Introduction Education of little kids plays an important role in life: the way of how children are able to grasp new material and the principles according to which it is necessary to live influences their future and communication with other people around. In this paper, one of the cultural aspects of children education will be taken into consideration.
With the help of three trade books, 3rd grade students will be able to learn more about the First Thanksgiving Era and the history of this amazing holiday in the USA. Trade books are usually rich in captivating narrative and educative content, this is why they may promote students with a good change to understand the necessary aspects of the chosen holiday (Vacca
Military Sealift Command (MSC) Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents External factors affecting MSC environment
Internal strength and weakness in the organization
Keys to successful implementation
External factors affecting MSC environment Military Sealift Command had the following factors affecting the external environment of the organization: their perceived opponents who tried to deny them access and even make it harder for them to access the global ports and sea-lanes that were sabotaging access challenges affecting the organization as the US navy who were to conduct their business around.
This freedom of access is very important to the global economy as it facilitates the movement of resources as well as the growth of trade. The decline of the overseas military presence will be quite uneconomical, as it will require more military forces to protect US interests since they will be forced to move further into the sea.
They also faced infrastructure challenges as it had poor infrastructure development in most areas where the US has future interests is likely to hinder their future operations (Barney, 2007. p 65). These areas lack seaports and airports as well as poor road networks. These areas also have severe water shortages as well as few or no electrical and sewerage services.
These shortages directly hinder the deployment of military forces by the US and her partners as well as in response to humanitarian aid. The other factor of the organization that affected the US military include the type of technology used even though the advancement of information and communication technology has proved to be beneficial, it can also be dangerous especially in the military field.
While the US military has advanced in technology, their perceived opponents and enemies may also gain access to these same technologies and may use them to cause an attack, disrupt or even degrade the US military communications and the flow of information.
Investment in technology has also proved to be expensive and one must choose carefully due to its cost, the training expenses as well as their key objective, which is to gain total efficiency. Getting good and efficient software for both financial as well as other decisions making such as AHP that was difficult and quite expensive (Mintzberg at el, 2004. p 152).
The other external environmental factor is the government policies with the current financial crisis; the US government has a huge budget deficit that has affected several government operations including the military operations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According the US Secretary of Defense, Robert Gates, the American government should put more emphasis on the military spending and adjust its priorities to address the increasingly changing threats from its enemies and world. The threats include; the terrorists, rising powers as well as the rogue nations who are determined to harm the US.
These opponents have realized that they cannot confront the US directly on military grounds, so they are trying other possible options. This dominance is not perceived well by the US enemies and may do anything they can to jeopardize the military operations. This is the reason why the American government, should invest in programs, personnel as well as platforms that will guarantee her continued dominance.
Since the end of the Cold War, the US Navy has shrunk but its battle fleet is still larger the next thirteen navies combined with eleven of those being the allies of US. The strategic planning on the future trends of challenges faced with the energy resources with the rising use of more fossil fuels by the emerging economies like China and India, there is a lot of pressure on the world’s energy resources (Barney, 2007. p 65).
There is a need for the use of alternative sources of energy by the US military. These changes require huge capital use, changes in political attitudes by world leaders towards the use of nuclear energy as well as the dramatic changes in technology.
Internal strength and weakness in the organization SWOT analysis involves strength and weaknesses of an organization are interior factors that affect a company business. The main strengths of MSC are that they have highly trained workforce, quality as well as safety management system focused. MSC Resources in the Military Sealift Command currently operates about 111 non-combatant, civilian-crewed ships across the globe.
The MSC also has approximately fifty military ships on standby and are ready for military use. The Headquarter of Military Sealift Command is in Washington, D.C with branches across the country. It has about 8,000 employees, both military and civilian. MSC get its finances from two main sources, i.e. the transportation working capital and the navy working capital fund.
Each one of these funds has different functions. The purpose of the Transport working capital is to finance the operation of the sealift services whereas the main purpose of the navy working capital fund is to support the navy force and operations as well as other military entities. Though MSC gets its funding from these two sources, it does not get funding from its command operations.
We will write a custom Essay on Military Sealift Command (MSC) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it obtains finances from the money transfers its customers transfer into the working capital funds. These are the finances the MSC uses to finance its command operations. Since MSC is not a profit- making organization, they do not budget to make profits but instead their working capital funds budget to break-even.
The company had the following weaknesses: it was slow in the hiring process of CIVMAR and the shore employees.
MSC and the Navy component to USTRANSCOM which provides approximately 30 ships and crews daily to support operations in force sustainment, delivery of the combat equipments, fuel, vehicles, ammunition as well as the ammunitions to the US forces around the world in times of war and peace (Mintzberg at el, 2003. p 152).
Sometimes MSC are involved in the misappropriation of funds. Since the MSC is involved in administration and one of their core objectives is administrate the scarce resources efficiently with the aim of saving funds. At times the military personnel concentrates on completing the mission and may lead to making fast in appropriate decisions in order to complete these missions lead to bad financial decisions.
Personnel in the military usually have a turnover after every three years, this puts them under a lot of pressure in their careers like the need for promotions, evaluations and other penalties that civilians do not have.
The military personnel face dilemmas between choosing between careers and professional interests when they are involved in decision-making processes. The MSC’s workforce is approximately 9,000 employees across the globe, with about 80 percent of the working at the sea. The majority of these workers are mariners who work for the civil service in their respective federal governments.
Other employees work for private firms as commercial mariners, and other members of the reserve military. The civilians, unlike the US Naval ships that are operated by the military personnel, operate all the MSC ships.
Even though the MSC ships are operated by civilians, they may be involves in the military operation in moments of war by carrying military supplies as well as carrying communication equipments. They are able to do this because some of their ships have small military departments that are designed to carry out these operations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Military Sealift Command (MSC) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Contingency plan Contingency planning is defined as the method used in developing or inventing other plans to be used in solving risks that may occur in the organization.
Contingency have the following advantages when properly planned within the company include: helps the company to prosper as it tackle any risk that may occur in the company, they will help in correcting risks and make decision making faster, company will be able to tackle more response faster and enables top managers to tackle the possible outcome before occurring.
Strategic planning The main objective of strategic planning is understanding the advantages of strategic planning: include the understanding of product strategic planning, and knowing the process of planning and implementation. One of the best alternative strategies the MSC should adopt is creating an entrepreneurial strategy (Pearce
Multicultural Psychology: Acceptable and Unacceptable Behaviours Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction Multicultural psychology is the systematic approach to all kinds of humanities that occur in a multicultural environmental background. This means that people from different backgrounds encounter each other thereby creating an environmental setting that results in composite human behaviour. The multicultural aspect has been perceived by psychologists worldwide as the fourth force in the study of psychology.
Thus, it supplements such aspects as behaviourism and humanistic psychology. It is also worth noting that psychodynamic theories can be supplemented by the multicultural psychological aspects.
Multicultural psychology concentrates on the differences in culture on the part of thoughts, accepted, and unacceptable behaviours. It is important to note that multicultural psychology does not only relate to the normal humanistic approaches but also focuses on the abnormal approaches.
Brief History of Multicultural Psychology At various times in history, psychology has been defined as the study of the psyche or the mind of the spirit of consciousness. Recently, psychology has been described as the science of behaviour. The study of psychology is as old as the human species. Psychology can be understood to have began during the first studies of human cognitive experience such as those proposed by the early Greeks.
The study also began during the attempts to account for dreams, mental illnesses and emotions, not forgetting fantasies. Many people have been engaged in developing the evolution of psychology. They include Plato and Aristotle who tried to account for such processes as memory, perception, and learning.
Dating the age of psychology is very hard due to lack of past documentation. However, we can date the evolution of psychology thereby splitting this study to create multicultural psychology as one of the disciplines.
However, to be precise, cultural psychology did not begin a long time ago. It was during the 1960s that it began. It then became prominent during the 1980s and 1990s.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many texts have been written since then. Some of the prominent psychological texts include Sweder and Levine written in 1984 and the recent ones such as Nisbett which was written in 2001. Multicultural psychology is therefore not an old phenomenon in a historical perspective.
Rationale for Establishment of Multicultural Psychology as a Sub Specialty of Psychology There are a number of reasons why multicultural psychology has been established as a sub specialty of psychology. Psychology can be viewed in a wider sense as the science of habits and the mind set. On the other hand, multicultural psychology is the science of the mind and behaviours in an environment that has a mixed set of cultural backgrounds.
In addition, psychology is further split into many other sub topics that include biological, clinical, cognitive, comparative development, and industrial-organizational aspects among many others. Social psychology also falls in this category. As a matter of fact, social psychology is closely related to multicultural psychology in the primary sense of relationships between groups and people.
Multicultural Psychology and Social Psychology When people talk about social psychology, they imply to that kind of psychology that relates to people and groups. In a multicultural sense, social psychology takes a primary role in the sense that the interrelationship between the subjects is correlated.
The two terms, that is, multicultural psychology and social psychology differ by a very small margin. This is because multicultural psychology deals with relationships in different cultural backgrounds while social psychology deals with the general relationships between groups and people (Friedman
System of Protection for Asylum Seekers and Refugees Internship Report essay help online
Introduction A refugee refers to an individual who has fled his or her country to seek shelter, protection or other basic human needs in another country. There are different situations that may force an individual out of his or her country, some of them being characterized by gross violation of human rights.
These different situations can lead to the mass movement of groups of individuals, usually civilians, or fleeing of few individuals of eminent personalities in the country. In addition, a protracted warfare that is experienced in a given country may force some of the civilians that are affected by war to flee from the country to another country in need of protection.
Clashes that are often witnessed among neighboring ethnic communities have also been seen to contribute to the displacement of some proportion of a given population. The members of some minority communities may be evicted by rival group. The same applies to the citizens of a country that experiences war with countries.
In addition, residents of a war-torn section of a country may be forced out of their residential homes to seek protection elsewhere. Moreover, political temperatures in a country also contribute to the displacement of citizens that become asylum seekers. For instance, a political coup attempt may result into a war between the military on the side of the government and the opposition that attempts to overthrow the government.
Civilians are often the victims of such violent circumstances and are forced to flee the country. They are supposed to receive some protection from the government and if this has failed, then they feel they should run away for safety (Selm-Thorburn, 1998). Members of the rebel group or some liberation movement often flee their country for fear of being oppressed by the present government.
These liberation movements find it convenient to lay strategies and implement their planned attacks while they are outside their country. This also applies to some senior official in the current government of a given country that has had an ideological difference with his or her seniors and fears that he or she may be assassinated.
Regardless of the roots and the immediate cause of refugees and asylum seekers, these individuals have certain common problems that need to be addressed by the host nations. The majority of these individuals have lost all the property from which they would obtain the basic human needs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some have lost members of their families to the violent wrangles or disasters whereas others have families disintegrated with little possibilities of ever coming together again. The experiences of the refugees on their way from the cruel land are quite tormenting. Some have been psychologically upset due to the loss of property and relatives and the experiences they encountered during the exodus.
The refugees and asylum seekers, thus, require psychological therapy and proper guidance and counseling. They still require education and other forms of training that can enable them realize their dreams in life. The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) is an agency under the United Nations that deals wit the refugees from different parts of the globe.
There is need to determine a true refugee who should be accommodated in given country. These systems will examine the roots and the immediate causes of the asylum seekers and establish their viability. A host nation may unknowingly protect and accommodate, as a refugee, a criminal or a terrorist from an enemy nation who can plan massive attack on the country or from the host country.
The bodies at the local and international levels obtain support from other donor agencies and international organization to help meet the needs of the refugees. There is still more to be done by the international agencies concerned with the refugees. While providing a solution for the immediate problems, there is also a need to determine the ways that can help prevent more influx of the refugees. An analysis of the areas that are prone to sending away refugees will provide an insight on the better preventive mechanisms that may be employed.
About the organization The System of protection for asylum seekers and refugees (SPRAR) is an Italian national system that deals with refugees and asylum seekers. The system began to develop in the beginning of the last decade following a joint work by different non-governmental organizations, the Ministry of Interior in Italy, the National Association of the Italian Municipality (ANCI), and the UNHCR (Servizio Centrale- History of the Reception System, 2011a,).
These different bodies considered the situations that had been recorded in the systems of receiving refugees in 1999 and 2000 and approved the National Asylum Program (PNA). The system flourished in the country and drew support from local and national departments. SPRAR was legally instituted in 2002 from the reception measures that had been established in the PNA.
A body was also instituted by the Ministry of Interior that would support the local institutions that provided the reception to refugees and asylum seekers. Under the management of the National Association of the Italian Municipality, the established Central Service would provide ‘Information, Promotion, Advice, Monitoring, and Support to the local bodies’ (Servizio Centrale, 2011a).
We will write a custom Report on System of Protection for Asylum Seekers and Refugees Internship specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The local bodies in the SPRAR protection system obtain financial support from the National Funds for Asylum Policies and Services to carry out their activities (SPRAR, 2009, p.6). They also obtain support from various non-governmental organizations and other volunteer individuals and not-for-profit organizations. There is also a fraction of financial support obtained from the European Refugee Fund from the European Commission.
In return, the protection system provides a wide range of services to the refugees and asylum seekers. Apart from the provision of food and accommodation, the protection system also provides guidance and support to help improve the economic and social status of the refugees.
The SPRAR considers two main categories of individuals that can benefit from their projects. The first category comprises individuals who are seeking international protection. In many instances, most of these individuals have applied for international protection and are waiting for a decision following their application. The other category includes those that have been granted protection and are absorbed in the refugee centers or given any other support as may be required (SPRAR, 2009).
Aims of the organization The SPRAR projects in Italy are intended to remove the burden that is placed on a central government agency in dealing with the refugees and asylum seekers in the country. The systems are aimed at improving the kind of reception that is provided to the refugees in the refugee centers. By involving actors from all sectors of the economy, the protections systems attempt to provide for the needs of the refugees and help them regenerate and develop into responsible and dignified members of a society.
Ethos of the organization In setting the aims and objectives, an organization has to draw from certain principle and values. The achievement of the above aims and objectives is enhanced by the kind of organizational values and principles that are applied in its activities. These sets of values that define the culture of the organization are called its ethos.
As a system that provides accommodation to individuals that are displaced from their original residential homes the SPRAR protection considers respect for others very essential in performing its activities. Refugees are mainly those that have been forced by circumstances to lose respect for themselves and for others. The system has identified the need to have respect among the refugees in a given camp and between the refugees and the staff that run the protection institutions.
There is need to respect the cultural and ideological differences that are to be witnessed in this new society. Another characteristic that is valued by the system is love and care. The experiences that most of the victims have had, made them loose that sense of love. They often cannot make a meaning of being loved and neither do they offer love to others.
The integrated reception provided by the protection centers can only be possible if the workers at these institutions are caring and loving. The respect for others will be enhanced by the love and empathy that one has for these individuals. In this context, the organization also values the privacy and confidentiality in an individual. It is difficult to exercise privacy in the refugee accommodations due to lack of enough space.
Not sure if you can write a paper on System of Protection for Asylum Seekers and Refugees Internship by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While in the accommodations provided by the center the refugees can form some groups in which they share their experiences. Some of the victims had different violations of human rights such as rape or abduction. It is required that the information about an individual’s experiences remain confidential either with the counseling staff or with the group member who shared the experiences.
The health safety is also considered in the system. In as much as the victims require some form of protection, the system also recognizes the fact that they need to receive services that are sensitive to the health hazards that may emerge. The system has purposed that the refugees be subjected to healthy living conditions including shelter and meals.
The organization also values a sense of understanding and having a feeling for other people. The system recognizes the needs of the employees at different institutions to understand the situations that the victims are undergoing. They need to imagine themselves in such situations and apply the necessary ethnic principles. They need to handle the refugees in a manner that they would appreciate if applied on them.
The principle of equality is also fundamental in the operations at the various centers in the system. In as much as the accommodations draw individuals from diverse situations, the system sees a need to have some equality in the execution of their services. The UNHCR requires that those that are eligible to be granted international protection should not be denied such an opportunity (Redmond, 2005; Feller et al, 2003).
The elements of discrimination should not be evident in the provision of the services to the refugees. This, however, does not preclude the special attention to the victims that are exposed to greater risks and need special assistance.
The pressures and challenges facing the organization There are challenges that are faced by the protection system in attempting to provide its services to the refugees and asylum seekers. Firstly, despite the financial support that the protection institutions obtain from the government and other donor agencies, the whole system is still faced with the problem of lack of enough funds. There is an increasing need for the provision of the services due to the increasing number of the victims of human rights violations.
Italy has also had issues with the UNHCR over how the refugees have been handled in the last decade (Redmond, 2005). This could be attributed to the fact that the refugee protection in Italy is based on the fundamental norms to promote humanitarian behaviors and that have not been changed into fundamental legislation (Cuko, 2010, p.36).
The increasing number of the refugees also poses a challenge on the organizational management. There is a frequent need to restructure the organization at the institutions that provide the protection services to the refugees to be able to accommodate the growing population. There is need to optimize the resources that are available while not lowering the quality of the services that are offered by the institutions (SPRAR, 2009).
There is a constant need to establish or acquire more facilities. Besides, the maintenance of the existing facilities like houses also poses challenges to SPRAR and the supporting agencies. Another problem that is faced by the system is the diverse needs of the asylum seekers and the refugees. These individuals have undergone different experiences and need different kinds of attention.
Some of the refugees are adults who have undergone some training and have skills that can be applied in some sectors of the economy. Others are adults but lack basic skills that could be applied in the economic fields whereas others are minors that need education alongside accommodation and food. Similarly, there are those that criticized the government and escaped a planned assassination by the top government officials.
These individuals have different levels of exposure to more risks and need to be handled differently. The diverse needs of the refugees and asylum seekers are, thus, a challenge in an attempt to standardize the conditions at the refugee reception institutions. There is a problem in caring for differently vulnerable individuals (SPRAR, 2009, p.4).
In the refugee camps, the refugees could also develop further complications that add on the cost of their accommodation. While at the establishment, I encountered a woman who was diagnosed with cancer when under protection by the SPRAR. The woman who was already engaged in some occupation was forced to leave her job and obtain good care. Fortunately, the protection system managed to help her and she is currently fit to take on a job.
There are cases that are hard to deal with and perhaps the standard procedures of managing them had not been developed by the system. Other than diverse needs of the refugees, some cases proved difficult to handle when I was at the organization. There was a young woman who had been sexually abused.
This experience seemed to have had permanent psychological damage on the woman. Despite the care provided at the centers, the woman showed no signs of improvement. One other critical case was a man who had also had ugly experiences like imprisonment and torture. When in the country, he was also charged for theft.
The care that was provided to him at the centers seemed not to provide a good therapy. He later moved on to stay in France. Such unique cases are hard to handle and no standard procedures may be developed to manage them. The cultural diversity among the asylum seekers and the refugees is also a challenge that the system faces. The refugee reception centers receive victims from many different countries with the most diverse cultures.
These victims with different cultural backgrounds have to be made to be one society and co-inhabit some niche. The individuals also have different lifestyles. There is a difficulty in developing a common organizational culture based on this diversity. There is need to cultivate in the refugees the need to respect and be able to accommodate the other cultures.
Another challenge is the language barrier and the difference in the educational systems of Italy and the refugees’ countries of origin. In training such refugees as an attempt to help them make the ends meet, it would be required that they first learn the local language. While this may be advantageous to the refugee, it adds on the cost of the reception of the refugees by the protection centers.
The difference in the educational system also impedes the attempt to model the refugees who had undergone some professional training before the flight to apply their knowledge and skills in the local setting. Cases have been seen where a professional refugee is not able to apply his or her professional knowledge and skills as they are in Italy. Such individuals are forced to start adapting to the system in Italy before they can apply their skills and expertise.
The other challenges include the irregular migratory patterns that make the planning processes difficult in Italy (Redmond, 2009). The SPRAR has a problem in identifying the asylum seekers. The organization is well aware of the greater number of vulnerable individuals who need accommodation and other forms of protection. There is, perhaps, a barrier between the institutions and the vulnerable children.
This may not allow for the identification of this category. A report in 2009 had showed that about 200 minors had been absorbed into the centers that support the asylum seekers (SPRAR, 2009, p.3). This number was observed to be far less than the expected number of the vulnerable children that need support.
The SPRAR protection system also has certain opportunities that could be exploited to enhance their service delivery. An analysis of the historical politics on the emigrants into the country as well as the patterns that had been recorded earlier can help in developing a system that is more effective.
Although the country has witnessed different political views on migration (Puggioni, 2006) the challenges that an organization faces and the attempts to provide their solution can often create some useful opportunities. The system has noticed that some vulnerable individuals are not under their protection and could get into more danger.
The need to provide an explanation to this scenario has called for a combined effort of the SPRAR and the other governmental and non-governmental bodies. With such a commitment, it is necessary to develop new ideas and obtain useful materials to help maintain the protection system (SPRAR, 2009).
Organizational strategies and tactics To achieve the goals that have been set, the SPRAR protection system has adopted a number of strategies that have seen the system succeed in many instances. Firstly, the system includes a wide range of actors from the public and private sectors. The actors include NGOs, various departments of the government, the non-profit organizations, charity groups, and individual volunteers.
The Ministry of Interior and Local Authorities is particularly involved in promoting the activities of SPRAR (Servizio Centrale, 2011b). There exists a strong connection between all these actors and the local managing bodies. This ensures that there is free flow of resources from the central government to the individual local bodies. The collaboration between the local government and the non-governmental organization was necessary to solve the financial problems (Finotelli, 2004).
Another effective strategy that has been applied by the system is the use of a decentralized system (Servizio Centrale, 2011b). SPRAR developed an idea that was also seen in Germany. This involved empowering the local authority in developing asylum policies to deal with the problems of the refugees (Finotelli, 2004).
The management of funds and other resources would be difficult if the reception of the refugees were to be performed at the national level. The increased diversity would make the management of such camps cumbersome. There are certain needs of the refugees that may be common in some region. Thus, the decentralization of the services enables proper mitigation of such local problems.
The organization leads the nation in marking the World Refugee Day every year. This annual event is carried out in different countries of the world to focus on various issues affecting the refugees internationally. SPRAR had established an asylum seekers program in Sardinia in 2007 under the management of Association Cooperation and Confrontation “La Collina”.
The organization carried out the last year event in Cagliari, a city in the island of Sardinia. In the event, the refugees were involved in various activities like theatre shows aimed at improving cohesion. The theme for the last year’s event was “Home: A safe place to start.” This was meant to restore hope in the refugees who still had difficulties in traveling back home.
The local authorities that managed the systems at the lower levels opted for an integrated reception for the refugees (SPRAR, 2009). The protection system purposed to provide the immediate and the long-term solutions to the problems of the refugees in the camps. They do not only provide the refugees with food and accommodation but also offer other services of social and economic significance to the refugees.
There are language lessons imparted at certain stages to help the refugees learn the systems in Italy. The adult refugees who have some professional qualifications need to adapt to the Italian system and this is easily achieved through learning the language. There are professional training offered to the refugees that can enable them earn a living.
Sporting activities are also included for the youthful refugees that can help identify some unexploited talents. The local authorities have also demonstrated their commitments to promoting the integrated reception projects. The commitments of the stakeholders and other actors at the local level have been a key factor towards realizing the objectives of the SPRAR system.
This has enabled the implementation of the integrated reception projects in the refugee centre. There is a good coordination between the different local bodies. This has supported the initiatives to help the refugees regain their status in the society in accordance with the United Nations objectives and goals implemented through the UNHCR, which has been to resettle refugees back to their original countries after the end of a crisis (Mklebust, 1997).
The system is concerned with the spiritual, moral, psychological, and different other aspects of growth in the individuals in the centers. Thus, irresponsible behaviors like alcoholism and drug abuse are not tolerated in the camp. A case occurred while at the center whereby a refugee in the camp grew violent and attacked others after taking alcohol.
The management did not spare the individual despite his poor social and economic status. The individual was arrested and charged alongside the dealer who sold drugs to the refugees. The protection systems are sensitive to the diverse needs of the refugees and asylum seekers. These individuals have varied problems that need to be addressed differently.
There are special considerations given to the victims living with HIV/AIDS. Another special group that needs the attention of the protection system is minors who are not accompanied by their parents. It is always easy to accept and approve the vulnerability of such minors to more dangers and their need for protection.
The protection systems in Italy have provided the minors with the opportunities to develop into full human beings. They have had opportunities to learn Italian and study other professional subjects that can enable them earn a living independently. Some of the minors have had a chance to be registered as citizens of the country (SPRAR, 2009).
Some achievements in the organization Despite the problems and challenges that have impeded the operation of the system, there are certain achievements that can be pointed out so far. Firstly, the system has succeeded in coming up with a mechanism which collectively helps in fighting for the rights of the refugees. It has managed to draw the attention of different individuals from various sectors to help collectively in reinstating the asylum seekers to their respectable human status in the society.
The system has also succeeded in developing a multicultural society that recognizes the cultural diversity among the different members. By holding on the values like love and respect for others, the workers in the various local bodies have managed to establish an effective environment for the cohabitation of different cultures.
The refugees in the accomodations are not supposed to stay there for a lifetime. The camp should harbor the refugees for a limited time period of six months while the long term solutions to their problems are being sought. The dynamic situations that may force individuals to flee their countries are still evident and more refugees are expected in the camps.
There is then a need to ease the congestion at the centers. As a way of relieving the refugee centers of the pressure that could be exerted due to the increasing flow, it is necessary that the refugees that have obtained the required protection including training and guidance be resettled elsewhere. The system assists various individuals or families and releases them when they are fit to survive independently.
During the integrated reception, the victims have to prove their ability and willingness to be self-reliant. The system has succeeded in successfully training adults and resettling the individuals afresh (SPRAR, 2009). Such individuals will be role models to others in the camps and could be used as reference points by the staff during guidance and training.
A case was witnessed where an individual was provided with resources by SPRAR to reestablish himself. The individual managed the resources successfully and started a new life in Cagliari. The organization has also gone a milestone in promoting education among the minors in the camps (SPRAR, 2009). The system has seen an increased number of the minors attending educational institutions.
The education provided at these institutions prepares the minors to meet their social and economic needs when they grow up. They also enable the children to learn how the Italian systems like language and culture that are necessary for an individual staying in the country works. This also encourages an individual who would want to obtain the Italian citizenship after he is fully established.
The guidance provided at the centers enable the minors to handle the difficult situations that may reemerge in the future. In the learning process, sporting activities that can help the children identify their specific talents are also involved.
The role and place of the host organization in the wider human rights movement
The issues on human rights are currently of concern by the international governmental and non-governmental organizations (Henkin, 1979). The human rights movements are concerned with ensuring that justice is practiced to all individuals across the cultures. It also aims at upholding all the cultures protecting those minors vis-à-vis the mainstream ones (Welch, 2001).
The organization has played key roles in promoting human rights movement in Italy in the recent years. In the first place, the move to provide an integrated reception to the refugees enables these individuals to realize their dreams that were long lost due to their previous displacement and past traumas. These individuals have all the rights that any other human being has.
The individuals have the right to life, self-expression, freedom of speech, security, education, health services and even participation in national issues just like the others. The violation of such rights is the main concern of the human rights movements. By the integrated reception, SPRAR promotes the human rights movement in ensuring that justice is practiced to the refugees.
Secondly, the strategy that has been applied by SPRAR in collaborating with the central government and the local authority has manifested a system of governance that is effective in all the social organizations. The system has thus been adopted by the other areas within Italy (SPRAR, 2009).
Concluding remarks and recommendations The organization can be accredited in establishing a mechanism that does not only provide a remedial solution to the problems faced by the refugees but also develops the refugees into individuals that can survive independently. The system has succeeded in helping establish new families from the refugee camps. Nevertheless, there is still a lot to be done to manage the refugees and the situations that may force individuals to seek refuge elsewhere.
Firstly, it is important to focus on the original roots of the situations that result into refugees. The system should link up with the governments and the other authorities from the countries of origin of the refugees. The respective governments are better placed to solve the crises that would force a section of the population to move outside the country.
The national agencies need to comply with the provisions of the international organizations like the UNHCR to establish effective ways of determining the causes of the flow of refugees from some given geographical areas. Italy was seen to violate the provisions of the UNHCR by sending refugees from Libya back to their country (Redmond, 2009). Most of these governments have subsidiaries that deal with the violation of human rights.
By involving the law-enforcers and following the legal procedures that are established by each government, the cases of violation of human rights can be minimized. There are situations that may be identified by the governments but the immediate solution fails due to lack of enough resources. The system needs to collaborate with more donor agencies, political bodies, and commercial businesses to provide immediate assistance to victims that have suffered some violation.
Reference List Cuko, S. 2010. The Human Rights of Refugees: the Italian Solution Aalborg University. Web.
Feller, E. et al. 2003. Refugee protection in international law: UNHCR’s global consultations on international protection. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Finotelli, C., 2004. The reception of refugees in Italy and in Germany: local strategies for global problems. ISTR Sixth International Conference. Web.
Henkin, L., 1979. The rights of man today. London: Taylor
Ethnicity or Cultural Background Analytical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction The purpose of this essay is to assess the impact that ethnic groups and cultural backgrounds have on the daily lives of children or young people. Many cities and countries around the world are made up of diverse ethnic societies and communities that have different social practices and values.
Cultural backgrounds and ethnicity provide such communities with a sense of uniqueness and differentiation from other societies that might be found within the same city or country. To better understand the topic under discussion a definition of ethnicity and culture should be discussed.
Ethnicity is defined as a social group or community in a certain area that shares similar features which might include language, physical appearance, customs and cultural practices and religion. Ethnicity is also defined as the selected cultural characteristics that are used to identify and categorise people that are viewed to be significantly different from other people within the same social context (Dindyal and Dindyal 2004).
Ethnic groups are the social categories that are used to classify people within the society and they can either be minority or majority groups based on the population of people that belong to these categories.
Ethnic groups in some countries are also referred to as tribes given that they speak a different language from the rest of society (Aggleton et al 2006). Ethnic categorization provides people with a link to their ancestry, biological inheritance as well as cultural information. Ethnicity provides people with a cultural identity that can be used to differentiate them from other people.
Ethnicity therefore provides people with culture given that the concept is a construct of culture (O’Neil 2006). Cultural background or culture is how people in a certain social group or community view things or happenings around the world.
Culture is a pattern of living that is governed by traditions and customs of a particular social group or community. It encompasses aspects such as assumptions, attitudes, values, customs and perceptions that people have on various aspects that affect their daily lives (D’Anastasi and Frydenberg 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The culture of a particular group will determine the sets of beliefs or values that will be shared by members of that group. Cultural values and beliefs are usually handed down from one generation to another to ensure that the traditions of a social group have been maintained and kept intact.
Culture is therefore important to the society as it ensures that certain social practices have been maintained as well as ensuring that the daily lives of human beings have some meaning and purpose. Both culture and ethnicity have a direct impact on the daily lives of human beings, young adults and children as they affect their decisions as well as their personal actions (Alder et al 2009).
Children or Young Adults and Culture or Ethnic Aspects According to Montgomery and Kellett (2009) children or young people are described as social phenomenons that are defined by their biological and social maturity as well as their intellectual development. Their maturity levels are usually assigned based on the social meaning that they derive from their cultural settings as well as their ethnic backgrounds.
The idea of a child according to Montgomery and Kellett (2009) refers to a representation of a whole category of young people that are identified by their age and intellectual development and also their social maturity and how this affects their social standing within a particular society or community.
The biological and social immaturity of young people and children is viewed by Raman (2010) to be the only determinant that can be used to gauge a child’s development within the society. This biological/social immaturity is what is used to determine whether the child or young adult is being impacted in a direct or indirect way by ethnicity or their cultural background.
Childhood is viewed to be a stage in the human life cycle that is determined by the level of incompleteness or incompetence that the child or young adult experiences in that period of their life. It is a period where the child or young adult is viewed to lack any flaws or faults by their parents and the community at large.
This is because at this stage they are still maturing and their intellectual capacities are still developing meaning that they cannot be able to differentiate properly between right and wrong.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethnicity or Cultural Background specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They also view themselves to be without any flaws or faults as they believe that what they do is right regardless of whether it is wrong or right. Childhood is therefore an important stage in a person’s life as this period is viewed to be important in determining whether the child or young person will be influenced by cultural and ethnic aspects (UNICEF 2006).
Childhood and adolescence in children and young adults is a transitional process that is usually characterised by changes in behaviour and attitudes as well as in personality and physical appearances. These changes are usually brought on by biological and physical changes that take place during puberty that determine how the young adult will develop during this stage.
This stage is deemed to be important as the young adults are highly prone to being affected by various social aspects that take place in their communities or societies. Aspects such as ethnicity or culture are deemed to have an impact on the development of the young adult during this stage of their life (Zastrow and Ashman 2009).
While various cultural and ethnic groups exist in various societies around the world, children and young adults have their own cultural groups that exist in institutions such as schools, churches, recreational facilities and neighbourhoods. Cultural groups such as peer cultures are common in young adolescents where children form friendships based on their age and social status within the social institutions in which they exist in.
According to an analysis conducted by Sociologist William Corsaro (2003) on peer cultures that exist in nursery schools in the US and Italy, he noted that peer cultures that exist among young children were important in socializing them in their interactions with adults in the same social context.
Corsaro (2003) defines peer cultures as a stable set of activities, concerns, beliefs and routines that children share with their peers in their daily lives. Children reproduce peer cultures to reflect their own attitudes and beliefs that are different from those of adults because they involve the use of self discovery and the acquisition of new knowledge to develop their own culture (Montgomery 2009).
Peer cultures generally challenge the societal and community versions of culture where children and young adults are active partners when it comes to forming peer groups and developing meaning to these groups which can be used to develop their own culture. Peer cultures encourage children to participate in activities that they have a common interest in and they also encourage them to fit in with their peers.
Peer cultures according to Montgomery and Kellett (2009) are usually determined by the societal context in which the child or young adult has been brought up in as well as their ethnic backgrounds or tribes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethnicity or Cultural Background by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Children who are from similar ethnic communities are more than likely to form peer cultures in a community or society that is different from theirs. These children are also more than likely to form social groups based on their physical characteristics and also language familiarities.
Impact of Ethnicity and Culture in the Daily Lives of Children and Young People Children are easily influenced and impacted on by various social aspects that take place within their ethnic or cultural backgrounds. According to Raman (2010) ethnicity and culture have an impact on the development of children and young people’s behaviour as well as their identity and well being in their various social contexts that include school, peer groups, home and other social institutions that exist within the society.
Ethnicity and culture have an impact on the development of children and young adults based on certain variables that include social characteristics, type of ethnic or cultural groups, individual characteristics of the child or young adult, racism or social discrimination within the society that the child is from and the type of language and language fluency (Bolaffi 2004).
Social characteristics such as religion, beliefs, shared values and customs, ethnicity and cultural backgrounds of a community impact on the development of children in that these beliefs or religions determine what practices the child will be involved in within the community.
Social characteristics impact on how children react to various situations in their day to day activities as they regard these characteristics when making decisions on how they will relate to their peers in school and also how they will interact with their colleagues in learning institutions.
The ethnic or cultural group impacts on the development of a child or young person as it provides a child with the ability to communicate in a language that can be understood by other members of the same social group or community. Ethnic groups impact on young adult’s development as they provide them with a sense of identity that can either be ethnic identity, cultural identity, nationality and racial identity.
This sense of identity is important in the development of the young adult’s personality, character and individual characteristics that are deemed to be different from those of other peers within the same social setting (Tudge 2008).
Social discrimination and racism exists in various ethnic communities around the world where various ethnic groups are discriminated against based on their social beliefs, values and customs. Social discrimination impacts on the everyday life of children and young adults based on which ethnic community they come from as well as the cultural practices that are exercised by these ethnic communities.
For example children from African communities are more than likely to experience social discrimination within westernised communities when compared to children from other westernised societies. Also children with Muslim backgrounds are likely to experience some form of racism and social discrimination because of their cultural beliefs, religion, customs and shared practices (Every Child Matters 2010).
Child rearing practices such feeding, demonstration of affection, discipline, teaching and moral reasoning influence the rate of a child’s development within the social context. Such practices also determine whether ethnicity and cultural practices will have an impact on the daily life of the child or young person.
For example feeding in some westernised societies is deemed to impact on the intellectual development of a child while in traditional societies feeding is deemed to be a mark of growth and maturity in childhood.
Some traditional societies and ethnic groups view the demonstration of affection by parents or caregivers to be a sign of weakness and poor self esteem in young children while westernised societies view affection to be an important aspect in the building up of self confidence and esteem in young children.
Such child rearing practices that have their basis on ethnicity and cultural backgrounds will therefore affect how a child will grow up and perform within their social settings (Montgomery and Kellett 2009).
Montgomery (2009) views ethnicity to have an impact on the way children experience their childhood based on their particular cultures and cultural backgrounds.
For example in measuring the goals of development of a young adult in the westernized world aspects such as career choices, career progression, marriage or the acquisition of a car or house are seen to be indicators that the young person is developing socially and intellectually.
In the traditional world, the goals of development that are used include achieving tribal status, moving from one stage of childhood to another, the ability to perform elevated tasks within the community and the ability to influence tribal decisions according to the social development of the young adult (Lewis 2005).
The various cultural practices and ethnic communities that exist have different practices that are determine how the everyday growth of a child or young adult will be affected.
For example in the westernized world cultural practices that exist in western societies emphasize the importance of direct and verbal learning in infants while traditional societies that are not westernised place a lot of emphasis on nonverbal learning that is indirect and observational in nature.
In the westernised societies children are allowed to perform child rearing practices such as feeding, sleeping and moral reasoning without the help of parents or caregivers while in the traditional societies children are in constant physical contact with their parents and caregivers who perform child rearing activities for them (Ramsay 2009).
Ethnicity and culture impact on the eating habits of children and young adults as various communities have cultures and practices on what food is acceptable or unacceptable. For example ethnic communities such as the Hindus do not consume cow meat because they view cows as their gods while Muslims do not consume pork or other products from pigs because they view them to be dirty.
Ethnicity and cultural practices therefore play an important role in determining the diet of young children from such cultural communities by ensuring that the type of food that they eat is not in contradiction with the values and beliefs of that particular society (Ramsay 2009).
How children and young adults learn in educational institutions is also affected by their ethnic backgrounds and cultural values. Various ethnic communities require their children to go through special educational training that is mostly focused on the ethnic group and its cultures, practices and customs.
For example Muslim children require special educational classes that teach them of their religion and cultural background as well as their beliefs and values. Various educational institutions around the world incorporate Christian educational studies in their curriculums to meet the religious needs of children and young adults from various religious backgrounds (Every Child matters 2010).
Apart from child development and child rearing activities, ethnicity and culture impacts on how children and young adults cope with their daily lives.
A cross cultural investigation conducted by D’Anastasi and Frydenberg (2005) on adolescents from various cultural backgrounds (Americans, Australian, Germans, British, Finnish, Russian, African and Israeli adolescents) showed how these young adults coped with various situations in their lives based on their ethnic or cultural backgrounds.
The results of the investigation indicated that a lot of diversity existed when it came to coping experiences among the youth. The investigations showed that young people from different ethnic communities and cultural backgrounds drew upon their diverse cultural and ethnic beliefs when coming up with suitable coping strategies (Hussain et al 2002).
The concept of coping which deals with managing situations that might threaten or affect an individual has a sociocultural embedment within various societies around the world. Different ethnic groups and societies have various strategies that they use to cope with dangerous situations that might face them in their day to day lives.
For example westernised societies such as America, the UK, some parts of Asia and Europe involve the use of verbal communication and expression when they are faced with threatening or emotional situations that affect them negatively.
In most of the traditional societies that exist in Africa as well as indigenous communities that are found in Australia, Asia, America and Canada, coping strategies are usually devoid of any forms of verbal communication with non verbal communication being the main strategy that is used to cope with threatening situations within these communities.
These ethnic groups also involve the use of physical confrontation to cope with these situations or negative problems that might affect them. Such differences in coping affect how young children and adults will deal with threatening situations in their daily lives (Ahmad et al 2008).
Based on a study conducted in 1992 by Seiffge and Krenke (cited by D’Anastasi and Frydenberg 2005) on German, Israel and Finnish adolescents and their coping strategies, young people involved the use of active, internal and withdrawal coping strategies when they were faced with threatening situations.
Active and internal coping strategies were viewed to be the most common coping approaches that were used by the interviewed adolescents while withdrawal was the least commonly used approach to deal with coping experiences.
The results of the study showed that there was a universal capacity for young people within diverse ethnic communities and cultural groups to involve the use of functional internal and active coping more than withdrawal when it came to dealing with stressful situations in their lives (D’Anastasi and Frydenberg 2005).
Conclusion The essay has dealt with the impact of culture and/or ethnicity on the daily lives of young adults and children. The essay has dealt with the general concept of culture and ethnicity and how these two concepts affect the development of children that exist within the diverse societies that are in existence within the world.
The research within the essay has shown that culture and ethnicity affects the development of children as a whole as it determines their social maturity within various social settings.
Ethnicity and culture affects important aspects of a child’s development such as learning, eating and their interaction with peers within the society as it determines which values and beliefs the young person will follow to successfully achieve social maturity within the social or ethnic group.
The general conclusion derived from the essay’s discussion is that ethnicity and culture have an impact on the daily lives of young children and adults.
References Alder, B., Abraham, C.S., and Teijlingen, E., (2009) Psychology and sociology applied to medicine. London, UK: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Ahmad, S., Akbar, A., Akbar, H., Ayub, S., Batool, A., Hussain, B., Kiani, S., Mahmood, S., and Rauf R., (2008) East meets west: why do some South Asian young people feel they need to lead a double identity and how does cultural and religious issues affect them. Web.
Aggleton, P., Ball, A., and Mane, P.N., (2006) Sex, drugs and young people: international perspectives. New Jersey: Routledge.
Bolaffi, G., (2004) Dictionary of race, ethnicity and culture. London, UK; Sage Publications.
Corsaro, W.A., (2003) We’re friends, right? : inside kid’s culture. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press.
D’Anastasi, T., and Frydenberg, E., (2005) Ethnicity and coping: what young people do and what young people learn. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, Vol.15, No.1, pp. 43-59.
Dindyal, S., and Dindyal, S., (2004) How personal factors including culture and ethnicity affect the choices and selection of food we make. The Internet Journal of Third World Medicine, Vol.1, No.2.
Every Child Matters (2010) Behaviour in schools. Web.
Hussain, Y., Ahman, W., and Atkin, K., (2002) South Asian disabled young people and their families. Bristol, UK: The Policy Press.
Lewis, V., (2005) The reality of research with children and young people. London, UK: Sage Publications.
Montgomery, H., and Kellet, M., (2009) Children and young people’s world: developing frameworks for integrated practice. London, UK: Sage Publication.
Montgomery, H., (2009) An introduction to childhood: anthropological perspectives on children’s lives. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley and Sons.
O’Neil, D., (2006) Ethnicity and race: overview. Web.
Raman, S., (2010) Culture, identity and wellbeing in children and young people. Sydney, Australia: Sydney South West Area Health Service.
Ramsay, H., (2009) The adolescent’s perspective of culture and ethnicity within the South African outcome based education system. Web.
Tudge, J., (2008) The everyday lives of young children: culture, class and child rearing in diverse societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
UNICEF (2006) Convention on the rights of the child: protecting and realizing children’s rights. Web.
Zastrow, C., and Ashman, K.K., (2009) Understanding human behaviour and the social environment. Boston, Massachusetts; Cengage Learning.
Quality Management Issues Facing Toyota in the USA and Europe 2009-2010 Analytical Essay essay help online: essay help online
Toyota Motor Corporation is the company which has a positive image among the customers in the USA and in Europe. But, having some technical problems with the defective accelerator pedals, the company had to recall more than 8 million cars and tracks. The first signs of the problem took place at the end of 2009 when customers turned to the service centres for helps.
The company did not pay much attention to the problem thinking that it was an isolated case. But when the customers became to tell about the problem from different parts of the world, the company began to worry about it.
The main purpose was to protect people from incidents which could occur and to save the company positive image. Here is the critical analysis of the quality management issues Toyota faced in the USA and Europe in 2009-2010.
It is obvious that each company tries to satisfy the client as he/she is the core idea of the company’s profit. Evaluating quality management issues discussed company had to face, it is crucial to take the whole period from the problem identification up to now and rely on the quality management principles.
Using those principles the company managed to recover from the crisis and to be able to renew customers’ trust.
The main principles of the total quality management Toyota had to face were “customer focus”, “process approach”, “system approach to management”, “continual improvement”, “factual approach to decision making”, and “mutually beneficial supplier relationship” (Boyer and Verma 44). The principles are discussed in detail in ISO 9000:2008.
Getting down to the discussion of the principles in closer relation to the company, it may be noticed that one of the main problems which appeared was the disbalance in quality cycle.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company failed to provide its customers with the quality product may be considered as the violation of the process approach principle in the total quality management (Imai150). The lean production the company uses might be the central reason for the problem appearance as the company is unable to follow the process of lean production completely (Womack, Jones and Roos 11).
Considering the problem deeper, it is possible to state that the main idea of lean production is to reduce wastes. The company reduced waste by means of cost reduction. Toyota failed to execute lean practices in a proper way and to embody effective lean principles.
These actions led to the situation which could be observed in 2009-2010. Furthermore, the company also failed to follow the factual approach to decision making in the total quality management and failed to provide quality support at one. If the company paid attention to the problem at the end on 2009, it would not have to recall the models of 2010 (Kim n.p.). In this case, the company would suffer fewer costs.
Considering the situation with recalls, it is obvious that the company did not manage to meet the requirements of the system approach to management principle of total quality management. The quality objectives of the company products were neither efficient nor effective as the customers were provided with the spoiled vehicles.
Critically evaluating the customer focus of the company, it is possible to mention that this was the main failure the company made. When the problem was identified, the company made the main mistake, it remained silent for a week. Neither the company nor its representatives provided comments and only after this period the company began to discuss the problem in public (Wakabayashi, Sanchanta and Takahashi n.p.).
When the company understood that their image is under stress, they began to act. Public speeches and the ability to turn o company representatives were the first steps. Furthermore, the company recall of the cars was the central event. The company understood that it is impossible to solve the problem regionally and the global decision had to take place.
The company expenses comprised around $1 billion, resulted from recall and sales stoppage (Wakabayashi, Sanchanta and Takahashi n.p.). Still, it is possible to conclude that those actions renewed the company in customers’ eyes and now people still trust Toyota.
We will write a custom Essay on Quality Management Issues Facing Toyota in the USA and Europe 2009-2010 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering other total quality management principles the company faced during 2009-2010, it is possible to mention continual improvement which was at the high level as having understood the problem the company did much to solve it as well as implementing effective mutually beneficial supplier relationship as the whole Europe and USA were touched by the problem.
It is important to understand that when the company faced the problem it hoped that only several items were affected. But everything turned another way round and the company had to make a decision. The inability to do it fast created a number of problems. The company tried to solve the problem without recalling so many cars, but when the situation was out of control there was no other way but do it.
In conclusion, it should be mentioned that one of the main reasons for occurrence of the problems connected with Toyota in 2009-2010 was the failure to follow the total quality management principles. In case if the company managed to control the situation from the point of view of the standard, the problem would not take place and the company would not have to suffer so huge expenses.
Works Cited Boyer, Kenneth Karel and Rohit Verma. Operations and Supply Chain Management for the 21st Century. Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Imai, Masaaki. Kaizen (Ky’zen): The Key to Japan’s Competitive Success. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986. Print.
Kim, Soyoung, “Toyota Sets US Recall of 8,000 Tacoma Pickups.” Financial Times 13 February 2010. Web.
Wakabayashi, Daisuk, Sanchanta, Mariko and Yoshio Takahashi. “Toyota Faces Fallout over Recall.” The Wall Street Journal 1 February 2010. Web.
Womack, James P., Jones, Daniel T. and Daniel Roos. The machine that changed the world: the story of lean production — Toyota’s secret weapon in the global car wars that is revolutionizing world industry. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2007. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Quality Management Issues Facing Toyota in the USA and Europe 2009-2010 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Importance of International Business Management for Running a Successful Company Research Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Findings and Analysis
Conclusions and Recommendations
Introduction Well established modern business organizations have increasingly been seeking to expand their operations beyond the boundaries of their mother countries. Consequently, international trade has been stirred up and accelerated thanks to advancement made by man in Information Communication Technology (ICT) and other areas during 19th and 20th Centuries.
Business organizations particularly from world’s major economies and the emerging Asian economies offering goods and services in different commercial sectors or industries are striving to establish a high profile presence in the international markets in an attempt to enhance their profitability and remain competitive in an era of accelerated globalization.
Some of them are part and parcel of the business organizations known as multinational corporations (MNCs) or multinational enterprises (MNEs) which have operational branches in virtually all stable nations world over. There are various reasons that encourage business organizations desire to expand in to the international or foreign markets.
Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt (2008) have identified four main reasons that usually motivates companies, or business organizations seek to expand in to international markets namely the desire to use current resources and gain access to new resources, seeking to expand or develop new markets, competitive rivalry and controlling core competences and learning.
These authors point out that companies search for economies of scale in the use of their existing resources by expanding in to new foreign markets. At times they enter international markets in order to reach specific valuable resources like raw materials, specialized knowledge, or cheap labour.
As companies become well established in the domestic markets, they begin searching for international markets in order to increase their revenue and gain more profits, enhance their competition with major rivals and influence further development of their core competencies (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008; Ajami and Goddard,2006).
Background Increased and accelerated international business activities have brought up the need for special managerial knowledge and skills on how to manage profitably and successfully companies that seeks to expand their operations in to new global markets. The need for this knowledge has been partly due to the fact that irrespective of the many benefits that a business organization accrues because of expanding into new foreign markets, they encounter various problems and challenges in their preferred international markets Dewan
Pragmatic Failure in Successful Communication Analytical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Main Reasons for Pragmatic Failure
Introduction Successful communication is a desirable result of every person, who is participating in the discourse. In order to create favorable conditions for interaction, both interlocutors should be aware of how communication act emerges. First, the speaker is codifying the information, which is proceeded by sending the message to the listener. Further, the latter is decoding this message and perceives this information.
Successful communication occurs, when both the message encoded and decoded are of the similar content and force. For successful communication the English philosopher Paul Grice has outlined certain maxims of Quantity, Quality, Relation and Manner:
Quantity: make your contribution as informative as is required (for the current purpose of the exchange). Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.
Quality: Do not say what you believe to be false. Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.
Relation: Be relevant.
Manner: Avoid obscurity of expression. Avoid ambiguity. Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity). Be orderly. [Grice, 1989]
These are the universal guidelines for acquiring interlocutors’ mutual comprehension. However, in order to achieve better understanding, both speaker and listener are to share common principals and rules in cases, when the intents of the utterance are not explicit. These rules and principles are unlikely to coincide with each other, when we are talking about cross-cultural communication.
Everyday practice shows how often representatives of different nations fail to manage an appropriate interpretation of the message in a conversation. “It can cause misunderstandings or create offence when speakers can understand only the literal meaning of words and do not know the rules of use for interpreting those words” – state Rintell
The Black Balloon: Character Analysis of Jackie Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Background of autism
Theories developed in the movie
The theoretical perspective of loss
Factors that determine social health
The Black balloon movie (2007) is indeed an award winning film that features how autism has affected one military family. Throughout the movie, the family struggles to control both the physical and psychological trauma associated with autism.
In addition, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is also affecting Charlie who is the victim of circumstances in this movie. The entire Mollison’s family has a deep desire of finding a lasting solution to the twin disorders affecting Charlie.
At some point, there is a sense of embarrassment in Charlie’s brother, Thomas (The Black balloon, 2007). He feels a lot uneasy with the suffering his brother is going through bearing in mind that his autistic brother often engages people in physical confrontations.
Another factor that seems to worsen Charlie’s situation is his adolescent age. He is relatively active and hardly settles down.
In spite of the incessant troubles brought about by the autistic Charlie, another source of hope and encouragement from Jackie works so well for Thomas. It is imperative to note that both Jackie and Thomas are classmates in the same school.
Although they have not been very close before, Charlie’s case seems to unite them due to many reasons (The Black balloon, 2007). For instance, Jackie’s family has been experiencing a lot of family problems since her parents are separated.
Jackie lives with her father although their relationship is not cordial. This is evident from the fact that they hardly talk with each other. To make the natter worse, her mother is living far away and as such, they have not been in touch for considerably long period of time (The Black balloon, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When Jackie meets Charlie the first time, she is not bothered at all with his unique and uncouth behaviour. Thomas is definitely surprised by Jackie’s gesture. She welcomes Charlie and makes him feel comfortable in their presence.
For the first time, Thomas feels encouraged. Jackie attempts to demonstrate to Thomas that Charlie’s case is relatively normal and that there is nothing to fear about it.
As a matter fact, Jackie tries to drive a very important message to Thomas that it would still be possible to adopt better coping strategies in handling Charlie. Thomas is vividly surprised by Jackie when she proposes that they all go out with Charlie.
As a matter of fact, Jackie’s entry into Thomas’ life is the beginning of a major turning point for the latter especially in regards to the autistic and ADD disorders affecting his brother Charlie (The Black balloon, 2007).
At some point in the movie, Jackie tells Thomas not to be worried over his classmates who were often making fun of him due to the condition of his Charlie. Jackie appears so sympathetic to Thomas to an extent that the latter feels relived altogether.
Thomas has been depicted in the movie as a calm character that is not very much outgoing compared to his classmates. He has been captured in the movie as a new student who has just been enrolled in a new school and unable to learn how to swim.
It is highly likely that Thomas is psychologically disturbed with the damaging condition of his brother and that is why he is not free to associate with other students for fear of being ‘laughed at’.
We will write a custom Essay on The Black Balloon: Character Analysis of Jackie specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, shortly after Jackie and Thomas became friends, other classmates started respecting him largely due to the fact that Jackie was an adorable and admired character in class.
Hence, anybody associating with her would be respected as well (Seltzer et al 2004, p.270). Thomas was also able to learn swimming within a very short time especially with the assistance from his friend Jackie.
Throughout their friendship, Jackie appears to be very mature as she offers very logical advice to Thomas in regards to his brother’s condition. Jackie advises Thomas to be less worried with the situation because he cannot change the reality.
As time passes by, their friendship grows stronger than the prevailing realties in both families. It is interesting to note that they eventually enjoy the company of each other and ‘forget’ about biter situations that have been ailing them for a long period of time.
During the preliminary stages of their friendship, it is definite that both of them find the much needed solace that they have yearned for a long time. Eventually, Jackie obtains a sense of belonging in this new family bearing in mind that her own family broke away (The Black balloon, 2007).
They play together and share many jokes and childhood experiences in spite of their tender adolescent ages. Indeed, their childish behaviours when playing together in the family backyard are helpful in diverting Thomas’ attention away from his autistic brother.
It is also worthy to mention that Thomas was finally able to perceive Charlie in a completely different and positive way. He viewed his brother’s condition as any other ordinary occurrence in life.
On the same note, Jackie felt loved and fully accommodated in this new family as can be seen when they share close moments and dinner together (The Black balloon, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Black Balloon: Character Analysis of Jackie by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This essay takes a critical look at the development effects of autism among individuals. In addition, the paper will discuss the relevance of the movie The Black Balloon with cross reference to the character of Jackie who appears sympathetic to the affected family.
In order to create a deeper understanding of autism, various growth and developmental theories will be explored in the essay.
Background of autism For a long period of time, the aetiology and development of autism had myriads of perceptions. For instance, there are communities who believed that autism was a form of curse or an enchantment cast to an individual by some evil forces (Altiere
A Complete Assessment of the Company SKK, Cambodia Evaluation Essay essay help
Introduction SKK is a multinational company known for its influence in the land development and real estate industry. This essay seeks to provide a complete assessment of the Cambodian company.
For this purpose, the discussion shall focus on the various elements that define the company and the business environment that it operates in, pointing out the strengths and weaknesses. The profitability of the enterprise shall also be evaluated by giving a committed look at some of its financial figures.
Company overview Vision
The vision of the SKK Company is to be the primary provider of land development and real estate services.
The mission for the company is to chart new frontiers as far as the development of high quality and affordable services is concerned, as well as the fostering of positive growth in the communities of operation. This will be achieved through:
Investing in research and investigation into the demands and needs of the market.
Studying and analyzing available material production processes, with the main aim being coming up with strategies that will reduce the cost of production and ultimately the cost of the final product.
Sourcing of skilled manpower from local communities and ensuring that the pay they get is enough to accord them decent livelihoods.
Ensuring that the production process and its wastes are not harmful to the environment through the establishment of proper waste disposal procedures.
Investing in technology that helps lighten the production and supply processes, ultimately cutting the time and cost of production.
Involvement in Community Social Responsibility (CSR) exercises and helping better the society by sharing the gains made.
SKK’s core values underpin the institution’s desire to help foster a sense of purpose across all departments. They clearly highlight the company’s common desire to help encourage performance based traditions which are innovative and help encourage mutual trust and engagement.
The company’s strategy
The company’s operations are very Mechanistic in nature, with each and every department being interlinked with the others. Having been in the business for quite some time, SKK has come to develop a working strategy that helps attain a high level of success. The business model the company uses involves identifying a unique market segment and setting out to develop products that this particular section will find appealing. For instance, when the company was set up, the initial market was primarily made up of wealthy individuals setting up apartments of offices. This was a niche market and after a period of review it was deemed wise to diversify into the more popular single-unit residential construction. The approach to target the average constructor is very effective as it makes the company more profitable, besides meeting the mission and vision of the establishment. The long-term strategy for the company is to invest in the largest diversity of products with the primary aim being to ensure that clients have little or no room to try the competitors’ products.
PESTLE/SWOT Analysis Political
SKK is one of the firms in the country that have an open administrative structure. Everyone from the Chief Executive to the office messenger is well known to the workers in the company, with promotion to major positions being by merit.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has helped reduce the wrangles that are associated with not having a proper promotion and demotion structure in place, ultimately helping the company grow from strength to strength.
The only weakness that appears to be slowing down the process of development for the company presents in the form of not having established proper contact with state agencies leading it to lose out of the market that presents in government-funded construction.
As far as opportunities are concerned, the fact that Cambodia is now attaining stability clearly indicates that the potential market of real estate and construction services is bound to greatly improve.
Competitors are entering the field on a daily basis and if proper care is not taken they might soon gain ground. It is also only recently that Cambodia started attaining political stability.
Unfortunately it is taking some time for indicators of democracy such as free and fair elections to be given prominence. Because of the security threat that presents in the form of post-election violence, most people would rather shy from committed investment.
The SKK Company has already set base as the industry driver when it comes to real estate and property development. H
aving set base in the business, the company already has proper market approach channels, which give it an advantage over competitors as well as access to material and discounts from suppliers who have already developed confidence in it.
We will write a custom Essay on A Complete Assessment of the Company SKK, Cambodia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The good name in terms of quality that has over time come to be associated with the company also serves to boost customer confidence hence increasing the business’ profitability.
The company’s disposable income is still not very high and it, therefore, might be challenging to handle a very high number of projects at a given time. However, over time, and with profitability ascertained, this issue will be well tackled.
Even though the government is looking at new ways to increase income, taxation has been the primary way in which finances to drive the public sector are obtained.
The land development and real estate industry, being a fledgling sector, will over the coming few years be a key income earner for the company with an increase in taxation for all the products used being foreseen.
The market segment, which the company is currently targeting, is gaining confidence in the quality of service delivered. This is an item that has helped boost the company’s growth.
The brand name has also gradually grown to such an extent that anyone who wants to build or buy a house first thinks of SKK before trying to explore other options.
Housing trends have also improved tremendously with potential home owners opting to go for professional assistance (Allen 2006, p.65, 77). This desire to get quality service has helped SKK, a company that has already built a name in the sector, continue to gain business.
As far as weaknesses in the social element are concerned, SKK’s initial market was made up of high earning individuals. Eventually the company had to look at the needs of the low-earning would-be home owners.
Not sure if you can write a paper on A Complete Assessment of the Company SKK, Cambodia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This sector had already attracted the interest of other companies and it, therefore, took some time for the business to pick up.
The population shifts to urban areas have increased the need for better and modern housing, something that ultimately SKK’s market. The company already has a base from which to work and therefore knows how to work around these demands by potential clients.
The major social threat to SKK is the far-reaching impact of marketing and advertisement, which has helped competitors gain some ground in the industry.
In addition, like with any other business, some competitors do not play fair with some using tricks such as dirt-smearing to help divert the attention of clients. However, this is a minor threat considering the number of real estate developments standing as testimony to the quality of SKK’s work.
One of the investments that SKK has made that have helped give it advantage over other companies is in technology and research. The company has committed a great amount of money to finding out the best and most cost-effective construction methods.
The company has also dedicated some part of its resources to technology for making quality checks in its processes. This has helped the company develop products that are of stellar quality, ultimately helping the company find favor amongst competition.
One of the weaknesses that the company has in regards to technological development is the failure to see to it that each and every member of the team is savvy as far as the usage of the internet and mobile communication technology is concerned.
Because of the limit in financial resources, the company cannot provide this king of training, something that unfortunately ends up slowing processes down.
As far as the technological opportunities are concerned, SKK has a broad playing field. New inventions are being made on a regular basis reducing the amount of material and time taken in construction.
A presence on the internet has also helped the company acquire new clients and broadening its market segment, ultimately increasing profitability.
Technological advancement has also come with its own disadvantages. With most of the studies that the company does being documented online, competitors are finding it easy to know SKK’s next step hence setting up measures to keep at par.
The policies and rules in place do not properly address the business of land development and construction. For example, there is a great challenge in terms of the implementation of architectural rules leading to some unscrupulous business people to take advantage of the shortfall and set up substandard.
However, SKK has made it a point to stay committed to established rules and regulations, further making demand for their products even greater hence boosting the company’s strengths.
SKK entered the industry as a monopoly. It, however, did not take time to establish competition rules, something that has made it difficult for them to counter any acts of unfairness by the now increasing competitors. This is a weakness that the company could have averted by setting down the ground rules when the chance was there.
With the construction and real estate industry being regarded a key public sector, the government is setting up regulatory bodies to oversee the processes involved.
This comes at an advantage for SKK because the company is bound to get back the clients it lost to competitors’ dirty tricks. Getting this kind of support from the government will help the company further increase its popularity in the market.
The major legal threat that SKK as a company faces comes in the form of employment laws which compel companies to pay workers a particular minimum.
However, the minimum wage that the state has set is higher than employers can afford, eventually forcing them to cut down on staff, which in turn reduces the productivity of the company.
Through embracing renewable energy in most of its processes, SKK has come to gain favor from environmentalists. The positive mention the company gets in this regard has helped its name grow further.
The public is gradually becoming enlightened and potential home owners are now choosing to work with companies that appear to have their interest and that of the environment at heart.
One of the weaknesses that SKK as company has let plague them, in regards to environmental protection is not setting up a proper company culture that encourages their members of staff extend the conservation policies to their homes.
Some of these workers drive huge vehicles even when travelling alone and anyone making observations from an outsider’s point of view might end up viewing the various energy-conservation approaches being linked to the company as publicity stunts.
There are many opportunities presenting to SKK from using environmentally-friendly processes and energy. For instance, the use of renewable energy sources to power its electric equipment helps the company cut costs by a big percentage.
This cut-down in costs eventually reflects in the company’s financial records as profit. With environmental technology being very dynamic, the company is bound to make much more gains if it keeps embracing such positive change.
One of the environmental threats that SKK as a company in the real estate industry faces, is the reduction in land. Buildings are constantly coming up on available parcels of land and over time there might be very little or no land available for construction purposes.
Other natural resources such as lumber are also thinning out and it will come to a point where the company will be forced to invest in technology for the development of alternative material.
Balanced score-card The business that SKK is involved in has four key pillars that govern its operation and which must relate to the vision and mission of the company in order for its objectives to have been met.
These pillars are financial, customer, learning and growth and internal business (Nils-Goran, Olve and Wetter 1999, p.25, Henry 2008, p.77) and are linked to the company’s vision as shown in Figure 1 below:
The financial pillar is fundamentally the financial image that the government gives to shareholders and it has a set of governed objectives, measures, targets and initiatives, which must be attained for the company to be successful.
SKK’s financial objective is to continually make profits as well as sustain daily running of its operations (Cobbold and Lawrie 2002, 53).
For these purposes, the company ensures that it provides the kind of services that the customers want and through approaches that would reduce the production costs while increasing the income for the company (Kaplan and Norton 1996, p.78, 132).
By ensuring that its financial records are straight, SKK meets the demands of the stakeholders, while at the same time guaranteeing its sustainability.
When it comes to the customer pillar, SKK has a particular framework that determines how it presents itself to the customer. Again to satisfactorily meet the needs of this criterion, the company has to lay down its objectives and targets, as well as the initiatives and measures taken to reach this objective (Bull 2007, p.103).
The company has managed to maintain stability by ensuring that the needs of the customers are well taken care of. There is committed office to assess the demand and come up with strategies to ensure that this demand is effectively taken care of (Blais 201, p.89).
Any suggestions that are offered by the customers are taken into consideration whenever developing a new product and by making the customer feel appreciated the company in turn gets the positive review needed to keep it afloat.
When it comes to the pillar of learning and growth, SKK has a department dedicated to research and the acquisition of new technologies.
This department studies the changing pattern of the technology in use and recommends the change that needs to be made in order to make the company compete on a superior level.
For instance, the use of renewable energy to run some of the company’s machinery helps keep its operation costs down, while at the same time helps build a name as one of the establishments that is out to guarantee the protection of the environment.
Finally, for SKK to meet the needs of the shareholders and the customers, it must outline the core business it is involved in and clearly present the strategies it will use to ensure that these objectives are met.
SKK has built a name in the real estate and land development business by provision of quality and delivering in a timely manner.
The company’s workers are also well paid and appropriately rewarded for every gains made. This is part of the internal business strategy that the company uses to ensure that it is relevant in the industry at every time.
McKinsey 7-S framework analysis For a complete analysis of the SKK Company, a 7-S framework analysis has to be conducted as shown below.
Strategy and style
The key business strategy for SKK, is the development of products that are affordable to the average citizen. This model is shaped on the fact that small projects done in large numbers are more profitable that huge projects done in small numbers.
The company has made gains by taking advantage of the fact that the country’s real estate sector is still very young and there is more room to experiment.
Products in the local real estate market are 20 years behind those developed in Singapore and 10 years behind those in surrounding south Asia’s countries like Vietnam and Thailand. SKK, by developing superior products, have been able to capture the interest of the masses.
Staff and Skill
SKK has built a good reputation in the real estate business. Over time, the company has come out to set a standard in the industry by maintenance of professionalism at all levels.
The company’s human resource department is very committed to hiring individuals with the best skill levels, effectively contributing to the success of the entire establishment.
However, in order for the company to meet the objective of bringing success to the people of Cambodia it must consistently ensure that most of the workers hired are locals.
Unfortunately, this has been a challenge because there is a scarcity of individuals trained in finance, accounts, engineering and project management.
Those that meet the qualification turn out to lack skills in planning, execution, monitoring and quality awareness, making it a challenge for them to properly handle large-scale projects on their own.
Systems and structure
The Company has also embraced cost reduction as one of its key approaches to profitability. In this regard, SKK has set up a mechanistic structure, which emphasizes on efficiency at all levels. In this system every process has to be well documented and analyzed in order to determine its efficiency levels.
Processes that do not meet the efficiency criteria are scrapped in favor of those that are more effective. The Stakeholders of the business have set up measures to deal with any challenges, including the lack of legislation and improper infrastructure, making the company operate at optimum efficiency.
Success for the company has come through the setting of goals. At the beginning of a financial year, the company’s administrators set up goals to be achieved in a specific period.
Meetings are conducted regularly to ascertain whether these targets have been met. It is this process of setting up goals and checking them off that gets the company to achieve more success that its competitors.
Financial Ratio analysis Current ratio=current assets/current liabilities (Hill and Westbrook 1997, p.48)
The above Figure 2, derived from the ratio, indicates that the company is in a position to meet its short-term obligations, including the payment of debts. Being in the strong positives, the company’s financial health is perfect.
Leverage /Debt-to-asset ratio
This is computed by the following formula: total liabilities / total assets
This figure indicates that the carrying value of the company is credible.
Rates of Return
Return on Assets=Net income/total average assets (Satya 2009, 52)
The company judging by the ROA is very profitable and therefore, a company that would easily attract the interest of shareholders.
ISO/GAP analysis This is a set of questions used to determine whether a company meets the ISO standard requirements.
In order to perform an ISO/GAP Analysis, sets of questionnaires will be sent out to different department heads and their responses used to evaluate the quality of the services or product of the company (Armstrong 2006, pp.38-45).
However, the scope of the current essay does not allow for this extensive exercise.
EBIT analysis The earnings before interest and taxes for SKK Company are calculated by subtracting the operating expenses from the sales. For sales of $150,000,000 and operating expenses worth $65,000,000, SKK’s EBIT is $85,000,000.
ROIC analysis In order to find out SKK’s Return on Invested Capital the Net Operating Profit after Tax will be divided by the invested capital. Hence 63,000,000/100,000,000=.63 or 63%. This figure shows that for every unit of investment the company makes returns of 63%, which is a superior figure.
Change Recommendation The company’s key business strength has been in cost minimization and in order to sustain profitability, company needs to take some key measures.
First, I will take the bold step of merging a number of offices into a common unit. This is because the changes in communication technology have made it easy for one individual to take charge of a number of offices.
In this regard, I will merge the administration, Finance, procurement and the contract departments because telling from the roles that the former plays, it can easily morph to take up the roles of the latter.
I will also merge the marketing and sales departments and use the available technology to ensure fluidity in the new office.
The design and construction departments will also be merged together in order to reduce the unnecessary complexity.
This strategy goes in tandem with the functional and situational theories of leadership, which demand that the operations of a company be constantly evaluated and the necessary tweaks in leadership implemented.
The difference between the organization and the start and after the change is indicated in diagrams A and B, respectively.
Diagram A. The basic company structure before change
Diagram B. The basic company structure after change
Conclusion This essay had set out to provide a comprehensive analysis of the SKK Company, a company dealing in land development and real estate.
The McKinsey 7-S framework, Balanced Scorecard, SWOT Analysis, Financial Ratios and PESTLE have all indicated that the company is doing well in the business it is involved in and that it is maintaining a steady level of profitability.
It should be noted that for a more effective analysis to be conducted, a detailed analysis of the company’s financial records needs to be carried out.
Reference List Allen, M 2006, Analysing the Organisational Environment, Select Knowledge Limited, Hertfordshire.
Armstrong, M 2006, A handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, Kogan Page , London.
Blais, S 2011, Business Analysis: Best Practices for Success, John Wiley
Real Estate and Construction Sector in the UAE and the Effects of the Crises on the UAE and the Gulf Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction The current economic status of UAE economy
The global crisis that hit the world adversely affected the economies of developing countries. This is because these countries lacked the ability to withstand the external forces that resulted from the collapse of the major world’s economies from which they depended forcing them to restructure their operating business models.
As the crisis took hold, the Gulf Corporation council countries’ were adversely affected by the depression which hit the region through the trade and financial channels (Khamis, n d).
Among the most hit GCC countries was the United Arab Emirates whose economy has transformed itself from a classical base of fishing and pearling into oil based high income economy with a high concentration of expatriate labor as the main drivers in the key sectors of the economy (IMF, 2003).
The UAE had achieved impressive economic growth over the past years due to its rapid development in the non oil economy making it one of the most diversified economies among the Gulf cooperation Council Counterparts (IMF, 2003).
However, the region’s persistent dependency on oil as the key driver in the economy and its widely segmented labor market where nationals still continue to have a strong preference for public sector employment over the private sector rendered the region highly vulnerable to the negative implication of the global economic downturn.
Real estate and construction sector in UAE
The study covers the actual effects of the crisis to the construction and real estate sector in the region which is among the key sectors in the economy contributing an approximate 16% GDP in UAE (IMF, 2003). The sector which had earlier on achieved remarkable growth rapidly declined with the occurrence of the global financial crisis resulting in depreciating values of property as well as departure of foreign investors from the region.
The emirate of Dubai provides a clear evidence of the decline in the real estate industry following the crisis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, the country provides us with the appropriate case study through which we will analyze the trend in the construction and real estate sector in the period between 2002 and 2006 where the industry achieved remarkable growth, the period between 2008 and 2009 when the global financial crisis hit the economy and the forecasted growth up to 2012.
This analysis will be essential in our formulation of an informed conclusion.
Financial crisis facing the region
It is worth noting that the rental market had been soaring in Dubai due to the increased demand for residential houses and office space. Lease prices as well as the real estate prices have doubled since 2005 with prices varying between $ 1700 and $ 3500 per square meter according to location (Noack, 2007).
Due to drastic rent increases, the government of Dubai implemented a rental cap forcing land lords to keep the rent increases to a maximum of 15% per year in 2006 which was further reduced to 7% in 2007 (Noack, 2007).
There appeared to be the stepping stone towards stabilization on the rental and real estate markets which could be attributed to the implementation of the rental cap and the establishment of new housing units in the market (Noack, 2007).
During the boom period, the countries in the GCC particularly Qatar and the UAE experienced remarkable increases in banking system credit to the private sector and this led to real average credit growth which increased bank leverage and doubled the ratio of private sector credit to non oil GDP to 122% by the end of 2008 (Khamis, 2010).
Excess credit coupled with low interest rates and a vibrant economy facilitated higher demand for real estates and equities consequently increasing prices (Khamis, 2010). In the UAE, speculative investments significantly contributed to marked increases in real estate prices.
We will write a custom Assessment on Real Estate and Construction Sector in the UAE and the Effects of the Crises on the UAE and the Gulf specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Further, following the stock market decline in 2006, GCC markets posted 22-60% gains in 2007 but this dramatically reduced in 2008 by 29-73% with the intensification of the global crisis (Khamis, 2010).
With the global recession occurrence, the real GDP growth in the gulf region was expected to sharply decline from 5.8% in 2008 to 1.1 % in 2009 due to correction in oil prices, reduced overall production as well as tight credit conditions (UN, 2009).
Among the GCC economies, the UAE was the most affected by the crises with its real GDP falling from 7.4 % to 0.5% between 2008 and 2009 (UN, 2009). This resulted from severe contraction in domestic demand for real estate prices.
Literature review UAE attained a per capita income in terms of GDP amounting to $16700 in 1998 which was relatively higher than the GDP of most developing countries (Al Abed and Helyller, 2001). The three emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Sharjah account for the highest percentage of UAE gross domestic product as well as the population.
The income differences between the emirates are generated by the variations in natural resource endowment prevalent in the region (Al Abed and Helyller, 2001). The key resource in the region is oil and gas and in 1998, crude oil contributed for 22% of the total UAE gross domestic product. The UAE economy is highly dependent on external sector as reflected by the import export disparities prevalent in the region’s economy.
Both exports and imports are relatively high and consequently the external sector plays a major role in performance and evolution of the UAE economy (Al Abed and Helyller, 2001).
The 2003-2008 oil price booms spurred economic activity in the GCC consequently strengthening all the sectors in the economy with overall growth in the economy averaging to 6.6% per year which was considerably higher than the pre oil price boom period.
Role of construction and real estate sector in UAE economy
The construction and real estate sector is one of the key driving forces in the UAE economy. Increasing volumes of local and tourist population in the region as well as the liberalization of the real estate market had significantly contributed to the rapid growth in the sector due to the rapidly increasing demand for property in the region (Noack, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Real Estate and Construction Sector in the UAE and the Effects of the Crises on the UAE and the Gulf by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The United Arab Emirates is by far the biggest property market in the Gulf region which facilitated its domination in the construction sector. Abu Dhabi heavily invested in tourism and residential sector with its numerous projects including beach and island development, town houses, and facilities for residents (Noack, 2007).
Dubai’s real estate sector was mushrooming with projects worth billions of dollars and projects including infrastructure development were under construction. Continuous population growth and immigration in the region has led to increased demand for residential houses especially in Dubai. Other emirates are also increasingly investing on the construction sector but on a relatively smaller scale.
Effects of the Crisis in the Region
The GCC countries have been hit hard by the decline in oil prices and production as well as by liquidity shortages in global financial markets (Khamis, 2010). The impact of the crisis in the GCC manifested itself in plunging stock and real estate markets with the region’s market capitalization falling dramatically by 41% (Khamis, 2010).
As the effects of the global market became more apparent, the average correlation of the GCC markets with the global markets became evident in the period between 2007 and 2008 (Khamis, 2010).
The region was further affected by decline in the international asset prices with losses estimated by market analysts at between 20-30% in 2008 (Khamis, 2010). Consequently, real estate prices dramatically declined which corrected prices in Dubai which had initially risen more sharply.
A couple of scholars had predicted the impact of global economic downturn across the Gulf Corporation Council. The economic down turn as well as the dramatic plunge in oil prices led to a major blow on the development efforts in the region and shattered dreams of thousands of investors seeking maximum returns in a region that was once a land of opportunity (BM, 2010).
The construction and real estate sector was rendered vulnerable to the adverse effects of the crises due to the fact that credit growth in the region substantially contributed to lending in the real estate sector. This lending was funded substantially by bank’s foreign liabilities which rendered the region’s banking system susceptible to credit losses during economic downturn (Khamis, 2010).
The international monetary fund predicted that economic growth across the region would slow down in 3.5 % in 2009 from 6.8% in 2008.
The United Arab Emirates which accounts for approximately 46% of the GCC construction boom is likely to be adversely affected according to research findings by EFG Hermes (BM, 2010). The findings further revealed that the region is experiencing a ‘real estate crash ‘and the effects of this have not yet been fully addressed.
Objectives, Scope and coverage The Extent of the Crisis in UAE and the gulf region
The property and the construction sectors have been worst hit in the emirate following the global economic downturn. Although various sectors continue to register considerable growth in the recent past, the construction and real estate sectors evidently achieved negative growth in 2010 (Property Wire, 2010).
This failure can be attributed to the sector’s dependence on demand and supply consequently elongated the recovery period. The world debt crisis has also intensified the negative implications on the real estate sector which plummeted with the diminishing international funding Property sales in the region increased by more than half their value since 2008 (Property Wire 2010).
A report compiled by the royal institution of Chartered surveyors revealed that there was a substantial increase in the number of distressed assets coming into the UAE market in the third quarter of 2010 and this was further expected to rise in the last quarter of the year (Property Wire 2010).
Tom Bunker, an investment sale consultant confirmed this increment in distressed selling citing that this property hit the market below their purchase price and in some cases below the price level at which they were initially sold by the developer.
The global economy has started showing signs of revival from its previous down turn (Property digest, 2009).
The United Arab Emirate real estate sector has subsequently registered gradual change and according to the Gowealthy Research Team, whereby the demand for off plan properties in the UAE ended with the departure of speculators changing the trend towards preference of ready to move in property that are at least half way complete.
Dwindling market demand and oversupply of units coupled with distress sales by owners who aim at raising the mortgage requirements have affected the prices of property adversely (Property Digest, 2009). Research by Colliers revealed that home prices in Dubai declined by 40-42% since the fourth quarter of 2008 with sales transactions in Dubai and Abu Dhabi being driven by professional investors rather than speculators. T
his helps us to understand the long term impacts of foreign debt as a means of financing local projects. In this region increased foreign debt coupled with global depression has resulted in devaluation of property in Dubai which has consequently affected the region’s economy.
The UAE has an ideal location for long term property investment. At present, quality accommodation and work space can be acquired at moderate states with scales heavily tipped in favor of serious investors who negotiate for appreciable bargains (Property Digest, 2009). This creates room for optimism in the UAE real estate market orientation towards long term investment.
However, the most important question remains whether the UAE young realty sector is strong and resilient enough to withstand the adverse effects of the forces within the external economies as well as its ability to meet long term investor demands and expectations.
To an attempt to achieve this end, the government of Dubai has recently amended Article No. 13 that aims at protecting the stakeholders in the realty sector. The article provides reviewed provisions for cancellation of contracts and also offers property auction licenses to private firms in order to facilitate the auction process.
Research question and methodology
Our study will focus on a case study of Dubai’s real estate sector and the impact that the global financial crisis has had on the same. This will enable us to evaluate the extent to which the crisis has affected the UAE region since Dubai is one of the major determinants of overall performance of UAE economy.
Effects of the financial crises on the real estate sector in Dubai
The crisis has adversely affected the emirate of Dubai which has heavily invested in construction projects as well as establishment of a financial sector.
Dr, Eckart Woertz, program manager of economics at the Gulf Research Center observed that Dubai, which was the pioneer in economic development in the UAE has been adversely affected by the crisis due to its over reliance on real estate sector as well as its foreign debt financed growth (BM, 2010).
The impact that the economic downturn has had on the Dubai’s construction sector is an obvious indicator of the extent to which the UAE has been affected by the crisis hence our focus on the emirate. Construction projects worth billions of dollars have been rendered worthless with numerous projects being prematurely terminated due to lack of cash inflow (BM, 2010).
A report by Proleads research firm uncovered that an approximate 53% of the projects in Dubai had been suspended while only projects worth $698 were still in operation in a sector estimated to be worth US $1.3 trillion (BM, 2010).
In addition, job cuts have been widespread in the real estate sector with numerous companies announcing a lot of redundancies while considerable number of expatriates continues to leave the country (BM, 2010).
A report by Emirates Business 24/7 claimed that Indian carriers were preparing to accommodate bulk bookings for constructions workers and expatriates leaving the UAE in search of greener pastures.
Further, figure released by Dubai’s ministry of interior naturalization and residency highlighted that 54684 residency visas were cancelled in the beginning of 2009 compared to 29418 in January 2008 with the majority being expatriates and private sector workers who had been frustrated by the poor performance in the construction and real estate industry in Dubai (BM, 2010).
The impact of the global financial crisis further sent shock waves through out other related industries in the region that relied on the construction sector consequently affecting them negatively. For instance, the media companies which depended heavily on the real estate sector for advertising lost significant revenue due to reduction in advertising efforts by the sector (BM, 2010).
The architecture and engineering firms as well as facilities management providers were also adversely affected. According to the Property wire (2010), “The construction and real estate sectors in Dubai have seen a decrease of almost 5% in 2010 and the recovery is some way off according to officials” (p1).
Data Analysis: The Case of Dubai
The property industry in Dubai registered remarkable growth in years prior the global financial crisis (Anonymous, 2007). The trend of the industry in the period between 2002and 2006 is a clear indicator of the robust growth that the sector had enjoyed in previous years. The graph below displays the percentage growth sustained by Dubai’s real estate sector during the period.
Source: Zahrat Dubai real estate.
However, the upward trend rapidly declined with the occurrence of the global financial crisis that affected all the economies in the world. Reports indicated that the residential property prices in Dubai were bound to decline in the subsequent years from the peak levels seen in the third quarter of 2008. The graph below displays the falling real estate prices in specific locations in Dubai during the period of the financial crisis.
Source: Dubai Forums 2009.
Despite the numerous challenges facing the real sector as a result of global financial depression, the region is optimistic that the sector will survive the financial crisis. Substantial market corrections have taken place which has led to the restructuring of the business models in operation.
In order to achieve the best case scenario industry conditions as shown in the graph, the government of Dubai should seek to support the country’s economy by increasing infrastructural spending, reducing oil and foreign income dependence in the economy and bail out guarantees to financial institutions in order to improve performance of the industry and regain investors’ confidence.
Conclusion The financial crisis that hit the global economy adversely affected numerous countries’ economies without exception of the countries in the GCC. The UAE was the most affected among the GCC member countries with its construction and real estate sector rapidly declining as a result.
The construction and real estate sector which contributes significantly to overall GDP in the UAE has had severe consequences on the overall economic growth of the region.
Evident from the study, the decline in the sector has significantly reduced returns to investment which has led to mass exodus of foreign investors from the region’s free zones and disrupted performance in other related industries. The region should therefore seek to rectify the situation by minimizing their dependence on oil and foreign funding in order to reduce the risks of industry collapse in future.
Reference List Al Abed, I.,
Parental Involvement in Education Research Paper college admission essay help
Over the decades, many education experts have explored the impact parental involvement has student achievement, but the conclusions arrived at have often been contradictory and controversial, with a clear lack of understanding of what parental involvement actually means and what it implies in the educational context.
Parental involvement largely encompasses a variety of behaviors representative of parents and family members normally channeled towards the betterment of student learning (either in or out of the school context) (Net Industries, 2010, p.1).
Nonetheless, parental involvement varies from family to family and student to student, thereby causing variable levels of effectiveness on student development. Considering the ambiguity of parental involvement analysis and the varied levels of effectiveness on student development, it becomes increasingly important to understand the dynamics related to the concept.
This study seeks to answer this question by first highlighting the views and definitions of the concept, then later, exploring the variable impacts parental influence has on single-parent families, two-parent families and where parental involvement lacks in totality.
Views and Definition of the Concept Over the years, a majority of research studies done to evaluate the impact parental involvement has on student outcomes have consistently shown a positive relationship between the two (Chen, 2010, p. 1).
These studies have been undertaken with specific parameters such as school drop out and truancy rates in mind because they constitute some of the most notable effects of a lack of parental involvement in student achievement (Congress, 2010, p. 17154).
These factors withstanding, many researchers have now shifted their focus to probe the underlying factors prompting parents to be concerned with their children’s development and why others don’t bother at all (Net Industries, 2010, p.2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The emphasis has also shifted to the outcome of these two scenarios as well as the kind of parental involvement applied to childhood development; considering many children hail from various types of families (including single-parent families, intact families and the likes).
Comprehensively, three frameworks have been identified as the precursors and effects to these types of variables and each framework has been widely used to highlight the different aspects of the dynamics existing when parental involvement is undertaken in and out of the school context (Tutwiler, 2005, p. 109).
Researchers such as Wendy S. Grolnick (and her partners) (cited in Net Industries, 2010, p.2), in articles published from 1994 -1997 came up with three dimensions encompassing parental involvement and their effects on children motivation and performance by first noting that “Behavioral involvement refers to parents’ public actions representing their interest in their child’s education, such as attending an open house or volunteering at the school” (Net Industries, 2010, p. 4).
Secondly, she and her colleagues note that personal involvement exhibited in parental involvement encompasses personal relationships between the parent and the child (exemplifying the importance of schooling and the importance of education to the future well being of the child) (Net Industries, 2010, p. 4).
Lastly, Wendy notes that parental cognitive involvement is the last facet of parental involvement and it seeks to improve the child’s upbringing by horning his or her competence in skill development and knowledge accumulation (Net Industries, 2010, p. 4).
When Wendy’s analysis is critically analyzed, she advances the theory that parental involvement is bound to affect student achievement levels because it affects their level of motivation, sense of competence and the belief that the power to succeed lies within them.
Another researcher by the name Kathleen Hover and her counterpart Howard Sandler, reiterate previous sentiments that parental involvement is two-faced, in the sense that, it involves home-based and school-based activities (Net Industries, 2010, p. 4).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Parental Involvement in Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, they add that the quality of parental involvement basically involves the parent’s belief on the concept (with regards to their roles and responsibilities) because different parents have different understandings of the roles they have to play as contributors to student achievement viz a viz the roles teachers have to play to achieve the same goal.
According to the theory advanced by Kathleen and Howard, parental involvement affects student performance in the sense that it affects their acquisition of knowledge and skills, in addition to influencing the belief that success actually depends on their empowerment to determine the future and their control to shape their own destinies.
Lastly, another researcher by the name Joyce Epstein, through research studies done in 1995 argued that student achievement revolves around three pillars of influence encompassing the community, parent and school involvements (Net Industries, 2010, p. 5).
She further advances the fact that it is difficult for optimum student success to be realized if all the three pillars do not work collaboratively. In this manner, she equates the input of parental involvement to community and school involvement by explaining that:
“Schools should create greater “overlap” between the school, home, and community through the implementation of activities across six types of involvement: parenting, communication, volunteering, learning at home, decision-making, and collaboration with the community.
By implementing activities across all six types of involvement, educators can help improve student achievement and experiences in school” (Net Industries, 2010, p. 6).
Success and Failures of Parental involvement in Single Parent Homes Research studies highlight that about 60% of all American children born from 1986 onwards are bound to live approximately five years of their lives in a single-parent family setup, while another 30% are bound to live their entire lives in single-parent homes (Adoption Media, 2010, p. 4). These statistics abound, it is important to evaluate the influence parental involvement has on student outcomes in single-parent homes.
Single parent homes have become quite common today than in the past and conventional educational literature shows that children born in such families are more disadvantaged in many areas of childhood development (not only in academic achievement) as compared to children born from intact families.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Parental Involvement in Education by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “This view can be explained by two models of analysis: the family deficit model and the risk and protective factor model” (Adoption Media, 2010, p. 4).
The family deficit model was first used in the 70s and is a strong proponent of the two-parent family setup because it advances the fact that the nuclear family is the ideal family setup for optimum positive parental influence on student academic achievement (Adoption Media, 2010, p. 8).
In this regard, the model notes that children born in nonnuclear families are disadvantaged; merely because they do not enjoy the benefits associated with a nuclear family setup (Adoption Media, 2010, p. 7). This model is, however, blind to the influence socioeconomic factors have on positive childhood academic development because it gives a blanket judgment to children hailing from single and two-parent family setups.
The risk and protective factor model is, however, less judgmental on single-parent families and their impact on student achievement because it notes that both single and two-parent family setups have their advantages and disadvantages.
Even though the model does not consider parental influence in single-family setups as less effective, it notes that there are many risks associated with this type of family setup (when compared to single-parent families) (Adoption Media, 2010, p. 9).
Essentially, this model seeks to solve the shortcomings that the family deficit model fails to note (which include background characteristics or life events which affect the quality of parental influence on student development).
The model also notes that protective factors are those elements which improve parental influence on the academic progression of the students by shielding them from risk factors associated with single-parent families (Adoption Media, 2010, p. 14).
Risk factors are therefore the weaknesses of single parental families while protective factors refer to the strengths of single-parent families, implying that single-parent families can be both a risk and protective factor to the positive influence of parental influence on student academic achievements.
Regardless of the analysis of the above two models, research studies have failed to clearly point out whether it is true to say that parental influence is less effective when positively influencing student achievements (in single-parent family setups), but the fact that students hailing from single-parent families are more exposed to the risks of less effective parental influence, remains undoubted.
Success and Failures of Parental Involvement in Two-Parent Homes From the analysis of the positive relation, research studies make of two-parent families and student achievement, it is correct to note that parental involvement in two-parent family setups is more preferred to single-parent family setups.
The reason advanced for this view is the fact that students coming from two-parent families are bound to get undivided assistance when doing their homework, get more financial support from both parents, and develop a higher sense of discipline when compared to their counterparts from single families (Bankston, 2002, p. 225).
This leads to a higher level of educational achievement when compared to other children because they find it much easier to connect with their schooling activities than children from single-parent families.
The above analysis is true because the likelihood of both parents totally losing interest in the child’s schoolwork is very low since the child’s academic interests must be harbored by at least one of the parents.
Also, from today’s highly demanding career environment and increasingly competitive economy, most parents often find themselves pressed between a rock and a hard place when they are faced with situations where they have to juggle their work and parental responsibilities.
In this manner, many parents often lose out on some of the most important highlights of their children’s development and this negatively affects both home-based and school-based parental involvement.
However, in intact families, it is much easier for one of the parents to attend to their child’s educational needs and even in more demanding scenarios, the parents may rotate their parental responsibilities, thereby greatly limiting instances where parental involvement is absent in the child’s development.
Also, in intact families, there is more parental control and guidance on the child’s academic development when compared to single-parent families because single parents rarely find the time to spend with their children due to environmental factors and therefore children from intact families grow to be much more responsible and achieve a higher sense of academic achievement (Kane, 2005, p. 161).
From this analysis, we, therefore, see that children from single-parent families are more disadvantaged when compared to their counterparts from intact families.
The situation is however aggravated when there is no parent involvement at all, to a student’s academic development because more resources are needed to enable such students attain higher levels of academic achievement, when compared to their counterparts from both single and intact family setups. This issue is further discussed below.
Resources Needed When no Parent is Involved Students who totally lack parental involvement in their educational development are usually faced with more challenges than any other type of children. Most of the time, such children fall into depression and are in a more disoriented frame of mind when compared to other students.
In this type of situation, it is essential for guardians to seek counseling services on behalf of the children so that they adapt better to their situation, since in some instances, parental involvement may be impossible or totally unavailable (say, when the parents die, disappear, or such like situations).
Counseling will improve the mental health of such students and enable them to better adapt to their circumstance, thereby gearing them towards the path of academic success (Siddiqui, 2010, p. 237).
Alternatively guardians or concerned individuals may arrange to enroll students who cannot enjoy parental involvement in their education to nonprofit organizations supporting student achievement through financial support. This is important because it is observed that parent involvement also significantly comes with immense financial responsibilities and such students may be disadvantaged in this manner (Horn, 2008, 276).
In situations where a student is orphaned, concerned parties may arrange for such students to be assigned to responsible foster parents who may play the same role as the real parents would (William, 2010, p. 108). However, in such a situation, the concerned parties need to properly evaluate the type of parents they are assigning to the student.
Lastly, concerned parties can offer extra educational support for disadvantaged students, say, through remedial classes or after school programs so that the students get more assistance in any area of difficulty that they may encounter in their learning.
This is important because children who enjoy positive parental involvement have added assistance in undertaking their educational responsibilities and children who lack this benefit may compete favorably if they turn to their teachers instead. However, this will imply more teacher involvement.
Conclusion Since parental involvement is an integral component to progressive student academic development, this study points out that parental involvement is part of the overall pillars needs for successive academic development (with the other pillars being community and school participation).
However, this study also notes that there are different variables to parental involvement because parental involvement for students coming from two-parent families is more effective than for students coming from single-parent families. However, this assumption is true to the extent that parental involvement is the only variable to positive student development.
This study also points out that students lacking parental involvement at all, may need extra teacher attention, counseling, financial assistance, and a possible substitution of parental roles by foster parents. These factors are emphasized because studies affirm a positive relationship between parental involvement and positive student outcomes.
References Adoption Media. (2010). Single Parenting and Children Academic Achievement. Web.
Bankston, C. (2002). A Troubled Dream: The Promise and Failure of School Desegregation in Louisiana. Vanderbilt: Vanderbilt University Press.
Chen, X. (2010). Efforts by Public K-8 Schools to Involve Parents in Children’s Education Do School And Parents Agree? New York: DIANE Publishing.
Congress. (2010). Congressional Record. Washington: Government Printing Office.
Horn, T. (2008). Advances in Sport Psychology. New York: Human Kinetics.
Kane. M. (2005). Contemporary Issues in Parenting. New York: Nova Publishers.
Net Industries. (2010). Parental Involvement in Education – Research on Parental Involvement, Effects on Parental Involvement, Obstacles to Parental Involvement, Controversies, Current Issues. Web.
Siddiqui, M. (2010). Guidance
Organizational Culture, Its Missions and Objectives Problem Solution Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Brief Examination of the Issue and Concept
The US Culture
Theoretical Concepts and Applications
Brief Examination of the Issue and Concept Conceptually, culture is a wide and multi-faceted term. In some way, it defines the kind of people we are and how we socialize with one another on the regional and national fronts (Tosti, 2002).
Best described as a system of values and norms with acquired behaviors which are shared within a certain community, culture indeed offers a sense of belonging to some group. It influences the mannerism of communication styles, values, and history of people or organizations.
Due to these, it is sufficient to point out that every organization has an organizational culture that determines its missions and objectives. However, the world has seen operational change to incorporate different cultures within an organization.
This offers the challenge in learning how to deal with collective cultures within a company. Organizations need to be savvy in learning how to respond to demands of a multi-cultural environment as discussed.
The US Culture To attain business objectives and sustain profitability levels, firms depend on proper business communication protocols (Zhu
The Integration of CamStudio and Windows Movie Maker Into the Education Programs Argumentative Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Description of tools
Description of tools The integration of CamStudio and Windows Movie Maker into the education programs could be beneficial for enhancing the students’ involvement into the curriculum as well as improving their computer literacy in general. CamStudio is a tool which records all screen and audio activities displayed on the personal computer, creating standard video files in AVI format.
This program can be used for demonstrating the teaching videos for any software program as well as creating the videos for answering the frequently asked questions. Windows Movie Maker is a tool which allows creating and editing videos which can be used for the educational purposes.
It enables users to combine several fragments from various videos as well as changing the original sound of the video, replacing it with the desired sound effects if necessary.
The choice of these tools can be explained with the benefits of integrating the multimedia assignments into the course as an effective alternative to lecturing and traditional tasks. The multimedia visual aids are helpful for generating the learners’ interest, capturing their attention and involving their visual memory for memorizing the materials.
Introduction The context for the implementation of these tools is teaching English lessons for international students. It is possible to use the products of the tools for learners of various grade levels, ranging from primary to high school. This project is aimed at high school students. The videos created using these two programs can be used for teaching new words and word combinations.
It is possible to use the products of the programs as demonstrations for explaining the meaning of words in the context without using the translation into the students’ mother tongue.
The demonstration of the videos from the computer screen created by using CamStudio will capture the learners’ attention and focus it on the course materials. It is possible to remove the mouse cursor for pointing at the objects under analysis, enter the text and then make corrections or underline it if necessary, selecting synonyms or emphasizing the peculiarities of the spelling of the words.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Windows Movie Maker can be used for processing movies and songs in English for adapting them for the international students by adding the necessary inscriptions and changing the structure of the video. This tool would enable the educator to add some special effects and change the original sounds for making the videos more appealing for learners.
Implementation The goals for the project include enhancing the students’ involvement into the program and developing their computer literacy. At the end of the period, the students will learn some of the options of the tools and will be able to work with the programs by themselves. The assignments created by using the multimedia devices will meet the general requirements of the curriculum concerning the language materials used in them.
The students will be only partially involved into the project by teaching them only the basic options of the program so that to avoid overloading them. The main focus remains on teaching English and the tools are only methods for achieving this primary goal.
Students will be encouraged with new methods and interesting assignments and it will have a positive impact on their learning achievements. Communication of the plans to parents and administration is not compulsory because the tools can be downloaded for free and their implementation does not require any changes in the curriculum.
Outcomes The students’ involvement into the project would be only partial so that to avoid overloading them and balance the existing curriculum and the new types of assignments. Student will learn only the basic options for working with the tools, and it would be useful for them but not too difficult.
Contributing their ideas for the use of new tools in the classroom activities, students would feel that they are involved into the development of the curriculum and become more critical thinkers.
The main hurdles for the implementation of the project include the technical problems and the organization of the class for working on the new types of assignments. These difficulties can be overcome by checking the equipment several times and developing detailed instructions for students.
We will write a custom Essay on The Integration of CamStudio and Windows Movie Maker Into the Education Programs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Samples The two samples of the assignments created by using CamStudio include the lesson for learning 100 common English words and the lesson explaining the meaning of the idioms to beat around the bush and to string somebody alone. In the first sample, a teacher uses the mouse cursor for pointing at the pronounced words, while in the second one the discussed words are marked and replaced with their synonyms.
The two samples created by using Windows Movie Maker include excerpts from a movie and ABBA’s song with subtitles. Using the subtitles and inscriptions is helpful for adaptation of the videos and enhancing the learners’ understanding of the materials.
Windows Movie Maker allows also changing the structure of the video and selecting only particular fragments from it for concentrating the learners’ attention and deleting the complicated fragments which would be not understandable for students.
Reference List CamStudio Open Source. Web.
Windows Movie Maker. Web.
A Proposal For Launching Educational Tools Argumentative Essay best college essay help
Description of Tools In order to simplify and facilitate the educational process in international establishments, it is viable to introduce specific technological tools that would contribute to its faster improvement. In this regard, such program applications as CamStudio and Inkscape will perfectly fit this purpose. CamStudio is software that allows users to record the material for Microsoft Windows.
The program supports such media platforms as Flash Video, SWF files, and AVI format (CamStudio for Screen Recordings, n. d). The second program, Inkscape, is destined for creating graphic and technical illustrations (Wood, 2007). It is a powerful graphic tool for preparing presentations and supporting and performing various scenarios. Finally, Inkscape is also utilized for vector graphics editing.
Introduction The programs selected for integrating into teachers are destined for international students for whom the knowledge of informational technologies is crucial, specifically for those who study online. The application of software is destined for learners specializing in exact sciences, such as mathematics, engineering, and computer technologies.
Due to the fact that I have little experience in using technological tools, this is a great opportunity for me to fulfill this gap and understand the role of software in an educational process. My firm belief is that the implementation of CamStudio and Inkscape will contribute to students’ training.
In particular, CamStudio permits to record steps carried out by students while making a video or a teacher can record those steps to identify the problems students face in utilizing those technological tools (CamStudio for Screen Recordings, n. d.). The software implementation will also enable students to recognize new technological possibilities and understand how to make their presentations and projects more effective.
Implementation The goal for our project is to teach students to create videos and presentations with the help of CamStudio and to teach them how to edit and present graphical information, such as charts and diagrams by means of Inkscape. Such skills will be helpful in studying engineering, marketing, statistics, and computing where charts, videos, diagrams, and presentations are crucial for a successful work.
In addition, Camstudio is also essential in an education process because it enables teachers to supervise how a student copes with various assignments. Both programs will be implemented in accordance with Technology Self-Assessment Tool allowing teachers to identify their level of professional development needs and technology proficiency.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The implemented tools will be used at least once a week because students should have enough time for understanding the basics of utilizing the software. Besides, they will also have to learn challenges for utilizing these programs in the Internet environment. I believe that the program will attract students because recording and drawing include quite interesting and creative activities.
The first lessons will be theoretical in order to prevent difficulties in learning. To be more precise, I am going just to introduce the basic principles of working with this program. The tools are quite easy and safe and provide no stress for student. Therefore, there is not need to inform administration and parents about the program implementation.
Outcomes The program implementation will be divided into several parts. The first part will include an introductory lesson about the importance of software application for an educational process. My goal will be just to explain and persuade students that the software is necessary for improving and fostering learners’ exploration of the subject.
The second part will be demonstrative in which I plan to outline the benefits of the programs and the major difficulties that might occur while using them. Finally, the third part will consist of practical lessons where students will be trained to utilize the chosen applications.
As a final outcome, I seek to involve students in a more creative and responsible work and make them understand the significance of the technological tools for advanced study of disciplines.
I believe that the project will have a great success because contemporary learners are more technologically literate so that the introduction of technological tools into educational process will only encourage them to be more interested in a learning process.
Samples CamStudio (a tutorial for using the software)
The best explanation of the program utilization is providing students with video showing how CamStudio works and how to capture what is presented on the screen. It illustrates precise steps for utilizing the program and for producing the products created by this technological tool (Jymmyrcom, 2007).
We will write a custom Essay on A Proposal For Launching Educational Tools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Making a Flash Video with the help of Camstudio
As it has been mentioned before, CamStudio can be applied for using. The sample under consideration explains why it is important to learn the software possibilities in wider contexts. For instance, this technological tool is used to make a flash video with the help of CamStudio (Tyler, 2010).
Inscape tutorial – providing basic instructions
The video present a comprehensive guide for creating graphic illustrations with the help this technological tool. It allows to understand more clearly how to apply to this program and why this program is important for an educational process.
Sample product created by Inkscape
Below is a screen shot of the final product produced by Inkscape. The sample demonstrate how to use create text characters design for accomplishing creative and interesting presentations.
Reference List CamStudio for Screen Recordings. Screen Video with Cam Studio. Web.
Jymmyrcom (2007). Using CamStudio to Screen Record Video Tutorials. Web.
Tutor for You (2008). Inkscape Tutorial – Shiny Button. Web.
Tyler, J. P. (2010). Creating a screen capture video with Cam Studio. Web.
Wood, D. (2007). Tips on Using Inkscape. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on A Proposal For Launching Educational Tools by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Behind the Taliban Essay best essay help: best essay help
Video critique of this video
A 3-4 page paper examining 1) How Hoffman and Sageman would characterize the kind of terrorism embodied by the Taliban and ISIS, and 2) What factors have contributed to the successful resurgence of both groups in Afghanistan and 3) What are the prospects for peace in Afghanistan
Multicultural Competency in Psychology Research Paper essay help
Introduction There is a great diversity in the field of culture. Culture covers aspects like race, gender, language, values and beliefs and is developed from a combination of individual uniqueness and organizational or environment characteristics. Different people and communities have different cultural values and beliefs in regard to daily life.
It is usually a hard task to understand and accept different cultures and people find themselves perceiving their own culture as the best compared to the other cultures and in most cases tend to treat communities with different cultures negatively. People find themselves discriminating others on the grounds of religion, ethnicity, language, physical location, sexual relations, educational background etc.
Multicultural competency is an aspect that tries to counter the cultural differences issues by teaching on the spirit of appreciating other cultures irrespective of the differences that prevail.
Multicultural Competency in Psychology
It is natural to develop strong personal ethnicity and identity as one grows from childhood to adulthood. Although this is inevitable, it is usually good to learn and appreciate others by developing an inclusive identity and perception. Psychologists are faced with the problem of cultural differences since they deal with a wide variety of people each with different ways of life.
The psychologist should be able to learn and understand the minds of people and try to identify where people behave the way they do as the job requires. A psychologist should be cautious and sensitive in his or her practice with an understanding that there are differences in the ways of life of people and hence they should be treated differently to avoid offending them.
The American Psychological Association (APA) has set guidelines on how the psychologists and other related professionals should carry out their duties in regard to multicultural issues. The principles stresses that psychologists should at all times act as leaders of social justice and foster fairness by avoiding discrimination of any kind (Constantine and Derald, 2005).
Biases, Perceptions, Attitudes, and Beliefs towards Culturally Different Groups
Apart from the fact that psychologists have undergone training on their career aspects they are faced with the problem of cultural differences in their practices. As a psychologist I am bound to have biases, attitude, and beliefs towards people of different cultures. This is because I have my individuality and may find myself treating people of a different cultural background differently.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example I may be biased on the basis of race where I may treat the whites different from the blacks. I may also find myself discriminating on the basis of language by treating those that we share common language features better than those whose languages are quite different due to the ease of communication between us.
Another cultural issue that would put me into a dilemma is the gender as I tend to perceive women as weak species and hence would treat them with much sensitivity and care than men with the same problem. Religion is another area of concern. I would tend to have biases between Christians and Muslims as I know much on Christianity than I do on the Muslim religion.
Influence of Attitudes or Perceptions on Interaction with Individuals Who Are Culturally Different
Attitudes or perceptions have great influence on how one interacts with people of different cultures. A psychologist should try as much as possible to be objective in his or her practices. I would find myself interacting well and comfortably with those whose culture are same or similar to mine due to the similarities in beliefs and other aspects of life.
It becomes quite hard to interact with people for example with whom you don’t share a common language since foreign languages are not usually easy and some aspects are better explained using a certain language, for instance, mother tongue or national language.
Knowledge on the Values, Practices, and Experiences of Individuals Who Are Culturally Different
It is always a good idea to have some understanding of different beliefs and practices of various cultures to ease in interaction and handling of various aspects of life. The knowledge of different cultures helps psychologists understand their roles and be more sensitive on multicultural issues.
Good knowledge of cultural differences avoids the mistake of assumption of issues due to ignorance and hence treating a person or a situation differently. I do have some knowledge though not much on values and practices of different cultures, for instance, I understand the differences between Islamic and Christian communities, such as, on the way women are treated and the powers they are given.
Strengths and Weaknesses in Interacting With Culturally Different Individuals, And Ways of Addressing the Shortcomings
I consider my ability to learn about other cultures easily as strength. Learning of other cultures helps understand why people behave the way they do making coping with their behavior easy. It also help understand the origin of problems people suffer and help solve them rightfully since some of them are as a result of their social environments and their perceptions of aspects.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Multicultural Competency in Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More My weakness is ignorance of certain aspects of other cultures. One way of overcoming my shortcoming is by identifying my personal biases and looking for ways to change from within myself, accepting the diversity of culture and the fact that we can never be one. This will improve interaction and treatment given to others irrespective of their cultural differences.
It will also be my responsibility to try and be flexible and willing to integrate with diverse cultures through commitment and hard work in learning the values, behaviors, and languages of various communities to ease interaction. It is also advisable to identify and acquire knowledge on various ethnic groups and races.
As a psychologist one should adhere to the code of ethics that govern the profession especially in counseling to ensure that there is no discrimination on cultural differences or other factors (Corey, Corey, and Callan, 2007).
Reference List Constantine, G.M. and Derald, S.W. (2005). Strategies for Building Multicultural Competence in Mental Health and Educational Settings. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Corey, G., Corey, M.S. and Callan, P. (2007). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 7th ed. USA: Cengage Learning.
“10 Years Younger” and “How to Look Good Naked” Television Shows Research Paper college admissions essay help
Introduction Self esteem is an element central to all things we do in life. It affects our thoughts, our behaviours, our feelings and our self worth in society. If you don’t feel good about the way you look, your body size and your general physique, then you need to watch the “How to Look Good Naked” television show or the “10 Years Younger” television show.
The show “How to Look Good Naked” helps ladies of all sizes and shapes to boost their self esteem without having to resort to surgery. These unhappy ladies are taken through an adventure of self searching with the aim of boosting their self esteem and enhancing their beauty.
On the other hand, the show “10 Years Younger” helps people look younger than their real age just like the name holds (Masley, p.51). Every single episode is usually an overwhelming moment of transformation and exploration. It is against this backdrop that this paper seeks to compare and contrast these two makeover television shows and analyze their similarities and differences in regard to how they handle issues of appearances, identity and transformation.
Appearances Appearance and its effect on one’s self esteem are accepted as a fact in both shows. The two shows agree that feelings of insecurity about ones appearances can greatly affect who we really are. According to the show “How to Look Good Naked” the fact that we can never evade feelings about our appearances is greatly emphasized and that’s why Wan believes that the shows stylist takes insecure ladies through a journey of self realization (Yabsley, p.43).
Similarly, the show “10 Years Younger” also emphasizes the importance of one’s appearance. The most important thing about appearances here is that the older get to look younger on the “10 Years Younger” show and those with insecurities about their shapes and sizes get to accept who they really are in the “How to Look Good Naked Show”.
In the “How to Look Good Naked” show, the ladies are finally posted on a photo magazine and in the “10 Years Younger Show”, the ladies are invited to go inside a box (an LA display case) where strangers from the general public are asked to guess their age as well as critique the person’s general appearance. Their appearances are usually very amazing when one compares the looks of the participants before and after the makeover.
For over five years now, the “10 Years Younger” show has been reaching out to women who want and need to revitalize their general appearance and so does the “How to Look Good Naked Show”. With all these similarities in regard to emphasis on ones looks, it is hard to point out the differences on how the tow shows speak about appearance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, with a closer look on the two shows and their emphasis on appearance, one cannot fail to notice a few differences. Firstly, the “10 Years Younger” simply accepts ones size and body shape thereby going for clothes and outfits that go along with the participant’s body size and shape. The ‘one size fits all’ principle is never applicable here.
Each person has a distinct physique and this is a principle well acknowledged in the “10 Years Younger” show. With this, whether a participant is slender, fleshy or sleek, the stylists always have something that goes along with their entire body size and shape. They chose clothes that fit the participants shape and size. It’s all about giving one a ten years younger appearance by modifying ones dress code, make up and general outlook (Oberbeil, p.37).
On the other hand, the “How to Look Good Naked” shows is all about boosting one’s self esteem in that whether one looks as fat as a pig or as slender as a needle, they get to accept themselves the way they are and even pose nude on a photograph photo. The participants are taken through a long journey of self realization and exploration where they get to themselves better and have confidence in whom they really are (How to Look Good Naked, p.16).
With this, a big difference between the two shows is observed. The “10 Years Younger” show can be said to be a physical appearance show while the “How to Look Good Naked” can be said to be a both physical and inner self appearance show. This is so because while the “10 Years Younger Show” puts much emphasis on making one look ten years younger by changing ones dress code, make up and general outlook.
The “How to Look Good Naked Show” begins by working on ones inner self; one’s self esteem which in turn is usually depicted on ones general physical outlook. The “How to Look Good Naked” shows transforms ones inner and outer appearance while the “10 Years Younger” show transforms ones outer appearance (Pinkney, p.28).
It can also be observed that the “How to Look Good Naked” show works from the inside to the outside in that the stylists get to work on a participants self esteem first which in turn gets to boost ones confidence about their physical appearance. In other words, the stylists first work on ones inner self appearance which in turn changes ones physical appearance.
On the other hand, the “10 Years Younger” show tends to work on ones physical appearance which in turn boosts one’s self esteem. In other words, they begin from the outside as contrasted to the “How to Look Good Naked” show which begins from the inside.
We will write a custom Research Paper on “10 Years Younger” and “How to Look Good Naked” Television Shows specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Transformation You don’t need to be told that the participants in all these shows always leave the show completely transformed; you will notice the transformation by merely looking at the participants pictures before and after the makeover. There is no need to mention that the title “How to Look Good Naked” is very provocative, nevertheless, after a watching the show for only a few minutes, your perception about the title will completely be changed (Wan, p.33).
Whereas one would think it’s an obscene show that any parent would not encourage his/her kids to watch, on the contrary, it is the type of show that every parent should encourage every teenager to watch since teenagers experience a lot of hormonal and physical changes in their bodies and this is the right show to encourage them to watch since it eliminates feelings of inferiority complex and enables one to appreciate oneself and have confidence in their physical looks.
In the “How to Look Good Naked” show, the transformation process is based on self-acceptance and the message that you still can look beautiful without being perfect is very clear. The transformation process begins by teaching the women how to accept their beauty within by speaking positively to the women and encouraging them to think positively about their looks.
This doesn’t mean that the stylist is always positive even when he needs to be negative. Once a woman’s inner beauty is carefully moulded, the woman will automatically have self confidence in their physical appearance. The photographs of these women don’t necessarily look pornographic but they carefully relay women who are confident about their looks and love their appearances.
This is the sole essence of the show; to help women know their self-worth. In other words to transform women with insecurities about their bodies and suffering from inferiority complex to women who love the way they look and to women with high self esteem. Transformation in the show “10 Years Younger” is wholly based on the premise that a young look is always beautiful.
It is upon this vein that the show goes ahead to transform the looks of older women in society to a ten years younger look. Here, the fact that the “10 Years Younger” show emphasizes on making a person look younger (different from their original look) and the fact that the “How to Look Good Naked” show emphasizes body acceptance marks a big difference between the two shows.
In other words, in the show “How to Look Good Naked”, the message is you still can be beautiful the way you are, all you need to do is know yourself worth and accept your physical appearance. On the other hand, the message depicted in the show “10 Years Younger” is that the look matters and they go an extra mile in moulding your self esteem.
This show is based on the premise that a younger look can boost yourself worth. Thus, though they all tackle self esteem, they approach this from different angles and the result is wholesomely different. Thus, it can be said that it is better to have a feeling and thought of self worth than to look younger and still suffer from inferiority complex.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “10 Years Younger” and “How to Look Good Naked” Television Shows by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In other words, when transforming someone, one should first begin by working on the persons self esteem (inner self) because a persons with a high self esteem will always be confident about their general physique rather than begin by working on the physical appearance since there is no guarantee that a person’s inner self can be boosted by having a younger look.
Transformation should always begin from within, as portrayed in the “How to Look Younger Show” rather than starting from outside like portrayed in the “10 Years Younger” show. The initial step to boosting one’s self worth is self acceptance as relayed in the show “How to Look Good Naked” while the show “10 Years Younger” relays the message that the initial step to boosting your self esteem is modifying your physical appearance.
We determine our own self identity and no one can change yourself identity without your consent. Only you alone hold the key to yourself identity and this is the message preached through and through in the show “How to Look Good Naked”. Wan preaches this to the participants by engaging them in positive talks of self acceptance and accepting them the way they are by kissing them and hugging them.
However much Wan tries to boost the self esteem of these participants, the final decision is always left to the participant. A closer look on the show “10 Years Younger” relays a message controversial to these general norms. The show’s primary focus is making older women look younger and this doesn’t necessarily mean that a younger look will always boost participants self esteem and self worth.
A woman, who goes into the show and undergoes the shows processes of helping her look young, will still have inferiority complex if the public thinks she looks older after the transformation. What the show “How to look Good Naked” tries to emphasize is the fact that it’s not always about how you look but about how you perceive yourself. The way you perceive yourself has a lot to do with how you look.
Thus, though both shows have an element of self identification, the show “How to Look Good Naked” seems to accept that only the participant holds the key to their self identification while the show “10 Years Younger” seem to forget or rather outlook the fact that one’s self identity can never be framed through physical transformation.
Self identity is something usually ingrained in ones brain and no amount of physical transformation, such as having a tooth transplants, an eye lift, make up or even surgery can boost yourself identity if you do not know yourself worth (Fennell, p.17). The show “How to Look Good Naked” clearly emphasizes this truth. Wan, encourages and helps the participants to accept themselves the way they are and this in turn boosts their self confidence and self identification.
On the other hand, the show “10 Years Younger” seems to have a contrasting opinion since it gives their participants all sorts of physical transformation such as tooth transplants, eye lifts and skin toning and seem to forget that a physical look can never automatically change one’s self identity.
Hence, following the “How to Look Good Naked” show, a participant who enters the show with the personal perspective of being a fat and ugly failure leaves the show with the personal perspective of being a fat and beautiful success since Wan helps her to think positively and eliminate negative thoughts from their brains leaving them with positive thoughts that enable them to accept themselves and have high self esteems.
On the other hand, an old lady who enters the “10 Years Younger” show feeling very old and ugly leaves the show looking younger yet the feelings of being old and ugly still exist in the participants brain pretty much unabated since a mere facial and body enhancement rarely boosts one’s self esteem (Burns, p.56).
This clearly draws a big demarcation and difference between the two shows. Tough they both have the initial intention of boosting one’s self esteem, the process of doing so is different and this always determines the outcome. The “How to Look Good Naked” show, relays that yourself identity is determined by your mentality and the “10 Years Younger” show relays the message that yourself identity is determined by your physical appearance.
Well, with all this comparative and contrastive opinions about self identity as relayed from the two shows, it is of crucial importance to emphasize that nature of who we really are is determined by how we see ourselves. Attitude is the antidote to our successes and failures and our general acceptance in the public.
If you see yourself as a failure, you will always be a failure and if you see yourself as a raving success, you will always succeed in the things you endeavour to do in life. The same applies to our looks. Self acceptance means that however much another person thinks you are ugly, you still see yourself as a beautiful being. This is yourself identity (Branden, p.33).
Conclusion Granted, many of us see photos of people on magazines and reality television shows and get to think that we are imperfect. More so, there are many of us who were prompted to working out, taking pills or even changing their diets just because of a particular television program or a photo in a magazine.
The truths are none of these people in the shows and in the magazines are perfect and the good news is you still can look beautiful without necessarily being perfect. The very first step you need to take is accept yourself the way you are and this will do you a lot of good in boosting your confidence and your self esteem.
The reality is, self esteem is intangible, yet it affects your thoughts and feelings, it is invisible, but you will see it every time you look at your image in your mirror, it is inaudible yet, and you will hear it every time you got to talk about self matters. With all this said, it is clear that self esteem is as important in our lives just like food and water are too important things we can’t live without. Whether it is the “How to Look Good Naked” show or that boosts your self esteem the “10 Years Younger” show, the most important thing is, something needs to be done to boost yourself worth.
Works Cited Branden, Nathaniel. The Six Pillars of Self-Esteem: The Definitive Work on Self-Esteem by the Leading Pioneer in the Field. United States: Bantam, 1995.
Burns, David. Ten Days to Self-Esteem. United States: Harper Paperbacks, 1999.
Fanning, Mattew McKay and Patrick. Self-Esteem: A Proven Program of Cognitive Techniques for Assessing, Improving, and Maintaining Your Self-Esteem. United States: New Harbinger Pubns Inc; 3 edition, 2000.
Fennell, Melanie. Overcoming Low Self-esteem: Self-help Guide Using Cognitive Behavioural Techniques. United States: Robinson Publishing, 1999.
Jane, Amy. How To Look Ten Years Younger: Book Review. 2011. Web.
Masley, Steven. Ten Years Younger: The Amazing Ten Week Plan to Look Better, Feel Better, and Turn Back the Clock. United States: Broadway, 2007.
Naked, How to Look Good. How To Look Good Naked Eau De Toilette 75ml. United States: How To Look Good Naked Eau De Toilette 75ml, 2009.
Oberbeil, Klaus. 10 Years Younger in 30 Days: 99 Secrets for Perfect Beauty, Health, Mind
Project Management of a Bakery Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction A project can be described as a temporary endeavor that is undertaken by an organisation with an aim of providing it with a new products or services (Lock 2007, p. 5). Projects are characterised by new features, which serve the role of creating a distinction between the new and the old functions carried out by a firm on a daily basis. Thus, a project can be carried out by functional-based organisation or a project-based organisation.
However, different projects call for different necessities in achieving projects’ objectives; these necessities are often termed as project’s resources. This paper will focus on project management of a bakery firm known as CME, which is a functional firm that has introduced health and fitness project to improve the performance of its employees.
I will provide an informed report on the team’s project management by reflecting on critical issues, including group achievement, lesson learnt from working in a group, course elements, individual contribution to the project, and individual learning on project management.
Report Group Achievements
To start with, this project was aimed at improving the performance of the employees. The primary objective of this project was to manage the weight of the employees, and consequently reduce their levels of stress. In this regard, the specialist came up with a target of reducing the weight of all employees to below 130 kg in order to enable the firm get the best out of them.
To achieve this end, the project came up with recreational programs, including bowling game, lawn tennis, and soccer, among other sports. In addition to this, the project aimed at facilitating a financial benefit for the firm though saving $ 50 from each employee. And with about 500 employees in the firm, the total savings expected were $ 2500 per year, which were to be realised after the firm negotiates lower insurance premium.
To measure these targets against the actual, the project management collected data on improvement of employees’ weight, as this helped to determine whether the project was viable in achieving the organisation’s objectives.
However, even though the project did not attain the set target of ensuring that every employee was below the weight of 130 kg, I am contended with the specialist report since it managed to improve the health status of the employees, and this turned to be beneficial to their morale towards work performance. Thus, the project does not fall short of its expectation even though it did not fully achieve its objectives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to this, the management products achieved by the project team proved to be of paramount importance in revealing the success of the project, given that the main objective of this project was to have a workforce that is motivated through recreation activities away from their functional duties.
More so, the management products were based on a coordinated group that was able to work as a single unit that reflected the attitudes of every employee, and as such, they were able to establish that not all employees would fit in one type of recreation. I am therefore contented with the management products since they provided a number of recreational facilities aimed at ensuring that every employee is accommodated into the project.
One of the factors that helped in planning and delivering of the project is the fact that these employees embrace informal activities that facilitate motivation and increase their levels of morale as they carry out their functional duties.
However, the planning process was hindered by the fact that the project managers were not able to comprehend the overall responsibility of the functional managers with regard to the human resource management, as well as the degree to which they could be consulted on a particular issue in the project management (Lager 2010, p. 136).
Lesson Learnt From Working in a Group Initiating a project in this organisation helped me learn to substantiate the notion that planning and delivering a project is not only limited to time and financial constrains but also to allocation of human resources (Rosenau
Understanding Consumer Behaviour in Asian Mobile Phone Market Report essay help online
Executive Summary Consumer behaviour attempts to understand the buyer’s decision making process, both individually and in group. Behaviour of the consumer is biased or subjective. Their decision-making process is influenced by numerous factors. Personal influencing factors are categorized into two: internal factors and external factors.
This study explores the significance of consumer behaviour in developing and refining marketing strategies. It also examines internal and external influencing factors that impact on mobile phone purchasing in Asian market. In addition, it looks at some of the success and failure examples about understanding consumer behaviour in the mobile phone industry. The strategies used by these companies must conform to the changing market environment and changing consumer needs/wants.
Consumer behaviour is the study of how when, why, and where people do or do not buy goods and services (Baker
US Foreign Policy in the Balkans Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
US Foreign Policy in the Balkans during Cold War Era
US Foreign Policy in the Balkans in Post-Cold War Era
Introduction United States occupies a distinguishing position in global affairs. Never in history has a single country conquered the international arena to the extent that the U.S. does today, courtesy of its foreign policies, which continue to draw mixed reactions, ranging from admiration to envy and hatred (Cameron, 2005 p. xvi). However, admirers and critics of U.S. foreign policies are often in agreement that no matter what the indicator – military might, economic vitality, democratic principles, political persuasion, and cultural model – the country is indeed in a league of its own.
The U.S. is the only superpower in the world and the only country able to project power and influence in every part of the world (Glenny, 2000), a fact reinforced by Cameron (2005), who notes that the U.S. has been involved in resolving conflicts on every continent since the early 1990s either through military engagement or peaceful negotiations.
This demonstrates that contrary to assertions made by critics to the effect that the U.S. does not have sound foreign policies (Kavalski, 2005), it is indeed in the frontline when it comes to expediting its values and interests in foreign countries. This paper will critically evaluate the U.S. foreign policy in the Balkans, both during the cold war era and also in post-cold war period.
According to Cameron (2005), “…foreign policy refers to a consistent course of actions followed by one nation to deal with another nation or region, or international issue” (p. xvii). In the context of this paper. Therefore, the U.S. foreign policy would refer to the values and interests projected by the U.S. in the Balkans, a region largely made up of a number of countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia (US Department of State, 2011).
Apart from Kosovo, which was considered as a province in Serbia, the other countries were considered as republics under the Yugoslavia federation during the cold war era, not mentioning the fact that they heavily leaned towards communist principles and ideologies perpetrated by the former USSR immediately after the Second World War (Eskridge-Kosmach, 2009).
These political and ideological leanings towards communism greatly affected United States relations with Eastern Europe, and it was not until the collapse and disintegration of the USSR and communist ideologies in 1991 that real progress in the U.S. foreign policy in the Balkans began to take shape (Trachtenberg, 2008).
US Foreign Policy in the Balkans during Cold War Era Immediately after the Second World War, the U.S. and her allies became cognizant of the fact that they had lost significant control of Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union. As such, the U.S acknowledged anti-communism to be its guiding standard to foreign policy in the region during the cold war era.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The U.S. adopted a non-military foreign policy to stabilize Western Europe and prevent communist ideologies from encroaching Western Europe territory, while devising rigid policies that could decrease the Soviet Union’s influence in Eastern Europe and at the same time not be seen as a direct provocation to the Soviet Union (Trachtenberg, 2008).
Some scholars have argued that the U.S. attempted to pursue a foreign policy that would make countries under Soviet’s influence in the Balkans to become economically dependent on the West and, if possible, coerce them into joining Western alliances, including NATO (Cameron, 2007 p. 9). This policy was meant to decrease the Soviet’s control, achieve potentially considerable geopolitical advantages, bring democracy to the Soviet bloc, recover lost trade and markets in the Balkans, and ensure a more stable and prosperous Europe (Trachtenberg, 2008).
In 1948, the U.S. saw an opportunity to project its foreign policy in the Balkans when Josip Tito’s government in Yugoslavia split with the Soviet Union for pursuing domestic and foreign affairs policies that, according to Stalin, fundamentally deviated from the Marxist-Leninist line of thought.
Yugoslav literature reveals that the breakup with Moscow was precipitated by Tito’s idea of pursuing a separate course towards socialism that could not be reconciled with the hegemonic model of the hierarchical organization witnessed in the socialist bloc (Perovic, 2007). The breakup notwithstanding, many scholars have underlined the “importance of Yugoslavia to the United States in its ‘wedge strategy’ directed towards the Soviet Bloc countries” (Eskridge-Kosmach, 2009 p. 383).
Of importance is the fact that the Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower administrations saw emergent opportunities for the U.S. to develop relations with Yugoslavia, a former strong ally of the Soviet Union. According to O’Brien (2006), this foreign policy was meant to alleviate the Soviet military power in addition to discrediting the Soviet tactics in the Balkans.
This gives credence to the idea that a major hallmark of the U.S. foreign policy in the Balkans during the cold war was to discredit communism and prevent its spread. The above policies failed to achieve much, prompting the U.S. to initiate a new foreign policy in the Balkans in the 1960s under the “New Deal.”
According to Eskridge-Kosmach (2009), the new foreign policy focused on initiating “economic reforms aimed at the improvement of the system of ‘workers self-administration,’ stimulation of the private initiative in agriculture, and de-centralization of the economic management” (p. 385). In addition, the U.S. also encouraged communist countries to disobey Soviet imperialism, hoping that the economic reforms would trigger an ‘evolution’ from the communist model to national independence and free democratic societies (Trachtenberg, 2008).
We will write a custom Research Paper on US Foreign Policy in the Balkans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Humanitarian relations and bi-lateral trade agreements with preferential terms were encompassed in the U.S’ “building bridges” concept that it entered with countries in the Balkans who exhibited a desire for political liberalization and the establishment of a representative government (Eskridge-Kosmach, 2009).
It is worth mentioning that the U.S., in its attempts to progress these policies in the Balkans, did not want to break with the Soviet Union or create a scenario that would have led to a military confrontation with the Soviet, thus employed diplomacy and foreign aid to reach out to countries in the Balkans. However, much of the aid to the Balkans remained humanitarian assistance, not development aid (O’Brien, 2006).
US Foreign Policy in the Balkans in Post-Cold War Era Opinion remains divided about the U.S. post cold war foreign policy in the Balkans, with some commentators arguing that the U.S. has been keen not to be drawn into geopolitical and ethnic-related conflicts that rocked the region after the disintegration of the Soviet Union (Brown, 2005), while others suggest that the Balkans has indeed become an emblematic feature of post-cold war geography of United States’ international relations (Joseph, 2005).
According to Daalder (2002), “the U.S. debate over engagement in the Balkans has been conducted primarily in terms of the burdens the United States and Europe should carry in attempting to improve conditions in the region” (p. 3). While the EU accepts that it should bear the main burden in the reconstruction of the Balkans, it also expects others, including the U.S., to contribute.
It is clear that the U.S. foreign policy of military intervention through NATO-sanctioned air strikes against Serb targets helped to end the wars witnessed in the Balkans in the 1990’s, though many analysts still maintain that the U.S. was late in its contribution, leading to the massacre of thousands of people (Brown, 2009).
However, it should be remembered that in the mid-1990s, the U.S. diplomatic efforts played an instrumental part in the establishment of the Dayton Peace Agreements, which led to the halting of hostilities among warring parties in the Balkans by crafting the decentralized political system of Bosnia. However, the Dayton political compromise is largely viewed across various quarters as an unworkable one, and which hinders the successful integration of Bosnia into Euro-Atlantic institutions (Woehrel, 2009).
One major post-cold war objective of the U.S. foreign policy in the Balkans is to stabilize the region in a way that is self-sustaining, democratic and does not require the frequent intervention of NATO-led forces and international diplomats (Woehrel, 2009), In equal measure, the United States has considerably assisted in the transition of the Balkan countries that were formerly under the Soviet bloc by encouraging political and economic reform, and by orienting them to join the EU and other Euro-Atlantic institutions (Veremis, 2001; Wisner, 2008).
Many countries in the Balkan are now holding free and fair elections, have vibrant civil society groups that are free to express a wide variety of views, and the independence of the media is almost guaranteed (Woehrel, 2009). This again demonstrates that the U.S. foreign policy in the Balkans has clearly underlined the need for the countries involved to shed off communist policies and ideologies, and embrace Western democratic principles and values.
Not sure if you can write a paper on US Foreign Policy in the Balkans by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To support the rule of law and the punishment of initiators of the 1990’s Balkan war, the U.S. continues to condition developmental aid to Serbia on the full cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTFY), not mentioning that the U.S. has initiated active mechanisms to support NATO membership for the countries in the Balkans (Woehrel, 2009).
The U.S. continues to demand constitutional reforms in countries such as Bosnia and Serbia, implying that its foreign policy in the Balkans is more oriented in solidifying the democratic gains so far been achieved. Woehrel (2009) also notes that the Balkans still “have a higher strategic profile given U.S. use of military bases in Romania and Bulgaria, which could be useful for U.S. operations in the Middle East” (p. 1).
The U.S. has also played a role in facilitating economic reform in the Balkans and ensuring that countries achieve fiscal and monetary austerity. However, resistance to economic transparency, weak and corrupt state structures, and the absence of the rule of law in a number of countries continue to hinder progress in the economic front (Woehrel, 2009).
It is important to note that the U.S role in the Balkans is largely viewed as peripheral since the EU is the mandated institution to oversee economic and political reforms in the Balkans, and to bring countries to join Euro-Atlantic institutions, thus stabilizing the region and the whole of Europe (Veremis, 2001; Joseph, 2005).
The observation can be reinforced by the fact that President Bush’ foreign policy in the Balkans oscillated along “controlled and gradual military and economic disengagement from the Western Balkans, allowing EU to fill this gap” (Sakellariou, 2011 para. 3).
Through diplomatic means, however, the U.S. played perhaps the most fundamental role towards Kosovo’s independence, by pushing the latter to unilaterally proclaim her independence and by pressuring other EU member states to also recognize Kosovo’s independence (Dunn, 2009).
Although the U.S. still maintains ground forces in Kosovo, and although the U.S. still retains its political and diplomatic clout in the region, it has substantially reduced the costs of its commitments in the Balkans, particularly after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States (Sakellariou, 2011).
International concerns, including the war on global terrorism and political stabilization of Iraq, Afghanistan and the Middle East, have substantially placed strains on U.S. resources, forcing the country to reduce its attention in the Balkans. In keeping with its current main foreign policy priority, however, the U.S. still actively engages the Balkans to stop terrorists from operating in countries such as Bosnia and Albania (Brown, 2009).
The U.S. has also succeeded in bringing many countries in the Balkans to support the war on global terrorism. It is worthwhile to note that the Obama Admistration still pushes for further stabilization of the Balkans, but has continued to keep the region low on the U.S. foreign policy radar, in part due to the war on global terrorism and the stabilization of Iraq and Afghanistan.
Conclusion Many policy analysts still feel that the U.S. should strengthen its foreign policy in the Balkans due to the perceived incapacity of the EU to give the needed impetus in the region, and also due to increasing Russia’s influence (Sakellariou, 2011). It is indeed true that the U.S. has for over a decade provided significant aid, advice and troop deployments to countries in the Balkans, but more still needs to be done to solidify the political, economic and democratic gains so far achieved, to uproot possible terrorist networks in the region, and to enhance trade ties with the region (Wisner, 2008; Joseph, 2005).
It is imperative to note that unlike the EU, the U.S. still enjoys a substantial political credibility and good will in the Balkans, particularly among the Bosniaks and Albanians (Sakellariou, 2011). As such, it is only proper for the U.S. to remain committed towards solving the serious problems that still affects the region, including weak government structures, ineffective and politicized public administrations, weak and politicized judicial systems, government corruption and organized crime (Woehrel, 2009). A stable Balkans will not only ensure peace and prosperity in Europe, but also in the whole world.
Reference List Brown, K. 2009. “Evaluating U.S. Democracy Promotions in the Balkans: Ironies, Inconsistencies, and Unexamined Influences.” Problems of Post-Communism 56, no. 3, 3-15.
Cameron, F. 2005. “US Foreign Policy after the Cold War,” 2nd Ed. New York, NY: Routledge.
Daalder, I.H. 2002. “The United States, Europe, and the Balkans.” Problems of Post-Communism 49, no. 1, 3-12.
Dunn, D.H. 2009. “Innovation and Precedent in the Kosovo War: The Impact of Operation Allied Force on U.S. Foreign Policy.” International Affairs 85, no. 3, 531-546.
Eskridge-Kosmach, A. N. 2009. “Yugoslavia and US Foreign Policy in 1960-1970s of the 20th Century.” Journal of Slavic Military Studies 22, no. 3, 389-418.
Glenny, M. 2000. “Has anyone seen our Policy?” Washington Quarterly 23, no. 4, 171-175.
Joseph, E.P. 2005. “Back to the Balkans.” Foreign Affairs 84, no. 1, 111-122.
Kavalski, E. 2005. “The Balkans after Iraq…Iraq after the Balkans: Who’s next?” Perspectives on European Politics
Why Do Acquisitions Fail? Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction The modern business environment is increasingly competitive. New technologies in the market mean that old technologies are growing obsolete far much faster. New start up companies are emerging which replicate the successes of established firms at a much lower overheads. Layoffs and cost cutting initiatives are increasing being countered by lawsuits and industrial strikes. However, in this competitive business environment the company executives are increasing under pressure to deliver value for their shareholders.
In this context, acquisitions and mergers are increasingly becoming viable options to business reengineering, value generation, value retention and business efficiency promotion. Metz (2001) notes that, “…acquisitions are strategic alternatives that can help companies promote a better way of doing business and maintain their competitive edge over the long run.
Acquisitions can help companies attain strategic goals more quickly, promote operational change, and attack markets where its technologies can produce higher levels of growth” (p.1). However, in the modern economic context an increasing number of acquisitions are failing for various reasons.
Reasons for acquisition failing According to Metz (2001) some of the reasons resulting into acquisitions failing include “…flawed strategic vision, inadequate due diligence, poor integration, and clashing cultures” (p.1). In the context of flawed strategic vision, Metz (2001) blames a majority of the business executives concentrating on the financial outcome of the acquisition instead of the core capabilities embedded in the company that is visible in its products and services.
Such a focus may make the acquisition more interested in the financial outcomes without building the corresponding core capabilities in the acquisition needed to drive the financial growth and outcomes (Siegenthaler 2010; Ingram 2011).
Rankine (2012) further notes in the context of flawed strategic vision, that sometimes companies make acquisitions as quick fix solution to their struggling business performance. Such a solution further deteriorates the situation as was the case when the person computer Compaq Company acquired Digital Company (Rankine 2012). Both companies at the time were struggling in their respective markets thus aggrevating the situation.
Clashing cultures is also one of the reasons emerging as a major reason for acquisition failure. Metz (2001) notes that “…acquisition impact important elements of economic and psychic value such as job security, promotion, career opportunities, status and pride of association.” (p.1). Gome (2012) concurs with Metz noting that “…the biggest challenge in any acquisition is the people integration” (p.1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both Metz (2001) and Gome (2012) note that inadequate due diligence in the acquisition is another major reason for acquisition failure. In the context of due diligence, several dynamics ought to be examined including expenses, market niches, and management styles amongst other functions and aspects (Metz 2001; Still 2010).
On the other hand, Gome (2012) cites several documents that ought to be closely examined including tax filings, assessment of key employees and agreements with third parties amongst other factors. In the context of inadequate due diligence, Ferranti got into bankruptcy due to poor due diligence on acquisition of ISC. The firm had over lied on a flawed KPMG opinion (Rankine 2012).
Lack of proper integration is another factor that can make acquisitions fail (Payling 2009; Evans, 2000).Management executives need to plan for the integration of the two companies into a new outfit with its distinct operations (Siegenthaler 2010; Still 2010). In this context, integration needs to consider aspects such as communication styles, sharing of responsibilities, and management of change amongst other factors (Salame 2006; Petkova
Differentiated Instruction for Student Readiness Coursework scholarship essay help
Introduction Differentiated instruction centers on the learners where teachers facilitate teaching-learning activity by grouping individual characters basing on common interests and abilities. For differentiated instruction to yield fruits depending on each learner’s level of readiness, a number of strategies are incorporated. These include tiered assignments, compacting, interest centered/ interest groups, flexible groupings, and learning contracts (Tomlinson, 1999).
Classroom Element For proper enhancement of the strategies used, some four-classroom elements are considered. These elements are differentiated access (environment of learning), content, process and product. Therefore, teachers incorporate these strategies basing on individual student ability, level of readiness, learning profile, and/or interest to learn.
The differentiated access or learning environment defines the emotional state of a classroom on how it feels and works, differentiated content strives to determine what student ought to learn and how he/she get the relevant information and instructional materials.
While differentiated process defines, relevant activities students should engage in sensibly master the content (Sternberg, Torff,
The High Infant and Perinatal Mortality Rates in Chicago Qualitative Research Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Purpose of the study The objective of the current study is to describe how the application of qualitative methods and internet-based methods can be used encourage community outreach workers to participate in community-based research in the assessment of public health intervention (Peacock et al, 2011, p. 2275).
Outreach workers are also able t o function as researchers, in addition to their work
Outreach workers prefer verbally relating their encounters with respondents, as
opposed to the use of such written methods as field notes or journaling
Outreach workers yearn for maximum flexibility in filling reports as it is very hard for
them to complete the activity with their busy schedules
The study mainly targets women of African American descent living in Chicago, IL, and who are often faced with the challenges of high infant and perinatal mortality and morbidity rates (Peacock et al, 2011, p. 2275).
Type of research
The current research was of the exploratory type. It involved the use of a VoIP phone-in system to identify at-risk pregnant women among the target population, so that they could be placed on a Medicaid reimbursed social and health services.
The study was qualitative in nature. The research was aimed at exploring the role of outreach workers who had participated in a community-based intervention program. In this case, the outreach workers would first receive training on certification in research ethics and qualitative research methodology (Peacock et al, 2011, p. 2275). The outreach workers utilized Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) phone-in system.
This instrument would help the outreach workers to obtain narrative reports regarding the challenges that the participants (women in the community) are often faced with. In addition, the VoIP phone-in system would also assist the outreach workers to narrate their individual experiences in their capacity as outreach workers.
Methodology The methodology involved administering the Healthy Births for Healthy Communities (HBHC) program among women in 2 communities in Chicago, IL. The two communities are mainly made up of women of African American descent. One of the defining traits of the women was high perinatal as well as infant mortality and morbidity rates. In this case, community outreach workers were used to identify at-risk pregnant women so that they could then be enrolled in Medicaid reimbursed social and health services (Peacock et al, 2011, p. 2275).
In order for the women to be considered eligible for the current program, the pregnant women also had to be of low income status. Also, these women should not have been part of a similar program in the past. Once the outreach workers had identified the study’s respondents using the VoIP phone-in system, they had to fill out engagement logs and canvassing forms about those women that they had encountered while executing their outreach activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Data Collection
Data was collected using the VoIP system, which enabled outreach workers to call the numbers provided and leave a message (Peacock et al, 2011, p. 2277). The outreach workers were also provided with scripts. This would enable them to record stories that according to them had a lot of relevance to the project.
Results The qualitative data collected by the outreach workers on the study’s respondents gave them useful insights that could not otherwise have been collected by the evaluation team ((Peacock et al, 2011, p. 2278). For example, the outreach workers were able to learn more about the complex lives that the poor pregnant women had to undergo. In addition, the outreach workers also met with rewards and challenges that characterize the role of an outreach worker.
Conclusions The study revealed that lay health workers may play a crucial role in research work. In addition, the study also revealed that it is quite possible to tailor training in research methods and ethics to suit the preferences and educational level of the lay health workers (Peacock et al, 2011, p. 2280).
Another finding of the study is that the useful insights of lay health workers can provide us with vital perspectives and information that could be hard to acquire using other data collection techniques. Moreover, the study revealed that training sessions can also be used as a venue to address the various challenges encountered by lay health workers when they are used as both lay health workers and researchers.
The study’s objectives are very clear and in the end, the study has been able to achieve the set objective. The language used by the study is also very coherent, and it had been referenced properly, both in-text and at the reference section. The authors of the study have explored the methodology section in detail and as such, it is much easier for the researcher to follow the study.
On the other hand, the study neither has a clear hypothesis, not does it contain questionnaires. Nonetheless, the researchers have managed to identify a number of limitations that they were faced with while undertaking the project and this further adds credibility to the study. It would also have been useful if the researchers are able to enumerate some of the study’s delimitations as well.
Furthermore, the researchers have not made an attempt to incorporate an ethical consideration section. For instance, since the community outreach workers would have to use VoIP phone-in system and scripts to collect data, this would constitute inversion of personal privacy. As such, it is important to take into account ethical considerations. While carrying out a research study of this nature, it is important to first seek consent from the ethical committee of the institution to which the project is affiliated.
We will write a custom Essay on The High Infant and Perinatal Mortality Rates in Chicago specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Peacock, N., Issel, M., Townsell, S. J., Chapple-McGruder, TG.,
Nursing Care and Management Essay essay help free
To ensure that residents are receiving a high quality of care, which fits their needs, I will use the methods presented below. They will guarantee that the team of hotel services, administration and activities as well as care staff delivers results, which have a positive outcome. First, each resident will receive a unique treatment based on his or her needs, preferences and interests.
As head of care, my concern will dwell on improving the dialogue between the team and our residents. Secondly, I will maintain the training programs for staffs that are already in place. I will discuss with the team so that customized messages that embody the core values within the home become the first reference points for individual decision-making.
My first goal would be to build trust with residents and the care team. I will therefore conduct myself appropriately and offer a consistent approach to issues based on the home’s core values. Thus, I will be caring and compassionate to both residents and staffs. I will be accountable and attentive to feedback and work related details. I will remain reliable and responsive by availing myself for duties in time and attending to raised concerns within the shortest time possible.
Lastly, I will ensure that I empathize with residents and the care team by recognizing their individuality, their work environment and personal challenges that they may be facing. Therefore, all personal communication will remain private and will not be used to judge a person’s work output or care expectation. Rather, the confidential social relations will inform my choice of conduct for delivering a personalized care and administration in the home. I will keep my engagements with staffs and residents morally upright.
I will allow staffs to review job improvement suggestions, and continuously ask them how well they are relating to each other. This will show them that I care about their work. Moreover, when my decision has an impact on the team, I will discuss the underlying issues with them before the decision and after.
Lastly, to build trust, I will use a participative leadership approach and acquaint myself with the various work assignments that people are doing in different departments. This will give me a better understanding of their condition of work and any arising work related issue. It will also demonstrate that I highly regard their value in the organization.
To create an atmosphere of open communication, I will allocate a few hours per week for collecting staff ideas, feedback and any concern that they may harbour. This time would be separate from meetings and would allow for the discussion of matters that require more confidentiality that staff-meetings would not offer. During staff meetings, I will initiate a visualization exercise for the team to see what it would be like if it meets its goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The meetings will inform staffs of their importance in collectively fulfilling the home’s mission. I will continue reassigning the equivalent duties to the same person even when they make work-related mistakes as long as they take responsibility of their mistakes. This gesture would show them that I expect the best from them and believe they are capable of delivering.
I will relate staff meetings and work-related discussions to the values of Fernhill. Although I will sometimes deal with team members independently, my actions and decisions will be informed by the need to foster a team spirit. This will include the recognition of exemplary or mediocre performance. Most importantly, I will strive to give my attention to the little details of affection such as asking about a person’s day. This would create an informal and free relation within the formal structure of Fernhill, and promote team values.
Work efficiency and customer satisfaction requires constant improvement. My strategy would be to have daily activity benchmarks, especially at the point of contact with the residents. For example, I will lead the team in measuring how many accidents have been avoided in a day; how many residents with queries have been attended to and whether a routine on the condition of residents has highlighted negligence in care.
Routines will be completed by checklists, which would reduce significantly cases of forgetfulness of staff and prevent rushed procedures in case of emergencies. A checklist will also assist my management of team affairs such as attending to raised issues during staff meetings, or ensuring that I do not miss any part of my job description while doing my routine.
Colleagues will review team member appraisals, and the individuals will have the opportunity to give their remarks. This would provide a level playing field as reviewers would have the same job expectations and experience as the person receiving the appraisal. The exercise would prevent the placement of unmatchable demands on job performance and being a peer review. It would be more effective for identifying skill imbalances.
Furthermore, I will review all appraisals, and make recommendations for training or work balance adjustments. Finally, I will lead the team in organizing and participating at ceremonial events for residents or team members to infuse fun and improve work relations through the informal gatherings.
Private Education in America Research Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Abstract
Definition to private education
History of private education in America
Policies for education change
Advantages of private education
Disadvantages of private education
Abstract Though education is considered a public good by policy maker, its consumption can be privatized just like most public goods depending on the setting and consumption behavior of an individual. Reflectively, an individual can be in a position to make decisions whether to consume it or not. The purpose of any education system in a country is to serve both public and private interests.
In addressing the interests of the public, education system prepares the young to be in a position to assume the roles of adults and promote the civil responsibility, uphold common set of political and economic values, and be in a position to share on common language acquired.
On the other hand, the role of education as a private good is to promote personal development, acquisition of knowledge, and productivity of the well being of a target group. Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to analyze the private education system in Unites States of America (U.S) in terms of definition, history, policies, advantages, and disadvantages.
Definition to private education The definition offered in this research papers is based on comparison between private and public education. Characterized by the way they are managed and financed, public education in its totality is normally managed by the government and their expenditures settled under the obligations of the tax payers’ money (Coulson 1999).
Private education system relies on the revenues collected from fees of parents and other contributions. Managed differently, their managers have their own educational services. This means that private schools in America are normally established through the support of non governmental agencies.
America private education system comprises of three major divisions. The first category is the parochial schools. Management of parochial schools is left under the responsibility of religious institutions such as Dioceses and parishes. They are obligated to provide financial support and managerial services. Secondly, nonprofit independent schools are owned independently.
Their finances depend upon an individual together with their management services. The third category is the profit private schools. Similar to nonprofit independent schools in management and ownership, the main objectivity is to make profit. Thus, it is more market driven and organized.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More History of private education in America History of the American private education is noted to have started early in the 16th century. At that time, the country was mostly occupied by private schools and religiously owned and managed schools. This initiative saw many individuals get educated. After the government adopted its law through Massachusetts General Court that required both parents and guardians of children in private schools to ascertain on the capability of their children.
The first private education center was founded by Benjamin Franklin. As a first secondary school, it started offering practical curriculum and variety of subjects based on the useful skills. By mid 18th century, many of such catholic private academies were instituted. This was due to the increased (Coulson 1999) higher number of the immigrants who were Catholics moving into America. They were mandated to offer arrays of practical subjects.
The year 1855 saw many of the private learning institutions being instituted in America. Almost six thousand private academies inclusive of both high schools and colleges were founded. With the increased demand for education, the total enrolment into these institutions rose to two hundred and sixty three thousand. At this time, the early private schools financial obligations were left in the hands of both the parents and their guardians.
In the year 1944 the congress eventually enacted a bill that facilitated the raising of funds to support college education facilities located at veterans. Other funds were allocated to private and religious schools. In the mid 1950s, Minnesota helped enact an educational bill that allowed on reduction to ‘k-12 expense’.
The expenses reduced to include transportation, stationary, and parental deduction to the private obligations. After four year, a one hundred year bill was revised by Maine. This touched on the total burn to private religious schools spending public funds in their operations.
Policies for education change Private schools have continued to undergo tremendous changes both in management, financial assistance, and government interventions. In 18th century, legislations were enacted that burned private schools from benefiting from public funds. This made them to entirely depend on contributions from parents and guardians.
However, in 1999, Florida became the first congress to enact laws that allowed for offering scholarship opportunities to the students in private schools. In form of vouchers, most of the habitually failing public students were allowed to attend the private and other religious schools. The Supreme Court further enacted the same in 2002. It ruled out that vouchers don’t offend the establishment.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Private Education in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, much of the policies undertaken by the government helped create transformation in the education system within American society. In 1925, the US Supreme Court, in a case of ‘pierces vs. Little Sisters for the poor’, made a ruling that limited the government authority. They relied on the theory of liberty upon which government’s participation in the union helped reposes power of the state against standardizing education (Baker 2009).
The court ruled that a child was not a mere creature of the government but should be allowed to accept instructions from the teachers who have the rights to inform any one. While in 1922 the state of Oregon made some revisions on the law, it made it illegal for any child between the age of 8 and 16 to attend school. Making changes on the clause, it became open for any child between the age of 8 and 16 to attend to nongovernmental schools.
In 1948 the court made some changes concerning the law that restricted religious groups from having access to publicly owned buildings for the purpose of religious activities. But the rectification of the clause, it opened room for free interaction among the two groups. To its advantage, the children from the two sides were freed to attend any learning institution.
Before amendment of the law in 1952, students were not initially allowed to come out of their learning institutions to go and attend religious services in an outside environment. However, the only exemption was in form of a permission granted by parents. Nevertheless, it was illegal for conversion of any public building to use it for religious purposes. In 1952, an injunction was brought in the case of Zirach vs. Clauson.
Changes were made to allow students to have freedom of leaving their learning institutions for religious activities in the directions of their parents. It also allowed for free use and access to the public buildings for religious activities. Initially the law prohibited on the state officials from conducting of prayers in schools before 1962. But some of the changes in the law have made in open for prayers by the state official s to conduct prayers in schools.
Advantages of private education Considerations of the advantages that accrued to the private schools are as a result of the policies implemented. To begin with, in private schools, there is no government intervention and unnecessary control in terms of budget and management formula. This leaves management of such private institutions in the hands of church leaders and other contracted personnel’s of high integrity. The appointed policy makers in such institutions help to coming up with strategies within the management structure and performance.
Thus, through elimination of more linkages and channels in the corporate structure, it allows for faster deliberations of problems and faster operations. Bureaucracy as a way of creating and going through several stages in an organization is totally minimized to ensure faster operations (Duncan, Shelton, and Klenk 2009).
As shown in the report conducted by U.S department of education on the traits of private schools, it was reported that greater percentage of the students took less time to complete graduate school in relation to those that had enrolled in public schools.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Private Education in America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The reason given in the report is that students upon completion of studies in private schools, are directly absorbed into higher level of learning instead of having to wait for some time. Also, a further report by Standler (2011) illustrates research conducted about management in private and public learning institutions. In this analysis, it was discovered that public structures comprise of bureaucratic system of management than private education schools.
The second advantage relates to the class enrolment of students. From the report analyses on the survey conducted by the department of education in 2009 and 2010, it showed that during the period of research, the total number of student enrolment ranged to 141 across all the private schools.
This meant that there exist small sized classes in private schools. Advantageously, this can be said to correlate with the performance of the students. Apart from the performance, the smaller classes, by the fact that they occupy on a smaller spaces, are healthy and more spacious than those in public schools
Moreover, there is availability of new books and other resources to students since the schools can afford them. This translates into improved performance by of students.
Report conducted by Broughman, Swaim, and Hryczaniuk (2011) in June 2002, helps in illustrating that students are more likely to thrive in an environment that is supportive and have required resources of learning than those are not (Broughman, et al. 2011). The ‘Bureau of Just Statistics’ showed that students in private schools have access to new text books than those in public schools. Thus, they are motivated to learn.
Teachers in the private education institutions are provided with enabling environment to prepare on lesson plans and execution. In 2009 and 2010, the report by U.S department of education reveals that nearly seventy five percent of teachers prepare and implement lesson plans appropriately in private schools. When asked the role and effects of lessons plans to their teaching careers, they explained that it assisted in coverage of the syllabuses and give directions on the scope of information to be given to students.
Other advantage that private schools may have to both students and families is through creation and development of ethics and skills. As indicated in the report by Broughman, et al. (2011), it showed that sixty-seven percent of the private schools that enrolled 80 percent of the private school students and employing of seventy-three percent of the private school FTE teachers in 2009-2010 had a religious orientation.
This helped to shape the behaviors of the students. To the family members, choosing of good schools for their children always becomes important factors to consider. Parents always consider school as an extension of the home environment. It helps in promoting of values and ethics which are universally embraced by all (Duncan et al. 2009).
Disadvantages of private education However, teachers who teach in these schools are normally paid lower salaries relative to those in public schools. Some of the schools that are managed and operated by the religious institutions lack enough funds to pay the teachers. The report by Broughman, et al. (2011) gives insight information on the salaries received by the teachers.
In the survey conducted between 2008 and 2010, most of the teachers in privately owned institutions were paid at an average lower salary. A more distracting of the situation is creation of a non-motivating environment to them. As illustrated by Vroom in his book, ‘Motivation to the Employees’ correlated with the performance of these institutions.
A lesser emphasis on core subjects is made by the teachers to their students. Through the orientations that students are given when joining these institutions, less time is devoted by the teachers to give directions on subject importance. More emphasis, as shown by (Baker 2009) in his report, is on performance which overrides the need to show students the aspects of individual subjects. The impact from the consequence normally weighs more on students.
During their professionalism at the college level, most of those students who find it hard to make decisions on future carrier specializations are said to have come from private schools (Broughman, et al. 2011). Lastly, there is always lack of diversity among the students. As shown by the department of education report of 2009. Most of the enrolment into these schools were from suburban schools, followed by those found in the cities. Majority of the students in these schools tended to be more or less from the same social and economic class.
Conclusion The education system of America was initially characterized by both private or religious owned schools offering practical and knowledge skills in dispassion of literacy level to the majority of the Americans. However due increased influx of the immigrants, the demand for education overstretched the supply, thus, introduction of private education. The evolution of both the public and increased supply of private schools was to create a social order in the immigrants.
At present, policies have been formulated to manage the same. Reflectively, it is apparent that most private schools in America are better equipped in terms of facilities and amenities than those in public schools. Apart from those instituted by religious groups and NGOs, private schools that are owned by individuals tend to absorb students from more or less the same economic and social class who can afford the expensive education.
References Baker, B. D. (2009). Private Schooling in the U.S.: Expenditures, Supply, and Policy Implications. Web. http://www.greatlakescenter.org/
Brougham, S.P., Swaim, N.L.,
Writer’s Choice Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
You should use 7-9 bullet points to summarize the main points of the article…a summary of the topic. Think of it in terms of the key points you would want to highlight in a briefing to your boss.
I provided an example of how the page should be. As well as providing the article
Structural Realism Theory and the Developing world Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Outline Structure
Neo-realism and Developing Countries
Analysis and Criticisms of Neo-Realism
Outline Structure The previous decade has witnessed some investigations assessing the applicability of available International Relations (IR) models to, and complaining about the abandonment of the rising economies, and especially of third world (Africa) in particular, in International Relations theory.
This essay tries to go past this well-substantiated disapproval, and in its place questions what International Relations theory is supposed to undertake to tackle the problems in the developing world, inquire how academic contributions from Africa may perhaps supplement our perception of International Relations.
Conversely, it attempts to understand how the occurrences in Africa and the research produced by Africans can add up to a superior indulgence to International Relations. The focal point is to employ the works of Arlene Tickner (2003a, p. 300), on the emerging economies as instruments of International Relations facts as opposed to objects of International Relations inquiries.
And on surveying MacLean’s assertion that ‘‘Africa’s practices… provide insights for the development of IR theory and policy far beyond the continent’’ (MacLean , 2001, p. 150). The insinuation is thus not that the total field of International Relations that has been naive to Africa and the confrontations that it facades (Brown, 2006), but relatively subsists to the periphery of the discipline.
Wherever there have been efforts aimed at taking Africa into the crinkle, it has been performed from the viewpoint of ‘what capability should the Western International Relations do to slot in Africa’ instead of ‘what can scholars discover from the African experience’. When someone reflects on the wish in native acquaintance from Africa and all of the rising economies relative to sections such as normal medicine or eastern creed and sculpture, it turns out to be clear that it is not a narrative suggestion that comprehend from the non- Western humanity can manipulate the west.
Unfortunately this curiosity on how available (Western) information might be developed by aboriginal facts and performances has not unmitigated to the inquiry of IR. Majority of researchers meticulously observe modest worth in developing an endeavor to learn from teachings from the outside edge. The suggestion that academicians in the hub of the field, principally in the US and UK, are the inventors of premise, while scholars in the far away countries, Africa and most of the developing world, are simply clients of the hypothesis; has been prevalent in the field.
Regrettably, as Mallavarapu (2005) argues that this outlook is not merely apprehended in the nucleus. Academicians from the emerging economies ‘‘have been complicit in viewing themselves as mere recipients of a discourse shaped elsewhere’’ (Mallavarapu, 2005, p. 1). This implies one impediment in the examination of feasible African contributions to International Relations theory.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evidently, there are many additional limitations, equally in external, such as the entrance observance rules so rampant in the field, and internal (constituting deficiency of assets and the outlook that theorizing is too expensive in the milieu of Africa, where pressing tribulations have need of critical strategy answers). Bilgin (2008) questions the ubiquitous postulations of divergence linking Western and non Western studies to global politics on the basis that Western and non- Western practices and their elucidations have turned out to be so intertwined that non- Western traditions of philosophy regarding to responsibility towards global politics are “not forever free from Western models and theories’’ (p. 6).
Neo-realism Realism is one of the international relations theories, apart from idealism and Marxism, emerging towards the beginning of the beginning of the Second World War and maturing during and after the World War 2. The theory emerged after the idealists failed to explain why the Second World War occurred and yet there was a league of nations based on collective security and international law.
The founders of the theory started by criticizing the conceptualization of man by idealists, idealists were based on utopia. Intrinsically, man is unscathed, selfish, enjoys when others suffer and is motivated by personal interests. The realists assume that man uses another man to fulfill his interests since man is self-centered. Whenever people cooperate, they aim at achieving something at the end implying that cooperation is aimed at acquiring self-goals.
States are also guided by the principle of using other states to obtain selfish interests. States focus more on achieving national interests rather than fulfilling collective international objectives. The international system is perceived as a jungle whereby each state is hostile to each other and always dodging each other.
The international system is anarchical in nature where power holding is determined by prevailing economic and political influence. The most powerful states dictate whatever they feel is suitable to other powerless states. The international system is likened to Hobbestian state of nature where life was short lived and states are always in conflicts.
There is no a leviathan, which is in charge of arbitration and setting standards to be followed by other parties. Absence of a leviathan creates a vacuum that is filled by the mighty ones hence dominating global opinions and decision-making mechanisms. There is no common power in the international system instead some states force their way into leadership positions.
The members of the international system, just like the members of the state of nature are driven by instincts. Life in the anarchical international system is brutish, short lived and solitary because there is no common power. At the national level, realists believe that states enter into contracts to form a leviathan unlike in the international system. Kenneth Waltz in his book published in 1979 adjusted realism, which was mainly structural. This means that he reduced everything to the structure.
We will write a custom Essay on Structural Realism Theory and the Developing world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Choices made by states in the international system are influenced by international system. The theorist focused on the status of the international system by claiming that only polarity influences the behavior of states in the international system. Change in a states leadership does not affect its foreign policies. The issue of superpower affected the behavior of many states during the cold war.
States were aligning with either the capitalist West or the communist east. The two super powers struggled to consolidate support from other states mainly to achieve their interests. States on the other hand calculated the benefits they could get from either side before associating with the super powers. The two super powers at the time asserted themselves in terms of ideologies where the United States wanted to construct an Americana world while the Soviet Union was proposing for collectivization of resources.
Neo-realism and Developing Countries It is undisputable that Western International Relations was original in the discipline as an insecure intellectual subject trying to comprehend and hypothesize as regards to the vibrant global politics. There is no great suspicion that the major thoughts in the subject are intensely ingrained in the particularities and peculiarities of western olden times, the augment of the West to global power and the erection of its own opinionated system onto the whole earth.
Put jointly, these two specifics denote that non-Western efforts to build up philosophy about International Relations, just like current capitalists, automatically have to create their ways in setting previously deeply habituated by past expansion. This fact is not disputed by any one, even though intellectual International Relations is now an international affair though incredibly unequally disseminated, still in the West, it remains extraordinarily subjugated to Western philosophy.
At the same time as this state of affairs is not inherently bewildering, it is obliging to examine carefully the motives behind this. A few clarifications give little or no scope or basis for curative intervention. Others recommend that the issue of Western supremacy be expected to be transitory (Amitav and Barry, 2005, p. 293)
This elucidation is not on the subject of whether Western International Relations Theory has set up the entire accurate courses to reality. Since Western International Relations Theory has been approved by the authority of Western rule in the previous few centuries, it has obtained an international dominion grade that functions mainly mechanically in the brains of others, and in spite of whether the hypothesis is accurate or not.
At this point, an individual would want to be keen on describing the logical effects of Western imperialism and the achievement of the influential in impressing their own thoughts against the wits and performances of the non-Western humanity. As illustrated above, the method of decolonization left in its wake a world modified, at times poorly, according to the European condition and its disordered society structure of global affairs.
The cost of autonomy was that local leaders agree to this configuration and a first-class case can be made that they did not merely do so in force, but were captivated and made their own entire deposits of important Western thoughts regarding to the performance of political financial system. In addition, it includes autonomous, territoriality and patriotism (Amitav and Barry, 294).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Structural Realism Theory and the Developing world by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additional Western thoughts such as egalitarianism, the economy and human rights have had an extra competition, hardly worldwide, response, but nevertheless, have befall prevalent and high-ranking outside the West. Third-World leaders have employed the important rudiments of Westphalia dominion and even lengthened its scale.
For instance, the principle of non-involvement, an important auxiliary rule of Westphalia independence, is being dynamically challenged in the West. It has undergone some attrition except in the Third World, where it has stayed put strongly. In reality, the fall of laissez faire in the West has facilitated its rise in the developing World (Tilly, 1990).
The conceptualization of what makes the African state of affairs exclusive includes a number of ideas that the states attach to political and monetary structures causing resulting to immense dysfunction. Given that Africa and other developing countries are never the beneficiaries of lofty amounts of overseas straight savings relative to other rising regions, majority of links of states to the fiscal system scuttle through official worldwide monetary institutions and expansion-focused nongovernmental institutions (NGOs).
Consequently, the malfunction comes from the organizational state of affairs in the course of which funds go into and go out of the continent (Lavelle, 2001). The genesis of the institutional conditions can be established in postcolonial rules that, in the dearth of any actual option material support, utilized state influence as a reserve to consolidate their own power (Boone, 1992).
Even Moss’s Adventure Capitalism, the most economic in orientation of the four books reviewed, views stock markets as a counteractive means to existing paths in the course of which overseas wealth enters African economies. For that reason, to start a more persistent investigation into the political principles of the developing countries, over and above personality countries, analysts must tackle extensive monetary conditions (Lavelle, 2005, p. 367).
Analysis and Criticisms of Neo-Realism A good number of global relations assumptions are inductively consequential from the European familiarity of the ancient times of about four centuries, for the period of which Europe was the nexus and initiator of war, inventions and affluence. According to Waltz (1979), “The theory of international politics is written in terms of the great powers of an era. It would be… ridiculous to construct a theory of international politics based on Malaysia and Costa Rica…. a general theory of international politics is necessarily based on the great powers” (p. 73).
When international relations scholars concentrated on other sections of the sphere, it was to examine themes assumed minor such as developing world safety or the actions of diminutive states. In view of that, worldwide relations research has paid attention to elucidating the European practice. For instance, the roots of World Wars l and ll, over and above the Cold War and U.S.-Soviet affairs.
Even though this is tranquilly factual, other fractions of the globe have turned out to be more and more important. Therefore, awareness of European relationships is no longer enough for a dutiful international relations generalist (Kang, 2003, p. 57). Besides, establishing hypothesis that comes out from variant of realist assumption is habitually the theme of intense contest.
Scrupulously attempts to rule out guesses that relate to developing countries can be exceedingly exasperating. The main intense argument of the cynical forecast as regards to developing countries raises the concern of a revisionist third world. Subsequent to two decades of speedy trade and industry growth, developing countries seems perched to turning to great supremacy over again.
As a result, for Richard Betts, the problem happens to “… get rich or not?” In favor of realists, the reaction ought to be no, because a rich third world would topple any balance of power (Betts, 1997, p. 55). Anxiety over a revisionist and threatened third world has simply enlarged in the last decade, as its financial structure keeps on growing and its forces and scientific potentialities additionally growing.
Questions are being posed on whether developing countries such as the Asian tigers have territorial and imperialistic aggression (Dunn
Pricing: The Sneaker Pricing Wars (Adidas-Nike) Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Price is a very essential aspect in every business as it is the fundamental determinant of the profit to be achieved after the sale of a commodity or service and therefore influences the success or failure level of the business. Pricing is the process of determining the cost of a product or a service so as to identify what a business will obtain in exchange of its products or services.
It is one of the components of the marketing mix, the other ones being; product, place, and promotion. The factors associated with pricing are; the production cost, competition, the market place and condition, and also the quality of the product or service. Value of the product towards the customers should also be considered in determining a price to ensure that the customers pay what is equivalent to the value gained (Pratt, n.d).
Pricing Strategy According to Phillips (2005), pricing strategy is a logical choice from a list of alternative prices that seeks to maximize profit within a specific period of time under a certain situation. There are various approaches that can be adopted by companies or businesses in pricing their goods and services and there is no single model identified for the purpose of pricing.
However, every pricing strategy should seek to maintain fairness and integrity throughout the pricing process. Here is a guideline on how a company may undertake its pricing process. The company or business should undertake a marketing strategy which involves carrying out a marketing analysis, segmentation, targeting, and positioning of the product in relation to its quality and that of other products in the market.
Decision on the market mix is then made where the definition of the product or service is done, and distribution and promotion strategies identified. The other step involves analyzing the demand curve as pricing is directly affected by the prices of the particular products.
Calculation of cost is also crucial and the company should put into consideration all costs associated with the product, the fixed and variable costs, so as to make sure that profitability is achieved. The surroundings factors like competition and legal conditions should be considered too. In pricing the product, a business should assess the influence of its pricing towards the pricing of competitors.
The price should be in line with that of competitors to avoid unhealthy competition and should also adhere to price control aspects of the government. The business should also establish pricing objectives so as to come up with the most favorable price of the product.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The objectives may touch on aspects like maximization of profits, revenue, quantity and quality of the product among others. It is after consideration of all the above that that the price is agreed upon.
Classification of Pricing Strategies Pricing strategies can broadly be categorized according to the business objectives and consumer distinctiveness.
On the basis of business objectives, there is differential pricing which entails selling a product at different prices to different consumers, competitive pricing where prices set aims at exploiting the competitive position and product line pricing that involves selling related products at prices that maximize reciprocated dependency.
In regard to the characteristics of the customers, their uniqueness is identified and pricing based on it. There are those customers that are ignorant of where they can locate the products they require and may buy from any place to avoid wastage of time in tracing the best suppliers at affordable prices.
Some consumers are however very sensitive on cost issues and would rather take a lot of time looking for a business that offer the product at the lowest price than buying the commodity at a convenient place but at a higher cost. The last categories of consumers consist of consumers that may incur extra costs and risks for example transportation cost and investment costs (Phillips, 2005).
Methods Used In Pricing Different businesses adopt different pricing methods depending on the particular situations and the expected or desired results. The common pricing methods are; psychological pricing which aims at evoking a customer’s emotional rather than rational decision on buying a product by setting the price just a little bit lower than those of competitors for example a shoe worth 20 dollars may be priced at 19.99 dollars. P
rice skimming involves a business setting the price of its products higher than that of competitors especially when the business has a competitive advantage though the price usually lowers after many competitors come in and lower their prices. Economy pricing entails keeping the production and marketing cost at a minimum.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Pricing: The Sneaker Pricing Wars (Adidas-Nike) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Penetration pricing is achieved by introducing the new products at a relatively low price to capture customers’ attention after which the prices of the commodities go up but the business still retains the customers. Premium pricing on the other hand entails charging a high price where the products involved are unique in nature thus giving the business a competitive advantage over the others (Dean, n.d).
Customers Customers are a very important element in any form of business for the reason that there cannot be a business transaction in the absence of customers. They are the reason for the production of goods and services without which no business could take place. Businesses should therefore put the consumer in mind when undertaking any process concerning goods and services from production to final sale not forgetting pricing.
It is for this reason that the business should at all cost invest in determining what best suits the customers and try satisfying their needs by providing the value they require.
When the customers are served well they develop loyalty towards the business and may be willing to do any good deed on it’s behave for example doing some marketing by inviting other consumers to the business. Poor or lack of satisfaction of consumers on the other hand leads to lack of trust on the company and may lead to loss of many customers (Hoek and Evans, 2005).
Pricing War A price war can be defined as an unhealthy competition whereby competitors seek to increase their market share by lowering the prices of their products and services. There usually exist pricing wars whenever there is a new introduction of products in the market.
This is usually so because the products are introduced at a relatively low price and this is not received in appreciation by the existing competitors as they see the business as a threat on the grounds that it may take customers from them. This forces the other businesses offering the same product to cut down their prices hence reducing their profit margins.
Another version is where a new business offers similar products and services but which posses some unique features at a price higher than the existing competitors. This will attract a large pool of customers because of the competitive advantage associated with the products and the business at large. This is perceived negatively by the other existing businesses and they may react by also raising their prices to attain much profit.
This however affects them negatively as the possibility of loosing their customers due to switching costs is too high while the possibility of the new business retaining its customers is high as the prices, though high, do not increase. Switching costs in the market leads to price wars and may subsequently lead to limitation in pricing options.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Pricing: The Sneaker Pricing Wars (Adidas-Nike) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another cause of a price war is the existence of consumers who do not have a specific business from where they buy their products and services. The consumers are therefore swayed by many factors and lowering of prices by one business may attract and capture them and if well served and satisfied, they can continue to be customers to the particular business entity.
Deviation of customers from the market and introduction of new customers also lead to price wars. Some customers may also feel deceived when there are switching costs as they expect that the low costs at the entry of the business will be maintained even in future and so raising of the prices result in price wars (Klemperer, 1989).
Adidas versus Nike Pricing War Nike is the world’s biggest shoe company in regard to its market share and investment on capital. Nike is involved with the manufacture and marketing of athletic shoes, casual footwear, and other sports accessories and equipment. It was founded by Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman.
Adidas is the second largest in the world, after Nike. Nike and Adidas have for long led in the shoe industry because of the quality of their products, brand names, and image. There has been however war between these two companies over advertising and superstar support agreements. The war can for example be seen clearly in regard to the 2010 world cup through their sales and influence.
Before the world cup, the Nike Company made better sales of soccer shoes than Adidas did. This was brought about by the influence of the advertisement by Nike which read; write the future. This influenced a lot of soccer fans and consequently increased the sales of the Nike soccer shoes. When the world cup commenced, Adidas sales went higher than the sales made by Nike.
This was due to the domineering aspect of Adidas as it occupied the billboards in the football field attracting all the attention to it. Success in the sales of the soccer shoes also followed Adidas as it supported Spain which had many funs due to its good performance.
Adidas and Nike compete in production of quality products. Adidas seem to be fast to meet demands of various teams especially soccer in regard to sports facilities, for example, the Major League soccer relies on Adidas for its supplies. It has gained competitive advantage because of its popularity in producing unique footwear for different sports especially soccer and most countries make use of Adidas footwear.
Nike is also popular and its brand name has been known for ages in the world of sports. Its popularity has also been drawn from its support for various sports teams and athlete groups all over the world. Nike has particularly gained much favor accrued to its latest design of the Mercurial Vapor, which is the lightest shoe that is efficient in enhancing speed and reducing friction.
There has been stiff competition between Nike and Adidas with each struggling to outdo the other. The major guiding principles are; attitude, this is the view and affiliation people feel towards either Nike or Adidas. Quality is also a contributing factor as people usually value the quality of the products they purchase.
Competitive advantage is as well a key element for example Nike has been recognized for being the best in basketball shoes while Adidas is known for better football shoes though not all. Pricing is also a very critical element in determining the success of the companies. It influences the consumers in making their final decisions about purchase of various products produced by different companies.
The pricing strategies adopted by the Nike and Adidas companies are a contributing factor towards the sales they make as price is directly dependent on demand. When one company reduces its shoes prices and still retains the quality it is likely to attract more customers than the other. This will cause pricing war between the two as the other one will be forced to lower its prices so as not to lose its customers to the other.
Nike for example is expected to launch low-priced products following its defeat by Adidas in the 2010 world cup. The lowering of prices is aimed at attracting many customers toward its variety of footwear, equipment, and accessories. This will also enhance its positioning in the market.
This is a form of price war and although it will attract many customers, it may lower its profitability margins. Nike also employs strong marketing strategies that helps keep its brand name and image high through gaining trust and loyalty of the consumers (Anonymous, 2010).
Dealing with Price War Since price war is a negative impact especially to businesses, certain strategies should be employed to curb the effects of price war. They include; anticipating the reactions of the competitors; one should asses how the competitors may react if he/ she lowers the products’ prices as this will definitely affect the sales and the profit to be made.
Another step is giving some indications to the competitors that there may be price changes to alert them and make them aware of your intention in adjusting the prices. A business should also try to construct unique price structures to reduce the likelihood of consumers comparing terms (Rao, Bergen
Conflict Prevention in Project Management Coursework argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Sources of conflict and ways of minimizing them
Project plans as sources of conflict minimization
Introduction Conflict and stress, in reasonable levels, can become a source of competitive advantage within a project team. This is because it challenges members to be constructive and collaborative.
On the other when left to spiral out of control, conflict and stress may diminish team members’ morale, it may divide them and even cause failed project work. Therefore, conflicts need to be effectively managed in order to avoid these destructive effects. It is essential to know the sources of those conflicts and also identify some of the ways of preventing their occurrence.
Sources of conflict and ways of minimizing them Conflicts within the workplace can sometimes arise out of divergent work patterns. Members of a project team by their very nature are quite different. Each person may possess a different way of handling a project task and when these methods have not been synchronized then conflict may arise (Furlong, 2005).
In order to avoid problems that stem from these differences, parties must provide their viewpoints and then integrate them into one effective strategy for dealing with the problem.
On the other hand, a contractor and a client may also have different understandings of what the project work entails. To this end, it is essential to iron out these differences prior to commencement of the project because if the expectations vary then the outcomes are also likely to vary as well.
Alternatively, differences in goals may come about due to the divergence of the parties involved in a project. Sometimes this could be internal or external. In terms of the internal goal differences, certain members of an organization may oppose the goals of a project team that does not fall within their group.
Furthermore, the needs of a particular project team may be totally different from that of another business unit and this may necessitate some kind of tradeoffs between these two parties. One way of achieving this is through the creation of a common direction for both parties to follow.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Alternatively, personality differences may also lead to problems within specific teams. Sometimes, a team may have very strong leadership and the actual team members maybe very strong personalities as well. What this does is that it creates an environment of excessive competition and domination of others’ actions.
Consequently, when selecting the respective members of a team, a project manager must ensure that he or she balances the personality types in the group. Overly strong characters should be partnered with those who have subtle personalities. It may sometimes be difficult for project team managers to do this because of resource constraints; nonetheless, they need to work with what they have.
In other words, members should be paired up so as to increase productivity as much as is reasonably possible. The concept of relationships should be handled so that failed communications rarely arise. Good pairing also prevents occurrence of negative behavior or stereotypes that stem from the inherent character of a certain individual (Cloke
Gifted Children Essay best college essay help
For a long time in history, test-taking and lesson-learning methods have been used as the standards of measurements of a student’s abilities. They have been used to determine cut-off points for students who will make it to the university or four year colleges. However, it is not those who consume knowledge but the creative and productive people who have been remembered by history.
Such people like C. S. Lewis, Martin Luther King Jr., and Picasso, who have shown greater abilities through art, literature, and politics, have been remembered by history (Deci
Reflections on Achieving Career Success and Personal Fulfillment Reflective Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Current Situation I am a long way from becoming a good leader. It will take years before I can become an exceptional leader. But this is my dream, to become the best that I could ever be when it comes to leadership and the ability to build an organization from scratch. I am not going to be contented with building a business from nothing but it is part of my life’s goal to create something that can be sustained for a very long time.
In addition, I want that organization to be something of a force in the social realm, meaning that it is not only in existence to make money but to help build a better world. I know that my contribution may be insignificant compared to giant companies out there but I believe that I can inspire others to do the same thing. And collectively it can be a force to be reckoned with.
So far my experience with good leadership is working under a person who is conscious of the need for constant improvement. My employers in the past had given me an idea of what a good leader should be. I also have an experience with a boss that does not seem to understand principles of leadership. HE may have known intellectually but his heart was not sold out to the idea of transforming himself to become an exceptional leader.
As a result the organization that he built continues to stagnate. I learned from a bad leader as well as from good ones. Aside from my desire to become a good leader and learn how to become there are a couple of issues that are shaping my worldview. These issues are powerful because I believe that it is affecting the political and social environment.
One is the issue regarding a “flat world” and the second one pertains to the influx of cheap and yet low-quality products. These two issues are related and when these are combined the impact can be disastrous to those who enjoyed a certain lifestyle and one day find out that Asian products have changed the way business is being done.
These are critical issues and I believe that universities and other learning institutions must take a closer look at the consequences of radical changes in the business world. Take for instance the idea that the world is going to be “flattened.” This is of course a metaphor used to describe the increasing equality between highly industrialized nations and those that can be found in Asia.
Consider the assertion that in the past China was no match to the United States and the United Kingdom when it comes to international trade. But today this statement no longer holds true. In the not so distant past South Korea was just a consumer of American and European made products. After the Korean War, this country was utterly dependent to Western powers and their benevolence when it comes to economic aid.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More But today it is common to see Korean made cars plying the streets of Europe and United States. Samsung is an instantly recognizable brand. If these things are not enough there has been a new phenomenon that has bothered many and in fact it is the root cause of the creation of the term “flat world” and it is none other than the transfer of jobs overseas.
This can be as simple as building cheaper factories in countries with cheap labor and therefore increasing the profit margin. However, it can also be as complicated as setting up business outsourcing facilities in countries like India. This has threatened not only blue collar workers but even professionals such as accountants and computer programmers. It is now possible to ask equally talented workers abroad to complete a project at half the cost.
These issues are currently shaping my worldview. However, I will not be threatened by it, instead I will use it to motivate me to become better. It is also a form of a guide for me giving me a map as to what is happening to the world. It will also give me an idea as to the need for greater improvements in learning as well as skills in order to compete globally.
Life Goal and Strategy My life goal is to become an exceptional leader, able to lead men and women and perform great works of service for mankind. I am thinking of Steve Jobs and the revolutionary products that came out because of his vision and leadership. I am thinking about business leaders like Ford and Welch that transformed the way people live because of their contributions to society.
I am also thinking of philanthropists and leaders of charitable institutions that worked hard to make this planet a better world. All these things can be achieved if I put myself to a process of continuous learning. It is impossible to achieve these goals without setting up lofty goals and to adhere to standards that mediocre performers do not pay attention to.
In this regard I will strive to continually understand the principles of total quality management as exemplified by companies that earned the right to receive the Malcolm Baldrige Award. I also made the commitment to know more about just-in-time inventory and lean management systems. These are strategies employed by successful Japanese firms and the core value is to eliminate waste.
Finally, I would make it one of my priorities to learn more about corporate social responsibility and socially responsible investing. My strategy can be simplified and label it continuous learning. There is a need to bring myself to different settings in order to meet different types of people.
We will write a custom Essay on Reflections on Achieving Career Success and Personal Fulfillment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More My short term goal is to find a mentor that can help me understand leadership principles and teaching it form the point of view of an expert who had experienced these principles and not just being familiar with them in an academic setting. It is important to continue observing the behavior and tendencies of highly successful people. I find on other way to achieve this than to work in a publicly traded company. I need to observe how a leader reacts to pressure coming from shareholders and external forces.
Effective Leadership An effective leader is a good communicator. An effective leader understands the importance of people skills. An effective leader is knowledgeable about leadership principles. However, almost every leader is aware of these things. But I am not just interested in becoming an average business leader, I want to attempt something that can be considered as impossible judging from my current state.
Therefore, I need to change my view of effective leadership to mean those who are highly successful and considered as leaders in their respective industry. I now believe that an effective leader is someone who understands the motivation behind the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award.
There are so many things that can be said about effectiveness in leadership but by focusing on the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award an aspiring leader encounters a set of principles that can guide him or her to becoming one. Thus, an overview of the said award immediately reveals a level of standard that enable the person to strive for something higher, something that mediocre leadership can never even consider.
By the way, Malcolm Baldrige is a former U.S. Secretary of Commerce. He was a part of the Reagan Administration that made an impact to the United States economy in the 1980s. Even before the term “globalization” became a part of popular culture and the implications known to many Westerners, Malcolm Baldrige and like-minded men were the first to recognize that the dominance of the United States was no longer assured in the long run.
After World War II, the military and economic strength of the United States was without equal. This has prompted many to consider this country as a superpower. Furthermore, U.S. based businesses and other organizations were leading the pack in creating products and services that can only be described as cutting-edge.
But the persistence of its major competitors to take a slice of the market led to the development of management strategies and leadership techniques that allowed them to inch their way back into the winner’s circle. As a result American dominance in product and process quality waned.
Part of the remedy was for the Federal government to make deliberate steps in order to provide incentives. The purpose was to keep in mind the following goals. First, there is a need to promote awareness when it comes to the importance of quality and how to improve the quality of products and services for the sake of the national economy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Reflections on Achieving Career Success and Personal Fulfillment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Secondly, there is a need recognize those organization that made calculated steps in order to transform the way they do things. And as a result of that process they were able to offer something that had made an impact in American society. Finally, the Federal government found a way to reward those who are willing to share best practices among U.S.-based organizations.
This is the kind of mindset that I want to dwell into. I want to think that an effective leader is someone who is thinking of these things. Another way to understand effective leadership is to study the leaders of organizations that won the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award. By looking at the names of the organizations it is easy to see the link to their brand and the kind of products that they produce and how this has changed the way people live.
It is truly the mark of an effective leader and his organization. In 1988 it was Motorola that won the award, in the category of large manufacturing. In 1990 there were three prominent names in the industry that received the award and these are: Cadillac Motor Car Division; IBM Rochester; and FedEx. Two years later it was Texas Instruments, AT
Failure of Acquisitions Case Study argumentative essay help
Introduction An acquisition is a common phrase which has gained prominence in the contemporary world. It is a corporate system in which a corporation buys the target company’s rights or stakes in view of assuming direct control of the target company. Acquisitions are connected to a firm growth policy where a firm view it has a growth strategy and a convenient method of acquiring a functioning business entity operations instead of embracing its own growth.
Acquisitions can be termed as either aggressive or friendly. An aggressive acquisition happens based on the target corporation decision to be acquired by the target business (Badrtalei
Oral Reading Expression Research Paper college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Problem cause of Oral reading
Introduction Reading refers to the overall active, cognitive (acting on, reworking, and transforming input to trigger responses), and affective process of constructing meaning from written texts. The ultimate purpose is to derive specific meaning from the written texts. Reading is a learned behavior dependent on mastering a written code based on the alphabetic principle.
Special education defines the type of learning process that entails individuals possessing special needs; such needs include hearing impairment, partial and or total blindness, feeblemindedness, and physical disabilities among others. Individuals with special needs face numerous challenges including difficulties in oral expressions in terms of reading.
For effective communication to take place between different parties, there must be a mutual understanding, being brought about by fluent and easy way of expression of ones feelings, ideas, expectations among other issues, which is acceptable and affirmative among the communicating parties. Oral reading expression is one of the many ways used for communicating ideas, thoughts, and deriving meaning from written materials such as books, magazines, electronic formats (hypertexts) and other forms of written materials available (Braunger and Lewis, 2006).
Problem cause of Oral reading Difficulty in oral reading has become a major problem that affects communication, most especially in special education. Both the elderly individuals and those with special needs are faced with this problem. With the elderly, the problem occurs due to loss of clear view and comprehension of written text due to vast age or eye infections.
Some individuals are born totally blind, hence needing the use of Braille equipments for text comprehension, others may suffer from short or long sightedness, and this affects the way written text is interpreted. The entire community needs to be aware of the adverse effects that oral expression bears on individuals, and should advocate for appropriate measures to be adopted to ensure that individuals facing such challenges are catered for.
This could be done by acquiring Braille reading equipments in schools, providing medical services that treat and protect the eye sight, and promoting overall understanding among individuals facing such challenges. Braille enables the blind to read and comprehend written text, though it cannot be of much help if the content is in video or motion picture, if the contents are hypertext, this means that there will be extreme difficulty for the victim to easily comprehend.
For the minority with eyesight sicknesses, appropriate medical services should be easily availed to such individuals, like provision of corrective eye lenses to correct both long and short sightedness, treatment of eye defects such as Trachoma, Cataracts and so on. Application of medical services to the community will have an adverse overall effect of helping majority of the individuals facing infections to their eyesights through massive medical campaigns at subsidized and affordable costs held in health centers, churches, and schools.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will encourage most individuals to get treatment and advice from professionals. In addition, counseling services should be provided to special needs populations, specifically to parents of feebleminded individuals so that they can provide support to the victims while at home and in school. This will ensure the adaptability of a common reading language to be used between the parties, though such a method will not be as effective due to stigmatization, and inferiority complex resulting from the current situation (Danforth, 2009).
Special education It is a widely challenged field within the entire education system because of the special needs that arise, and the challenges facing individuals with special needs. Special education caters for individuals with physical and mental unfitness. Such individuals could either be blind (partial or total), physically handicapped, mentally retarded, and some might be faced with traumatic occurrences.
Special education requires the availability of both resources in terms of materials, professional skills, and overall support from the community to ensure that those individuals who have special needs, have adequate, sufficient, and efficient access to all the services provided through special education. There should be a workable cooperation between the government, local authorities, and the community to ensure that the individuals’ demands are met in a cost effective manner.
The government should ensure equal and equitable distribution of special education professionals within the entire region to access and provide quality services. Adequate funds should be allocated to the special education kitty to enable the acquiring of special equipments that meet the demands of special needs, and also their maintenance.
Adequate and modern training should be provided to the professionals who handle individuals with special needs in terms of education, this will enable the integration of modern methods that will ensure that the individuals are able to comprehend oral reading and expression. Special needs individuals and parents should be encouraged to come out clear and participate in activities that help individuals to learn, access, and practice oral reading and expression.
This will reduce the number of individuals facing such problems, at the same time increasing their ability to comprehend and adapt to the system of reading using any means available at their disposal (Winzer, 1993).
In my own situation, the important issues should be to encourage individuals through mass media, churches, concerts, and other available forms advocating for the slogan that “disability is not inability”, and provide the required resources to the special education sectors. This will reduce stigmatization, and other forms of fear that usually embrace such individuals.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Oral Reading Expression specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Oral reading is an interactive process by which expressions from written texts are interpreted to derive meaning, which helps individuals to express their notions and conscience. It is a behavior learned gradually with time. Special education defines and addresses the specificity of individuals who possess special needs that are unique within the entire population, and require professional extensive care to cater for such needs.
Such people require consideration from both the professional and the government stakeholders to enable their needs to be addressed effectively, including the problems of oral reading.
References Braunger, J.
The Meta-Analysis Method Coursework essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Impact of the Study
Findings in Light of Other Studies
A Deeper Look
Introduction There are a number of research methodologies that can be used for carrying out an investigation. The type of methodology chosen for use depends on the nature of the topic or question to be covered in the research. These methodologies may either be quantitative or qualitative in nature. Meta-analysis is a method which involves the statistical arrangement of all existing and related studies on a given subject matter of interest.
This is usually with an aim of determining the collective findings of the particular investigations. The approach seeks to provide a comprehensive solution to major issues/concerns. The essay summarizes Chapter 3 of the book titled, School Leadership that Works from Research to Results.
Research Methodology The chapter covers the primary research methodology that was used by the authors. Meta-analysis was the type used in this particular study. It is a technique that uses quantitative approaches during the synthesis of a study in a given domain. Well structured questionnaires were used where teachers were expected to give their perceptions of the principal’s leadership behaviors.
The authors sought to investigate a very sensitive domain of leadership. They were interested in studying school leadership as practiced by principles. The study involved an analysis of very crucial data which had been collected and analyzed by other researchers. The authors considered any and available study findings from 1970 to those which have been done lately.
The authors Marzano, Waters, and McNulty did a meta-analysis of about 69 leadership studies. All the studies were concerned with the relationship that exists between a given school’s principal leader and that of the achievement of the student. These studies included those done since 1978 to 2001.
Selected Samples It is important to note that a number of studies met these outlined criteria. However, not all of them could be included in the analysis process. This is because, according to the authors, the studies dealt with leadership “styles”. These styles are general categories of leadership character and behavior that are based on some predetermined theory.
The chapter provides an example of a study conducted by Evans and Teddlie (1995) who examined the relationship that exists between the initiator, manager, and responder styles of leadership and overall student achievement in schools.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another study conducted by High and Achilles (1986) sought to find out the relationship between the following styles and school achievement: referent, expert, enabler, coercer, legal authority, norm setter, and involver.
These studies have been acknowledged as providing very useful perspectives as far as leadership and school achievement is concerned. However, the authors did not use them during their meta-analysis due to their broad representation of behavior categories. In fact, they themselves were actually found to be summaries of more specific behaviors.
Since the main purpose of the study was to identify specific types of leadership behaviors, the authors focused on researches that considered specific behaviors that had not been crumpled into very broad categories.
It is evident from the chapter that there has been a small yet significantly growing collection of literature investigating the usefulness of the principal’s influence as far as gifted and talented programs are concerned. The authors of the book have included the findings as well as conclusions of all these studies/literature.
Impact of the Study The authors analyzed each of the study and a correlation between general leadership and student achievement was computed or drawn directly from the study. A total of 69 correlations were obtained which represented the relationship between general leadership behavior and student academic achievement.
Findings in Light of Other Studies the authors observed that their average correlation of.25 between principal’s leadership and student achievement is much higher compared to that reported in a meta-analysis conducted by Witziers, Bosker, and Kruger (2003). Theirs’ was a correlation of.02 which indicated that there was no relationship between leadership and student achievement. Several factors contributing to the disparity in the findings are identified.
A Deeper Look the authors stress the role of the results obtained from meta-analysis studies. That the results should never be an average; it should be a graph, as pointed out by the founder of modern meta-analysis. This is to facilitate a wider range of correlations from various studies of meta-analysis.
We will write a custom Coursework on The Meta-Analysis Method specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion It is evident from the chapter that meta-analysis presents a great opportunity to collect a mass of related material that address a specific topic or issue under investigation. The authors of this book, through meta-analysis, were able to establish the relationship between the principal leadership in a school and the achievement of students.
Merger Between Utah Opera and Utah Symphony Analytical Essay online essay help
Introduction The main goal of every business organization is to make profits, increase in its customer base, while still securing sustainability in the market. However, in the case of companies that come together for a merger, it is difficult to establish the likely ultimate impact of the merger on their operations and business goals.
Despite the risk that a merger could as well disadvantage a company, if well planned, mergers open up possibilities for companies. A balanced scorecard is an important tool used in harmonizing processes during a merger. In order to design a well-balanced scorecard, it is very essential to bring together all the critical factors within those organizations (Silverthorne, 2008).
The balanced scorecard provides four perspectives from which to view organization so that one can consequently design metrics, obtain data, and synthesize them to attain organizational objectives (Balanced Scorecard Institute, 1998). This paper looks into the merger between Utah Opera and Utah symphony to highlight critical areas that must be addressed in the merger.
Action plan for Anne Ewers
Before developing an action plan, it is critical to first evaluate the strategic objectives of both Utah Opera and Utah Symphony in order to see whether, if they decided to go on with a merger, the companies can meet their individual objectives or not. Moreover, it is critical to determine, the kind of challenges that the two organizations are likely to face due to merging.
Understanding the challenges is critical for management to identify a suitable approach to those challenges. Definitely, management is keen on ensuring that the integration of the two companies is successful.
Secondly, as desired, the merger has to be designed in a way that ensures reduction in expenses and maximization of profits. To guiding principle of the action plan is to ensure that despite the merger, the current customer base is maintained or increased.
Analysis of the financial and leadership strengths of Utah Symphony Financial Strengths
Based on the information provided in the case, the following are the strengths of Utah Symphony. First, Utah Symphony’s revenues total up to $3,836,513; a figure that is $2808336 more than that of Utah Opera. It also receives government grants totaling to $3,124,999, an amount that is $2,147,677 more than the one obtained from Utah Opera. Utah Symphony also receives contributions that total up to $4,460,268. This figure is actually $ 2,270,281 more than the one collected by Utah Opera.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, regarding investments, Utah Symphony has so far gained an investment income of $817,505. Moreover, the company still projects this figure to reach $919,013.
From the given figures, it is clear that, based on revenue and contributions from the previous periods, Utah Symphony are advantaged compared to Utah Opera. This makes it more advantaged than Utah Opera. For instance, its total revenue and contribution is $12,398,548.
Utah Opera has a very experienced management team. For instance, Keith Lockhart, who had joined the Utah Symphony in 1998, had served as a Boston Pops Orchestra conductor (Delong
The Role of Relationship Building Report essay help: essay help
Abstract Previous research on relationship building has characteristically paid attention to defining its potential as a vital business tool. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how effective relationship building practices can enhance a company’s customer base and enable the company to sustain a competitive edge over its business rivals.
Although extensive research in this area is limited, appropriate theories and conclusions in the fields of sales and marketing have been are synthesized to develop a better understanding of how effective relationship building may lead to improved relationships between organizations and their customers hence sustaining the business’ competitive edge.
Based on a review of the empirical literature, several gaps and opportunities are uncovered. The resulting research agenda should be particularly valuable for marketing researchers interested in discovering the impact of relationship building as a useful tool in consolidating and sustaining a loyal customer base.
Introduction This study has been sanctioned by the Marketing manager of Ultravetis company limited with the full blessings of the company’s chief executive officer. The company specializes in the production and sale of veterinary medicine and various other animal products.
The company has been recording impressive turn over for quite some time but with the entry of new competitors in to the market, there is growing concern that the company needs to change its mode of operations both in production and marketing so as to maintain a competitive edge over its business rivals.
Since the company had already put into place measures that ensured production of quality products, the manager felt that only a vigorous marketing of these products would ensure that the sales do not slacken.
I relished the prospect of applying my vast experience as a communication consultant to study the situation as it was in the company and then come up with innovative ways in which the company would capture its aspirations in maintaining a competitive edge over its rivals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Problem statement The problem which will be addressed by this study is the extent to which relationship building adds value, enhances the company’s brand and position against competition from emerging business rivals. I will attempt to mirror the present building relationship strategies that the company has adopted against expected changes in marketing trends.
This way, I will be able to identify the areas that need to be strengthened and those that need to be rolled back altogether. To capture the advantages that advance in technology presents today, I feel that the company will have to adopt new relationship building strategies that will improve its competitive edge with the use of technology.
Formulation of Research questions The questions to be addressed main area of concern is to find out the best fit between the relationship building strategies a company adopts and its aspirations towards capturing and maintaining a sound competitive edge against its business competitors. Various questions were advanced and these included;
What communication strategies has the company adopted to build, sustain, and enhance its relationships with its customers/ clients/ stakeholders?
How much has the company benefited from such relational communication (or business networking)?
Are there any cultural or diversity issues that affect relational communication (or business networking)?
How has the company managed its business relational networks?
What could the company have done to maximise the positive sides of relational communication (or business networking)?
Significance of the study While the search for further findings about the impacts of relationship building towards enhancing and sustaining a sound competitive edge against business rivals should continue unabated, it should not preclude the necessity associated with gathering vital information which would also try to shed some light into ways in which modifications can be effected on existing communication strategies so as to adopt to new emerging trends that are a consequence of advances in technology.
Hence empirical assessments should be done to determine how ineffective communication strategies can be rolled back and new effective ones formulated and implemented. A proper understanding of all the dynamics involved in the formulation of a company’s communication strategies will go a long way in ensuring that the company consolidates a satisfactory customer base and that there is also the potential to tap into new emerging markets.
Scope of the study This study will confine itself to the Marketing department of Ultravetis Company limited since it is the department that is mandated to oversee all the company’s sales endeavors. It is also the department’s prerogative to formulate and implement the company’s communication strategies towards its customers.
Specifically the study will confine itself to gathering vital information from employees in this department and will also get some feedback from some of the company’s regular customers. Input from the company’s board will also be encouraged.
We will write a custom Report on The Role of Relationship Building specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Limitations of the study The following are the limitations that posed a challenge to the researcher:
Budget Constraints. The researcher experienced shortages in funds since his budget proposal had not anticipated the global economic crunch experienced mid way through the research.
Time limitation. The researcher had to rush his study to avoid running into winter where most of the employees will be in holiday.
Some of the employees interviewed were timid and hence did not provide significant information. The reason for their timidity was out of fear of victimization.
The above illustration helps to demonstrate why relationship building is very important in ensuring that it is not only vital in consolidating but also in sustaining a company’s customer base. The amalgamation of these elements illuminates clearly the importance of relationship building in setting in place a scenario whereby the company’s competitive advantage over and above its competitors is maintained ;
Embrace of technology. With advance in technology and especially in information technology, organizations are increasingly being placed in a position whereby they are able to install processes which make sure that they are in constant communication with their customers. This is a big plus towards attaining effective relationship building practices. For instance the use of internet is enabling companies to install computer assisted client tracking systems.
Creation of worth brands. Through the production and distribution of high quality goods and services, a company is assured of a loyal customer base.
Relationship marketing. Companies are increasingly becoming are that it is of paramount importance for them to create and develop core services around which customer relationships are developed. This will ensure that specific needs of particular customers are catered for. This in turn translates into making sure that while the regular customers are retained, those that are uninterested are coaxed and persuaded to pledge their loyalty to the specific customer.
Outsourcing. Being in possession of large stocks of knowledge accumulated over a significant period of time, companies are now delegating some of their core activities to some offshore external partners. This way, their clients are able to access huge amounts of information about the products and companies of their choice. Hence, this is a fertile ground for the promotion of relationship building of a company and its customers.
Review of Literature Various studies have carried out to try and come up with new knowledge in communication strategies. Communication strategies take various forms; hence it is a component of various products, for instance relationship marketing. This is attracting, maintaining and in multi-service organizations enhancing customer relationships (Berry, 2004).
Berry has gone ahead to emphasize that it is not only imperative for an enterprise to attract new customers but it is also of paramount importance for these enterprises to congeal their relationship with these customers, strive to lure and transform the uninterested ones into loyal customers and also aspire to serve the customers as clients. Berry has observed that in order for a business to have effective relationship marketing practices, it must aspire to do the following.
Develop a central service around which to develop customer relationship, tailoring this relationship to satisfy the specific needs of each particular customer, supplementing this central service added benefits, offering prices that will enhance customer loyalty and effective employee recruitment and training to achieve highest degree of customer satisfaction.
Online marketing has prompted an emergence of cut throat competition among business organizations which has subsequently forced these organizations to review their established marketing practices in view of adapting to the changing scenario. However, this shift from the established practices does not denote a shift in focus on developing long-term relationships with customers to ensure their retention and loyalty, it only means that new ways are being identified of taking these dynamics to a whole new level altogether.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Relationship Building by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Henceforth, customer relationships have come to comprise an vital new asset category, as the buildup of relationship capital increasingly provides a new foundation for marketing and sales revenue (Tapscott et al.,2000). Trust is the fundamental principle which determines a customer’s future behavior towards a certain business and also the client’s willingness to remain devoted to that particular enterprise. Hence, it is imperative of organizations to create a trust worthy image of a business which assures its clients of quality products and services at affordable but competitive prices.
Customer Trust by the clientele is hinged upon delivery of quality goods and services at affordable prices, how a company promotes and advertises its products and services, the size and the reputation of the company, the business’ sale force, and the locality and physical appearance of a store. Traditionally, businesses’ interaction with their customers has been largely left to the sales people out in the field.
Sales people are usually concerned with clinching sale deals and therefore may fail to fully gain the trust of the customers for effective relationship buildup. The use of emails and other social networks such as face book has allowed for a roll back on these impersonal and unidirectional practices. This is because the use of technology for example emails has enabled the customers to express their views directly to the companies they are loyal to and the organizations in turn are enabled to gain much into their customer’s aspirations and therefore are in a position to offer tailor made services.
Global competition, reengineered product life cycles, mass customization, and the increased need to respond quickly to customers’ needs are just some of the more pronounced trends currently driving organizational change ( Miles
Identification, Placement, or Provision of Appropriate Instruction to Low Income Gifted Students Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Demographics of Florida have recorded overwhelming changes in the recent years due to the increased population as well as enrichment of human race diversity. The city is identified with a large population of students in the available schools, who are inclusive of all human races.
The students’ achievements of set goals are widely determined by the extent of recognition by the Bureau of education, the low income gifted students not being an exception. Gifted children entail those individuals that have high potentials of achievements, though disadvantaged by the fact that they come from low income earning families.
The 2000 demographics table of recognition has been constructed in a way that makes rampant challenges identifiable (Brody, 2004). The discussion in this paper is aimed at investigating challenges associated with the identification, placement, or provision of appropriate instruction to low income gifted students.
Challenges to low income gifted students A countless number of challenges are identified in regards to the identification, placement as well as provision of the essential instruction to those students that are gifted and coming from low income families in Florida. Inequality in representation is very evident from the recent 2000 demographics.
The fact that the city holds all types of races in the general population and the fact that the same rate should be viewed in school populations, there needs be equal treatment for all students. However, the largest numbers that are catered for in the placements to special programs are whites while very few numbers of other races are catered for.
The inequality challenge goes beyond the national level for it is rampantly extended to the district level (Brody, 2004). Additionally, there exists a disproportional representation of the students in regard to linguistic, cultural as well as the ethnic diversity.
The consideration is based on the racial lines and hence giving room to the aspect of tribalism to take preeminence in the operations of gifted students programs. In the process, the low-income gifted students who should be considered for special education are not catered for.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue of ethnicity is identified with persistence over the years and also the failure for the educational curriculum to offer ample instructions to those students that are talented in one way or the other. The long standing challenge has been that of the high percentage of minority students with special needs as compared to their enrolment to the gifted and talented students programs.
The immigrant’s students into Florida have very small numbers of those considered as compared to those of the white’s students. This problem is identified with a disproportionate representation in the schools. In response to this, the current research reports indicate that the future of Florida is bound to encompass large numbers of diverse racial lines, thus becoming a multiracial area.
This also accounts for a rise of the numbers of students of immigrants to higher levels that those of whites, making it a problem if this tribalism challenge continues thriving (Karnes and Johnsen, 2005). Moreover, there is the prevalence of favoritism challenge, which entails offering special consideration to some individuals more than the others are considered.
The demographic representation of the year 2000 indicate some parts of those that are white gifted students being given a priority over the rest, though they are racially similar. The counties, though in the same city do not use an identical criteria for the consideration of gifted low income students, and those in some areas benefit.
The major long-standing problem is even that having ghost students being in the special school programs, who take up the positions of the genuinely needy. This form of favoritism diverts the funds that are to help the gifted low income students into no noble utilization.
The extension of this challenge is also extended along racial lines in regard to the identification and placement of the gifted low income students into the appropriate programs. Furthermore, the fact that the challenges are long standing is an implication that no policies have been put into place to safeguard the gifted low income students to help them achieve their dreams by the prevailing government (Karnes and Johnsen, 2005).
The usefulness of the information in identifying this subgroup in a school
The information herein provided is crucial in the identification of such a sub-group in my school. The fact that no school in the world will comprise of students of a similar race helps release the importance regarding every person as a human creature regardless of their origin.
We will write a custom Essay on Identification, Placement, or Provision of Appropriate Instruction to Low Income Gifted Students specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More My school though does not emphasize on such programs will need to come up with the best strategies to identify such groups. The gifted students are quite innovative since are those people with an extra knowledge in regard to innovation but sometimes never get a chance to achieve their dreams.
The information is also valuable in the evaluation of how best a government, an institution or an education has been able to assist needy students. It is also important in addressing the issue of inequality in learning institutions as well as governmental realms. The change of placement and identification policies is only possible when appropriate environmental scanning has been performed to identify such challenges (Cline and Schwartz, 1999).
Conclusion The placement, identification and meeting of instructional needs of gifted low income students in Florida have been overwhelmed by some rampant challenges in the recent years. The rampancy of inequality, favoritism as well as tribalism is known to have been long-standing over the years.
However, the identification of these challenges has a rationale of identifying such groups in my school as well as addressing them. However, more research should be conducted to come up with the sources of these rampant challenges associated with the identification, placement, or provision of appropriate instruction to low income gifted students
References Brody, L. (2004). Grouping and acceleration practices in gifted education. NY: Corwin Press, 2004.
Cline, S. and Schwartz, D. (1999). Diverse populations of gifted children: meeting their needs in the regular classroom and beyond. NY: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Karnes, F. and Johnsen, S. (2005). Identifying gifted students: a step-by-step guide. Texas: Prufrock Press Inc.
Language and Time Analytical Essay college essay help
Language is a critical tool in the humanities and social sciences. It would be impossible to study communication arts, history, philosophy, religion and the classics if one will deprive himself of this tool. Language is the key that opens the door in the study of humanities. However, the same thing can be said when it comes to the social sciences.
It would be impossible to understand human society, how it was formed and how it is being sustained without the use of language. It is the code breaker that will allow a student of the social sciences to understand the complex communication systems used by human beings. Language is the backbone for both humanities and social sciences.
Benedict Anderson had a brilliant insight when it comes to the purpose of language and its link to the creation of social classes. He said that printed language is the reason why democratic nations were formed out of kingdoms ruled by tyrants. At the same time he also implied that prior to the rise of nationalism verbal language was used primarily to build communities.
With regards to the rise of nationalism he was convinced that it would have been impossible to achieve it without a way for the common people to connect beyond family or tribal loyalties.
Anderson argued that in the past there was no other means of establishing communities but through the rituals associated with kinship, clientship, and personal loyalties (Anderson, no date).
These rituals can only be accomplished by the use of verbal communication and therefore the expert use of language to bind people together in marriage, treaties, and other forms of personal transactions. It is language that facilitated the knitting together of families, friends and neighbors. Language is the primary tool that brings people together.
It is important to master the verbal language and even the written language as a means of communication. But language should not be limited to the building of communities and societies. Language must be fully maximized because it can provide more than a set of symbols and sounds for communication purposes. Language is the only thing that can express what is deep within the spirit of man.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Walter Benjamin said that storytelling is the best way to experience life to the full (Benjamin, 2003). Storytelling is different from the usual use of language such as a means to organize a community to compel them to action.
Storytelling compels the soul of the storyteller and the audience to soar in regions inaccessible by the physical body – a place beyond this present reality. It can only be accessed by the spirit of man. The means of transport is the use of language.
Time on the other hand does not contain symbols or even sounds. It does not have anything that can be perceived by the five senses – taste, smell, hearing, sight, and touch. It is some sort of an idea that can only be imagined but there is nothing tangible about it. This is perhaps the reason why some philosophers tried to argue that time does not exist.
However, the invisible does not mean that it is not real and it is not present in this world. It may be that the invisible cannot be captured by human hands and human strength but nevertheless it is as real as the invisible air and the invisible power that binds atomic particles together.
This is perhaps the reason why at the end, critics of time like Jose Luis Borges were forced to accept that time is real and that time is needed by all especially when it comes to the study of humanities and the social sciences.
It is impossible to begin to understand the complexity of the humanities without the element of time. It is difficult to fully understand what Borges tried to say when he quoted Shakespeare. If he meant to say that Shakespeare shared his enthusiasm to negate time then he is wrong. The works of Shakespeare is one of the proofs that time exists.
This is because there is no way to understand his sonnets and his plays without the element of time. This is obvious when one studies the eternal Romeo and Juliet it is impossible to miss the terms Act I, Act II, and Act III and so on and so forth because this is a way to delineate time. It is contrary to what Borges tried to prove that there is no linearity in life (Borges, 1947).
We will write a custom Essay on Language and Time specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At leas it is linear in the plays of Shakespeare. It would have been impossible to enjoy or even to understand Romeo and Juliet without the use of time because events had to be in proper sequence. The scene where the Montagues and the Capulets tried to kill each other must come first before the scene wherein Romeo fell in love with Juliet.
The scene wherein the messenger took a long time to deliver the message to Romeo must come first before Juliet took her own life. The sequence of events must be in order to make sense of the love story. But without time these events floats into the air, without order and no one has the power to bring it to a discernible pattern.
It is also impossible to understand the social sciences without the element of time. History is possible through a chronology of events. In other words a linear succession of events explains the present because of the things that occurred in the past.
The United States of the 20th century is an impossible concept without the occurrence of the American Revolution that in the 18th century. The United Nations would never have been created without the horror of two World Wars. The social scientists could never create a solution to the problems that he encountered without using the tool we call time.
It is part of the measuring rod that determines success and failures. Time tracks movement, without it there will be no action that resulted in meaningful work and in turn those activities resulted in a body of work that benefited people. There is no way to understand the evolution of a society without time. It is much easier to refute Borges refutation of time rather than to find a way to support his claim.
It is easier to criticize his analysis on how to negate time than to seek a philosophically accepted framework to defend his ideas. Even Borges at the end has to concede that perhaps his desire to refute time is borne out of desperation. He is perhaps fearful of his impending demise and so he tried his best to make time go away but alas there is no escaping time.
Human beings are obligated to evolve into a higher state. It is their destiny to become better, stronger, faster, and wiser. There is no evidence to show that mankind is regressing. There are societies that demonstrate its capability to resist change but they only succeeded in resisting but not in the total apprehension of change.
There are only a few tribes and communities that can actually say that they prefer to stay the same and that they are doing their best to maintain what they currently have. The rest of mankind proves the opposite. It can even be said that there is an eagerness to change, to improve and to enhance what is at present.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Language and Time by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The majority looks at the future because it is there where their hope lies and they know that a better version of themselves can only be achieved through movement. It is only possible through human progression.
Humanity must move forward, it cannot afford to look back. A society must learn to use everything that it possesses in order to reach the next level of progress. It is good to treasure memories of days gone by but an obsession with the past will only pull that particular community backwards instead of moving forward. Mankind’s destiny is to become a better species and by doing so he will be able to transform the planet.
Visit a classroom and listen to what children say. Go to a place where the children are not yet tainted with malice and sarcasm and they will tell you that they want to be an instrument of positive change.
This is the reason why they dream of becoming a doctor, an engineer, nurse, police officer, and fireman because deep within – without anyone telling them – they know that they have a mission to fulfill.
Unfortunately, when they are all grown up and exposed to the rough and tumble world they began to doubt if they are really destined for something bigger than trying to pay the bills or working hard for someone who does not appreciate their efforts.
Mankind must make commitment that there is no other way to go but to move forward. Progress is its savior. Technological breakthroughs had proven to be a major catalyst of change and indeed made life easier. It is now easier to grow food, store them, and transport them as compared to the hunter-gatherers of ancient times.
It is now easier to acquire clothes and build homes as compared to a tribe’s struggle to acquire materials and process them. However, technology has also proven to be the source of today’s problems such as pollution, deforestation, garbage, climate change, overcrowding etc.
Nevertheless, this does not mean that technology should be blamed and that it is time to take a step backwards and revert to the medieval mindset of yesteryears. This simply means that mankind must keep moving forward because as human beings continue to clamor for change and for self-improvement then they will be able to solve these problems. It is not technology per se that is the culprit but the lack of knowledge.
The knowledge that we have is enough. Scientists, explorers, and mavericks must rise up to take up the challenge of pushing the boundaries of progress and change.
Future progress assures mankind’s survival but also its improvement as human beings. This is made evident when it comes to the humanities and social sciences. In the study of the humanities a person who seeks improvement will have a better capacity to absorb, appreciate, and teach the profound lessons contained in the humanities as a subject matter.
This means that personal development will enable man and woman to unlock the secrets of philosophy, religion, history, and even the classics so that it can be used to improve the community in particular and the world in general.
Aside from using the humanities as a tool to build better and stronger communities there is another way to improve the lives of people and it is through the correct application of the wisdom and knowledge that can be gleaned from the study of social sciences. However, social scientists must also long for the same thing and it is the desire for growth and progression in their field.
It is not enough for them to know a certain amount of information and then proceed to change the world. Social scientist must discover new methods and new techniques of doing things and this can only be achieved if they learn how to increase their capacity. There is therefore a symbiotic relationship between the study of the humanities and social sciences and human progress. One needs the other.
Works Cited Anderson, Benedict. Old Languages, New Models. Borges, Jose Luis. A New Refutation of Time. Walter, Benjamin. The Storyteller.
How U.S Relations have Impacted and Affected Pakistani-Indian Relations Post Cold War Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The cold war ended in 1989 and a mutual peaceful mood engulfed the universe as all parties ushered in a new era. The Berlin Wall was dismantled and a disintegration of the Soviet Union as well as new independence for the Eastern Europe countries was witnessed.
This was a brand new start after a volatile era that would have seen the use of weapons of mass destruction that made people live in fear. It was described as the ‘End of History’ based on the fact that the gross conflicts between nations had come to a halt. 1 This paper looks at how the United States relations have impacted and effected Pakistani – Indian relations in post cold war.
The cold war brought about distrust and suspicion between the United States, India, and Pakistan but the events of post cold war have changed this relationship. The United States and India have developed closer ties courtesy of factors that are directly influenced by individual leadership, domestic leadership and structural leadership.
These countries now cooperate at different levels that include diplomacy, economic development, as well as strategic development. The end of the cold war led these countries to rethink their stand against each other and they came to discover that they needed to cooperate in order to move forward. However, this has not been the case with Pakistan and India who still harbor grudges against each other to date.
The United States was in support for India during the cold war and this was the main reason why it provided it with military equipment for the war. However, the US failed to get the kind of support it expected from India, which was more bent towards forging ahead, and taking part in the war independently without relying on the super power.
India’s non-alignment was disputable since it was a weak country as compared to the American and Soviet Union countries. The 1970s saw India ditch the United States despite her efforts to support it and joined the Soviet Union side that seemed more successful.
The Soviet Union in turn supported India and protected it from its enemies. Pakistan at this time happened to be India’s archrival due to its support for the U.S. in its endeavors. Pakistan in return got favors from the United States that included military and economic assistance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The U.S. embarked on a non-proliferation process that was aimed at denying South Asia the use of nuclear weapons. India was deeply agitated by this move that was not only hypocritical but also discriminatory since the West had a right to the nuclear weapons. 2
The end of the cold war saw the collapse of the Soviet Union and the unresolved conflicts between India and Pakistan over Kashmir persisted. Around this time, India still harbored strong hatred for the United States that seemed to stand between them and their prosperity.
To bridge the gap left by the Soviet Union, India decided to get into a closer relationship with the United States that was mutually beneficial as it hoped to get an upper hand over china, which was becoming powerful.
To date, the U.S. has refused to accept India’s terms on the use of nuclear weapons and this is seen as a factor that would dent a progressive relationship between these two in future. India would want to test its nuclear weapons and use nuclear fuel, demands that the U.S is reluctant to meet.
On the other hand, the United States has taken to supporting Pakistan reclaim her lost glory to appear among the most prosperous and stable countries of the world. This is among the impacts and effects that the U.S relations have on the Pakistani – Indian relations in post cold war. The price that Pakistan has to pay is to support U.S. policies in the region and take part in the mitigation of nuclear proliferation.
The U.S also hopes to end the enmity that has existed between India and Pakistan since time immemorial. The U.S – Pakistan relationship is however strained in that Pakistan has lost its trust for the U.S. it blames the U.S. for the violence that has escalated in the country in the recent past. 3
Pakistan got its independence in 1947 and continued to enjoy good relationships with the West. It was aligned with the Unites States and Britain and this led to its joining the British Commonwealth of Nations. It did not loose the Britons who headed some of its vital government branches like the military and high administration.
We will write a custom Essay on How U.S Relations have Impacted and Affected Pakistani-Indian Relations Post Cold War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Britain thus continued to supply Pakistan with military weapons and offered training for its troops as well. Pakistan at a point felt that it was getting a raw deal from Britain in issues that involved their archrival, India. This saw its cessation of membership from the Commonwealth in 1972 though it later rejoined in 1989.
The United States regained its firm grip on Pakistan and made it a base for its military operations in South Asia. India and Pakistan went to war in 1965 and the U.S continued supporting it with military weapons.
This angered India and caused their relationship to strain further and in 1971, India managed to defeat Pakistan in the civil war. The then Pakistan president, Zulfiqar Bhutto started loosing faith in the U.S. citing that it was in a position to prevent the attack by India. He thus embarked on severing ties with the United States since he felt betrayed.
In 1981, President Ronald Reagan gave Pakistan US$3.2 billion that was to cover military and economic support after 9 years of their fall out. This donation was increased to US$4.0 in 1986 and the United States continued its military and economic support for Pakistani citing that its nuclear weapons were used for peaceful purposes only.
The year 1990 saw to the termination of this assistance by president George Bush as the nonproliferation agenda gained ground. Once again, Pakistan, just like India felt betrayed and discriminated upon by the U.S. and vowed to keep its nuclear weapons. 4
As the cold war came to a close, the United States lost interest in Pakistan and embarked on working out a relationship with India. This was followed by sanctions in 1990 against Pakistan to loose its nuclear weapons that ironically had been supplied by the same U.S. government. In addition, India, in the eyes of the U.S government had a greater potential for commercial, political, and strategic terms as compared to Pakistan.
The then U.S. president, Bill Clinton initiated negotiations with India and this further widened the gap between Pakistan and India as Pakistan felt sidelined. 5
Regardless of all this, India and Pakistan went ahead to test their nuclear weapons and the U.S did not have a choice but to lift the sanctions in 1998. In a twist of events, the U.S. renewed its interest in Pakistan as it yearned its help in combating the antiterrorist war against Afghanistan.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How U.S Relations have Impacted and Affected Pakistani-Indian Relations Post Cold War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bearing in mind the love-hate relationship that existed between the U.S and Pakistan, the move to renew the relationship was not taken kindly. The U.S. efforts to offer it military and economic assistance was rejected and termed as “peanuts” and in order to win it back, the aid had to be increased.
The U.S. did not have a choice and soon succumbed to Pakistan’s demands and increased the aid to $3.2 billions. By doing so, it could now count on Pakistan’s support in conquering Afghanistan in the nuclear weapon’s war. 6
In 1988, Moscow withdrew its troops from Afghanistan and Pakistan was thrown out in the cold by the U.S. since she was no longer important to their strategies. This situation did not last long since in 2001, the U.S embarked on a war against the Taliban and Al Qaeda and as usual charmed Pakistan into a relationship for convenience purposes. The U.S. needed the support of both India and Pakistan to meet its objectives.
It needed India to fight the “China Threat” and Pakistan for the fight against terrorism in Afghanistan. It therefore had to work out a harmonious relationship between these two rival countries if it was to succeed.
A conference to discuss nuclear weapons was suggested by Pakistan in 1991 but India declined to attend. Its main reasons were that Pakistan would renew its relationship with the U.S and India felt threatened. In addition, India felt that the nuclear weapons fight was not a South Asia thing but a global thing the U.S sought to distance itself from.
India felt that to beat china, which was coming up fast, it needed its nuclear weapons. More so, it felt that Pakistan would agree to give up its nuclear weapons in exchange for favors that included diplomatic victory and this would single India out as the only country that had illegal access to nuclear weapons. This would have put it at the center of military action in the war against possession of nuclear weapons. 7
The nuclear weapons war has brought about grievous disputes between India, Pakistan, and Kashmir even in post-cold war. There has also been a boundary dispute for about 50 years with Kashmir though a peaceful resolution is being sought. The presidents of Pakistan and India even met to resolve the issue though the progress has been minimal judging from the past bitter relationship the two countries have been through.
Kashmir, which is located in northwest India, has brought about a major conflict between India and Pakistan since the World War II ended. India and Pakistan were meant to be one country if Mahatma Gandhi’s wishes were followed though this was not to be.
Religious differences led to the split where India was predominantly Hindu and Pakistan Muslim. The Kashmir area issues that was predominantly Muslim were left unresolved though two months later; India was given control over it. Pakistan was not happy with the decision and this erupted into a war between the two countries.
Ceasefire was called in 1949 by the United Nations and the Kashmir territory was divided between India and Pakistan. This saw Pakistan take a third of it while the rest went to the Indian government. 8
Despite this division, India went ahead and took control over the whole of Kashmir in 1956 and this only resulted into another war with Pakistan. Most terrorist activities headed by Al Qaeda have been reported in Kashmir that is next to Afghanistan. Pakistan is in full support of these activities since it claims the Kashmir territory.
This has promoted the terrorist network that the U.S. has been fighting hard and this war is now termed as “Jihad” and this has pushed matters to their worst. The region is seen to promote terrorism since it hosts the Al Qaeda groups and acts as an escape for many of its leaders such as Osama Bin Laden. 9
The United States has been fighting a hard battle with Pakistan and India as it tries to come up with good relations that will brush all the differences these two countries have aside. President Obama’s recent visit to India is a clear indication that the United States has got over its ugly past with India and seeks to turn over a new page where the two countries will be able to cooperate.
This is a delicate issue though bearing in mind that Pakistan has been the U.S puppet during and after the cold war and thus India distrusts it. The border fight between the two countries over Kashmir notwithstanding.
The U.S relations with these two countries is focused on reconciliating them with the aim of fighting transnational terrorism that has taken root in Kashmir. This makes these relations even more sensitive and if the U.S is to continue enjoying the good relations it has embarked on, there is a great need to tackle the problems that come with their rivalry first.
Otherwise, if this does not happen, this will be a losing battle since peace will be elusive and instability will settle in. The U.S therefore has to be hands-on on the case of Kashmir and attempt to resolve the underlying differences between Pakistan and India. 10
Conclusion The U.S is at the center of the conflict between India and Pakistan as evidenced by this paper that focuses on how U.S relations have impacted and effected Pakistani – Indian relations in post cold war.
. It has repeatedly supported Pakistan against other countries in the Soviet Union for its personal interests. It has been picking and dropping it at will and it is a pity that this comes up as a major cause of the post cold war unrest witnessed in these two South Asian countries.
It is evident that U.S relations have impacted negatively on Pakistan and India. For the U.S to drop Pakistan in favor of India is seen as adoption of double standards where despite Pakistan remaining loyal, the U.S uses it for its convenience in anti-terrorism wars.
No wonder the two countries have remained at logger heads even in the Kashmir’s case and appear adamant to subscribe to the cessation call of nuclear weapons. The war against terrorism will therefore remain a dream if the U.S retains the same kind of relationship with Pakistan.
At the same time, the U.S may have succeeded in forming better ties with India but their varied stance on nuclear weapons could derail the progress since the goodwill generated could evaporate.
Bibliography Chou, David. “U.S Policy toward India and Pakistan in the post-cold war era.” Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 27 (2003):1-30.
Fair, Christine. “Time for sober realism: Renegotiating U.S. Relations with Pakistan.” The Washington Quarterly, 10 August 2009, A32.
Ganguly, Sumit. “The Kashmir Conundrum.” Foreign Affairs 80 (2005): 40-45.
Kapur, Paul and Ganguly, Sumit. “The transformation of U.S. – India Relations. An explanation for the rapprochement and prospects for the future.” Asian Survey 47(2007): 642-656.
Keen, Emily. “India, Pakistan and Kashmir. What have been the recent developments in the dispute between India and Pakistan regarding Kashmir?” Batch News, 5 Sept 2004, A10.
Kronstadt, Alan. “Pakistan – U.S. Relations.” CRS Report for Congress, 33 (2008): 4-9. Web.
Laquer, Walter. “After the cold war. The euphoria did not last.” America Government, 5(2006): 2-3.
Pant, Harsh. “Pakistan and Iran’s dysfunctional relationship.” Middle East Quarterly, 4 July 2009, A16.
Rizvi, Hasan-Askari. “Analysis: Critical issues in India – U.S. Relations,” Daily Times, A new voice for a new Pakistan, 7 Nov 07 2010, E2.
U.S Library of Congress. “The United States – Pakistan.” Country Studies 1(2006): 1-3.
Footnotes 1 Walter Laquer, “After the cold war. The euphoria did not last.” America Government 5 (2006): 2-3.
2 Paul Kapur and Sumit Ganguly, “The transformation of U.S. – India Relations. An explanation for the rapprochement and prospects for the future.” Asian Survey 47(2007):642-656.
3 Christine Fair, “Time for sober realism: Renegotiating U.S. Relations with Pakistan,” The Washington Quarterly, 10 August 2009, A32.
4 U.S Library of Congress, “The United States – Pakistan.” Country Studies 1(2006): 1-3.
5 Harsh Pant, “Pakistan and Iran’s dysfunctional relationship.” Middle East Quarterly, 4 July 2009, A16.
6 Alan Kronstadt, “Pakistan – U.S. Relations,” CRS Report for Congress 33 (2008), 4-9.
7 David Chou, “U.S Policy toward India and Pakistan in the post-cold war era.” Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 27 (2003):1-30.
8 Sumit Ganguly, “The Kashmir Conundrum.” Foreign Affairs 80 (2005): 40-45.
9 Emily Keen, “India, Pakistan and Kashmir. What have been the recent developments in the dispute between India and Pakistan regarding Kashmir?” Batch News, 5 Sept 2004, A10.
10 “Hasan-Askari Rizvi. Analysis: Critical issues in India – U.S. Relations,” Daily Times, A new voice for a new Pakistan, 7 Nov 07 2010, E2.
The Russian Revolution by Sheila Fitzpatrick Report essay help online
Fitzpatrick, Sheila. 2008. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press is a book exploring the Russian Revolution: 1917 – 1932. I have chosen this book for analysis in order to improve my knowledge of that historic period and get better understanding of the essence, causes and aims of the Revolution.
The second reason for my choice was that I wanted to examine new approaches to the issue and develop my critical thinking as this book provides a new perspective and new aspects of the historical events.
It is a sort of reading for those who are critical about history and want to develop personal opinion independent from a generally accepted point of view. In addition, the book is not very long, but rich in content and provides not only general information, but details of that historical period. What is more, the book is easy to read.
The topic of the book is Russian Revolution, its aims, purposes, causes, consequences and flow. There are different approaches to the time period that can be considered revolutionary. The author of this book defines the following frames:
“The timespan of the Russian Revolution runs from February 1917 to the Great Purge of 1937-8. The different stages – the February and October Revolutions of 1917, the Civil War, the interlude of NEP, Stalin’s “revolution from above”, its aftermath and the Great Purges – are treated as district episodes in a twenty-year process of revolution” (Fitzpatrick 2008, 4).
The book consists of chapters which contain comprehensive and critical analysis of each period supported by various historiographical references. Three major themes of the Russian Revolution are discussed in each chapter. The first theme is the Bolsheviks’ vision of the revolution as a mean of modernization of the society.
Fitzpatrick defines the goal of Bolsheviks as “revolution as a means of escaping backwardness.” (Fitzpatrick 2008, 4). The second major theme is the class theme: revolution as the “mission of proletariat” to create a new working class. The third team discloses the problem of violence and terror that took place in the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author provides the information on how Revolution “dealt with its enemies” (that often were innocent people), what meaning it had for the government and why the government was so afraid of those “enemies”. The author presents the Revolution as a set of agitations and recurrences. She describes the results of the Revolution as positive to a certain extent.
The Stalin’s Revolution extended the direct state over the economy and greatly improved the economic state of the country. Fitzpatrick states that Russian peasants were more progressive than in the rest of the Western Europe, as a consequence, they formed a new class of workers. The Stalin’s Revolution provided new and productive ways of exploiting peasant agriculture.
The state was strong and “disciplined”. However, the author emphasizes the price of that power: “The persecution of “class enemies” in collectivization and the Cultural Revolution had left a complex legacy of bitterness, fear, and suspicion, as well as encouraging such practices as denunciation, purging, and “self-criticism” (Fitzpatrick 2008, 148).
We can consider this book a highly reliable source of information, as its author, Sheila Fitzpatrick, is a renowned specialist in the field of the Soviet History. She made a great contribution to the study of Soviet History, as well as modern Russian history.
Among her recent publications are Everyday Stalinism (2000), Tear of the Mask! Identity and Imposture in Twentieth-Century Russia (2005). Her works primarily focus on the social and cultural history of Russia of the Stalin period. Her biography is rich in awards, among which is a Mellon Foundation Distinguished Achievement Award. She is also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Her works are not a mere description of events and personalities. She provides her vision of the problem or historical event which is based on archive materials and researches by other Western authors.
The book is also very interesting to read as the author has a particular approach to the subject discussed. First of all, the author provides the idea that Russian society was not ready for revolution and that Russian Revolution of 1917 was a “contradiction” to the idea of Marx’s revolution. The citizens were the rural peasants who were industrial workers and they were more willing for a revolt than Marx expected them to be.
We will write a custom Report on The Russian Revolution by Sheila Fitzpatrick specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another Fitzpatrick’s idea that generally contradicts a commonly accepted point of view that October Revolution contributed strength and discipline to the organization of the state. The author argues this point of view. She states that Provisional Government decided to “intransigent radicalism on the extreme left of the political spectrum” (Fitzpatrick 2008, 48) and could be seen by people as the only not corrupted part.
The capture of power by Bolsheviks was just the first step of the Revolution. The next step was a Civil War that had a great influence on the flow of it and on the establishment of the Soviet power.
However, the author does not try to persuade the reader in her point of view, she only presents facts and provides her assumptions. The task of the reader is to develop personal vision of the historical events and it not necessary should coincide with the author’s.
The author assumes that:
“For Russians and other former soviet citizens, the collapse of the Soviet Union meant a fundamental reappraisal of the meaning of the Revolution, previously hailed as the foundational event of the “world’s first social state” and now seen by many as a wrong turning that took Russia off course for seventy-four years” (Fitzpatrick 2008, 4).
The author generally accepts this vision and analyzes the most important changes from the historical perspective. As the author used new document that became available after 1991, her vision of the Revolution has changed in some aspects. Outlining some positive sides of it, the author emphasizes the mistakes that were done. She supports her point of view with convincing evidences and analysis of works by other authors.
Having read this book, I developed a bit different vision on the Russian Revolution. I can come to a conclusion that people were not ready for it and the actions that government undertook were contradictory to those suggested by Marx as people did not understand the essence of Revolution.
As a result, the idea of revolution “to put power into hand of the working class” failed and all people got was just another government which tried to build new society subordinate to new rules. However, in general the book does not present different information, it just adds new details and evidences to what have already been studied. It is a good book for those who want a critique vision of the history.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Russian Revolution by Sheila Fitzpatrick by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Fitzpatrick, Sheila. 2008. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tangible Video Bubbles Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Tangible Video Bubble Paper Summary
State of Artificial, Augmented, and Virtual Realities
The impacts Artificial, Augmented, and Virtual Realities in HCI
Possible Research Directions Stimulated by the Paper
Introduction The field of human-computer interaction is an ever-expanding field occasioned by daily leaps and bounds in the information technology landscape. The information technology explosion of the twentieth century brought with it the perennial challenge of how to interact with computers.
With advances in computer processing speeds and with the desire to connect all people in the planet, human-computer interaction has developed to ensure that there is a way every person on earth can participate in the information technology revolution.
A standard PC provides the basic platform and continues to be the basis for most of the interaction with information technology for most people. Over the last decade, the mobile phone has become a very significant member of this club. Growth in mobile telephony has been phenomenal. This is especially true for the developing world.
Human-computer interaction presents the missing link between information technology equipment and potential users. It is no longer enough to wait for children to grow up and master using a keyboard and a mouse before integrating them to information technology. It is also insufficient to produce information technology-based toys for them.
Human-computer interaction is the bridge that links them to information technology. It should meet some practical needs in the process. Seba, Lew and Huang (2004) stated, “In many important HCI applications such as computer-aided tutoring and learning, it is highly desirable (even mandatory) that the response of the computer takes into account the emotional or cognitive state of the user” (p. 2).
The tangible bubble is one such attempt to provide a means that children whose dexterity is limited and who have not yet developed cognitive skills that they need to operate a PC with the opportunity to get involved in digital information processing in a manner consistent with their stage of development.
Tangible Video Bubble Paper Summary Tangible video bubbles are a video based drawing space which children use to create video art that has both input and output capabilities. Its operation involves pressing a record button for voice input and squeezing the bubble at various points to playback the recording at different speeds.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The system also includes an interactive canvas. The bubble targets children aged five to seven who portray a very easy and natural interaction with different media using multiple senses. They are able to move easily from one form of media to another, rather than follow a particular path of development in their media creations.
Technological tools that capture the imagination of children and inspire their creativity include webcams, microphones, and video cameras. They show a fascination with the use of these tools and they end up recording themselves and their surroundings for sheer pleasure.
These tools however do not provide the optimal opportunity for children to construct meaning out of what they are doing with them as they do when they are using tools such as a paintbrush and markers. This gap inspired the researchers to develop a new kinesthetic multimedia tool that will encourage and facilitate children’s meaning-making as they interact with technological devices.
The tangible video bubble is flexible physical vessel that has both input and output characteristics that children use to record videos and to play them back. It also allows them to manipulate and playback the recordings in real-time, and to ‘spill out’ the recordings out onto an interactive drawing canvas in order to incorporate them into drawings initially made on the canvas.
The play space for the system includes the tangible video bubble and an interactive drawing canvas. The tangible video bubble is, “a large, soft, and huggable ball equipped with a video camera and a screen for children to record and playback video messages” (Ryokai, Raffle, Horii and Mann, 2010. p. 3).
Pressing a button at the top of the bubble and speaking into an opening on the bubble surface enables recording. In the meantime, a video camera inside the bubble records the child’s actions. Through a reflective surface inside the bubble, the child sees his/her reflection inside the bubble while doing the recording. After capturing the message, the child plays back the message by squeezing the bubble.
Different squeezing positions result in different playback possibilities. The amount of pressure used in the squeezing controls the playback speed. The greater the pressure applied, the faster the playback speed achieved and the lesser the pressure applied, the slower the playback.
We will write a custom Essay on Tangible Video Bubbles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To Replay specific parts of the recording, the child squeezes specific parts of the bubble. In order to transfer the recording to the interactive canvas, the child squeezes the bubble out on a spill platform. There is the option of doing this at different speeds, together with the option of spelling out a particular section of the recording. The canvas can accommodate several bubbles. The set up enables the addition of as many bubbles as desired.
The canvas has touch properties that allow the child to replay the content from the canvas. It is not possible to manipulate further the bubble once transferred to the canvas. It is possible to operate both the bubble and the canvas simultaneously, enabling more than one child at a time to use the system.
The canvas has a color pallet that allows the child to draw on it as he would on paper. This makes it possible for the child to combine the recording with a drawing creating an art form that has a message that pops out when touched.
The technical implementation of the bubble includes a USB webcam fitted with a peephole lens to maximize field of view. There are green LEDs inside the sphere with red LEDs lining the aperture. The fitting ensures that the result is uniform without regard to the direction of squeezing.
During squeezing of the sphere, the green LEDs move closer to the camera, thereby increasing the video’s green saturation. With calibration, this saturation provides a reliable squeezing sensor. There is a special preview area in the bubble, allowing for previewing any recordings made. During playback, change of speed does not alter pitch. This makes it easier for the child to understand the recorded message.
During laboratory tests on the bubble, a researcher showed children how to operate the bubble for a period of five minutes, and then left them to interact with it for as long as they wished. They did not receive any explicit practice on how to master the different playback speeds. As it turned out, some children spent more time playing with the playback speed while others preferred to draw on the interactive canvas.
The result the researchers got include the fact that the children embraced the idea of the bubble quickly, and were soon recording and playing back the records. They transitioned easily between the canvas and the bubble. They played with different playback speeds before spilling the content to the drawing canvas.
The popular application the children made of the system was to do a video phrase and then making a drawing to match it. Some played with the sound effects produced by speed alteration. Older children showed the tendency to plan their recording and drawing before implementing the project on the bubble, and they had plots that are more complex.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tangible Video Bubbles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More State of Artificial, Augmented, and Virtual Realities There are many applications using artificial and augmented reality in the market. Novel ideas keep sprouting as companies seek to outdo competition. There is a push for more immersive technologies to enhance the digital experience. Virtual reality in digital environments provides a user with a real-life experience of an actual place from a digital platform.
Multimodal devices provide the link with these environments, making possible a sensible experience. It is possible to interact with a virtual artifact in these environments. Virtual reality is the basis for production of immersive tools such as computer-aided design software and graphics hardware acceleration.
Virtual reality forms the basis of many games, television programs, advertisements, movies, art, and marketing materials. Augmented reality refers to the digitization of one’s immediate environment to increase one’s perception of reality. Research in this field aims at interposing computer imagery to a real-life situation to enable a perceived digital manipulation of the resulting environment.
These Augmented reality environments have in them many sensors and actuators, which include cameras and projectors. This field makes possible the use of 3-D television and holograms, which improve the quality of digital experience. Studies in the field take advantage of advances in the study of human vision, neurology, and psychology.
While entertainment applications such as movie theatres, gaming, and television seem to get the first products from developments in this field, other areas such as medicine, engineering and education are catching up quickly with applications that improve problem-solving techniques.
Similar Research There are a number of interesting developments involving bubble multimodal input systems in human-computer interaction. The tangible video bubble is a special application developed to take advantage of the special stage of development in children.
In the MIT Technological Review Magazine, Grifantini, reported on the most interesting projects based on this concept presented in, The Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction Conference, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The first among these is a physically responsive map, which comprises a tabletop, which displays 3-D shapes “on a moving, flexible surface” (Grifantini, 2010).
The display provides a 3-D feel of the surface it is representing, and can represent multiple features. In another project, the development of an interactive art display robot, called cobot because it collaborates with the artist, is in progress. Of the two Cobots presented, one draws yellow circular patterns until it receives an audio command. It then draws straight lines.
A second Cobot changes its response depending on line and shadow. In another project, Spanish researchers presented a tangible digital jukebox, which has an infrared camera and a projector. Someone is able to use a piece of paper as a playlist. A project depicting an augmented reality pattern table was also on display. In this project, users have the opportunity to interact with patterns and shapes of both digital and physical nature.
By using a projector and an infrared camera, a user can pick a physical shape. Digitization of the shape for manipulation follows. The researchers said that the project presents the possibility of developing educational tools based on augmented reality for teaching children about mathematical shapes.
The final project featured was a soap bubble display. This project demonstrated the use of a camera to track soap bubbles spitted on a soapy surface, which when moved by a finger or by blowing, controlled lights or images that projected to them.
Ying et al. (2010) developed a prototype called bubble journey, which aims at providing children with an immersive gaming experience. The user controls an avatar developed in flash by blowing a real handle. This is to promote the use of the whole body during gamming to increase the physical activity of a child playing a digital game.
Theirs was a contribution towards the drive to develop games that avoid the traditional input devices such as keyboards, joysticks, and gamepads, which do not promote activity, for novel options such as web cameras, dance pads, and exercise bikes that tend to require the user apply physical exertion to play the game.
Another demonstration of the use of bubble is the tangible message bubble. Ryokai, Raffle and Brooks (2009) developed this concept where children can use a bubble to record and send messages to loved ones and to their friends.
Their goal was to, “invent new tangible communication tools for youngsters that combine state of the art communication technologies with the physicality, simplicity, and immediacy of children’s toys” (Ryokai et al., 2009, p.2). This bubble recorded a video stream whenever someone’s face was within range and allowed for manipulation of the recorded stream, before sending it to the intended recipient.
The impacts Artificial, Augmented, and Virtual Realities in HCI These projects demonstrate that this is an active area of research trying to take advantage of development in other fields such as learning methods, and digital possibilities arising out of information technology developments. Another common feature these projects have is the use of widely available technologies, which are becoming even more accessible because of rapidly falling costs.
They show that human-computer interaction has a lot of potential for growth, not necessarily because of new technological advancement but based on innovative application of commonplace ones.
Three fields that will benefit much from development of this area of Human-computer interaction include health, medicine, and education. Through the development of games that require a user to interact with the gaming environment with their whole body, the health of children stands to benefit.
Health complications related to a sedentary lifestyle such as obesity thrive in many western countries, which also have a very high incidence of gamming.
Currently, children spend very many hours playing video games. Since it is very difficult to stop them from playing the games to an appreciable extent, it makes sense to design games that will still provide them with the gamming pleasure, but that will simultaneously require a greater degree of physical exertion.
The field of medicine will benefit from these developments by the application of special input devices to allow persons who have artificial limbs to interact properly with technology. With an interactive device like the bubble, anyone with any condition leading to loss of dexterity of the fingers will still be able to communicate, using the squeeze as an input.
It promises new possibilities in physical therapy options for persons leaning to use and live with artificial limbs. In addition, there are discussions on how to use virtual reality to perform operations such as surgical operations and remote consultancy to increase the availability of doctors.
The third field that stands to benefit substantially from the technology is education. It is difficult to imagine all the potential applications of interactive multimodal applications in education. The projects reviewed above all require a high degree of engagement by the learners and therefore promises better understanding of concepts.
While most of them seem aimed at younger learners, mature students stand to benefit from learning in a 3-D learning environment. The application in modeling and simulation for technical subjects such as engineering and the teaching of concepts such as plate tectonics in geology, together with space exploration and medicine is promising.
Possible Research Directions Stimulated by the Paper There are a number of possible research directions inspired by the project presented above. These include using the bubble as a basic unit for a collaborative problem-solving lesson and secondly as a health monitor. It also inspires the creation of a bubble that can take punches and transfer that input in the area of gaming. Increasingly, the world requires collaborative approaches to solve many of the problems that we face.
Problem-solving is a team activity, which requires teamwork by interdisciplinary professionals. The bubble presents an opportunity to begin training children on collaborative approaches to problem-solving. This means that the basic design discussed above can form the basis of an integrated platform designed to allow multiple users to enter information into a common task.
For instance, instead of one child drawing and transferring the information to the drawing canvas, several children all tackling a similar problem, may upload their information to the active task in order to complete it. The task will have to be predesigned while the data input will require adjustments to meet the specific needs of the task.
Secondly, the bubble presents an opportunity to monitor the health and environment of the child. An application like this will be practical in a hospital setting or at home, where there is a convalescing child or one with an ongoing medical condition where it is important to track the health of the child continually. The bubble can be both a toy and learning aid as well as a monitor that alerts care provides of any unwanted symptoms.
A simple design based on the one presented above but including adding eye-scanning software and vibration sensors such that each time the child squeezes out information to the canvas, it automatically uploads readings such as eye color and heart rate.
With networking, the convalescing child may actually be able to participate in class activities remotely by doing the same exercises as the rest of the class. Networking also makes possible connection to a hospital or doctor who receives alerts whenever the child’s condition deviates from the norm.
As an exercising aid, a bubble provides the opportunity to increase physical activity during a gaming session. Many games require a player to go through various stages as the game progresses. If there is an interjection during the game based on the level of play or on a regular interval basis, the player can be required to perform a physical activity before proceeding with the next level of play.
Two options for this include punching or kicking the bubble a number of times and using a preset amount of force in order to continue with the game, or by making the bubble the input device for such a game.
For instance, if the game in question involves fighting an opponent such as kickboxing, it would require physically hitting a bubble, which would have appropriate sensors to detect and transmit the sensations. In the process of playing the game, the player gets the satisfaction derived from gamming while at the same time gets to exercise.
Research Methodologies In order to undertake a project in human-computer interaction, it important to use a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods in order to achieve triangulation. Using both methods at different levels serves to increase the credibility of the results verified from two different approaches.
The generation of a great amount of information continues in the related areas, while a large number of software and hardware applications mediate the process. This makes it vital to understand the state of development of the technology in order to ensure research is current and adds useful information to the vast body of knowledge that already exists.
The key issues that require clarification include the nature of the problem, the benefits, and beneficiaries of a proposed solution, cost of implementation of the project, impacts of other fields on the project, impact of project to other fields and the available technologies and human resource.
Research methodologies fall in two major categories. These are quantitative methods and qualitative methods. Quantitative methods try to find out the degree accuracy of a stated hypothesis. It seeks to determine the numbers of people a particular issue affects and the extent of that effect.
It generally involves large-scale survey techniques, which are analyzed using statistical tools and it uses highly structured tools such as surveys, closed-ended questionnaires and structured observations as sources of data. Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2000) stated that, “typically quantitative methods require a degree of control and manipulation of phenomena” (p.119).
Qualitative research seeks out meanings. It is exploratory in nature. Qualitative research employs a number of different data collection methods. Its instruments are more flexible than those used in quantitative research are. Some of the methods used include observation, group discussions, narrations, and reflection.
It is important to include validation in qualitative research necessitated by the lack of hard figures to manipulate, as is the case with quantitative methods. Different tools are available for this task, including debriefing, negative case analysis and corroboration by an interviewer.
Conclusion The areas of artificial augmented and virtual realities present a lot of potential for research development. There need for collaborative research is high because a lot of work is ongoing, and it is therefore very easy to apply duplicate efforts.
As Chen (2001) attests, “Human computer interaction is a multidisciplinary subject that involves information technology, computer science, psychology, library science, education, business and management, human factors, industrial engineering and ergonomics”(p. i) There is a key research opportunity driven by innovation based on current tools to meet emerging needs of the twenty-first century.
References Chen, Q., (2001) Human computer interaction: issues and challenges. Pennsylvania: Idea Group Inc.
Cohen, L., Manion, L.,
Different Types of Diabetes Found in Different Countries Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract This paper will discuss the different types of diabetes found in different countries, the rate of growth of diabetes and how the new product helped in achieving all the above objectives. This group work will develop a short term market objective for the company products using the simple, measurable, attainable, realistic and timing method. The short term objectives are to be achieved within one year.
Background information After inventing a new and effective instrument that could easily and quickly detect the quantity of insulin and glucose in the body, the group decided to choose a company that symbolizes the instrument.
The company chosen is known to be a leading one when it comes to matters related to diabetes for the past quarter of a century. It goes by the name Medtronic Inc, and the equipment they were to symbolize was Quik Fik. The company then set out to carry out their research and set the short term objectives as below.
Objectives To find out the general growth rate of diabetes in the selected countries.
To find out the different types of diabetes in the selected counties.
To find out the type of diabetes that is more common among men, women, and children.
To find out at what stage it is advisable to administer the use of the new equipment and how effective the result would be.
Introduction Medtro Inc. Company was built about sixty years ago for the purpose of supplying medical materials in America. This company is known to have set a worldwide pace in the health business and expertise. As said earlier the company was to symbolize the QuikFik equipment. This instrument is meant to manually monitor the amount of glucose in the body and mechanically dispense insulin depending on the outcome.
It is one of the many American companies that are known to use the collective insulin pump and glucose check up method. The company was meant to introduce the new Quik Fik facility in a distant environment. Medtro Inc is best acknowledged for its properly structured insulin pumps and their regular glucose examination process (Medtronic.com, 2010).
The new instrument allowed diabetic patients to check and be able to contain their daily glucose quantities so that they could be able to live a more proactive life.
It was believed to be the most appropriate company to represent this highly manufactured equipment that was hoped to save many lives since they operated simultaneously with physicians from various parts of the world who also worked hard to help diabetic people live full and active lives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among their recent technological developments are medical supply services to their patients, analytical equipment, and automatic machines (Medtronic.com, 2010).
Discussion The number of diabetic patients in the world is noted to be increasing at an alarming rate. This has made researchers to come up with products that can help in doing away with the mechanisms to contain the users. The rate of diabetes varies widely from children to adults. In 2006, mortality report ranked diabetes as the seventh cause of death. Diabetes is grouped into three types: type 1, type 2 and gestation diabetes.
Gestation diabetes affects only expectant women at the 28th week though its prescription does not signify that a woman had diabetes before conception or will have it after delivery. Type 1 diabetes is common in children and young adults. It is also called juvenile diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body fails to release enough insulin or when the cells disregard the released insulin (American Diabetes Association, 2010).
The Quik Fik instrument has been proven to be very effective in containing diabetes since it has an insulin pump with true glucose detection ability. It alerts the patient to check his or her glucose level by beeping.
The person monitors the glucose quantities by drawing small amounts of blood from their fingers and put it on the testing part of the device. It then tells the patient how much glucose the body requires. The device could be used at any stage and at any age.
The countries were chosen based on different issues such as diabetic pace in each country, purchasing ability, and the availability of machinery, if they could export and invest it (Sands
Explanation of Staff Behaviour Research Paper college application essay help
Abstract Many research studies have been done to investigate the underlying issues influencing staff behavior. Considering the dynamics of carrying out research studies on such an important management facet, this study evaluates specific research studies done to determine the best way managers can manage employee behavior.
Through an analysis of given research studies, we find out that observation, interviews and surveys were the most commonly used techniques in data collection while graphs and charts were the most commonly used tools in data presentation.
Comprehensively, this study concludes that the research studies sampled were fairly done and the use of graphs, pie charts, interviews and observational techniques were appropriate tools in representing behavioral variables, but the use of surveys casts a lot of doubt to the accuracy of its findings.
Introduction Analyzing staff behavior and its antecedents can be a daunting task for most researchers. This is because staff behavior is a relative issue and many factors affecting employee behavior vary form organization to organization or region to region (Currie 2006, p. 26).
In this regard, it is essential for organizations to adopt the best research techniques in data analysis and presentation to come up with the most accurate results. Staff behavior being a critical component in organizational performance, this study will seek to evaluate research styles adopted by specific researchers in analyzing staff behavior.
This will be done through the analysis of employed research techniques in the collection and presentation of data. However, focus is also put on the recommendations outlining the conclusions derived from the research.
Research Purpose To analyze the best techniques management can use in managing staff behavior.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Topic Review
The performance of employees is directly dependent on their attitudes and behaviors in the organization (Marchington, 2008, p. 2). This is true because one employee has an impact on the behavior of other employees and the manager’s. Researchers have, therefore found this phenomenon interesting and many have over the years developed tones of research articles on staff behavior in organizational contexts.
Since staff behavior is a pertinent management problem, researchers from various fields including marketing, strategic management, human resource management and enterprise and innovation have focused on this issue through enquiry based learning to provide managers with a comprehensive way in which they can manage staff behavior (Robinson 2006, p. 5).
Researchers have in the past dealt with a wide variety of issues regarding staff behavior; ranging from emotional problems, hygiene problems, insubordination in the workplace, verbal abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse and alcohol or substance abuse (Henry 1990, p. 23).
These factors have been identified by researchers as more problematic in the organizational context when compared to other organizational indicators such as attendance or performance problems (Fellner 1984, 32). In this context, researchers have in the past given different perceptions on staffing in organizations, through the advancement of various solutions to the problem.
One of the key solutions advanced by researchers such as Geller (2001) and Komaki (1981, p. 111) has been the setting of good examples by managers to avoid bad staff behavior. These researchers claim that the key to benchmarking good behavior rests on the managers and minimal input should be expected of employees because they reiterate the behaviors they see of their bosses.
In this regard, such researchers propose that managers ought to make rules and recommendations that govern staff behavior in addition to being at the forefront in conforming to them (Stoneman1989, p. 115).
Proponents of this view don’t side with the perception that managers should give a theoretical understanding or example of proper employee behavior because they agree that good employee behavior is a top-down approach, in that, the managers essentially determine the staff behavior to be characteristic of the organization.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Explanation of Staff Behaviour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These researchers also note that such a goal can be achieved through shaping the staff’s attitudes and behaviors by having a positive attitude in the first place, to set the framework for good staff behavior (Komaki 1981, p. 112).
Other researchers such as Erin (2006, p. 220) and Balcazar (1986, p. 65), have had conflicting opinions on the matter and instead advance the fact that managers should not only set a good example and hope that the employees follow it, they should set clear expectations on the behaviors they expect their employees to show.
These researchers note that it is important for the management of any organization to set high standards of employee behavior so that if a small margin of error occurs towards the attainment of excellent employee behavior, it can be tolerated without having a significant impact on the performance of the organization.
Reference is given to managers who let their employees operate their departments the way they wish and work twice as hard to cover up for employee absenteeism (Balcazar 1986, p. 66). Such managers are branded as ineffective and tolerate the thriving of bad staff behavior within organizations.
The only way organizations can avoid situations where employees account for their actions and develop some sort of responsibility, is through the clear demarcation of what is tolerable or intolerable in the organization (Turner 2002, p. 34).
Even though setting high expectations for employee behavior may be beneficial in decreasing poor staff behavior, other researchers such as Watson (2005), Torrington (2005) and Henkel (2007, p. 310) have advanced the opinion that training, prompting and self-monitoring are the best strategies for reducing poor employee behavior.
These researchers observe that it is essential for organizations to carry out routine training programs where employees are taught how to act appropriately in the organizational context.
Special emphasis was made on service-oriented organizations because such organizations require optimum perfection in employee behaviors with respect to how they interact with their customers (Henkel 2007, p. 310). Proponents of this strategy also note that managers should be strategic recipients of training programs because they are entrusted with the duty of managing employee behavior in the workplace.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Explanation of Staff Behaviour by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Just like previous research studies which stress on the fact that the bulk of staff behavior responsibility rests on managers, these researchers also put a lot of responsibility on the role of managers in ensuring the best training practices are routinely carried out in the organization to change employee attitudes and habits.
These researchers also note that training should not only be done to new employees in the organization but also existing ones, and those who still promote dysfunctional behavior should be expelled from the organization (Watson 2005, p. 65). These harsh sentiments are upheld because the researchers realized the importance of having a positive culture which encourages proper staff behaviors in the organization.
The best way organizations can achieve this positive attitude in the organization, according to the researchers, start at the direct point of employee entry in the organization (when new employees are taught the best practices in the organizations and oriented on the expectation of management with regard to their performance in the organization) (Watson 2005, p. 29).
Lastly, researchers such as Allison (1992, p. 85) and Dickinson (1993, p. 20) have acknowledged the importance of rewarding and encouraging employees to adopt good organizational behavior. They note that most of employee poor behaviors are brought about by the lack of proper compensation or inspiration by management.
In this respect, employees who are poorly motivated often exhibit poor organizational behaviors; either out of boredom or because of poor remuneration (as a sign of protest) (Allison 1992, p. 85).
These researchers also note that management should reward employees for good performance and endeavor to compensate them for their actions in the organization, or for the extra commitment they show in the organization, which surpasses their work roles (Dickinson 1993, p. 20).
These factors are identified as overall and most important because out of the surveys done on organizations with the best staff performance, it was identified that the best organizations had good managers who educated their employees on the importance of adopting good staff behavior (Dickinson 1993, p. 20). Also, in these organizations it was seldom observed that management never took note of outstanding employee performance.
Data Collection Approaches
In coming up with the above recommendations to correct poor staff behavior, the above-mentioned researchers have used various data collection approaches in coming up with these conclusions. In determining the kind of data collection approaches to undertake, it was quite important for the researchers to understand the nature of the research and the objectives to be considered in the studies.
In addition, the researchers had to consider the resources available to achieve the goals of their research studies. However, in the selection of the best data collection technique, some researchers used more than one data collection technique to get the most accurate results for their studies. The following data collection techniques summarize the most commonly used techniques in the studies.
Interviews were majorly used to gain a deep insight into the dichotomy of employee behaviors in organizations studies because this technique can easily expose the underlying beliefs, attitudes and anecdotal data regarding people and the behaviors they manifest while in the organization.
Most researchers prefer this method because it results in the collection of rich data relating to staff behavior because of the personal contact between the researcher and the respondent (Berhman 2006, p. 1). In this manner, it is quite easy for researchers to probe the underlying reasons resulting to the manifestation of poor employee behaviors in the organization.
Considering the nature of the research was quantitative, interviews were mainly preferred by most researchers because through the technique, they were able to establish the underlying causes for specific organizational behaviors. In this context, if employees exhibited poor staff behavior, the researchers were able to determine the causes that led to the behavior in the first place.
For example, some respondents would explain that management neglect was the primary reason why the staff exhibited poor behavior in the organization and other employees would point out that the managers behaved badly in the first place and so they didn’t see the importance of behaving appropriately.
Researchers were also able to probe the best recommendations employees thought were most suitable to solve poor staff attitude in the organization. Even though the answers expected may have been diverse, the researchers were able to dig deep into the employees’ thoughts and extract the finer details of staff behavior in the organization.
In organizations where the staff was unable to read and write, interviews provided a good mechanism to obtain information from the respondents, regardless of their illiteracy (Berhman 2006, p. 1). Also, in instances where ambiguity could be detected, audio/visual backups provided a good mechanism to backup information and reanalyze data.
The use of interviews was therefore quite useful because it was applicable to a number of organizations but in order for it to be effective, enough time had to be allocated for the interview; meaning that the staff had to create time for the interview out of the usual organization time period (Berhman 2006, p. 1).
In addition, the use of interviews may have been challenging for the researchers because they had to find a quiet place to do the interview, since noisy surroundings affect the depth of an interview.
However, in instances where special equipment was used, challenges may have been experienced in transcribing the information or recording the interview altogether, because not all researchers are endowed with the skills of making this operation a success.
Lastly, in interviews, there was a high probability that the information obtained may not have been consistent with the employee behaviors because some employees may have given false information to look good in the eyes of the researcher or to boost the image of the organization (Berhman 2006, p. 1).
In instances where interviews were deemed ineffective, observations were used to best conceptualize the underlying factors affecting the behavior of employees. Observations were best utilized in this type of research because its usage has been approved in research studies analyzing the behavior of individuals in a group context (Berhman 2006, p. 2).
One main advantage why the researchers felt that observation was appropriate for their researches, is that, in observation, the staff are unaware that they are being analyzed and therefore chances of the researcher obtaining uncompromised information is extremely high. In fact, some analysts note that observation technique is more effective when compared with interviews (Berhman 2006, p. 2).
This is because this technique provides reliable information through reliable indicators of staff behavior, which is better than probing the behavior of employees orally.
Some researchers preferred this technique because it was quite useful in triangulating or corroborating information from previous research studies, especially for researchers who were using secondary data materials (Berhman 2006, p. 2). Such kind of research may have included the analysis of case studies or such like sample data.
Observation technique is therefore quite effective, especially in qualitative research, which clearly outlines the nature of this study but regardless of these advantages, some researchers may have faced a couple of challenges in applying this technique.
One of the significant challenges for the researchers is the need for total commitment in observing the behavior of employees in the organization and this involves the time to record relevant information as well (Berhman 2006, p. 2). Secondly, unlike the interviewing technique, in observational research, the researchers could not ask the participants questions whenever they needed clarification.
Because of this fact, the final conclusion may have suffered the setback of portrayal of wrong analysis to employee behavior. This means that under observational technique there is a potential risk of wrong data interpretation, meaning that, if another researcher were to analyze the same scenario as observed by another researcher, probabilities that the two would infer different conclusions are high.
This technique, therefore, requires that the researchers be very impartial in using it and they should also try to draw out the most accurate conclusions from the observation. Otherwise, it would be appropriate to use follow up interviews to verify the conclusions.
Analyzing the behavior of employees through the analysis of certain organizations was carried out using the survey technique. This means that Allison (1992) and Dickinson (1993) sampled a given group of organizations and analyzed the staff behavior in these organizations. These researchers may have been attracted to the technique because it was the most appropriate in gathering brief responses from a sample of organizations.
Also, the technique may have given the researchers the option to either ask open-ended or close-ended questions, in addition to giving the researchers the liberty to ask the questions in written copies or online. Lastly, the tabulation of employee responses was perceived to increase the efficiency of the research information.
Presentation of Findings
Different researchers used different types of presentations to show their findings. However, the most commonly used methods of data representation were graphs, to explain the relationship between various managerial practices and the resultant effect on employee behavior.
Variables such as employee motivation, remuneration and attitudes were directly depicted alongside management’s commitments to the parameters and the resultant effect on staff behavior. This technique was quite useful to most researchers because they could summarize what an entire essay would try to explain. In addition, under the technique, staff behavior could be quantified alongside the influencing variable.
Pie charts were also commonly used to expose the type of variables affecting staff behavior and the extent to which they affect staff behavior altogether.
In this regard, variables such as management’s commitment, performance benchmarking, training, remuneration and the likes were represented in a pie chart format with the percentage to which they affect employee behavior shown in the findings. This method was preferred because it could also summarize most of the significant variables affecting employee behavior and their relative strengths in doing so.
Conclusion Research studies to analyze employee behaviors are best represented by the employment of observational research technique and interviews. The findings depicted in this study represent a fair view of how the research should be done, but the inclusion of surveys in coming up with the final conclusions may cast of a lot of doubt to the accuracy of the research.
This is because surveys are only representative of the overall operations of the organization and therefore, it does not go deep, to analyze underlying factors affecting staff behavior, the way interviews and observational techniques do. Nonetheless, the best conclusion, factoring in the nature of the research, could be best derived through observational technique.
With regard to the data presentation techniques, graphs and charts were appropriate tools of data representation in this study because staff behavior is by far a dynamic issue and the factors affecting it are also quite dynamic.
To quantify the degree of the variables affecting the behavior of employees, it was necessary to come up with a visual depiction of the most significant variables and the percentages or degrees to which they affect staff behavior.
Graphs and pie charts were therefore quite useful in this study because they were able to summarize the most important elements to this research. Comprehensively, the above research methodologies were fairly carried out and their conclusions reflect a significant degree of reliability.
References Allison, D. (1992) Relative effectiveness and cost effectiveness of cooperative, competitive, and independent monetary incentive systems. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 13, 85-112.
Balcazar, F. (1986). A critical objective review of performance feedback. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 7, 65‑75.
Berhman, S. (2006) Deciding Which Data Collection Method Is Best. Michigan, University of Michigan.
Currie, D. (2006) Introduction to Human Resource Management. London, CIPD.
Dickinson, A. (1993) A comparison of the effects of two individual monetary incentive systems on productivity: Piece rate pay versus base pay plus incentives. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 14, 3-82.
Erin, P. (2006) Effects of Training, Prompting, and Self-Monitoring on Staff Behavior in a Classroom for Students with Disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39(2), 215-226.
Fellner, D. (1984) A behavioral analysis of goal setting. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 6, 32‑51.
Geller, E. (2001) Behavior-based safety in industry: Realizing the large-scale potential of psychology to promote human welfare. Applied
Major Impacts of Global Warming In Human Health Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Global warming is a rise in average temperatures on the earth surface due to human activities such as burning of coal and oil refining, eventually the activities cause emission of greenhouse gases in the air that increase solar radiation thus resulting in climate changes. When these gases are released in the atmosphere they destroy the ozone layer and this lead to continuous increase in temperatures around the globe.
Climate change has caused many environmental problems which consequently bring a negative effect on human health. Due to continued increase in average temperatures caused by rise in high degree of infrared solar radiations on the surface of the earth, the ecological system has been destructed.
This destruction causes a major stigma to human health. For the last couple of years some areas have experienced hurricanes rain, costal regions have been eroded and presence of heat waves that are very hot has been felt (Stern 2006).
Human skin is so delicate and due to continued increase in average solar radiation, skin cancer has been reported in various countries. This has claimed many lives of innocent people who have fallen victims of this catastrophe. The world health organization has issued rough estimates that show the loss of about 150000 lives yearly as a result of global warming and rain.
The scientist predicts that climate changes are due to cause long-term climatic conditions that will lead to rise in water temperatures in the ecosystem. They further caution the world to take this matter seriously as it threatens the life of human beings and also other animals (Patz, Lendrum, Holloway
Operant Conditioning in Dog Training Reflective Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Dogs have for a long time been referred to as mans best friend. This has been attributed to the fact that they remain loyal to their owners and obey commands given without hesitation. In addition, dogs are social creatures once you get to know them and they have a great level of humility and patience in comparison to other pets.
However, dogs have been noted to have unexplainable and unpredictable behaviors which if not addressed may be annoying and frustrating at times. As such, it is always wise to train your dog to behave in ways that do not affect your life or inconvenience you in any way.
Operant conditioning has been noted as the most successful way of enforcing behavioral change in dogs. Among the most common behaviors that can be taught to a dog are; sitting, laying down on all fours, shaking hands, potty training and training the dog how to obey directional commands (come, stop, fetch etcetera).
Despite all the progress that has been documented in regards to dog training, the fact still remains that you cannot teach old dogs new tricks. With this in mind, I shall explain how the theory of operant conditioning may be used to train a puppy to “roll over”.
To this end, I shall give a detailed analysis of the concepts surrounding this theory and how they apply in this task. The procedures that may be used to ensure a successful behavioral change (ability of the puppy to successfully “roll over”) shall also be outlined.
A brief overview of operant conditioning Operant conditioning refers to the process through which positive and negative enforcements are used to increase or decrease the likelihood of adopting a particular behavior (Chance, 2008). In essence, operant conditioning is a type of behavior modification process that uses consequences to influence behavioral change.
The theory was developed by theorist B. F. Skinner who contended that behavioral change can be attained by using rewards and punishments to increase or decrease the likelihood of a subject to behave in certain ways.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Training a puppy to “roll over” Training a dog to roll over is among the most complex tricks that a dog can pull of. This is attributed to the fact that it is a process that requires patience, discipline and utmost concentration from both the trainer and the subject.
According to Appelbaum (2003), training a dog to roll over is a session that incorporates three behaviors (tricks) if the end results are to be successful. In as much as the training may be frustrating, it should be noted that operant behavior is about changing behaviors and does not necessitate the use of force or pain infliction.
For a puppy to successfully obey the command to roll over, it must understand, learn and adhere to the cues used to command it to sit down, lay down on all fours and eventually, roll over. All this stages may need the application of physical help where the trainer physically applies force on some body parts to enable the puppy to understand the command.
Training process As I have mentioned, the process is divided into three parts. The first stage is training the puppy to sit down. In this process, the trainer must at first apply some force on the lower back of the puppy while using the command “sit”.
Each time the dog makes an attempt to obey the command, it should be rewarded by giving it a treat (tasty doggy treats). This will help the dog associate a particular behavior with that reward thereby increasing the chances of a repeat performance.
However, Appelbaum (2003) states that caution should be taken when rewarding a dog during the process of training. For example, in this case, the puppy should be rewarded upon sitting down and not after it comes back to the owner after sitting. This is because the reward will be for the dog coming to the owner and not for sitting down.
In regards to negative enforcements, the puppy should be fitted with a collar and upon the command “sit”, the collar should be pulled up a bit to force the dog to sit down. It should be noted that the word negative reinforcement does not mean inflicting pain. The collar should be pulled up gently otherwise, inflicting pain or scolding the puppy only makes it afraid thereby lessening the chances of success.
We will write a custom Essay on Operant Conditioning in Dog Training specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second process is training the puppy to lie down. The verbal cue in this case is “down”. Sitting down enables the dog to sit on its hind legs while lying down requires it to go down on all fours. Chance (2008) reiterates that the success of operant conditioning depends on the reinforcements used and the intervals at which these reinforcements are applied.
To this regard, the puppy should not be rewarded for sitting down but rather it should be punished. In so doing, the dog will follow the command “sit” hoping to get a reward. However, whenever it manages to lie down, it should be rewarded. In due time, the dog will be able to obey the “sit” and “down” commands with ease.
Throughout this process, the trainer should ensure that he/she sticks to well defined cues and hand gestures through each stage. This will ensure that the dog does not get confused due to different cues and gestures.
The third stage is now to train the dog how to roll over. This is the most difficult stage because it requires the trainer to physically roll over the puppy before it understands the concept. As earlier stated, the application of any form of reinforcement is only successful if it is used at the most opportune time. In this regard, positive reinforcement is therefore the most effective during this stage.
What this means is that the puppy should receive the most support and incentives in order for it to master the task at hand. Therefore, the use of the collar may not be effective while the use of tasty doggy treats and verbal praise may increase the chances of the puppy getting a grip of what is expected upon hearing the command.
Types of reinforcements According to Chance (2008), reinforcement refers to any tool used to strengthen the occurrence of a particular response. There are four documented types of reinforcements. Positive reinforcements are the incentives given to a subject to increase the likelihood of behaving in a particular way. In this case, giving the puppy a treat, rubbing and scratching it accompanied by verbal praises are positive reinforcements.
On the other hand, negative reinforcements refer to a situation where you take away something that is unpleasant to the subject in order to enhance a particular response. For example, loosening the buckles on the collar each time the puppy rolls over, desist using water sprays or even using a softer tone each time the puppy succeeds in doing the task.
Thirdly, punishments refer to the application of aversive tools to discourage a particular response. Examples include hitting the puppy with a newspaper or with a belt if it does something wrong. Finally, extinction refers to the total removal of something to decrease a behavior. In this case, extinction refers to the removal of treats after the dog understands the command.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Operant Conditioning in Dog Training by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The most important factors to consider while choosing reinforcement are: the subject and the behavior being nurtured. For example, an older and aggressive dog may respond well to punishments and extinctions while a puppy may do well with positive and negative reinforcements.
In regards to the behavior, potty training a dog may be successful if punishments are used to decrease a behavior while positive reinforcements may be used to teach the dog new tricks.
Maintaining balance between reinforcement and extinction during dog training As mentioned earlier, it is always advisable to apply the reinforcements or the extinctions at the appropriate time otherwise; the puppy may confuse the cues and end up failing to perform the desired tasks. In this case, the best way to ensure that the puppy maintains the behavior even after training is by using a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement (Appelbaum, 2003).
This is because the schedule makes the learned behavior less susceptible to extinction. A variable ratio schedule of reinforcement refers to a situation whereby the reinforcers are given in accordance to the number of times a good behavior is done. For example, giving the puppy a treat after the third successful roll ensures that in future, it does not stop even after failing to perform the task.
On the other hand, if too much reinforcement is used, the puppy may loose the essence of such tools and may invariably refuse to behave accordingly unless an incentive is offered. Similarly, if too much extinction is used, the puppy may become rebellious and refuse to perform the tasks since they view them as negative aspects affecting their freedom and likings.
Relevance of operant conditioning to my career goals My personal career goal is to join a higher learning institution as an educator. this is perhaps the most challenging profession since you get to meet different people with different goals and perceptions about you, what you represent and what you do.
As such, operant conditioning will be very beneficial to me when it comes to tackling rebellious students or even to change the negative perceptions students often have towards particular subjects.
Through the use of verbal praises, extra credits for exemplary works and encouraging the weak students to participate in class discussions, I will be able to influence positive change in their attitudes towards school and education. In addition, I will be able to mitigate the negative behaviors by issuing punishments or rewarding good behavior. As such, operant conditioning may prove to be useful in my career.
Conclusion Operant conditioning has been applied in many fields and through its use, success has been attained. In this study, I have explained how this concept can be applied in training a puppy. In addition, the applicability of the concept to my career has also been highlighted.
The ability to modify behaviors may not only be useful in training pets but can also be applied in training people on how to behave responsibly thereby creating a better society.
References Appelbaum, S. (2003). ABC Practical Guide to Dog Training. California: John Wiley and Sons.
Chance, P. (2008). Learning and Behavior: Active Learning Edition. New York: Cengage Learning.
European Union Free Movement Directives and Regulations Coursework custom essay help
Abstract Freedom of movement among the citizens of the European Union has taken a progressive and historical process. This began with workers in the steel and coal industry and progressed to the freedom of movement of all persons including ordinary citizens. This study is mainly concerned with the anti-discriminatory clause of the freedom of movement legislation.
There were various forms of discrimination among the EU member states that rendered exercising of the legislation ineffective. The study explores the agenda behind the anti-discrimination directive, decision making process through to its implementation.
The study also examines some of the controversies surrounding the implementation of this directive by the member states. In order to succeed in exercising these rights the EU member countries ought to pursue convergent and well harmonized strategies that match with EU policies.
Introduction Free movement across the EU member states was founded upon the Maastricht accord, which like the Rome statute did not considers the legislative challenges of these EU affiliate countries in their social system. This brought a new political dimension to the already existing economic integration among the EU member states.
Each and every citizen of the EU affiliate states automatically gains EU citizenship but still retain their national citizenship. On the other hand, EU citizenship increases the economic benefits to the citizens of the EU member’s states as stipulated in the treaty1.
Maastricht treaty gives EU citizens right to enjoy within the scale of the treaty the same treatment in the law regardless of the nationality.
For that reason, EU citizenship has increased the rights of the persons within the EU member states considerably. EU court of justice ruled that citizens of the EU are eligible to live in any state as citizens, consequently the EU citizenship gives citizens of the EU member states right to move freely across the these countries2.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the EU, the policy for free movement of people is mainly associated with labor mobility. The EU’s Lisbon Strategy for growth and employment could not be achieved without guaranteeing the right of citizens to t lives and work anywhere in the Union. The mobility of workers is encouraged because it brings benefits to the individuals in terms of personal and career development3.
The paper analyses the EU s policy on free movement of people and more specifically the Directive in the rights of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States adopted by the European Parliament and the Council on 29 April 2004 (2004/38/EC)4.
In the first place, the paper identifies the nature of the policy process, its setting in the EU agenda, the actors who are responsible for its formulation then it evaluates the power and influence exercised in the policy making process, as well as its implementation.
The Nature of free movement of persons The European Union ability for legislative acts and other initiatives on free movement of people is based legally in the provisions in the Treaties of the European Union. In the treaty of Rome, the universal right of free movement was not enshrined.
It was only the Treaty of Maastricht which introduced the freedom of movement as a fundamental right that the EU citizens have irrespective of whether they have economic activities or not. Article 3 /2/ of the TFEU stipulates that the Union shall offer its citizens an area of freedom, security and justice without internal frontiers, in which free movement of persons is ensured5.
Article 45 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for the freedom of movement of workers who shall move freely within the territory of member States and shall stay in the Member States for the purposes of employment.
The rights of economically-active persons to free movement within the EU have been complemented by limited rights for non-economically-active citizens to move freely within the EU, under Article 20 (1) of the TFEURegulation 1612/1968 of the Council of 15 October 1968 on the freedom of movement of workers within the Community only provides for the free movement of employees6.
We will write a custom Coursework on European Union Free Movement Directives and Regulations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Agenda setting Towards the end of 1970s European parliament on all the EU stakeholders to fight forms of discrimination the EU citizens were facing in relation to their freedom of movement within the EU’s jurisdiction7. In most occasions the EU council opposed this action arguing that EU had no legal base to deal with this issue.
One of the issues that attracted great concern especially in UK was the protection of the immigrants linked to immigration policies of the individual member states. Debates on appropriate policy to fight racism and xenophobia continued and deepened in 90’s.
The fight against racism also involved policy consultations among non-governmental organizations and action groups which resulted to the formation of European Network against Racism (ENAR). Simultaneously, a group of legal experts from these groups of activists formed Start Line Group (SLG).
This organization became a major tool for policy formulation and also helped in organizations of awareness campaigns to support and promote synchronization of the policies against discrimination of the EU member states8.
The above group of activists lobbied rigorously across Europe to acquire the legal basis for the anti-discrimination policy geared towards the preparation of the Amsterdam treaty. Starting Line Group later on supplied the EU commission with a particular draft proposal for the directive on combating religious and racial prejudice.
Their contributions were openly supported and authenticated by the European Parliament which issued a number of resolutions pushing for the EU commission to utilize the SLG proposals as foundation for main proposal, which was accepted by the commission9.
The following events were taking place in order to integrate all the debates which were also taking place in the EU member states. Therefore, pushing of this agenda at the European level was very attractive to rights group since they wanted to bypass some o the EU member countries that were reluctant to adopt this policy.
In spite of the obstacles experienced within the EU institution wise, attaining a unanimous decision for safeguarding protection against the above forms of discrimination was very vital in choosing EU as the policy platform10.
Not sure if you can write a paper on European Union Free Movement Directives and Regulations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the coalition between different set of players with the European parliament and commission with the well organized competence of the Starting Line Group in consolidating information and authenticating support to raise the subject on the agenda was very important.
Policy formulation Besides the intensive lobbying, the research carried out by the legal experts was also used for awareness and formulation of the legislative proposals. Those who took part in the debate utilized existing research, assigned new research or assumed this role on their own.
In fact, the migration policy group in collaboration with the European Centre on Racism and Xenophobia analysed and compared the proposed legislations from the EU commission and the SLG and the national versions11. This was done to come up with the common ground by accommodating all the proposals to convince the restrained governments. The main distinction between the SLG’s proposal and the Commission’s proposal was the insertion of religion as a basis or discrimination.
This was removed by the EU commission but later re-introduced by the European parliament. Framing the religious subject into the EU agenda as an obstacle to free movement of people was considered to be an effective strategic approach. Another positive aspect was the decision by the commission to handle the issue of racism separately from other forms of discrimination12.
Decision making At the proposal stage, the EU commission had most of the influence on the proposal in line with the EU comitolgy in decision making process. The commission voted for the proposal and submitted the draft for adoption in EP and the council who approved it.
The commission took over most of the implementation process. The decision making process was facilitated by a number of factors including domestic politics and tactics from the European parliament. Politics as a factor in the decision making process was very much unpredictable13.
Australian election in the year 2003 brought the extreme right Australian freedom party into the then coalition government resulting to solemn concerns and unilateral approval by the rest of the EU member states. This also underpinned the necessitated urgent response from the EU institutions which analysts believe was a crucial factor for quick adoption of the directive.
European parliament strategically narrowed the debate by persuading the EU commission and council to move the directive on racism swiftly. Henceforth, the decision making process took place in a consultative manner, isolating the process behind the close doors of the council thus keep away from the interference.
This was specifically frustrating for the European parliament which had been a more active proponent of the EU obligation against racism. However, the European parliament stepped up its opinion delivery after gaining more seats14.
With the decision making process clearly in their hands, EU member states managed to control the decision making process and resulted into a weaker directive than the earlier proposals.
Their main topic of debate was based on auxiliary principles, probable cost of implementation, non interference with the national policies on immigration, and a constricted treaty base. Even though, in principle, no EU member country was opposed to the new directive, a number of issues resulted to acrimonious debate for instance impact of the directive on the third country citizens15.
The great support Australian accorded the proposed directive minimised opposition from the other member states who feared being compared negatively for instance Germany. Earlier declarations and unanimous reaction after election in Australia made it very perilous for any government to exhibit inconsistency in the adoption of the anti-discriminatory legislation.
It should be noted that after the adoption of the directive article 13 and respect for the minority group were also included for new countries joining the European Union16.
Implementation The implementation process was both well strategized and followed effective division of work between the external and internal actors. External actors were mainly the NGO’s, who provided the design for the policy and technical know-how while the internal actors were mainly the EU parliament and the commission.EU member states were given 3 years to realign their legislations with the EU directive.
In mid 2004, the EU commission began proceedings for the member states who contravened the EU directive within the July 2003 directive. By the year 2007, complete implementation of the directive was still not yet achieved and additional set of formal appeals from the EU commission was sent to 14 members to fully implement the directive.
Realising the serious loop holes in the implementation process, the European parliament also added its support in calling for the full implementation of the legislation17.
Some of the agencies promoted by the commission in the anti discrimination campaign faced many challenges until they were restructured with a wider mandate into the EU agency for basic rights. 18United Kingdom “good fit” is regarded as the most effective piece of legislation on antidiscrimination.
Several countries have also followed the same direction and in some cases surpassing the EU directive for instance France. The political situation in Germany made the implementation process very difficult, similar to Poland and Denmark thus lack of comitology in the implementation process.
Controversy surrounding implementation of the directive In Germany the implementation of this directive led to higher immigration rate particularly during the electioneering period. The directive clashed with the other receptive issues such as citizenship law and gay marriages which delayed its adoption by the government in that time.
The directive also faced hostility in Poland and Denmark. UK was the strongest opponent of the EU directive on racism arguing that the impasse surrounding discrimination had to be tackled at the country level.
EU court of justice has offered clarification for the interpretation of the directive but the lack of proceedings relating to the racial discrimination has restricted its influence.
A court can only take action when permissible violations of rights are brought to its attention by authentic actors. However, the European court of justice has put a lot of pressure on a number of member states who failed to comply with its directives. But these cases take almost forever to be heard19.
Local changes among the EU member states that can be traced back the EU-level have somewhat limited. There have been a number of reforms and introduction of new laws in all EU member countries but the facts on the ground reveals that there is a broad difference with little convergence.
The impact of this directive is also very difficult to isolate from other legal and policies adopted by EU and the outsiders relating to anti-discrimination20.
Factors that have brought about convergence of these policies seem to be the compatibility of the directive with the social and political environment in many countries. Introduction of some legislations related to the directive have caused a lot of confusion and snarl up to the implementation process.
For instance one of the requirements of this directive is the setting up of an autonomous body to encourage and promote equality, assist victims and oversee development. However, several years after this clause was added in the gender equality directive it opened arguments in many countries whether to establish a joint or separate bodies encasing several discriminatory issues.
Division of the intricate issues facilitates adoption of the policy but complicates the implementation process21. Swift implementation of the EU directive left little time for the public to debate nor reflect on the consequences of the these laws at the country level.
Conclusion The quest for freedom of movement and legislations that are against all forms of discrimination that affects effective exercising of this freedom have taken an historic and strenuous journey. Following intensive lobbying by the European parliament and NGO’s plus the politics in Australia, the quest for freedom of movement and the legislation against all the discriminatory elements that acts as the obstacle for the same was realised.
The multi-level engagement between the NGO’s and the EU relevant divisions resulted led to daring and ground-breaking piece of legislations with high expectation and standards in the comparatively new policy areas. Despite of the limited role of the European parliament, the process was fairly democratic.
This is evident in the implementation process which was not smooth due to influence from the state quarters. The directive was a break through in the social policy issues but the implementation was relatively weak and deficient.
Bibliography Bell, M. ‘Beyond European labor Law? Reflection on the EU racial quality, Directive.” European law journal, vol.8, no. 8, 2002, pp. 384-399.
Golynker, O. “Jobseekers’ Rights in the European Union: Challenges of hanging the Paradigm of Social Solidarity”. European Law Review vol. 30 no.1, 2005, pp. 111–22.
Guild, E. The Legal Framework of EU Migration. Working Paper No. 2, Pemint, 2002
Guild E. European Community Law from a Migrant’s Perspective. Katholieke niversiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen, 2000
Hailbronner, K. “Union Citizenship and Access to Social Benefits.” Common Market Law Review vol.42, 2005, pp. 1245–67
Hix, S. “The political system of the European Union”. UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005
Nanda, VP, Folsom, RH,
Cisco Global Business Strategy Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Current strategy and positioning
Conclusion and recommendation
Introduction The current competitive business world has presented many opportunities and challenges to different companies. This is as far as globalization is concerned. Different companies have been enhancing their operations to reach a wide market through globalization. The main aim of this report is to asses Cisco Systems Inc in relation to its strategic positioning in the market.
In this case, the report will analyze and evaluate various strategic challenges that the company is facing. As a matter of fact, these strategic challenges will be looked at after a clear assessment of the company has been done. This is because every global or multinational company like Cisco Systems Inc is expected to encounter such challenges in the course of doing business.
The report will also carry out a PESTEL analysis. This will be done to evaluate the current external environmental conditions that the company is facing in its operations. It should be known that every company is exposed to different external environmental conditions that can end up affecting its operations and business.
In a broad perspective, the report will evaluate if Cisco Systems Inc is strategically positioned in the market to exploit its strengths and on the other hand defend itself against its own weaknesses. In this case, the report will evaluate if the company’s current strategy is in deed sustainable. This will be done using Michael Porters Five Forces and Three Generic Strategies.
As a matter of fact, the current competitive business world offers many opportunities to Cisco Systems Inc. In this case, there are some common urgent issues that the company needs to deal with as far as its global strategy is concerned.
Therefore, the report will recommend a good course of action that can be undertaken by the company to deal with such issues. Wholesomely, the report will give various recommendations that can be used by the company to enhance its global competitive as far as strategic positioning is concerned.
History Cisco Systems Inc is an American global company. The company develops and sells different consumer electronics in various countries. In addition, the company is a big player in communications technology and networking. As a matter of act, it offers different services as far as these aspects are concerned. The company’s headquarters are located at San Jose in California (Bunnell 2000, p. 14).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has more than 70, 714 employees. In 2010, it is estimated that the company will receive revenues of more than $40 billion (Cisco 2010, p. 16). As a matter of fact, it is rated as one of the world’s largest technological corporations. In addition, the company trades its stocks on the Dow Jones stock exchange market. It should be known that the company was founded in 1984.
As a matter of fact, the company’s name was derived from the name San Francisco (Cisco 2010, p. 6). In a broad perspective, Cisco Systems Inc was one of the first companies to sell good routers that had the capacity deal with a large number of network protocols.
Currently, its routers are widely used in different countries to enhance the delivery of IP packets. The company has been acquiring other companies to enhance its product base and bring in new talent that can help it to advance its operations.
An example of these companies is Stratacom that was acquired to bring in new products. In 2000, the Cisco Systems Inc was the most valuable company around the world (Cisco 2010, p. 12). This was as far as its market capitalization was concerned.
Strategic challenges Like every other technological company, Cisco Systems Inc is facing various challenges that need to be looked at. These challenges have been increasing as time goes by in relation to various and distinct prevailing market conditions (Paulson 2001, p. 17).
As much as the company has faced different strategic challenges, it is the market leader in switches and routers. This can be evaluated from an enterprise and service provider point of view.
One of the major strategic challenges that the company is facing is the fact that sales in the USA market are declining as time goes by. In this case, the company has a challenge to look for other markets to enhance its growth (Cisco 2010, p. 16).
We will write a custom Report on Cisco Global Business Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another strategic challenge that Cisco Systems Inc is facing can be seen in the erosion of margins in its existing markets. This has been brought about by increased competition in the global technological industry.
Such issues have ended up affecting the company’s sales and revenue projections in a broad way. The company has to face new- low cost competitors in the market and this is a very big strategic challenge (Cisco 2010, p. 19). Low cost competitors have emerged because of various advancements in technology. This ends up giving them an advantage in the market.
Cisco Systems Inc’s core technologies have been commoditized in the market and this is a strategic challenge that needs to be looked at. As much as USA accounts for 13% of Cisco Systems Inc’s market share, total sales have been declining because the market is saturated (Cisco 2010, p. 10).
As a matter of fact, demand is softening in this market and the company needs to be creative and innovative to increase its overall demand and sales.
PESTEL Analysis A PESTEL analysis is very important in assessing the current environmental conditions that Cisco Systems Inc is facing in the market. In this case, it is done to analyze various economic, social, political, environmental, legal and technological issues that affect the company and its operations (Traverso 2000, p. 21).
Cisco Systems Inc is a global company and is therefore exposed to various macro environmental issues that define the way it conducts its business and operations.
Cisco Systems Inc has to contend with various economic factors that it is facing in the market. Recently, there was the global financial crisis that had its effects on different businesses.
This means that various economies have not recovered as expected and the company needs to come up with good mitigation measures (Soederbaum 2008, p. 18). As a matter of fact, sales have been adversely affected in countries that were seriously hit by the global financial crisis.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cisco Global Business Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Because the company is a global player, it has been affected by exchange rate variations. This is because it sells its products in different countries with diverse and distinct currencies. It should be known that exchange rate variations keep on changing as time goes by.
This is in relation to prevailing market conditions and scenarios (Moore 1995, p.9). Therefore, for the company to return to profitability, it has to trade carefully as far as the global financial crisis is concerned. This is because there has been a gradual return to normalcy in relation to the global financial crisis.
In this case, economic uncertainty has affected the company’s profits in different markets. This is because there is a slow growth in GDP in other developing countries. There are other political factors that have ended up affecting the company’s operations.
Different countries have had networking restrictions as far as the company’s business is concerned (Cisco 2010, p. 29). This has reduced its growth momentum in such countries. In most occasions, such countries have strict rules that are supposed to be adhered to.
Cisco Systems Inc has to deal with various legal issues when it is establishing its operations in different countries. Some of these legal issues can either favor the company or work against the company. In this case, the company has been at the mercy of different legislations from various countries. Such legislations have political inclinations and can therefore be done with vested interests.
In extreme cases, the company has been accused of being involved in China’s censorship issues. As a matter of fact, the company has been blamed for supplying China with the equipment that it used to block internet sites (Slater 2003, p. 17).
Such political issues have affected the company’s image in the global market. In this case, the company argued that it did not specifically supply China with the equipments that it used to block internet sites but it was doing business with no vested interests.
Different countries have their own tax systems that are supposed to be adhered to. Some of this tax systems and policies might have serious implications for the company in different markets (Wright 2004, p. 14). This is because some countries levy large tariffs and quotas with an aim of protecting their home industries. In 2007, the company was accused for tax fraud in Brazil.
Technology has been advancing as time goes by (Stauffer 2001, p. 23). As a matter of fact, Cisco Systems Inc is a technological firm with global operations. This means that it has to face various technological issues in enhancing its operations.
The growth rate of technological advancements has been very high in recent years. This means that other technologies have been wiped out and made obsolete. In this case, Cisco Systems Inc has been forced to invest in research and development to come up with new products as far as technological advancements are concerned.
It should be known that new technology has created new products in the global market. To remain competitive, the company has been coming up with new products in relation to existing market trends and dynamics. This therefore explains why the company has been acquiring other technological companies as time goes by (Waters 2002, p. 21).
As far as technological forces are concerned, companies can effectively enhance their technological processes to reduce operational costs. This helps to improve on the quality of products through vibrant innovation activities.
The company is currently exposed to a lot of social issues that need to be dealt with. Technology moves with existing market trends and dynamics (Wright 2004, p. 19).
This means that the current consumer is very demanding and needs new products every now and then. In a broad perspective, there are various social trends in the market. These forces have an impact on the overall demand that a given company will have in the market.
Markets like the UK have an ageing population that needs a lot of investment in pension payments. When announcing its Q4 results, the company implied that it has conservative customers (Cisco 2010, p. 29). This means that such customers are very cautious about the economy and will therefore limit their spending and investments.
The technological industry has one of the most unpredictable social trends. This implies that customers want new experiences every now and then. In this case, the company has been forced to source for new talent to enhance its operations and market presence.
The company has not been exposed to a lot of environmental issues. This is because most of its products do not need a lot of environmental assessment (Young 2001, p. 18). The only issue has been the company’s ability to comply with various environmental requirements and expectations.
In this case, the company has to look at all environmental issues when it is designing its products. This is because technology has an impact on the environment and should be evaluated for sustainability.
All this factors are very important in coming up with a strategic management plan. Because Cisco is a global player in the technological industry, it needs to assess such aspects for its own sustainability (Young 2001, p. 18). This is because such macro environmental issues influence a business and its operations. Economic indicators will continue to play an important role in a company’s growth plans and future prospects.
Current strategy and positioning Cisco Systems Inc is currently the world largest company in networking for the internet (Cisco 2010, p. 9). The company has been growing because of its ability to handle various external and internal business factors.
All along, the company has focused on its core business by engaging in effective strategic partnering. To remain competitive, the company has maintained a positive cash flow as time goes by. This has enabled it to compete well with other competitors in the market.
In a broad perspective, the company has built its core strategy by being customer centered. This means that its current business strategy is very competitive and sustainable (Cisco 2010, p. 15). In this case, all technological companies should continue being customer centered to enhance their market share.
This is because customers can shift their attention and loyalty depending on their tastes and preferences. In this case, a company should occasionally consult customers to understand their needs.
Porters’ five forces help to analyze an industry and enhance the development of a given company’s strategy. The bargaining power of customers has been increasing as time goes by (Porter 2008, p. 17). This is because the current consumer is more informed and demanding.
As a matter of fact, e-business has been affected by distinct customer preferences. This is because customers want more personalized products. In extreme cases, they want such products to be delivered at their own convenience.
To remain competitive, the company has come up with customer centered products to satisfy their individual needs and preferences. As a matter of fact, the company offers highly responsive services to its customers. Since its creation, the company has been moving products to customers (Cisco 2010, p. 16). As a matter of fact, the company has a lot of business processes to the internet as time goes by.
The global technological industry has a lot of competitive rivalry. This has enhanced the emergence of various low cost companies. Such companies are threatening the existence of established companies like Cisco Systems Inc. In extreme cases, technological advancements have brought in new companies in the market.
Therefore, the company has been forced to come up with new ways of doing business to remain competitive. In this case, the company has occasionally developed new products to keep off competition.
Government policies have been encouraging technological advancements and that is why many companies have taken advantage of such provisions to establish their presence in the market (Slater 2003, p. 14).
Competitive rivalry has also been intensified through various innovations that have taken place in the industry. The company’s strategy is very sustainable because it has been attracting new talent to enhance product development.
There is a high threat of substitute products and services in the global technology industry. The existence of substitute products has increased buyers’ ability to switch products according to their needs. As a matter of fact, there are a lot of substitute products in the market (Waters 2002, p. 16).
To remain sustainable, the company has built a good relationship with customers. This has been done by occasionally coming up with new products in relation to their needs at a particular time.
The company relies on proper utilization of the internet to enhance its operations. Such aspects have seen it become one of the most successful technological companies in the world. As a matter of fact, the company has driven e-business to customers to enhance its performance.
The bargaining power of suppliers for technological companies has been increasing in recent years. This is because technological companies have come up with better ways of doing business.
In this case, suppliers can switch to different companies in relation to the prevailing market switching costs (Soederbaum 2008, p. 14). All this withstanding, the company has an effective distribution channel that it has used to enhance its operations and activities in the market.
This has been done through good strategic partnerships and relationships with different suppliers in the market. Although this has been improving as time goes by, the company has projected that it will experience different supply chain constraints that are expected to affect its 2010 financial performance (Cisco 2010, p. 18).
The number of new competitors in the industry has also been increasing in relation to market needs and trends. This has always threatened the company’s core business. For sustainability, the company has come up with better ways of doing business. This revolves around new approaches to strategic management. In extreme case, the company has occasionally developed new products to remain competitive.
Cisco Systems Inc’s success and continued profitability can be attributed to proper enforcement of porters’ three generic strategies. The company’s segmentation strategy has been very effective in penetrating new markets (Cisco 2010, p. 12).
In this case, it has identified different market segments that need to be attended to. As a matter of fact, the company has differentiated its products to compete well with other market players and companies. This is because customers want new and effective products in the market.
The company’s cost leadership strategy has enabled it to appeal to different price sensitive consumers. As a matter of fact, the company has always come up with good prices to suit its target market. This is because its serves different clients with distinct needs.
In a broad perspective, the company was able to save $ 1.5 billion dollars in 2009. This was done through effective cost avoidance and increased operational efficiency in its operations around the world.
Cisco Systems Inc has a good strategic scope that has focused on effective customers’ needs delivery. In this case, the company competes in all market segments. Globalization has come up as a new way and approach of doing business (Cisco 2010, p. 14).
To show how strategic the company is, it provides internet protocol to all businesses around the world. This means that the company has strategically positioned itself in the market to serve various market needs and interests.
Urgent issues Cisco Systems Inc has to deal with various issues as far as its global strategy is concerned. The company has been receiving criticisms in relation to its global activities. Such criticisms include the China censorship issue that gave the company a bad image.
To solve such issues, the company should be open about its business activities and operations (Cisco 2010, p. 26). This is because customers might not want to associate themselves with a company that colludes with other governments to infringe on the rights of internet consumers.
The company has also been facing legal lawsuits in different countries. These lawsuits have been advanced by various organizations and companies in relation to its activities and operations. An example of such a lawsuit is the shareholder class issue where the company ended up paying $ 91.75 million (Cisco 2010, p. 11). In this case, the company should review it’s cooperate practices to avoid any controversies.
It should be known that the company is experiencing supply chain constraints that need to be attended to for sustainability. This is because the global market is vey competitive and such incompetency’s can end up being costly to the company.
Such an aspect can be looked at by evaluating the company’s component lead time that is supposed to be improved as time goes by (Cisco 2010, p. 13). The company should ensure that it reduces its supply chain constraints to remain competitive.
The company needs to review its strategy to reflect the current global financial crisis’s real market situation. This is because there is a market uncertainty that has seen many countries experience slow GDP growth rates (Cisco 2010, p. 9). Such an aspect is expected to affect the company’s revenue projections. In this case, the company should come up with better ways of enhancing its sales and revenues.
Another urgent issue is the slow recovery from the global financial crisis than it had been projected. As a matter of fact, the company’s customers have ended up being cautious in their spending. Because these customers are re-evaluating their spending, the company should come up with a new approach to marketing to enhance its sales and operations.
The company should also deal with an unfavorable product mix. This is because it has been introducing new products in the market every now and then. As a matter of fact, sales of its core products; switches and routers have dropped by 1.4% in the third quarter of 2010 (Cisco 2010, p. 23).
There is also an impact of different government regulations. This has affected its sales margins in different ways. In this case, it should clearly evaluate markets before launching its operations.
Conclusion and recommendation Like every other technological company, Cisco Systems Inc is facing various challenges that need to be looked at. These challenges have been increasing as time goes by in relation to the prevailing market conditions.
One of the major strategic challenges that the company is facing is the fact that sales in the USA market are declining as time goes by. In this case, the company has a challenge to look for other markets to enhance its growth.
Therefore, it is recommendable for the company to enhance product development to remain competitive. The company should also exploit other emerging markets for sustainability.
It will also be advisable for the company to engage in strategic alliances to increase its market share. In a broad perspective, Cisco Systems Inc should enhance its relationship with customers to know what they want in the market. This will enhance the company’s competitive advantage as time goes by.
Reference list Bunnell, D., 2000. Making the Cisco Connection: The Story Behind the Real Internet Superpower. New York: Wiley.
Cisco., 2010. Products and Services. Web.
Moore, M, H., 1995. Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Paulson, E., 2001. Inside Cisco: The Real Story of Sustained M
India Tobacco Company (ITC) Ltd Evaluation Essay writing essay help
Introduction of value proposition This paper aims to analyze the value proposition of India Tobacco Company (ITC) Ltd and compare it with the value of proposition of its competitor, Azadbidi. Overall, such term as value proposition includes such components as quantitative and qualitative benefits that the organization offers to the buyers and the advantages that the company’s products have over others (Andersen, Narus
Ducati Marketing Department Coursework essay help free
The article affirms that, Ducati an Italian based firm focusing on motorcycle manufacturing announced the elimination of its marketing department. In its place, it came up with a community driven system. Hence, the company makes decisions on important issues concerning their products basing on the reactions from the community.
In addition, it has developed ducati.com, a website that connects its customers by offering them an assortment of products. These include game downloads, brochures, bike sounds and many more. The general manager of ducati.com is said to have consulted a lot with his colleagues before coming up with this product.
The outcome of this strategy revealed that this company did not kill its marketing approach but enhanced it more. It thus meant that marketers no longer have to place media adverts so as to push customers to buy their products. Thus, they only have to develop a network that links their customers.
The article reveals that most marketers implementing this strategy have experienced a major cut in their budgetary funds in the past years. Basing on other research conducted it is obvious that most consumers purchase online. As a result, online selling and marketing are indispensable tools.
This information has made other prominent companies adapt this marketing strategy. Hence, word of mouth (WOM) is the focal marketing instrument for most companies. This strategy has also given opportunities to consumers as they have been constituted to the company’s payroll through their direct contribution in the company proceedings.
These included event organization and redesigning of products through presenting their opinions via the company websites to the relevant governmental departments. As evident, this mode of marketing strengthens the bond connecting consumers and the company.
Walking a day in subscribers’ shoes The article reveals that the contemporary generation seems to be living in a digital age; thus, they communicate more using dissimilar channels. In 2008 exact target invented the concept of subscribers’ rule, which meant that the marketers should offer services according to the consumer requirements.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An investigation was conducted to help comprehend the diverse characteristics of consumers. In the results, one of the personas identified was wired consumers who are males aged 18 and 34 with yearly proceeds of about $ 35000. They prefer the Internet, as a result, use emails, phones, instant messengers (IM), SMS and social networks for personal communication. In marketing, they prefer the use of SMS.
The other persons are home makers aged between 18 and 34 years and have annual proceeds of $35000. They spend more time online and occasionally read newspapers and magazines. As a matter of fact, they prefer direct mail and email for marketing purposes.
Additionally, the retired group spends a lot of time reading newspapers and books; besides, they use texts for communication. The article highlights that this group prefer the conventional mode of marketing which are telemarketing and direct mail.
College students and teens spend significant proportions of time on the Internet and books. As expected, they are profound consumers of social networks particularly Facebook, although email and IM are occasionally used. College students are online buyers, unlike teens.
The established persons who are 35years earn an average yearly pay of $ 75000. They listen more to radio and use telephone and email for individual communication; furthermore, they shop online.
This information is essential to the marketers as they have to identify the means preferred by the different personas for their marketing needs. Thus, they are entitled to meet the marketing desires of diverse personas by considering the best avenues reach them. Indeed, the marketers’ feedback is expected to be aligned with these findings.
Marketing Measurements It is a fact that, marketers have always failed to account for the impact of marketing, and this has caused unrest in this department. It is imperative to assert that several means have been devised to counter the problem, and market mix model has been branded as a way to rationalize this issue.
We will write a custom Coursework on Ducati Marketing Department specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though, this technique has shown how various parameters affect sales, it has fallen short of unearthing the Gordian knot, which is a promotional dimension. The study undertaken by Forrester, together, with other advertisers reveals that traders waste large sums doing sales and trademark construction, but they can not account for the results.
Several reasons have been cited to be creating complexities in measurement of the outcomes of promotion. Marketers usually find it inflexible to employ modifications depending on ROI examination. Another problem arises because marketers measure many parameters since they have varied objectives to meet.
It is noted that measurement complexities diverge from one business to the other. Estimating sales impact, as well as, determining it across the media is the chief obstacle. Therefore, modeling has been identified as the prospect of marketing estimation.
The article asserts that evolution of marketing behavior is marred with challenges, and it is advisable to counter such huddles. Some of the identified challenges include the fight with the value of sales figures.
It is crucial to know that modelers are only making matters simple, other than not solving the measurement troubles. Another problem is the over reliance on the reaction investigation by branders. The article proposes the marketplace mix models, which is gaining momentum. A lot should be done to explicate the modeling scheme, methods, and execution.
Automobile Trade, Tariffs or Quotas Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Tariffs and quotas can be described as various and different trade restrictions. These restrictions are mostly imposed on exports and imports. Different countries have come up with tariffs and quotas to protect their domestic industries and ensure that they earn revenues (Sheffrin 9). A tariff is a tax that is revised every now and then on exports and imports.
Therefore, tariffs will automatically affect international trade in Big Drive Auto. This is as far as the company’s automobile goods and services are concerned.
As far as international trade is concerned, these tariffs and quotas will affect the price of automobile products. Since Big Drive Auto is located in Canada, it will want to enhance its operations in the global market. Therefore, it will be exposed to different quotas and tariffs (Salvatore 14).
Since a tariff is a tax, it will raise the price of different products that the company will distribute to the market (Steedman 32). In this case, consumers will find the company’s products to be a little bit expensive. This will ultimately affect sales.
Because every country has its own quota system, there will be limits on the amount of goods and services that the company has to export (Sheffrin 16). As a matter of fact, Big Drives automobile products prices will be raised beyond the market equilibrium price.
It should therefore be known that these tariffs and quotas will lead to a decrease in demand for the company’s products (Steedman 17). This will ultimately limit the supply of Big Drive Auto’s automobile products.
These tariffs come in different forms with various intentions depending on the country of origin (Salvatore 18). For example, the tariff may be levied in order to align the price of imported products with that of the locally produced products. This means that such tariffs are levied to level the playing field.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As time goes by, Big Drive Auto might want to distribute its automobile products to various customers in different countries around the world. This means that various trade policies and exchange rates will end up facilitating or reducing the company’s exports.
Exchange rates will ultimately affect the company’s exports in a broad way (Sheffrin 26). The USD is recognized as the world’s official trading currency. Since Big Drive Auto is located in Canada, its exports to other countries will be determined by the exchange rates at that particular time.
For instance, if the company is exporting its goods to other countries and Canada’s local currency becomes strong, its products will end up being expensive. This will affect the final demand and supply.
On the other hand, if the company is importing goods in different countries and its home currency becomes weak; its products will end up being expensive. It should be known that exchange rates keep on fluctuating as time goes by and can never be constant (Salvatore 27).
Different developing countries have come up with various policies and quotas to encourage and enhance foreign investments. World trade organization has been on the forefront to enhance trade between different countries (Salvatore 31).
As a matter of fact, the international trade policy has provided various production subsidies that will end up facilitating Big Drive Auto’s exports. Countries like Hungary have reduced quotas and tariffs on different automobile imports. In this case, the company will be able to increase its exports in such markets.
Big Drive Auto should know that exchange rates bring productivity differences that end up affecting the company’s terms of trade.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Automobile Trade, Tariffs or Quotas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These terms of trade affect the company’s exports to other countries and should be clearly understood as time goes by. For instance, preferential tariffs have reduced import duties on automobile products that Big Drive Auto exports (Salvatore 44). This will increase the company’s sales in new international markets.
Works cited Salvatore, Dominick. Introduction to International Economics. New Jersey: Wiley, 2005. Print.
Sheffrin, M, Steven. Economics: Principles in action. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River, 2003. Print.
Steedman, Ian. Fundamental Issues in Trade Theory. London: MacMillan, 1979. Print.
Human Resource Management Processes Report essay help site:edu
Introduction In the late 19th and early 20th centuries some of the larger employers with a paternalist outlook began to appoint welfare officers to manage a series of new initiatives designed to make life less harsh for their employees. Prominent examples were the progressive schemes of unemployment benefit, sick pay and subsidized housing provided by the Quaker family firms of Cadbury and Rowntree.
While the motives were ….charitable, there was and remains a business as well as an ethical case for paying ….attention to the welfare of employees.” According to Bratton and Gold (2001, p.7), some of the major shifts which were experienced in employment relate to increased concern to the welfare of the workers.
Traditional view of personnel management First World War and the Second World War
By 1918, there was another shift with regard to regulation of working conditions. The resultant effect was establishment of a strong relationship between employee welfare and efficiency. During the 1900s, the labor market was very tight.
Therefore integration of employee welfare was aimed at retaining the employees. During the world war, employees used to perform more intensive work. However, the shift towards employee welfare resulted into better working environment, working equipments, workshop organization and effective management.
In addition, personnel management also focused on remuneration as one of the ways through which employees can be motivated. This is evident in the emergence of Premium Bonus Systems (PBS) which culminated into development of systematic management. Introduction of the PBS method of remuneration led to expansion of the personnel management role.
The events of the First World War resulted into incorporation of industrial relations within the organization. In the early 1920s and 1930s there was a significant change with regard to organization’s internal practices in addition to employer’s perception of their human resource. This is evident in integration of concepts such as rationalization, human relation movement and Taylorism (Armstrong 2003).
The core objective of rationalization of human resource processes was to minimize cost of operation and to improve efficiency and effectiveness. In addition, rationalization was aimed at ensuring that the firm emphasized on tasks with added value. Integration of rationalization in management practices led to emergence of scientific management.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The findings of the Hawthorne experiment were the driving force towards the need for improved human relations. With regard to Taylorism, firms were advised to incorporate employees in their various organizational processes (Cheminais, Waldt
Adult Learning Assumptions Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Six Key Assumptions Provided by Knowles Knowles’s work is narrowed to the analysis of theories of adult learning. His concept of andragogy is the most well-known theory of adult development. Hence, the scope of Knowles (2005) model is based on the six basic assumptions concerning adults and their attitude to learning:
Adults are more self-directed rather than dependent;
The main resource for learning is constant accumulation of experience;
Their desire to acquire knowledge and to learn is predetermined by their social roles;
Adult are considered to be more subject-oriented rather problem-oriented in the course of learning;
They believe that internal motivations are less powerful as compared with the external ones;
Finally, it is important for adult learners to know why it is crucial to learn something (Knowles et al., 2005).
All these assumptions are considered to be critical for designing effective educational models for adult learners.
Analysis of the Assumptions with Regard to Other Critical Evaluations The above-presented assumptions have been reviewed and evaluated by other scholars engaged into the study of adult learning, including various theories and models. Merriam et al. (2007) agree with some assumptions provided by Knowles. In particular, the researchers single out three main methods for transformational learning: development, experience and critical reflection.
They also consider experience as an important factor for creating a great opportunity for adult learners. MacKeracher (2004) also assumers that “Knowles clearly succeeded in encouraging adult educators to be more critically reflective about their assumptions about adult learners and adult learning” (p. 24).
Despite the fact that some assumptions are quite logical and consistent, Merriam et al. (2007) contend that Knowles succeeded only in introducing a teaching theory rather than the model for adult learning.
In particular, they state that there is an ambiguity in Knowles’s assumptions concerning the theory orientation. In particular, they believe that it is hard to define whether this theory is designed for teaching or learning, for adults or for children.
Knowles’s Two Assumptions That Almost Wrong Much critics and discontent is connected with his assumptions about adults orientation on subjects and their readiness to move from dependence to self-directed approaches to learning. Therefore, the first and the fourth assumptions are considered to be wrong and this can also be proven by other scholarly researches in this field.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, as it has been mentioned before, MacKeracher (2004) presupposes that these assumptions are quite controversial. In particular he believes that “[t]he change from ‘self-directed’ to ‘increasing self-directness’ and from ‘problem centered’ to ‘performance-centered’ did not satisfy those who saw the Knowles’ distinction between child and adult learning as being based on assumptions that would not hold up under close scrutiny’” (pp. 23-24).
Second, the falsity of assumption also lies in some psychological characteristic of a person. Hence, some adults are not self-directed because they need some support and guidance in learning, whereas there are children who are internally directed and independent in learning (Comings, Garner, and Smith, p. 203).
Knowles’ Two Assumptions That are Almost Right With regard to the studies and theories examined by scholars (Merriam et al. 2007, MacKeracher, 2004, Comings et al. 2004), the second and the third assumptions are considered to be quite consistent and appropriate for andragogical learning conceptions. All of them agree with the assumption that experience is reservoir of knowledge and the main underpinning of a learning process.
Merriam et al. (2007) believe that a person’s accumulated experience provide relevant and effective opportunities and is closely connected with the learning process. The researchers also believe that experience is a significant aspect affecting adult learners’ ability to obtain, accumulate, and transfer knowledge.
According to MacKeracher (2004), “Adults accumulate experience and prior learning over their lifetime, the older they grow, the more past experience and prior learning they bring to bear on current learning” (p. 33).
Interpreting this, the researcher completely agrees with the fact that experience is the main underpinning for learners’ development. More importantly, experience is the source for creating and developing strategies and skills for reflecting and organizing reaction and interaction in the present.
Coming et al. (2004) support Knowles’s third assumption about the influence of social context on the learning process. The scholars insist on the fact that contextual environment play a decisive role in adults development and knowledge accumulation (Coming et al, 2004, 209).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Adult Learning Assumptions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, context based learning can tale place in the working environment where adults are interacting, becoming the parts of community. Therefore, the result of adults’ learning development largely depends on the social environment they are surrounded by as well as social roles adults perform.
Conclusion Knowles’s (2005) assumptions about adult learning have created a plethora of contradictions that have been critically accepted by other scholars. Hence, his assumptions about adults’ self-directed orientation and problem-centered method of learning have not been supported by the other researcher.
This is explained by arguments correlated with psychological development of individuals. However, his arguments about experience and social role have been widely accepted by the scholars. In particular, they believe that social environment and experience accumulation are the main pillars for adult learners’ development and knowledge acquisition.
Reference List Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., and Swanson, R. (2005). The Adult Learner: the definite classic in adult education and human resource development. US: Butterworth-Heinemann.
MacKeracher, D. (2004). Making sense of adult learning. US: University of Toronto Press.
Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S.,
Employees Job Motivation Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online
Factors Causing the Employee Dissatisfaction
Employees are the backbone of organizations; without them, organizations could never stabilize or grow. Nevertheless, the availability of employees alone does not guarantee that that organization could grow; they must be able to feel satisfied and motivated in order for them to render their very best.
Employee satisfaction refers employees’ affective responses to a job based on the likening of the actual outcomes and the desired outcomes (Morden, 2004).
The factors causing dissatisfaction as per the case study include inadequate career development opportunities, lack of organizational commitment to professional development, poor communication, poor recognition mechanisms and lack of employee participation in decision-making.
Factors that could be addressed to Improve the way organization handles Development of Employees
Most employees in the case feel dissatisfied because there is no opportunity for career development. When the organization they are working for does not institute measures aimed at promoting their future career aspirations, employees have nothing to look forward to.
Some of ways that could be explored towards career development include opportunities for learning and professional growth, job-specific-training, opportunities to network with others in order to advance their career opportunities to use their skills and abilities in work, and paid training.
In the case study, employees complain about lack of organizational commitment to professional development of employees. Professional development is advanced through opportunities such as attending conferences, attending trainings, as well as obtaining certificates.
These opportunities are thus expected to enable employees enhance their skills, and knowledge, in order to build their career profiles and enable them meet their professional goals. From the case study, this is a critical issue because as one employee indicated, she is ready to resign due to lack of commitment towards employee’s professional development in the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For organizations to succeed, commitment to employees’ career development is crucial (Morden, 2004). Managers have to come up with programs that offer opportunities for learning and professional growth such as mentorship, cross training, job specific training, as well as the opportunity to network with other people elsewhere.
If such opportunities are not provided, employees might feel overworked and bored with their work, as is the story in the Case Study. Employees in the case study feel that whatever they are doing is too much and there is no opportunity for personal care i.e. they do not have the freedom in which they can take care of themselves.
Communication between management and employees is a critical factor for consideration. Communication problems are featured in the case study; though not mentioned directly. One of the complaining employees must have been experiencing dissatisfaction for quite some time, but due to inadequate communication, was unable to share them with the seniors.
The coming of the new manager, Malik, seems to have paved way for the employee to come forward and declare the desire to resign. Such a situation of poor communication framework between members of staff tremendously affects employee satisfaction and performance.
Employee participation in decision-making is critical in modern organizations (Morden, 2004). Whenever employees lack enough freedom to make their own decisions, there is bound to be an element of dissatisfaction and poor performance. Furthermore, this is likely to cause boredom because, then, employees will keep on doing only what they have been told to do and nothing further.
Finally, as evidenced in the case study, deficiency in management recognition of employee job performance is a great reason for lack of motivation. Recognition plays a very special role in employee job satisfaction and performance.
This is because once recognition is instituted employees are most likely feel valued and appreciated (Sofo, 2000). Performance appraisal is critical and employees have to receive clear feedback about their performance. In the case study, recognition appears lacking thus workers do not feel valued enough.
We will write a custom Assessment on Employees Job Motivation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is critical to deal with the question of training in the organization (Sofo, 2000). Training not only equips employees with more skills, knowledge and change in attitudes, it also ensures that the organization responds to changing environment. Whenever training and other mentioned factors are put in place, the organization is deemed to benefit from improved skills and performance.
Malik’s immediate response to the issue of dissatisfaction
The first thing Malik should deal with is find a way of getting employees and managers to talk and air out their issues. He has to, immediately, come up with a favorable framework to encourage all round communication among employees and the seniors without fear. This framework should sustainably encourage immediate airing of current problems but encourage proactive engagement between employees and management in the future.
Secondly, Malik should attempt to institute job-rotation so that employees get a chance of experiencing different tasks and then identifying the most appropriate tasks they would love to do. This way, employees participate in deciding what is good for them in the organization.
Finally, Malik has to, immediately; engage the employees in job evaluation against compensation and benefits. This is an important preliminary move given motivation is highly pegged on recognition and reward. Through the job evaluation, employees will begin to realize a sense of their work being appreciated.
Malik should evaluate the employee’s basic pay, variable pay, bonuses, and commissions and engage employees in dialogue to gauge their feel about the same. By doing so, Malik will be able to realize why the employees might be feeling undervalued and thus institute immediate remedial action.
Long-term changes that the manager should suggest for the organization
Based on foregoing discussions, for long term stability and motivation of employees, Malik should consider suggesting both job related and social changes that will motivate employees.
For instance, Malik should design and suggest training programs that will ensure that employees are kept at par with whatever that is going on in the industry. The training programs should contain both on job and off job elements. Off-the-job training can consist in the sponsoring of employees to study in their areas of choice whenever they find it necessary.
Secondly, Malik should consider proposing the organization of some social events such as tours, and sports in order to ensure that employees get to free their minds off the strenuous tasks in the office and bond among themselves.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Employees Job Motivation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thirdly, Malik could propose continuous review of the compensation structure thus ensuring that employees are rewarded for their performance at work and related loyalty. The amount of disposable income determines the kind of efforts employees can put in on their own for personal development
Human Resource Policies that would support Development programs within the organization
The kind of policies that Malik suggests should be in line with aligning employee skills and talents with organizational needs. Secondly, the policies should encourage career development, employee recognition and adequate compensation or remuneration.
One important policy would be in line with ensuring that employees are assigned tasks or responsibilities for which they are talented to do and for which they have higher affinity. This will lead to employee being able to what they like and thus improving their productivity.
The organization needs a clear policy on promotion and advancement. By having a work performance pegged promotion policy, the organization will encourage better performance and consequently increase productivity. For instance, if an employee has successfully executed his/her mandate for quite some time, she/he should be given an opportunity for higher job responsibilities.
Reference List Morden, T. (2004). Principles of Management. 2nd Ed., London: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Sofo, F. (2000). Human Resource Development: Perspectives, Roles and Practice Choices. London: Allen
Gadget Toy Company’s Network Definition Essay essay help online
Drawing Network Gadget Toy Company’s Network
Purpose of Critical Path A critical path helps the management to identify the most crucial activity in every project. A critical path is the longest time that a project can take to be completed. At the same time, it is the shortest time that a project can take because it has no float time.
Identification of the critical path helps the management in allocating resources and directing the activities in order to accomplish the project within the stipulated time schedule (Webb, 2002). The critical path shows activities whose duration can be reduced to reduce the overall production duration.
Otherwise, reducing activities, which do not form part of the critical path, increases cost without reducing the overall project duration. The critical path outlines the most important sets of activities which when implemented the project goals will be realized (Webb, 2002).
Tracking the project using the Critical path Critical path analysis allows management to monitor the development of the project while tracing its achievement (Webb, 2002). Through the critical path, the management can tell whether they will be able to meet their targeted goals or not. Any deviation arising are easily detected and remedial action are employed promptly to address any shortcomings.
Moreover, the critical path helps the management to identify activities, which can be delayed in order to allocate limited resources to other activities without affecting the project duration. On the same note, the critical path helps the management make good judgments pertaining future changes in costs and other eventualities.
To hasten project analysis, Critical path is used to develop Gantt Charts, which illustrates the sequence in which activities are implemented (Webb, 2002). Gantt charts also shows which activities should be completed first before initiating others, without the critical path the management may find it difficult to understand which activities to implement first.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ways Preventing Project delays To keep the project on track the management may decide to switch some resource from an activity with float time to a critical activity. This process helps to ensure that all the critical activities are ran smoothly while delaying other activities, which are not critical (Webb, 2002).
Delaying such projects does not affect the overall project duration. From the network drawn above, the management of Gadget Company may opt to delay activity D (Deliver material) to allocate more time for installing tools (activity E).
Secondly, the management may opt to hire additional labor, or provide for overtime (work on weekends) in order to reinstate the project back on track. However such as measure means requires additional allocation of money to hire more labor.
The other way that a project can be kept on track is by working at night so as to make up for the lost time. The other alternative would involve increasing supply so as to hasten the rate project completion time. However, any decision to increase labor and supply means incurring extra cost, which may not be readily available.
Finally, Gadget Toy may opt to crash one of the critical activities to reduce the operation time. Crashing an activity involves reducing the duration taken by an activity at a higher cost. Crashing cost depends on the time reduced on top of the original cost budgeted for that activity.
Ways of linking interrelated projects There are several ways of linking multiple projects with interdependencies using the critical path method namely:
Performance Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT),
Earned Value Management (EVM)
Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)
Program Evaluation and Review technique
According to Webb (2002) PERT forms the foundation of planning and forecasting thereby enabling the management to prepare in advance. Apart from this, PERT provide management with ample time when it comes to decisions making especially in interrelated projects and portfolio projects.
We will write a custom Essay on Gadget Toy Company’s Network specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This management tool not only helps in effective utilization of resources of resource but it also ensures that all projects are completed within the stipulated time. This is made possible by visibility provided by the project as single process is used for various projects. Finally, PERT is a reliable tool for handling uncertainties because all projects are laid in a horizontal manner that makes it easier for management to detect any delay or slack.
Earned Value Management (EVM)
EVM is another popular method of linking project that is being used in the modern management practices. It involves analyzing various projects, portfolios and businesses, it provide management with information tools to handle several projects at ago.
In addition, EVM provides insight for future changes in project implementation. In order for management to adequately prepare for the impending uncertainties, EVM provides room for prioritizing some projects while delaying others in order to facility a mutual relationship between them.
Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)
GERT operates in a similar way as the Pert but have some differences because it allow looping, project branching and multiple projects handling. GERT is an improvement on PERT because it elaborates the status of a project whether it is successful or not. Incase a project branch fails to deliver the expected results the management switches attention to other branch.
Benefits of Linking Projects Linking project has become a popular method of handling various projects that are interrelated, through linking such project the management derives many benefits.
Firstly, the management improves planning as linkages facilitate projecting the future trends of the projects in terms of time and money requirement. With such a foresight the management plans in advance on how to overcome such challenges by delaying some projects or by increasing labor to meet the stipulated deadline.
Pennypacker and Dye (1999) asserts that connecting several interrelated projects provides room for identifying repetitive activities. This helps in streamlining operation since the criteria for handling this project remains similar from one set of activities to the other. Repeated action promotes managers dexterity and confidence in handling similar projects in future thereby improving their efficiency.
Integrating projects helps the managers to reschedule activities to display project interdependencies and how such relationships stretch the available resources. However, with this challenge in the mind the manager ensures proper prioritization of activities for efficiency utilization of limited resources.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gadget Toy Company’s Network by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With the modern state-of-the- art, linking projects has also provided room for development of software to handles multi-projects in one go. Such development has acted to the best interest of managers whose role has been reduced to monitoring the progress and checking for compliance with the set time limits.
Additionally, the management has the challenge of dealing with conflicts between projects and ensuring optimal allocation of resource between such projects. Moreover, the managers have the obligation of allocating resources according to the priorities set for the conflicting projects.
Nevertheless, setting priority for activities forming part of the critical path has proved to be cumbersome and as a result, the management should always remain vigilant at such critical moments (Pennypacker and Dye, 1999).
Reference List Pennypacker, S.J.
Scottish and Southern Energy Evaluation Report (Assessment) essay help free: essay help free
Executive Summary Scottish and Southern Energy serves the energy needs of household clients in the United Kingdom. The SWOT Analysis shows the many strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the company.
Likewise, the PESTEL analysis delves in the political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal aspects of the energy-providing company. The Porter’s five forces analysis explains the inputs from the current competitors, consumer, substitute, supplier, and new entrants on Southern and Scottish Energy’s marketing strategies.
The financial statements indicate that Scottish and Southern Energy profitably resolved each significant hurdle or opportunity along its path to achieve organisational goals and objectives. The company’s profitable stature points to strong recommendations to continue its currently successful innovative company policies.
The balance scorecard shows that the company overcomes each obstacle with flying colours. Indeed, SSE maximises the factors within the SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s 5 forces, and other frameworks to profitably surpass benchmarks in the United Kingdom energy market segment.
Introduction The company, Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE), maximises the SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s 5 forces, and other significant variables to profitably succeed in the United Kingdom energy market segment. SSE is an organization engaged in the energy market segment. The company’s head office is strategically located in Pert, Scotland. It is the second largest supplier of energy needs in the United Kingdom.
The research focuses on the company’s financial statement analysis, SWOT analysis, and balanced scorecard with the United Kingdom. This paper evaluates the company’s success in terms of its competitive environment by implementing effective corporate strategies.
Discussion and Analysis The Competitive Scottish and Southern Energy – Industry Analysis
P E S T L E Analysis
Political Environment Scottish and Southern Energy complies with all political requirements of the nation. Government legislation encourages organisational, including Scottish and Southern Energy, to provide a variety of jobs to reduce the increasing unemployment rate (Balchin,1994).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scottish and Southern Energy hires employees from communities where each power plant is strategically located; consequently, the company aids to government in reducing unemployment rate (Taylor, 2007).
Economic situation In terms of company’s significant macroeconomic situation, the current financial crisis during the past few years precipitated from the current economic recession enveloping the United Kingdom and other parts of the world.
The global online population will grow to about more than 2 billion by 2014 , or more than 40% from 1.6 billion in 2009. Due to the global financial crisis of 2008, Scottish and Southern Energy reduces avoidable expenses to a bare minimum to retain a profitable financial picture (Taylor, 2007).
Social Environment Czinkota (2006) theorised due to a variety of social changes, the Scottish and Southern Energy expands to increase its revenues. The increasing influx of immigrants from European countries under the European Union charter increases the demand for electricity, gas, and other energy-related needs.
The increase in the number immigrants living within the territorial boundaries of the United Kingdom creates an increase in the demand for Scottish and Southern Energy’s products and services. Dubrin (2008) opined because of the increase in the prices of basic commodities, British consumers are forced to reduce the use of electricity, gas, and other energy needs.
Technological According to Adrian Davies (2006), Scottish and Southern Energy incorporates green technology as on of its popular energy product alternatives. Starting in 2004, Scottish and Southern Energy implements its green energy policy using wind energy to generate electricity. Wind (patterned after Holland’s windmill technology), water, and future nuclear energy sources are patterned fill the residents’ increasing preferred energy needs.
Steven Fuller (2005) observes the company has entered into a technology agreement with other power conversion organisations to research and develop an innovative direct current process with the use of windmill-based power technology
We will write a custom Assessment on Scottish and Southern Energy Evaluation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Legal Baumueller (2007) opined the company complies with all the laws of the United Kingdom. The Scottish and Southern Energy company pays each subordinate the minimum daily allowable by United Kingdom and other related laws. The company complies with all tax, cultural, employment, and other statues implemented in communities where each Scottish and Southern Energy site is located within the United Kingdom.
Environmental According to Piranhar (2006), the company does not throw its waste products into the crystal clear waters located near any of its energy-generating sites. With the current climate change issues, Scottish and Southern Energy offers wind, water, and future nuclear energy-based energy sources as environment-friendly alternatives to using pollution-triggering fossil oil.
Porter’s Five Forces
Using the five forces model by Porter (1980) the following are the derived results:
Threat of New Entrants There are a few competitors eager to unceremoniously snatch each household client of Southern and Scottish Energy. The Saturated Electricty and energy price issue confronts competitors including British Gas, Scottish Power, EDF Energy, and Powergen (Davies, 2006).
The continuing increases in electricity costs forces Southern and Scottish Energy to increase its prices; this triggers the public’s demand for cheaper alternative sources of energy.
Bargaining Power of Suppliers According to Yilmaz (2009), the major suppliers of Southern and Scottish Energy can significantly bargain to ensure a constant purchase of their supplies. Supplier preference is price-based. Energy suppliers include the fossil oil producing companies and water energy suppliers.
Bargaining Power of Consumers Porter emphasized that companies avoiding to innovate may suffer in terms of revenues. The government statutes affect client’s bargaining power. The consumers have few alternative energy choices. Consequently, many clients may shift to the competitors’ energy products and services (Porter, 1980).
The Energy Competitors may produce similar or even better substitutes Ritz theorised (2005) the price-based U.K. energy industry offers few alternative substitutes; candles and firewood cannot offer similar benefits as Scottish and Southern Energy sources in the electricity, gas, and other energy sources. In the Energy industry, there are two substitution forms; product for product and substitute for need.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Scottish and Southern Energy Evaluation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Competitors may have the Power to Bargain According to Janet Wood (2007) the saturated electricity, gas, and other energy-generating market segments in the United Kingdom continue to trigger the capital-intensive competitors in the local energy industry to creatively innovate to keep abreast of the competition. Currently, Scottish and Southern Energy uses renewal energy to reduce pollution.
This part summarizes the discussions made in the Scottish and Southern Energy external environment using the five-force model (Porter, 1980) and those made from internal analysis using unique company characteristics and financial analysis.
Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths According to Davies (2006), the company, Southern and Scottish Energy , has many sources to fuel the electricity and other needs of its household 3,600,000 clients within the United Kingdom.
The client-centred company’s alternative sources of energy include water (hydroelectric power), wind (windmill technology), and fossil fuel. The company focuses on continued research and development activities. The company is a synergetic combination Scottish Hydro, Southern Electricity , SWALEC, and other companies.
Weaknesses According to Webb (2010) the Southern and Scottish Energy often increases the prices of its energy supplies to its 3,600,000 United Kingdom clients. Specifically, the company increased its December 2010 household electricity charges by £ 67 to recoup its increasing expenses within Southern England, Wales, and Scotland communities. The clients may seek other sources of energy to alleviate the increase in electricity costs.
Opportunities The company, Scottish and Southern Energy focuses on a new source, nuclear energy, to fill the communities’ energy needs. The use of nuclear energy eliminates the use of fossil oil, a big contributor to smoke pollution. Smoke pollution; smoke pollution causes damage to the environmental.
Threats According to Webb (2010), the increase in the electricity prices prompts many Scottish and Southern Energy clients to seek alternative sources of energy. The competitors, British Gas, Scottish Power, EDF Energy, and Powergen, are eagerly awaiting every chance to steal the company’s clients.
Davies (2006) emphasised the United Kingdom energy market structure is saturated. Scottish and Southern Energy supplies the electricity, gas, and other energy needs of residents within the United Kingdom.
The company is currently complying with the government’s emphasis on the use of environment-friendly energy sources. The company’s focus includes the use of renewable energy. Renewable energy includes the use of water wave (hydroelectricity) and wind (green technology) to fill the electricity, gas, and other energy needs of people living within the United Kingdom territory.
Southern and Scottish Energy’s Financial Performance Analysis Through Ratios
According to Maguire (2007), Scottish and Southern Energy continues to maintain a profitable image by implementing a customer –based strategic energy sources. The economic depression cropped up and affected worldwide industries from 2008 to the present; the depression reduced the company’s ROCE and other ratios from 2008 until the present.
According to Helfert (2001) the Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) formula calculated in Table 1 (appendix) shows the Scottish and Southern Energy ROCE has drastically decreased from 14 percent in 2007 to only 12 percent in 2008. Similarly, the 2008 figure had decreased further to only 1 percent in 2009. The same 2009 figure rose to 11 percent in 2010.
The computation shows Scottish and Southern Energy was less profitable in 2009 as compared to the 2010 Scottish and Southern Energy ROCE computation. The economic depression started to lessen in 2010. Analysing the 2008 to 2010 period indicates an overall profitable business.
Thomas Russo (2008) mentioned the 2008 economic depression triggered the reduction in SSE’s 2007 financial statement ratios. Based on the gross profit ratio shown in Table 2 (appendix), the 2007 gross profit ratio of the company declined due to the economic depression starting in 2008. 14 percent declined to only ten percent in 2008.
The 2008 economic depression reduced the gross profit ratio from 10 percent to only 2 percent in 2009. Lastly the 2009 gross profit ratio declined increased to 11 percent. Overall, the ratios indicate the company’s gross profit ratio is favourable.
Based on the net profit ratio shown in Table 3 (appendix), the economic depression starting in 2008 reduced the 2007 net profit ratio to only 6 percent in 2008. Likewise, the 2008 economic depression reduced the 2008 net income from 6 percent to only 0 percent in 2009. Lastly the improving 2010 economic depression propelled the 2009 profit ratio from the 0 amount in 2009 based figure to a 6 percent financial statement ratio.
The improving 2010 economic condition increase the 2009 profit ratio from a lower percentage n declined position to the higher 6 percent. The quick ratio shown in Table 4 (appendix) indicates of the 2007 to 2010 quick ratio figures remained fixed at one percent. The improving 2010 economic condition encourages more people to buy and sell SSE and other products and services.
The Corporate Strategies Currently Being Pursued by the Company
Palmer (2004) proposed the corporate strategies pursued by SSE include its marketing strategies that are focused on diversification of its product, price, place, and promotion strategies. The company sells high quality electricity, gas, and other energy products at reasonable prices.
The company advertises its products in and sets up its power generating plants to strategically reach current and future clients. Kotler (2008) proposed In addition, the company’s corporate strategy focuses on dividend distribution.
Mayo (2007) theorised SSE’s financial scorecard shows a passing grade. The company was able to show that it was able to generate profits for the shareholders. The company’s objective of generating profits has been reached. The company’s net income data indicates a passing grade in the measurement, target, and initiative areas (Yilmaz, 2009).
Internal Business Processes
As evidenced by the income statement, SSE is able to maximize its scarce internal resources to increase revenues and by maximizing its opportunities and strengths (Feldman, 2007). The company was able to attain its objective to improve its internal business processes by surpassing its measurement standard of increasing revenues and profits (Stickney, 2009).
Learning and Growth
DuBrin (2008) observed the SSE’s financial statements indicate that it was able to achieve its vision to sustain its current top spot in terms of the United Kingdom electricity, gas, and other energy-based market share.
This has been backed by the company’s ability to change and improve its marketing and production strategies to innovatively retain its hold on a majority of the market segment. The company has been able to attain its objective, target, and initiative by to changing its strategies to retain its share of the measurement gauge known as market segment.
According to McDonald (2007), the SSE’s income statement indicates that it has been able to achieve its vision of offering its current and prospective clients high quality electricity, gas, and other energy-based products at reasonable prices.
The company has attained its objective of generating profits by satisfying the clients’ needs (Mun, 2006). In terms of measurement, target, and initiative, the company’s positive financial ratios indicates clients are happy with the company’s services (Weygandt, 2009).
According to Rix (2007), Scottish and Southern Energy is one of the top suppliers of household electricity, gas, and other energy-based products and service quality. At this level, product differentiation (wind, water, and fossil oil based energy) is an effective marketing strategy.
Strategic Map Stakeholder Perspective
According to Chapman (2007), the company, SSE, provides its stakeholders with opportunities to expand their benefits and leverage through collective knowledge and experiences from regular business reports. Next, the company will provide the basics for facility management professionals within the organisation to be promoted to higher responsibilities and position.
According to Weihrich (2009), SSE ensures the efficient and effective production processes to maximize scarce labour, material, and time resources. The company continues to deliver high value electricity, gas, and other energy-based products and services to its members, clients, and partners.
Learning and Growth Perspective
Weihrich (2009) opines SSE continues to creatively enhance its popular SSE culture by maximizing scarce energy-generating plants to fulfil the company’s goals, vision, mission, and objectives. The company incorporates innovation, challenge, and passion in its electricity, gas, and other energy-based marketing activities. The employees attend regular trainings to improve their work outputs.
Weihrich (2009) proposes the company’s financial statement ratios. The company continues to successfully generate revenues. The revenues translate to net profits. Consequently, the company has more than enough funds to focus on increasing its market presence; the nuclear power plant research is one of the company’s recent goals.
Conclusion Based on the above discussion, the success of the Scottish and Southern Energy business organisation is firmly grounded on many significant factors. The financial statement ratios show Scottish and Southern Energy gets a high passing grade for maximizing its assets to generate profits.
The company focuses on offering high quality energy produces and products. Lastly, the company ensures there is an uninterrupted supply to of electricity, gas, and other energy needs reaching each household.
This paper focuses on the profit maximization strategies employed by SSE for the years 2007 and 2010. The financial statement ratios show that the company did financially well before 2008 debacles. The SSE Company maximises the SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s 5 forces, and other significant inputs to profitably succeed in the United Kingdom energy market segment.
Recommendations (Future Strategic Direction Based on Balanced Scorecard) In terms of balanced scorecards’ financial perspective (Yilmaz, 2009), SSE must continue its current strategic direction of generating net profits by filling the clients’ electricity, gas, and other energy needs at affordable prices over the next ten years.
Based on the company’s balanced scorecard indicating the company continues to generate net profits for 2007 to 2010 from satisfied household clients, the current favourable financial success must be continued by offering high quality products at reasonable SSE prices.
In terms of the balanced scorecard’s customer aspect, the company continues its current strategic direction of advertising the company’s image over the next ten years. The income statement’s net income data shows the company generated profits.
In terms of the SSE’s balanced scorecard’s internal business process aspect, SSE management must continue its current strategic direction of improving the company’s current high quality supply chain strategy over the next ten years. The company’s internal business process balanced scorecard status indicates the company successfully profits from its huge chunk of the United Kingdom electricity, gas, and other energy market segments.
In terms of the company’s balanced scorecard’s learning and growth aspect, SSE, must conduct random community surveys as a new basis for instituting client-based strategies over the next ten years. The company’s balanced scorecard grade under the learning and growth aspect indicates the company is able to achieve its vision and mission to sustain its energy market leadership.
Appendices Scottish and Southern Energy. Financial Statement Analysis. Table 1
ROCE 2010 2009 2008 2007 = Net income = 1,236,000 112,000 873,000 831,000 Total Assets – Current Liabilities 10,916,000 9,625,000 7,067,000 6,097,000 0.11 0.01 0.12 0.14 Table 2
2010 2009 2008 2007 Gross Profit Ratio = Gross Profit = 2,478,000 = 580,000 = 1,559,000 = 1,695,000 Net Revenues 21,550,000 25,424,000 15,256,000 11,867,000 = 0.11 = 0.02 = 0.10 = 0.14 Table 3
Net Profit Ratio 2010 2009 2008 2007 = Net Profit = 1,236,000 = 112,000 = 873,000 = 831,000 Net Revenues 21,550,000 25,424,000 15,256,000 11,867,000 = 0.06 = 0.00 = 0.06 = 0.07 Table 4
Quick Ratio 2010 2009 2008 2007 = Current Assets = 7,235,000 8,074,000 5,152,000 3,168,000 Current Liabilities 7,212,000 8,144,000 6,707,000 3,374,000 = 1 = 1 = 1 = 1 The above table shows that the quick ratio does not change from 2007 to 2010.
Debt to Equity Ratio 2010 2009 2008 2007 = Total Debt = 15,003,000 = 14,792,000 = 10,794,000 = 6,875,000 Total Equity 3,125,000 2,977,000 2,980,000 2,596,000 = 4.80096 = 4.9687605 = 3.62214765 = 2.6483051 The above table shows that the company the 2007 percentage has the best debt to equity ratio. The 2007 ratio is the lowest at 2.65 percent. The best debt to equity ratio is 100 percent.
Table 6. Scottish and Southern Energy. Income Statement
Southern and Scottish Energy Income Statement IN THOUSAND POUNDS Period Ending 31-Mar-10 31-Mar-09 31-Mar-08 31-Mar-07 Total Revenue 21,550,000 25,424,000 15,256,000 11,867,000 Cost of Revenue 19,073,000 24,844,000 13,698,000 10,173,000 Gross Profit 2,478,000 580,000 1,559,000 1,695,000 Operating Expenses 19,783,000 25,416,000 14,279,000 10,674,000 Operating Income 1,767,000 9,000 977,000 1,193,000 – – – – 1,767,000 9,000 977,000 1,193,000 -305,000 -237,000 -119,000 -124,000 – – – – 403,000 -59,000 211,000 302,000 – – – – 1,236,000 112,000 873,000 831,000 Net Income 1,236,000 112,000 873,000 831,000 Table 7 Balance sheet. Scottish and Southern Energy
Thousand pounds Period Ending 31-Mar-10 31-Mar-09 31-Mar-08 31-Mar-07 Assets Current Assets Cash And Cash Equivalents 262,000 296,000 255,000 56,000 Short Term Investments – – – – Net Receivables 3,364,000 3,922,000 2,432,000 1,592,000 Inventory 273,000 367,000 251,000 214,000 Other Current Assets 285,000 301,000 1,251,000 631,000 Total Current Assets 7,235,000 8,074,000 5,152,000 3,168,000 Long Term Investments 1,047,000 937,000 924,000 706,000 Property Plant and Equipment – – – – Goodwill 726,000 724,000 659,000 293,000 Deferred Long Term Asset Charges 157,000 100,000 43,000 66,000 Total Assets 18,128,000 17,769,000 13,774,000 9,471,000 Liabilities Current Liabilities Accounts Payable 2,162,000 2,604,000 1,849,000 1,412,000 Short/Current Long Term Debt 6,047,000 5,396,000 3,921,000 2,279,000 Other Current Liabilities 3,472,000 3,758,000 2,183,000 1,100,000 Total Current Liabilities 7,212,000 8,144,000 6,707,000 3,374,000 Long Term Debt 4,771,000 4,336,000 2,073,000 1,803,000 Other Liabilities – – – – Deferred Long Term Liability Charges 257,000 216,000 221,000 1,000 Total Liabilities 15,003,000 14,792,000 10,794,000 6,875,000 Common Stock 1,319,000 1,296,000 751,000 530,000 Retained Earnings 1,687,000 1,493,000 2,176,000 2,048,000 Treasury Stock 119,000 189,000 54,000 18,000 Capital Surplus 372,000 – 1,000 1,000 Other Stockholder Equity – – – – Total Stockholder Equity 3,125,000 2,977,000 2,980,000 2,596,000 Table 8 Return on Assets
2010 2009 Return on Assets = Net Income = 1,236,000 = 112,000 Average Total Assets 17948500 15771500 = 0.07 = 0.01 The above table shows that the 2010 return on assets result has a better results (7 percent) when compared to the 2009 return on assets amount (one percent).
Table 9 Scottish and Southern Energy Marketshare and Figure of marketshare
Million Pounds U.K. Plc ( Energy Sector) 2009 Revenues Links Essar Plc 8,453.00 https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/ESSR.L?p=ESSR.L Scottish
Complexity Theory Models of Leadership with Other Models of Leadership Compare and Contrast Essay best college essay help
Introduction Leadership is a contemporary issue that has been viewed differently among many people. This is because leadership has different aspects, styles and models and there are also different contexts of leadership.
Generally leadership can be defined to be the process of mobilizing a group of people with common interests to achieve a common goal. In a more complex view, leadership is the process where on person influences another person or a group of people by seeking their support and helping them accomplish a common task.
Good leaders are said to be born and not made. This view can be justified because anyone with a will and desire to lead can become a leader. Inborn leaders improve their leadership qualities by a process of training and study of leadership. Influential Leaders practice their career by applying their dexterities.
The act of practicing dexterities is known as procedural leadership. Some leaders allow their traits to influence how they lead and this is referred to as trait leadership. While leadership is learnt, the person’s traits and values largely for example their beliefs influence and how they lead.
Thesis This paper is generally about leadership and the various concepts and aspects of leadership. It provides detailed information about the different models of leadership and their various differences and similarities. It however majors on the complexity model of leadership and how it is similar and different from the other models of leadership.
Models of leadership are generally the different ways of executing leadership and are clearly stated in this paper. The models of leadership are different in nature and their styles because leaders employ different ways and methods in leading other people.
Overview of leadership A leader as earlier defined is the process of influencing a group of people or certain people to achieve a common goal. Leaders are different in their leadership styles and methods. Some leaders use excessive power and control on their followers while others only take responsibility of the task and the act of accomplishing it but are not so controlling.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some leaders involve their followers in decision making while others make decisions on their own and their followers only compliment them. Leadership has various factors that make it. The first factor of leadership is a leader.
Finchman and Rhodes state that a leadership must have an effective leader who is honest and believes in his or her abilities and in him or herself. A leader should also be able to have a full understanding of him so that other people can understand him too (Finchman
Product Launch at Credit Master Essay essay help
Abstract The purpose of this research paper is to give an analysis of the internal situation at Credit Master that makes it possible to launch the new product called fast credit. This is a service offered by the company that enables customers and lenders to view credit information over the internet. It protects customers against fraudsters who have increased in the UK.
Credit Master have been using this product for quite some time but it had not followed the marketing procedures involved in launching new products into the market. This paper gives the procedure to be followed when launching new products so that it gets to the targeted customers. This is done by designing a launching plan which has to be included in the budget because it consumes a significant amount of money.
After fast credit has been launched, the company has to modify its marketing strategies or adopt new ones in order to monitor and control the new product. This ensures that its new product (fast credit) get to the right customers and guarantees the company success in the rapidly changing global market. These strategies are effective promotion and marketing mix.
Introduction Starting up a new product is taking a risk; however if the decision is well thought there are numerous benefits that come with investing in business venture. Before one is set to start a new venture there are short and long terms parameters that he should consider to ensure that there will be continuity in the product. The future is unpredictable and so even the smallest details about something should be interpolated before starting up.
It will be appreciated that a company with properly shaped psychological contracts embraces a system that allows employees to air their views to the higher leadership. Conducting an internal analysis helps a company to understand its marketing position and the opportunities than can be utilized to enhance its performance.
This paper gives a brief background of Credit Master Company, looks at the procedure followed in designing a launch plan and gives the SWOT analysis as well as some of the marketing strategies that should be adopted to ensure continuity of the new product.
Background Credit Master is a global agency company that provides financial, marketing, and statistical information to customers and businesses. Its core business operation is to partner with other companies such as banks and credit card companies in the provision of financial information.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As we all know, lending money is a risky business but the information provided by Credit Master helps financial institution in making informed decisions. The work of this firm is to enable lending institutions such as banks to share information related to their customer’s credit accounts. The lender uses this information in making decision on whether or not a customer is eligible for a loan.
This is done by looking at the amount of credit held by a customer and how it is being managed. Credit Master charges a fee to the lenders every time its record is searched.
However, the customer has to give his consent before his credit report information is searched and for such information to be stored by Credit Master. Customers too have a right to view their credit information but they can only do so after paying a legal charge of £2.
Credit Master Market covers student loans, personal loans, hire purchase agreements, mortgages, credit cards, among others. For a long time, the firm’s customers have being relying on the post in applying and receiving their credit information. However, recently, the company has been using a new product called credit fast which has enabled it to target new markets.
Customers can now apply and receive their statutory report online after passing the authentication process. With credit fast, customers are able to understand the perception held by prospective lenders regarding their credit information and are therefore in a position to determine whether their request will be granted. This new products also protects members against identity fraud which has become a problem in UK.
Literature Review Product launch plan
After product development and having done a thorough scrutiny of the target market, the next step is to develop a product launch plan. This plan will concentrate on the necessary phases that will help boost production, build up marketing strategies, come up programs for sales people training, and grounding of how to set up or sustain the product.
A well prepared product launch plan results in faster and more effective marketing and coordination of activities (Lodato, 2008: 10). Having a product launch plan is very crucial for the success of every business. The following procedure has to be followed in launching new products.
We will write a custom Essay on Product Launch at Credit Master specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Understanding the Target Market and market segmentation
Under review of the product launch process; there are certain things that should be put into consideration such as identification of needed activities, system requirement, and organizational responsibilities.
A clear understanding of the target market is necessary in any product launch plan. This is because products launched on markets where most of the audience are not interested results in terrible failures. One has to have a thorough understanding of his audience.
Understanding of the target market is known as market segmentation. The target market should be broken down into small segments to make advertising easy. One of the benefits of market segmentation is that. Companies are able to target specific populations that would have not been reached if mass marketing was adopted.
With this kind of marketing, companies are able to have a closer contact with their potential customers and they are able to understand their tastes, interests, and their economic positions which helps them in determining patterns of consumption and the marketing strategies to be adopted.
With market segmentation, the process of marketing becomes simple because marketers are able to concentrate their marketing strategies on specific groups of people with similar characteristics. They are also able to monitor the process of products in the specific markets with the expectation of better results.
After reviewing the product launch process, the next step is to develop a process improvement. This involves making improvement on the marketing strategies, organization responsibilities, and design of the product.
In order to achieve an effective improvement process, the best way to go about this is to market and pre-sell the product (as Credit Masters has already done) in the targeted markets before the actual date of launching. Different methods of advertising may be used to drive the message home.
The aim of this pre-selling is to help the product developers get some feedback from the audience of which they can be able to make the necessary adjustments before launching the product (Lodato, 2008: 15).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Product Launch at Credit Master by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Integrate Organization
Once the process has been reviewed and necessary improvements done, the next step is to redesign the organization integration. This integration is done among the product launch team members who are responsible for its development.
Responsibilities are distributed among the team members and necessary changes made which then helps to facilitate the launch activities. Trainings are offered to the team members in order to equip them with the necessary skills required in this job.
After carrying out the necessary analysis for the product launch, the product launch team is left with the responsibility of designing the plan. The plan should include method of advertisement to be adopted, projected budget among others.
The plan should be cost effective and cost should be kept as low as possible. After successfully launching the product, the team should monitor closely its progress, get feedback from the users and decide when to raise or lower the charges (Ebbena
Medtronic, Inc. Marketing Plan Evaluation Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Background and Goals Medtronic Inc is the leading medical technology company in the world, controlling more than half of the world’s annual revenue on the heart-pacing market (Anonymous, 2010). Its headquarters are in Minneapolis, Minnesota and it operates in over 120 countries.
In addition, around sixty-six percent of its revenue is generated locally, twenty percent in Europe, ten percent in the pacific Asia and the remaining percentage in the rest of the world. As it expanded, the firm employed Picker International Corporation of White Plains, New York to assist in running the business internationally.
The founder of Medtronic Inc was an electrical engineer a profession that boosted his knowledge on specializing in medical devices. He established the company by specializing in pace making which has taken Medtronic to very high heights (Anonymous, 2010).
Medtronic is a manufacturer of diversified and exclusive medical equipment, which are capable of handling any medical complication. It continues to develop better and advanced equipment in order to maintain its top position.
Moreover, the firm has recently developed Combo Insulin Pump and Glucose Monitor for Diabetes, which is the best device for managing diabetes in the world. Since Medtronic is a world-class company, it aims at coming up with a marketing plan that will enable it do extensive sales in the whole world. The first step is to identify a country whereby its sales can pick significantly.
Medtronic objective To ensure that every person on this earth has an opportunity to live as healthy, innovative, creative, and successful lives as they can.
Combo Insulin Pump and Glucose Monitor for Diabetes
For a long time, patients with diabetes have been facing acute challenges in treating and managing their insulin levels due to lack of proper devices. The devices Medtronic made would help the patients but were not as effective.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Diabetic patients would have their live revolve around treating the disease which involved boiling of the syringes, sharpening needles, injecting animal-based insulin formulations, checking on the diet and doing exercise.
Maintaining unpredictable glucose levels has been challenging and no single and portable device was available in the market. Patients had to carry a combination of devices for checking glucose levels and injecting insulin (Fowler, 2009).
Minneapolis-based medical technology company Medtronic, Inc. has however developed an Insulin Pump and Continuous Glucose Monitoring System which, integrates a glucose meter and an insulin pump with a dose calculator into one device.
The device combines an insulin pump with a glucose monitor, facilitates data interchange between the two and FDA has cleared and approved the product. The device operates day and night and in case glucose levels gets dangerously low or high, it sounds or vibrates an alarm thus giving the patients confidence of leading a healthy life (Dave, 2010).
The device is meant to enable people to manage their diabetes more conveniently and give them confidence of day to day healthy living. This is because the patient is aware of what is exactly happening in his body instead of doing guesswork with only a couple of finger sticks.
The new device is around as three times as effective as standard therapy (David, 2010). The integrated device can be used in hospitals, clinical and medical research laboratories, blood and plasma collection centers, rehabilitation centers, nursing homes, doctors’ offices and by patients at home under physician supervision.
Medtronic, Inc. Marketing Plan
Having come up with a diabetic device that will ease the daily lives of the patients, Medtronic, Inc has a full opportunity in the USA and outside the country. Apart from the local market, which assures Medtronic more than sixty percent of its annual revenue, the best foreign country for Medtronic to establish extensive market for its new device would be the United Kingdom.
We will write a custom Essay on Medtronic, Inc. Marketing Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More United Kingdom is located in Europe and Statistics show that the second best market for Medtronic, Inc devices lies in Europe. This is because sixty-six percent of Medtronic’s annual revenue is generated locally and the next twenty percent is generated from Europe.
Coupled with the fact that UK is ranked position three in the list of obese population, then it will be a potential market for Combo Insulin Pump and Glucose Monitor (Anonymous, 2010).
Let us compare the UK and the US market with some potential markets in the world.
The level of poverty in Mexico does not allow it to make a good market for Medtronic diabetic devices. The US-Mexico borders mark the highest population with diabetes in Mexico. By 1997, diabetes was the leading cause of death among the Mexican community at the border whereby the mortality rate was 50% higher than the rest of the country.
However, the living environment in Mexico makes it hard for the population to obtain medical attention. This is characterized by rapidly growing population, poor infrastructure, high uninformed and armed patrols instilling fear to the people, over concentration by the government on control of drug cartels, which sums up to poverty (Zazworsky
Parenting Variables in Antenatal Education Quantitative Research Essay essay help
Theoretical and operational definitions This section of the paper includes the definitions and measurements of those variables that are going to be investigated. The key objective of this study is to determine how antenatal education impacts the perceptions about breastfeeding and breastfeeding practices.
In part, the operational definitions, provided in this paper, will rely on the research article, written by a group of authors under direction of Citra Mattar who investigated the affects of antenatal education on breastfeeding practices (2006).
The first set of dependent variables includes breastfeeding initiation and breast feeding. In this context, initiation can be interpreted as the period of time after which mother begins to breastfeed the child. Citra Mattar et al define breastfeeding initiation as any breastfeeding that occurs within the first two weeks after delivery (2006, p 76).
In turn, the duration of breastfeeding is the timeframe within which the mother breastfeeds the child. This definition may appear to be self-evident; yet, it has been provided in this paper because the duration of breastfeeding can also be understood as the length of a breastfeeding session. Largely, my research will be analogous to that one conducted by Citra Mattar et al (2006).
The second variable is parental feelings and perceptions of breastfeeding. This variable consists of such elements as maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, paternal self-efficacy and parental confidence. These are the main psychological parameters that need to be measured.
Breastfeeding self-efficacy can be defined as mother’s belief or conviction that she is capable of breastfeeding the baby (Wells
Heriot-Watt University Future Strategy Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Heriot-Watt University
Based in Edinburgh, Heriot-Watt University is the leading university in Scotland. The university has a special place both within the country as well as on the global map because of offering practical solutions the current global challenges without neglecting its basic mission of providing appropriate education to local and international students.
The institution is highly committed understanding the challenges facing the modern society, evaluating them and structuring their specialized programmes to address them.
The available programmes in the university are specifically suited to address current global challenges. The interest of the community plays a significant role in designing of the academic courses. The collaboration among professionals and staff from the various fields helps in finding long-term approach that is used in finding solutions to the prevailing challenges. For Herriot-Watt to stay on track as the leading university there is need for the management to have a guiding document outlining the activities that would lead to the realization of this end. Hence, focus on the Future strategy
Focus On the Future Strategy
This is an ambitious strategy whose aim is to act as a guiding document that stipulates that activities to be undertaken in order to achieve the university’s overall agenda. As described in the strategy, the university plans to achieve a 50% growth in the academic base by the year 2015. To realize such ambitious expectations, the university is required to put in place the necessary mechanisms and work plan that must be followed.
As an international institution, the university is committed to demonstrate its leadership in science, technology, and business. Herriot-Watt University intends to concentrate its investments in three focus areas. These subjects, it is believed will address the challenges that globalizations presents to different set up of businesses and internationals organizations across the world.
The institution enjoys a Multi-cultural diversity in terms of the courses offered. This in effect enables the university to address a range of global challenges as experts from different professional fields present different approaches to handling societal challenges. The strategy aims to raise the university’s standing from a national leading university to a recognized international institution that will attract foreign students.
This is to be reflected in the university’s commitment to produce professionals in all specialization. The institution is highly determined to continue growth and investment this in effect is expected to have the institution as a leading international university in key world issues.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Need
The Need constitutes the initial stage in formulating a programme mandate. This entails a comprehensive assessment of the present organization’s state and the potential capacity for improvement. SWOT is one of the approaches that can be used identifying the need, opportunities, and threats of the institution. The technique helps in estimating the intended activities against the organization’s resources.
Strengths and future opportunities
As the leading university in Scotland, the institution is in better position to advance its objectives of providing solution to the challenges facing the community. The university enjoys the international community’ support as a result of its current track record in producing highest number of graduates in various practical disciplines such as engineering, Built Environment, mathematics and sciences.
The commitment of the university in providing practical solutions to the daily challenges facing the society and her determination to remain on top of other institutions makes it possible to attract support for its activities.
This is further boosted will by the continuous quality assurance checks and by emulation of other world-class institutions. The institution’s sensitivity towards the needs of the community and the readiness to fulfill these needs and those of the students makes the university to remain in the limelight. As a first step towards actualizing the set objectives, the institution has already set the benchmark of the community’s expectations.
The university’s strength also lies in the availability of human capital and financial resources. The institution’s achievements in producing respectable researchers play a significant role in attracting more professionals as well as students from across the planet. This therefore offers more opportunity to the university’s quest to realize the activities and objectives envisaged in the strategic plan.
The successful interdisciplinary relationship presents the university with the opportunity to apply a wide perspective in resolving the global challenges.
This is further strengthened by the wide the concentration of a range of proogrammes, which are in line with the priority themes as contained in the strategic plan. In addition, the concentration of resources on key areas that have a high magnitude impact on the community enhances the support from financial organizations as well as the organization.
We will write a custom Report on Heriot-Watt University Future Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The strength of the university is demonstrated in its existing collaborative programmes, which include ScotCHEM in chemistry and chemical engineering; The ScotgriD advanced IT network; The Scottish institute for Research in Economics; and Edinburgh Research Partnership in Engineering and mathematics (ERPem).
This acts to consolidate expertise in various disciplines where they bring on board their wide experiences in formulating solutions to the modern world challenges.
Scottish University Physics Alliance (SUPA)
This is an alliance, which brings together eight Scottish universities Physics. The major objectives is put physics in the forefront in the national strategy, also encourage collaboration among institutions, and promote efficiency and excellence within the discipline (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2001, p.9).
In adopting a common approach in terms of staffing, training of the staff as well as issues of research and funding opportunities, the alliance brings together experienced experts as well as encourages training of upcoming scientists. The initiative has enabled Scotland to create the larges group of physics researchers in the UK (Griebenow 2006, p.13).
This has also attracted funding from donors, sponsors, and stakeholders in the industrial market (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007, p. 9). The alliance promotes the major themes, which are of great importance to the Scotland economy as well providing solutions to the global challenges.
Such areas that provide solutions to global interests comprises of “energy, physics and life sciences, astronomy, condensed matter and materials physics, nuclear and plasma physics, photonics and particle physics” (Kishore 2007,p. 7 ).
Scottish Informatics and Computer Science Alliance (SICSA)
This alliance aims to expand Scotland’s research excellence in Informatics and Computer Science. The Scottish Informatics and Computer Science Alliance (SICSA) bring together researchers within computer science and informatics.
The purpose of the partnership of these different fields is to merge and make stronger “Scotland’s ranking as the global researcher informatics and computer sciences key player” (Buchmann
Review of Research Studies on Cultural Bias in Psychology Synthesis Essay essay help online: essay help online
The population of minority cultural and ethnic groups in United States has increasing in the last few decades. It is therefore common for a psychological therapist to encounter a client from a different cultural and ethnic background. In such encounters, there is possibility for cultural bias that can affect effectiveness of the psychological intervention.
Many researchers in the recent past have been concerned about cultural bias in the field of psychology and psychological therapies. The paper reviews a few of research studies on cultural bias in psychology, counseling, and marriage and family therapy.
Counseling is considered the best intervention to psychological and emotional problems. However, considering cultural and ethnic diversity, counseling may not be effective if a counselor exhibits cultural bias. In the article, “Cultural Biased Assumptions in Counseling Psychology” (Pedersen, 2003), Pedersen addresses cultural biases assumptions that may affect the effectiveness of counseling interventions.
Pedersen identifies and discusses culturally biases assumptions from an earlier article by Ponterotto and Leong (2003). The author argues that cultural bias has impact on the work of counseling psychologists. Pedersen warns that cultural bias should not be underestimated given that it can have great effect on counseling psychology.
To “internationalize counseling psychological” (Pedersen, 2003), Pedersen proposes that counseling psychologists adopt scientist-practitioner model. In harmony with Pedersen, Snowden (2003) found cultural bias as a major factor contributing to disparity in mental health care provision.
Snowden concludes that although other factors such as economical factors led to a gap in mental health care, cultural bias was the major barrier. He advocates for more research on particular forms of bias that could contribute to the disparities.
Cultural bias is a major barrier to effective psychological therapy. In family therapy, cultural bias can make it impossible for a family therapist to fully understand her clients’ problems and provide an effective therapy. In the article titled “Experiential Tasks and Therapist Bias Awareness”, Bermudez (1997) notes that therapeutic process can be affected considerably by cultural bias against minority cultural and ethnic groups.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Bermudez, all psychological therapists have assumptions about minority cultural groups. Some of the assumptions and beliefs could be biased and therefore affect effectiveness of a therapy.
Bermudez suggests that cultural bias awareness of a therapist can help her to overcome the bias and be effective across cultures. Bermudez proposes experiential tasks to overcome cultural bias, including role playing, visualization, written assignment, family sculpturing and role reversal.
Effectiveness of a psychological therapist in multicultural and multiethnic settings is depended on her cultural competence. In an article titled “Cultural Competency: From philosophy to research and practice”, Sue (2006) explores the meaning and value of cultural competency in psychological therapies.
Sue argues that cultural competency is trainable and proposes that therapist adopt cultural competency strategies in order to improve outcome. Addressing cultural competency in family therapy, Hardy and Laszloffy (2003) found cultural awareness and sensitivity to be important for cultural competency.
Hardy and Laszloffy argue that ability of therapist to explore her personal cultural issues puts her in a better position to understand other cultures. In addition, the authors summarize how cultural genogram can be a successful training tool for cultural competence (Hardy
Vegetation Recovery Using Remote Sensing Image In Yellowstone National Park after the Fires in 1988 Term Paper college essay help
Literature Review The Connection between Vegetation Recovery and Burning Severity of Fires
Before analyzing the images produced by means of remote sensing, it is necessary to analyze the aspects and criteria according to which the images can detect various patterns of vegetation recovery after the fire. Specifically, much research has been done on the analysis of connection between biodiversity and remote sensing techniques as well as other methods for types of recovery vegetation.
According to Kennedy, remote sensing contributes greatly to the analysis of vegetation cover and provides sufficient information about atmospheric chemistry (133). In particular, satellite remote sensing techniques can provide exhaustive data on the patterns and criteria necessary for analyzing sophisticated interactions and mechanisms connecting fire density, vegetation cover, atmospheric chemistry, and climate.
The researcher has found that gas emitted into atmosphere as well as shifts occurred to the atmospheric ratio is possible to effectively detect with the help of remote sensing. However, the examination of such dependencies does not provide viable solutions to the analysis of vegetation recovery in relation to temporal scales. Still, there is a possibility to identify the nature of gasses emitted.
More detailed information on this issue is provided by Turner et al. who have managed to provide sufficient justification to remote sensing images and how they can be used to identify various types of forests and vegetation (306). According to the researcher, “…recording numerous densities at different heights throughout the canopy and enables three-dimensional profiles of vegetation structure to be made” (Turner et al. 307).
With the help of this data, it is possible to detect the potential for such techniques as mapping of sub-canopy layers and emergent tree species.
A great contribution to the analysis of distribution patterns and habitat categorizations carried with the help of remote sensing techniques. This examination has been provided by Debinsky, Kindsher, and Jakubauskas (3281). The researchers have also applied to Landsat TM data analysis in order to evaluate various forest and meadow types in Yellowstone Park.
Importantly, the studies also seek to define the relation between vegetations areas and animal species distribution which is quite essential because the foci of birds and animals can be the indicators of dense vegetation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Particular species can be affiliated to a particular vegetation pattern. Interestingly, the research conducted by Debinski et al, reveals “large differences in species distribution patterns among remotely sensed meadow types” in different temporal dimensions (3283). The same concerns are considered by Gould (1861).
White et al have also been more consistent and pertinent to our research considerations (125). In their studies, they emphasize that aside from vegetations patterns, there are also burning severity patterns resulted in different topographic vegetation. The patterns are received with the help of satellite data that show significant changes in physical characteristics of burnt areas.
The researchers have discovered that it is necessary to be knowledgeable about electromagnetic energy. In this respect, they have also defined that “…more severely burned areas have less vegetation cover and different radiation budgets in post-fire years” (White et al.124).
Such important deductions will be of great relevance to our research because different patterns of burning severity will assist in analyzing the patterns presented in Yellowstone National Park.
With regard to the consideration presented above, it should be emphasized that the vegetation recovery change patterns largely depend on the burning severity of fire. This linkage is revealed through carbon dioxide density, biophysical characteristics of burnt areas, radiation and spectral analysis, and electromagnetic energy.
Spectral Analysis with Regard to Vegetation Recovery Patterns
A possibility to distinguish the changing patterns of vegetation recovery and burning severity cannot be solely relied because such factors as the process of spectral analysis and carbon dioxide density are crucial in providing an accurate and consistent examination of temporal characteristics of vegetation recovery.
In this respect, it is necessary to analyze the connection between carbon dioxide emission, and how they relate to fires and vegetation patterns. It is also imperative to prove why remote sensing, spectral analysis and Landsat TM techniques are crucial in identifying the influences of fire on vegetation recovery.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Vegetation Recovery Using Remote Sensing Image In Yellowstone National Park after the Fires in 1988 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The research provided by Jakubauskas and Price offer a clear picture of the relations between biotic factors and spectral analysis of forests in the Park (1375). With the help of multiple regression models, the researchers have provided the correlation of digital spectral analysis and biotical factors.
The results have revealed that “tree height and diameter combined to form an index of crown volume, which in turn combined with density for an index of canopy volume” (Jakubauskas and Price 1379). The scholars have also detected other crucial, though less significant, factors and dimensions of spectral analysis such as leaf area index and vegetation index.
Although the research provided by Jakubauskas and Price is of great value for further examination, it can be supported by the studies analyzing vegetation dynamics with regard to temporal scales (1378). In particular, Shannon and Lawrence are more close to the analysis of vegetation recovery patterns in relation to temporal scale (551).
The value of their research consists in presenting change vector analysis with help of 1985 and 1999 images. This analysis is “a rule-based change detection method that examines the angle and magnitude of change between dates in spectra space” (Shannon and Lawrence 551).
The process of change detection has succeed in presenting the changes within herbaceous and shrub land vegetation. The spectral and change vector analyses have detected that “there was a decrease in grass lands and a relative increase in srublands” (Shannon and Lawrence 554). The presented research can greatly assist in the exploration of vegetation recovery patters of change in Yellowstone National Park.
The above-presented research provides consistent information about pattern distributions, but it lacks information about fire factor and its impact on vegetation recovery and accuracy of the research. This gap can be complemented with the explorations provided by Turner, Hargrove, Gardiner, and Romme (731).
In general, spectral analysis plays an important role in identifying the changing patterns of vegetation recovery. It is also significant in defining various species of vegetation and describing pattern distributions on a particular geographic area.
Technical possibilities and Limitations of Remote Sensing Techniques
Remote sensing approaches can differ with regard to various resolutions of remotely sensed images. In order to succeed in researching our objectives, the analysis of advantages and limitations of these techniques is crucial. The studies presented by Wright and Gallant (582), Asner (2), Cohen and Goward (535), and Murtaugh and Philips (99). All scholars provide a comprehensive evaluation of all limitations to using remote sensing tools.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Vegetation Recovery Using Remote Sensing Image In Yellowstone National Park after the Fires in 1988 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to critically assess the technical possibility of remote sensing techniques, Wright and Gallant have provided a historical background of previous researches dedicated to the efficiency assessment (582).
The results show that “remote sensing is the moderate spatial and spectral resolution of multispectral instruments like TM sensor” (Wright and Gallant 584) Therefore, it will be difficult to distinguish forested upland and forested wetland in spectral terms. The application of remote sensing techniques cannot be solely applied, but in combination with ancillary data.
Due to the fact that carbon dioxide is considered to be the indicator of vegetation recovery and burning severity of fire, ancillary technique should also involve carbon mapping as well which will back up the date collected form remotely sensed images (Asner 2).
Such devices are quite relevant and applicable to the temporal analysis of vegetation because carbon spectral patterns of change can also be the signifiers of vegetation recovery stage. In particular, carbon densities can be easily correlated with burning severities, and vegetation recovery, and species analysis. More importantly, the carbon analysis includes the acquisition of maps depicting types of forest, disturbance, and deforestation.
Remote sensing techniques are also applicable to temporal analysis of vegetation patterns. In this regard, Murtaugh and Philips provide a bivariate binary model for evaluating the shifts in land cover with the help of satellite images received at different times (99).
Such classification is aimed at correlating random variables that are dependent on the pixel resolution. Importantly, the researchers have applied to Landsat imaging for pixel classification and its correlation with land cover changes.
Cohen and Goward also emphasize the importance of using remote sensing to assess temporal and spatial characteristics of ecological environment (535). In the particular, they used date obtained from Landsat sensors for constructing biogeochemical cycles and for characterizing vegetation biophysical attributes with regard to biodiversity.
The research find remote sensing valid and reliable for analyzing vegetation and land cover change. In contrast, Ravan and Roy consider it necessary to introduce Geographic information systems for the analysis of various vegetation patterns and obtaining relevant information (129). The combined approach is much more efficient in detecting such characteristics as vegetation shape, size, patch density and porosity.
The research results has revealed significant different between different zones of Madhav National Part of India (Ravan and Roy 130). The structural analysis has provided vegetation recovery also largely dependent of biomass distribution and species diversity. Arising from this research, remote sensing and GIS can be successfully applicable to the temporal analysis of vegetation providing more accurate information.
Innes and Koch state that remote sensing is considered the most efficient tool in assessing vegetation, and other biophysical characteristics such as structural criteria of forest stands, the canopy type and the present of coarse woody debris (397). The researchers emphasize that it is possibly to rely solely on remote sensing when investigating the spatial and temporal characteristics of vegetations.
Interesting discoveries are offered by Turner, Ollinger, and Kimball who also approve remote sensing techniques for evaluating spatial characteristics of vegetation (574). In particular, the researchers resort to remote sensing tools and ecosystem modeling to study the terrestrial carbon cycling.
Pursuant to remote sensing limitation, explain that this device is constantly upgrading and it is possible to select the appropriate resolution of images to analyze the reflectance properties of vegetation and assess biogeochemical processes controlling carbon transformation.
In general, the majority of the above-described researchers prove that remote sensing is one of the most efficient instruments in conducting the assessment of vegetation recovery with regard to its temporal and spatial characteristics. Nevertheless, the analysis will be much more successful if to apply this technique together with GIS approach.
Overall Recommendations and Conclusion The analysis of image obtained by remote sensing allows to detect various patterns of vegetation recovery with regard to temporal characteristics. The Yellowstone National Park has been analyzed in three various time – 1989, 1999, and 2010. The image obtained from Landsat TM, ISODATA being an ancillary mechanism revealed that there significant changes in vegetation recovery patterns in relation to temporal characteristics.
In addition, classification scheme of vegetation used to shrub land, herbaceous vegetation, sparse vegetation, and bare land has turned out to be flexible and relevant for the research. The presented research proves conducted by Jakubauska and Price (1375)
The results have also show that vegetation recovery patterns are closely connected with burning severity of fire. Importantly, the spectral analysis and Landsat TM show biophysical characteristics of burnt areas. The evaluation has also succeeded in defining the changes of species allocation on the territory of Yellowstone National Park. The technical approach used for the data analysis still had some limitations.
In particular, it was difficult information without geographic information system because some characteristics were impossible to detect, such carbon dioxide cycle. Nevertheless, the classification of species was successfully identified and carefully analyzed with regard to temporal characteristics.
In future, we plan to investigate this area and other territories, but with another combination of techniques either to justify or disapprove the effectiveness of those as compared with the above presented ones. This area is quite wide and, therefore, there is much store for investigation.
Works Cited Asner, Gregory P. Tropical Forest Carbon Assessment: Integrating Satellite and Airborne Mapping Approaches. Environmental Research Letters 4 (2009):1-11
Cohen, Warren D., and Samuel N. Goward. Landsat’s Role in Ecological Applications of Remote Sensing. BioScience. 54.6 (2004): 535-545.
Debinski, D. M. and Kindscher, K., and Mark Jakubauskas. A Remote Sensing and GIS-based model of habitats and biodiversity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosysyem. Journal of Remote Sensing. 20.17 (1999): 3281-3291.
Gould, William. Remote Sensing of Vegetation, Plant Species Richness, and Regional Biodiversity Hotspots. Ecological Applications. 10.6 (2000): 1861-1870.
Innes John L., and Barbara Koch. Forest Biodiversity and Its Assessment by Remote Sensing. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters. 7.6 (1998): 397-419.
Jakubauskas, Mark, and Kevin P. Price. Empirical Relationships between Structural and Spectral Factors of Yellowstone Lodgepole Pine Forests. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 63.12 (1997, December): 1375-1381
Kennedy, Pam. Biomass Burning Studies: The Use of Remote Sensing. Ecological Bulletins. 15 (1992): 133-148.
Murtaugh, Paul A. and Donald L. Philips. Temporal Correlation of Classification in Remote Sensing. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics. 3.1. (1999, March): 99-110
Ravan, Shirish, A., and P. S. Roy. Satellite Remote Sensing for Ecological Analysis of Forested Landscape. Plant Ecology. 131.2 (1997): 129-141;
Savage, Shannon L., and Rick L. Lawrence. Vegetation Dynamics in Yellostone’s Northern Range: 1985 to 1999. Photogrammetric Engineering
Bank of England Role Compared to the Federal Reserve System Evaluation Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Discussion The bank of England acts as UK’s Central Bank (Singleton, 2011, p. 229). The bank plays a number of roles in the UK financial system, and these roles include: one, issuing notes and coins. These notes and coins are then sold to banking systems which in turn distribute them to clients as they make withdrawals in their accounts; two, supervises the financial system.
The Bank of England often works in conjunction with other institutions set up specifically to regulate distinct parts of the financial system; three, manages UK’s gold and currency reserves (Great Britain Committees on Currency and Foreign Exchange, 1978, p. 159). This role enables the Bank of England to influence the level of exchange rate; four, acts as banker to government.
It does this by managing UK’s national debt and arranges for the issue of new loans to cover government’s current borrowing; and last but not least, the bank plays the role of acting as a banker to the banking system.
Normally the Bank of England comes to rescue banks that get into short term problems, unable to raise enough funds to meet customer demands. In this case, the Bank of England will supply cash to the banking system to relieve the liquidity shortage (Gomez, 2008, p. 349).
The roles of the Bank of England compares to the Federal Reserve System in varying aspects.
This paper examines the roles of the Bank of England compared to the roles of the Federal Reserve Bank of the US in terms of; regulation of the financial system, comparison of the roles in terms of facilitation of the financial system, comparison in terms of ensuring financial stability in the market, and lastly comparing their roles in Financial Stability and Depositor Protection.
Comparing Regulative Aspects of the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System In the UK, domestic banking regulation has been far less formal compared to the United States of America. This may be so entirely because London city is the preeminent centre of the European market. Differing from the United States regulators, the Bank of England operates on the assumption that bankers are prudent, honest individuals who know as much if not more about banking than regulators do (Singleton, 2011, p. 20).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, the approach of the Bank of England for years was not to impose regulations and ratios on banks; instead it requested for periodic reports from banks.
On this basis, the Bank of England discussed informally with the top management of each bank on the quality of the bank’s loan, its liquidity, any features of the bank’s condition that the Bank of England portrays as unusual or out of line, and any suggestions that the Bank of England might make with respect to the banks’ operations (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, p. 87).
The current monetary responsibilities for the Bank of England were established through the Bank of England’s Act of 1998. The banking supervisory functions under this Act had previously been under the mandate of the bank of England was transferred to the Financial Services Authority (FSA).
In essence, overall financial stability issues responsibility was spread among three legal separate entities; the Bank of England, Financial Services Authority, and HM Treasury (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, p. 87).
A memorandum of understanding was established among the three as there was no legislation that formally sets out their responsibilities. This kind of arrangement blended smoothly with the Bank of England’s long time tradition by facilitating the maximum amount of flexibility in the banking system and avoiding the red tape and restrictions of various sorts found in other countries (Bernan, 2008, p. 99).
The Bank of England treats foreign financial firms operating in the UK much the same manner as domestic UK banks. The Bank of England allows a bank to establish a branch in London with minimal red tape as long as it recognizes the bank is reputable in its home country.
Foreign investing banks did not have to put in any capital to open an office in the UK. All they had to do was to accept to comply with certain regulations, and it was accorded similar rights to engage in banking that any other bank in Britain had (Great Britain Parliament, 2009, p. 30). The Bank of England rather presents a casual regulation of foreign banks.
We will write a custom Essay on Bank of England Role Compared to the Federal Reserve System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It operates and continues to operate on the logical assumption that foreign banking branches are inextricable part of the parent. This portrays that it is not easy if not impossible to regulate these branches as independent entities.
It also implies that the bank’s natural assumption that these branches are being regulated by banking authorities in their parent countries, which regulates the activities of the parent bank as a whole (Bernan, 2008, p. 99).
In the United States, evolution of banking took a different route compared to UK banking system. Financial institutions were chartered either nationally or at state level in the US. A restriction on branch banking at branch and federal level implied that thousands of banks at state level continued to be established.
In addition to the monetary responsibility, the board had regulatory authority over Federal Reserve Banks and banks which, by owning stock in Federal Reserve Banks, became members of Federal Reserve System (Bernan, 2008, p. 100).
Banking in the US is in a form of dual regulatory structure in which federal and state agencies carry out a mixture of unique and joint functions. The US Federal Reserve differs with the system presided over by the Bank of England (Hufner, 2004, p. 95).
As a regulator, the Bank of England consists of a highly concentrated market structure as one powerful regulator. It operates in a close-knit, exclusive community that relies upon understandings, convention, trust and tradition in performing its functions. The US Federal Reserve System on the other hand, consists of a highly decentralized market structure.
Regulation was more dependent on formal and bureaucratic rules in the Federal Reserve System compared to UK banking system. The two systems are however similar in terms of their commitment to relative independence of central banks from government (Hafer, 2005, p. 53).
Comparisons of The Roles of the Bank of England and Federal Reserve in terms of Facilitation Facilitative or catalytic roles are very necessary for central banks to operate effectively. The Bank of England has established close relationship with private sector participants for the purpose of maintaining active communication over payment system development and to promote specific initiatives. In the United Kingdom, these relationships are formal as it is represented on the board of the country’s banking association.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Bank of England Role Compared to the Federal Reserve System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the US, the relationships may be less formal but no less influential, for instance, the Feds role in promoting check 21, the law that facilitates check truncation (Hafer, 2005, p. 53). Both the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System promote and initiate important changes in retail payment systems and also serve as catalysts as they undertake important research programmes (Hufner, 2004, p. 96).
Comparisons of the Roles in terms of Ensuring Financial Stability The Bank of England cooperates with the Financial Services Authority and the Treasury assist in the filed of financial stability. The cooperation pact between thee three agencies sets out the role of each authority and details how they work together towards the common objective of UK’s financial stability.
The divisions of responsibilities between the three agencies depend on accountability, transparency, a voidance of duplication, and exchanging information on regular basis (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, p. 88).
The bank of England contributes to the maintenance of UK’s stability of financial system. This responsilities involves: acting in markets to solve liquidity challenges in order to ensure stability of monetary system as part of its monetary policy functions; supervising infrastructure in financial system systematically important to Britain. This particularly involves payment systems based either in the UK or overseas.
The Bank of England remains at the heart of the payment system as bankers’ bank. It advises the Chancellor, and responds for its advice on any critical challenges that emerge in these systems (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, p. 89).
The Bank of England is also closely involved in infrastructural development and improvement, and strengthening of the financial system to assist reduce systemic risks; maintaining a broad supervision of the whole financial system. The Bank of England is strategically placed to perform this.
This is because the bank is responsible for the financial system stability and has high profile representation on the Financial Services Authority Board. Normally the bank is represented in the FSA by the Deputy Governor (Singleton, 2011, p. 229). It is because of this involvements’ in markets and payment systems that the bank is able to identify potential pitfalls first.
As a consequence, it is able to advice on the implications for the Britain’s financial stability of developments in domestic and foreign markets and payment systems.
It also provides assessments of the impact on monetary conditions of events in the financial industry; and last but not least, the Bank of England undertakes official financial operations in exceptional circumstances in their established memorandum with the FSA and the Treasury.
This is for purpose of limiting the risk of problems facing particular organizations spreading to other parts of the UK financial system (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, 89).
Similarly, the Federal Reserve System plays a critical role in overseeing the retail payment systems in the US. Both the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve do not have their oversight responsibilities explicitly set out. The payment oversight responsibilities of the Bank of England for instance, is non statutory. In the US, the Federal Reserve’s authority depends on assortment of statutes and agreements (Hafer, 2005, 52).
The Federal Reserve just like the Bank of England and other central banks plays a key role in retail payment system. The Federal Reserve’s legal foundation of involvement in retail payments is entrenched in a number of statutes.
These statutes include; the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the 1978 electronic Funds Transfer, and the Check Clearing Act of 2003. The Federal Reserve stresses overriding objectives for payment policies such as; safety, efficiency, and accessibility (Hafer, 2005, p. 54).
The Role of the Bank of England in Financial Stability and Depositor Protection The UK government gives the Bank of England authority to play an important role in special bank administration procedure for the purpose of facilitating successful resolution of a bridge bank. This is designed to maximize the chances for successful disposal of the bridge bank to private sector within the statutory time period and at the best price possible.
The UK authorities through the Bank of England ensures that appropriate funding mechanisms are introduced to ensure that special bank administrator is able to maintain the residual company functioning to achieve the purposes of the procedure (Bernan, 2008, p. 2008).
Practically, the bridge bank would always be expected to pay for the services provided by the residual company on normal commercial terms, but provisions are made to allow access to additional funding if needed to ensure viability of residual company for the purposes of these procedure. The Bank of England also fulfils the role of a creditors committee in a special bank administration procedure.
The Bank of England ensures the special bank administrator provides information in relation to exercise of his functions and generally help the special bank administrator in discharging in his functions (Great Britain Parliament, 2009, p. 30).
In addition, the UK government considers that the Bank of England has additional functions in special bank administration procedure due its unique nature (Great Britain Parliament, 2009, p. 30).
These additional roles include: considering and approving special bank administrator’s proposals for attaining the objectives of the procedure with or without modification; plays an important role in providing information to the special bank administrator in relation to the financial position of the residual company and the bridge bank; approves those assets, or types of assets that may be realized for the benefit of creditors;
Effecting subsequent transfers of assets and liabilities between the bridge bank and the residual company; establishing with the special bank administrator what essential services, assets and contracts the residual company would be obliged to continue to provide in support of a bridge bank; determining whether to approve to the taking of certain actions in the procedure where those may prejudice the successful resolution of the bridge bank; and accepting that the procedure may be terminated (Great Britain Parliament, 2009, p. 35).
Comparison with the Federal Reserve System Comparatively, the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System differ markedly on the nature of deposit protection arrangements and the appropriate role for the central bank in the payment system.
The Federal Bank maintains that it is important for a central bank to have a role in banking supervision, even though its own role has covered only a part of the banking system. The Federal Reserve shares the responsibility for regulating and supervising in the US financial system with a number of federal and state government agencies (Hufner, 2004, p. 95).
All chattered banks in US states are under the Federal Reserve System. Besides overseeing activities of banks in Federal Banks, the Federal Reserve also oversees US operations in oversees banks. The Federal Reserves also have supervisory obligations holding companies, though bank subsidiaries of those holding companies are often supervised by other agencies (Hufner, 2004).
For instance, the banking of commercial activities of holding company subsidiaries with national bank charters is supervised by the Office of Controller of the Currency. The Federal Reserve finds it essential for a monetary authority to have some direct links with the banking system, not only for financial stability but also to help with the conduct of monetary policy (Hafer, 2005, p. 31).
Conclusion In sum, the banking systems in the UK and US compare in a number of ways, for instance: branch banking is prevalent in the UK where banks have branches which control total deposits of the country. The US embraces unit banking as a system of banking with no branches or with very few branches.
The banking system in the United Kingdom is centralized. All banking institutions in the UK are under control of the Bank of England. The authority to issue notes and control credit solely rests on the Bank of England. The US on the other hand, has a decentralized central banking system.
The banking system is distributed among the US federal states under one Federal Reserve Bank (Hafer, 2005, p. 52). Control by the Bank of England is very effective as the number of banks are minimal compared to control by the Federal Reserve System which is not as effective as it is in England because of the existence of large number of unit banks.
In terms of establishment, the Bank of England was formed as a private joint stock bank and gradually it assumed all the powers of a Central Bank. The Bank was then nationalized in 1946.
The Federal Reserve System on the other hand, began as a central banking system which came into existence by passing the Federal Act of 1913. The Federal Reserve was empowered by the Act to perform all the central banking functions (Hafer, 2005, p. 55).
The Bank of England is currently nationalized, where as the Federal Reserve banks are owned by member banks of each district as entire share capital is contributed by them. In England, commercial banks seldom approach the Bank of England for rediscounting of their bills, instead they recall funds lent to the Discount Houses who go to the Bank of England for rediscounting of bills.
Thus, commercial banks obtain accommodation from the Bank of England only indirectly. In most cases, they are reluctant to approach the Bank of England for accommodation as it appears as a sign of weakness.
In the US, member banks approach the Federal Reserve banks for getting their bills of exchange and other papers rediscounted. Unlike in England, commercial banks in the US are not reluctant to approach the Federal Bank as they feel they have a stake of ownership of the Federal Reserve Banks (Singleton, 2011, p. 229).
The Bank of England adopts fixed fiduciary systems for regulating issuance of notes. The Federal Reserve System on the other hand, adopts proportional reserve system for regulating note issue. Another good comparison is in terms of commercial banks maintaining reserves with the Bank of England by convention. In the US, member banks maintain reserves with the Federal Reserve Banks by legal compulsion.
The Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System also compare in terms of effectiveness of bank rates. In England, the bank rate is very effective. Bank rates in the US are not as effective as it is in England.
The member banks sometimes do not increase their lending rates in accordance with increase in bank rates. This is due to the fact that some member banks may have surplus reserves and therefore, do not need any accommodation from the Federal Reserve Banks (Hafer, 2005, p. 54).
Reference List Bernan, L
“Interaction” in Human Computer Interaction: iPad’s Design Framework Essay argumentative essay help
iPad’s Design Framework The iPad’s entry into the market signaled a new era in Human-Computer interaction. It came with enhancements that have revolutionized how man interacts with computers. The concept of Multi-touch moved touch screen technology many steps forward.
Some of the novel interaction features of the iPad, which were not previously in the iphone, include the spread-or-pinch feature, bundle creation, and page navigation. The iPad’s iPhoto application allows for expansion or closure of a pile of photos as part of its new multi-touch interactions through a spreading or pinching motion applied by two fingers. It is also possible to make piles out of multiple slides in order to move or delete them.
This involves selecting the first slide, then holding it, and then tapping on the rest of the slides. The slides form a bundle, which is now ready for movement to a desired location.
This applies to mail where the user can form bundles of mail for mass deletion. In addition, a page navigation function included in the iPad allows a user to preview the contents of a page before opening it by pressing and holding the scroll bar area. It brings up a viewer through which the destination page is previewed.
Two functions, currently enhanced in the iPad, that were already in use in the iPhone are the scrolling tabs and the contextual keyboards. The scrolling tabs feature allows for shifting from one tab to another while the contextual keyboards displays a keyboard relevant for the application in use.
For instance, it brings up a numeric keyboard for input of numeral based functions such as time input and mathematical calculations, while a text-based keyboard appears for input of text based applications such as messaging.
Music is one of the popular iPad uses, supported by numerous iTunes applications. Several apps meet the various needs users have ranging from the creation of music to playing it. One of the applications used to create music that is benefiting from the bigger multi-touch screen is the Groovemaker app. There was a previous release for use with the iPhone.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it had a practical limit as to how effectively one could use it because of the iPhone’s smaller screen. The purpose of the Groovemaker is “beat-making”. It works by sequencing loops from a huge library and forming layers to make a track. The main control is by drag-and-drop, which allows a user to easily pick desired tracks and remove undesired ones.
The bigger screen now allows users to control up to eight tracks simultaneously, a feat not possible previously. After creating the music, it allows for exportation to a computer. There are three options for the application, house, hip-hop, and Drum ‘n bass, depending on a user’s preference. It is available in the different packs in the iTunes store, with a free release pack and other enhanced packs, costing at least four dollars.
The iPad fits the description of a bigger iPhone because it came with many of the apps that were present in the iPhone, while providing enhancements to take advantage of the new capabilities of the iPad. Edge and Faas (2010) confirmed this when they said, “Most applications that run on the iPod Touch and the iPhone can run on an iPad”. An iPhone user would easily recognize the apps used by the iPad.
When compared to the MacBook, the two devices’ designs are for different uses, which complement each other. The iPad has its own unique strengths such as better surfing experience and better photo display, as compared to the Macbook, which is essentially a computing device that allows for storage of larger files and supports document processing better than the iPad.
Reference list Edge, C.