Teachings Of Islam Research Paper Essay Help Online Free

Table of Contents Introduction

Islamic Principles

Distribution of the Population of the Muslims

Family Relations

Islamic Sheria

Islamic, Christianity, and Judaism



Reference List

Introduction Religion can be defined as the belief and worship in a certain god or gods. It can also be defined as a set of belief observed by a specific group of people concerning their origin or purpose in life. There are many different types of religions in the world with different narratives, and sacred history. The word religion can also be used in place of belief or faith although it is more of a belief and is more related to the public.

Islam is a religion that pays allegiance to God and Mohammed (a prophet of God). All of Islamic teachings are found in the Koran. Mohammed is believed to have received revelation from Angel Gabriel over a span of 23 years. This paper looks at some of the teachings in Islam, compares these teachings as interpreted in many Muslim countries such as USA-Britain, the Middle East, India and Pakistan and other Asia countries

Islamic Principles The Koran contains many teachings that form the basis of sharia law. It is in the Koran that we find the daily prayer requirements, alms giving, and fasting which should be observed during the wholly month of Ramadan. The Islamic faith is built upon five main pillars; Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Hajj, and Sawm.

The Shahada talks about the uniqueness of Allah and his prophet Mohammed, Salat is a description of how Muslims worship or pray to Allah, Zakat, refers to the practice of helping the poor members of the society (Every Muslim is expected to give 2.5% of his capital assets annually), Hajj, is also known as pilgrimage to Mecca, every Muslim is expected to observe this practice in their lifetime, and Sawm refers to fasting during Ramadan (Bates, 2007)..

Distribution of the Population of the Muslims In the world, about 20% of the population is Islamic. Majority of the Muslims respects other religions, advocate for peace and are involved in finance or business. The Muslim population is diverse all over the world. More than fifty countries in the world are concentrated with the Muslim population.

This population is mostly concentrated in the Middle East, US, Afghanistan, and Indonesia. Less than 15% of the Muslim population is Arabs. The increase in Muslim population was due to immigration, increase in birth rate, and many people converted to Islamic from year 2004 to 2008. This increase is highest in Britain. It has been projected that by 2025 the number of Muslims will be higher than that of the Christians.

According to the projection, Muslims will be about 30% of the total population while Christian will be at most 25%. Of all the total population of Muslims in the world 90% are Sunni whereas 10% are Shia (Bates, 2007). Every Muslim is governed by a divine law known as sheria which regulates how Muslims should behave and conduct themselves. It encompasses all aspects of life such as family relations, taxation, prayer, inheritance among other practices that are common within Muslims.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Family Relations From a very early age, Muslim women are taught to respect their bodies by covering it with black burqas all the way from the head to their feet. They are also forbidden from doing certain things that are done by men for instance, Muslim women are forbidden from going to the mosque and they can not even drive their own car.

For along time, Muslim women in Pakistan have been subjected to female genital mutilation although this seems to be fading in certain communities (Syed, 2003). Sex before marriage, homosexuality, and adultery are forbidden in many of the Islam countries and a person found committing such a claim is aggressively punished. Unlike Christianity, Islam regards marriages as mere contracts with certain conditions.

They are not considered as a covenant being made in heaven and can be broken if one side breaks the contract’s condition. Divorce is common in Islam and is always expected although hadith teachers that, divorce is one of the things that is mostly disliked by God. A divorce is granted if one partner behaviors against what is expected according to the Sunnah of Islam; for instance if he becomes abusive, cruel, unfaithful, neglectful, perverted to name but a few. Contrary to this, Christianity does not allow divorce under any circumstances.

Marriages are believed to be made in heaven and should therefore be respected until death. Even if one is granted divorce under Christianity, he/she can not remarry if the other partner is still alive. One is only allowed to marry if the other partner dies (Syed, 2003).

After the death of a Muslim, his shares, money, and property is protected and governed by law. In the Middle East, and parts of India, all the diseased children are allowed to inherit part of their father’s property and money although the girls get a smaller share than the boys because it is assumed that, men are the breadwinners in their family and have an obligation to provide for their families.

A woman is not obliged by any law to share part of her property or money since it is termed as hers and hers alone. Likewise, in marriages, a woman is not obliged to use part of her salary to provide for the family unless she wishes to do so. However, a Muslim woman is expected to be kind to every one and be trustworthy.

She should always strive to make her family cheerful and support her husband in all his undertakings. Irrespective of whether she has any professional skills, she is supposed to respect and accept her husband as the head of the family although she has a right to refuse anything asked of her by the husband if she feels it is contrary to God’s will. Even if the husband is the head of the family, he can never be her master because she is only expected to observe only one master; that is God.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Teachings of Islam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Islamic Sheria The Islamic sheriah does not inflict limitation on the forms of money. It only interferes with people’s attitudes in regard to wealth and money but not the form of money. Islamic sheriah upholds regulation in the use and provision of money. It forbids interest (Riba) from any form of business.

Islamic finance believes that money can only be invested in worthy business; it upholds the view of socially responsible investing (Abdullah, 1996). Islam perceives that a good person can only invest in good things with good intentions. Investing in drugs, alcohol, porno among others is termed as bad investments.

Riba refers to excess money which according to sheriah principles implies to reward earned without appropriate consideration in terms of time worth for money. We two types of Riba; the increase in capital without the provision of services and the product exchanges in disproportionate quantities As we have seen earlier, Islam prohibits earning of interest fees.

This does not mean that the Islamic financial institutions do not aim at making profit as people tend to believe. Contrary to that, most of the Islamic financial institutions or banks operate on the basis of profit making. In Iran, banks can only offer products that have been clear in accordance with the regulations given by the council of ministers.

There is no sheriah board to offer guidance or supervision on the commercial banks. In Bahrain, all banks are required to set up “an independent sharia supervision committee” that complies with the supreme principles of Islamic financial institutions. Different approaches have been followed on cases regarding regulatory issues on the sheriah principles in different countries (Abdullah, 1996).

Islamic, Christianity, and Judaism The word Islam means entering into peace. This portrays the religion as a religion that has its strong holds in peace development. Just like the religion of Christianity and Judaism that put more emphasis on love; Prophet Muhammad, who is the main character in the Islamic religion, puts more emphasis on mercy.

He was the last and greatest of God’s messengers, who were mandated to continue the works of Abraham, Jesus and Mosses. He preached to people to have mercy on each other. He did emphasize on the need of mercy to the less fortunate in the society. This goes in line with the strong holds of the religion which is peace.

The religion call their God Allah, this means God, the true God. The character of the lord is that of peace and mercy (Robinson, 2010). The name of God either in the Muslim or other religion is respected. The ideology that either Christianity or Muslim derived the name was the same or similar. This is in that the Biblical Elohîm (God) and h¥-Elôh (the true God) of Moses and the Hebrew prophets or the Aramaic Al¥h¥ (God, the true God) of Jesus and John the Baptist the recognition of the supremacy of the lord is recognized.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Teachings of Islam by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Both religions recognize the works of early prophets in their works of developing the religion. They specifically recognize the work of Abraham, Moses, Isaac and Jesus (Robinson, 2010). In many Muslim and Christian countries, homo- sexual is jailed on long term while other countries do not have any laws that prohibits against such behaviors.

Madrasas Madrasas literally means a school that offers instruction in the Islamic subjects including the Koran and hadith and sheria law. These schools were established for the purpose of promoting Islamic based curriculum. In Egypt and Lebanon, madrasas refers to educational institutions whereas in Bangladesh and Pakistan, madrasas refers to Islamic religious schools.

The oldest madrasas to be established is known as Nizamiyah and is located in Baghdad. The main idea behind the establishment of this school was to provide lodging faculties, food, and free education to the Muslim population. Afterwards, madrasas spread rapidly to other Muslim countries. Madrasas, in most Muslim countries today, form part of the educational infrastructure. They offer religious-based curriculum, focusing on the Koran and Islamic texts.

Beyond instruction in basic religious tenets, some argue that a small group of radicalized madrasas, specifically located on the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, are spawning a militant form of Islam and calling on Muslim to fight nonbelievers and stand against what they perceive as the moral immorality of the West. Pakistan has more than ten thousand madrasas that have turned out to be of help now that the country is going through periods of extreme poverty and underdevelopment (Armanios, 2003).

Since the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, madrasas in many parts of the world for instance, Asia, Middle East, and central have shifted their focus to the U.S foreign policy makers. Many of these policy makers hold that, there is a close tie between the terrorist organizations (such as AL Qaeda) and madrasas, and hold that these schools encourage Islamic extremism and militancy.

On the other hand, other policy makers strongly believe that, most of these religious schools have been blamed for something they have no connection with (that is for fostering anti- U.S.) madrasas attracted more attention when it became evident that, a number of Taliban leaders and members of the AL Qaeda terrorist organization had developed essential political views at madrasas in Pakistan, some of which were believed to have been built and financed by Saudi Arabian (Armanios, 2003).

Conclusion The main principle behind Islam is that there is only one God called Allah who is the creator of the universe and Mohammed is the only messenger of Allah. There has been recorded a significance increase in the number of Muslims for the last four years. The Muslim population has grown by almost 10 times while that of the Christian by 2 times.

The power of God is seen in both Christianity and Islamic; he is seen as one who the early prophets served and the today’s people have no alternative than to follow his teaching, Christianity, Judaism, and Islam do not allow same sex marriages adultery or sex before marriage.

Many policy makers in the United States hold many accusations that madrasas are used to promote Islamic fanaticism and militancy, and are a recruiting ground for terrorism. They are others who maintain that, the madrasas play a very crucial role in eradicating poverty and promoting education in countries where the population of Muslims is high

Reference List Abdullah, S. (1996). Islamic banking: a study of the prohibition of riba and its contemporary interpolation. New York: Prentice Hall.

Armanios, F. (2003). Islamic religious schools, madrasas: Background. Web.

Bates, S. (2007). The beliefs and laws of Islam. Web.

Robinson, B. A. (2010). Comparing Christianity and Islam: the world’s two largest religions. Web.

Syed, B. (2003). Women in Islam: Hijab. Web.


Solving the Ethical Dilemmas Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help

With the shift to employees-centered policies within the majority of organizations, the issues of ethical behavior and both individual and organizational responsibility require special consideration.

At present, a number of firms have vacancies for communication specialists who could train employees to behave ethically in both formal and informal settings. Ethical training has impact on employees’ judgments as to wrongness or rightness of their actions in working environment but the final decisions depend upon their personal views and priorities.

Facing moral dilemmas, employees often hesitate before making a choice between their egoistic inclinations and altruistic values, following ethical norms or their own life views.

The problem of these inner conflicts is rooted in mismatches between the ethical standards within a particular organization and individual’s system of values. “Value congruence (the similarity between individual and organizational values) between employees and their organizations has a significant effect on organizational commitment” (Shockley-Zalabak, 2009, p. 105).

Obtaining a profound knowledge of ethical norms, an individual still can hesitate, deciding on a particular principle for finding the appropriate way out. Considering the issues of basic moral rights for solving particular problems, an employee notices that they can overlap and contradict one another, giving rise to people’s doubts. For this reason, these are personal values that become the assessment criteria of wrongness or rightness of one’s own actions and behavior of others.

Weighing all pros and cons of a particular moral choice, an individual should set the priorities and view the situation from various perspectives before proceeding to actions. For example, interpersonal relationships between employees can become the reason for controversial situations in which workers will have to decide between ethical standards and their individual values.

In a situation when a person overhears a conversation between managers concerning the refuse of promotion for his/her best friend and hesitates if it is admissible to inform a friend on it or keep silent unwilling to hurt a friend and because of the manner in which the information was received.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is the topic of the conversation and peculiarities of the situation that matter in this individual case. According to the norms of professional ethics, I should have kept silent. However, evaluating the situation critically and considering the fact that a friend would lose an interesting job offer from another department without my interference, I would disclose the secret. However, this choice would be more problematic if there were no offer from another department.

Then this information would be useless for the friend and could only frustrate him/her. Sharing information that has no any impact on reality is close to spreading rumors. In this case the principles of basic rights for privacy and free will overlap and the choice between them depends upon the employees’ personal priorities.

The human factor has a significant impact on the effectiveness of the working process. Besides the professional qualities, the importance of issues of psychological compatibility of the members of a team and their ability to cooperate should not be underestimated.

The working atmosphere and general mood of a team are significant for enhancing the effectiveness of the collaborative process. “Executives reported that they waste 7.8 hours per week, or 2.3 months per year, in unnecessary meetings” (Messmer, 2001, “Conducting effective meetings”).

For this reason, rating time at its true value, employees should plan their meetings beforehand, putting special emphasis on meeting the targets. In a situation when a member of a project team developing a training program for customer support representatives observes reluctance of two members of a team to make a contribution to the project and gets to know that they spread rumors about his/her lack of proficiency, a person faces a moral dilemma.

On the one hand, the behavior of these employees is unprofessional and inadmissible. On the other hand, making particular decisions, an individual should consider the ethical norms and consider the consequences of one’s choices, bearing in mind the success of the program.

In this situation I would follow the norms of ethical conduct directly, asking these members to make more efforts, pointing at the objective reasons of my dissatisfaction without mentioning any rumors or other unreliable sources of information. “The value of communication is equal to the costs plus the efforts of what you’re communicating to the power of perception” (Sierra, 2003, “Sierra’s theory of communicativity”).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Solving the Ethical Dilemmas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Disregarding the importance of the atmosphere within a team, business should not be sacrificed to discussing the interpersonal relationships. Even if other employees do not implement principles of corporative ethics, it does not mean that an individual should put them in their own coin.

Ensuring the basic rights for their employees and considering the ethical training while planning the company’s programs is expected to enhance the effectiveness of its working processes. The human factor and similarity between individual and organizational systems of values play an important role in company’s success. Evaluating the rightness or wrongness of a particular action, employees implement ethical principles only after adapting them to their personal views.

Reference List Messmer, M. (2001, June). Conducting effective meetings. Strategic Finance, 82(12), 8–9.

Shockley-Zalabak, P. (2009). Fundamentals of organizational communication knowledge, sensitivity, skills, values (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

Sierra, L. (2003, June/July). Sierra’s theory of communicativity. Communication World, 20(4).


How Director is Able to Yield Higher Productivity of the Artists? Essay online essay help: online essay help

Directors have a very major and important role to play when it comes to processing of a project or art. Previously, directors had more responsibilities to perform comparatively. In the modern age directors have more technologies to work with. Despite advancement in the technology, the role of director still remains crucial and imperative. This paper aims to propose the ways through which directors would be able to yield desired productivity from the artists.

Directors can impact the overall productivity of artists by actually going through a profound thought process. It is very imperative for the directors to understand the need of performing effective thought process. A director is actually a person who already pictures each and every act of a character in the mind.

A successful directing is thus only possible in case the director is capable of having a deep and thorough thought process. Being aware of each and every action to be taken on sets would automatically result in increased productivity of actors. In other words it could be said that only an informed director would be able to yield productivity out of artists because he will exactly know the objectives of the file, theatre or drama (Goodridge, 2002).

Another most important thing that a director is supposed to do for impacting the overall productivity of the artist is to inquire. A director is one who is highly knowledgeable about art and who sees society from a different perspective unlike other individuals. This could be regarded as a distinctive quality of the director (Goodridge, 2002).

A director should inquire and carefully research if the actors are able to deliver the desired action or not. A director is more like a base of a movie who is able to take decisions for the film from selecting the type of wardrobe of the first scene to the emotional mellow drama of the final cut.

A director would be able to impact the productivity and creativity of an artist when he exactly understands the role. Director’s thinking goes beyond the thinking of any other official in arts. An art director is supposed to look at a scenario from all direction (Goodridge, 2002).

The word directing itself defines the way how the overall productivity of artists could be achieved. A director can impact the production of creativity of artists by actually looking into the matters which could be problematic in the long run. A director needs to take care of all the fallacies and risks which are associated with the project. A change that could affect the creativity of artists must be completely omitted.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Directors are able to understand the fallacies by observing situations. It is first and foremost responsibility of a director in the current age and success years (Goodridge, 2002). Artists and other team professionals might be busy with the processing of their tasks and therefore be not able to understand the small errors that could result in the complications ahead. In such a situation, a director can play an avid role by actually observing, planning and then halting errors.

Through the above analysis it could be said that through effective thought-process, observation and thorough planning, a director is able to yield higher productivity of the directors. Directors in the modern age have more technologies but the fact remains the same that a director is the basis and indirectly responsible for all the processes of a project.

Reference Goodridge, M. (2002). Directing. Oxford: Focal Press.


Returning TARDIS to Profitability Report essay help

HoKTok, through TARDIS currently operates five thousand call boxes around Australia, which has a “small population spread across vast areas” (The Communication Law Centre, p. 2). It offers untimed calls at a fixed rate of $0.40c. This popular service, unfortunately, is no longer profitable. The key to TARDIS’s popularity is its fixed charge on untimed calls.

Changing this fixed price could negatively affect consumer choice. As part of the Australian telecoms industry, TARDIS must endeavor to provide services that, “best meet the social, industrial, and commercial needs of the people of Australia” (Bolton et al, 1993, p. 32). It is recognized that telecommunication technology “continually shapes the very fabric of our global society” (Hill Associates, 2002, p. xvii).

The basic strategy for returning TARDIS to profitability requires either, a reduction in overheads while maintaining current revenues or increase in revenues while maintaining overheads at the current levels. To attain profitability, Howard advices that, “you must first wake up to the internal rules you are currently playing by and expand you field of possibilities” (2004, p. xvii)

Increasing revenues is a better way of assuring profitability compared to reducing overheads. This is because other parties set the cost of most overheads and these costs will continue to rise, eating into HoKTok’s margin. HoKTok cannot pay less for the services it consumes to run TARDIS, but will actually pay more in the future.

Similarly, it cannot reduce its workforce in order to spend less on the wage bill because this may compromise service delivery and may actually end up risking the current revenues. In addition, it cannot reduce the workers’ wages without precipitating labor unrest. Baker warns that. “Labor will not permit a reduction in the standard of living” (2009, p. 5).

Katz adds that many companies struggle with “how to reduce labor costs while retaining employee commitment and an appropriate skill base” (1997, p.3). While HokTok must continue to “implement various measures to lower cost” (Suzue, 2002, p. 1), it cannot rely on them to regain profitability. This should not encourage HoKTok to make cost discipline, “an incidental reaction to events” (Institute of Management and Administration, 2006, p. 3)

TARDIS can return to profitability by introduction of prepaid cards, optimization of profitable segments of the market and introducing a service for call centers and telemarketing companies. Introduction of prepaid cards will secure revenue. It will lock our clients in the network and it will mean they will always have to find a TARDIS call box from which they can make their calls. The idea of being locked-in may not be very attractive to clients, and will require a careful marketing campaign to ensure acceptance of the cards.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Optimization of the profitable market segments means that HokTok increases the number of call boxes located in areas where clients naturally call for shorter periods such as airports, train stations, and bus stops and reduces the call boxes near schools, restaurants, and residential areas where callers talk for longer.

The third option is introducing TARDIS to new clientele such as call centers and telemarketing firms whose business depend on volume of calls. Since they aim at making the most number of calls per unit time, they will provide a larger revenue base for TARDIS. In fact, it is possible to offer them lower call rates per call and break even on the assured call volumes. However, we must take into account Retske’s insight that, if prices are “set too low, profit opportunities will be missed” (2002, p. 172).

On a priority basis, I recommend that we pursue optimization of profitable market segments. This will see TARDIS increasing the number of call boxes in areas where callers take a shorter time per call, while reducing the number of call boxes where callers take longer. No substantial investment is required to move some of the call boxes from high cost market segments to low cost market segments. We must act quickly ahead of our competitors because in the telecommunication industry, services “spring up and quickly” (Peterson, 2000, p.9).

References Baker, RS 2009, The new industrial unrest: reasons and remedies. Cornell University Press, New York.

Bolton et al 1993, The communication service: Negotiating structural and technological change. International Labor Organization, Geneva.

Hill Associates 2002, Telecommunications: A beginner’s guide. McGraw-Hill/Osborne, California.

Howard, C 2004, Turning passions into profits: Three steps to wealth and power. John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey.

We will write a custom Report on Returning TARDIS to Profitability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Institute of Management and Administration 2006, Cost reduction and control best practices: The best ways for a financial manager to save money. John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey.

Katz, HC 1997, Telecommunications: Restructuring work and employment relations worldwide. Cornell University Press, New York.

Peterson, KD 2000, Business telecoms systems: A guide to choosing the best technologies and services. CMP Books, New York

Retske, G 2002, A guide to competitive international telecommunications. CMP Books, New York.

Suzue, T 2002, Cost half: The method for radical cost reduction. Productivity Press, New York.

The Communication Law Centre 2004, Australian telecommunications regulation. University of South Wales press Ltd, Sydney.


Role and Powers of Presidents Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents ‘Great’ presidents

Presidential Leadership

What it Takes for a Candidate to be Elected

Works Cited

The president is supposed to exercise the powers which are granted to him or her by the Federal Constitution or the Congress act in the interest of the public. However there have been divergent arguments among the people holding this presidential office arising from different references and reasoning.

All the arguments insist that each is function best for the public welfare (Cronin and Genovese 43). In the above view, the president has the responsibility to act in the interest of the public, ensure all situations are right for the interest of his people and make right judgments because they directly affect the lives of the ruled.

The president can at any time withdraw any entry into U.S’ public lands and put aside part for forestry, for irrigation purposes and water resources. Jackson Lincoln held the view that the president must be capable of forming judgments for himself and his juniors (Cronin and Genovese 45).

Today’s presidency has both informal and formal leverage to command decisions at any time. They can certainly come up with personal initiatives and decide on whichever matters. Additionally, the role of presidents has seemingly become that of main agenda setters in the making of policies at federal level. The president is also surrounded with a bureaucracy that further extends his mandate and powers.

In the modern days, presidents have the capacity to drive political systems in the way they wish because they are the main actors in the systems hence obscuring the role of their subordinates (Fine and Waterman 25).

The president also has the power to take significant measures that can have dynamic implications on the nation. For example, the president can deploy tactical nuclear weapons. The impact of this executive power is magnified by the fact that their decisions have direct impacts on the general public understanding (Cronin and Genovese 54).

The different views held come from the ambiguity in defining the role of the president. For many years now, presidential practices have varied. Roosevelt for example fostered palace politics, Kennedy concentrated on collegial informality, and Eisenhower assumed the role of building his staff. The ambiguity in defining presidential roles makes it easy for the office holders to shape their roles on personal basis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ‘Great’ presidents Both presidents that have succeeded and those who have failed are considered as great leaders. For example, most scholars claim that President Lyndon Johnson’s extraordinary legislative system has a record in success. Despite his success, scholars argue that Johnson highly contributed in the disastrous war in Vietnam.

Additionally, Dwight Eisenhower is a president that most scholars consider passive during his reign. However, history credits him with very few significant accomplishments. It is in fact argued that it was during his time that Korea went into war and corruption cases within his administration increased. Woodrow Wilson is also one of America’s presidents that is remembered for the Senate’s dismissal of Versailles Treaty (Pfiffner 25).

These are some of presidents known as great although with remarkable failures during their administrations. A survey conducted in 2000 that ranked 10 different categories of leadership indicated that the public and politicians have different views on what presidents should have and be like.

One expectation that makes one a great president is the ability to function more than just managerial or party leaders. Studies indicate that a president must demonstrate great leadership capabilities because they represent the nation at large. The rating in this context falls between being a weak or a strong president.

This is the view that most presidential candidates rise to power with. However, the divergent views of a successful or a failed president must be defined in consideration of different contexts. To meet this expectation from the public, presidents must function ahead of their times.

There are different political times that presidents function well and avoid getting ahead of their time including reconstruction, articulation and disjuncture periods. In this regard, presidents need to know the expectations accompanying their type of leadership. Studies show that there are further different political period that different presidencies have taken place in America (Pfiffner 35).

The patrician period that occurred between 1789-1832, the partisan time occurring between 1832-1900,the pluralist period (1900-1972), and 1972- to date plebiscitary period. Considering the first period, Americans great presidents Thomas Jefferson and George Washington exhibited great interpersonal skills during their political views with legislators. Additionally, James Madison and John Adams proved weak leaders when gauged against the first political period.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Role and Powers of Presidents specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Jackson, who led national partisan movements, functioned under the second political period hence relatively advantaged. With the centralization of the economy, American presidency was expected to have strong leadership strengths with much emphasis on economy. This was at the pluralist period and effective confrontation of foreign policy.

This was a further consideration in rating whether a president was great or a failure. More so, the presidents in this period must exert full responsibility for national issues by establishing an expansive bureaucracy. In the present plebiscitary period, the presidents sometimes rely less on political organizations and have less capability to bargain as it was seen in the past regimes. With such considerations, the presidents are therefore expected to directly persuade the public (Fine and Waterman 47).

Most scholars believe that presidential power is the ability to persuade the public, Congress members and other political actors in order to reap positive outcome. However, it argues that a president is not considered powerful on the merit of his/her presidency. It says that cultural, constitutional and political factors also empower these individuals to become successful presidential leaders.

However, political power differs among presidency holders mainly because of the diversity in strategic challenges and political resources available to them. Most of America’s presidents have ruled with the belief that the ability to persuade the public, political actors and Congress members determines whether one is a successful president or a failure (Cronin and Genovese 21).

Presidential Leadership Scholars argue that the definition of leadership must encompass good leadership. But good leadership does not always result into positive results. There are times when poor leadership has yielded positive outcomes. Leadership is therefore the ability to successfully use one’s political skills and the leverage exposed to an individual to yield satisfactory outcomes.

President’s performance is influenced by various factors that expose them to particular challenges. For example, a good economy contributes to high ratings of successful leaders.

The vice versa is also true. If on the other hand, a president has restricted power to influence the economy, scholars question as to whether such presidents should be termed as failures or successful (Cronin and Genovese 22). Ideally, presidential leadership means persuading other political actors to act for their own interests. This is because a leader is supposed to inspires others to do as they desire hence influencing their behaviors.

The challenge that presidential leaders face while convincing the other political actors is the fact that different situations and contexts call for different qualities and skills. Scholars argue that some personal skills can be useful at certain circumstances while others are not (Waterman and Rockman 23).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Role and Powers of Presidents by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this regard, different presidents encounter dissimilar political scenarios on coming to office, because the circumstances change with time hence the different political leverage during the different terms. More so, successful presidents are measured by the ability to respond and manage political outcomes. The important thing is that which the president is interested in and the personal capability to accomplish it.

Presidential leaders are limited by the resources, tools and political capital present to them. The tools include external political supporters in Congress, economical state, the political stability of the nation and the overall international political mood. With such factors, presidential skills as well as political powers are vital in accomplishing their political ambitions (Cronin and Genovese 23).

Presidents have got copious resources, tools and political capital within their reach. This therefore describes the extent of their ability to structure, slant and adapt organizational functions towards favorable angles that match their political and policy interests.

With the constitutional powers presidents can considerably control presidential appointments to advance their political interests. Another leverage tool is their ability to shape and influence the bureaucratic agencies budget. This is because the federal budget often goes with what the Congress passes.

Therefore, when the Congress is controlled by the party’s president, he or she can shape the budget too fit his preferences. Presidents can also use the veto to shape the final legislature’s budget. Studies show that in the 20th century, presidents have used this executive power to gain control over particular institutions that are significant to their presidential leadership (Cronin and Genovese 36).

Most people have no demarcation between leadership and its outcomes but scholars argue that there are possibilities of having good leadership systems resulting in poor performances. Scholars argue that personal leadership skills must be differentiated from the outcomes. In an example, if one has a team of ball players that frequently loses in games; this has little to do with the manager’s skills, the fact is that the team’s quality is poor.

This therefore indicates that it is very possible to have good leadership but on the other hand have poor results. This further illustrates that between the outcome and skills, quality is an intervening variable that must not be ignored. The manager can however influence the outcome through his skills hence maximizing on his leverage.

If a president takes over from a recessed economy, the president has limited tools through which he can influence outcomes in his/her leadership. Therefore there are chances of being unelected back to power. Some may argue that the individual failed to demonstrate presidential leadership skills (Waterman and Rockman 15). However scholars argue that no matter the extent of skills and abilities, it is impossible to achieve the desired outcomes.

If the president inherits an economically stable nation but has limited knowledge, then it can be said that the leader was a bad one, however if the economy was stable yet with minimal leadership knowledge, positive outcomes can still be manifested. Therefore, it is important to consider such factors as to why and how the results were achieved.

At some times, a president may be having personal political skills that results into effective policy or political outcomes. Whereas at other times the president may be having no skills yet there are positive results. Additionally, a president may display skills yet the results turn out negative, at other times, a president may be having no skills but the results become unsuccessful (Waterman and Rockman 18). Leverage is an intervening variable in the first and second case that determines the outcomes.

Historic periods and economy state are also intervening factors that determine the success of a presidential leader. Leaders that rule during pacific times have fewer chances of being termed successful leaders than those who rule during periods of change. Therefore if all these factors are combined with the leverage that a president exerts in his/her governing, then the relationship between leadership and success is clearly manifested.

The Indiana Jones Model depicts a scenario whereby the president has considerable skills, but at the same time has no or minimal leverage, yet the outcomes are significantly great. Although the president may seem gifted, the context doest not provide chances for any positive results. However the president just prevails as a result of luck. This is therefore independent of the president’s leverage or skills. At certain times, it is possible to have positive results with no president’s persuasion and skills.

On the Pseudo-leadership model, the president may be having no skills, has leverage then successful results. This is a case that occurred with President Eisenhower. In this case, leaders in Congress contributed in the passing of significant legislations. The president paid little attention to the issues but much credit went to him. The president displayed no skills (Cronin and Genovese 26).

At other times there are chances of good fortune accompanying the outcomes. For example, Calvin Coolidge appeared a lucky president; it was a matter of being at the right place, at an appropriate time. The president enjoyed a very stable economy that left praises for his name yet he demonstrated no skills and had no leverage within his reach in which to exert influence. It was just his lucky period.

On the other hand a president may have skills and much leverage at his disposal but gets no positive outcomes. In the case of Johnson and the Vietnam War, even if he had substantive public support and extensive Democratic support from both houses, chances of successful outcomes were thin.

More so, recent tapes have shown Johnson mourning because he knows that going to the war provides no chance of winning the battle, however, he also knows that if he does not, he will forever be blamed for the Vietnam defeat. This is a no-win situation in which leadership success is independent of the president.

At another scenario, the president demonstrates leadership skills and is exposed to a considerable leverage that gives him/her significant success. This is a common Neustadt’s case of presidential leadership. Franklin Delano Roosevelt maximized on his extra-ordinary political wit and leverage during the economic recession and World War 11 era to design policies for the New Deal hence the positive war efforts. In this scenario, the president’s success was dependent on his skills (Cronin and Genovese 27).

What it Takes for a Candidate to be Elected For a candidate to be elected as the president in a federal office, the individual must have attained the age of thirty five years, must be a resident for a minimum of fourteen years. The Electoral College has the provisions that the two houses of Congress and the state participates in electing the president. The state chooses the electors (Electoral College) who eventually elects the president. The candidate that garners majority votes of the electors becomes the president.

If none of the candidates attains majority voles, the House chooses the president while the Senate selects the vice president, each state delegate therefore votes once. However, members of Electoral College can be elected from party states and themselves vote for their fellow party nominees hence influencing the strategies of presidential candidates. This will definitely change the conduct and nature of electing a president (Edwards 34).

Critics of the Electoral College system argue that it is often flawed and that the runner up candidates must not become president, this is because the candidate that garners most votes becomes the president. This perspective, they argue, inflicts a serious burden on the minority leader according to the evolving U.S’ democratic values.

However, they argue that America was initially never expected to have pure democracy and neither was it thought that U.S will be guided by the notion of majority rule (Edwards 31). They say that government institution was meant to be a republic with people’s representative in the government. More so, the separation of powers that has checks and balances was supposed to curb hindrances of change.

In this context, Bill of Rights is implemented to regulate majority’s will from going against citizen’s rights. The explanation given for the president to be elected from direct citizens’ votes is because the president and his vice wholly represent the people amongst al the nationals. And that it is the people’s best chosen candidate. However, the critiques argue that it is not enough to say that people’s will must be the only determining factor for the nationally voted government officials.

They therefore argue that because the president must be voted for by the majority of the population does not mean every other element of the government must be popularly elected (Cronin and Genovese 24). The powers of the modern president are the results of initiatives and patterns that have formed over centuries as far as presidential history is concerned. This is inclusive of crises political realignments, economic depression and institutional changes.

The powers of the president, as Thomas E. Cronin says is very powerful but always inadequate. He argues that at certain times it is weak and limited while at other times it is profound and abused. The public is ambivalent about the powers of presidents. They sometimes enjoy seeing this power reduced and their presidents humbled but at the same time desire to have heroic presidents who have the ability to attain Americans dream (Cronin and Genovese 5).

Opponents of the Electoral College argue that in this system the ballots cast are not equal because different states have varying populations.

They argue that this benefits the small states. In their propositions they argue that the automatic plan would significantly do away with faithless electors voting by automatically enabling state’s electors to vote for the most pluralist in the state (Edwards 45). The strength in this process is that individual electors will not vote in person hence minimal probability of votes being cast in unintended directions.

The district plan would grant one electoral vote the popular plurality’s votes within the state in a congressional district. It says that this plan will allow Electoral College vote be specific in popular vote. However the weakness is that the district plan will not completely eliminate chances of runner-up from becoming the president. The national bonus strategy would preserve constitutional and state’s roles in the process of electing a president (Pfiffner 56).

The Electoral College system also proposes amendments to the Constitution so as to allow for direct populace voting for a president. However the objection to this proposal is that popular election would demean the federal nature of U.S government. More so critics argue that direct popular election will reduce the common endless frauds and recounts.

Those who advocate for direct election of presidents argue that federalism is rather necessary but the electoral votes within small states does not command active campaigns of the main candidate in the party. Significantly, the larger states contests will only take place in the case of massive votes being either ways.

Direct popular election will mean that all votes would be required for the candidate to win presidency. More so, minor political actors will also have an opportunity to vie for presidency hence a multiparty system scenario. This will mean that in a contested election a candidate will have to persuade the public to vote for him or her hence garnering majority populace votes.

Critics of the Electoral College are justified in the sense that for a democratic nation there is always the need for checks and balances in order to control excessiveness of power and responsibility. The critics argue that the reforms are meant to benefit the public in their representation in government offices (Cronin and Genovese 25).

Works Cited Cronin, Thomas and Genovese, Michael. The Paradoxes of the American Presidency (3rd Ed.). Oxford, Mass: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

Edwards, George C. Presidential selection: the flawed foundations of the Electoral College. Texas: A


Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction to Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches Human society is one of the most complicated aspects of the analysis regarding the relations between individuals, groups of individuals, and other entities that can be allocated in terms of resources of influence. Sociology of power emphasises the power relations between different communities and identifies the real influencing aspects that can alter a situation and the governance as well as the process of rule making.

In this respect, it is necessary to dwell on the principles of rule making and different approaches to this process as related to the political rule and social power that can be considered the most important factors while assessing the influence of certain resources on the power, governing power, and resulting in the political regime.

Different theories of power distribution can be analysed with regard to the power of influence and the amount of resources to influence others or situation. Though history saw many examples of both approaches, pluralist and power elite, it is necessary to enlarge on the principles of power distribution in society in different periods of human civilization’s activity with regard to the economic situation and social movements.

Moreover, the political power and the power of influence cannot be analysed as a single and the only aspect for the political regime establishment; these two concepts can be even opposed to each other or exist at the same period making one of those principles more important than other.

In other words, the distribution of power in society cannot always be analysed in terms of theories of political rule making. Besides, the power to make political decisions does not always arise from the real objective interests and can be characterised by the interests and preferences of the political participants (Lukes 2005: 29).

The pluralist approach is largely opposed to the power elite one in terms of ‘the business of rule’ and the process of rule making due to discrepancies in the regime’s strengths and the overall theoretical advantages of a definite approach. In other words, the pluralism approach highlights the equality of influencing powers regardless its real situation whereas the power of elite approach enables the most influential individuals to make rules.

So, the main idea of the current paper consists in analysing and assessing the contradictions between the pluralist and power elite approaches taking into account the distribution of power in society and allocation of resources compared to the political power and the process of rule making.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theories of Political Rule and Social Power Theories and the power elite approach.The power elite approach is mostly referred to as the one existing in the era before the French Revolution and is largely opposed to the democracy of the contemporary United States of America (Bull 2002: 8-9).

However, it is necessary to note that the concept of state and the problem of rule making are closely connected to the distribution of power because the power exist in a certain society while a society has certain rules and common interests.

In this respect, some states can exist regardless of a definite territory or a restriction of rules to a certain territory because the main concept of power distribution happens among individuals and groups that can be situated within the territory (Bull 2002: 9).

Nevertheless, though political power is spread over the population, it is often limited to a certain territory and can change regarding the interests of the same nation and preferences existing in various regions of the same state.

The main theory of power elite approach in rule making concerns the command as the way to allocate the process of distribution of power in society; however, it is necessary to emphasise the principle when the interests or rules are characterised as good or legal contrasted to the objective principles or unification of preferences that is typical of a power elite approach (Poggi 1978: 2-5).

In additions, the existence of visible diversity and other so-called advantages of the pluralist approach can be considered irrelevant because these concepts do not guarantee the appropriateness of political power or genuine equality in the power allocation principles (Lukes 2005: 47).

State and society are approached in different ways in by a power elite principle whereas the process of unification is more obvious taking into account the principles typical of the pluralist approach. So, the theory of differentiation is the core of the power elite approach because it enables a single leader to make decisions and make laws (often in association with another part of social elite) and there is no necessity to fight for political power as the main concept of influence is the command.

We will write a custom Essay on Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Theories and the pluralist approach. The pluralist approach to the rule making process makes the United States of America the most prominent example of this principle in action.

Though there is a number of irrefutable evidence of this method’s inappropriateness and secrecy (regardless of the observable openness), its benefits are largely promoted and supported by the global community and international society. Collective behaviour tradition can be considered the core concept for the pluralist approach to the process of rule making (Gamson 1975: 131).

This causes the unification of the relations between individuals, groups, and individual-group/group-individual relations in society. As social relations are commonly unified in accordance with the pluralist approach, inequality arises from the democracy as it appears in a contemporary society because interests are unified as well as preferences though the resources of influence can differ greatly which can result in relocation of political power and, hence, the change of the principles of rule making.

The main theories of the pluralist approach include the inferiority of the social preferences compared to the preferences and interests of the political power. As a rule, the pluralist approach is aimed at meeting the requirements of the democracy regardless the genuine principles of power allocation and the amount of resources of influence.

Thus, collective goals unify the social interests and make common rules serves the reaching of those goals; the political behaviour can be analysed with regard to the goals of a community opposed to personal interests and preferences (Gamson 1975: 138).

Benefits of the pluralist approach can be neutralized with the differentiating nature of the contemporary policy in the international society opposed to the principles of unification brought about by other communities that popularize the differentiation concepts. As the core aspect of the pluralist approach to the rule making is the unification, this theory can fail to address all existing interests and preferences topical for the current members of a society.

Distribution of Power in Society Discussing the contradictions of the pluralist and power elite theories is incomplete with the consideration of the distribution of power in society.

In particular, these issues matter when applied to common analysis of presented theories either approving or disapproving the leading role of society in forming the power relations. Another difficulty arises when dealing with the problem of democracy and inequality. In this case, there is the necessity to make an emphasis on the character of the leading power and the triggering principle of power relations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The major controversy appears when considering distribution of power in society in terms of pluralist views. Due to the fact that this approach is based on meeting the needs of democracies, social power is distributed according to the principle of equal impact on the government.

The problem is that equal distribution of power among physical entities is not always possible because of irrational resources allocation presented by material object, social status, and ethical considerations (Dahl 1961:3). In response to this problem, the necessity to introduce the elite power approach to social order is inevitable due to the rigid inequality of property, knowledge and social position, and publicity between the members of society (Dahl 1961:6).

In order to reconcile the needs of power elite and the constellations of influenced groups, it is necessary to consider power distribution with reference to institutional arrangement and command. These two concepts presented by Poggi (1978:3) seem to be quite reasonable from the perspective of political order and legitimacy.

Indeed, favorable distribution of resources on the basis of command is more effective that that based on custom and exchange. This is explained by the ideas that the body of custom end exchange cannot sustain the exploration and mobilization of new resources and values. In addition, it does not allow society to prevent various contingencies enabling the members to choose the most appropriate patterns to act (Poggi 1978:4).

Arising from everything mentioned above, the main principle of power allocation should be based on unanimous legitimate arrangement on the two-polar power system. Therefore, society should be directed by one or a specific set of goals that would encompass social and political order. Alternatively, the disposition of views and approaches, which is typical of pluralistic order, will lead to appearance of different values and beliefs (Bull 2002:4).

Bull’s approach to the distribution of power is predominantly based on monopolistic views that exclude the pluralist techniques for the decision-making process. Therefore, the introduction of democratic approaches will strike the balance within the domain of social and political dimensions (Emerson 1962:32).

Comparative Assessment of the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Pluralism and Elite Power Approaches Highlighting the strengths of the pluralist and elite power approaches. Each of the approaches under consideration has some strong sides due to their great contributions to the arrangement of social and political order.

Considering the pluralist theory, the positive side of pluralist approach implementation consists in its focus on social relation as the leading factor of power formation. In particular, the main underpinning of social power is not the leading actor, but the relation itself (Emerson, 1962: 33). The leaders possess power only when they have a specific group to impose power on.

In addition to this, the pluralist approach is more effective as far as a decision-making process is concerned. Lukes (2005:17), thus, places an emphasis on the social behavior as the triggering factor of social relations and as an indicator of power. Consistent and successful process of decision making generates a healthy competition that, in its turn, positively contributes to social, economical, and political development of a state.

In contrast, the main merit of the elite power approach in the process of rule making is also valuable. According to this theory, the social relations are governed by one purpose where all decisions are made with regard to this purpose.

The success of such monopolistic approach is possible in case the state is headed by the leader who has sufficient resources and who is able to allocate them within society in a reasonable way. The governing of one leader fosters the accomplishment of the established goals and decreases the possibility of disagreement within society (Bull 2002: 9). More importantly, the elite power theory contributes to the formation of social and political integrity.

Considering the elite theory of power through the prism of social order, this approach is more efficient in arranging rules and orders within a state, particularly if the flow of social activities is based on the principle of command (Poggi, 1978:5). Indeed, the exploration and advancement will be considerably facilitated under the auspices of a monopolistic power.

Highlighting the weaknesses of the pluralist and elite power approaches. Although the pluralist approach to the process of rule-making is more productive for meeting the needs of society, it encounters the difficulties when dealing with the equal allocation of sources (Dahl 1961:5). In particular, excessive democracy dictating equal participation in governing can lead to greater discrepancies between communities.

Discussing pluralism from the point of view of order formation, this method of rule making is irrelevant, because the social order cannot be based on the divergent positions. What is more important is mixed views cannot satisfy legal, moral, and economic aspect of decision making as the essence of political decision consist in the necessity to promote specific goals.

The problem of decision making arises when dealing with elite power approach to the process of rule making. By promoting the leaders’ rules and preferences, the government deprives society of political significance and minimizing its role in providing viable solutions.

In other words, the suppression of political role decreases the importance of social relations (Emerson: 1962: 32). As a result, the government can lose the object of power and, therefore, it cannot be considered to owner of the power itself. In addition, the concentration of power can even lead to great inequality of resources distribution.

Conclusion The pluralist and elite power approaches constitute opposite sides of a two-polar system with regard to the process of rule making. This is primarily predetermined by opposite focus on the political systems and conceptual priorities of both approaches.

Hence, the pluralist approach is more concerned with influencing powers and social relations whereas the power of elite approach argues the necessity to establish a unanimous goal to pursue. On the one hand, a pluralistic approach considers social relations as the underpinning of governing and resources allocation.

It also strives to establish the equality in the process of decision-making. On the other hand, elite power concept is more effective in reaching the policy of unification where the international order is subjected to the prevailing superiority-inferiority relations. Taking into consideration all strengths and weaknesses, both approaches simultaneously provide viable solutions and serious controversies when applied to the distribution of power in society.

Works Cited Bull, Hedley. The Concept of Order in World Politics. The Anarchical Society. A Study of Order in World Politics. UK: Palgrave, 2002, Print.

Dahl, Robert A. Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Emerson, Richard M. “Power-Dependence Relations”. American Sociological Review. 27.1. (1962): 31-41. Print.

Gamson, William A. “the limits of Pluralism.” The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood: The Dorsey Press, 1975. Print.

Lukes, Steven. Power: a Radical View. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print.

Poggi, Gianfranco. Introduction: The Business of Rule. The Development of the Modern State. California: Stanford University Press, 1978, Print.


Soft System and Social Technical Approaches Report a level english language essay help

Abstract Scientific research has been evolving at an increasingly alarming rate. This has been triggered by the requirement of research community to provide significant answers to what seems as complex and disorderly world problematic situations.

In this effect, scientists feel obligated to conduct an interdisciplinary research project aimed at increasing knowledge in all the disciplines (Bandura 2002). Such research projects are aimed at attending to the challenges the globalizations and advancement in technology present to the users and consumers of information.

The accuracy, integrity, and accessibility of information have become one of the fundamental issues that such research aims at addressing. The issues of integrity of information usage and the security of information is becoming an essentiality.

The design of the information system should be able to address the challenges such as the ethical issues that have become a major headache to the researchers in the information and technology field. The ability to present a system that addressed such challenges will be an enormous milestone in addressing the challenges of the time and age.

Introduction With various factors contributing to any issues in the current world, such variations make the world more complex and disorganized. There is need for an amicable approach in addressing and resolving such issues. It is never straightforward the case of identifying the root cause of the problem or diagnosing the problem instantly. With so much confusion often-surrounding problems, it may seem impossible to determine an appropriate solution.

In order to resolve such issues, a problem-solving approach is paramount. Moreover, the approaches should be able to take various dimensions of the issue into account. This may entail the clearly understanding what is happening and strategies or brainstorm of the possible mechanism of addressing the issue or improving the situation. Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is one of the approaches (Bandura 2002).

Soft system methodolgy

Soft Systems Methodology is a product of the continuing Action Research of Prof Peter Checkland, Brian Wilson plus other researchers. It is a guideline tool to problem-solving. The effort was in recognition of the fact that not all problems are obvious and neither do they have a predictable solution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Common misunderstandings have emerged where the method has been viewed as planned to solve soft problems such as problems involving the social and cultural aspects. On the contrary, the concept applies to both hard and soft problems. The methodology, however adopts a different approach in every problematic situation.

The ‘hardness’ or ‘softness’ is not n innate characteristic of the perceived problem, instead it relates to how the problem is viewed by those involved in seeking the solution (Checkland 1985). Each and every problematic situation comprise of both soft and hard aspects. A problem becomes a problem boy the virtue of being viewed as such by human beings. This can be equated to such a saying that “one man’s poison is another man’s meat”.

Current explanations and issues relating to soft system Developed in 1970 by Peter Checkland with his colleagues, Soft systems methodology (SSM) was designed to provide interventions in the challenges experienced in management, organizational and policy contexts. The methodology comes in handy especially where neither the problems nor the answers are obvious.

It is closely related to the engineering system approaches. However, unlike the engineering system, it recognizes the central importance of perspective or world-view in social situations. The approach is different from the ‘systems science’ approaches that was advanced in the 1960s, and reflects more on action research in its philosophy and approach.

SSM is different from approaches of hard systems through its mode of dealing with the system concept. According to hard system approach, a ‘system’ is regarded as ontological entity-entities or objects that exist in the real world.

For instance, when one talks of objects such as computer system or transport system, they mean physical things which can be described officially as well as structured to meet a certain need. SSM, on the other hand, regards the concept of ‘system’ as an epistemological entity and not ontological entity- a construction of the mind that aids in human understanding.

When we are looking at an organization as a system, for instance, the things that come in our minds include the activities that take place within that company. We think of the process of converting some raw materials into given finished products; we also think of the efforts to make profits; we also get a mental picture of a number of employees as holders of different positions within the organization. As for the case for the unemployed young graduates, they would look at the organization as a potential employer.

We will write a custom Report on Soft System and Social Technical Approaches specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In essence, different people will have varied perceptions over a given organization. It is not possible for us to provide a given single instruction as either right or wrong while there are other different to understand what is going on in the environment. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the perceptions and values of different individuals to get a clear picture of what concerns them within a given system.

While trying to understand a production company, as a system, for example, we are conscious of the process of conversion of raw materials into the product. The system would therefore be composed of such stakeholders as suppliers of raw material, sugar-cane farmers, for example. We would also have customers to purchase the manufactured products.

When looking at an organization whose sole objective is to create jobs for the locals, the system would constitute a different set of elements. In this case we would be interested in the infrastructure such as improved market infrastructures to enable farmers sell their farm produce.

Improved transport system would also be of importance to allow for easy movement of people and the goods. A reliable communication network to allow timely flow of information would also be of significance. Boundary lines that are different have been drawn basing on different perceptions of people on what they perceive as the system.

The development of SSM was influenced by the need to find solutions to complex situations where the problem to be solved is not clear; and the affected group of people hold different understanding of what constitutes the problem and the possible solution.

For instance how to improve farm productivity by intensifying the use of chemical fertilizers at the same time conserving the environment; also how to realize industrialization without adversely affecting the environment in terms of pollution. A society may also be faced with a challenge of how to deal with youth gangs, who pose a threat to the community or drug abusers.

The approach to solving such challenges may take many dimensions. However, instead of solving the problem, some proposed option may actually worsen the situation. There is need to take a close look at the wider situation and the likely consequences of choosing any given approach.

This is so because, some situations are intertwined; changing one element may have knock-on effects on other aspects. A comprehensive understanding of the relationships that exist amongst situations is paramount. The role of SSM is to offer users with a guideline in developing an improved understanding of the complexity of situations’.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Soft System and Social Technical Approaches by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Processes

SSM is characterized by seven stages as follows: 1) Identification of the problematic situation that requires intervention. 2). Conducting a comprehensive research so to capture the bigger picture. 3) Perspective selection and a construction of root definitions (the major processes that need to occur within the desired system). 4) Conceptualization of a change system model. 5) Comparison of the model with the real-world situation. 6) Definitions of the changes to be made.

Review of literature It is necessary to integrate our understanding and modeling over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales in order to address complex societal and environmental Challenges. This calls for an increase in the level of societal meaningful Science (Lubchenco 2008).

System based approaches have been critical in trying to understand humanity and our interactions with the external environment. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy is recognized for his major breakthrough in systems based approaches in the early twentieth century (Lubchenco 2008).

Ludwig Von (Biologist) together with Kenneth Boulding (economist), Ralph Gerard (biologist), and Anatol Rapoport (mathematician) further developed a ‘General systems theory’ aimed at addressing the requirement for a more integrated approach to solving societal problems. This led to the birth of Society for General Systems Research in 1954 whose name later changed to the “International Society for Systems Science (Sage 1992).

According to Checkland, in using a “Participative Approach” stakeholders are most likely to reach accommodations – a common understanding on how to address a given problematic situation. Through such approach, the company can adopt changes that are agreeable to all the stakeholders.

The model of allowing all idea(accommodation) is not same as agreement. “Consensus involves a complete agreement among the stakeholders that the proposed changes best serve all of their needs. The notion of accommodation on the other hand, recognizes that this is an uncommon state of affairs” (Schlager 1956, p. 54), and consequently values that a lot of time different people requires can only be to some extent met by cooperative schemes.

SSM Approach Vs CATWO

Checkland proposed a 7-step learning methodology approach. However this was superseded by the CATWO model, developed by Action Research conducted at Lancaster. Despite this, the methodology is still widely used because of its step-wise approach which makes it easy to be taught. In addition, the model has a barrier which runs across it to draw a difference among the 3 stages i.e.between the Real World, above the line, and Systems Thinking.

“CATWO, formulated by The Lancaster team proposes several criteria that should be specified to in order to provide a comprehensive and rigorous root definition” (Schlager 1956, p.54).

Clients – Who are gainers or losers of this particular system? (Who would gain or lose as a result its operations?)

Actors – all those staff members accountable for putting in practice the systems developed.

Transformation – this is quantified based on advancement and changes that the implemented system brings in the organization(What are the contribution essentials and to which extend or in other words what sort of revolution do these input elements undergo before measureable output can be seen).

Weltanschauung–also, know as worldview. What explicit worldview offers the rationalization to the being of this structure or system?

Owner – Whose mandate is to change this system or review its overall performance

Environmental constraints – what are the external constraints that should be considered?

This type of analysis elucidates the objectives of the user of the methodology. By clearly recognizing these viewpoints, the client of the technique is required to mull over the effects of any anticipated transformations on the group concerned.” Following limitations of ‘hard’ systems including operations research and systems dynamics, Peter Checkland and colleagues developed ‘soft’ system approaches to counteract limitations associated with technical assessments” (Checkland 1985, p. 34).


System approach allows participation by all the relevant actors take part in the problem situation and interact with the analyst.

The approach teases out the problem situation, which offers a good ground for creative problem solving. Some problems in real life are not well defined and cannot be solved using scientific methods hence the system approach helps in addressing them.

The system approach allows for an iterative process, which allows the analyst to learn about the system and hence know how to go about it.


The system approach often ignores power in the organization and this may create in the daily operations. The system relies too much on individuals’ perception and as such, it is fuzzy and cannot be easily applied in practice. Quite often, the system approach may neglect some of the forces that interact in society, such as Social constraints and group norms.

The future of integrative systems based studies There is increasing pressure for scientists and policy makers to adopt more integrated and holistic approaches to understanding how we manage systems from the local to global scale. These include 1) advancement in Systems modeling approaches from systems biology to earth systems science. This involves qualitative network models as well as quantitative process/kinetics based approaches (Borgatti, 2009). It is the network models that have the potential to link systems biology, socio-ecological systems, and earth systems science.

2) There has been a continued improvement in data sharing between individual projects and disciplines. This has been easier by introduction of data and meta-data models To increase the sharing of data between individual projects and between disciplines. Examples of these advancements include markup languages e.g. system biology markup language

ISO 27001 Current Explanation and Issues Relating to ISO 27001

IT Governance and information security

Board corporate governance requirements have in the recent years become increasingly more defined and specific. With information technology becoming pervasive, underpinning and supporting almost every aspect of the organization, manipulation and storing of information on which the organization depends for its survival, the role of IT in corporate governance has become more clearly defined and IT governance getting to be more recognized as a crucial area for board and corporate attention.

IT governance is specifically concerned with the protection of the information. protection of this information is critical as the organization’s decision is heavily pegged on its availability, confidentiality and integrity.

As a result, parallel international standards related to information security have emerged and have become one of the cornerstones of an effective IT governance framework.

The information security standards

British standard Institution came up with BS7799 in 1995 as a standard to guide the development and implementation of an Information Security Management System (ISMS). On the outset, BS7799 was considered, as a technology-neutral, vendor-neutral management system. It was intended that, if accurately implemented, it would guarantee an organization’s management of effective information security measures (Hall 1962).

Those rallying for the BS7799 measures aim at addressing the challenges associated with availability, the integrity aspect and also the confidentiality of the information in an organization.. Protection covers those threats that the organization considers relevant and only to the extent that is justified financially and commercially through a risk assessment.

The Code of Practice (which uses words like ‘may’ and which deals with controls, not with Information Security Management Systems), is now recognized under the dual numbers of ISO17799 and BS7799-1 .

The basis for certification schemes is specification and ISO 27001 mandates the use of ISO 17799 as the source of guidance for the selection and implementation of the controls mandated by ISO 27001.

The most recent version of the Code of Practice, and the one which must be used, is ISO/IEC 17799:2005. BS7799-2:2002 has also undergone revision and internationalization, and was replaced in November 2005 by ISO/IEC 27001:2005. The best way to keep in touch with the changes to the standards is to subscribe to 24743, the free information security newsletter that provides regularly updated FAQs on the new standards, as well as other ISMS information.

The information security and regulatory environments

ISO 27001 refers to a standard containing requirements for a company to implement an information security management system.

There are two main reasons explaining the growing interest in certification to ISO 2700. These are: 1) the proliferation of threats to information this is aimed at curbing the possibility of the information landing on the wrong place or unauthorized persons having access to such information. Such incidences can have elemental effects to the institutions or the organizational functions. In addition, 2) the growth in the lawful and constitutional needs that are associated with information authenticity and protection.

This is mostly useful when dealing with secure information. Such applications are used in the security sector, banks and credit cards etc where the transfer of information is through the protected channels accessible to few authorized individuals. This is aimed at minimizing compromising situation s that may results when the public or unauthorized persons access the information.

Information security and technology

Securing data or protecting computers from threats is normally undertaken by people with IT knowledge. This is done by assigning the users with log in credentials that regulate the person accessing the information.

The ability of regulating who accesses what information also enables the It team to monitor and regulate the information flow and also be able to audit the information access and distribution in the system (Bennett, 2009). The computer user makes decisions about which threats to be protect the system from and what trade-offs between security and flexibility he or she is prepared to accept.

The usage of the computers vary and various experts do various tasks based on the [powers that the computers or the specifications of the job to be done. The variations in the usage rights also enables only certified people to access some classified information. Some of the information in the system can be very confidential and only the qualified personnel should be allowed to have access and possibly distribute such information(Schlager 1956).

Advantages of ISO 27001

The benefits of ISO 27001 emanates from its principles. These are confidentiality, integrity, accuracy, completeness, and availability. The confidentiality allows the clients to have faith in the system and trust using the system for their day-to-day business. The integrity concepts emanates from the fact that the system is able to carry out the specified instructions or transactions pertaining a given action or command instructed. The accuracy assures the users that they will not be overcharged or underpaid thus ensuring that the information validity is not compromised.

The availability of the appropriate information to the right person at the right time. ISO 27001 ensures confidentiality that is information may not be made availed or disclosed for people, entities, or processes without permission.

ISO 27001 ensures integrity. The information is protected from unauthorized changes.

Conclusions Advances in a wide range of systems focused disciplines have increased our ability understand and model socio-ecological systems from the sub-cellular to global scale.

These can be classed as ‘hard’, ‘soft’ approaches, and both are required when you are studying systems across multiple spatial and organizational levels.

Here I suggest that diagramming, network theory combined with markup languages based on data and metadata standards within an analytical-deliberative framework can lead to learning and greater integration across these disparate systems based approaches. I am not suggesting that one approach or framework will address all situations, but highlighting the commonalities that will enable us to integrate across situations.

References Bandura, A 2002, Social Learning Theory, General Learning Press- New York, New York.

Bennett, E, Peterson G


How have ethic and age distribution changed in the British Columbia region of the last 50 years and why? Term Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction British Columbia is found at the far east of Canada and is the sixth Canadian province. The country is known of its natural beauty and strategic positioning for functions like tourist and sporting activities. Its capital city is Victoria, which happens to be the fifteenth largest metropolitan region. The city according to census of 2008 had a total population of approximately 4,419,974 and its current head of state is Premier Gordon Campbell (Belanger, 2009).

The province has undergone massive improvement in different areas with the most notable one being the area of technology in all its processes. The provinces have well-structured infrastructures which have assisted in economic and social growth of the area. This paper looks into how ethic has changed over the past five years and how age distribution has changed over time.

Ethics In the context of a country, ethics refers to respect of peoples fundamental rights and freedom. It means government measure that ensures that it can be held accountable by its people in the way it administers the country. Before the Second World War, countries were not concerned about the need for collaboration and integration to ensure that there is an economic development attained for the entire world.

After the Second World War; politicians engaged themselves in vigorous planning which were aimed at breaking trade hindrances and to promote interdependence which in turn reduces the possibility of future wars. This led to increase in international trade. British Columbia was not left behind but worked in collaboration with other countries to develop an international market. This led to globalization, which in turn increases the enlightenment of people.

In British Columbia people have been enlightened and are aware of their fundamental rights. In recognition of these rights, the government has developed measures aimed at this move. Secondly, to have an enhanced international trading, the company has embarked on massive infrastructure development where it has built road networks, railways, and ports. This is both to facilitate international and local trade (Kluckner, 2003).

Enlightened people have brought about the need for ethical conduct and management of the country. All persons in society, whether in private or public sector, product or services industry are concerned with ethics; Ethics is defined as the discipline dealing with what is good or bad and with moral duty and obligation. Thus, personal ethics has been referred to as the rules by which an individual lives his/her personal life.

Business ethics is concerned with truth, consultant’s fairness, and justice


The Battle of Tropical Islam: struggle for an Islamic Identity in Indonesia Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Islam Identity in Indonesia: The escapade

Attempts to solve the Conflict

Beyond the obvious

The Bombshell

Reference List

Introduction Indonesia is ranked fourth in the world among the most populous Muslim nations. The spread of Muslim faith in Indonesia can be graded as “moderate” with the country being strategically positioned along the sea lines, which appropriately connect to the energy resources of the Middle East (Vaughn, 2009).

Many peace consultants look at Indonesia as being the most critical partner in waging a struggle against radical Islamist Militants in South East Asia. Over time, Indonesia has continued to persue democracy and develop the realms of civil society and law under new reforms by the current president, Susilo. Nevertheless, there exist unhealed wounds caused by the abuse of human rights with the major culprit’s being the military under the reign of former President Suharto for three decades.

Islam Identity in Indonesia: The escapade Indonesia started as a secular state and managed to survive as one (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). This is because Islam in Indonesia has integrated or adapted with ancient local customs and beliefs that emanate from a moderate and benign version of Islam. The majority of Muslims in Indonesia are traditionalists; a tendency that incorporates strong elements of Sufi mysticism and pre-Islamic Javanese traditions (Haseman and Rabasa, 2002).

They follow the local based law called “adat” which takes precedence over strict Islamic custom (Gocher and Vatikiotis, 2006). Additionally, Indonesia originally faced a peaceful spread of Islam that was not accompanied by force; instead, winds of Islamic reform had reached Indonesia from the Middle East gracefully uniting with the local beliefs (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). This is why rigid adherence to Islamic shariah law is found to be an unfruitful venture due to the strong mismatching foundations.

During the early part of the twentieth century two different views of Islam in Indonesia started to emerge that caused a split emerged between the modernists and the more conservatives (Paris and Schwarz 1999). The modernist could not accept the integration of Islam with local customs, but demanded that Javanese Islam be purged of its non-Islamic superstitions.

This division was greatly highlighted during the early years of Indonesia’s independence. This occurrence shows that even with the different ideologists about Islam that exist within Islam, there is an internal fight on superiority; each strain would want others to declare them as the true faith of Muslim.

There exists the most basic fact here: Indonesia as a Muslim country has been faced with a lot of political unrest over time, with Muslim being the salient factor Indonesian Politics (Bull and Woodward, 2009). Nevertheless, after the democratic transition, many Islamist groups both in Indonesia and the Middle East have risen up and gotten very active, some being violent and others with an approach of Islam social norms.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The irony in this happening is that Islamist groups that would otherwise have been outlawed by today’s democratic rule are being allowed to exist as active political players. The most worrying issue as far as a conflict in the minds of Muslim radicals is concerned is that war cannot be won without being fought (Peters, 2002). The idea here is that this tiff has spread to a national level, eminent before an international platform.

Transnational terrorism was made active mostly after the occurrences of September 11. That very date has since then left an unforgettable mark on the whole world. Relations between different states faced a lot of tiffs with little or no benign subsequent relations whatsoever (Kadir, 2002). September 11 twisted the idea of international relations to take another course; there became a general picture of the abundance of a grudge between the extremist Islam and the Liberal, capitalist and the Christian West.

Kadir (2002) explains that after the tragic occurrence, leaders of the Islamic communities in Indonesia distanced themselves from the radical Muslim faiths that would encourage terrorism, terming them as deviant faiths. The leaders of Muslim faith and the government leaders in Indonesia and South East Asia refuted to have such radical versions of Islam to spread to their countries. Nonetheless, their hopes can be seen as denial of the past political Muslim experiences of the country.

This is basically because, Indonesia faced many years of Islamist military oppression where violence was clear and pronounced (Vaugh, 2009). In the same case, it is the same occurrences, which left nearly 500, 000 Indonesian dead during the “new order” rule of President Suharto. The association of such actions with radical Muslim faith have resulted to the Indonesian Muslim leaders to have a distant attitude towards Radical Muslim faith.

On the other hand, there exists a number of Radical or “fundamentalist” Muslims within Indonesia especially during periods of both Sukarno and Suharto where several attempts to establish an Islamic state in Indonesia were made (Indonesia Backgrounder, 2004). Their jubilance has been given so much media attention in recent years, which has created a misconception that Indonesian Islam, is radical.

According to Fox (2004), there arose a new Islamic movement called “Hitbut Tahrir” that had foundations outside Indonesia. This group sought to revamp and attain the inclusion of global fundamentality in the Indonesian national landscape, against nationalism and state power (Fox, 2004). This notion has overshadowed the truth about Indonesian Islam, which is actually accommodating and moderate as compared to other fundamentalist Muslim traits (Jones, 2007).

Indonesia is composed of a diverse set of communities spread across thousands of islands. It is because of this that during the early years, the focus of the government was to strengthen nationalism and independence. It was during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia that Islam officially recognized (Gocher and Vatikiotis, 2006). This was a first step that would ensure future pressure on the government to accommodate Islamic political aspirations.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Battle of Tropical Islam: struggle for an Islamic Identity in Indonesia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There eventually arose two major opposing Islamic parties (Masjumi and Hisbullah), which always had heated constitutional debates about the form that new Indonesia state was to take.

On one hand, the Masjumi demanded that Islam be declared the state religion, while other groups demanded for the adoption of an Islamic state that is purely based on the Sharia law (Marshall, 2005). It was here that the government decided to marginalize those advocating the movement for an Islamic state in Indonesia because there was fear that the idea of an Islamic state would destroy Indonesia even before Independence (Paris and Schwarz, 1999).

According to Geocher and Vatikiotis (2006), so as to tone-down the tension between the government and the Muslim community, there was an introduced state philosophy which insisted that the state was to be based on a single belief of a “one supreme God”.

Additionally, it was also made clear that God applied not specifically only to Islam, but rather of the five known official religions: Protestantism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Catholic and Islam (Marshall, 2005). This unclear idea about the superiority and clarity of Islam created high tension between the Muslim community and the new independent government, of which it had helped install during the fight for independence.

During the “New Order” regime, Islam was greatly marginalized through the oppressive centralized government at the time. The new regime was determined to establish the military as the primary broker in Indonesia.

With the defeat of the communists, Muslims groups expected to be rewarded for helping the army, instead the “New Order” acted promptly to rollback abuse to the camp of the Muslims (Gocher and Vatikiotis, 2006). The Muslim were the only religious group left who had the numbers and organizational strength to compete for power with the army.

Consequent events saw Suharto acting quickly to more drastically kill the Influence of Islamic idioms in to the government policies (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). In 1973, Suharto forced the merger of Muslim groups, as an attempt to kill the upcoming unrest.

As a result, Islamists viewed this as a potential policy that sought to view Islam as lacking the viability to influence the government policies or participate it Indonesia’s political landscape (Marshall, 2005). This was followed by an even greater blow to Muslim interests; the government’s decision to require all political and social organizations to adopt “Pancasila” as their sole ideological basis.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Battle of Tropical Islam: struggle for an Islamic Identity in Indonesia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There was a general belief by the Muslims that Pancasila sought to place man over “Allah” and that the idea was heretical (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). Gocher and Vatikiotis, (2006) summed up the New Order’s primary social achievement; Delivering Indonesia from the tangles of the vigorous tides that had sweeping the world as from the late 1970s. Nevertheless, there are critics who believe that the attempt the curb Islam in Indonesia, has made Indonesia Islamic.

There are a number of forces for Islamic revivalism that has re-introduced debates on whether or not Indonesia should be an Islamic state. First, international influences from Islamic revolutions in countries like Iran have spurred up Indonesian interest in Islam (Paris and Schwarz, 1999).

Additionally, the spread of Islam in campuses and the growing Islamic intellectual influences on the attitudes towards national, social and economic developments have directed such views on the basis of Islam. This force to Islamic revivalism were especially evident in the younger generation, who are seen to be more vigilant in making Muslim faith to be more applicable to life in the modern world than it already is.

Lastly, political dynamics where Suharto was losing his power base as he encountered greater opposition within the ranks of the military; occurrences that twisted his arm and got him to break-ice and coincide with the Muslim groups so as to ensure that the relationship with the military stayed alive.

The most alarming thing about this whole Muslim revival issue is that, on the occurrence of the Asian crisis in the late 1997, there was no shift. More concern and precedence was given to the reviving of relations with the Muslims. This event lead to the fall of the “New order” regime that eventually saw Suharto’s thirty two years of rule come to an end. The result was a major power gap that was space enough for the Radical Islamists to step in (Marshall, 2005).

According to Marshall (2005) the unexpected occurrence has brought about the resurgence of earlier Islamists ideologies and aspirations. More critical is the drastic proclamation of Indonesia as a state of Islamic religion as a defiance to Suharto’s Pancasila regime.

This is proven by attempts by Muslim groups to reintroduce the “Jakarta Charter” which would allow the application of shariah law and transform Indonesia into an Islamic state. For now, they have been kept democratically at bay as the “People’s Consultative Assembly” avoided a direct vote on the issue, rebuffing the Islamic parties in favor of maintaining the original, more pluralist phrasing.

Although the New Order has made it compulsory in the past, a number of parties have recently adopted Islam as their ideological basis instead of Pancasila. Increased freedoms in the post-Suharto period have radical strains of Muslim groups after years of being marginalized politically and socially.

There has also been increase infiltration by radical international Islamist groups seeking to spread their beliefs into Indonesia. The traditional threat of shariah law in Indonesia is now back stronger than ever, and it is important to further strengthen democratic elements among mainstream Indonesian Muslims.

Attempts to solve the Conflict There are basically three models of government that Indonesia can preside in; a democratic regime, a religious regime, and a democratic religious government. These different models lie in the ancient argument between the compatibility of democracy and political Islam (Berger, 1999).

The traditional school of thought holds that democracy and political Islam are not compatible. It is a radical belief, that the “institutionalization of shura and ijma provides the state, which expresses the general will, with a normative role in making basic choices in people’s lives” (Safi, 2003).

The idea that the state is now responsible for our salvation is now brought about as a result. As Safi (2003), explains “individual religiosity is transformed by the radicals into a communal public will, itself transformed into state control, both moral and political. This model involves the implementation of Shariah law and the transformation of an Islamic state.

Scholars argue that this model is inherently inconsistent with the divine sources as Islam can only be understood through human reason; “the institution that emerges from that combination is not a theocratic state” (Berger 1999). This is an absolute model that demands exclusivity which stops short of a pluralistic understanding of Islam.

It is the revisionist school of thought that believes that democracy and Islam are only compatible in an oppressive or despotic form of government. This is happens because in most countries in the Muslim world, democracy is only practiced as the giver of proper legality (Safi, 2003).

So while these countries have democratic institutions, in reality none of these processes is really observed. This was evident in the New Order regime, where Suharto was at the apex of politics in Indonesia. It is in fact these forms of regimes that push people away from such institutions to a more radical form of a complete unity between state and religion; an Islamic state.

The post-revisionist school of thought now holds that there are in fact two different ways to articulate Islam and democratic regime forms without transforming into an Islamic state. This view holds that the relationship between Islam and politics was “never premised on the so-called Islamic state or the comprehensive application of the Sharia” (Berger, 1999).

It rejects exclusive reliance on the religious laws in order to confirm whether or not democratic religiosity is wrong (Sadri, Sadri and Soroush, 2002). This school of thought believes that the underlying choice should be made based on the society; because in a religious society an innocently secular government would be against democracy (Sadri, Sadri and Soroush, 2002).

This school of thought, believes that the success of each models depend on whether the majority is a secular or a religious one. According to Berger (1999), the former believes in the European way of keeping political authority at bay from Islam while the latter calls for clarify the relations between Muslim and politics instead of either commenting the unity or totally fragmenting them.

The first model believes in a secular democratic regime, whereby there is a clear separation between religion and the state. This is a valid model basically because many people believe that a democratic religious government will lack the humility to be accountable to people (Sadri, Sadri and Soroush, 2002).

According to Berger (1999), Oppositions to the first model claim that “advocates of secularism will appear to be calling on their own societies to abandon their Islamic cultural and religious foundations.” They also believe that secularism came to “Islamic societies in the dubious company of Western colonialism and post-colonial hegemony.” (Berger 1999).

On the other hand, the second model demands the clarification and specification of the relationship between Islam and political authority on the basis of an Islamic approach to secularism. In this model, the “protection of basic human rights, especially freedom of belief, expression, and association, is an Islamic imperative and not merely a requirement of international treaties.” (Berger 1999)

One cannot forget that in democratic societies, religious tolerance is practiced, as “the path of examined religiosity is more open and inviting” (Sadri, Sadi and Soroush, 2002). Either way, one must understand that in order for both these models to work, democracy cannot adjust to religious understanding; it is religious understanding that should adjust itself to democracy.

Beyond the obvious The description of constant unrests in Indonesia has always been rotating around one issue: Muslim religion. As stated earlier, the problem from a single religious unit has grown to be the most difficult puzzle that not even the smartest person in the country with his well thought- out and profound intelligent ideas can solve. This bid dilemma calls for a more rationalized, out of the norm idea so as to solve the rationalized and unprecedented turmoil that lingers in the lives of the world’s most populous Muslim country.

I suggest that is time for us to change gears and look at the issue with an open mind; Indonesia as a country is in deep trouble as far as National democracy is concerned and, the USA is the world’s strongest country as far as democracy, economy and internal liberty is concerned. I the itching query about this should be: what does the USA have to with Indonesia? My idea is not at all based on the lines of Indonesia having to solicit for military assistance or any other donations of some kind from the world’s strongest country, no.

If we take another direction and look at the current president to the United Sates of America, president Obama, we will discover that his connection to Indonesia is deep! As a matter of fact, Barack spent part of his childhood in Indonesia and, yes he was born to an Indonesian mother. Needless to mention, he previously had an Indonesian name; Barry Soetero. I think Barry Soetero was the guardian angel given to Indonesia so as to bring its deepest problems to an end.

It is a fact that President Obama is also known as “Hussein”. This tells us that he has a Muslim background. Both Barry Soetero and Indonesia need not to be told that there is a clear indication of an easy way to solve the problem here.

The Bombshell President Barack Hussein Obama is of an Indonesian Background. He also has a Muslim background. Currently is the president of the World’s strongest country ruling without any problems arising from religious clashes. Barack is a modernized Muslim ruling in a country with no Muslim backgrounds.

President Barack Obama should therefore finish his term in the USA, then head back to his roots, apply for citizenship of which I am pretty sure he will get basing on his current friendly relations with Indonesia. Ultimately, he should plunge himself in to the Indonesian political landscape and vie for presidency.

Basing on his roots being from Indonesia and him having a Muslim background coupled with good speech and a likable character he should win. Eventually o attainting presidency, he should channel American ideas that will help Indonesia attain a “super-power level” of democracy.

In this regard, Muslim will be a peaceful religion, as peaceful as a second middle name (Hussein). The Islamic Identity in Indonesia will therefore have gotten its place without any bloodshed, and with the most suited ambassador of them all.

Reference List Berger. L., P. (1999). The desecularization of the world: resurgent religion and world politics. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.

Fox, J., J. (2004). Currents in Contemporary Islam in Indonesia. Web.

Gocher, J.,


Race in United States Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Research questions

Literature Review

Relevance of the Study


Empirical Analysis

Works Cited

Introduction United States has stood to be one of the world’s economic power houses. The country has been recognized as one of the nations with more than enough resources that could fully support its citizens. This however, resulted in some negative effects which include ecological destruction and racial discrimination.

Though considered as having some of the best environmental laws, the communities within the country are not given equal treatment. The policies safeguarding the environment have not fully addressed some equal benefits to all members of the society since some communities are generally overlooked when it comes to usage of land and agriculture (Schelhas 7).

Access to arable land has been a difficult task for the minority blacks who live in the USA. Large chunks of land and other natural assets have been dominated by the wealthy, majority of which are whites. The less privileged have been denied access to these natural resources and also used as damping sites for environmental wastes. This calls for the importance of including asset-building in the democratic strategy in order to account for sustainability and most importantly empowering the community (West 13).

Research questions The research will seek to answer the following questions;

To what extent do public policies contribute in reducing or increasing the cases of racial inequality in agricultural and environmental affairs?

What brings about the unequal exposure to environmental protection?

What policies can help reduce racism, raise productivity and increase employment opportunities?

Literature Review According to Collin and Robin (13) political and logistical problems are the main barriers to environmental and agricultural justice. There is no fixed relationship, between agricultural development and environmental stress. Both are determined by national policies and by investments that seek to increase research capacity and the knowledge needed to move from racial based society to a liberal society which treats human being with equal rights (Collin and Robin 13).

Studies have revealed that agricultural work is crucial in the economy of a nation, and much attention should be given to both the rate and pattern of its development. Non-farm activities and policies that affect interactions between agriculture and industry are also important determinants of the level of employment and social status (West 13).

According to Pefia (6), “there is a direct relationship between the persistence of environmental racism in farm work and the political, legal and economic conditions that maintain farm workers in a state of labor repression.” This was an implication that unequal trends in the environmental protection as well as unequal exposure to the environmental dangers emanated from the collective effects of several conditions and these conditions were more of economical, political and legal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government’s public policies and laws that were put in place to give support to the farm labor contractor system gave limitations on legal grounds that could enable farm workers to organize themselves for the protection of their rights (West 13). According to Majka, immigrant status which has not been documented of a large number of farm workers weakened even more the farmer’s capacity to deal with the injustice challenge that face them in the agricultural place of work.

The absence of the legal frameworks or the frameworks that are weak for organizing unions, attaining collaborative rights for bargaining, and the right to protest, presented greatest grave barriers to the achievement of the environmental justice for these workers (Majka and Majka). Basically, this implied that as long as the farm workers were still defenseless and unorganized, they still had limited ability to deal with the environmental racism in their work places as well as in the places they live.

There existed some level of discrimination in US Department of Agriculture (USDA) loan, credit and subsidy program (Schelhas 7). Unequal treatment of farmers of color as well as discrimination imposed by the United States Department of Agriculture engaged a well documented legacy of institutionalized racism. There was acceptance by the internal report made by the Civil Rights Action Team of lack of success of the United States Department of Agriculture to go in line with the laws of federal civil rights.

In the United States of America, Racial discrimination in USDA was left greatly unchecked at a time when Reagan administration came to an end. This was brought back by the Clinton administration in the year 1996 but the destruction had been done and the civil rights enforcement complaints were still eminent all through the 1990s (Swanston, 82).

Global environmental study shows that there are so many environmental issues around the world that people have to contend with irrespective of their race or color. Amongst these environmental hazards include; dirty water, polluted air, waste treatment areas, municipal dumping sites, and government or industrial disposal facilities amongst others.

However, researches have revealed that within the United States these environmental hazards have been worsened by the practice of racism. The existing environmental policies and practices are of great disadvantage to some individual communities of the same race.

These policies have brought about environmental racism which has really benefited northern counties as opposed to Southern counties. According to Majka and Majka, environmental discrimination can be likened to institutional discrimination which is defines as “actions or practices carried out by members of dominant racial or ethnic groups that have differential and negative impact on members of subordinate, racial and ethnic, groups.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Race in United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These policies brought about extreme exploitation of arable land and the natural environment in favor of the native population. Those who form the numerical minority in politics and in any other sector were subjected to policy discrimination (Majka and Majka).

The country under its current policies placed numerous strains on the environments associated with the under-privileged within the society mostly people of different race. This is seen in industries dealing with massive mining and extraction of resources. Globalization has made it easier for international companies to occupy places that have least environmental rules and regulations, cheap labor and good consumer base.

Relevance of the Study This research tends to champion for the restoration and non-discriminating use of natural assets. It brings to the realization that natural assets are not limited but comprise variety of things such as land, clean air and water. The study seeks to show the necessity of utilizing agricultural land and environment with equality in mind.

This focuses on reducing poverty level alongside building of financial wealth amongst the communities. The study will seek to identify give clear effects of public policies on natural resources and their effects on both rich and poor (West 13). The report will seek to find out why minority farmers have lost significant amounts of land and potential farm income as a result of discrimination by Farm Service Agency programs and the programs by its predecessor agencies (Schelhas 7)

Methodology Both quantitative and qualitative methods of study will be applied in this case. Literature survey study on the uses and challenges of environmental policies on agriculture and racism will form the basis of the study. The risks, challenges and benefits of Environmental policies will be identified and accounted for by use of examples.

Part of the data will be obtained from the primary sources which provide explicit information on inequality brought about by poor government policies. Questionnaires will be prepared for use during structured interviews respondents being community members and environmental officials

Qualitative method helps in easier understanding of data since it emphasizes on direct information from people’s words and actions. Qualitative method has the characteristic that it should gather information on acquired data, based on quantitative methods. The task of understanding and presenting qualitative research proved to be very demanding as statistics.

Empirical Analysis Inductive coding will be used to reveal how consistent the research is with the information given. The data will be broken down and re-organized to achieve the intended objective. The grouped data will then be categorized for the purposes of comparison that will help in providing practical reality of the research (Straus and Corbin). For quantitative analysis Chi-square analysis test will be utilized. The critical alpha level that will be used to measure discrepancies is 0.05.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Race in United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Empirical research design is developed in order to help in exploring the theory discussed in this paper. Individual calculations will be measured based on the interviews conducted and previous data collected statistically analyzed. Available database having track details on the nature of the effect of public policies on agricultural land and environment based on race will be analyzed.

Meta analysis will be conducted to include all the effects of public policies on racial inequality down the previous years. This research seeks to establish an understanding between the research objectives and findings from the interview (Strauss and Corbin).

This research employ the use of Grounded theory which will be used for the purposes of interpreting the data collected. Collecting, interpreting and understanding of data will be done best in grounded theory, where the collection of data, its analysis and theory are closely related bringing some relevance to the research undertaken (Strauss and Corbin).

There is the utilization of peer debriefing which ensures that the required consistency is achieved. For the purposes of coding, the interview scripts are scrutinized to ensure identification of similar or different opinions, the similar ideas are identified substantiated and all the comments highlighted within the transcript margins.

Two different evaluators are used each making his own coding frame for sampling the sub-transcripts (sub-sample used n=2). The different findings will then be compared to ensure accuracy of the coded data. From this a coding frame is produced that is appropriately utilized on the whole data collected. The data will then be thoroughly compared and analysed to tally with the requirements as per grounded theory approach.

Data collection will also be followed by the process whereby the data is grouped into themes which assist in detailed description of the research based on the social and environmental settings. The validity of the research will be based on transparency and viability of message conveyed. Individual narrative interviews are conducted concurrently with the process of transcription and coding of data which is later concentrated and categorized for analysis (Strauss and Corbin).

Works Cited Collin, Robert


The Merits and Pitfalls of using Memoir or Biography as Evidence for Past Events Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction The historical recordings of past events are very important in the understanding of the actual happenings, analysis of the flow of past events, understanding the factors influencing past occurrences, explanations of the effects of such events, linking the present and future to the past as well as the decision making based on such events.

The actual recording of past events however utilizes every manner of evidence to be able to adequately support the assertions made. Historians and other analysts are in agreement on the need to use the evidence that creates reality and is supportive, but are divided on the relevance of such evidence as from primary sources which they assert are at the heart of history recording and interpretation, yet still creates subjectivity and questions the fairness and truth of such historical recording.

It is worth noting that personal narratives and records of events and discussions forms part of memoirs. Despite the division on the role of personal narratives in recording of history, their relevance from their nature and role in history cannot be overlooked.

This forms the basis for this essay, that is, the analysis of the merits and pitfalls of personal narratives based on the war memory. It is worth appreciating that the authors to be analyzed, Naruo and Sachiko, present their own personal narratives or historical accounts of the occurrences of the war in Japan based on where they were their feelings and perceptions of war as well as their own descriptions of the happenings of the war.

This presents their characters, beliefs, values, interpretation of events and explanations for actions taken. These narratives form the foundations for the explanation of the merits and pitfalls of memoirs in the recording of the historical events. This analysis focuses on the merits and pitfalls of the use of such the personal narratives as primary sources of history and also on their background and factors that could have influenced the writers to write them.

Background study: The role of memoirs or biographies in history Personal narratives are very important in the recording of past events. They are basically personal recordings of the individual events and happenings that act as a trace of the life of such an individual.[1] Naruo in his narrative of “Doesn’t seem too bad”, focuses on the account around his life in the spring of 1945 in which Japan was in war.[2]

He writes as a fifty two year old man, about the events of war in his life as a 6th grade young boy. Sachiko writes her narrative when she is fifty seven years and in her narrative “When I made Balloon bombs”, focuses on her work at the Kokura munitions factory in February of 1945 as a young girl in her fourth year class in high school where together with her classmates had been mobilized to work in the plant in the production of balloon bombs.[3]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The authors are very much related in that they were both in school although Sachiko was in high school while Naruo was in 6th grade. This raises the fact that they were knowledgeable of writing and reading though Sachiko being older presents a clearer understanding of the war happenings as compared to Naruo. Basically, Sachiko is a young girl or lady while Naruo is a young boy although both of them write these narratives in their fifties with Naruo being fifty two while Sachiko is fifty seven.

These narratives are very relevant in providing historical information on the war from different perspectives in terms of gender and age since Naruo is around twelve years as a young boy child and Sachiko around seventeen years as a female teenager about to get to adulthood especially out of the great memories of the war in Japan whose effect is relevant even to date.[4]

Further, these accounts present the historical accounts from different locations where Sachiko was in Kokura munitions plant working in the making of balloon bombs, while Naruo has his account on his journey from Hiroshima to north eastern Japan. This analyses focuses on the justifying the reasons relevant for their use in history recording based on their merits and pitfalls in relation to records of history.

Factors that influenced the writing of the memoirs and their use in the recording of past events The war period elicited different feelings and reactions. In the period of 1945, Japan had been in war with China which had started back in 1937 and with America and its allies. The war took the direction of bombings and massive destruction of cities and towns and much later into nuclear bombings.[5]

These personal narratives represent the experiences of the authors with war. The experiences and memories that were so significant motivated them to write them down.[6] Sachiko has the rare experience of making balloon bombs which were used in war, while Naruo travels and sees a burned town to which the psychological state of meeting a person who perceives the situation as bad despite the feeling of fear elicits suspicion on him

It is worth noting that since both writers were in school during that period, the ability to read and write facilitated their writing of their historical accounts.

The magnitude of psychological impact the war had on the authors seemed to have motivated their writing.[7] This is revealed in the fact that Sachiko presents the shock and feelings of surprise at the fact that she actually made a balloon bomb and goes on to describe this process. Naruo on the other hand, has great surprise that despite his lack of much understanding on the war, the man he spoke to creates fear and suspicion to him and causes him to think much about his perception of the war and his statement of not being too bad.

We will write a custom Essay on The Merits and Pitfalls of using Memoir or Biography as Evidence for Past Events specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The age of the authors also seems to have been a motivation for their personal narratives with the shock and overwhelming nature of the war more than they could bear in their age. It is also worth noting that the issues raised are the involvement of children in war, psychological effects of war, conditions at the munitions plants and the role of gender in the war.[8]

Merits of using memoirs in recording of history The use of memoirs in history recording is based on justified reasons, which form the merits of such memoirs basically with the influence of their nature, degree of reliability and relationship with other sources of evidence.[9] Personal narratives as memoirs have the advantage of being useful in various fields other than just the records of history. This includes in the analysis of the issues surrounding the writing of such narratives.

For instance in “When I made Balloon bombs”, there is evidence of information regarding the war, the issues in the munitions plants during the war period, the education basis, gender influences in war as well as the science and art in the making of such bombs. In so doing, Sachiko presents information useful on the history on education, use of girls in munitions plants, the living conditions at the time and the aspects of disease and death as is applicable in the health sector as well as the issues of casualties after the war.[10]

Naruo presents information on a journey in a train with conversation with the neighbour and the creation of suspicion.[11] This is applicable in the learning of transport of the time, communication, education and the protection of children in war. These narratives can also be used in literature learning.

Personal narratives are also advantageous in providing the actual chronological order of events and the differences in geographical locations with actual explanations limited to a specific place.[12] Sachiko focuses on her life in the Kokura munitions plant proving information on the munitions plants in terms of conditions, workers, working environment and their role in history.

Naruo presents information on his journey from Hiroshima to the north eastern Japan raising the importance of Hiroshima as a target area for war hence the eviction of children. They both present the actual dates of the happenings of the war as the end of February in 1945 for Sochika and during the spring of the same year for Norua raising the ability to verify the reliability of the information in comparison with other records of war.

The fact that memoirs are primary sources of evidence increases the validity of history sources since such recordings are not based on any secondary interpretations of information which increases their truth.[13] Personal narratives are personally written with clear indications of the writer to be able to gauge the value of such information and get the perspective from the person. Sochika clearly specifies that she was in fourth class in high school and had been mobilized with her classmates to work in the munitions plants during the war.

Norua on his part presents his journey from Hiroshima and the suspicions from his neighbour in the journey raising the psychological interpretations and effects of the war. Both Norua and Sochika present their narratives in a way that is truly personal since some things such as actual feelings and interpretations cannot be done by somebody else conclusively. This increases their reliability as primary sources of evidence and as such their advantage in records of history.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Merits and Pitfalls of using Memoir or Biography as Evidence for Past Events by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Memoirs also are necessary in history recording especially where there are limited sources of evidence hence can be used to record such events while they provide historical data from different perspectives and based on different events which increases the value and content of history.[14]

This is very relevant due to limited nature of information especially in events of increasing the scope of research and getting to understand a subject from different perspectives.

Sochika presents information of the life at the Kokura munitions plant as a high school girl which may not have been written by somebody else in her position. Norua presents an account of a young boy’s interpretation of the war raising the influence on children who despite their limited understanding of the war had the ability of interpreting what was happening around them due to the magnitude of the impact of the war.[15]

The reliability of personal narratives also lies in their use of feelings and personal expressions to express the meaning increasing the reality of the event. For instance, Norua expresses his shock on seeing the burnt town of Akashi with clear description of the scene and then raises his words of expression “Doesn’t seem too bad” despite his shock.[16]

This increases his suspicion of the man next to him who seems to have heard raising his feelings of discomfort and thoughts of him being a spy. Sochika raises the expressions that were evident with the fact that they were free to go home some silence and shock. Her expression of the responses raises the understanding of the actual condition at the plants and the lack of expectations of release.[17]

Further, personal narratives are very necessary in increasing the fields of application of historical research such as political, philosophical, language, social, economic and cultural interpretations increasing the use of historical data.[18]

This is evident in the narratives of Sochika and Norua that can be used in political understanding of the times from the perspective of the authors, economic status from the nature of the work environment at the munitions plants and the food shortages in Hiroshima, social influences of gender in war, language at the time, philosophical interpretations of such narratives as well as psychological understanding of the war effects such as diseases, frustrations, fear and suspicion as well as the health issues.

Pitfalls of Personal Narratives Firstly, memoirs are individualized and as such reliance on them would provide a biased viewpoint especially where varying perspectives of different memoirs are used.[19] For instance, despite the age difference between Norua and Sochika, both can be considered as children.

However, Sochika is heavily involved in the munitions plant of Kokura in making balloon bombs, while Norua is part of the children that are evicted from Hiroshima to north eastern parts to protect them. This limits the understanding of the influence of the war on the children in terms of their involvement.

Memoirs also are just recordings of such events as the writer deems necessary. This means that the prior events that the author does not see of necessity are ignored thus making it difficult to follow up history. For instance, Sachiko presents information on her making of balloon bombs and the conditions at the plants.[20]

She does not specify on the reasons why they were allowed to leave, the length they had worked and the events after leaving the plant. Norua also considers his journey and his meeting the neighbour.[21] He does not clearly present the conditions at Hiroshima or the destination area limiting their reliability and follow up.

It is worth considering that memoirs are subject to loss of clarity of the flow of events especially due to loss of memory of the event.[22] This can lead to confusion and hence the lack of the actual presentation of the event. The personal narratives of Sochika and Norua are written in their fifties yet they represents the happening of event during the childhood and teenage.

This is subject to memory loss, exaggerations and the failure to remember the main significant issues or history. This however is debatable due to the magnitude of the war that elicited memories which have remained in Japan especially the effects of the bombings meaning that the authors could have clearly remembered the actual war events.[23]

Historians have been criticized of trying to establish the causes of actions, which are limited by memoirs due to the individual differences. Further, history based on emotions is not stable enough to stand the test of time. This is because memoirs are based on expression of the feelings of an individual, which are influenced by different factors. For instance, the feelings of Sochika are more of shock out of being released and frustration from working at the firm and death of the classmates while Norua mainly bases his narration on fear and suspicion.

It is worth appreciating that the characteristics of the writer of historical records have a role in influencing the reliability of such information.[24] Sochika is a young girl who understands what is happening even with her involvement in the making of bombs. This is not the case for Norua who is a young boy and in fact expresses his lack of understanding of the war and as such limits the application of his work in explanation of war perspectives.

Conclusion This analysis has focused on the merits and pitfalls of the use of such the personal narratives as primary sources of history and also on their background and factors that could have influenced the writers to write them. The narratives that have been used are “Doesn’t seem too bad” by Norua and “When I made balloon bombs” by Sochika. The emphasis has been on their merits and pitfalls as sources of historical records and information based on their nature degree of reliability and relationship with other sources of evidence.

Bibliography Fowale, Tongkeh. Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, 9- 23.

Hicks, George L. Japan’s war memories: amnesia or concealment? California: Ashgate Publishers, The University of California, 1997, 13-33.

McCullagh, Behan. “Language and the Truth of History.” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441- 455.

Naruo, Shirai. “Doesn’t seem too bad.” Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun. New York: Sharpe, 1995, 206-207.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the advantages and disadvantages of history for life. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1980, 6-25.

Sachiko, Takamizawa. “When I made Balloon Bombs.” Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun. New York: Sharpe, 1995, 181-182.

Seaton, Philip. Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II. London: Routledge, 2007, 23-45.

Seraphim, Franzika. War Memory and Social politics in Japan, 1945-2005. Social Science Japan Journal 11.1 (2008): 140-143.

Southgate, Beverley. What is History for? New York: Routledge, 2005, 12.

Trefalt, Beatrice. Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950-1975. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, 13-24.

Footnotes Tongkeh Fowale, Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 11.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 206.

Takamizawa Sachiko, “When I made Balloon Bombs”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 182.

Philip Seaton, Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II (London: Routledge, 2007), 24.

Franzika Seraphim, “War Memory and Social politics in Japan, 1945- 2005,” Social Science Japan Journal 11.1 (2008): 140-143, 140.

Beatrice Trefalt, Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950-1975 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 20.

Philip Seaton, Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II (London: Routledge, 2007), 30.

Beatrice Trefalt, Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950- 1975 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 14.

Behan McCullagh, “Language and the Truth of History,” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441-455, 442.

Beatrice Trefalt, Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950-1975 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 15.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 207.

Friedrich Nietzsche, On the advantages and disadvantages of history for life (Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1980), 15.

Beverley Southgate, What is History for? (New York: Routledge, 2005), 12.

Tongkeh Fowale, Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 19.

Franzika Seraphim, “War Memory and Social politics in Japan, 1945- 2005,” Social Science Japan Journal 11.1 (2008): 140-143, 142.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 206.

Takamizawa Sachiko, “When I made Balloon Bombs”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 182.

Tongkeh Fowale, Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 20.

Friedrich Nietzsche, On the advantages and disadvantages of history for life (Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1980), 23.

Takamizawa Sachiko, “When I made Balloon Bombs”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 182.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 206.

Behan McCullagh, “Language and the Truth of History,” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441-455, 448.

Philip Seaton, Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II (London: Routledge, 2007), 39.

Behan McCullagh, “Language and the Truth of History,” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441-455, 452.


Economic analysis and competition in oligopolistic firms Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Economic analysis

Economic feasiblity analysis

The economic impact analysis


Effects of competition in oligopolies


Reference List

Introduction In the world of business, there are various structures that are used to organize the various establishments according to the extents of their involvement. Oligopolies are one such classification and these are well present in countries all over the world. This essay seeks to illustrate how elements of economic analysis can be used to explain the competitive aspects of business entities that take the form of oligopolies.

To this end, a description of the term economic analysis and what it entails shall be provided alongside a complete detailing of all aspects of oligopolies. A section of the paper shall be dedicated to explore the possible impacts of long term strategic commitments on the competitive position of an oligopolistic firm. Finally a conclusion shall be provided and which shall serve as a summation of the arguments presented.

Economic analysis Because of the scarcity of resources, the basic human needs and desires tend to be limited by a number of factors including the purchasing power and the pricing of commodities and services. Economic analysis is the process of assessing the supply and demand patterns as well as the options which customers are exposed to and the incentives that drive them to make certain purchases (Boulding 1966).

This is therefore an analysis of how resources are utilized by a certain group of people. The field of economic analysis is divided into two main categories. These are economic feasibility analysis and economic impact analysis. These two are briefly explained below:

Economic feasiblity analysis Business establishments and state organisations tend to go through periods of uncertainty where great risk-taking measures are required particularly when it comes to the decision making process regarding long-term strategies such as the introduction of new products (Schermerhorn 1978). For a proper economic feasibility analysis to be carried out, it is imperative that the individuals involved in conducting the study commit themselves to ensuring accuracy in the prediction of demand.

To this end, it is necessary that the economic patterns as well as the purchasing power of consumers be taken into account (Schermerhorn 1978). Once the demand aspects have been dealt with, then the supply requirements can be studied and in this regard the firs have to find out which resources would be required for them to achieve their objectives. The feasibility study must also include an analysis of competitors and their basic business strategies.

The economic impact analysis This refers to intense research processes carried out with an aim of providing an estimation of the economic impact of a business establishment to the region in which it is based (Pleeter 1980). The consequence of an economic occurence is a total of the cumulative direct and indirect effects on the population. These effects are estimated by studying the levels of taxation rates, spending chains and saving patterns. These are elements that can only be analysied through scientific surveys in the target populations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Oligopoly An oligopoly is a type of market structure where a number of large enterprises exercise dominance in the market (Friedman 1983). The business establishments in this type of market are usually big companies which have a lot of resources for investment and which generally tend to command larger market values.

Such companies are also very well known in the world market because they tend to spend a huge percentage of their profits on marketing and advertising. There are two main types of oligopolies. These are the impure oligopoly and the pure oligopoly (Peeples 1989). The impure oligopoly mainly deals in a variety of products or services while the pure oligopoly mainly deals in the type of product that has no major difference from those produced by other companies in the same line of business (Friedman 1983).

Such homogeneous products include the likes of steel and wheat. In an oligopoly, there are very few sellers gunning for the biggest share of the market and this is primarily because they tend to invest a lot of resources in their daily operations. On average, most oligopolies tend to have between three and four key players (Baye 1999).

The primary feature that characterizes oligopolies is the aspect of interdependence between the companies involved. A basic oligopoly will tend to be made up of very few large enterprises (Friedman 1983). Each player in the oligopoly plays a very distinct role such that any of its actions will have a significant impact on the market conditions. Economic analysis comes in handy to explain the influences of various companies in the oligopoly especially in the view of the fact that the other companies in competition are fully aware of their rivals’ market actions (Peeples 1989). This means that in order for an enterprise to pursue a particular market action, the institution has to consider all the possible counter-reactions by each and every member of the oligopoly.

This sort of strategization likens decision making in an oligopoly to a chess game in which an player has to analyze all the possible moves and countermoves by his/her opponent before establishing a plan for attaining his/her objectives. For instance a company intending to reduce its pricing structure in order to woo more clients has to take into consideration that competitors in the same market might counter the move by reducing the prices even further.

A good example is the ongoing price war between the largest mobile telephony providers in the East African country o Kenya (Zain and Safaricom) where Zain out of nowhere cut all calling rates by 50%, a situation that forced their rivals, Safaricom to cut down their charges as well. This kind of interdependent competition has the negative effect of reducing the price to ruinous levels. Economic analysis helps understand the difference between oligopolies and monopolies in this respect of interdependence.

Economic analysis helps provides an understanding of profit maximization strategies. In oligopoly markets the companies involved are generally fully aware of their competitors’ weak points. As such, the enterprises in competition will tend to exploit such weaknesses to their own advantage regardless of the fact that such actions could spark instances of unfair competitive practices.

We will write a custom Essay on Economic analysis and competition in oligopolistic firms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic analysis helps scholars understand is aspect of competition by illustrating how oligopolies raise their profit levels by ensuring production happens at the point where marginal costs and expenditures intersect (Baye 1999). It is also through market analysis that it is easy to understand that oligopolies are able to sustain great profits by the companies acting as price setters as opposed to price takers.

In some instances, firms in an oligopoly can join forces in a secret association that would see them control the market and retain the prices at an all time high (Hirschey 2009). Such cartels result in consequences similar to those of monopolies since they tend to discourage competitive tendencies (Hirschey 2009). Economic analysis comes through to provide explanations to how certain companies in the cartels conduct themselves especially since disagreements in such arragements can result in price wars breaking out.

Once an oligopoly has been well established, it assumes the form of an elitist club where new entrants have to go to extensive lengths to prove their worth (Puu and Shusko 2002). In other words there are very many barriers to entry. Economic analysis helps further understand this aspect of entry by laying emphasis on the primary barriers which include economies of scale and idea licensing.

Similarly, concepts of economic analysis will contribute to understanding further why the enterprises that have already established ground in the oligopoly will make all necessary efforts to ensure that nascent companies are discouraged or destroyed.

In this regard, the incumbent firms can easily maintain long-run large profits by ensuring that no sideline companies enter the market to cause a split in the profits. For the sake of economic security, governments have also been known to deny some companies entry into certain lucrative business ventures. Economic analysis also explains that consumers generally tend to have limited information as regards the pricing structure and therefore will fall victims to the oppressive prices established by oligopolies (Baumol and Blinder 2008).

Leaving the market is equally as challenging as the entry and from the principles of economic analysis it has been established that this is due to the fact that such an exit can end up causing a lot of economic challenges for the economy of the country where the firm is located (Puu and Shusko 2002).

Effects of competition in oligopolies The primary effect of competition by oligopolies is unending rivalry among the companies involved (Puu and Shusko 2002). This rivalry mainly arises from price wars necessitated by firms cutting down prices with an aim of getting an unfair advantage on their competitors.

However, their are other forms of competition which dont necessarily involve the pricing structures, top on the list being advertising and differentiation (Hirschey 2009). Big companies tend to invest huge amounts of money in promotional campaigns which tend to work in their advantage mainly because they already have secured their own portions of the market.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic analysis and competition in oligopolistic firms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is however easier for companies to lose this portion of the market than to gain bigger portions and this is the main reason why firms have to constantly make the consumer aware of their presence. Advertising remains the primary way for established companies to maintain their competitive lead. In the field of economic analysis non-price competition is considered to be one of the key oligopoly models and this is because of the benefiting effects that it gives companies (Fudenberg and Tirole 2002).

As far as the price wars are concerned, one economic analysis model that can be used to explain market phenomena is the kinked demand curve model (Fudenberg and Tirole). This model is based on the fact that oligopolists tend to appreciate that when one firm lowers its prices, other enterprises will follow suit for fear of losing their market share (McEachern 2008).

When prices are decreased by a relatively large percentage, the effect is a comparatively small rise in sales; a phenomena known as inelastic demand (Baumol and Blinder 2008). However, when one firm decides to raises its prices, other firms will generally tend to ignore this and hope that the can take advantage of the situation to attract customers who will basically tend to go for the lower prices. A relatively small rise in price will come with a sharp decline in sales; a condition referred to as elastic demand (Baumol and Blinder 2008).

Even in the most competitive oligopolies, their tends to be one company that commands the biggest share of the market and as such tends to set the price for the rest of the market. This aspect is explained by an economic analysis model called price leadership where the rest of the companies in the circle have to wait for the dominant firm to set the price for them to follow (Fudenberg and Tirole 2002).

This is a very common model because companies generally have the tendency to match prices with the largest enterprise in the business. As such when this large player decides to drop the prices to ridiculous levels, the other enterprises have no option but to drop theirs as well.

As far as long term strategic commitments on the competitive position of an oligopolistic firm are concerned, there are two basic outcomes that can be arrived at. First, is that the market will gradually align itself to accord such companies superseded advantage over their competitors (Baye 1999). For instance, if a company decides to suddenly reduce the prices of its products by 40%, there is a chance that the competing oligopolies will reduce their prices to match this figure or to an even lower figure.

However, due to the fact that the reduction is of high proportions, other companies may not have the financial potential to drop their prices to such extents and consequently the firm that dropped its prices will gradually gain in terms of customer drain from competitors and will hope to retain these customers in the long-term. The other effect of long term strategic commitments is that the desired effect may not be attained and the company ends up losing heavily (McEachern 2008).

Drawing from the above example of a 40% price reduction, customers may not be interested in shifting their loyalty from the other competitors in the oligopoly because of the quality of service they have been getting. Under these circumstances, the company which dropped its prices may not be in a position to break even and because of pride issues, the company will not be in a position to raise its prices once its plan backfires.

Conclusion This essay has extensively analysed the importance of economic analysis in explaining certain behaviours of oligopolies. Various analytical models have been used to provide logical explanations as to the behaviours of companies in this business structure. Aside from this, a section of the presentation has been used to elaborate on the impact of strategic commitments on the competitive positions of companies.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that oligopoly is a very common market structure which tends to come with difficulties in evaluation. With companies getting bigger and acquiring more power and with the world becoming a global village on a daily basis it is almost guaranteed that this structure will in the coming years be the basic market structure.

Reference List Baumol, W.J.


The Analysis of Economics Essay college essay help: college essay help

In this paper, we intend to analyze three articles, published in New York Times, The Economist and Newsweek. Each of them focuses on such topic as the development of the US economy and its struggle against the ongoing recession. Our main task is to evaluate the arguments, put forward by the authors and determine whether there they are evidence-based and objective.

The first article to be discussed is called Across the US, Long Recovery Looks Like Recession. It was written by Michael Powell and Motoko Rich and was issued in New York Times on the twelfth of October[1]. The authors argue that the US economy will not be able to recover from the recession in the near future. In particular, they say that the aftereffects of the crisis can be overcome in at least nine years. Their prognosis is based on the fact that current rate of job creation is rather slow (Powell


Stresses of being a student Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Psychology and health

Sources of student stress

Positive and negative stress

Implications of stress

Coping with stress

Institutional interventions against student stress


Reference List

Introduction Many young people find it quite demanding to move from home to go and stay in college. This is due to the fact that at home they normally have ample time with parental guidance and support (Keil, 2004, p.659). On the other hand, in college they are on their own.

They have to balance out between all the activities they need to engage in. Personal organization turns out to be quite tricky and most of them get their priorities wrong. At the end of the day such like individuals end up in difficult situations as they struggle to keep up with what is expected of them.

Moving away from home also means one has to leave behind his or her family and other close friends. This turns out to be stressful, especially before one gets to form new friends and other forms of support in the new environment (Keil, 2004, p.659).

Stress refers any state of affairs that stirs up depressing thoughts and stances in an individual. Its symptoms include a condition of anxiety and adrenaline production, short-range resistance as a survival means, fatigue, bad temper and lack of ability to concentrate (Schore, 2003, p. 7). There are also other physiological effects like headaches and increased heartbeat.

Psychology and health These two terms refer to the understanding of how conduct and societal circumstance affect the general well-being of an individual. Psychologists work with other medical experts to explain various behavioral characteristics of people (Tsigos


The Kurdish Conflict in the Middle East Essay college essay help near me

Terrorism is not a new word to many of us. This word has so many definitions but according to the government of the United States, it refers to threats of the people, manipulation of the state policy by force or fear, or trying to alter the government by either kidnapping or assassination. This act is dangerous for it can take up to five years while planning and finally causing a disaster to the affected. (Kenny, 2009)

To start with, the Kurdish conflict is not an exemption but is among the most famous conflicts in the Middle East, which involves many states and non-state competitors. It is believed that roughly 30 million Kurdish people live in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran. This tribe has its own way of living and language, but has no its own state.

It is said that most of the Kurds are Sunni Islam’s although they hold close to other religions including Christianity and Judaism. It is also said that the Kurds lived independently both nationally and ethnically in Kurdistan their historical motherland. (The Odyssey, 2000)

The Kurds are seen to be undeserving of their own state because they are illiterate. This cannot make them go far since the illiteracy level will make them not see far in life. In addition, advanced infant mortality is another reason that shows slow growth leading to few people those cannot stand by their own. The way they are scarcely populated cannot make them own a nation since where there is scarcity there is no unity and without unity, it is hard to make something strong. (Berkey, 2009)

On its part, the AlQaeda was stared by Osama bin Laden in 1988 to combine the global network he organized during the Afghan war. His main aim was to advance the Islamic revolutions during the Muslim world and resisting strange links in the Middle East.

Bin laden befell in the battle beside the Soviet Union’s invasion and occupation from 1979 to 1988 ending up with a defeat under the supervision of the international militias of Muslim troop sponsored by the U.S., Pakistan and Arabia. By the help of Abdullah Azzam the leader of Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood, Bin laden had different views on how to work with the network they had recognized.

It is during this time when he decided to find AlQaeda based on personal affiliations formed during the fight in Afghanistan also on his own international network, status and admission to a big sum of money. In this process, Azzam was assassinated and after the war ended, the Afghan-Arabs who were the organizers of the war were known and they could not go back home due to the state of the country .

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This benefited AlQaeda’s global reach and finally assisted in refining the second and third generation of AlQaeda terrorists. Bin laden had some key issues, which probably made him have all the knowledge he used in his operations. His family had wealth that gave him admission to the elite Al Thagher model school were he learned Islamic which in turn changed him to become what he is today. In the early 80,s, he worked with the mujahideen in Afghanistan, which finally taught him how to fight. (Zalman, n.d.)

The AlQaeda had carried out many attacks, which cost both lives and properties worthy many dollars. In 1993, the Al Qaeda was reported to have shot down U.S helicopter killing U.S peacekeeper in Somalia while they were patrolling to restore hope.

In 1998, the Al Qaeda attacked the Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar-Es-Salam, Tanzania by bombing the U.S Embassies, which left more than 300 people dead, and at least 5000 people injured. Two years later on 12 Oct 2000 the Al Qaeda was also reported to have attacked the USS Cole in Yemen killing around 17 U.S. Navy and more than 39 injured. All these among others are some of the attacks that the Al Qaeda made. (Cronin, n.d.)

In order to fight all this terror towards Americans, I have been thinking of ways in which they could win the fight. First, they should be organized and preventive. By doing this, they will have tight security that will enable them decipher any plan the terrorism will be deciding to do and by so doing to prevent the damage that would have been caused. In addition, they should be intelligent.

By doing this the terrorism will never get access due to the fear of FBI coordination, which will lead to the penetration of the attackers. They should also redefine law enforcement. This will give the attackers fear of facing reprisals under that firm law. Funding the terrorists should also be stopped. Anybody got funding the terrorists should be dealt with accordingly.

This will help a lot in reducing the terrorism. Stern border protection should be adhered to if the borders will be guarded properly this will reduce the terrorism. This reduction will result since there would be no mingling which brings about peer pressure, which can result in doing the harm. This among others should be done in order to fight the terrorism in the world (Hamilton, 2002)

Conclusion Terrorism has been a great disaster to the world since it has caused so much harm to the affected. It is due to this that many countries are living under fear of the terrorists. Secondly, the Kurdish conflict is not an exemption but is among the most famous conflicts in the Middle East, which involves many states and non-state competitors.

We will write a custom Essay on The Kurdish Conflict in the Middle East specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is a nation, which cannot stand by it self due to some failures. Finally, the AlQaeda and Osama bin Laden have played a great role in destroying and pulling back the economy of many countries by the attacks they have been doing. We should all preach peace in order to stop all this from happening.

References Berkey, J. (2009). Preventing conflict over Kurdistan. Web.

Cronin, A. Terrorist Attack by Al Qaeda. Web.

Hamilton, L. (2002). Combating Terrorism and Protecting Our Homeland. Web.

Kenny, J. (2009). What is Terrorism? Web.

The Odyssey. (2000). Speak your mind the Kurdish Conflict. Web.

Zalman, A. Profile: Osama bin Laden. Web.


No title Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

You are to answer the following questions.. According to Blauner, what are some of the similarities between people of color in the U.S. and colonized people around the world (p. 303)?  What does he mean by the “colonial labor principle” (p. 305)?

Answer all questions.

In a discussion form not essay.


Scramble for Africa Report best essay help

The lecture on the scramble for Africa is both informative and educative. It draws its main strength from the fact that it goes back to the late 1880s to provide a clear review of how things have changed in the period that colonialists entered the continent.

This lecture divides into various aspects of the scramble by providing categorical analysis of the forms of rule adopted by the colonialists and there spheres of influence. The appreciation of Africa as a continent with a wide array of natural resources helps provide a clear understanding of why other individuals felt the need to abandon their countries and continents to come set base in Africa.

The theory on neo-colonialism has been well elaborated help create an understanding of the colonial elements that still remain in the continent and. The section that has been given extensive coverage (and appropriately so) is the detailing of the mining and exportation of oil from some African countries. Other aspects that have made Africa so highly cherished by individuals from other continents include the extensive prospects for Agribusiness.

However, it is also worth noting that from the lecture the moral issues surrounding the move by the Western nations wanting to take over all the good things in Africa have been given mention. The section on the unequal struggle by Africans fighting for the control of resources that they should have unchallenged control over serves to offer the entire lecture some sense of balance.

This is because most of the discussion was structured to show the happening of events from the point of view of the ‘offenders’ and it only takes an analysis of the retaliation by the ‘victims’ to make an argument credible.