injustice ruling in their country. So, schoolchildren see that some people can afford to buy toys which cost more than these children spend on food for a year. Thus, the purpose of the lesson reaches its aim.
To reveal the main ideas Bambara exploits very effective technique: narration. Such a composition pattern makes the story more evocative since it sounds more personal. The author uses the first person to depict the necessary events. The story is presented from the standpoint of the child: “Back in the days when … me and Sugar were the only ones just right” (Bambara 85). The story reveals the ideas that occur in this child’s head: “I’m really hating,” “I’m stalling to figure out” (Bambara 88-89).
The story is full of Sylvia’s, i.e., narrator’s, assessments: “boring-ass things” (i.e. things told by teacher), “goddamn college degree” (i.e. attitude towards higher education), “poor kid” (i.e. attitude towards a classmate), “magnificent thing” (evaluation of a toy). Of course, it is necessary to point out that the style of the story is quite colloquial. Moreover, there is a lot of slang: “bloody,” “goddamn,” “jerk,” “bitch,” “ass,” “draggy.”
Such style is not used by chance. It serves to address the audience of the story, i.e., young people who could read it and come to the necessary conclusions. Such kind of style makes “The Lesson” more emotional and evocative.
Young people reading the story can feel that these ideas depicted belong to themselves or their peers, friends. Sylvia’s (the narrator’s) thoughts occur in every child or teenager’s mind, for instance, it is a norm to dislike a teacher, so the narrator notes that they “kinda hated” their teacher (Bambara 85). Again, Bambara writes in the language school children (of suburbs) speak: “outta,” “Whatcha gonna do,” “Givin me one of them grins,” “ain’t nobody gonna beat me at nuthin’”.
Of course, this kind of narration will be closer to the young reader. Admittedly, Bambara appeals to youth using plain and even colloquial English, so that her audience can get her message and reflect on this serious issue. Academic English will not serve the purpose of the story (to give the lesson to young people), so Bambara used the right technique and the right style.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is quite easy to point out the main idea of the story since it is revealed perfectly clear. I got the message and saw the way children were taught to see some case of injustice. As for the story itself, I was impressed by the wise choice of the “teaching technique.” The teacher does not only speak about injustice: she told the children “how money ain’t divided up right in this country” (Bambara 89).
This shrewd woman makes children draw their conclusions. They see that injustice, they feel it in the toy shop: a girl concludes that “this is not much of a democracy if you ask me” (Bambara 95). I would also like to point out the writing style which, to my mind, is very remarkable. The author uses a child’s impression to reveal her ideas about injustice, and as they say, children feel everything better than adults do.
Thus, Toni Cade Bambara gives an outstanding lesson in her story “The Lesson” which raises the issues of injustice in the society. She manages to reveal this idea quite easily due to the choice of such techniques as narration composition pattern and specific writing style.
Works Cited Bambara, Toni Cade. Gorilla, My Love. New York: Vintage Books, 1992.
John Holt and Daniel Pink Compare and Contrast Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Several writers, sociologists and educators are speaking out about the problems being experienced in modern schools. Violence seems to be increasing, students are leaving school ill-prepared to enter the workforce and test scores continue to fall. In attempting to fix our schools, several of these individuals have suggested that the solution is not to try to fix the school, but to abandon it altogether.
While it may seem to be a new argument, this question of abolishing the compulsory public school system has been around for decades. There are a surprising number of similarities found in the arguments of John Holt in his article “School is Bad for Children” published in 1969 and Daniel H. Pink’s article “School’s Out” published this decade.
In his article, John Holt unsurprisingly argues that school is bad for children. He starts his article by stating, “Almost every child on the first day he sets foot in a school building is smarter, more curious, less afraid of what he doesn’t know, better at finding and figuring things out, more confident, resourceful, persistent and independent than he will ever be again in his schooling” (Holt, 1969).
Holt makes his claim on the evidence that children first discover and then learn to use it all while making other important discoveries about the world and grasping highly abstract concepts.
They do this “by exploring, by experimenting, by developing his own model or the grammar of language, by trying it out and seeing whether it works, by gradually changing it and refining it until it does work” (Holt, 1969). More importantly, children do this naturally, without anyone showing them how or telling them why.
Although Pink does not directly address the condition of the child before he enters the classroom, he does make a strong point of the skills needed to survive in the emerging economy. “Legions of Americans, and increasingly citizens of other countries as well, are abandoning one of the Industrial Revolution’s most enduring legacies – the ‘job’ – and forging new ways to work.
They’re becoming self-employed knowledge workers, proprietors of home-based businesses, temps and permatemps, … part-time consultants … and full-time soloists” (Pink). This great shift in the way people do business requires a skill set highly similar to the natural abilities of the early child as described by Holt.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both authors discuss the true end results of what children are learning in school. Holt (1969) says children learn that learning is something done separate from living. Within the school setting, the child that he does not know how to learn and must adapt himself to the methods of the teacher. “In a great many other ways he learns that he is worthless, untrustworthy, fit only to take other people’s orders, a blank sheet for other people to write on” (Holt, 1969).
According to Holt, the true lessons the child takes from school are to hide his curiosity, to be ashamed of thinking differently, to accept other people’s evaluation of him. “He learns that to be wrong, uncertain, confused, is a crime” (Holt, 1969). He learns how to find out what answers are expected and to give only those answers.
He learns instead to be lazy, deceitful and how to pass blame. “He learns that in real life you don’t do anything unless you are bribed, bullied or conned into doing it, that nothing is worth doing for its own sake, or that if it is, you can’t do it in school” (Holt, 1969). He learns to turn himself off, to passively daydream and to ignore the people around him.
Pink would seem to agree. In listing the lessons children learned in school, Pink indicates that the results are mostly negative for the individual: “Kids learned how to obey rules, follow orders, and respect authority – and the penalties that came with refusal” (Pink). He also points out how nothing seems to have changed in as many as 40 years within the school setting or system with the exception of a computer or two within the classroom, but everything has changed outside of it.
In addition, both authors argue for the abolition of the school system as it currently exists. Holt (1969) recommends abolishing the compulsory school law by arguing that these laws are no longer necessary to prevent adults from exploiting child labor.
This would alleviate the anger and violence found in school classrooms and hallways and make a better learning environment for the kids that do want to be there. By making school a choice, the schools would also have to make their programs something actually beneficial to the kids. Other options would be to make schools more of a learning field trip or bringing professionals into the classroom to talk honestly and frankly about their careers.
Team learning is also recommended as a means of allowing children to take a more active role in their learning and to learn how to work with others. Holt also suggests getting rid of grades to allow children to assess and perfect their own work and getting rid of the established curriculum because children will only learn what is important to them anyway. Pink argues, “Compulsory mass schooling is an aberration in both history and modern society.
We will write a custom Essay on John Holt and Daniel Pink specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Yet it was the ideal preparation for the Organization Man economy, a highly structured world dominated by large, bureaucratic corporations that routinized the workplace” (Pink). Now that we no longer live in an industrial economy and more people are finding it preferable or necessary to fend for themselves in creative ways, Pink says the system should change to foster these skills in our youth.
Although the authors do not provide sufficient provision for the numbers of students who would not attend school if they didn’t have to or those who are actually safer at school than at home, they do make several valid points.
It does seem as though the modern school system is nothing more than a system designed to create perfect factory workers, providing the ability for future supervisors and managers to excel and prove their worth. This requires workers willing to subsume their individual personalities, lose their natural curiosity and learn how to simply obey orders and ‘live’ at those times when their leaders did not have need of them.
Pink provides convincing statistics that more Americans are finding it necessary to live by the skills they had as young children as listed by Holt – curiosity, exploration, discovery, resourcefulness and independence. If America is to remain strong moving into the future, it must adopt a more effective education system that enables children to retain these skills and become the productive adults they can be.
“Chocolat” by Joanne Harris Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Opposition of the characters
Religion vs. chocolate
Opposition of views
Need for compromise
Introduction It can hardly be argued that development is an inseparable part of our life. It is also obvious that development can only be achieved by resolving conflicts. In other words, when the two opposite poles coincide, they start a struggle. Indeed, our whole life consists of confronting pairs: truth and lies, joy and sorrow, love and hatred, piece and war, etc.
This confrontation incites people to think analytically, to be critical, and finally, to make their choice. This scheme works every day, and it constitutes the fundament of humanity development. One of the best illustrations for this simple truth is the book “Chocolat” by Joanne Harris.
The novel tells about a small French village, its inhabitants, and their ways of life. To be more specific, their way of life, as far as everyone in the village is subordinated to the laws of church and moral principles. The latter are convincingly instilled and thoroughly checked by the curate of the parish, Francis Reynaud. The author offers us an exiting and rather amusing observation of how the life in the village changed with the arrival of a new citizen, Vianne Rocher, who opens a chocolaterie there.
Opposition of the characters As we can see, the plot of the book is based on the confrontation of two heroes, their beliefs and lifestyles. Obviously, in order to make their confrontation brighter and more saturated, the author used certain exaggeration.
Francis Reynaud represents an embodiment of self-restraint; he shows severity both to himself and to others. Independent from all the joys on Earth, “Mr. Whiter-than-White” (Harris, 81), Reynaud seemed to have only one obsession, religion.
On the contrary, Vianne Rocher enjoys her life to the full. She travels around the world with her daughter, whose father, by the way, is unknown; she does not visit church, and seems to have no prejudices against anything or anyone. In other words, she is open to the life and is ready to take all that it offers, unlike Reynaud, who puts a lot of efforts to restrict himself from the creature comforts and joys.
Religion vs. chocolate Such opposition chosen by the author represents an everlasting struggle between the hedonist and puritan principles, which are present in every human. It has to be noted that for her book Harris chose very meaningful powers, which are equally strong in society. On one hand, it is religion with its traditions and beliefs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It plays a great role in human life, and the God’s law is impossible to deny. Religion is the only source of energy for soul and spirit, and it makes this power extremely important. On the other hand, there is chocolate, a very simple, even naïve, sweetness of our life. Chocolate represents delight and enjoyment, the things that the human body seeks to. Chocolate is a little prank, which simply brings pleasure.
It does not demand any heavy thinking or realization of abstract notions; chocolate is available to everyone. Thus, in the book, there is a conflict of the soul and the body, and since humans cannot choose between them, they are forced to combine the opposing conceptions and constantly look for a compromise.
Interestingly, when Vianne Rocher first came to the village, she was planning to become a part of it, to complete its life harmonically, and to bring some enjoyment in the life of its citizens.
However, it appeared later that only confrontation with Francis Reynaud and his authority could make her staying there possible. Therefore, somehow there occurred two religions in the city: the Christian, and the Chocolate. The only difference was that, while the former religion was professed mainly due to the tradition, the latter was of a personal choice for the citizens.
Some of them chose Chocolate because of disappointment in the former way of living, like Josephine: “if you don’t go to confession, if you don’t respect your husband, if you don’t cook three meals a day and sit by the fire thinking decent thoughts and waiting for him to come home, if you don’t have children – and you don’t bring flowers to your friends’ funerals or vacuum the parlor …Then you’re crazy!” (Harris, 64).
Others choose chocolate because they had no other joys in life, like Armande Voizin: “No-one talked to Armande” (Harris, 58). There were also some impartial confessors of Chocolate, like Luc Voizin, for whom it was just fun and delight, or Charley, Guillaume’s dog, who barely realized why he made his choice between the religions.
However, there were also characters, which were determined to reject Chocolate and its pleasures, like Caroline Voizin, or Josephine’s husband, and of course Francis Reynaud. They ignored the temptation of the sweetness and continued to live their lives like before.
We will write a custom Essay on “Chocolat” by Joanne Harris specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, it has to be said that Harris’ position is rather one-sided: the author shows how interesting and exciting the life of chocolate admirers is, but the routine of those who stick to Christianity is described a plain and boring. Thus, the readers are induced to be on the side of Vianne.
Opposition of views The difference between the two opposing poles lies not only in the ways they live their lives, but also in the ways they perceive it. We can see that the self-restriction of Reynaud leads to the limitation of his outlook. Besides being closed to all the enjoyments of the life, he appeared to be automatically closed to other people, to different interests, and to the whole life, which has a lot more to offer than the religion.
In contrast, Vianne with her frankness and openness to the chocolate is open to the whole world. She tolerates differences, she is not afraid to make friends with those whom the society rejects, like with gypsies, Josephine or anyone else. Even her confrontation with the curate is involuntary, and her personal views do not reject the religion.
Need for compromise In such opposition, we can see the comparison of a complete reservation and complete openness. However, the author manages to show us that none of the religions is perfect. Reynaud was in fact unhappy, because his self command prevented him from doing what he wanted to do.
Vianne’s openness was harmful for her daughter, who had no complete family, no stable home, and not even friends besides her imaginary rabbit. In this way, Harris showed that it was necessary to find a golden mean instead of defending one of the positions. For this reason, at the end of the story the confronting sides find a balance.
They do not stop the confrontation, but they find a way to be combined successfully. Reynaud re-evaluates his life and realizes a lot of things, and Vianne, for the first time in her life, decides to stay instead of going to the other countries.
Conclusion In this way here, in a small French village, there established a new standard of life, which is based on mutual respect and tolerance. However, it is neither Vianne, nor chocolate that managed to change the life in the village so much. It is in fact the choice between the confronting ideas that made people analyze more than before.
Instead of living the life automatically, people started to define, what they like and what they do not like, what they want and do not want to do. The confrontation induced citizens to develop themselves, and the logical outcome was the finding of the balance between the poles. In this way, the confronting lines crossed at this point in Harris’ book, in order to continue their struggle later.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Chocolat” by Joanne Harris by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Harris, Joanne. Chocolat. London: Penguin, 2000.
Elements of Modern Fiction Essay online essay help
Modernism refers to a strong shift from the traditional ways of thinking or perceiving. It signifies a separation of the two where peoples’ perception of things changes.
It takes into account the ‘thinking’ aspect of individuals stressing on the unconscious observable self. It is characterized by a pronounced response against what has been laid down ranging from politics through religion to the society. A modernist holds that peoples’ perceptions are the determinant of the nature of everything and hence, no fixed certainty about them. They assert that the future is imaginary while the past is completely far from them.
Modern fictions on the other hand are contemporary literature works founded on purely imaginations. It opens up the world from all angles, philosophically, politically, theoretically, just to mention a few. It erases the realist view of it by people. Modern fiction constitutes quite a number elements ranging from time and realism to openness. This overview checks these into details.
Time and realism is a crucial element of modern literature. “Time, in Modernist literature, may take the reader through a day in the life of a narrator, whereas in Realism, the reader is taken into a year in the life of the characters” (Childs 25). This shows that this notion of time and as applied in literature is not chronological but recurrent.
It takes place in a free will manner. The cyclic notion of time in a fiction arises when a novelist takes readers through an unorganized literary journey. As he/she encounters images, he/she is unable to predict which will follow. What is expected may even fail to be realized in the unfolding of the entire fiction. Free will and the discovery of the subconscious is also a result of this notion.
The writer gives the reader a chance to go beyond him/herself through thoughts entering into the thoughts of others where he/she has the free will of discovering how they operate both in their minds as well as in their subconscious. The life of people in and out of the presence of God is more of a theoretical supposition resulting from modernisms.
Another element of modern fiction is openness. It stands out as an aesthetic following the writer’s presentation of their works, novels, encounters, and poems. This element distinguishes the modern fiction from any other that has ever existed. It addresses openness on the issues of family, masculinity and feminism, the mind, not sparing bisexuality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This on the other hand has led to an increased use of imagery in modern fiction, which has added beauty in the works of the authors. Following the introduction of this element in literature, the significant difference between the modern and the previous fictions arouses doubts, a case that has led to the shift on study. The shifts in politics influences modern fiction to a larger extend.
It depicts the changes in the social life, which ranges from country-town through personal-public to land-industry. There is also a significant change in the area of development and the peoples’ view of life, which is evident from Carl Max capitalism views.
In conclusion, modern fiction centers on the notions of doubt of spiritual or governmental institutions, individuality, and the skepticism of certainty. It makes a move from realism addressing the relevant shifts in both history and the society employing the element of openness as well as time and realism.
Works Cited Childs, Peter. “Modernism: The New Critical Idiom” London: Continuum, 2007.
Power of Women’s Rights Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction The struggle for women’s rights and abolition were intricately linked movements of the 19th century. Professor Kelton in fact has argued that the former was in many ways an unintended outcome of the latter. Kathryn Kish Sklar is one of the women who were born in the early 19th century and played a great role of ensuring that women achieve their equality with their male counterparts.
Thus, the 19th century marked an era when this feminist views gradually came into play and greatly influenced gender interactions. Despite the challenges facing the women’s rights movement, the group is important movement that introduces women to equal opportunities with men.
Discussion How the Anti-Slavery Movement Challenge Established Notions of Manhood and Womanhood
Kathryn Kish Sklar’s general idea in the book is to enlighten people on the role of women in the society during the 19th century, how it changed dramatically, how women began to realize the various opportunities for them outside the domestic scene.
She demonstrates this by showing how the white women became sympathizers of the black women who were held as slaves and were fighting for their liberation. Gender equality was the driving force behind the pushing for the freedom of slaves. As a result, the traditional views of women were changing, hence bringing about the notion of feminism (Sklar 14).
On the other hand, Feminism precedes anti-feminism. This means that when one makes an effort to eliminate male dominion in the society, another tries to counter this efforts in order to maintain the status quo (Heilmann 51). The issue of feminism was countered by the United States government by abolishing slavery and giving the black men the rights to vote instead (64). This shows that the government was not ready to offer the women their rights as it decided to be gender biased.
What Led the Grimké Sisters to Conclude That They Should Pursue Women’s Rights and Abolition
Sklar (31) points out that the Grimke sisters had a growing belief that every human being is an independent entity and only subject to God and not to another human being. In 1829, the Grimke sisters traveled from South Carolina to Philadelphia where they found an opportunity of justifying the rights for women in addressing their issues in public.
They received oppositions from the clergy men from South Carolina’s men, thus making the Grimke sisters to form the women’s rights movement in Philadelphia as they knew that the Orthodox Quakers in Philadelphia did not only oppose the issue of slavery but were also not ready to deal with challenging social issues that would result to disunity among members of their community.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the fact that they still had a challenge of addressing the issues concerning women equality, the Grimke sisters managed to convey their intended message using the biblical point of view. This is illustrated through Angelina who claimed that she did not recognize the difference between the rights of men and the rights of women since Jesus Christ does not advocate for inequality (Sklar 35).
Therefore, the Grimke sisters objected the slavery and their inequality with their male counterparts by basing their arguments on a Christianity point of view. By addressing their issues publicly, they managed to push for the abolition of various rules that worked to their disadvantage. Some of these rules included obtaining the husband’s consent while carrying out some activities, loosing of their names once they got married, loosing their property once the women got married, lack of power in controlling the children (Sklar 53).
The Grimke sisters played a critical role in facilitating the passing of the married woman’s property law in 1850.This law provided the married women with an opportunity of owning as well as inheriting property (Sklar 96). Through these movements, the women continued pushing for other things such as schooling. As a result, they acquired high skilled jobs such as doctors. More over, in the civil war period they served as nurses to soldiers (104).
What Women in the Women’s Rights Movement Wanted and the Reasons Why
Towards the mid 19th century, during the time of economic growth the family unit begun to realize that they needed to work together to keep up with a changing world with new opportunities and intensified needs (Weiss and Marilyn 103).
Most men went to urban centers to work in industries and women were left at home to carry out domestic work which included raising children, cooking and cleaning and being there when the husbands return. This resulted into a new dynamic in gender roles where women increasingly felt that they needed to do more to contribute to the welfare of the household through earning an income. This can be seen as the origin of women’s right movement whose reception was not welcomed by their male counterparts.
The women however did not relent on the push for their rights. In 1834, various women’s societies which comprised of members from Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, and New England collaborated in order to abolish prostitution as well as other types of women’s sexual harassment. The women in United States continued to fight for their rights to vote in 1848, hence leading to National Women’s Rights Convention in 1850 which was headed by male who supported this move (Sklar 109).
In 1858, the rights for women however went to greater heights as they demanded for their reproductive rights. In spite the fact that women contributed greatly in the anti-slavery movement, their participation was however controversial and this led to a division in the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) in 1839 after Kelley Foster was elected as a business committee member (Sklar 111).
We will write a custom Essay on Power of Women’s Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the anti-slavery movement created an avenue for the formation of the women’s right movement thus bringing about what women wanted; women public speakers such as Grimke sisters, and Abby Kelly Foster among others. Women perceived that by being in a position of public speakers will provide them with an opportunity of creating a considerable impact on social changes of the women in the society.
How the Issues of Race and Gender Complicate the Respective Abolitionist and Suffrage Movements and Then Ultimately Weaken the Latter
The issue of race in the abolitionist and suffrage movement came as a result of the black women been given the rights to vote. This made the white men to be scared of what would happen if a women’s government came in place (Sklar 112).This facilitated the spread of racism into the women’s right movement which was instigated from both within the groups as well as outside the group.
On the other hand, the white women feared that the black men would take up their positions in the political arena and hence they started to portray racism within the movement (Fluehr-Lobban 190). Hence, the issue of race and gender complicated the abolitionist and suffrage movement, thus weakening it in the latter through formation of black women rights movement and white women right movement.
Conclusion From the above illustrations, Kathryn Kish Sklar’s demonstrates the power of the women’s rights movement by expressing the women’s words, deeds and life experiences. Women like the Grimke sisters who were the pioneers of the movement during the time of the anti-slavery movement have influenced the women of the 20th and the 21st century. The 19th century marked an era during which the foundation of what today is referred to as “the independent woman” was laid.
However, in spite the fact that the Grimke sisters managed to fight for the role of women in the society, racism thereafter played a critical role in segregating the blacks among the whites, thus forming what we see currently; the white women activist movement and the black women activist movement.
Works Cited Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. Race and racism: an introduction. Lanham, MD: Rowman Altamira, 2006, pp. 186-194.
Heilmann, Anne. Anti-feminism in Edwardian literature. London: Thoemmes Continuum, 2006, pp. 46-93.
Sklar, Kathryn. Women’s rights emerges within the anti-slavery movement, 1830-1870. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2000, pp. 113-12.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Power of Women’s Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Weiss, Penny and Marilyn Friedman. Feminism and community. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1995, pp. 109- 99.
Impact of Modern Technology on Human Communication Opinion Essay writing essay help
Modern communication technologies have revolutionized the way in which we carry out our day to day activities. Hardly any aspect in our modern lives has escaped the influence of these systems. Human social life is one such arena which has experienced the positive and negative influence of modern technology.
Considering the significance effects that these technological advances have had on human communication, I shall through this paper set out to illustrate how modern technology has impacted human communication. This paper shall further discuss whether modern technology has made man a better communicator and whether technology bridges generation gaps or causes a bigger divide. I shall also provide discuss how technology has affected my relationships.
Communication is arguably the corner stone on which any successful relationship, be it business or personal, is built and modern technology has to a large extent improved human being’s communication skills. Over the course of the last two decades, there has been prevalence in the use of online means for communication purposes. Chat rooms have become common place and social networking sites have also gained popularity with sites such as “Facebook” and “twitter” boasting of millions of users.
Online dating has become an acceptable mode for meeting prospective partners. Business corporations have also exploited modern technology and utilize e-mails as well as video conferences for holding business meetings. This “invasion” of human communication by modern technology has greatly improved the communicational effectiveness of human beings.
As such, human beings communicate better as a result of modern technology. This is because modern technology helps people to overcome some of the setbacks that hinder effective communication. For example, in face to face encounters, fear may result in someone stammering or talking in an incoherent manner. Technologies such as chat rooms and emails reduce this fear since one does not feel intimidated by the person they are communicating with.
This lack of direct contact may reduce anxiety levels therefore resulting in an increase of assertiveness and articulation by the person who would otherwise be overcome with fear in a face to face communication. However, the very attributes that make modern technology enhance our communication can also result in a breakdown of communication.
For example, the lack of face to face contact can result in misunderstanding as one fails to see and act upon the non verbal cues that are an integral part of communication. In addition to this, the relative anonymity that technology presents may be abused by some to issue hateful or malicious messages. Despite this, the prevalence of modern technology has mostly fostered communication efforts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the realities of life is that there will always be a generation gap between the younger and older population. This generation gap results in a breakdown of communication as people from both extremes of the divide fail to relate. At the initial stage, modern technology actually aided in the increase of this divide since the younger generation was more receptive to new technology while older people resisted it.
However, there has been a change in this trend with the older generation fully embracing new technology. For example, online dating and blogging sites now have a membership of both young and old. Therefore, modern technology has resulted in the bridging of the generation gap as older members of the population communicate with younger ones on the common platform created through modern technology.
Modern technology and in particular computers has greatly changed my relationships and those of my family members. A particularly significant impact that new technology has had was to my sister who met her husband in one of the chat rooms.
As a result of this online meeting, the two of them got to become friend and in the cause of time, my sister was engaged and later married to the man she met online. Now my sister and her husband have a three year old son all because of modern technology which made their getting together a reality.
Personally, I also make much use of modern technology both for communicational purposes as well as to fulfill other tasks. By use of chatting resources such as “Skype”, I manage to keep in touch with my friends from Russia. I also extensively use e-mails to communicate with my friends, lecturers as well as fellow students. In my opinion, the use of this communication tools assists me to not only pass the message in a timely manner but also to be a better communicator.
From the discussions presented in this paper, it is clear that modern technology has greatly impacted human communication. These changes have mostly been for the better resulting in improved communication among human beings.
However, this paper has also illustrated that there may be hindrances to communication which can arise from the abuse of modern technology in communication efforts by individual. Despite this, the evidence in this paper suggests that modern community is mostly beneficial to human being communication efforts.
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Ethics Game Journal Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
With business and commerce gaining global importance and becoming an inevitable part of the majority of people’s lives, the issues of ethics and morality come to the forefront of theoretical and practical attention. It is evident that any enterprise is initially aimed at gaining the maximum profit for the stakeholders involved in the business process; such practices are commonly cherished in businesses because of the indisputable importance of financial gains for investors.
However, with the aggressive managerial and expansionist practices utilized at the end of the 20th century, and a series of scandals in which the administration of large corporations was involved, the issues of preserving the positive public image, trust and loyalty of customers, and a good reputation have become considerably more important.
It was understood that a company is first of all dependant on its consumers, and in case they feel they cannot rely on the company’s products, there is a wide range of substitutes from which they may choose. Involvement into trusting, ethical relationships that encompass all stakeholders, and not only the company’s management and community, have become essential for the successful functioning of business.
Despite the fact that ethics is being intensely discussed nowadays, managers are still getting involved into solving complex ethical dilemmas on a regular basis. The reason for such complexities is that managers are subject to multiple obligations, to compliance with the needs of both shareholders and the community. Since the interests of the former and the latter rarely coincide, managers are urged to make decisions that will reduce the risk of unethical behavior, and improve the company’s public image.
As De George (2010) notes, the initial focus in business has been made on shareholders, but in the modern times the community becomes the main stakeholder in the business process. Hence, such issues as moral obligations and corporate social responsibility become the key issues of concern for both responsible managers, stakeholders, and the owners of the company (De George, 2010).
As one can see from the simulation Move From Being Right to Being Responsible, there are some situations in which the manager has to take multiple points into account before being able to make the decision. In addition, there are several lenses at which one can look at the dilemma. In case a manager utilizes the rights/responsibilities approach, he or she will use the rationality to make the right decision, while the utilitarianism approach dictates applying emotion to make everyone happy.
The relationship lens ensures that the community makes the decision on the principle of equal human access to fundamental rights, while the reputation lens enables the manager to decide what virtue a good citizen might have to make the right decision (Move From Being Right to Being Responsible, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ethical issues presented in the simulation involve making a decision on informing the customers about the low quality of the newly distributed product. The company producing sports nutrition and supplements, G-BioSport, finds out that the products they have sent for sales are hazardous for the particular categories of consumers because of the increased level of certain elements. Hence, the ethical dilemma involves choosing between the possibility of lawsuits and refund requests, and ensuring safety for consumers.
Upon considering the alternatives, the decision is made to inform customers and to provide opportunities for replacement and refunds in case the product does not fit them. The decision surely entails certain financial losses for the company, but it nevertheless ensures a certain level of responsibility shown towards customers that will surely be appreciated (Move From Being Right to Being Responsible, 2010).
The present ethical dilemma solution may be widely applied in the workplace in cases when the issues of financial profit and customer safety are involved. Earning money on the products of low quality is a very irresponsible activity, so such companies lose their position in the market once the truth is revealed. The basic issue of morality towards customers is providing them with the fullest information on the product, helping them make informed decisions.
The second ethical dilemma involved making a decision on whether to sell products of lower quality than allowed by FDA in the USA, in other countries where the legislation about product standards is not so strict. The decision depended on whether the legal requirements were considered only, or the company would still undertake to inform the customers that the product was imported in their country because of non-compliance with American standards.
The decision was made to make discounts for the external market, and to provide full information on the possible hazards the product might have. The decision also contained less risk for the company’s reputation, as neglect of publicity on the issue of hazards would surely entail criticism both in the USA and abroad, and would surely spoil the image of the product and the company both in the domestic market and abroad (Move From Being Right to Being Responsible, 2010).
The discussed decision is also highly relevant to the workplace practice worldwide, since there are globalization tendencies observed everywhere. It is not responsible to enter a foreign market on the principles of concealing the truth and using the holes in legislation not taking care of the country’s residents.
The fundamental rights of all human beings to safety and ability to get products corresponding to their purpose are inseparable all over the world, so it is immoral to use the markets of developing countries as a place to sell products that are forbidden in the domestic US market, e.g. spoiled goods, hazardous products etc.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethics Game Journal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References De George, R.T. (2010). Business Ethics. (7th ed.). New York: Pearson Education Inc.
Move From Being Right to Being Responsible (2010). Retrieved from https://www.ethicsgame.com/exec/site/index.html
Determining why employee job satisfaction is low – A Verizon Wireless Corporation Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Introduction “Verizon Communications Inc., headquartered in New York, is a global leader in delivering broadband and other wireless and wireline communications services to mass market, business, government and wholesale customers.
Verizon Wireless operates America’s most reliable wireless network, serving more than 93 million customers nationwide. Verizon also provides converged communications, information and entertainment services over America’s most advanced fiber-optic network, and delivers innovative, seamless business solutions to customers around the world” (Verizon, 2010).
The company was established in 2000 as a result of the merger between Bell Atlantic Corp. and GTE. Corp Verizon. The company had a competitive edge from the very beginning on account of the fact that the two originating organizations had experiencing considerable market exposure and had developed into well-known brand names.
The company has evolved significantly with a human resource capital of over 222,900 employees across the world (Hoovers, 200). The company offers a wide range of telecommunication products and services. These products encompass wire-based as well as wireless products and services. The company is led by the highly experienced CEO McAdam Lowell.
I am responsible for a diverse set of responsibilities in the company. This diversity in responsibility is present on account of the fact that I am a junior manager in the supply chain department. As a result, I find myself facing challenges of different nature on a daily basis.
However, in essence, senior personnel in the department identify the responsibilities of a junior supply chain manager to incorporate the identification, organized acquisition and subsequent distribution of information and goods in order to facilitate the operation of the supply chain.
In specific terms, I ensure that the supply chain for raw material remains efficient and operational without any hindrances. The raw material I acquire is subsequently used for the production of the company’s products. In order to ensure that the raw material supply chain keeps running smoothly, it is essential that I contribute to the efficiency of the supply chain process on a consistent basis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I generally attempt to make this contribution by actively seeking out problem areas and developing strategies to ensure that they do not come up again. I also engage in the development, implementation and monitoring of supply chain policies.
Problem Statement As a result of my position in the company, I was able to become aware of numerous organization-level problems. The problem statement will serve to provide the paper with the direction for the research. The problem statement for this paper is: Why is job satisfaction in employees low? “Employee satisfaction refers to the employee’s sense of well-being within his or her work environment. It is the result of a combination of extrinsic rewards, such as remuneration and benefits, and intrinsic rewards, such as respect and appreciation.
Positive changes in the HRM systems and the way in which managers and supervisors interact with staff on personnel issues can increase the level of employee satisfaction. While a high level of employee satisfaction cannot be absolutely tied to higher levels of retention, motivation and performance, a low level of employee satisfaction is a definite source of low levels of performance” (Management Sciences for Health, Inc., 2009).
Literature Review There are a number of triggers that can lead to the development of job dissatisfaction. In some cases, the employee may experience an event that unsettles the employee and contributes to the establishment of a decision to leave the organization for the first suitable alternative that comes by (Barling
For a Divorce by Marie Ponsot Explicatory Essay writing essay help
The poetry of Marie Ponsot can be called lyric and passionate, enriching the soul and teaching people about the simple human values. The poem For a Divorce is a part of her new work Admit Impediment, which is a collection of her verses. The poem produces a very strong impression, with the author letting the reader come into the most intricate corners of her soul and participate in her speculations on why she actually married and what led the happy couple to the divorce. The opening paragraphs of the poem show how the author treats divorce and marriage:
Death is the price for life Lives change places (Ponsot I, 1-2).
She clearly feels that her marriage was a life of hers, and the death of feelings is the divorce – the end to happiness, to mutual understanding, to being the two parts of the whole. However, the end of the poem indicates that Marie Ponsot is putting up with the reality of a divorce and treats it as something natural, giving life to a new stage of her own life path by the death of the previous one:
Deaths except for amoeba articulate Life into lives, separate, named, new. Not all sworn faith dies. Ours did (Ponsot VII, 1-3).
The regrets Marie Ponsot feels about being divorced are felt in the words by which she tries to comprehend her feelings about the loss. It is clearly a loss for Ponsot, and she perceives the divorce as a real endeavor requiring much effort and strength of will from the one enduring it:
How dear now undark appear the simple Apparently simple wishes of the untried will; How dark it is here and now suddenly too still (Ponsot II, 1-5).
Ponsot puts a certain portion of blame for the divorce on her ex-husband, seeing that he did not put any effort to save their marriage. It is evident from the description of Ponsot’s romantic endeavors to make their life in marriage bright, unusual, delicate and interesting. The husband did not support her efforts and did not try to play the roles that Ponsot offered to him:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More …Even on my crystal sands even under my fragrant trees you were a pig (Ponsot IV, 5-7).
This quotation shows that the relationships between Ponsot and her husband, no matter how hard she tried, were far from romantic and intricate. It is dreadful for Ponsot to recollect that she was actually for such a state of affairs, and she blames herself in part for the ruinous end of their relationships by saying: “I a Circe stupefied who/ could not tell the master from the man” (Ponsot IV, 8-9).
She realizes that she was weak and could not influence the distribution of roles, power relationships and let her husband torture her in many ways. There are many descriptions of beasts and monsters in the poem, offering a colorful idea of what Ponsot was trying to compare the agony of their union to: “in myths gross beasts must wound; it is their work” (Ponsot V, 2-3); “a cruel kind of guide or Christ” (Ponsot V, 8-9) etc.
Nevertheless, no matter how much bitterness and regret, the romantic fleur of spiritual suffering and pursuit of finding the answer to the question ‘why’, there is surely the sentimental warmth about the foregone happiness and closeness Ponsot used to have with her husband.
Strategy for an Advertising Campaign Report (Assessment) cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Scope of the Advertisement
The Sony Ericsson Inc wishes to upgrade the technology world by introducing one of the best 3G phones ever. The phone, which has a multitude of features that not only makes it a choice phone but also makes it the phone of the future, has been rated as a substitute of the common and very famous I-Phone from Apple Inc. Although the Apple remains a very expensive and sophisticated phone in the market today, with loads of technological features that make it a real display of technological inventions and advancements in the world of Information and communication technology, it is also surrounded by a lot of drawbacks that make it a nightmare for many. With a few important features of the mobile technology missing in the I-phone, and with a lot of security issues having been reported showcasing the I-phone as a great threat to its customers, the phone is indeed falling back in the world as a phone for all. In fact, its greatest challenge is its price, a price that is usually not consistent with what it offers to the market in terms of its features, reliability and affordability. The new Sony Ericsson Vivaz is hence the choice phone since it is a mix of sophistication and simplicity, giving its customers real value for their money.
The advertisement aimed at marketing the phone will mainly display its strengths compared to the I-Phone and will target the young generation as well as business people who may use the phone for different functions.
The main objective of the advertisement will be to offer the choice phone to all generations and markets hence advancing the mobile technology to the next level (Oppapers 2010).
Budget for Advertisement Activities The ad will consist of a strategy with different stages and levels so as to ensure the phone not only gains popularity but also is able to sustain that popularity in the market. The advertisement strategy will hence constitute of different activities including:
Use of Commercials on Television
Use of Bill Boards
Advertisement on news papers
Awarding offers to customers after they purchase the given model of phones
Awarding of gifts and gift packs from the company
Offering competitions on the radio with many gifts, including the phone, to be won (Baker 2010).
The predicted cost of advertising and of the whole advertisement strategy is as illustrated in the table below:
Table for the Expected Cost of the Whole Advertisement Strategy Activity Predicted Cost Television and radio advertisements $3,000 Online Advertisements $2,000 Use of Bill Boards $5,000 Advertisement on news papers $3,000 Cost of offers to customers on the purchase of phones $5, 000 Cost of outsourcing evaluation to experts $3,000 Cost of evaluation within the company $1,000 TOTAL COST $22,000 (Biz Development 2008).
The strategy will hence require a large sum of money. For this reason, the amount will be distributed accordingly so as to ensure that returns realized by the company are as purposed in the objectives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Advertising activities schedule The advertisements will take a span of ten weeks and all the activities are bound to be complete by then and to have acquired the supposed objectives of the advertisement. The schedule for the activities to be involved in the advertisements would be as follows:
Table for the Schedule of the Activities in the Advertisement Strategy Activity Scheduled Date Television and radio advertisements Whole Duration of 10 weeks Online Advertisements Whole duration of 10 weeks Use of Bill Boards Whole Duration of 10 weeks Advertisement on news papers Week 3-6 Cost of offers to customers on the purchase of phones Week 1-4 Cost of outsourcing evaluation to experts Week 1-3 and week 8-10 Cost of evaluation within the company Week 1-3 and week 8-10 (Lorin 2010).
The Implementation Plan The advertisement would mainly focus on the online, radio and billboards advertisements. All the advertisements would hold the slogan “The choice phone of the future” and would be aimed at creating a trust and assurance on the quality, usability and competitiveness of the Sony Ericsson Vivaz phone. The advertisements would also give a clear comparison between the phone and other market leader phones while still showcasing the phone as the one with a better quality and which is more affordable.
In the radio advertisements, commercials would be used mostly during the programs that people love the most and which have a wider range of listeners, especially the interactive sessions that include the use of communication between radio listeners and their clients. Also, the youth and business-oriented programs would be targeted.
In such moments, the listeners are bound to gain a lot of interest and trust in the phones being advertised as they already trust the radio programs they are listening to. On the other hand, competitions would be offered with gifts being earned from the advertising company. These gifts would include a few free phones and other gifts that would support the ICT industry and hence impact on support of the Vivaz phones.
In the online advertisements, the company would seek collaboration with other companies and people who own websites with a great flow of traffic of internet users. Advertisements or the phone would then be placed on the websites so that when the users log onto the websites, they can be attracted to the adverts and seek for more information on the phones. This way, additional information would be provided, allowing the users to gain interest and trust on the phones.
The billboards will also showcase the most important and attractive features of the phone. They will be placed at strategic places and shall influence the perception of the potential clients by drawing their attention and giving them an assurance on how fashionable, reliable and durable the phone is hence catching their attention. They will also give them directions on where they can buy phones from (Money instructor 2010).
We will write a custom Assessment on Strategy for an Advertising Campaign specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Media Contract Negotiations A media contract was initiated so as to ensure the company seeks the intervention of media firms in its advertisement. The media included the radio and television stations, firms involved in management of billboard advertisements and firms managing websites. All these forms of media would be appropriate to apply in the advertisement strategies so as to ensure that a maximum number of people access the information hence popularizing the phone in the shortest time possible.
The contracts by the media firms bore fruits since the firms were all willing to help advertise for the company as requested. They all agreed to include the advertisements for the Sony Ericsson Vivaz phone in all the commercials involving the greatest traffic of people accessing it.
This would ensure that a large percentage of the targeted population would be reached around the globe in a fast and reliable way. Through use of the local media such as television and radio firms, many potential clients would be reached and would gain the information. However, the use of internet and different websites would not only ensure local potential clients gain the information but even internationally, many potential buyers of the phone would get the information and hopefully be attracted to buy the phone.
The main challenge to the use of the media, however, would be the cost implication associated to advertisements on such media. The most expensive modes of advertisements would be radio, television and billboard advertisements. These would require a large allocation of funds to ensure the required cost is met. On the other side, there would be many benefits associated to those advertisements making them more preferable irrespective of their cost (Miles and Snow 2003).
Plan for the Monitoring of the Advertising Campaign The advertising campaign would undergo an evaluation process so as to determine various factors including its feasibility, its cost analysis and other factors so as to determine if the whole strategy was viable. The process needs to be analyzed so as to also determine if it helps in achievement of the goals and objectives it is supposed to meet.
This would ensure that the whole strategy is not too expensive for the company resulting to a loss for the company while also ensuring the process gets enough funding so as to ensure it meets its goals in the required manner (Adamso 2002).
In the advertisement strategy, a monitoring process would be included so as to evaluate all those that would access the information and also to compare the cost of the strategy with the benefits gained from the advertisements. All this would be carried out both at the company level and also by involving analysts who would help determine the flow of the information and how well the goals of the advertisements were being met.
In this way, the company would involve a few members of its staff in the evaluation and data analysis department in collecting and analyzing the data for the viability of the advertisement strategy, including an analysis of the number of people being attracted to the product, those who buy the product as a result of the information gotten from the advertisements, the rate of advertisement of the products on the media as per the media contracts and also store and analyze information gained from outsourced analysts.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategy for an Advertising Campaign by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evaluation would also be undertaken by experts included in the process through outsourcing. This way, experts would mainly be used to analyze the flow of information to potential clients especially in the websites used for the advertisements.
A cost would be incurred in the evaluation process. This cost would include the cost of outsourcing, amounting to $3,000 and the cost of evaluation in the company amounting to $1,000 (Shearman 2010).
Evaluation Strategy for the Campaign Effectiveness A mode of evaluation would be formulated so as to determine how the advertisement strategy aids in achieving the organizational goals of the company. In this way, the main strategies that would be used would include an evaluation of the sales resulting from the advertisements so as to determine the benefits of the advertisement strategy, monitoring of the traffic accessing the advertisements in the websites and other online media and outsourcing of evaluation activities to experts.
In addition to these evaluation strategies, pre-campaign and post-campaign evaluations would be undertaken. Mostly, these would be implemented using the questionnaires that would be administered to those that access the information from advertisements so as to determine how to design the adverts in the best way.
The same evaluations would determine the attitudes of the potential clients towards the advertisements and the products being showcased by the company. In this way, the company would determine if the advertisements would help the company achieve its goals or if the company would have any benefits or a loss from the advertisement strategies (Wong 2010).
Implement the Campaign Effectiveness Evaluation Strategy An evaluation of the effectiveness of the advertisement process would be undertaken. The process would include collection of data for those who access the information from the advertisements, the total cost involved in advertisements and also the benefits gained from the advertisements.
First, the cost of the advertisement strategy would be considered. Then, an analysis of those who will be reached by the information from the advertisements and also their attitude concerning the advertisements and the product being advertised would be undertaken.
Finally, the number of sales associated to the advertisements and also the other benefits gained from the whole advertisement process would be analyzed. With a comparison undertaken between the costs and the benefits, a conclusion would be arrived at on whether or not the advertisements strategy is effective.
References Adamso, P., 2002. How to design an advertising campaign for your small business. Web.
Baker, R., 2010. Income Statements: The nature and Analysis of Company Performance. Web.
Biz Development, 2008. Manage Your Business Development. Web.
Lorin, S., 2010. Creative Advertising Ideas That Work. Web.
Miles, E. and Snow, L., 2003. Organizational Strategy, Structure and Process. Stanford: Business Books.
Money instructor, 2010. Basic Accounting. Web.
Oppapers, D., 2010. Marketing
The Automobile Market in Australia Report college application essay help
Statement of Purpose The aim of this report is to complete a market research analysis report of the automobile market in Australia that will help the Great Wall motors of china to undertake a strategic planning and make future growth plans.
The report will assess data and then make recommendations and conclusion to the management of the great wall motors that will the company to achieve its strategic objectives. The report will use Australian market information to identify and evaluate current and future market opportunities, demand trends within the Australian market and also make an analysis of product types and market segments that could provide growth for the company.
Current and Future Market Opportunities Great wall motors, an automotive company established in 1976 is the leading SUV manufacturer in China (Global times 2010). The company got a licence to produce sedans in 2008 after two decades of producing trucks and has been hailed as one of the leading exporters of automotives in China, having entered the European market with an incredible success.
Currently, it exports it products in more than 60 countries and the major question in this paper is whether this company can succeed in Australia the way it has succeeded in Europe and other countries (China daily 2010).
How is Australian automotive market different from these other markets that the great wall motors has succeeded in? It is on record that Australia is one of the few countries worldwide that have facilities to design vehicles and produce them from scratch to dealership and most of the vehicles used in Australia are produced domestically (Lynn 2010).
Trends within Australia Auto Market Australia is known for producing large sized passenger vehicles though there is a growing market for sports utility vehicles and sedans. One of the government policies that have had a huge impact on the Australian automotive market is global integration where the government has lowered the tariffs, providing the industry with an opportunity to adjust.
The government helped the industry to internationalize while at the same time making sure it remains stable. There are four major manufacturers operating in Australia. These are Ford, Toyota, General Motors and Mitsubishi. Productivity in the automotive industry has improved significantly over the last ten years due to the benefits of market liberalization (Unescap 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Characteristics of possible markets Unlike Australia which favours PMVs, not many other markets have a huge propensity for PMVs. Modern markets are tilting towards small fuel efficient vehicles which is also a trend identified in Australia. Due to the skyrocketing oil prices around the world, people have resorted to buying vehicles that can economise on fuel and that is where the great wall motors should focus its attention on.
Consumer segments for growth There are two consumer segments that can provide economic growth for this company. These are the sports utility vehicles segments and the small trucks market segment. Sports utility vehicles have been a source of competitive advantage for great wall motors and will continue to be because the company has already made inroads into that segment. The small trucks segment is an area that has been avoided by many automakers meaning that foraying into this segment can provided the much needed growth.
Analysis of the Australian Domestic and Overseas Market Using Research Information The Australian automotive industry has four major players and all the manufacturers are subsidiaries of overseas giants meaning that there is no indigenous automotive manufacturer in Australia. The size of the industry has grown over the recent years with sales hitting 0.8 Million annually with the passenger vehicles taking the biggest chunk of the market.
There are also heavy trucks being assembled in Australia but there is no production of light trucks in Australia at the present. All light trucks are manufactured outside. Local manufacturers confine themselves to passenger motor vehicles because this is the dominant characteristic of the Australian motor industry.
The long distance between major cities in Australia and transport infrastructure that can cater for larger vehicles has made the consumers to value the PMVs. Fuel prices in Australia are also low and the PMVs have features that make travelling in the country comfortable. However Australians are moving towards small inexpensive vehicles that facilitate travels within cities.
There may be stiff competition between the manufacturers of PMVs but the modern shift towards small inexpensive sedans has created an opportunity that can be utilised by any automotive manufacturer. One characteristic of the Australian market is their disregard for the sports utility vehicles. Apparently, no automaker in Australia assembles or produces sports utility vehicles locally. Australia imports sports utility vehicles from Europe, Japan and Australia.
There exists opportunities in Australia for light trucks and small sedans and any player planning to venture in the Australian motor industry must exploit the void in the Australian motor market. Australian major automotive markets overseas are concentrated in the Middle East, the leading consumer being Saudi Arabia which takes 50 percent of the Australian automotive exports.
We will write a custom Report on The Automobile Market in Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other leading consumers include Oman, Kuwait, Qatar and the UAE which means that any automotive maker planning to venture into Australia must be able to exploit these overseas opportunities that have already been created by the existing automakers (Kraft 2010).
There are certain characteristics of the Australian overseas market especially in the Middle East that any player has to factor in. The products that Australia exports to the Middle East are not the same as the products consumed locally. Due to the availability low prices of oil in the Middle East, fuel efficient vehicles are not easily marketable in the region meaning that Australia exports top of the range vehicles to this market segment.
As opposed to the domestic market in Australia, Passenger Motor vehicles are not in high demand overseas especially in the middle east where there are low populations and high preference for the top of the range vehicles because the consumers in most of these country are economically endowed.
Conclusions Based on Research Findings From the above analysis of research information, it is evident that the Great Wall Motors may not easily find a market share in Australia. The Australian transport infrastructure and customer preferences favour Passenger Motor Vehicles which the Great Wall Motors does not deal in currently.
Currently there are four major competitors in the Australian motor industry meaning that an additional competitor would find it hard to compete with the existing automakers. The major disadvantage for Great Wall Motors is that it does not have the facilities to produce the kind of vehicles that are in concordance with the Australian market characteristics.
Secondly the Great Wall motors specializes in sports utility vehicles which are largely unpopular in Australia meaning that it would hard for the company to make a breakthrough in the country. However, the future of the automotive market in Australia may favour the Great Wall motors because as mentioned above, people in Australia are now inclined towards small inexpensive sedans.
Recommendations Currently, the competition in this segment is not as stiff and there is an opportunity success in this segment. I would recommend that Great Wall Motors target this emerging opportunity in the Australian market because the company already have facilities that can create a competitive advantage in this segment.
Great Wall Motors should therefore set up plants in Australia for manufacturing the small inexpensive sedans and also transfer some of its SUV operations to Australia to target the Australian overseas market especially in the Middle East.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Automobile Market in Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The current marketing strategies that Great Wall Motors uses by great wall marketing may not succeed in the Australian market because of the nature of the market that favours Passenger Motor Vehicles meaning that the company has to rework its marketing strategies to favour its new line of production. In Australia, the best strategy that can enhance its competitive advantage is market segmentation which will help the company to create niche markets (ABR 2008).
Market segmentation will help Great Wall Motors to develop products that suit different classes of people in the country ensuring that each class or market segment is served with its own type of product (Kynge 2009). This is the only strategy that will help Great Wall Motor to penetrate the tricky Australian automotive market. There are some additional resources that will be required to support the above recommendations for market segmentation.
This includes a strong and effective research team that will study the Australian market so that the company can make strategies that are in line with the preference of the Australian customers. The Great wall motor company also needs a string sales and marketing team that will promote the new products in the Australian market and also ensure that the company attains a competitive advantage in the new market (China auto web 2010).
The company also needs to invest in the state of the art plants to ensure it delivers products that are of higher quality than what the existing players deliver to the Australian and overseas automotive customers because this will be another source of competitive advantage for the company. All in all, it may not be easy for the company to excel in Australia but if the above recommendations are considered, the company can in the long run become a competitive player in this tricky automotive market.
References Automotive Business Review (ABR) (2008) Great Wall Motor looks towards EU for exports. Web.
China Auto Web (2010) Great Wall Plans More KD Assembly Plants Overseas. Web.
China Daily (2010) Great Wall banned from exporting GW Peri mini car. Web.
Global times (2010) Great Wall Motor’s vehicles hit Cambodian market. Web.
Kraft, R. (2010) Shaking the Globe: Courageous Decision-Making in a Changing World. Melbourne: C.U.P
Kynge, J. (2009) Great Wall Motors Launches First Chinese-Made Cars into Australian Market themotorreport.com. Web.
Lynn, J. (2010) What is missing in the Australian automotive market. Web.
Unescap. (2009) Australian Automotive Market. Web.
Analysis of Obama’s Victory Speech Essay cheap essay help
On November 4, 2008, President Barrack Obama delivered The Election Night Victory Speech at Grant Park, Illinois. During this keynote acceptance speech, he emphasized that the American dream was not on its deathbed because “change has come to America.” His passionate speech, employing rhetoric that soars and excites, instigated the people of America to restore their confidence in the nation and strive to fulfill their personal dreams and yet still form part of the larger American family.
My evaluation of this acceptance speech will concentrate on the way Obama employed the approaches of narration, intonation, verbalization, silence, and telling of stories to draw the attention of the thousands of his audience who were enthusiastically listening to this historic speech. Obama employed different rhetorical strategies to deliver the speech and it was effective in giving the audience hope concerning the future.
“If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible; who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time; who still … tonight is your answer”(Obama, para.1). With those words, Obama started his keynote delivery with a clear message of hope to the people of America.
Maintaining a direct eye contact with his audience, Obama was loud enough to be heard, but soft enough so that the poetic words could sink deep into the minds of his listeners. Obama’s use of the power word, America, rouses the attention of the audience since invoking the word demands absolute obedience (Balshaw, 18).
In addition, the opening allusion to the American dream echoes the words of great speakers in American history, such as Martin Luther King. His use of “who still” three times in the opening sentence is a triple that serves the purpose of grabbing the attention of his listeners. The first paragraph also anchors across time. He refers to the past, “our founders,” as well as the general present, “our time.”
More so, the use of “tonight” refers to the immediate present, which is a recurring theme that brings the past to the individuals listening to the address. The concluding word in this paragraph, “answer,” is the start of the next triple and gives an indication of the resolution of the tension.
“It’s the answer spoken by young and old, rich and poor… (Obama, para.2). The use of “answer” again here indicates that he is ready to solve the problems that have been affecting the U.S. in the new century and echoes the theme of change (Brill, 38). Subsequently, Obama uses “answer” again in the next two paragraphs so as to drive the point home that momentous change has arrived in America.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the third paragraph, he recognized that America is a diverse country having people from different backgrounds by saying “It’s the answer spoken … Americans who sent a message to the world that we have never been a collection of Red States and Blue States: we are, and always will be, the United States of America”(para. 3).
In order to achieve a warm reception, Obama cleverly used the second person in addressing his audience, “It belongs to you…it cannot happen without you…your victory… it’s your job too,” He used this technique to illustrate the significance of the people of America in helping him bring the change in the country.
He intended his audience to realize that his triumph and future effort to bring change in the country will depend on the endeavors of the collective and not entirely on himself. In the mind of the people, the use of the second person is intended to enable them feel a sense of belonging. Therefore, as their presence is acknowledged, they are able to feel appreciated and part of the change that was to come to America.
During the acceptance speech, Obama made numerous references within the text of gifted speakers in the American history, for example, Martin Luther King, as mentioned above.
“The road ahead will be long. Our climb will be steep…I have never been more hopeful than I am tonight that we will get there. I promise you – we as a people will get there” (Obama, para.13). This creates the perception that the road to recovery will not be easy. He wanted his audience to realize that repairing the damage he inherited from the country’s past leadership will not be an easy task.
The inclusion of the inter-textual references of other motivational speakers also served the purpose of instilling hope in the eyes of the people. This is because it is the same hope that stirred the audience with confidence in many of Martin Luther’s speeches (Washington and King, 3). It seems that the plain and musical language of the speech was drawn heavily from the life of the past inspirational speakers.
In the speech, Obama routinely repeats the slogan “yes we can” (Davidson, 68). This acts like an encouragement that all things are possible and the people of America are able to surmount all difficulties that they may encounter in the journey towards complete economic and social liberation. Prior to his election has the 44th president of the United States, Obama had vigorously campaigned for change in the country (Gormley, 135).
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Obama’s Victory Speech specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the repetition of the slogan seems to stress that the country has transformed over the years in terms of acceptance of the role of women in the society as well as how it tackles times of economic turmoil (Maclnnis, 56). In addition, it points that more change is yet to come during Obama’s presidency. Finally, but not to be ignored, it also epitomizes the American dream, which every citizen of the country can realize through maintaining a positive mentality in life.
In the speech, Obama gives thanks to various people who assisted him to ascend to presidency. He started by praising the defeated, “A little bit earlier this evening I just received a very gracious call from Senator McCain. Senator McCain fought long and hard in this campaign, and he’s fought even longer and harder for the country he loves” (para.6).
Through this, he demonstrated magnanimity in victory, appreciated the defeated and he did not ignore or trampled upon them; therefore, this indicates that he is a good leader. It is interesting to note that he was able to commend his competitors before his supporters.
Thereafter, he commenced a series of thanks. He portrayed the Vice President as an ordinary person saying, “we’re just like you” so as to connect with the crowd. And he only mentioned Joe Biden at the end of the paragraph. This created tension and also assisted in capturing the audience attention.
Next, he thanked his family members, First Lady, Michelle Obama, and his daughters, Sasha and Malia,”I would not be standing here tonight without the unyielding support of my best friend for the last sixteen years, the rock of our family and the love of my life, our nation’s next First Lady, Michelle Obama”(para,7).
To his daughters he said, “Sasha and Malia, I love you both so much, and you have earned the new puppy that’s coming with us to the White House.” This demonstrated that he is a normal family man who cares for the well-being of his family, for example, he promised his daughters a puppy. The reference to his grandma who had just passed away without being over sentimental induces the sympathy of the audience.
The speech signifies that Obama will be ready to incorporate the efforts of everybody in the road to recovery. He said, “Let us resist the temptation to fall back on the same partisanship and pettiness and immaturity that has poisoned our politics for so long” (Obama, para. 17).
The phrase “partisanship and pettiness, poisoned our Politics” is an alliteration showing the extent of the damage it has caused to the American society. “Let us” speaks to all voters in America, regardless of their political affiliation and repeats nobility as well as the call for humility and healing of the land.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Obama’s Victory Speech by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Obama’s employed the life of the 106-years old Ann Nixon Cooper to repaint the history of America as well as bring to the attention of the audience the successes and failures that the country has gone through in the past century so as to connect them with it.
The creation of a sense of history was meant to demonstrate that the extraordinary could become ordinary if Americans are prepared to strive to this end. The history of skin color is meant to indicate that he is a beneficiary of the historic struggle. “America, we have come so far” (para. 29). This illustrates that he addresses the country with ease since he is a part of the struggle. He also gives an individual touch by relating his two daughters to the old Ann Nixon Cooper.
“This is our chance to answer that call. This is our moment. This is our time – to put our people back to work and open doors of opportunity for our kids; … to reclaim the American Dream” (Obama, last paragraph). The repetition of “this is” again is meant to draw the attention of the audience and it also acts a the final call to action. Obama gets back to the central theme of hope and beneficial gains that awaits the people of America. He concludes the speech by restating the ‘yes we can’ theme.
Listening to Obama’s acceptance speech captured my imagination from the start. The sections of the speech, which can be characterized as celebration, thanksgiving, challenge, history, and hope, had a central focus of emphasizing the importance of unity in America for the benefit of its future. The general approach Obama used in the speech is to form an inclusive sense of history so that every American could see himself or herself as a part of the road to recovery.
Works Cited Balshaw, Kevin. Speech makers bible : write and deliver speeches that hit the mark. Hawthorn, Vic. : K. Balshaw, 2008. Print.
Brill, Marlene T. Barrack Obama: working to make a difference. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications, 2006. Print.
Davidson, Tim. The Essential Obama: The Speeches of Barrack Obama. New York: Aquitaine Media Group, 2009. Print.
Gormley, Beatrice. Barrack Obama: our 44th President. New York: Simon
Effects of War on Humanity in Terms of Human Rights Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How Families of Solders in War are Affected
Cost of War
Effects on Education and Healthcare
Effects on Humanity
Compromised human rights
Introduction Although war starts due to negative administrative assertion such as affirmations by administration catalyze its emergence. Good example of affirmation include the indications that war in Iraq stated because Iraq was in violation of some U.N. Security Councils Resolutions, such as being in possession of weapons of mass destruction.
Fight for peace is also another issue that fuels war since some governments feel the need for ensuring favourable conditions and unsuccessful endeavours to promote dialogue for peaceful solutions succumb to war threats and eventually action.
Governments react pro-actively and make the most of all in its power to protect its citizens by fighting enemies. However, power of commands to declare war without solid reasons and proof is not justifiable. In most cases, war causes negative effects on human lives by depriving them the most essential needs and respect for civilization. This research paper is critical analysis of war. The paper mainly reflects on some of the negative effects of war on humanity and human rights.
How Families of Solders in War are Affected The main reason why war is not justified is due to effects on human rights for instance many coalition soldiers lost their lives in the Iraq war (Rai and Chomsky, 141). According to Iraq coalition casualty count (1), up to date more than 4,300 U.S. and 4,693 coalition solders have died because of the Iraq war.
The death of all these great compatriots is due to haste of administrators to go to war. This has deprived many families their special members whom were responsible for basic provisions including love. Other than fatalities, many casualties who were competent family providers now depending on others in different ways doe to physical, mental and psychological injuries.
Such conditions increase pressure on health provisions due to lack of specialized facilities or medical resources in most care centres. The effects not only affect the coalition governments in war, but also members of the attacked countries for instance, Iraq people recorded the greatest number of fatalities and casualties during the Iraq war (Keegan, 31).
Cost of War After wars, there is high dependence on large-scale humanitarian and reconstruction assistances and primarily, high compromise on human rights, which requires delivery of humanitarian support and prepositioning of crucial human needs (Sifry and Cerf, 27).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Humanitarian crisis during war is very high. Before the wars, various organizations and agencies are able to provide aid through the oil for food programme, but on war engagements halts the undertakings thus causing loss of human life such as poverty or malnutrition related deaths.
People have right to basic needs such as food but war-torn areas causes massive suffering associable to lack of food especially among women and children. In line with Sifry and Cerf (27), war disrupts these non-governmental organizations plans for humanitarian assistance due to the uncertainty during and after the war.
Poverty is one of the main effects associable to human crisis. Basic needs such as medicines, shelter, hygiene facilities and food therefore remain a concession during war. There are fears over shortage on humanitarian assistance even among the affected. Casualty reports confirm the fears, as the numbers of victims are overwhelming (Iraq coalition casualty count, 1).
Effects on Education and Healthcare War often forces women and children to vacate their home and settle in displacement camps due to safety. This remains a permanent scar to the society since children are not able to attend schools. Regardless of some humanitarian assistance from neighbouring countries, there is often refusal to assist and allow refugees to enter and settle in their countries.
Children are therefore not able to attend school and access easy health services. For instance during the Iraq war, there were massive movement of people mainly from Baghdad and other major cities before and after the war began but towards the end of the war, the movement started reducing due to restrictions (Chancellor Schroeder, 3). The government is responsible for the health facilities and education programmes for displacement and refugee camps.
War causes poor or lack of governance; this means that the affected country’s administration is not able to cater for the indispensable needs in the camps. Innocent children end up suffering from something they rarely understand and furthermore war causes psychological suffering of the naive minds.
Effects on Humanity Various wars since time in history have caused massive impact on various crucial infrastructures, hindering transportation of basic needs and services. During such confrontation, unruly mobs continue to make it difficult for the movement of humanitarian aid. Some of humanitarian needs that have proven to be a main challenge are water, installation of sewerage systems and fuel shortages.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Effects of War on Humanity in Terms of Human Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Delivery of health service has also been a major challenge for instance shortage of supplies, staff and in some cases attacks on conveys or assisting organizations. Lack of resources and existence of compromised infrastructures also hinders provision of health services. In most of the affected areas, reports indicate that peacekeeping armies provide health services to civilians (Chancellor Schroeder, 3).
Compromised security Compromise on security is also a big challenge during and after the wars. Some of the humanitarian organizations put up bases in war zones areas to facilitate relief operations, but they are worried of security since protection by the involved parties may compromise the security of its staff.
The insecurity is a total pervade to the human working environment. This causes low working morale, difficulties of finding trained or retrained workers and disrupted training or supervision. Compromised security also affects the reconstruction and relief activities especially during or after the war for instance, access to the war-torn areas, compromising the cost of service delivery due to lowered security of relief personnel and weak coordination and communication among relief agents.
Compromised human rights Denial of various human rights has been evident in majority of the countries or areas involved in wars. First, people in the affected zones have problems of accessing health services due to insecurity; financial segregation owing to high costs for services form the available facilities that are in most cases private hospitals or dispensaries.
Geographical differences also prohibit access. The health care activities are compromised and eventually as evident in war-hit areas, the care shift from the normal form of primary or preventive to specialized curative form of care.
This is a compromise on life since most of the available systems lack strong specialist to undertake curative care. War therefore adversely affects and compromises human health and life. There is reduction of the rural or community-based care, disrupted health surveillance and compromised public health programmes.
Poor or destruction of infrastructure compromises on humanity for instance destruction of health resources like clinics, referral systems, equipments and vehicles. Additional, war affects the communication logistics. Thirdly, there is lack of food, drugs and equipments maintenance procedures. Conclusively, some of the adversely yet essential human health-sustenance infrastructures include sanitation, food security, water and power.
Conclusion Restoration of peace and order appears to be a major priority before and after war. This is important especially when humanitarian needs are in consideration. Ability to overcome the main barriers to restoration of understanding, growth and provision of human needs mainly depend on infrastructure. Generally, war compromises infrastructure, which is the main support for humanity and human rights. Reconstruction of these crucial resources such pipelines, gas stations, hospitals, airports and other important needs to be carried out smoothly. There is need to enforce security since effects of insecurity shifts focus turns towards reconstruction.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of War on Humanity in Terms of Human Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Chancellor Schroeder. Remarks on anti-war Stance as Saddam Crumbles. Mexico City: Agence France-Presse. 2003. Print
Iraq coalition casualty count. Operation Iraqi freedom. 2009. Web.
Keegan, John. The Iraq War: UK: Vintage Series publishers. 2005. Print
Effects of Childhood Experiences in Adulthood Essay essay help free
Introduction Childhood experiences are the ordeals or bringing up conditions one undergoes through as a child. These experiences could be emotional, psychological, physical, cultural or even sexual. Childhood experiences play a significant role in shaping our views as adults in many ways, for instance, the way we behave, thinking, feel, act, associate and many other ways.
To begin with, a child who never had time to interact with other kids or locked up during his/her childhood will portray anti-social behaviors. Children who never experienced love from their parents and other family members will depict irresponsible behaviors in adulthood, as they are unable to express the same feelings. Contrary, a child who experienced affection from the parents will feel the need to act the same way as their parents did.
Secondly, culture experiences also play a role in shaping a person. A cultural environment where black is a symbol of evil will affect the feeling of an adult towards black skinned people. Some cultural experiences have men as superior and women inferior. This culture, therefore, shapes a girl child to a submissive woman.
Physical and emotional experiences
Thirdly, a child who experienced physically and emotionally understanding relationship with parents and other siblings can express out his/her feelings in a relaxed and positive. On the other hand, physically and emotionally abusive and hostile family experiences shape a child to a criminal, as he will act violently to confront situations. Lastly, sexual experiences affect how adults behave, view and feel about sex. Sexually abused children view sex as evil and shy away from it in adulthood (Duck, p.46).
Conclusions How adults feel, behave, and view this is generally out of childhood experiences.
Positive experiences bear positives traits while negative experiences comprise adult well-being. It is therefore essential for parents or guardians to provide necessary conditions for positive experiences.
Works Cited Duck, Steve. Human Relationship. London, UK: SAGE Publication Ltd. 2007. Print
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Capital Punishment Legislation Argumentative Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Death penalty in the U.S
The pros of death penalty
The cons of death penalty
Introduction Capital punishment can be defined as the deliberate and premeditated termination of human life as a punishment for the victim who is convicted under the provisions of the law. In the United States, capital punishment remains a highly debated and controversial topic as substantial portions of the U.S. population are proponents or opponents of executions.
This has been, partly, contributed by the different legislations that different countries hold concerning executions. For instance, a good number of Latin American democracies and other democratic countries in Europe have gotten rid off of executions although a number of Asian democracies, the United States and totalitarian countries still carry out executions (Cassel 1).
Death penalty in the U.S Although the death penalty is, arguably, most debated in the United States, it has not always been there. The greatest number of executions in the United States was carried out during the Depression era that took place during the first half of the twentieth century. This was, however, followed by a significant decline in the number of executions in the fifties and the sixties.
The United States subsequently saw no executions during the period from 1967 to 1976. In the year 1972, the death penalty was nullified by the Supreme Court and death row inmates were consequently given life imprisonment. However, in the year 1976, another Supreme Court determined that the death penalty was constitutional and thus it was reinstated. Since then, and up to 3rd June, 2009, a total of 1167 people have faced the death penalty (Robinson 1).
Most death penalties in the United States have been given due to convictions for murder. In addition to this, other serious crimes have also attracted the death penalty. Some of these crimes include rape, robbery with violence/ armed violence, treason, kidnapping and the like.
Thus after the aforementioned 1972 Supreme Court decision, executions were limited to crimes that were a threat to human life and appropriate legislations were passed to regulate the imposition of the death penalty. In addition to the state laws discussed in this paragraph, the executions can also be carried out by the federal government and the military using the laws of these bodies (Robinson 1).
The pros of death penalty The faction supporting the death penalty has substantial membership and thus there is need to evaluate their reasons for supporting the death penalty. Some of the reasons they cite for supporting the death penalty are the fact that the death penalty makes criminals restrain from committing murder and other serious crimes like terrorist acts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second is the argument that the death penalty is the most suitable punishments for certain crimes like murder. The proponents of the death penalty also argue that executions serve a very important role in making people obtain payback in place of the victims. It is estimated that almost a third of the countries in the world are legally proponents of the death penalty (Lowe 121).
The cons of death penalty Substantial opposition to the death penalty has, over time, developed even in countries that have retained the death penalty. The main reasons that opponents of the death penalty give for their position are, the fact that the death penalty is inhumane and cruel. The same is also forbidden by the 8th amendment that was made to the constitution of the United States.
It is also true that the methods that are used to carry out executions are inhumane and cruel and thus the legal structure and the actual pragmatic procedures employed during the exercise of executions are inappropriate and seriously unusual (Lowe 122).
Death penalty has been given disproportionately to the impoverished that are unable to finance legal counsel. It has also been used against ethnic, religious and ethnic minorities. This sometimes leads to unfair executions carried out when the substance of the law is followed to the latter.
Apart from the unfair executions that have been imposed on the poor, racial, religious and ethnic minorities, it is true that the death penalty has been inconsistently applied. This has left loopholes for manipulation of the legislations that govern imposing of the death penalty leading to innocent executions (White 1).
Among the most important reasons for annulling the death penalty is the fact that a worrying number of wrongly convicted people have been killed by the state due to the existence of the law accepting executions. Of more concern is the fact that people who are rightfully executed can be punished otherwise as the state waits for information that could prove their innocence.
The only difference between executing a murderer and jailing him/her for life is that the state punishes him/her inhumanely in the former. Furthermore, if jailed for life, the murderer may die in prison as a reformed person (Cassell 1).
We will write a custom Essay on Capital Punishment Legislation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion From the discussion above, it is clear that the death penalty should be annulled. The government should come up with effective legislation giving effective and humane alternatives for punishing capital offenses. This way, a score of innocent lives will be saved and criminals will be given a chance to die as reformed people.
Works Cited Cassell, P. Debating the death penalty: should America have capital punishment. New York. Bell
Best Methods for Oil Clean Ups Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Abstract There have been a lot of reports covering issues related to oil spills in the world. The reports cover issues ranging from causes of oil spills to the effects of oil spills on the environment. This report is also covering some of the issues in a different perspective. The body of the report deals mainly with methods of controlling and cleaning up oil spills especially in the oceans.
Since the beginning of petroleum industry, and subsequent occurrence of oil accidents, several methods have been developed to aid in the clean up of the mess. Oil companies are faced with the challenge of cleaning up the mess in the recent past. This is because environmental groups, animal rights groups and human rights activists together with other agencies have emerged with policies which can be quite detrimental to the smooth running of the companies that violate those policies.
Although there are different methods of cleaning up oil spillage, advancement of these methods should be done in order to cope with the increasing challenges. A good example given in this report is the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
The challenges faced by BP Oil Company attests to the fact that advanced technological input is needed in this area. The overwhelming task of solving the problem from its source proved to be a daunting task to the experts. Although it was a success, this incident left a negative mark on the environment that will not be forgotten for years to come.
At the end of this study, the causes and methods of cleaning up oil spills will be crystallized. The effectiveness of these methods will also be known and the need for better facilities is greatly emphasized.
Introduction An oil spill is a situation that occurs when crude oil is accidentally poured out so that its effects are directly felt by the environment. Oil accidents have been occurring since the beginning of the petroleum industry since it is quite impossible to mine oil without spilling some.
The main causes of oil spills are accidents and operations at the port (Oracle, 2010). For instance collision is a familiar accident to mariners. Other accidents include explosions and groundings. Operations at the ports have also been causing small but several oil spills. Some of these operations include loading and discharging of oil.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Basically there are two kinds of oil spills. One kind is the one that occurs on land. Land oil spills usually occur in confined localities. Thus they are easily contained whenever they occur. Also, they do not cause much alarm since the situation is usually localized. In this situation, pollution is also localized hence clean up is easy and the effects are not adverse.
On the other hand, marine oil spills are quite familiar and thus infamous. Sine water moves with current, marine oil spills tend to spread over large areas thus causing far reaching environmental degradation. Oil spills in the oceans have been known to occur in different ways.
The main causes of oil spills in marine environment are tankers. Tankers are large water vessels used to transport enormous volumes of crude or refined oil. When an accident occurs involving a tanker, it will cause it to release its contents into the sea thus causing an oil spill.
Pipelines are also other source of oil spills in marine environment. When a pipeline is damaged crude or refined oil will be released into the sea causing similar damage to the environment. Thus the main sources which lead to the release of oil into the ocean are related to transport of oil. Offshore drilling does also cause oil spills when they explode or when there is an oil leakage. However, this is only but a small percentage of the total oil spills that occur in the world.
As we move away from the causes of oil spills to the methods of cleaning up, we find that in between these situations, there is the environmental aspect. Environmental degradation occurs when oil is accidentally poured into water or ground. Sea dwelling animals will be affected to a great deal if measures are not taken to cub the situation. Shellfish, seals, corals and many others will experience difficulties in either breathing or in absorption of nutrients.
Similarly plants and animals living at the shores will also experience a lot of problems in their livelihood. Turtles and birds in these areas are usually among the first animals to become victims of oil spills. In addition oil spills cause a lot of financial loss to the company in terms of wastage. For these and many other reasons, clean up activities are needed in order to prevent or tame the issue of environmental degradation and to recover the oil from the spill.
There is currently a number of methods oil companies use for clean up purposes. The methods range from natural to artificial techniques, and to more advance mechanized techniques. This report tries to dissect through the range of methods oil companies can use during clean up activities.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Best Methods for Oil Clean Ups specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Causes of oil spills Oil spills are caused by many sources. These causes are:
Accidents, whereby collision, hull failures and fires caused in the refineries and oil rigs can cause oil to spill over to the surroundings (Graham, 2010). Grounding is also another accident which is commonly experienced in the oil industry. This type of accident causes the greatest number of loss of oil whereby several hundreds of accidents have been known to cause loss of several hundreds of tones of oil.
Operations of the routines in the port and terminals whereby small but several oil spills can occur while loading or discharging. This has been known to be the most common cause of oil spills (Graham, 2010).
Factors affecting method of clean up of oil spills Several factors affect the choice of a clean up method. These factors include:
Density of the oil in relation to water so that if the density of oil is considerably high, it will sink into the water. This will prompt the use of a method which can be able to separate water and oil using the physical attribute of density (Oracle, 2007).
Temperature of water; if the temperature of water is high or increases, oil will tend to evaporate. Natural methods may be employed here. Hence methods that can separate water from oil in this temperature have to be used.
Capacity of the oil spill; if the volume of the oil spill is high, more advanced techniques should be employed so that clean up and the recovery of the spilled oil may be quickened (Oracle, 2007).
How near the spill is to the coast; if the oil spill is near to the coast, or it is in an enclosed area, methods to be used should be aimed at preventing the oil from reaching the continental shores. This will help in prevention against continental environment degradation so as not to affect birds and other animals inhabiting the coast. The methods to be used in this situation should also be aimed at reducing the impact of the spill to corals and other shallow water dwelling organisms.
Wave action of the water mass; whereby methods to be used should be able to withstand the challenge of physical mixing of sea water and oil. These should be methods which are used to separate the oil from the water after the two have mixed.
The weather, strength and direction of wind and currents; methods to be used here should include those that can withstand specific weather conditions while not effecting performance of their chores.
Methods of clean up of oil spills may be natural or artificial. Artificial methods may be low or highly technical. Less technical methods include skimming, burning of the oil, or even physically using containers to scoop it or prevent it from spreading. Highly technical approaches include the use of dispersants and the use of organic agents to break the oil down. All these techniques must be carefully studied before they are finally recommended to any kind of spill.
Natural methods that use sunlight and wave action Presence of oil in water can be broken down to physically disintegrate it and make it easier to evaporate in the presence of sunlight (Davidson, Lee
Childhood Obesity Problem Research Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Possible outcomes and Implications
Summary This paper is a research proposal comparing childhood obesity in United States of America and Saudi Arabia. The paper starts by defining the purpose statement of the research which is to establish on the rate of obesity between US and Saudi Arabia, the causes and how to overcome the disease. Then there is the description of the rationale followed by the literature review. The methodology that will be used in data collection is described and finally the expected outcome and their implications on the study and the children population at large.
Rational The reason for doing this project is to establish the rate of Obesity amongst children in the US and Saudi Arabia. This has since become one of the growing problems that have affected the young people in terms of their lifestyle, health and general social behaviours. The research will evaluate on the causes of obesity and what should be done to prevent its effects on children.
The rationale of this study is to assert on the fact that obese children have social problems. Studies of overweight and obesity in have not been done adequately especially in young people. Studies on the prevailing change occurring amongst overweight and obese children over time are also lacking, hence the need for the research.
Problem Statement The purpose of the project is to do a survey on the prevalence of obesity and the intervention strategies of preventing the disease in children. Children will be considered a priority because, while 50% of the adults are overweight in many countries, it is difficult to control the problem once one is in adulthood stage. The question this research will answer is on how to deal with obesity in children and the necessary preventive measures.
Literature review Obesity is a global problem due to the increase in junk food; luxury devises easy means of transport and stationery jobs. The world health organization predicts that there will be over 2.3 billion overweight adults by 2015 and more than 700 million of them will be obese. In developed countries childhood obesity has reached alarming levels (Dehghan, 2008).
The trend of obesity has been discovered to cut across the whole population and affect people of all age and race. It has been found to have adverse effects on the health of children and is prevalent in developing countries as well as developed countries (Van, 1985). There are several other diseases associated with obesity which include paediatric hypertension and other chronic diseases. According to Al-Hazmi and Warsy (1999), the improvement in economic development has brought about change in eating habits of the Saudi Arabians.
This has mostly affected the children with statistics showing that 27.5% of overweight children are boys and 28% are girls. This was an estimate conducted on children between age 6 and 19 in a survey back in 1996 (Al-Nuaim, Bamgboye, Al-Herbish, 1996; Abahussain, 1999).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Studies have further revealed that almost 25% of the children in the United States are above the normal weight. A good percentage of these children suffer from obesity which have had adverse effects on their social lifestyles. There are certain factors that contribute to this disorder most of which are environmental and cultural.
The increase in number of obese children in the US can also be attributed to poor lifestyles leading to poor choice on food; high intake of sugary foodstuff is also one of the contributing factors. This eventually causes accumulation of fats within the body which sometimes leads to overweight (Abalkhail, 2002: Ghabrah,1997).
The level of obesity in most countries including the US is in the increasing trend. The causes of the disease are almost similar in these countries due to some reasons. Research has revealed that most children in the US are exposed to the consumption of dairy products and carbonated drinks. This leads to accumulation of sugar and fats within the body which consequently causes obesity especially when they are not exposed to vigorous physical exercises.
This is also reflected in the Saudi Arabia study which revealed the same results as lack of physical activities amongst the children. The children are not exposed to walking long distances since they mostly use family cars and at the same time spend a lot of time watching television, playing electronic games and using computers for longer duration (Abalkhail, 2002; Kuczmarski and Flegal, 2000).
Methodology In this research, both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies will be applied. Several methods will be used in qualitative research to gather data; these include the use of case studies, personal experiences amongst the sampled children and their parents and interviews.
Some data will be gathered through historical data and observation. These will help in exploring issues associated with obesity and answer some questions about the phenomenon. Main aim for qualitative research is to measure the degree of socialization amongst obese children and how to control obesity (Yin, 1994). Quantitative research will be used, where by analysis will be based on questionnaires, surveys and experiments.
Stratified random sampling will be used, where children will be surveyed from different schools. Each educational level will be considered depending on the class of population on the selected region. The required number of children will then be collected from each region, after which one group from each level will be chosen at random until the required sample size is full.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Childhood Obesity Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Each sample will strictly consider children with either Saudi Arabia or United States origin (Chabra et al, 1997). The data will be collected through interview by nurses from medical institutions who will use structured questionnaires. The weight of the children and the height will be measured using tape measure, after which the body mass index will be calculated (Must, Dallal, Dietz, 1991). Data entry and analysis will be done using the SPSS, version 12.
Possible outcomes and Implications The results are expected to reflect decrease in weight as age increases for both boys and girls. The height is not expected to change much, however the dominance of obesity was predicted to pose some negative experiences within the society.
The implications of these results will be to reveal the recommended time when treatment for obesity should be administered. Childhood period seem to be the most preferred time since weight loss in adult stage sometimes seems difficult to administer. There are also numerous options available for children interventions as compared to adults’.
The schools can be used as the primary base where a child’s lifestyle should be moulded, this may involve exposure to right kind of diet and vigorous physical exercises. Reduction of obesity in adults seems difficult since it is considered already established and this provides a good reason as to why obesity should be checked at an early stage of life (Abalkhail, 2002).
Reference Abahussain, A., (1999). Nutritional status of adolescent girls in the eastern province Of Saudi Arabia. Nutrition and health, 13,171–7.
Abalkhail, B., (2002).Overweight and obesity among Saudi Arabian children and Adolescents between 1994 and 2000. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 8, 10-40
Al-Hazmi M., Warsy, S., (1999). Relationship between obesity, overweight and Plasma lipid in Saudis. Saudi medical journal, 20, 512–25.
Al-Nuaim, R., Bamgboye, A., Al-Herbish A., (1996). The pattern of growth and Obesity in Saudi Arabian male schoolchildren. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders, 20, 1000–5.
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Meaning of the Color Red Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Color is a mark that gives the expression of anything that is seen by our physical eyes. In the ancient times, color was used to pass a message to the public since this was the only way people could express their identity due to lack of some factors like education. Color means a lot many people. Some colors are used to pass across messages to the public hence making it one of the most important marks in life.
According to me, color plays a great role in displaying my personality. Wearing a fabric that has my favorite color makes me feel complete. Anytime I fail to display my favorite color, I always feel incomplete. Color in general is the outlook of something that conveys a message to the viewers. A particular color can be used to carry across a certain message or have a specific meaning. An example is the red color, which for a long time has been used to symbolize different occurrences in life.
One particular thing that the red color red is associated with is demonstrating emotions. It is for this reason that you find red color used in places like restaurants as it is perceived to motivate and add appetite to people. Red color is also associated with showing affection. People associate red color with love hence the reason why many roses are red. It is also associated with war and therefore you find red color used to simplify the blood shed during times of war. Since human blood is in this color, we can confidently say that red depicts procreation.
In many cultures, red color is really recognized by some people as they believe that red is power. For this reason, they grant their celebrities and VIPs anything red as a symbol of honor. This color also stands for hazard and emergency and therefore you find it used by drivers for stop lights. These red lights bring about awareness and observant to the drivers incase of any danger.
In other cultures, red is used to stand for joy, donate transparency, and merriment. Red color brings about joy and prosperity in various countries like China. The Chinese people therefore put the color in some places to depict good luck. Red is frequently the color for the brides in the East as well as a color for mourners in South Africa.
A red flag was also used by the Russia when overthrowing the Tsar. Because of this, red became associated with socialism. Many countries use color red in their flags as it signifies the blood of the people. According to Christianity, red stands for the blood that was shed by Jesus on the cross in order to receive the peace and salvation they enjoy today.
Conclusion Colors have great significance in the lives of many people. A particular color can be associated with certain things in different parts of the world. One color that has been outstanding is the color red. From love to royalty, the color red is significant to almost each one of us. Although this color has different meanings to different people, one thing that stands out is that the color is used to depict good things in life. Due to this, it has become one of the most popular colors in history.
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Social, Economic and Political Conditions of a Slovak Immigrant Group Change from the 1880’s to the 1930’s Essay scholarship essay help
At the turn of the 19th century, several Slovak and other East European immigrant groups fled their native homelands in Europe to begin a new life in America. “Out of this Furnace” by Thomas Bell, set against the backdrop of the thriving steel mills of Pennsylvania, documents the great social upheavals experienced by one such Slovak family – the Dobrejcaks, across three generations.
Throughout the book’s narrative, the protagonists undergo extreme hardships in eking out a minimal existence in the newly-evolving industrial society shaping up in Pennsylvania and other North-Eastern states. It was not until the 1930’s and the third generation of Dobrejcaks, that they acquired enough grit and determination to fight for justice, and their civil rights.
In this thesis, it will be argued that only by organizing successful trade unions against greedy capitalist steel mill owners, did these immigrant groups truly succeed in their efforts to assimilate into the American way of life. The trials and tribulations experienced by the countless workers at those labor unions, and their families has set the stage for successive immigrant assimilation stories over the decades.
The plot begins with the narrative of Djuro Kracha, a newly-arrived immigrant from Austria Hungary (corresponding to present day Slovakia) who walks all the way from New York to White Haven (after splurging all his train fare money on buying whiskey for a married woman called Zuska whom he fancies). Like other immigrants, Kracha is looking for good fortune and wealth in his adopted homeland. His dreams are clearly evident as:
“Kracha’s story of his walk from New York was a nine days’ wonder. The first time he told it he had Francka watching him, listening to every word, and he was shrewd enough to keep it simple. When he came out of Castle Garden his money was in his pocket; when he reached the ferry house and wanted to pay for his ticket it was gone. Kracha spread his hands. There it was. He had given the problem a lot of thinking without getting anywhere, his manner implied, and now he was prepared to hear their speculations,” (Part 1, Chapter 3, 11).
Kracha soon befriends another Slovak immigrant, Dubik who helps him get over his initial troubles to settle down, and find a job in the burgeoning steel mills of Braddock, Pennyslvania. Dubik finds employment with Andrew Carnegie steel mills. This is where the first generation story about immigrant anguishes commences.
“There are men in that mill who were born here, whose fathers and grandfathers were born here. They know more English than you’ll ever learn. And what good is their vote doing them? They have to work in the mill and eat dirt like any greenhorn. Let me tell you, I’ve been in America enough to know that it’s run just like any other country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Europe your emperors and grand dukes own everything and over here it’s your millionaires and your trusts. They run the country to suit themselves, and don’t think they’re going to let you interfere every few years with your miserable vote. Get that into your head. Your vote means nothing. The company man always wins. If he isn’t a company man to start with, he becomes one afterward; the millionaires see to that.” (Part 1, Chapter 4, 3)
In contrast to Dubik’s constant struggles, Kracha sees some initial success in his adopted homeland and goes on to operate his own butcher shop which helps him earn over a thousand dollars per year. However, as success goes over his head, he again befriends Zuska and continues to lust after her. The immense success and material wealth makes him ignore his responsibilities towards his only wife, Elena who he brought back from Slovakia, but no longer cared for.
“Her poor health, or America, had changed her; Kracha never could decide. He had left her a lively, healthy girl, cheerful as the day was long; now she seldom smiled and went about her.” (Part 1, Chapter 6, 12).
The fact that Elena had developed a goiter-like condition upon arrival in America contributed to the growing alienation between the couple. Rumors of Kracha’s purported affair with Zuska saw several of his customers withdraw their patronage from his shop.
Over a period of time, he becomes terribly depressed with the turn-out of events and drinks himself to death. Zuska, who rose into prominence in Kracha’s life, soon disappears from the scene and it is evident that for the first generation of this fictionalized Slovak immigrant group, their life story is steeped in a constant predicament of failure and frustration.
For the second generation of this immigrant family, the story focuses on Mike Dobrejcak, who marries Mary, the daughter of Krasa and Elena. Unlike his father-in-law, Mike remains faithful to his wife and is shown much more assimilated into American society.
He speaks English fluently, registers as a Republican and fights for political freedom and voting rights on behalf of worker unions who produced the steel that created the Brooklyn bridge, but were usually discouraged from exercising their franchise. In this context, the reader is introduced to the growing discontent experienced by the immigrant class of workers against their employers.
We will write a custom Essay on Social, Economic and Political Conditions of a Slovak Immigrant Group Change from the 1880’s to the 1930’s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The increasing economic disparity and lack of social progress for immigrants was already boiling into a major issue. When the Spanish Influenza struck in 1918, many people in the immigrant slums including Mary Dobrejcak started succumbing to this illness, got removed to a sanatorium and saw their entire lives being ruined, without the greedy steel mill employers caring one bit for their health and livelihoods.
In the last part of the story, George Dobrejcak, the son of Mary, joins an immigrant labor union to agitate for the common rights of all immigrant workers of East European background.
Being a third-generation American, George has enough voice to harshly denounce the ill treatment experienced by his fellow workers at the hands of greedy capitalists. He soon recruits several other labor unionists from his background and eventually, becomes the assistant director of his labor union. George’s feelings on the rising labor union sentiment are expressed as under:
“It was the way you thought and felt about certain things. About freedom of speech and the equality of men and the importance of having one law — the same law — for rich and poor, for the people you liked and the people you didn’t like. About the right of every man to live his life as he thought best, his right to defend it if anyone tried to change it and his right to change it himself if he decided he liked some other way of living better.
About the uses to which wealth and power could honorably be put, and about honor itself, honor, integrity, self-respect, the whatever-you-wanted-to-call-it that determined for a man which things he couldn’t say or do under any circumstances, not for all the money there was, not even to help his side win.” (Part 4, Chapter 3, 20).
In conclusion, it may well be argued that over a period of three generations, the Dobrejcaks managed to successfully assimilate into American society only after they had acquired enough resolve to fight for their social justice, voting and civil rights.
The fictionalized account of their success matters a lot because it can serve as an inspirational tale for hundreds of thousands of newly-arrived immigrants, who currently find themselves at the bottom of the barrel in a “land of opportunity”, while carrying on with aspirations for social progress and upward mobility. Successful assimilation is all about learning to fight for one’s rights.
Works Cited Bell, Thomas. Out of This Furnace: A Novel of Immigrant Labor in America. University of Pittsburgh Press: Pittsburg, PA, 1976.
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The Career of a Physical Therapist Research Paper essay help online free
Introduction Physical therapists are medical experts who handle cases dealing with impairments, disability, immobility, or any other critical change of physical function of the body and healthiness as a result of injury.
Their job include but is not restricted to diagnosis procedures, assessments, evaluations and conducting intervention duties so as to attain the highest functional results for every patient. In their daily work, physical therapists are charged with the responsibility of assisting patients suffering from a multitude of illnesses, and victims of accidents as well.
In 2008, it is estimated that the physical therapist were holding about 185,500 positions in the employment register of the US. Some of the physical therapist worked two or more jobs and that made the job statistic greater than they actually are. Most of the therapies do their job is hospital settings, Offices and other health facilities. The physical therapist assist in relieving pain to patients, enhance mobility of their body, reducing physical disability and re-establishing use (Coppola para. 4).
Through the assistance of a patient’s medical history, a medical therapist is in a position to examine the patient’s strength, posture, coordination, breathing capability, and motor and body balancing function. Plans are the executed in treating patients that have exhibited specific medical conditions.
Thesis Physical therapy is a challenging career that needs greater responsibility and dedication. The therapist often faces challenging situations that test their ability to do the job. For this reason, this paper shall address the career of a physical therapist. The physical therapist usually plan and work to treat physically disabled people of all divides regardless of the source of the problem (Jensen et al1256).
Therapists are further required to offer counseling to these patients and even to their families (Curtis 56). The therapist coordinates the processes of consultation and rehabilitation. This can be one at service groups, clinics and hospitals.
Education and University Training There are several universities across the united states that are offering Physical Therapy degrees. One of the best colleges is the University of Delaware. Basically interested students study a degree in Physical Therapy and then proceed to masters of the same when they want to have more expertise (Curtis 56). A better preparation to become a physical therapist has to begin with deed dedication to the job. Students who wish to become therapists should start their preparation while still in high school.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that they should take course like physics, biology; psychology among other related subjects so that they can use this as a solid foundation for the future career (Curtis 56). The next step here would be to join a university that offers the training in Physical therapy. Students can study an associate degree or a higher degree in this field.
Students that are in such colleges study social sciences, mathematics, physiology, biochemistry, psychology, physics and other courses that ate considered lifesaving. For the degree, the students increase their scope to cover more specialized courses including neuroscience, physiology, metal issues and pathology (Krumhansl 87). Choosing University of Delaware for study is so critical to anyone wanting to study therapy course.
This is because the university has been ranked number four in the country. Here, the students get the best facilities that are at the cutting edge. This means that their education is great and that they have the best quality of research and better facilities (Krumhansl 87). To be better at the job, graduates that have been in the program can then advance to do their masters degrees. Students take part in the study of the intensive care courses and they are also expected to go through an internship program.
From here, students then still have a choice for further specialization in either neurological therapy or musculoskeletal therapy among other needs (Jensen et al 20011258). In order for a student to be granted the license to practice, he/she is first required to have studied medical imaging, kinesiology, as well as to have undertaken professional and physiology course during their internship period. Upon graduation, the candidate could get the license.
The undergraduate take a minimum of four years while the post graduate programs take only about a year and a half. Basically there is no need to relocate because there are online studies but for practical course like Physical Therapy, one needs to attend classes and online is not a better option (Langenberghe 522).
Financing Education The cost of attaining a degree in Physical therapy at the University of Delaware is estimated to be about 9,486 dollars for the in-state tuition fee and 23,186 for the out-of-state. There is some financial aid for some students in Delaware University. The fellowships offer full tuition reimbursement and this is averaged at 14,600 dollar for one academic year (Chilsolm 67). This is for the students in degree programs.
For the post graduate and research assistants, there is a reimbursement of 20,772 dollars for every student’s tuition. Assistants in physical therapy get the same amount as degree students and opportunities for internships. Some important statistics are that the percentage of children that get financial aid is 60% and those on Federal grants are 9% (Chilsolm 2002 67). The average grant that the Federal government gives is 3,704 dollars.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Career of a Physical Therapist specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The percentage of students that get state aid is 9% and the average amount that is often given is 3,334 dollars. The numbers of students that get this are 37%. Loans are also offered to the students and on average, students get a loan of 6,947 dollars and 48% of the students get these loans. More assistance comes in the name of institutional aid and on average the eligible students get 6,947 dollars.
There is a body known as the Physical Therapy association of America which offers financial assistance to physical therapy studies and research in universities. Application is simple as one only needs to enroll for the graduate degree program (Chilsolm 67). Then search for opportunities in their databases. After that, one can sign out for the internships and apply for funding.
Application process can take a lot of time. However, first it is important that a student determines what type of degree she/he wants in the field of physical therapy. Second is to check the geographical region that one would like to live in. this way, one can narrow down program search and even carry out assessment of cost of living while studying (Jensen et al 1258).
Most of the programs in universities will demand a degree. However, master’s degree would be very appropriate at a later stage. It’s very important to ensure that you are clear with many of or all of the requirements. Minimum GPA is usually a 3.0. It is estimated that the cost of living in Delaware at the university ranges from 12,657 to 15,821 dollars.
The tuition fee is usually the same for people living at the campus and those living at home. The differences are mainly on food, accommodation and transport (Langenberghe 522). Living on campus means that students will pay about 9,894 dollar for the accommodation. Those that live outside the campus can get expensive or cheaper house depending on the place they choose to live (Sneed et al 1287). Credit per hour for the students who stay in state is 377 dollars and out of state credit hour is 1,010 dollars.
Conclusion Career Development
Getting a degree in medical courses particularly physical therapy is a great investment. This degree allows people to be experts in this subject area. Traditionally, students who decide to pursue the career have three alternatives to choose from as they advance to doctoral level (Krumhansl 89). One is that they can pursue professional physical therapy, two, to pursue transitional therapy of three, to work on physical therapy.
There are some courses that are very important in therapeutic clinical practice. They include palpations, neuroscience, pathology, diagnostic imaging and clinical anatomy among others (Langenberghe 522). When students complete their studies in the subject and hand over their dissertations which are publishable, then they have fulfilled the procedure of being licensed to practice (Krumhansl 90).
The graduates have to meet the requirements by the association of physical therapist of America. The course presents a good opportunity to venture into medical practice because there are job opportunities readily available for people who study physical therapy (Blau et al 649). As projected by the government of the United States, the need for physical therapists is bound to increase through 2013.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Career of a Physical Therapist by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because the population increases and as a consequence people suffering from physical disability also increase. Notable is the increase in the number of senior member of the society, the baby-boom generation who need therapy for relieve of pain and management of physical problems that in most cases result from heart attacks and strokes (Blau et al 649).
These conditional are increasingly becoming common among older people. Furthermore, it’s been noted that, more babies nowadays are being born with birth defects and the technology today has seen more victims of traumatic conditions survive (Sneed et al 1287).
As a result, this new technology is going to permit increase of debilitating conditions to me managed by specialist in this field (Krumhansl 95). As American become more conscious about their health, the will definitely require more physical therapist and more specialized treatment. Therefore the employment for these experts is expected to increase faster than average growth of the entire medical care needs.
In an effort to do their job, therapists get to move around a lot and seek new pastures. These relocations are often very influencing on their lives.
Though the government encourages people to work with bigger organizations and also to adopt practices that allow work-life balance doctrine, relocation at times is inevitable (Blau et al 652). Workers tend to link relocation with great achievement or career development (Frankl para. 5). This can impact on families in a negative manner. Family responsibilities are affected and its stability shaken.
Parents move away from children and spouses away from each other (Green and Canny Para. 4). Most impact is on school going children because their education is disrupted. Young adults loose friends or financial resources that had already started establishing. For the elderly and their declining health, they can lose friendship networks and this can seriously affect their condition (Green and Canny Para. 4).
Works Cited Blau, Rosemary, et al. (2002). The Experience of Providing Physical Therapy in a Changing Health Care Environment, Phys Ther journal, 82(2002): 648-657.
Chilsolm, Stephanie. The Health Professions: Trends And Opportunities In U.S. Health Care, Sudbury, MA, Jones
‘Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse’ Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The study ‘Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse’ purposed to compare the efficacy of three treatment strategies – the cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), the present-centered therapy (PCT) and the wait-list (WL) – on women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) arising from childhood sexual abuse.
The nature of the problem discussed in the study therefore revolves around developing proper treatment methodologies for victims of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who developed PTSD due to their perceived inadequacies to overcome the trauma related to CSA.
Previous controlled trials had adequately revealed the effectiveness of individual CBT for men exhibiting combat-related PTSD, women with PTSD resulting from rape ordeals, and women exhibiting symptoms of PTSD arising from sexual and nonsexual assaults (McDonagh et al 515).
Previous studies had also demonstrated the efficacy of CBT on men and women with PTSD arising from a multiplicity of traumas. A previous study employing the wait-list (WL) had also provided preliminary verification that WL was effective in imaginal exposure heralded by affect-regulation and interpersonal efficacy skills training on adult females (McDonagh et al 516).
However, in spite of the fact that there exist a wealth of clinical literature on treatment methodologies of victims of sexual abuse, the evidence base concerning the treatment of victims of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) exhibiting symptoms of PTSD is considerably limited.
The current research therefore aimed to add critical knowledge on which treatment methodology, between CBT, PCT, and WL is most effective in the treatment of women with PTSD arising from childhood sexual abuse.
As such, the authors came up with a hypothesis that “…CBT would be more effective than PCT and WL in (a) reducing interviewer-rated PTSD symptoms; (b) reducing self-reported depressive, anxiety, dissociative, and anger symptoms, as well as cognitive distortions; and (c) improving quality of life” (McDonagh et al 516).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The independent variables included: History of childhood sexual abuse, demonstration of some intrusive and avoidance symptoms of PTSD directly related to childhood sexual abuse, gender (women), and demonstration of one comprehensible and detailed memory of childhood sexual abuse.
The dependent variables included: Intensity and frequency of PTSD symptoms, coexisting Axis 1 and Axis 2 disorders, depression, level of disruptions of beliefs about self and others, level of dissociative symptomatology, level of state anxiety, state and trait anger, and quality of life.
Methods According to McDonagh et al “…both the CBT and PCT treatments were operationalized in manuals and conducted in 14 individual sessions, the first 7 of which were 2 hr long, and the final 7 of which were 1.5 hr long” (518).
The longer than 1-hr treatment sessions were intended to provide the interviewers with adequate time to elucidate attenuation of anxiety in participants during exposure sessions. After undergoing a rigorous training exercise, distinct groups of female clinicians were charged with the responsibility of providing CBT and PCT treatments to participants.
All therapy sessions were tape-recorded for later review by an expert in the treatment. The participants assigned to the WL treatment were advised that they could obtain their preference of the two treatment strategies in about 14 weeks after they had successfully completed the post-WL evaluation.
In addition to meeting the compulsory requirements for the independent variables mentioned above, the74 women who were selected to take part in the study had to meet some set standards or criteria, namely: non-current use of medication that have considerable effect to the autonomic nervous system; currently not pregnant; no known cardiovascular condition, free from conditions such as mania, hypomania, severe depression, schizoaffective disorder and other related disorders; free from alcohol or drug abuse; no withdrawal symptoms associated with benzodiazepines, alcohol or drug use three months prior to the consideration for enrollment into the study; absence of active suicidal orientation; and absence of an abusive relationship with an intimate partner (McDonagh 516).
As already mentioned, treatment groups were divided into three – cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), present-centered therapy (PCT), and wait-list (WL).
We will write a custom Research Paper on ‘Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse’ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fundamental components in the treatment procedures for CBT included PE, in vivo exposure and CR, not mentioning that imaginal exposure was commenced in the fourth week of treatment involving attempting to remember the traumatic event with much clarity as possible, recitation of the traumatic event to the clinical therapist in the present tense, and constantly going over the memory until the anxiety or distress subsidized (McDonagh 518).
Psycho-education was also provided to the participants. Treatment protocols for PCT were specifically designed to describe an active therapeutic intervention that could be employed by non-CBT clinicians in the effective treatment of PTSD-CSA. Treatment procedures for WL revolved around the wait-times.
Dependent variables were measure using a wide array of data gathering tools, including: CAPS; SCID; ELS; The Beck Depression Inventory; The Spielberger State-Anxiety Inventory; The Traumatic Stress Institute Beliefs Scale; The Dissociative Experiences Scale; The Cock-Medley Hostility Scale; The State-Trait Anger Expressive Inventory; and The Quality of Life Inventory (McDonagh et al 517).
Results There was a significant dropout rate in the course of the study, standing at 23 percent. Analysis revealed that PTSD severity as measured by CAPS did not vary between CBT dropouts and those who completed the study, but statistically significant variations were reported on all the other psychometric measures.
It is of if importance to note that the CBT dropouts citied high levels of depression, anxiety and low quality life than those who completed the treatments (McDonagh et al 519). In terms of intention-to-treat analysis, 27.6 percent of subjects in CBT, three in ten in PCT, and about 17.4 percent in WL no longer met the standards set for PTSD. Post hoc analysis of the TSI and CAPS demonstrated that participants in CBT and PCT improved considerably when compared to those in WL.
A follow-up analysis taken three months after treatment demonstrated that 82.4 percent of subjects enrolled in CBT and 42.1 percent enrolled in PCT no longer met standards for PTSD, implying that had developed adequate coping and problem-solving strategies to deal with their distress. At 6-month follow-up, just above three-quarters (76.5 percent) of subjects in CBT and 42.1% in PCT no longer met the criteria for PTSD.
McDonagh and colleagues also found out that “…on measures of anxiety, depression, dissociation, anger, hostility, and cognitive distortions, CBT was comparable with PCT at all post-therapy assessments” (519).
Discussion The researchers’ hypothesis that CBT would be more effective than both PCT and WL received consistent support across the various measures employed to evaluate posttraumatic and related symptomatology.
Not sure if you can write a paper on ‘Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse’ by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the findings came up with new knowledge that PCT is consistently more effective in treating PTSD than WL when measured using the scales explained above. According to McDonagh et al, “…both treatments resulted in marked improvements in PTSD symptom severity, state anxiety, and trauma-related cognitive schemas, all of which showed little change for the WL participants” (520).
It should be noted that both CBT and PCT never proved their superiority over WL in terms of curtailing symptoms of depression, dissociation, aggression, anger, and enhancing the quality of life. All in all, a conclusion can be made that CBT has a considerable positive impact on the treatment of PTSD symptoms for adult female victims of CSA, but the high dropout rate in CBT brings in another dimension that women were more unwilling to complete CBT than other treatment procedures.
The study also adds to our current knowledge by demonstrating that the effectiveness and tolerability of PCT, which utilizes education on the impact of trauma and facilitation of learning skills to enhance social coping strategies, may be an effective non-CBT strategy towards the treatment of PTSD that is largely viewed to be secondary to CSA (McDonagh et al 522). The study was decisively limited by the considerable dropouts especially in CBT
Personal Reflection The study utilized scientific procedures to reach a conclusion that CBT was still the treatment of choice for PTSD symptoms related to CSA. However, it must be noted that PCT demonstrated remarkable results in the treatment of PTSD symptoms secondary to CSA and, thus, it should be included in conventional treatment methodologies for PTSD. By and large, the methodologies adopted for the study were able to adequately test the initial hypothesis.
However, it must be said that the researchers employed many measurement procedures that are likely to confuse readers. It is my personal belief that the consistent findings could be achieved through the employment of a few standardized measures. However, future research is needed to demonstrate why many women survivors of CSA opt out of CBT and instead prefer PCT.
Works Cited McDonagh, A., McHugo, G., Sengupta, A., Demment, C.C., Schnurr, P.P., Friedman, M., Ford J., Mueser, K., Fournier, D.,
Consumer Spending and Savings Analytical Essay cheap essay help
Introduction Trade involves the supply of goods and services. For trade to be facilitated there must be a supply and a demand of goods and services. The amount of resources that individual and firms are willing and are able to commit in buying of goods and services produced in the economy are called consumer consumption.
It takes two angles, from a micro economics point where there is consideration of individuals and firms and from a macro economics when the entire society is considered. The remains after consumption is the saving that an economy, individuals, or firms will save (Carrick 33). This paper analyses the effects that tax cut can have on consumption and investment.
Consumption V/S Savings The amount of income that a consumer gets at one particular point can be put in different use. It can be consumed or it can be saved. Income is the total amount of resources that individuals get. It is a product of all earnings. The following equation shows the elements of income (I);
I = savings(S) consumptions (C)
I = S C
Savings are utilized in various ways with the most common one being for investing in various projects of the economy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Savings (S) = Investments (I)
At constant income, if consumption increases, then savings will reduce and the rate of investments in the country will reduce. On the other hand, if consumption decreases, there is an increase in investments.
When an income of individual or firm increases, the effect on investment is dependent on the marginal rate to consume; if an increase leads to a proportionate increase in consumption, then the effect is the same to investment (Mishkin 12)
The diagram below show the connection between saving rate and consumer spending
Factors affecting consumer consumption There are different factors which affect the rate of consumption of an individual or firms; they include taxation, government expenditure, state of the economy and future expectations of the individual or firm.
The following table shows the rate of expenditure between 2005 and 2008, in United States;
We will write a custom Essay on Consumer Spending and Savings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rate of change
Item 2005 2006 2007 Annual expenditures……………………………………………….. $46,409 $48,398 $49,638 2.6 Food …………………………………………………………………… 5,931 6,111 6,133 0.4 At home 3,297 3,417 3,465 1.4 Cereals and bakery products………………………………. 445 446 460 3.1 Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs……………………………… 764 797 777 -2.5 Dairy products ………………………………………………….. 378 368 387 5.2 Fruits and vegetables ………………………………………… 552 592 600 1.4 Other food at home……………………………………………. 1,158 1,212 1,241 2.4 Away from home…………………………………………………. 2,634 2,694 2,668 -1.0 Alcoholic beverages………………………………………………. 426 497 457 -8.0 Housing ………………………………………………………………. 15,167 16,366 16,920 3.4 Shelter ………………………………………………………………. 8,805 9,673 10,023 3.6 Utilities, fuels, and public services…………………………. 3,183 3,397 3,477 2.4 Household operations………………………………………….. 801 948 984 3.8 Housekeeping supplies ……………………………………….. 611 640 639 -0.2 House furnishings and equipment…………………………. 1,767 1708 1,797 5.2 Apparel and services …………………………………………….. 1,886 1,874 1,881 0.4 Transportation………………………………………………………. 8,344 8,508 8,758 2.9 Vehicle purchases (net outlay) ……………………………… 3,544 3,421 3,244 -5.2 Gasoline and motor oil…………………………………………. 2,013 2,227 2,384 7.0 Other vehicle expenses……………………………………….. 2,339 2,355 2,592 10.1 Public transportation……………………………………………. 448 505 538 6.5 Health care ………………………………………………………….. 2,664 2,766 2,853 3.1 Entertainment ………………………………………………………. 2,388 2,376 2,698 13.6 Personal care products and services ………………………. 541 585 588 0.5 Reading ………………………………………………………………. 126 117 118 0.9 Education…………………………………………………………….. 940 888 945 6.4 Tobacco products and smoking supplies………………….. 319 327 323 -1.2 Miscellaneous………………………………………………………. 808 846 808 -4.5 Cash contributions………………………………………………… 1,663 1,869 1,821 -2.6 Personal insurance and pensions …………………………… 5,204 5,270 5,336 1.3 Life and other personal insurance …………………………. 381 322 309 -4.0 Pensions and Social Security…………. 4,823 4,948 5,027 1.6 Table from https://www.bls.gov/cex/twoyear/200607/csxtable1.pdf
The valuation is as a result of: Taxation
The government gets the greatest percentage of its income from taxes paid by tax payers in a certain country. Taxation is a policy whereby citizens or residents of a country contribute money for social services to the government through a well coordinated taxation policy.
Taxation affects the consumption rate of an individual as well as firms. During campaigns of 2008, Senator John McCain’s promised to reduce taxes as a way of reviving the economy but one wonders how the economy will grow if the government has no money. No one likes paying of taxes, however it is an evil that we have to live with (Straczynski 22).
Different countries adopt different taxation policies, however tax cut take the same route; it can result from raising the minimum amount that is taxable in an economy, reducing the percentage of taxation or even eliminating the entire amount of taxes. Some countries offer tax credits and remission to areas that they would like to give this percentage.
There are some cuts which are meant to cut across the entire economy and some are on a specific industry. Whichever the method, the end result is a reduced tax payable from the trader, individual or company. Governments play an important role in controlling how their country’s economy fair. In a broader perspective, they use monetary and fiscal policies for contraction or expansion reasons.
When regulations are made, they may hurt or benefit the economy in short term and long term. Tax cut is an expansionary fiscal policy adopted with the aim of reviving an economy.
Tax Cuts in the Past
There has been three times that tax cuts have been implemented by the government to facilitate economic growth, in all the phrases there has been success. In 1920’s, there was the Harding/Coolidge cuts, then in 1960’s there was president Kennedy cuts and the Reagan cuts of the 1980s. All the three cuts have proved to be successful. They have followed the same trends that facilitated revival of economies by ensuring that people are given a reason to invest and spend in their economy.
Effects of Tax Cuts
In cases of a tax cut, then the people will have more funds to use, their disposable income will increase. Disposable income increase means an increased consumption. In the recession period, consumption in the economy leads to an aggregate demand of goods and services. Spending will induce money in the economy, which in turn will affect the economy positively.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer Spending and Savings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If expenditure is facilitated, then chances of recovery are higher. Businesses on the other hand will have adequate resources for business expenditure (in terms of investments). In all economies personal Consumption Expenditures, account for the largest amount of government revenue; thus when facilitated it is likely to lead to a quicker recovery from recession.
Local Investments and Foreign Direct Investments
One of the hindrances of foreign investments is high taxes especially if the company is a foreign company. If taxes rates are reduced, then investors will be attracted by the favorable tax t-rates and invest in the economy. Investments increase the rate of country development, there is an increased employment, a larger tax net is created and increased consumer choices.
Local investors are also to benefit from tax cuts since they will feel attracted to invest in their own economy since the taxes they are paying is manageable. The overall will be an economy that can meet its own demands in terms of employment, products and services.
The world is undergoing an era of globalization where different countries are involved in trade among each other. As economies expand and trade with each other with assistance of improved technology, the world is becoming a global village. Economies are joining efforts to develop an economic, political or/and social block as they prepare to play a role in the global environment.
When trading a country with a comparative advantage is likely to dominate the market since it is able to produce more goods at relatively low prices. When calculating the cost of production, there are fixed cost and variable costs. This will set the price that the commodity will be sold whether in the national or international market. When tax rates are reduced, then the cost of these products are reduced; they can then compete more favorably than the same good from countries which has no tax cuts.
Negative Effects of Tax Cuts
Government use taxation money to finance its projects; if the finances are reduced, then priority areas will be undertaken first. One of the areas that are likely to suffer is government participation in businesses directly. This is likely to come in terms of privatization as they fetch for money to finance deficit created by reduced taxes or it may be through not involving in trade. When it sells public companies to individuals, then there is a facilitated competition (Ludvigson 45).
Taxation is a macroeconomic tool that is utilized by the government to ensure that its controls the economy. It gives the government revenue to invest in different sectors of the economy and provide social amenities. When making a decision of whether there should be a tax cut or not, the government should analyze the conditions of the situation. When tax cuts are administered, there is an increased spending in the economy and the resultant will be facilitated trade which on the other hand leads to larger tax base.
In my opinion, tax cuts can revive an economy however its effectiveness and efficiency is only in the short term. They also need to be implemented timely since there are times that they can yield good results (Wilcox 21). There are times that they can injure an economy and make it worse.
Conclusion The amount of resources that individual and firms are willing and are able to commit in buying of goods and services produced in the economy are called consumer consumption. It takes two angles, from a micro economics point where there is consideration of individuals and firms and from a macro economics when the entire society is considered. Consumer consumption affects savings and investments in a country. Tax cuts can benefit an economy however it can also injure it.
Works Cited Anon. Average annual expenditures of all consumer units and percent changes, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2005–07. Web.
Carrick, James. “Consumer Spending Review.” Credit Control 29.1 (2008): 48. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web.
Lahart, Justin. Consumer Spending Grows Modestly. Aug. 31 2010. Web.
Ludvigson, Sydney C. “Consumer Confidence and Consumer Spending.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 18.2 (2004): 29-50. EconLit with Full Text. EBSCO. Web.
Mishkin, Frederic S. “Consumer Sentiment and Spending on Durable Goods.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1 (1978): 217-232. Business Source Complete. EBSCO. Web.
Straczynski, Stacy. “Consumer Spending Jumps 1.3 Percent in Aug.” Sales
Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism by Weber Compare and Contrast Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Anthropologists make attempts to establish the relationships between cultural and economical sides of the life of the society, deciding between the materialistic and spiritualistic approaches or trying to integrate both of them. Weber’s theory of religious beliefs as the basis for the division of labor forces in capitalistic society can coexist with Malinowski’s and Lewi’s views but is opposed by Geertz who put emphasis on culture.
The key issue of Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism by Weber is the definition of the primary principles of capitalism and the prioritized values of people living in a capitalistic society. Defining the leading principle of capitalism, he notes that “man is dominated by the making of money, by acquisition as the ultimate purpose of his life” (Weber 53).
The researcher is aimed at establishing the relationships between the individual’s motivation for working, the principles of division of labor forces and materialistic values in the society and the level of its cultural development.
Considering the religious beliefs as an integral element of culture having a significant impact on people’s decision making, Weber finds the rational explanation for prioritizing the materialistic values in the principles of the asceticism. Not limiting the concept of capitalistic culture to the economical structure of the society, Weber attempts to evaluate the influence of the religious beliefs on the citizens’ obedience to the existing economical laws.
The anthropologist analyzes the protestant principle of calling as the main argument for faithful labor at low wages for the lowest strata that have no other opportunities. “The capitalism of to-day, which has come to dominate economic life, educates and selects the economic subjects which it needs through a process of economic survival of the fittest” (Weber 55).
On the one hand, Weber points at the utilitarian nature of humans and their passion for acquisition of the material values, underestimating the importance of culture. On the other hand, he analyzes the evolution of the Christian beliefs and considers faithful calling to be the prototype for the division of labor forces in the contemporary capitalistic society.
“One of the fundamental elements of the spirit of modern capitalism, and not only of that but of all modern culture: rational conduct on the basis of the idea of the calling, was born … from the spirit of Christian asceticism” (Weber 180). Despite all his assertions as to the place of culture and religion in the system of beliefs, in the final conclusion part of his work Weber denies the effectiveness of one-sided interpretation of history from materialistic or spiritualistic perspective, considering the complex character of the issue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The anthropologists Malinowski, Levi and Geertz shed light upon the main principles of the development of the society, drawing the parallels between the present day beliefs and culture of primitive tribes, ancient myths and contemporary science. For instance, researching the social code of Kula population, Malinowski contrasts their preferences and beliefs of capitalistic society.
At the same time, evaluating the place of materialistic values in the system of beliefs of the tribe, the researcher establishes the relationship between the property and the social status because for Kula people “to possess is to be great, and that wealth is indispensable appanage of social rank and attribute of personal virtue (Malinowski 103).
Describing the competition of generosity among the richest members of the tribe, Malinowski still points at the significance of economical acquisition of the population as the marker of their position in the society and corresponding obligations.
Analyzing the common features of the myths structure, Levi uses their content as the basis for interpreting the principle of the division of labor forces in present day society. “The problem often regarded as insoluble, vanishes when it is shown that the clowns-gluttons who may with impunity make excessive use of agricultural products – have the same function in relation to food production as the war-gods” (Levi 223).
Similar to Weber’s analysis of the Christian beliefs, Levi finds the roots for the present day social injustice in ancient myths, explaining the inequality of various strata of population and other social phenomena with the gods’ will. As opposed to all the previous researchers, Geertz focuses his studies on the concept of culture, giving preference to the spiritualistic interpretation of the life of the society. Altering the traditional definition of culture, he points at its significance and impact on other spheres.
Geertz develops Weber’s theory of a man as an animal in the significance webs which he/she creates “I take culture to be those webs, and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretive one in search of meaning” (Geertz 6). Thus, the views of Malinowski and Levi do not contradict Weber’s theory and can coexist, while Geertz shifts emphasis to culture as the significant element of the life of society.
Drawing the parallels between the system of beliefs and the organization of society, anthropologists try to make understanding of social phenomena and people’s consciousness more comprehensive. Weber, Malinowski, Levi and Geertz used the definition of the concept of culture as the basis for explaining the main principle of division of labor forces.
We will write a custom Essay on Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism by Weber specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books Publishers, 1973. Print
Levi-Strauss, Claude. Structural Anthropology. Trans. Claire Jacobson and Brooke Schoepf. New York: Basic Books Publishers, 1963. Print.
Malinowski, Bronislav. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York: Routledge. 1932. Print.
Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Trans. Talcott Parsons. New York: Routledge. 1992. Print.
Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
For more than fifty days, FBI agents were stationed outside Mount Carmel Center, the headquarters of the religious cult called the Branch Davidians.
They were waiting for the group’s charismatic leader David Koresh to stand down and order his followers to lay down their arms and surrender to the overwhelming force that has surrounded their compound. But as time breached the deadline set by the FBI, David Koresh and his followers were intent to wait out to be certain that what they are going to do next is in line with prophetic utterances made a few years earlier.
They were willing to wait for divine instructions but the federal government and the FBI who did not understand the worldview of the Branch Davidians and therefore they could not wait any longer and they believed that they were justified to use force. If only they knew the aftermath of the assault they would have made a different decision.
Background A historical background is needed to at least make sense of the numerous and sometimes conflicting accounts of what really happened in the aftermath of the final attack on Mount Carmel center in April 19, 1993. It has to be pointed out that this group did not come out of nowhere; in fact, the origin of the Branch Davidians can help explain why Koresh was able to hold sway over a group of people and ultimately led many of them to their death.
This group came from a splinter sect that broke away from a Christian denomination known all over the world as the Seventh-Day Adventist Church (SDA). The SDA is known for “…their belief in the imminent return of Jesus Christ to earth, for their special vegetarian dietary restrictions and for their retention of Saturday as their Sabbath.” Those who are aware of the practices of the SDA can ascertain that the Branch Davidians came from the SDA.
This does not mean that the SDA is responsible for what happened at Waco but at least it provides a backdrop that will help understand how and why the splinter group used some of the ideas and doctrines they had at SDA and shaped it into their own.
Nevertheless, it can also be said that these two groups were linked by: “…historical roots, the origins of their members, their name, their identity, and their apocalyptic preoccupations, idiom, and paranoias.” Once again it must be reiterated that the SDA is not responsible for creating the Waco debacle and yet it is also clear that David Koresh learned much from them, especially when it comes to their strong interests with regards to apocalyptic events.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The breakaway sect was founded by a man named Victor Houteff who was an SDA member since 1919. But after more or less ten years of membership Houteff began to express his disappointment with the errors he found in the doctrines of SDA and so he wrote a book entitled The Shepherd’s Rod in 1930. But more than that Houteff believed that he was a messenger sent by God and in 1935 he founded the Mount Carmel center, the same facility that would figure prominently in news headlines fifty years later.
Houteff called his group the Davidian Sevent-Day Adventist and after World War II he began to recruit members outside the United States. But in 1955 he died and soon after his wife took over the vacant leadership position and she made a prophecy that the world will end on April 22, 1959. When the supposedly dreadful day came and nothing happened many members began to desert the group.
The organization almost disintegrated due to the failure of the prophecy but a man named Benjamin Roden assumed control of the group and he renamed it the General Association of Davidian Seventh-Day Adventists. After his death his wife Lois and son George took over.
The year 1981 was a significant year for the group because during this time a man named Vernon Howell joined the group; he was 21 years old and he became the group’s handyman. Three years later Vernon Howell married the daughter of a prominent member of the community, her name was Rachel Jones and a power struggle ensued between George Roden and Howell. But Vernon Howell came out on top and in 1985 he spearheaded a drive to recruit members abroad.
The strategy that he used to recruit was interesting because he targeted former SDA members who were disgruntled with the SDA. Nevertheless, Howell achieved success in this regard especially when he went to the United Kingdom. He was able to convince a number of British citizens to come and join him. In the aftermath of the final raid it was discovered that thirty-three out of the eighty two followers who died at Waco, Texas were British.
The recruitment plan was not only limited to England but was also aimed at Canada and Australia, after a successful round of recruitment the membership of the Branch Davidians can be said to be multi-racial ad multi-ethnic of whom 45 were black.
It was also during this time that Vernon Howell decided to change his name so that he will be known henceforth as David Koresh. He had his name legally changed and submitted a court document that explains that the purpose for dong so was “for publicity and business purposes.”
We will write a custom Research Paper on Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The group was know known as the Students of the Seven Seals and correctly interpreted as students of the scroll protected by the seven seals. The name Branch Davidians was not an official name that the group adopted but it was what the Waco Tribune-Herald used extensively to refer to them.
Aside from going to different countries to look for new members Koresh also traveled to the land of Israel in 1985 and this experience added another dimension to the group. According to some experts there is a phenomenon called the Jerusalem Syndrome that sometimes develops after a pilgrimage in the holy city. A year after his visit, Koresh began to refer to himself as the “Sinful Messiah.”
It is easy to generalize the whole group based on the thought pattern, activities, achievements and the declarations made by their leader. From an outsider’s point of view Koresh has no value as far as the normal standard of what constitutes a productive citizen is concern. He has no real job, he was no entrepreneur and he was not a professional. Thus, it is easy to conclude that his members came from the same mould. As one reporter had insinuated during the crisis and wrote the following:
Cults such as the Branch Davidians attracted the lonely, the lost, the unloved and the naïve. Their members came from all over but had at least one thing in common: they were alienated from modern society and were searching for a replacement. Many were society’s losers with nowhere else to go. Others sought spiritual salvation and believed they would discover it by joining a cult. A few, like George Roden, were simply mad.
This sweeping statement cannot be used to describe every member of the Branch Davidians. There are those whom one can consider to be of good standing in the community and men of great achievement, for example Wayne Martin, one of the followers of Koresh was a Harvard-trained lawyer while Steve Schneider the group’s spokesperson had a master’s degree from the University of Hawaii and Livingstone Fagan had a degree from the Manchester Metropolitan University and at the same time a trained Seventh-day Adventist pastor.
Understanding Davidian Theology No one outside the Branch Davidian cult can clearly explain what David Koresh was trying to say – his prophecies as well as his declarations. He clearly had his own system of interpretation. Nevertheless, it is important to try to understand what he said in order to determine if FBI and the ATF were justified in storming the gates so to speak that resulted not only in the death of Koresh but dozens of members including women and children.
The type of Biblical study that Koresh seem to be passionate about is referred to as apocalyptic. In the last few years of his life Koresh was obsessed with the Book of Revelation the last book of the Christian bible and it was believed to be written by the Apostle John.
In this book there is an important section that deals with a scroll or book with seven seals and the person who can break the seal is the one who will be able to read and understand these books and the fact that they are sealed means it is of utmost importance. However, the bible says that no one was able to break the seal.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As one reads this particular passage in the Book of Revelation one can feel a sense of urgency and suspense not knowing what will happen next. But this feeling quickly passes because in just a few verses the One who is able to break the seal was revealed and he is none other than the Lamb.
In the case of the members of the Davidian cult there is no need to ask who is the Lamb and there is no need to experience an acute sense of anticipation for his coming because they knew who the Lamb is and who can open the seal. He is not a spiritual being but made of flesh. He is human and he is none other than their beloved leader – David Koresh. But Christians all over the world will sneer at this remark because they will also argue that the Lamb is none other than Christ.
The Old Testament of the Christian Bible repeatedly discussed the need to offer a sacrificial lamb for the sins of the people. This was ingrained into mainstream culture after the release of movies like the Ten Commandments wherein one can see the blood of the lamb painted on doorposts and the consumption of a roasted lamb as a means to preserve the Hebrew slaves from impending doom. This act and this symbolism were easily understood as a sacrifice that is acceptable to God.
In the New Testament of the Christian Bible the prophet John the Baptist pointed to Jesus and said that he is the lamb of God that will take away the sin of the world. In other numerous instances in the New Testament one can also the reference to Jesus Christ as the lamb of God.
It is therefore puzzling why Koresh would claim to be the Lamb of God. But the moment he was convinced that he is indeed the One who can break the seals as mentioned in the Book of Revelations and the moment that he had followers who believed in what he said then the sky was the limit in terms of what he thinks can be done through his actions. The following is an excerpt that Koresh gave in an interview with a reporter from Time magazine and he made the following assertions:
I offer to you my wisdom, I offer to you my sealed secrets. How dare you turn away? My invitations of mercy … Who are you fighting against? The law is mine, the truth is mine … I am your God and you will bow under my feet … I am your life and your death. I am the Spirit of the prophets and the author of their testimonies. Look and see, you folls, you will not proceed much further. Do you think you have power to stop my will? … My seven thunders are to be revealed … Do you want me to laugh at your pending torments?
Do you want me to pull the heavens back and show you my anger? … Fear me, for I have you in my snare … I forewarn you, the Lake Waco area of Old Mount Carmel will be terribly shaken. The waters of the lake will be emptied through the broken dam.
Even the most objective assessment of Koresh’ words will lead to the conclusion that this man needed help because he believed that he is equal to God. At the same time he needed to check himself into a mental facility because he does not only deluded into thinking that he is God but he also believes that he has the power to destroy the Lake Waco Area referring to the water that comes from a nearby dam and therefore hinting at the destruction of this facility.
It is not only the message of doom that forced the federal government and the people surrounding the siege to act quickly, without a doubt their actions were influenced by how the Waco Tribune-Herald portrayed Koresh as the archetypal cult leader, “a man whose hold over his followers was complete, to the point of his being able, if he so wised, to order them to commit suicide” and therefore the need to stop this madmen from leading people to their untimely deaths.
For those who stand in the foundation laid by the U.S. Constitution, specifically the First Amendment there is nothing wrong with what Koresh was babbling about. Even if Koresh believed himself to be the devil the federal government cannot and should not curtain his freedom to express himself and the kind of religion that he will adhere to.
It is therefore important to stress that the federal government agents who stormed Mount Carmel Center did not breached the facility because they were not in agreement with the Branch Davidians’ rhetoric but they did so on the other grounds. It is therefore crucial to take note of the fact that the agents wanted to arrest Koresh because of the legality of some of his actions.
The First Attempt On February 28, 1993 a seventy-six strong and heavily armed ATF agents were in an eighty vehicle convoy going to Mount Carmel center just outside Waco, Texas. For the past several months ATF acted on a tip that the Branch Davidians were purchasing illegal firearms materials and this was allegedly for the purpose of converting AR-15 semiautomatic rifles into machine guns.
This was not allowed according to the law because the Branch Davidians were supposed to report this to the government and they had to pay the required fees and since they did not, ATF was obliged to get them and force them to pay for their offenses. If only they knew what was in store for them the ATF may have reconsidered their decision to play hardball with the Branch Davidians.
The ATF agents carried with them a search and arrest warrant. They also brought with them two cattle trailers pulled by pickup trucks and these two were filled with ATF assault forces and these were driven quickly in front of the headquarters of the Branch Davidians to unload its cargo of lethal force while at the same time two black hawk helicopters came out of nowhere possibly as a means to intimidate the inhabitants to surrender to the authorities. All of these can be ascertained but what soon followed was disputed by both sides.
According to David Koresh he shouted at the incoming ATF agents that there were women and children inside the building and so he told them to get back for he was ready to negotiate but he added that the ATF agents replied with burst of gunfire.
His assertion was strengthened by a 911 call asking the authorities to stop the violence. The ATF agents on the other hand said that they identified themselves and shouted to Koresh that they had a warrant but all of a sudden they were cut off by a hail of bullets and the reason why they had to fire back. It was a bloody initial attack.
When the sound of crackling gunfire was over in the said initial attack four federal law enforcement agents were killed by the Branch Davidians. Six Branch Davidians members were killed by the agents. In just a matter of hours the whole thing was transferred to the hands of the FBI. There were negotiations made and Koresh released ten children.
The Media The Waco Tribune-Herald played an important role in the debacle because before the first raid by the Bureau of Alcohol and Tobacco and Firearms the Waco Tribune-Herald already had an idea that such an assault will be made and who was the target of the raid. As a result on February 27 a day before the ATF tried to serve the warrant to search and seized evidence of illegal activities, the Waco Tribune-Herald released a report entitled The Sinful Messiah.
In the said report the Branch Davidian was reduced to nothing but a scary cult where the leader is an expert in brainwashing and has managed to control the members to follow him blindly. In other words the Waco Tribune-Herald had a hand in demonizing the obscure sect and propelled them to world prominence.
Aside from that the Waco Tribune-Herald released details that painted an image of David Koresh as a sex pervert who seemed to have his own harem – a collection of wives who were still married to his followers and if this was not enough according to the report Koresh had the propensity to have sexual intercourse with girls as young as 12 years old.
This means that if proven true Koresh is not only stockpiling illegal firearms but also guilty of statutory rape. However, the evidence is still sketchy with regards to this part of the Branch Davidians’ story.
It can also be said that the Waco Tribune-Herald helped create a scenario that made it extremely difficult for the FBI and ATF agents to sit idly while Koresh continued with his propaganda regarding his belief that he is the messiah and that the end of the world is near.
This is because after the initial attack CNN broadcasted all over the world images of dead ATF agents being retrieved while the agents of the federal government seemed in retreat. For example there were footages and images were played over and over again on TV screens around the globe.
It could have been a simple hostage negotiations but it is no longer possible to simply talk to David Koresh and his men because now they have to answer to the deaths of the agents in the first raid.
On the other hand the Branch Davidians were an obscure sect before this incident and after their headquarters was seen on TV the group achieved a level of notoriety that made their name synonymous to religious fanaticism while at the same time earned sympathies from those who see the government as an intrusive entity that will try to bend the law with regards to the First Amendment.
The Government The Federal Government was drawn into the destructive saga because of the belief that the government is supposed to enforce rules but it turned out that the government was not helping the situation. It was the height of irony that the Federal Government will act as fire accelerant to the flame because their presence convinced Branch Davidians that biblical prophecies was about to come to pass.
The more that the FBI tried to end the siege by force the more that they gave ammunition to David Koresh without knowing it. The government had a narrow perspective with regards to the Branch Davidian problem. For the FBI negotiators Koresh and his men could not talk about anything of substance and so their frustration increases every passing day. The Branch Davidians on other hand went deeper into their paranoia that what they feared was about to come to pass.
On the other side of the fence the FBI agents were also convinced that this paramilitary group is just doing everything in their power to elude capture and therefore the government has to act quickly. They approach the situation from a legal point of view and by being legalistic about it they could not figure out anything except to use their hostage and rescue team and other specialists to end the crisis using tools of warfare and other tactics.
The FBI negotiators did their part by connecting a private line between them and the Mount Carmel Center and through this line they were able to talk to Koresh or his spokesperson a man named Schneider. In one report submitted to the Department of Justice authorities said that Koresh would often go into a two or three hour monologue. This means that it was increasingly difficult for the FBI negotiators to influence Koresh to think about surrender.
Hostage/Barricade After the immense blunder of the initial attack the Federal Bureau of Investigation were called to take over and they did. The firs thing that they had to do was to assess the situation and then formulate the right strategy to end the crisis.
One of the first things that they had to do was to label the problem correctly and it has to be pointed out that in this case the FBI could not find the exact terminology to indicate what they are trying to deal with and therefore they came up with an awkward name for it and they said that it is a kind of a hostage situation. However, the people inside the building could not be said to have been taken against their will.
The FBI had to reassess their initial description of the situation and so someone said that it is a hybrid between a barricade and a hostage situation. If it is a barricade then the agents had no choice but to wait it out until the group surrenders out of exhaustion there would be no justification for storming in. But if it is a hostage situation and the agents feel that the hostage taker is going to harm the lives of the people then they have all the reasons needed to enter in using force.
The Aftermath It was time for the second raid and this time around agents from the federal government made sure that all bases were covered. Armored vehicles punched holes into the walls and gas canisters were thrown inside the building and in the aftermath this is what can be seen: “…the compound was burnt to the ground and at least 75 sect members, including Koresh and 25 children under 15 years of age were killed.”
The bloody end was once again broadcasted to the whole world and while there was a strong condemnation against a religious cult leader who allegedly abused his members, the result of the attack and the death of the children earned them sympathy. It did not take long before the word wanted to know why if the federal government did everything in its power to resolve the crisis without having to destroy the lives of the innocents.
The images of the burning building and the death of the children created a wave of protest from those who suddenly saw the contrast between the story that they heard on the news and the actual event. Surely the group can be considered as communal religious sect that may have subscribed to bizarre practices and yet there is no reason why their lives must end this way.
The red flames covered the building and no one knows what to do with the children trapped inside. This is perhaps the reason why the U.S. Constitution and the founders of this nation inserted the First Amendment; they must have known that someday people will be killed for their beliefs.
The First Amendment The debacle at Waco presented to the world a unique case where religious freedom and the right to bear arms converged in the life of one group the Branch Davidians. It was a curious case because most of the time the world has to deal with religious freedom, the right to worship and the right to choose ones religion without interference from the government.
However, there is an added element because this group did not only struggle for religious expression like the Old Order Amish or the Mennonites but this group also tried to make a point about their right to bear arms.
From another perspective one can see that the Branch Davidians wanted to be left alone to pursue what they believe is the only way to lead their lives. If other religions are allowed to do so then why is it that the federal government had a different outlook when it came to David Koresh and his followers?
It can be said that the Old Order Amish of Iowa and other similar groups exerclised the same right and no one bothered them. The existence of the Amish people is a celebration of the First Amendment and it is a testament to the power of the Constitution to create a diverse society without its citizens destroying themselves to create a much simpler society.
This has been at the forefront of the Branch Davidian fiasco, was the federal government intent on wiping out a religion that would not conform to a more acceptable type of belief system? According to the Religious Studies Professor Rowland A. Sherrill: “Let’s not beat around the bush: Our first response to people who are religious in ways other than we are is to be irritated.”
He added that common views regarding religious people are that they are intolerant; that heaven is for a select few; and that they have a blind adherent to their religion that can be a source of annoyance or dread.
The Waco Tribune-Herald, the government, and the people living within that particular community labeled them as a cult and there is no need to expound on the fact that this term carries with it a load of meaning that can surely illicit a negative response. This added to controversial image of the group.
Others however contend that the use of the term cult can be easily abused or misused. Political scientists like Michael Barkun contends, however, that the term cult, “has become virtually meaningless, little more than a label slapped on religious groups regarded as too exotic, marginal or dangerous”, in the same way that English settlers used the label barbarian and applied it to the Native Americans of this country.
This is the question when it comes to the Branch Davidians, do they have the right to worship freely and even further, do they have the right to bear arms?
It is clear in the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that an American citizen has the right to own a weapon. The only question is what kind and how many?
This is an issue that is not easy to resolve and it is evidenced by the number of books, articles, TV ads and speeches made because of the need to create a common ground – gun rights advocate are asking for more while those who had an aversion for gun toting citizens are asking for greater limits. One of their most popular supporters is actor Charlton Heston who spoke out in their behalf and said:
Just about everything I hope is good about me – who I am, what I’ve tried to do – can be traced back to those smoking muskets and the radical declaration of independence by those ragtag rebels. Wearing threadbare coats and marching on bleeding feet, they defeated the finest army in the century, and they gave the world hope. Within them flowed an undertow of personal freedom, a relentless sense of what is right, so irresistibly strong they simply could not resist.
The fears of those who cry for gun control is repeatedly justified every year after news of indiscriminate shootings and the deaths of many due to firearms. The Waco, Texas incident was no exception.
On the other hand gun rights advocates made clear their own set of fears. It is not only their fear of being mugged and assaulted without the ability to defend themselves but also their fear of the government. There are those who said however, that this right and this talk of freedom from the First Amendment to the Second Amendment have been blown out of proportion.
There are those who even contend that these ideals were taken from the militia myth created after the success of the American Revolution. In other words there is no need to form a private army in this day and age but many cling stubbornly to the idea that they must be prepared at all times to defend themselves not only against intruders but a powerful government.
Groups like the Branch Davidians may also offer a counter-argument that their purchase of weapons is justified by the fact that the government has its standing army known as the National Guard. They may even argue that it is their right as an American citizen to be armed in order that no entity foreign or domestic can overwhelm them and take their freedom away from them.
The need to bear arms was strengthened by the belief that a time will come that the federal government will try to limit the freedom of the people. The right to bear arms is also justified by the belief that only an armed populace can defend the U.S. Constitution against those who would try to tamper with it to serve their personal purposes.
A general understanding of why private arms keeping should be allowed was expounded in the following argument: “…to deter tyranny and, if necessary, to overthrow it and restore the Constitution.” Those who support this view will also add that a federal government “could become tyrannical” and it is the duty of the armed people to deal with the problem by being able to stage a revolt.
There is logic to the arguments made by gun rights advocate but in the case of the Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas incident there is more to the issue other than the right to bear arms. It is a confluence of the First Amendment and the Second Amendment rights. The difficulty in separating the two proved futile.
And after the event it is easy for many people to judge what happened to the Branch Davidians from either of two perspectives: one will say that it is a violation of their right to free speech and religious worship while others will say that the government came in because of the weapons that they stockpiled within the Mount Carmel Center.
Resolving the Crisis The negotiators worked diligently to establish rapport with Koresh but it was not an easy task, in fact it was an impossible task. The FBI asked the help of experts, even those who are familiar with biblical prophecy. There were also third parties who tried to get through Koresh.
One of them is the station manager of a radio station based in Dallas who urged Koresh to surrender and ask for medical help. The station manager also tried to convince the cult leader to release more children but instead of a favorable response Koresh started what authorities would later call as a mad rambling from a psycho and he would talk and talk about his religious views and he was oblivious to the fact that the station manager and his audience find his rhetoric unintelligible.
Nevertheless, it was easy to understand that patience is needed and at first the government was willing to wait, willing to diffuse the situation and willing to resolve the crisis without using violence. But after weeks of doing nothing except to observe and listen to a boring monologue they were ready to consider anything new.
It was discovered later that weeks before the final attack leaders in both Washington, D.C. and the FBI were increasingly frustrated over the delaying tactics of Koresh and his men. This was exacerbated by the fact that Koresh promised to stand down after March 2 but when the window of time given for his possible surrender began to close, the FBI was considering more drastic actions.
On March 15, 1993 FBI agents began to draw up a new strategy to finally defeat Koresh. It was called a “modified negotiations strategy” and this was a new directive to the negotiators to be firm and to make Koresh surrender. This also meant that they would no longer listen to what Koresh had to say, from that time forward the Branch Davidians had to show that they are willing to comply or the FBI will make their lives miserable. By doing so negotiations began to break down.
At around the same time the FBI began to use “stress escalation” and harassment techniques. Electricity was temporarily cut-off and then afterwards the FBI ordered that the power must be cut permanently. The FBI were demanding and no longer listening to what Koresh had to say. The FBI would demand that Koresh should release more people and when he refused to comply they would retaliate with punitive measures.
Such as the use of searchlights during the night in the obvious attempt to keep the people inside the building from getting any sleep. Loud music were played during the night as loudspeakers continued to blare out irritating sounds. However, these actions prompted a negative response. Instead of forcing Koresh and the people to leave the building they were pushing them deeper into their shell because now they believed that the government is evil and it only seeks their destruction.
It can be argued that there could have been a better way to end the siege or hostage situation. The federal government and the FBI should have made a correct assessment of the situation by first determining correctly that there are two sides of the issues. First, the government has the right to regulate the use of weapons. It does not matter what others will say with regards to the ownership of guns and other high-powered weapons because it is clear that many had suffered from the misuse of weapons and therefore it is just proper for the government to enforce the law.
Secondly, the federal government should have considered that this is a multi-part problem and that the Branch Davidians were not only stockpiling weapons but they were convinced that they are part of a communal religious group that believed in the imminent fulfillment of biblical prophecies.
This should not be taken against them for this is what they believed. But more importantly the FBI should have realized that their presence and the failed entry of the ATF agents weeks beforehand was the signal for the Branch Davidians that the end of the world is near and that they were not seen as law enforcement agents but as enemies in the spiritual context. If this was insight of the federal government then they would have reconsidered their plan to use deadly force.
Conclusion David Koresh and the Branch Davidians were arguably the victim of the media hype specifically the report written by the Waco Tribune-Herald.
This report forced people to see them in a very negative light and put pressure on the government as well as the law enforcement agencies to bring David Koresh and his men to justice. In the process no one placed an emphasis on their right to worship in the way and form that they want to worship. Due to negative information that were broadcasted to outsiders and people who had no clear idea of what the Branch Davidians was all about the group was demonized.
As a result there was an urgency to end the crisis by force. This is the reason why so many people were killed including women and children. If the negative reports did not influence the law enforcement agents who were responsible for resolving the crisis using non-lethal force then the story could have ended differently and the lives of the people would have been spared.
Bibliography Carter, Gregg Lee. Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture And the Law. California: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
Crothers, Lane. Rage on the Right: The American Militia Movement from Ruby Ridge to Homeland Security. Maryland: Rowman
Early Sufi Women Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Islam and Mysticism
Introduction In the early Islam, women were considered inferior, but due to the evolution of mysticism as a cult that emerged from within the Islamic faith, it has made many women attain the level of sainthood that was earlier a preserve for men only. The Islamic religion has a caste system for the priesthood that was strictly for men.
According to Smith (1977), “It is the development of mysticism or Sufism within Islam, which gave women their great opportunity to attain the rank of sainthood.” The objective of the mysticism is to renounce the worldly things and become clean so that one can have total devotion to God.
Al-wahatiyya in Al-Sulami (1021) defined Sufism as “…rejecting all worldly means of support and ending all worldly attachment.” Thus, the religion of mysticism is about focusing on the heavenly interests and purposes rather than getting involved with the people or material things.
Mysticism regards gender equality in serving God because “in the spiritual life, there could be neither male nor female. All whom God had called to be the saints could attain, by following the Path, to union with Himself, and all who attained, have their royal rank, as spiritual beings, in the world to come” (Smith, 1977). The Sufi women aimed at perfect union with God by making sure that they had no extra burden from the world to carry as they had better relinquish their burden through repentance than continually carry the burden in the sinful world.
Mysticism Mysticism is a form of religion among Sufi women where the women are the leaders in its establishment and development. Rabi’a of Basra was chosen to be the first woman saint to lead mysticism because she the Islamic region no longer restricts women from reaching sainthood.
The Sufi women heaped lot of praises to the Rabi’a that she was devoted to God like men; hence, she is more than just a woman. Smith (1997), describes Rabi’a as “the head of the women disciples and the chief of the women ascetics, of those who observed the sacred law, who were God fearing and zealous… and she was one of those who were pre-eminent and experienced in grace and goodness.”
The religious qualities of Rabi’a made her to be given chance to lead in the growth of mysticism by the Sufi woman. The biography of the saint Rabi’a is so fascinating and mystical she grew without parents, become a slave and her devotion to God made her master release her. When she was free, she experienced direct communication with God as the sakina glory of God shone over her head when she prayed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rabi’a took her pilgrimage to Mecca and on her way, the ass she was using to carry her luggage died and Instead of seeking help from strangers, she refused saying that she was dependent on God only but not His creatures. She earnestly prayed until a miracle happened when her ass stirred up and the she continues on her pilgrim journey. God in the desert directly answered the prayers of Rabi’a and this encourages her to devote her life to God more.
When Rabi’a successfully completed her pilgrimage, she went back to Basra where she become devoted to God and walk according to mystic Way of renouncing the world and asceticism. Rabi’a resolved to remain celibate because she considered marriage as a hindrance to the attainment and fulfillment of the highest will of God.
According to Smith (1977), “…purgation was the first stage towards stage towards the attainment of the mystic’s goal, and asceticism was enjoined on all who entered the novitiate.” The Way of mysticism begins when one renounce the worldly distractions like marriage as in the case of Rabi’a and then a process of daily devotion in order to be made clean and free from sins.
Fatima is another Sufi woman of Nishapur who demonstrated sainthood. She was the oldest Gnostic and many people come to seek her so that she can interpret and reveal the secrets within the Quran. She was very famous due to her great devotion to God in that many commended as the second Mary. Fatima (Al-Sulami, 1021) said, “One who acts for the sake of God while desiring to witness Him is a Gnostic, whereas one who acts in the hope that God will notice him is the sincere believer.”
Fatima dedicated her life in the service of God and many people realized her devotion. Abu Yazd (Al-Sulami 1021) admits that, “In all of my life, I have only seen one true man and one true woman. The woman was Fatima of Nishapur. When informed her about one of the stages of spirituality, she would take the news as if she had experienced it herself.”
Other Sufi women have been shown to have strong mystic beliefs; taking their time in solitude while praying and fasting, renouncing the world pleasure like marriage, even though against cultural and religious persuasions of Muslims depicts how the women of Sufi are zealous in their services to God
Islam and Mysticism Mysticism is a cult within the Islamic religion because some of its teachings are not solely based on the Quran but other sources. The Rabi’a experience during her pilgrim in the desert is like to the Biblical experience of Moses, the sakina glory corresponded to halo in Christianity.
We will write a custom Essay on Early Sufi Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The concepts of purgation and repentance have Biblical origin. Quran teaching recognizes the teachings of the prophet Muhammad as the central to the beliefs of Muslims. Smith (1977) proves that, “the title saint was bestowed to women upon equality with men, and since Islam has no order of priesthood and no priestly caste, there was nothing to prevent a woman from reaching the highest religious rank in the hierarchy of Muslim saints.”
The mysticism grew because when the women were given equal chance of serving God, they exercised Islamic belief out of the context of Quran and introduced their fundamental beliefs of asceticism, celibacy and purgation as the necessary requirement to attain highest level of mysticism. The Muslim theologians were against mysticism as the movement of the Sufi women because of their sainthood, their influence and the form of worship they were practicing.
Gender The religion of mysticism is depicted as the religion of women and that the women are the most devoted in their service to God. The devotion of Rabi’a, Fatima and other saints is that of asceticism and their experiences impact greatly on the religious and social aspects of their societies.
Many men praised their good works and service to God. For example, a man had to say this about Fatima, “In all of my life, I have only seen one true man and one true woman. The woman was Fatima of Nishapur. When informed her about one of the stages of spirituality, she would take the news as if she had experienced it herself” (Al-Sulami, 1021).
Fatima is equated to a man in her capacity of serving God meaning women have been treated as inferior in their abilities to serve God with the great zeal as men. The establishment of mysticism gave women a chance to be equal with their male counter parts and attain sainthood. Smith (1977) quotes Attar that, “saintship may be found in a woman as naturally as in a man.” The prophets teach that, what matters to God is the purpose of the heart and not the outward appearance.
Conclusion The Sufi women are the women who serve God with great zeal. The emergence of mysticism provided gender equality in the Islamic religion thus women explored their capacities to reach sainthood and incorporated other believes other than the Islamic beliefs that lead to their rejection by the Muslim theologians. Mysticism is a form of religion among Sufi women that involve asceticism and purgation so that one can appear worth to worship God and attain eternal bliss.
Mysticism has demonstrated the women’s ability to serve God equally as men, dismissing the cultural and societal perceptions that had limited and degrades their pursuits of eternal life. Their male counter parts and theologians were appalled by the influence of the Sufi women, threatening the own influence on the religion and the society. Thus, mysticism becomes the appealing religion to women because of the freedom from the restricting Islamic laws and culture.
References Al-Sulami, A. (1021). A Memorial of Female Sufi Devotees, Fons Vitae.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Early Sufi Women by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Smith, M. (1977). Rabi’a the Mystic. The University of Texas Press.USA
Staff/Family Relationship and Communication Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Background
Families welcome to the program
Information on daily happenings
Structure and content of parent conference
Background The school administration committees are always concerned with staff, as well as other entities thus guaranteeing performance enhancement among students. An apt relationship between staff and families is essential in the accomplishment of school programs. The school authorities should, therefore, design devices and approaches that families can utilize to foster meaningful relationships and communication.
The initial step is developing a resolute association involving school workforce and families to ensure that they share common interests. Linking family units in school programs is never enough unless the personnel make the first move to fabricate unquestioning affiliation with them. There is no sole method ratified for nurturing a suitable communication and bond among teaches and families in an effort to improve students’ performance, but it involves instance and suppleness (Dietz, 2005).
Families welcome to the program A reception process full of vigor should be employed whilst building employee/family rapport and contact. A warm welcome involving warm wishes coupled with posting symbols in the families’ indigenous languages will make them feel part of the school society. An assisting authority, fluent in the native language should act like an interpreter.
Orientation episode should provide the families with a resource center because this will improve the intensity of reception. Transect walking around the school while indicating recent developments will make the families’ day enticing. Parents, guardians and other relatives will feel privileged when they split edifying and linguistic origins with some school team. The relationship should be initiated on an affirmative note thus highlighting school accomplishments.
Trust levels should be augmented by propagating communication between the two parties. The management should show that they care and should exude respect to all the attending families. This is achieved through treating each attendant as a personage without any mistaken belief consequently addressing their interests. It is crucial to indicate that the school should uphold professionalism thus enhancing self-assurance among the staff.
Information on daily happenings Information sharing amid families and staff is crucial in the daily updates of occurrences in the school; furthermore, there are several ways of attaining this concept (Christernson,
Effects of Poverty on Immigrant Children Report college application essay help
Presently, approximately 8.7 million children of below 8 years belong to immigrant families or families with one immigrant parent. This is a drastic increase from the 1990 figure that was 4.3 million, a fact that research studies attributed to the drastic increase in the number of legal and illegal immigration before the U.S government enforced tough cross border measures to manage illegal immigration (Fortuny, Hernandez,
Labour Wage Rate Analytical Essay writing essay help
Introduction The labor market is characterized by wage rate differentials. There exists more than one labor market since firms require different types of labor for different jobs and this implies that the demand and supply for labor is different for specific labor time. The wages paid to employees also vary with the labor service provided.
If all the firms wanted the same labor, then a common labor market would exist, however, there are variations in labor needs of the firms and employees want different jobs in different firms. These factors have led to payment of different wage rates. This papers seeks to explain the reasons for differences in wage rates and their implication
Factors Responsible For Wage Differential There are various factors responsible for different wage rates as explained below.
Compensating wage differentials
Not all jobs or occupations are the same and the degree or level of risk or injury involved is different in both nature and magnitude. For example, considering the level of risk associated with an occupation such as electrical engineering and teaching is different, an electrical engineer is more prone to death risk as compared to a teacher.
However, more often than not, the engineer is paid higher wage to compensate for the risk involved as compared to the teacher. Compensating wage rates are normally applied if the degree of risk associated with the occupation is high or if working conditions are poor. The implication is that there is a tendency for people to want to venture in occupations associated with high risk and even work in poor conditions in pursuit of the additional income that come with such offers.
Competition both within the industry and among employees has also contributed to difference in wage rates. Competition within and across industries is important to the issue at hand since it has led to a distinction between successful and unsuccessful. Successful firms, regardless of their size are able to pay better and higher wages than the unsuccessful ones.
The issue here lies in the ability of a firm to pay. It is therefore possible that two or more businesses in the same industry and dealing with identical nature of goods and services will pay different wages to their employees depending ion a firms ability to pay.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Competition among employees has also become a very important factor in that. employee performance appraisal is used to determine additional benefits to employees. An employee achievements and efforts are evaluated and then additional benefits are given or rewarded by the organization to serve as an incentive.
Difference in wage rates can also be explained by the value added by an employee. This is especially true in the manufacturing industries where value addition is important at every stage of production. For better understanding of this concept, value addition is defined as the contribution by factors of production to the value of the final product.
Amount of labor required in production varies with the type of industry. For example, in a cloth-manufacturing firm, the value added by labor is lower than value added by labor in a paper manufacturing industry. The challenge lies in differentiating the actual value added by labor and that added by use of machines since in most cases, the two go hand in hand.
Sometimes, employees work as a team and it is difficult to measure the exact value added by each employee to the final product. The implication is that active employees may feel demoralized and lack the incentive to work hard and give their best and this may detrimental to the overall performance of the organization. The role of trade unions cannot be ignored in creating wage differentials.
Most of the highly paid employees have trade unions that bargains or negotiates with employers for salary increment. More often than not, such bargains bear fruits. On the contrary, poorly paid employees are not even able to form trade unions that can act as their voice in bargaining for better pay. This implies that the poorly paid will continue to receive such pays since their bargaining power is weak.
Nature or characteristics of the employment and formal education required for the job. This aspect cannot be explored fully without considering individuals socialization. Socialization in this context focuses on individual’s ambitions, self-motivation, and their willingness to adhere to the authority structures in place at that time.
Productive socialization is normally associated with attainment of certified qualification such as a degree or having a good work experience record. Socialization of an individual therefore plays a part to difference in occupation wage rates through cost differentials. This can be explained further in that there are different job entry levels in almost all occupations.
We will write a custom Essay on Labour Wage Rate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A fresh graduate from school with no previous experience cannot be paid the same amount as a graduate with experience for the same job. This is because the latter has an additional advantage in that he requires less training. In addition, if an employer is interested in a candidate with both formal and practical experience, the costs associated with search for such a candidate are higher as compared to getting a fresh graduate since in the former a more porous screening process is applied hence increasing the costs.
From the discussion on socialization, it can be argued out that occupation requiring less formal or academic training and less experience tend to have lower average wage rate as compared to those that requires higher formal academic qualifications and experience.
Gender and Race
Another cause for differential in wage rate that does not reflect the skills and abilities of a person in performing a job is race and gender. The question rotates around socialization since a certain race may be perceived to have negative socialization. The implication is that before an employer gets to higher them, a thorough screening process will be employed and as if that is not enough, the employer will see to it that such employees are monitored and supervised.
This in return increases the costs to the organization and in order to recover for such costs or minimize them, lower average wage rates are applied as compared to those from a race perceived to have positive socialization. The implication of wage differential is that the employees who are underpaid will tent to be less productive.
Gender has also been a base for wage differential and with special regard to women of childbearing age and the traditional perception of their role. There is a preconceived idea that occupations in which women work tend to have a high turnover rate due to the time they take in maternity leaves and their inability to work for long hours since they have other family responsibilities. The implication is that such cost is borne by all the women across occupations leading to lower wage rate.
Table Showing Differences in Wage Rates
Average full time wages paid per week (pounds).
Gender Solicitors Accountants Teachers Nurses Sales Assistants Waiters and Waitresses All Male 800 620 520 410 250 190 430 Female 650 520 470 380 190 180 320 Graph Showing Wage Differentials between Occupations
Wage Differentials in the Manufacturing Sector To some extent, the wage differentials in the manufacturing industries are justified. This is because there are different departments and different processing stages and the skills required are different.
For example, there is need for unskilled labor to do those jobs that are not skill intensive, on the other hand, qualified personnel is required to perform the profession job. Therefore, the firm must be able to cater for all those labor expenses without passing a heavy burden on the consumer.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Labour Wage Rate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If the consumers are overburdened, the firm may be faced out by competition. In the manufacturing sectors, there is heavy capital investment on machines and technology that require special expertise and pose a great risk to the operators. Such employees will need an incentive to make them have the will to venture into such risky operations.
If the market forces of demand and supply continue to operate in determining the wages, then wage differentials will persist. This is because, it is difficult for the labor market to clear i.e. have supply equal demand. There will be increased and unskilled labor supply and the demand for the same will apply.
However, employers are interested in the marginal revenue product and will only employ it the marginal revenue product equals the marginal cost. With continued improved technology and better training facilities, the earnings of the skilled labor will continue and vice versa is true for the unskilled ceteris paribus.
Trends in Income Distribution and Wage Rates From the study, it can be concluded that unequal distribution of income will continue to exist in the society with urban areas being in a better position as compared to the rural areas. This is because, most people prefer migrating to urban areas in search for better paying jobs since most industries and firms that can offer that are located in the urban areas.
Unless policies are implemented and incentives for delocalization are given, it will be difficult to achieve equality in income distribution. Difference in wage rates cannot be eliminated since it is not possible to pay common wages to all people since the nature of job and their requirements are different. It is possible that the gap between the highest and lowest paid employee will continue to expand.
Conclusion Different occupations gave different wage rates since their requirements are also different and varied. Most employers pay wages based on the marginal revenue product gained from labor services offered and it should be equal to the marginal cost. Various factors such as difference in skills, competition, trade unions, nature of job and poor working conditions have accounted for the wage differentials.
Bibliography Gleicher, D. L. Stevans, A classical approach to occupational wage rates, Greenwood Publishing Group, CA, 1991. Web.
Gottschalk, P., B. Gustafsson and E. Palmer, Changing patterns in the distribution of economic welfare: an international perspective, Cambridge University Press, NY, 1997. Web.
Holley, W., K. M. Jennings and R. S. Wolters, The Labor Relations Process. Cengage Learning, NY, 2008. Web.
Footnotes P. Gottschalk, B. Gustafsson and E. Palmer, Changing patterns in the distribution of economic welfare: an international perspective, Cambridge University Press, NY, 1997, 124.
W. Holley, K. M. Jennings and R. S. Wolters, The Labor Relations Process. Cengage Learning, NY, 2008.
D. Gleicher and L. Stevans, A classical approach to occupational wage rates, Greenwood Publishing Group, CA, 1991, p. 89.
The Incidences in the Life of a Slave Girl Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Racial and Gender experiences
Introduction The Life of a slave girl is a story depicting the slavery experiences of Linda Brent. Linda Brent was born, brought up and lived under the conditions of slavery. The Whites enslaved the Colored people by making them their servants, working in plantations and taking care of their children at home, particularly women. During those times of slavery, the slaves were bought at a price and their children will inherit the slavery conditions of their parents.
The slave owners have the power to dictate the slavery conditions of their slaves for instance their work, changing the masters or mistresses and even their marital status. Linda severely endured and fought for the emancipation of her slavery status by escaping from his master and her mistress, and earnestly praying for the help from God. In this essay, I am going to analyze Linda’s experiences in terms of slavery, racism, gender and compare her unique experience with the experiences of other people.
Slavery Experiences Since Linda was brought up under slavery conditions, she has experienced a great deal of mistreatment where her human rights were crossly violated. Mr. and Mrs. Flint owned Linda as their slave amongst other slaves hence they had absolute powers over her life in that they can dictate her according to their selfish interests. Linda was a mother of two kids: Ellen and Benny.
These kids were at the disposal of their master and mistress to be sold to any willing slave owner without the consent from the mother. The Kids have inherited the slavery conditions from their parent hence they are slaves by birth and subject to their master and mistress.
Linda finds herself between the rock and the hard place when she was told that she hard to part with her children because they are to be shifted to the new masters. She cried helplessly saying that, “my poor children were between two fires: between my old master and their new master! And was powerless” (Jacobs, 1861). Linda had to endure parting with her two only kids and behave as though she never nursed any child in her life.
She vowed to find ways to free her children as confesses that, “…I had no trust in thee, O Slavery! Never should I know peace until my children were emancipated with all due formalities of law” (Jacobs, 1861). She was very determined to free her children and she made a successful escape into New York in the search for her children.
During her slavery, Linda experienced torture when her master imprisoned her. She bitterly recounts the experienced saying, “I affirm that I lived in that little dismal hole, almost deprived of light and air, and with no space to move my limbs, for nearly seven years.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, it is a fact; and to me a sad one, even now; for my body still suffers from the effects of that long imprisonment, to say nothing of my soul” (Jacobs, 1861). The experience of the prison severely affects her health status and still haunts her soul because she fails to comprehend why she went through such torture.
After Linda had successfully escaped from her master and mistress, she went to New York where she was faced with the great challenge of finding a job to keep her going.
She said that, “The greatest difficulty in my way was that those who employ strangers required a recommendation, and in my peculiar position, I could, of course, obtain no certificates from the families I had so faithfully served” (Jacobs, 1861).
Her life was going to be very hard unless she come back to her master who can recommend her. She was very lucky to be employed by a very humble and understanding woman, Mrs. Bruce who gave her a job without requesting a recommendation from her previous master or mistress.
Racial and Gender experiences When Linda was traveling to New York, she experienced racial discrimination on her journey as Rev. Jeremiah Durham confessed that, “I am afraid you will have a disagreeable ride, but I could not procure tickets for the first class cars …they don’t allow colored people to go in the first-class cars” (Jacobs, 1861). Linda describes her experiences in the second- class ride, as “It was crowded with people, apparently of all nations.
Every other man had a cigar or pipe in his mouth, and jugs of whiskey were handed round freely. The fumes of the whiskey and the dense tobacco smoke were sickening to my senses and the coarse jokes and ribald songs around me equally nauseated my mind” (Jacobs, 1861). Since she was a woman, it was very hard for her to endure the ride where men were smoking and drinking.
During her stay with Mrs. Bruce, Linda experiences racism in the hotels whenever they board, despite the fact that both the whites and the colored pay equally for the services. At some instances, the waiters did not allow her to sit and when she persists, they refuse to serve her until Mrs. Bruce intervenes. The white waiters hate serving the colored people and they complained that, “they were not hired to wait on Negroes” (Jacobs, 1861).
We will write a custom Essay on The Incidences in the Life of a Slave Girl specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fugitive law also threatens her stay in the New York because the law requires that all fugitive slaves be identified and returned to their right masters, failure to which the person hiding a fugitive slave is liable to fine and imprisonment. The law shocked many fugitives in that, “Many a wife discovered that her husband was a fugitive, and must leave her to insure his own safety.
Worse still, many a husband discovered that his wife had fled from slavery years ago, and as “the child follows the condition of its mother,” the children of his love were liable to be seized and carried into slavery. Everywhere, in those humble homes, there was consternation and anguish” (Jacobs, 1861).
As child inherits the slavery conditions of her mother, Linda too was in great fear, as she was a fugitive together with her daughter Ellen but Mrs. Bruce was willing to pay the price of imprisonment and fine, so she kept her in her house secretly.
Conclusion The unique experience of Linda is that she was born under slavery conditions. Her grandmother was a slave, her mother inherited the slavery, she becomes a slave, and she has passed on the slavery conditions to her kids. The problem of slavery has continually become part of their family lineage.
Unlike, the free white women and free Black African- American women, her children were subject to slavery because the child inherits the conditions of her mother. In contrast to other men and women, the marriage in slavery was neither legal nor permanent because the master or the mistress dictates the aspects of marriage and divorce depending on their interests, thus Linda had no opportunity to choose the father of her kids. Thus, Linda’s slavery experiences were unique.
References Jacobs, H. A. (1861). Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. The University of North Carolina. Retrieved from https://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/jacobs/jacobs.html
Art Spiegelman, MAUS Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Published in 1991 and written by Art Spiegelman, the MAUS is a book that provides the account of the author’s effort of knowing his Jewish parents’ experience, following the Holocaust as well as their survival in U.S. It gives a picture of the difficult affiliation between the author and his parents where he stands as a survivor of this as well. This tale is presented in the form of a conversation between the author and Vladek – his father.
In a humorous manner, Spiegelman employs animals to represent characters. For instance, dogs represent the Americans while reindeers represent Swedes, among others. The setting of this interview is a large area ranging from New York through Germany to Sweden, a style that enables the writer to give a broad picture of the mass destruction during the World War II while at the same time he shows the nature of relationships in his family prior and after the war.
The author uses characters like Vladek Spiegelman-Art’s father, Anja-Vladek’s wife, Art- Vladek’s son, among others, all of whom are survivors of the holocaust, either direct or indirect. The concept of ambivalence stands out clearly in the book through the various relationships provided. For instance, Vladek’s ambivalence towards his son, Art, is clear as explained in the following paragraph.
Ambivalence Ambivalence is no more than the disagreement of ones feelings towards another person or a thing. This person may simultaneously portray both the positive and negative views towards another. The novel is rich in this concept. For example, Vladek is the father to Art. He loves him but he is unable to show it off.
This case is seen when Art, who has been playing with his friends accidentally falls. Art cries of pain and rushes towards his father for assistance.“…until he has spent five days locked in a room with a group of people and no food, he cannot know the meaning of the word friends” (Spiegelman, 1991). These are the father’s comments to his son. Vladek ought to act like a loving parent by soothing his son to stop crying as well as nursing his pain. From the response, it is not clear whether he loves his son or not.
Whether he said this to make his son laugh rather than cry or whether he said this out of ignorance is not determined. Moreover, he is willing to converse with his son. In fact he narrates to him about his origin as well as that of their family. But the way he addresses some questions is wanting.
When Art enquires about the dairies, Vladek does not hesitate in giving his weird answers. “I looked in, but I don’t remember” (Spiegelman, 1991). These answers fail to classify Vladek’s feeling towards Art. He has a diverse feeling towards his son and this is no more than ambivalence. Art’s feelings towards his father are also strained and uncertain too.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Art portrays an all-round relationship with his father. This is apparent because he entirely relies on him for the account of his own story. He frequently visits him at his yard. Following the suicide of his mother, Art declares that his father is a murderer (1991).
In addition, when Vladek feels dizzy, he demands the assistance of Art who in turn fails to rescue him. Based on these issues, it is not clear whether Art has positive or negative feelings towards his father. Paying him frequent visits and abusing him portray two opposing feelings, showing how he is unsure towards his father.
Another uncertainty stands out between Vladek and his own self. It is apparent that all people love themselves and Vladek is not an exception. When he is visited by Art, he is found putting in place a variety of pills. From their conversation, Vladek posits that in order to be strong, he ought to fight for his own salvation. Art’s healers posit that Vladek has a guilty sensation following his surviving in the holocaust.
This makes it vague of the kind of feelings he has for his own self and hence ambivalent. Moreover, in another dialogue between Vladek and Art, neither of the two understands the feelings of the other as Art enquires about the holocaust. Vladek has a real experience of the scenario unlike Art. Art cannot understand the feelings of his father in relation to the episode because he (Art) was not there as it occurred.
On the other hand, Vladek is unable to identify his son’s feelings towards him because the two do not relate in the sense that the scenario happened in the presence of one and not both. Therefore the two are ambivalent towards each other. The relationship between Vladek and Anja is also ambivalent as expounded below.
Anja meets with Vladek and her boyfriend. They stay together in this relationship until they marry. This shows that Anja loves Vladek because of this evident willing to stay together as husband and wife. However, Anja has another boyfriend, whom she also loves. It is thus unclear of whether Anja is truly in love with Vladek or the other boy. This identifies her as ambivalent towards Vladek. Vladek on the other hand accepts to marry Anja.
Following the incidence where Anja’s friend was arrested, Vladek opts to terminate his marriage with Anja. When Anja gives birth to Richieu, their first child, she is taken to a high class hospital where she is well-nursed by Vladek until she recovers. Vladek’s conduct of nursing and ending of their marriage, as depicted here are opposite. Whether he is a real loving husband or not fails to be clear basing on this, hence ambivalent towards Anja. The connection between Vladek and his own father is undefined as well.
We will write a custom Essay on Art Spiegelman, MAUS specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In their dialogue, Vladek explains to Art that he was almost intentionally starved to death by his father. He adds that he was even denied sleep. This followed from a plan between him (father) and his army, which sought to absorb Vladek as a soldier. Vladek tells his father not to repeat that again implying how mistreated he felt, though he becomes a soldier later. Based on this, his stance as a father, behind this scenario is not defined. His feelings towards his son are no more than ambivalent.
Conclusion The concept of ambivalence is well developed in the book. However, it is worthy noting that this concept has some attached functions. For instance, it functions to maintain one’s undefined state which is, to some extend, important. In the book, it has played a crucial role in the represented relationships. For instance, if Art hated his father, he would not have gotten the material for his book. If he loved him, he would have rescued him when he was ailing.
In addition, Anja’s ambivalence towards Vladek places her in a position better that she can be if she sticks to either of the two. If Vladek leaves her as he says, Anja will join her other boyfriend. If that is not the case, she is still safe. This shows how ambivalence plays an adaptive role in this relationship since Anja can adapt whichever outcome of her marriage. These, among other illustrations, depict ambivalence as a tool that serves some crucial functions, as discussed above.
Reference List Spiegelman, A. (1991). Maus: A Survivor’s Tale: And Here My Troubles Began. New York: Pantheon.
Dorothy Allison’s Trash Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction “Trash” is a collection of several short stories. In this collection, Allison focuses on her main agenda concerning politics, emotions and aesthetics. Having been brought up in a poor family background surrounded by poverty and suffering, Allison is not disturbed by what she went through and insists that nothing can make her change her attitude.
She is described as a Southern trash simply because of the life she used to live while still a child. The term trash means something that has no value. It also implies something that is considered a waste or needs to be thrown away. This is how Allison perceives herself. “Allison is described as a feminist and a lesbian coming from Southern Carolina in the United States of America” (Allison, 1988, p. 4).
In the preface of these stories known as deciding to live, Allison cuts short the message in all the stories by use of strong descriptive words. She says that the stories have a message of the life experience of a working class cross-eyed lesbian full of hope in life and addicted to violence as well as language. Considering the kind of life she lived while in Southern Carolina with her family members, Allison’s love to women in general is very strong.
In her description, she does not give up easily and rarely gives consent to any efforts meant to downgrade her. Through the life she experienced, she believes that what happened was enough and should not happen to women in general. She feels for female characters and wishes no harm to them. She does not want any woman or young female to pass through the kind of life she passed through when she was still young (Allison, 1988).
In river of names, the narrator explains how she lost several of her relatives through mysterious incidences. Back in her home place Southern Carolina, Allison lived a life full of suffering and acts of child abuse. After loosing her father, her mother decided to get married to another man who became a step father to her. In the beginning, the step father seemed to be good and well behaved showing love to Allison’s mother and the rest of the family.
The relationship between Allison and her step father turned out to be a nightmare when her step father started to molest her and abuse her sexually. He actually raped her on several occasions and physically molested her. The problem is that even after her mother learnt of her husband’s behaviors, she was still confused whether to chase away the husband and protect her daughter or continue staying with the husband.
Due to the strong love that Allison had towards her mother, she decides to accept everything that happens to her. She decides not to hate her step father who molests and abuses her sexually. She considers herself as trash and compares herself to something that is meant to be used. In the story, we learn that Allison so loved her aunt that she could spend most of her time visiting her and helping her perform some household duties. Even in her aunt’s home, her step father still followed her to beat and abuse her.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is shocking is that her auntie seems to reason the same way as her mother. After learning of the molestation and harassment that Allison is passing through, she also decides that the step father should not be chased away. She considers other options provided that the family remains intact. But because Allison loved her mother and her auntie, she respects their decision and gives in to all sorts of harassment.
All this made her develop strong feelings towards women than men. She believes that women were taken as trash. She now takes everything valuable including what others considers to be trash. She takes women as normal human beings who are vital and vibrant deserving due respect (Allison, 1988).
In mama, Allison realizes the love that she has for her mother. It is this love that dwells throughout the stories. Allison so loved her mother that she dint think of any revenge despite the physical and emotional torture she was undergoing through.
In this story, there was domestic violence that overwhelmed Allison’s family. We are told that the step father could lock Allison in the bathroom and physically molest her. She had a strong and loving relation with her mother. Having been beaten by her step father, her mother could scream loud and save her from the brutal acts of her husband.
She could take her away, wash her and wipe her clean. She could soothe her to relieve pain and make her comfortable. This is the reason why Allison could not afford to loose her mother in any way. She would rather persevere and stay with her mother than loosing her. She so loved her mother that she obeyed every step that her mother took.
This shows that the relationship between the two was strong and full of love, emotions and caring. Since it is her mother who brought her step father in the house, we expect Allison to hate her mother due to the step father’s actions. Instead, Allison feels no hatred to her mother even after being molested by her step father. It is this kind of love that made Allison to develop a soft spot for women in general.
This contributed to her growing up to be a feminist and a working class lesbian. She ensures that women’s rights are respected and obeyed. She does not want to see a situation where women are molested and sexually abused (Allison, 1988).
We will write a custom Essay on Dorothy Allison’s Trash specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the gospel song, Allison shows her love to a girl who is least popular in the whole school. At first, she wants to become a singer of gospel music but she does not posses the voice. In the process, she meets an albino girl who has no friends at all and decides to become her friend.
She strives to insert a sense of acceptance into her friend’s mind. Allison does not take her as trash but instead decides to love her and make her feel loved. At her friend’s family barbecue, Allison decides to attend without even accepting the invitation. She shows up abruptly demonstrating the love she has to her friend.
During the funeral, she makes herself available when her friend starts to moan. Due to the overwhelming tears, she decides to insert her face in her mother’s dress. The relation between her and her mother was very strong. Allison took her mother as the only source of comfort at times of problems.
This made her develop a loving attitude towards female. She fights for the rights of women and forms movements that will protect all women. In don’t tell me you don’t know, the narrator’s auntie makes a step to reconcile two parties. She comes in between Allison and her mother to restore the love between them. Allison felt bad about what was happening to her in presence of her mother.
She felt that her mother should have protected her from abuse. Her mother was in a dilemma to choose between her daughter and her husband. Finally, Allison decides to reconcile with her mother and step father. She says that the reconciliation contributed to her present determination. She is determined for the well being of women in general (Allison, 1988).
Conclusion It is the love and strong relation between Allison, her mother and her female relatives that made her develop a soft spot for women. She turned out to be more attracted to women than men. She finally became a working class feminist and a lesbian. The suffering and the abuse she went through made her determined to protect women in general.
Reference Allison, D. (1988). Trash: Short stories. Ithaca: Firebrand books publishers.
Is A Doll’s House a Feminist Essay? essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introductions
Feminism in the Play
Introductions Written by Henrik Ibsen, A Doll’s House is a play released during the Victorian era of the 19th century. The play addresses life as it was then, when women where no more than dolls, unable to perform significant roles in the then society as well as standing up for themselves in the family.
It addresses the issue of gender roles, showing how disempowered the female is and the consequences behind this. Nora, a major character and a wife to Helmer, illustrates how women suffer mistreatments and degradations from their husbands. Following the impact on the life styles of women and the devastation of gender roles in the then century, brought by Ibsen through this publication, which is also evident today, the composition stands out as a feminist essay right from the title, A Doll’s House, up to the end of the play.
Feminism in the Play Feminism is an issue that pursues the liberation of women, majority of whom live as slaves even in their very own families, whether married or not. This is the condition of women as at the time when Ibsen composes the play. He is handling the situation as it is as a call for women to stand up and fight for their rights in the society.
The topic of the play serves as a clear illustration of feminism. A Doll is denotes the position of a woman in the family. A major character employed to portray is Nora. She is married to Helmer who refers to her as a mere doll rather than a wife. Nora is referred by her husband as a songbird, a lark, a squirrel, names that suggest how insignificant she is to her.
In fact, Helmer asks, “Didn’t you tell me no one had been here…My little songbird must never do that again. A songbird must have a clean beak to chirp with-no false notes!” (Ibsen 25). Helmer stands out as a commander in his family. Everything he tells his wife ought to be adhered to regardless of the consequences therein. The way he questions Nora depicts his sternness and authoritative position in his family. He deprives Nora of the ability to decide as the wife.
She cannot decide on whom to welcome in her family, neither can she decide on what to do in it. She only dances the tune of her husband. She is just a doll in the house that does in accordance with what others need out of it but not what it needs out of them. This degradation is what the writer brings forth to the women stressing on their need to rise up and fight against it.
Nora is given every sort of names by her husband. But this does not make her dump him. They are together as a husband and a wife for a good number of years.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yes, Torvald, I can’t get along a bit without your help” (Ibsen 26). Money seems to be everything that Nora wants. But she realizes later that it (money) is useless without her enjoying her rights, not only as a woman but also a living being. In her reaction against the situation, she makes the best individual pronouncement for the first time. She opts for abandoning her husband to stay alone where she can enjoy freedom.
She will not be constrained in a house like a doll; neither will she dance to any other person’s tune, but hers. She is a feminist whom the play uses as an illustration that women can make sound decisions as well as playing a significant role in their families other than just cooking and taking care of their husbands.
“The common denominator in many of Ibsen’s dramas is his interest in individuals struggling for and authentic identity in the face of tyrannical social conventions. This conflict often results in his characters’ being divided between a sense of duty to themselves and their responsibility to others” (Ibsen 1563). Nora realizes that she is more than what she does or what his husband thinks she can do and has the right to manifest her talent or powers as a woman.
She goes for this right. In fact, she declares that she needs to “make sense of [her] self and everything around her” (Ibsen 25). This is her turning point. She is ready to stand up for her rights as a woman regardless of the prevailing situation where women are being oppressed and denied some of their fundamental rights like the right to make personal decisions.
Mrs. Linde’s conversation with Nora depicts her as one who led a life based on the decisions of her late husband. For instance, when her husband dies, she has virtually nothing of her own, money and children inclusive. This places everything in her then family in the hands of her husband. She has no power to earn as a woman. This is only the task of her husband. The death of her husband is symbolic. It implies the end of slavery and a commencement of feminism.
Linde sets off to look for a job, which in turn enables her to take care of her family. This is no more than the realization that she is capable of working for her people just like her husband. In fact, she stands out as woman enough to leave a note to her husband claiming to return the following day. This is contrary to what is expected of the then women. They ought to stay in the houses all the times as the title, ‘A Doll’s House’ suggests. In her dialogue with Krogstad, she says that she is now ‘free’ and wishes to look after her family.
This depicts the oppression she experiences before realizing that she is equally as powerful as a man and that she is all able to support her family. For instance, she takes a full responsibility of nursing her sick mother. This is not a possible case before when she is a doll in her husband’s house. She says that she was “a poor girl who’d been led astray” (Ibsen 29). This is the consequence of oppression that Ibsen addresses, that is in turn realized and abandoned by people like Linde and Nora-the feminists.
We will write a custom Essay on Is A Doll’s House a Feminist Essay? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nora initially is a ‘pet’ in her family. She is just there to make her husband happy by going out with him, cooking for him, and maintaining his title as a ‘man’ owing to her beauty. As a doll plays its assigned role, not based on the situation, Nora has to tolerate this torture for the sake of her husband.
This is her life that she realizes later that it is no more than a lie. She imagines of another one where she will be, not a doll, but a significant and a responsible person in her society. Nora says, “I’ve been your wife-doll here, just as at home I was Papa’s doll-child”(Ibsen 1608). This is the beginning of her realization. She is now courageous enough to confront her very own stern husband no matter the outcome.
She is ready to fight for her rights as a woman. “I have to try to educate myself. You can’t help me with that. I’ve got to do it alone. And that’s why I’m leaving you now” (Ibsen 1609). Nora goes for the change she wants. She can educate herself regardless of her being a woman. She is not afraid of saying this to her husband.
Conclusion Ibsen finalizes the play by depicting all the women characters as feminists who abandon their ‘doll’ lives to leave like free, significant, and responsible in their societies. Nora, Linde, among others, begin as slaves but end a feminists. This renders Ibsen’s ‘A Doll’s House’ a feminist essay.
Works Cited Ibsen, Henrik. “A Doll’s House” London: Nick Hern Books, 1994.
Minimum Wage Issue Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Theory of minimum wage
Analysis of the effects of minimum wage
Introduction Minimum wage is the lowest pay that an employee should get per hour, per day or per month. These earnings are usually set by the government through legislation; however, two arguments, social and fiscal, are usually presented concerning the issue of minimum wage.
Minimum wage laws usually cover employees who work in the fields of employment with low pay, and are usually imposed to raise the wages to reduce exploitation of the employees by their employers. Governments usually impose minimum wage to reduce poverty; indeed, increase in the minimum wage is also said to increase motivation of the workers and hence lead to more productivity.
However, some economic analysts believe that raising the minimum wage does not reduce poverty, arguing that it in fact increases the levels of poverty since it creates unemployment. These people also argue that increase in the minimum wage hurts small firms severely as they usually try to minimize on their cost of production to maximize on their returns as they continue to grow.
This may usually make the firms to reduce their workforce, and the remaining workforce is usually overworked to compensate for the reduced workforce. These people also believe that minimum wage causes inflation, as organizations tend to increase the cost of their product to cater for the increased cost of production due to the increase.
Theory of minimum wage Usually, there are theories proposed to explain the effects of minimum wage on the employment. The standard neoclassical theory explains that the availability of labour and employment follow an equilibrium demand supply curve with the downward sloping demand curve for labour and the upward sloping supply curve for labour.
The point of intersection between the downward sloping demand curve and the upward sloping supply is the equilibrium point (Atanova, Tudoreanu and St.Lawrence University 70). This is the equilibrium wage, which the market is capable of offering for labour.
Therefore, if the government imposes a minimum wage lower than the equilibrium wage, this would have no effect since equilibrium wage will be higher than the minimum wage. However, by imposing legislation, which demands, that the minimum wage be higher than the equilibrium wage, this forces the minimum wage from being pushed downwards due to market forces.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this creates disequilibrium in the labour supply demand curve with the supply of labour being more than the demand for it by the market. This leads to unemployment as some people will not get work for their skills; indeed, unemployed people are usually worse of than before the minimum wage since they will now have zero income.
Figure 1.1: Standard neoclassic market demand supply of labour curve
Source: AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia,
However, increase in minimum wage higher than the equilibrium wage does not always result in unemployment. An example is usually explained in Monopsony, a situation where there is only one employer in the labour market. In this situation, the factors that are explained in neoclassical theory do not necessary hold.
In fact, minimum wage significantly influences the direction of employment in the economy as well as eliminating the shortcomings of Monopsony, thus in this situation, the cost of hiring additional workers follows an upward sloping curve, which is usually above the labour supply.
Figure 1.2: Monopsonistic demand supply of labour curve
Source: AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia
We will write a custom Essay on Minimum Wage Issue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More MRP represents the marginal revenue product curve, which is identical to the market demand curve in standard neoclassic market. MFC represents the marginal cost curve which is the cost incurred by a Monopsonistic firm in hiring a new employee. S represents the factor supply curve identical to the competitive market.
In some instances, raising the minimum wage increases the demand of the product produced by the company. This will therefore make the company to hire more workers in order to increase output to cater for increased demand. This may occur if the workers are also consumers of the product; hence, increasing their wage enables them to buy more of the product.
Analysis of the effects of minimum wage The labour market rarely fits the characteristics of the ideal standard neoclassical theory or of Monopsony. Therefore, generalization is generally used to explain the effects of minimum wage on employment and poverty levels. Many economists have different views regarding the effects of increasing the minimum wage.
This is because the labour market does not fit the ideal neoclassical situation or the Monopsony situation. Increase in the minimum wage does not necessary lead to loss of employment. Many different states in the United States have not reduced the number of employed people after increasing their minimum wage; a notable example is New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
Increase in minimum wage in these states in 1988 did not lead to reduction of the people employed; in fact, it led to increase in the employment as shown in their data. For instance, the increase in the minimum wage of Vermont and Illinois in January 2006 from $7.0 to 7.25 has been used to show the effects of increasing the minimum wage on employment (Atanova, Tudoreanu and St.Lawrence University 72).
In Vermont, it led to a decrease in the number of people who were employed. However, analysis of the data showed that it was not reliable as there were very many other factors, which affected employment. However, their increase had no effect on employment in Illinois. These are a few examples to show that increase in the minimum wage does not lead to reduced employment.
The argument that increase in the minimum wage usually leads to unemployment is usually viewed differently by different people who have vested interests.
Businesspersons and generally entrepreneurs are usually opposed to increase in minimum wage as it leads to an increase in their cost of production. This is because each entrepreneur usually strives to reduce the cost of production in order to maximize on his or her profits. Labour unions would like to portray the increase in minimum wage as of not having adverse effects on employment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Minimum Wage Issue by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because by showing that it reduces employment they would show that it reduces their members by making them loose employment. Therefore, the debate on minimum wage is usually a passionate one as each group would like to portray the other as being on the wrong. These groups may use many different methods to prove their correctness, sometimes even overlooking some factors while analyzing their data.
Minimum wage does not necessarily lead to inflation since the costs of labour in most organizations does not usually account for a large percentage of overall expenses. Increase in the minimum wage cannot be directly related to the loss of employment, as there are many other political and economic factors, which usually affect employment.
It is clear that both theories are based upon ideal situations. However ideal situation rarely do not occur. Therefore, it would be hard to single out increase in the levels of unemployment due minimum wage increase. Form the above two theories it is clear that markets cannot be left to self regulate themselves especially in third world countries so as to reduce their levels of poverty.
Conclusion The issue of minimum wage is mainly a political one. Governments usually increase minimum wages at a rate lower than the rates of inflation in order to reduce the powers labour unions have on the powers. However, minimum wage should be increased from time to time to cater for inflation and reduce the levels of poverty.
Works Cited Atanova, Stefka, Tudoreanu, Mihnea and St.Lawrence University. “The Effects of a Raised Minimum Wage on Employment: Differences across States and Social Groups.” Issues in Political Economy, Vol. 19, pp 69-89. 2009. 26 October 2010. http://www.elon.edu/docs/e-web/students/ipe/volumes/Atanova 2009.pdf
The Effect of Legalization of marijuana in the Economy of California Report custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Legalization of Marijuana
Effect of the Legalization on Demand
Effect on supply
Elasticity of demand and supply
Introduction Cannabis sativa L. is a plant that appears naturally in most of the states and all over the world. The plant has been associated with a lot of benefits and other uses by people from all walks of life. Medically, the plant has been proven to possess a lot of medical benefits as it can be used in manufacture of drugs with curative nature and also has various other medical benefits.
Marijuana is the name given to the plant and all its components and products including its leaves, stem, roots, seeds and all the other products obtained from it, both when it is growing and even when it has been cut and dried. On the other side, marijuana has been used by individuals in different ways, especially for social uses such as recreation, reducing stress and other uses (Pacula 1).
The drug has been outlawed in all the states in the USA. However, there remains a large percentage of the population that still relies on the drug for their daily living, either by engaging in its use or by engaging in its business. The Marijuana business has been operating underground and unlawfully.
However, studies have shown that the business has been in a constant state of a boom and has been estimated to amount to millions of dollars. In this way, those operating the business have been able to make great earnings especially since there are no cost implications on them in terms of taxes and other legal requirements (RAND 1).
Legalization of Marijuana It has been a common debate in most of the states as to whether Marijuana should be legalized and inscribed in the state laws hence allowing it to be used freely, just like any other item in the market.
In this way, the law will give a provision for legality of the marijuana market and also for all the undertakings concerned with the drug, including registration and taxation of all businesses, protection of those using the drugs in the right way and also a way to deal with all the crimes associated with the drugs. In addition, the states shall be able to lay restrictions on the drug, hence ensuring the citizens use the drugs more responsible and in a humane way (RAND 1).
The California state is one of the states that have embraced the idea of legalizing the drug and even inscribing it in the list of the allowed social drugs together with alcohol and cigarettes. In this way, it has been believed that the drug will act as a source of revenue for the government in terms of the taxes collected as well as a source of employment and income for many.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The step will also ensure citizens who follow the law to the letter and do not cause trouble to others are protected even if they use the drug. Moreover, citizens will embrace the use of the drug more responsibly avoiding any cases that may require jailing, probation and medical expenses for treatment of abuse of the drug (Pacula 1).
Hence, there is a need for the state of California, as well as the other states in the USA, to embrace legalization of Marijuana since this will have a lot of benefits both to the citizens and to the state eventually instead of use of the drug illegally which results to serious and undeserved penalties to those caught and also leads to loss of billions of dollars per year I n government revenue that would have been collected from the marijuana business.
Effect of the Legalization on Demand It has been predicted that if the government legalizes the drug, there will be a lot of changes pertaining to the demand for the drug in the market and as a result, there will be a lot of restructuring in the marijuana market.
Currently, due to the control and illegality of the use of the drug as well as the strictness from the enforcers of the law in the state which includes heavy penalties and possible imprisonment of those involved in possession, sale or use of the drug, many of the people who wish to use the drug in a reasonable way have evaded its use. These restrictions from the government have acted as an incentive to the use of the drug and hence many either just avoid its use or carry out illegal activities associated to the drug.
In fact, there have been a lot of underground undertakings in the market leading to large illegal underground markets for the drug. In these markets, there are a lot of people involved in the sale and purchase of the drug, though usually in disguise so as to avoid detection by the law enforcers. However, most of the citizens are not able to act on the platform of the underground undertakings since they are involve a lot of risk and hence are quite dangerous.
This has left the whole business in the hands of very cunning and dangerous gangs that undertake the sale and distribution of the drug and actually are armed in a manner to try and face any opposition from the law enforcers, posing a lot of risk and un rest to the law enforcers and the state at large (Deist 1).
On the other side, it has been observed that with legalization of the drug, there will be a lot of sanity in the market and elimination of illegal gangs that are involved in the market hence allowing the drug to be sold freely and in a safer way. This will improve the image of the marijuana market and attract more clients who will in return opt to use the drug more responsible and without carrying out any illegal undertakings (Whitcomb 1).
We will write a custom Report on The Effect of Legalization of marijuana in the Economy of California specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The demand for the drug is hence bound to increase in a great way as many will not be afraid of getting involved in its sale. This ay, there will be a larger market for the sales, even as the already existing market gets boosted due to its legalization.
There are many factors that are attributed to an increase in the demand for marijuana. First, the increased demand will increase the prices for the drug causing more people to be involved in growing and supplying the product, a factor that is bound to result in an eventual lowering of the price for the drugs and hence stableness in the market.
On the other side, the market will have a greater base for its returns and will also result to a more sources of revenues for the government. In addition, the market will force a competition between traders resulting to an improvement of the quality offered and the way it is delivered. In this way, the drug will be used more responsibly and will hence have more advantages to the entire society (Robak 1).
Effect on supply The legalization of marijuana in the state of California will have a large effect on the supply of the product in the market. The main effect is that it will result to more people wishing to venture into the trade since it is associated with a lot of cash flow as well as high returns gotten from sale of the naturally according drug.
In this way, even farmers will wish to plant more plants and hence increase their harvests since the plants require less inputs and less attention but have a lot of returns and do not require any further processing, except in the medical cases.
In the normal circumstances, the plants are harvested and then dried before being packaged and supplied to the market. The high prices in the market places will hence attract many farmers who will wish to be involved in the production of the drug and then supply it to the market (Preston and Tracy 17).
In addition, legalization of the drug will result to more people getting involved in the sale and distribution of the drug in the market in a legal and right way. This will lead to a high competition among the suppliers resulting to increased supply and consecutively a lowered price for the drugs. This will also ensure the dealers in the marijuana industry adhere to the law and avoid evasion of taxes, a factor that will lead to collection of more revenue for the government (Whitcomb1).
Elasticity of demand and supply The increased demand and increased supply will have an overall effect of undergoing oscillations of a rise and a fall in the prices of marijuana. This market will hence be demand and supply driven, where prices will be fully dependent on the demand and the supply of the drug as well as the competition between dealers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effect of Legalization of marijuana in the Economy of California by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, due to a competitive market, the demand and supply will become more elastic resulting to a more stable market that will be more reliable by those carrying out the trade, the customers who buy the marijuana and even to the government especially in terms of collection of taxes and duties associated to the trade.
Other factors There are various other factors that will change due to the legalization of the trade and use of marijuana. In the onset, there will be less involvement of illegal gangs being associated to the trade and use of the drug. This will result to an improved security to all involved in the marijuana use and trade, the law enforcers and even the citizens at large.
Also, there is a possibility of lowered spending by the government on law enforcement changing the way it has been before. Therefore, less people will be arrested as associated to the drug and therefore the government can divert the funds to more constructive ways.
On the other side, there will be a lot of registration of those involved in the trade of the drugs as well as taxation on such a trade. This will result to increased sources of revenue for the government leading to more development in the economy (Deist 1).
Finally, citizens will be able to embrace the use of the drug and hence use it more responsible in the social, recreational and even medical aspects.
Conclusions California has many reasons to consider while dealing with the issue on whether or not to legalize marijuana in the state. Eventually, the state will be able to save a lot on its budget as well as earn more revenue from the trade.
On the other side, the state will save its citizens a lot of problems as it also gives them a chance to venture into the business and also to exercise the trade and use of the drug in a more responsible and beneficial way.
Works Cited Deist, Charlie. Why Marijuana Freedom Is Good Fiscal Policy. 10 July 2010. Web.
Pacula, Rosalie. Legalizing Marijuana: issues to consider before reforming Califonia Law. RAND website. 15 Aug. 2009. Web.
RAND Corporation. Legalizing marijuana in California would lower the price of the drug and increase use, study finds. 11 March 2010. Web.
Preston, Lee, and Brian Tracy. Introduction to Economic Analysis. London: John Willey
No Reparations for Blacks for the Injustice of Slavery Argumentative Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Why There Should Be No Paying Of Reparations to Blacks
Introduction Although more than a century has passed since the government abolished slavery, still its effects are evident in the contemporary America, because of the demand from a section of the American society to give reparations to blacks for the atrocities their ancestors suffered.
Slavery was a practice that was allowed by the law of the historical southern United States, from the time that the Britons colonized America in the 17th century, until the time of the civil war of 1861-1865, when the practice started diminishing. Although most black slaves suffered under the hands of their white masters, they played a crucial role of making the U.S. to be what it is today, because of their active role in the building of major U.S. cities, and even the white house.
Due to the extreme suffering that the black slaves went through, and the fact that, the U.S. government took a very long time to apologize to the Black community; there has been numerous campaigns to compensate the surviving families of victims of slavery. Generally, reparations campaigns are majorly based on the assumption that, the nonblack taxpayers should pay the blacks a certain amount of compensations, them being the primary heirs of the wealth that their ancestors acquired during slavery.
Yes, no one can deny that black slaves suffered under the tyrannical rule of their white masters, and it is purely wrong that the U.S. government took a very long time to apologize and offer help to then slaves, to ease their suffering. However, why should the present white taxpayers pay for the atrocities committed by their ancestors, some of whom they do not even know? Further, the present America is a mixed race society; hence, tracing the descendants of the black slaves is very challenging activity.
On the other hand, it will be so unfair to impose the burden of paying reparations to one section of the American society, while forgetting that, its only small portion of the historical whites who had slaves; hence, what of those families that never had slaves. (Olson Para. 2-14) Considering these, although every individual acknowledges that slavery made many Blacks to suffer, the government should not offer any reparations to African-Americans, to compensate for the suffering “their” ancestors suffered.
Why There Should Be No Paying Of Reparations to Blacks Frankly speaking, most activities of slavery were morally degrading, violated numerous human rights, and caused extreme suffering to the slaves. Therefore, to some extent the claim of paying some reparations to the surviving families of African-American ancestors is correct. However, one thing that most proponents of the Reparation campaign forget is that, slavery was a historical activity that was lawful, and majority of those who the tyrannical treatment of white masters are survived by families of mixed races (whites included).
Therefore, one critical question that most proponents have failed to provide solutions to is; who will the government compensate for the suffering of the historical black community. Historically, not all whites promoted the practice, as there was a group of whites who opposed the practice, for example, the Abolitionists and the Union Army members. Most members of these two groups also suffered under the tyrannical rule of the white masters.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, it will be so unfair to make their generation pay for a practice that their ancestors struggled and lost their lives fighting to be abolished. On the other hand, one thing that most proponents of reparation assume is that, it is only the blacks who lost their lands; hence, the tendency of most of them proposing that, the government should give African-American tracks of lands as compensation.
In making this assumption, most supporters of reparation tend to forge that, the historical slavery injustices were also done to whites, more so those who lived in the fertile Southeastern sections of the colonial U.S. Considering this, allocating some portions of land, will be like repeating what the white oppressors did during the slavery period, because some white families resettled ion their ancestry land.
Further, it is important fro individual to note that, some perpetrators of the practice were blacks themselves (more so the freed slaves) after the civil war; hence, paying a certain portion of the American society will mean that, the government is paying those who promoted the practice, rather than the real suffers (Horowitz 1-2).
In addition to difficulties of identifying the real sufferers of the slavery, there is no practical evidence that links slavery with the current problems that the African-Americans face. Most supporters of the reparation ideology assume that, the current problems facing African-Americans are a result of the historical injustices that individuals in this community faced during the slave trade period.
Yes, this might be right because of the practical evidence of how much African-Americans have struggles to be where they are social, economically, and politically. However, it has been more than a decade since the abolishment of slave trade, and many blacks have rose to high levels of political and economic power, regardless of what their ancestors went through.
Considering this, why should a community endowed with all the necessary resources to better their lives blame their suffering on a practice that ceased to exist over one hundred and fifty years ago? Take for example the West Indian Blacks; this group has endeavored to promote its economic wellbeing, and their efforts have gained good fruits, as most West Indians earn almost the same incomes as their white counterparts.
On the other hand, since the adoption on the Civil Rights Acts of 1964, the American government has dedicated numerous funds to those it considers the disadvantages in the society (where the black community are the majority).
We will write a custom Essay on No Reparations for Blacks for the Injustice of Slavery specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of these funds are in form of college bursaries, welfare benefits, and economic stimulus packages (Block 56-68). Therefore, the economic assumption largely lacks a base of expression hence, for fairness purposes; there should no compensations to the black community.
On the other hand, considering the fact that, Reparations are likely to favor certain groups within the American society, this can be very detrimental to the peaceful coexistence of the American people.
That is, considering the fact that, most reparation funds should come from the white taxpayer community, likelihoods of racism increasing are high, as this may make one group to feel oppressed of forced to suffer for mistakes they never committed. One thing that most supporters of the reparation ideology forget to acknowledge is that, some whites and some members of the black community came to the U.S. after slavery had long been abolished (Munford 413-432).
Due to this, one question that always arises is that; which group of whites should pay or contribute to the reparation kitty, and how can it be identified? Therefore promoting this like an ideology can greatly endanger the nature of relationships that exist between the entire American community; hence, the need to do away completely with the reparation ideology.
Conclusion In conclusion, because of the numerous negative effects associated with the reparation ideology for individuals to accept that, it is not a good idea to give reparations to blacks, as this may lead to more wars between different ethnic groups that make the American continent.
The future of this debate depends on the acceptance of the entire American society to face the real facts about reparation, and accepting the fact that, although it’s a good way of compensating for those who suffered under the tyrannical rule of slave masters, majority of the sufferers are dead and the American community has become more multiracial. Therefore, paying certain communities can be very suicidal, as it is likely to disturb the peace America enjoys.
To deal with the issue appropriately, it is important for the government to formulate restorative justice policies that will promote love, peace, and development in the U.S. Yes it is so hard to reconcile and make all American Groups to be at par, economically, socially, and politically; however, if the government can offer its citizenry enough economic stimulating programs, likelihoods of the gap that exists between the whites and blacks is likely to reduce.
Dwelling in the history of injustice, is as equal as starting racial wars between Americans; hence, the government should instead formulate programs that are acceptable by all Americans. This can be of great help in mending the damaged relationships that exist between different groups of different ethnic backgrounds that make the American continent (Walker 382-390).
Not sure if you can write a paper on No Reparations for Blacks for the Injustice of Slavery by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Block, Walter. On reparations to Blacks fro slavery. Human Rights Review. Sept. 2002. Web.
Horowitz, David. Ten reasons why reparations fro blacks is a bad idea fro blacks and racists too. Front Page Magazine, 2001. Web.
Munford, Clarence. A black perspective for the 21st century. New Jersey: Africa World Press, 1996. Web.
Olson, Walter. Reparations, R.I.P. The Street Journal Autumn. 2008. Web.
Walker, Margaret. Restorative and reparations. Journal of Social Philosophy, 37.3 (2006): 377-395. Web.