Introduction. Facing the End of an Era: Pfizer, Inc Moving in the fast lane with the currently developing world is quite an uneasy, though doubtlessly rewarding task. Because of the changes which the economical society and the world market are undergoing, companies are forced to change their strategies to adapt to the new conditions, as well as withstand the increasing competition.
One of the most graphic examples of the given phenomenon, Pfizer Inc., was forced to change its marketing strategy to adapt to the current standards of marketing.
However, according to the case study, despite the changes, the company is still in a losing position. Unless new ways of development are suggested, the company is bound to face certain difficulties; however, reconsidering the current marketing strategy, one can possibly suggest new means of boosting the company’s success.
A Description of the Target Market: When the Supply Meets the Demand To assess the efficiency of the changes which Pfizer Inc. has decided to apply to increase their revenues, the target market which the company aims at winning must be considered. Once the target audience is defined, it is considerably easier to analyze their demands and come up with peculiar propositions.
It is obvious that the company aims at delivering products for the people of middle and high class, offering the medicine which is rather expensive, yet innovative and efficient: according to the case study, the key goal of the company is “to persuade medical professionals the world over to make Pfizer drugs the treatment of choice for their patients’ aches and pains” (Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc., n.d., 156).
Thus, it is clear that the company’s target market is the people who suffer from the diseases which require rare and expensive medicine. However, according to the report, the company has decided to change the given niche – rather unwillingly, though – to another one. “Normally a new entry creates new interest in the market.
That doesn’t seem to be happening here” (Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc., n.d., 157), McKinnel says. However, the company y seems to keep to their blockbuster strategy, which means that the current trend to offer medicine for “the diseases that remain without satisfactory treatments” (Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc., n.d., 157) seems to be the current niche.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analyzing the above-mentioned, one has to say that the key problem of the company is that they are hesitant about their further course. Although the old strategy has been used to death, Pfizer Inc. still cannot change its course because of the success of the previous strategy.
Therefore, the company needs to aim at wider target audience and offer not only the medicine for a very specific group, e.g., Viagra, but also the medicine which can be used by people of both sexes and embrace the age group ranging from, say, 10 to 70.
Discussing the Positioning Strategy: Pfizer, Inc. and the Current Solutions It goes without saying that positioning of the produced goods is as important as meeting the customers’ demand, mostly because a good positioning strategy not only helps people find the products which they are looking for, but also to drive their attention to the innovations in the given sphere.
Regarding the current positioning strategy which the company follows, one must mention that Pfizer Inc. It seems that the company needs to pick a more subtle positioning technique, since “Overly aggressive marketing also has made drug companies easier targets politically” (Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc., n.d., 161).
Hence, a more subtle and less loud publicity should be adopted. For instance, the company can develop an advertising campaign with a show-do-not-tell principle, since the last attempt of the kind was quite successful: “The company invested nearly $20 million in a program in Florida that was intended to show that better utilization of drugs would actually save the state money. It did” (Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc., n.d., 161).
The Changes to Targeting and Positioning: Reasonable Suggestions As it has been mentioned before, the current positioning strategy which Pfizer Inc. follows leaves much to be desired. However, it is also necessary to keep in mind that the company y has sufficient reasons not to change the existing strategy.
As the report says, the company is currently focuses on the development of “another HDL -raising drug” (Case 2–1. Pfizer, Inc., n.d., 159). Therefore, the company has changed its target clientele, since the HDL deficiency can occur at literally any age. However, the company still focuses on developing a certain “blockbuster” medicine.
We will write a custom Case Study on Target Market and Positioning Strategy Identification: Tracking down the Flaws of Existing Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, it is necessary to develop the strategy which will keep the basic premises of the current one, yet be targeted to more general public and offer the medicine for the diseases which a lot of people suffer from. As one can see from the facts provided above, the company has met the first condition, broadening the target group, yet still offers the “panacea” for a “topical” disease.
What Needs to Be Done: Watching the Competitors, Planning the Moves With the help of the above-mentioned plan, Pfizer Inc. is most likely to withstand the rapid changes and even succeed in attracting even more clients. However, it is also worth keeping in mind that other fields apart from marketing should be taken care of.
One of such fields, the aspect of the company’s competitiveness, should be considered as soon as possible, given that Pfizer Inc. is going to enter the global market and, therefore, face a number of rivals.
According to what Hooley, Piercy
Relate Gender, Ethnicity and Identity Synthesis Essay essay help site:edu
Identity can be described as a person’s emotional connection to a certain social category system. The aspect of identity, gender, and ethnicity are closely related, and it can be difficult to draw a separation between the concepts. Nonetheless, there are research studies that have been conducted to elaborate on the three concepts.
This paper looks at the relationship between gender, ethnicity and identity. Identity has been described as an element of self. In this case, identity remains a critical part of the self-concept. It is also a term that is often used in reference to a social category system. The concept of identity can be intertwined with gender and identity issues.
The aspects of gender and identity are closely related. Indeed, gender identity refers to a person’s relationship to gender. In this respect, gender is regarded as a social category. Initially, the aspect of gender identity used to refer to the sense of one being a male or female. In psychiatry and clinical psychology, gender identity is used in categorizing gender identity disorders.
These disorders are often apportioned to the sex of individuals. In addition, the aspect of gender identity is reflected in the different age groups. In this respect, there are various gender identity disorders among children, adolescents, and adults (Ypeij, 2012).
Gender stereotypes can be described as elements of bias regarding the gender of certain individuals. In this respect, gender stereotypes can lead to inequality and unfair treatment directed towards individuals based on gender. In essence, gender stereotypes may be referred to as sexism. Some of the gender stereotypes include regarding women as passive and meant to handle domestic duties (Pierre
What is Eating Gilbert Grape Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Character of Gilbert
Relationship between Gilbert and Arnie
Relationship between Gilbert and his mother
Introduction Lasse Hallstrom directed the film “What’s eating Gilbert Grape” in 1993. The film revolves around the experiences of the narrator, Gilbert. In the film, Gilbert Grape tells the audience about his town and family. Gilbert has two brothers and two sisters, who live with their obese mother in a depressed town called Endora. Their father is absent since he hanged himself in the basement with no reason.
The film revolves around Gilbert’s character who seeks to escape from his dull and dissatisfying routine, and his shift in attitude as the plot develops. Based on the actions of Gilbert, the audience identifies that what is “eating him” is the dilemma of how to balance his desires with the needs of his family.
Character of Gilbert Gilbert is portrayed as a kind and selfless person who has no escape to the boredom of his everyday life. Although Gilbert is a young man, he has numerous burdens including his residence in an isolated and dying town, a father who killed himself, a large mother who is reliant in him, his boring job in a slow business and his annoying sisters.
In addition to this, he is required to give his retarded brother consistent care, and his affair with Betty does not appear to be making any progress. Gilbert’s troubles seem to persist until he meets Becky, who opens his eyes to the outside world.
Themes The film has many themes, but the main ones include responsibility, desire for freedom, caring for others and frustration with ordinary life. Gilbert exhibits the desire for freedom the most since he intends to escape Endora and all the burdens that are associated with that town. It is in his pursuit of freedom that Gilbert meets Becky; a symbol of the freedom that Gilbert desires.
The theme of responsibility is evident when Gilbert assumes the role of breadwinner and caretaker of the family after the death of his father. He is faced with a great challenge between fulfilling his obligation to the family and meeting his personal needs.
Relationship between Gilbert and Arnie From the beginning of the film, the audience identifies a love/hate relationship between Gilbert and his brother. Gilbert cares for his brother as is seen when he urges his brother to climb down the water tower, or the tree that is next to their house. However, he admits that things would be better for him if his brother was dead.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These scenes present the audience with a mixture of emotions that portray Gilbert’s protective and harmful nature. The freedom represented by Becky ‘eats up’ Gilbert as he abandons his brother in the hope that he can care for himself.
Gilbert hopes to free himself from numerous responsibilities that are represented by Arnie, but becomes frustrated when his brother ends up in trouble and proves him wrong. As a result, he faced with the challenge of balancing his two lives.
Relationship between Gilbert and his mother Gilbert shows frustration with his mother due to her transformation from a pretty girl to an obese woman who was capable of harming her family. This is seen when Gilbert calls out to her to stop hugging Arnie after an incident involving the water tower.
Gilbert also distances himself from Momma when he shows Becky the family house from a far point, claiming that they cannot get closer to it because Momma is “…attached to the house…more like wedged in”.
Gilbert sees Momma in a new light when she gets out of the house after seven years to rescue Arnie when he gets arrested. He defends her mother from the mockery of outsiders, even after her death, when he chooses to cremate her in the family house rather than ridicule the family while they remove her body from the house.
Social Media Essay essay help free
Introduction Advancement in technology has provided an opportunity for the development of new forms of technologies. Social media, which has become a reality through the employment of technology, is a term used to refer to various internet networks that allow people to interact, as well as share ideas and opinions in different remote locations.
Examples of these social media include facebook, twitter, MySpace, and LinkedIn amongst others. Social media has revolutionalized the way people interact.
Social Network It is only around 40 years since digital technology was invented. However, the changes that have been experienced are overwhelming. One of the potentials that digital media has realized is in its social network. This platform has turned the world into a global village besides making life much easier as people can communicate and interact anywhere in real time.
The first kind of network was Myspace.com. Thomas Anderson and Chris Dewolfe created this network in August 2003 (Khristopher, 2008, p. 24). Since its creation, it has attracted approximately 200 million users in America and worldwide.
Users can use their email addresses to post pictures, videos, and information about their personal status and issues in life such as political affiliation, hobbies, careers, marital status, and annual incomes just to point a few.
Facebook Another social media that has become popular is facebook. Mark Zuckerberg, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes created this network (Khristopher, 2008, p. 25). The three were students at the Harvard University when they came up with this idea. They successfully managed to launch the network in their dormitories at the University.
At that moment, they targeted University students since the network was applicable or operational on a college-administered email address for registration. In 2006, the creators successfully managed to roll out their network to worldwide users who had an e-mail account (Khristopher, 2008, p. 24). When facebook allowed users to open their facebook account, News Corp had acquired MySpace.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Then, it had captured 106 million users. Other networks began to surface, which included blogs, LinkedIn, and twitter among others. As technology advanced, these networks have been used to link people in different areas of the world. The users of facebook can create their own profiles that are customized with facts and any information they want. Photos can also be attached to the profiles.
They enhance the interface besides adding aura in the interaction process. The users of the platform have continued to expand over time. The major use of these networks was to communicate and share opinions and ideas. However, as the digital technology continues to advance, users have also expanded. The platform enables them to interact and make new friends.
Many people have met friends through the networks that have influenced their lives positively. According to Ingrid (2010), facebook has provided an opportunity for people to meet with different people from different cultural backgrounds (p. 265). The platform has changed the lives of many across the world. A good example is Sarah Fielding, a social worker.
The platform helped her develop her writing skills that elevated her towards becoming a good writer. She received support and motivation through a friend in the social media who advised and trained her to become a good writer (Ingrid, 2010, p. 265). This move is therefore a clear indication of the magnitude these social media are doing to the society.
Twitter Sacks and Graves (2012) affirm that the complexities in the network diffusion require that students be trained on social media usage (p. 80). Twitter is one of the social media networks that are popular among students. However, many of these students lack skills and knowledge to use the platform in their interaction. For instance, one of the benefits of twitter is that it allows users to send their messages quickly.
Users need to keep their message short and precise because the word limit is 140 characters. Therefore, having knowledge on such attributes ensures that the networks are used well in the required manner.
These networks may be abused or used in the wrong way that may cause career-damage to the students. This may arise due to issues such as using the platform for finding opposite sex friends and or communicating about immoral messages. Therefore, education is paramount.
We will write a custom Essay on Social Media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Advantages of the Social Media A message can be transmitted to many users within few seconds. This has therefore helped to speed up communication. In the past, communication that involved two parties at a distant arrived late. Sometimes, the message became obsolete upon arrival (Brydon, 2010, p. 6).
This platform has changed this case. Nowadays, companies are using the platform to market their products to potential customers across the world. This stands out as a strategy that many companies have resorted to due to low cost, higher transmission speed, and the huge number of people who are accessing the internet and using the social media.
Social Media Issues: Is it Secure? Even as the popularity of these social media increases, many questions have arisen concerning the security of using the networks (Abbe, 2011, p. 34). The identity of the account holder is one of the issues that raise concerns. Many cyber crimes are omitted using information from facebook. For example, a person can impersonate another and solicit money from the unsuspecting users.
These cases have been on the rise since the networks emerged. An individual can create an account with false information. This has made people commit crimes of all manners in the social media. Another issue that has arisen is whether a journalist or any third party has the prerogative to use information of an individual posted on the profile (Khristopher, 2008, p. 24).
The issue is unclear. It has stirred mixed reactions from members of the public. Those opposed argue that the consent of the person should be granted before using such information. On the other hand, those proposing argue that, once an individual has decided to post information on the profile, the information can be used by anybody.
Social Media: Its Impact to People’s Lives These platforms therefore have both advantages and disadvantages that need to be looked into to ensure that they provide better services without risking or putting the life or the identity of an individual at risk. In the digital technology, most networks in social media came into the limelight in 2003. Since then, the number has increased at a tremendous rate (Khristopher, 2008, p. 24).
The coming of this media was right because this was the time that the living standards of people had gone down due to economic problems. They have made communication easier and cheap as people can socialize and share information across the world in any location.
The technology was the right initiative that resonated with the current living styles among many young people who are always optimistic wanting to learn more about what is happening across the world. This social media has turned the dreams of such young people into reality as they can learn and share what is happening around the world at their homes in real time.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Media by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The creators of these networks therefore provide motivation to millions of young people who indeed can explore opportunities in digital technology to innovate new technologies to spur economy forward (Moore, 2010, p. 179).
The outcome of these technologies has also motivated the creators to aspire for more ways of making them even better. The networks have rocked the world: they have reshaped the way people communicate and share information.
How Technology Influences the Development of Social Media Emerging digital technologies played a fundamental role in the development of social networks. The creators used the existing technologies in coming up with their own technologies. For instance, the three creators of facebook used the existing college email account to enable fellow students to register and share information amongst them.
Therefore, the available technologies were fundamental in bringing the ideas of the social networks into reality. The internet platform was already in operation. Therefore, they pegged their ideas on such platforms in coming up with the idea of social media such as MySpace, LinkedIn, and facebook amongst others (Khristopher, 2008, p. 25).
What to put in Place to Improve Social Media Services Social media is an important case in the development of digital technology that is worth studying. Already, various researchers have begun their studies on social networks. The platforms required a lot of understanding to ensure that they are used appropriately for good and not destructive reasons. The potential of technology to cause harm is evident.
Therefore, a study on the best strategies to curb such loopholes is important. As far as I am concerned based on my experience with the use of social media, there are various things that need to be looked into to ensure that the media does not cause harm to the users. Security measures should be enhanced. Information requested by the service providers should be kept confidential to avoid access by third parties.
This stands out as one of the fundamental things that need to be looked into in the future to guarantee security when it comes to the use of these social media. Furthermore, there should be precise international laws and regulations that concern the use of media. People should not use the platform to cause animosity or mayhem with others. Such communication should be tracked with the culprits being identified and persecuted.
The increased rate of user-falsifying personal information should be factored in. These issues, if corrected, will influence the future of social media positively. People innovate through various ways. Some innovate through default, others do it through research while others too invent through experience.
Conclusion In conclusion, advancement in technology has changed the way people carry out their businesses. The creators of these network technologies like facebook and MySpace had an idea of what they wanted to achieve. Therefore, they finally managed to succeed in fulfilling their dreams. Therefore, through the social media, the digital world is one of the highest achievements that technology has brought.
People can share information, photos, research, entertainment, market their business, and any other activity that the platform can support. The innovation was appropriate and important. However, there is still the need for more efforts to ensure that these platforms are well managed to guarantee their future reliance.
Reference List Abbe, E. (2011). The buzz on social media. Writer, 124(3), 34-55.
Brydon, D. (2010). Social Media’s Research Potential. English Studies in Canada, 36(4), 4-8.
Ingrid, T. (2010). Social Network Analysis and the Language of Sarah Fielding. European Journal of English Studies, 4(3), 265.
Khristopher, B. (2008). Social networking sites. The Quill, 96(1), 24-26.
Moore, M. (2010). Adaptation and New Media. Adaptation, 3(9), 179-192.
Position of Wage Labour in the United States Critical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction One of the hefty criticisms of the early stages of industrialisation is that people were used as capital assets to facilitate the production processes particularly in the US.
Discussing the impacts of capitalisation of labour on semi-skilled, unskilled, and skilled workers, Kremer points out how the workers were misused following the application of concepts of labour capitalisation during early economic times where they worked under intensively poor conditions (553).
The same concept is developed by Dubofsky who argues that, in the early industrialisation age, many employers preferred low priced sources of labour such as children, females, and immigrants who were underprivileged (35).
However, the contemporary labour markets of the United States views labour as a distinct resource that can be isolated from the traditional forms of capital since it is subject to controls by forces that are extrinsic to an organisation or any industry employing people.
From this perspective, the focus of this research proposal is to examine whether the united State, over time, has fundamentally improved the position of wage labour or it has simply maintained the position of capital. To achieve this noble goal, statistics from the government of the United States are deployed as the primary source of data.
Scholarly findings are also deployed to help in integrating the primary and secondary data findings to give a well-informed position on whether United States still clings to the position of capital or it has improved the position of wage labour.
The US Department of Labour: Why was it Established? In responding to the question of whether the United States has improved the position of labour or has been maintaining the position of capital, the first chapter of the research will review the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the U.S. department of labour, its mandates and its achievements in improving the welfare of the United States’ workforce.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The chapter will argue that, in an attempt to enhance change of perception that labour can be capitalised and hence subject to operation of market forces to determine labour pricing, several improvements to wages have been realised in a number of ways since the establishment of the United States department of labour.
In fact, the U.S. department of labour is mandated to promote, foster, and develop wage earners’ welfares so that their working conditions can be improved coupled with making sure that they are engaged in profitable employments.
For precise realisation of its mandates, the U.S. department of labour is given the authority to administer various federal laws of labour, which are meant to guarantee all the employees rights to working conditions.
The US Employers Deprived of their Role to Determine Wages
Under the ideologies of labour capitalisation, the employer has the supreme ability to determine the right wages to be paid to the workers so that the production process can proceed within the limits of the acceptable levels of profitability.
The main question addressed in chapter two of the research will be the manner in which this supreme ability of the employers has been eroded in the United States’ labour markets so that the position of the labour wages is improved. To achieve this goal, the chapter will investigate issues such as role of the United States’ government in influencing the workers coupled with their movements.
In this regard, it will be maintained that the main goal of government engagement in the workers’ movements is to ensure that the workers’ unions are democratic and independent from coercion by the employing agents.
This will confirm Kremer’s argument that states’ role in enhancing freedom of labour unions in United States is aimed at ensuring that workers are shielded from being slaves of the state thus not acting as capital assets for the employers (556). According to Dubofsky, this is achieved through enactment of administrative and political policies coupled with manipulation of various legislative policies of labour unions (26).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Position of Wage Labour in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, labour unions are made stable, which has the implication of making workers have the motivation of joining unions as the only way of fighting for their wages, rights, and resolution of wages conflicts with the employers without the risks of being sacked.
Additionally, the chapter will argue that the position of the labour wages has been incredibly improved through the creation of social stability emanating from the brave liberal ideas of corporate leaders that denying labourers the freedom and extension of ideologies of exploitation of humans’ resource are not the avenues for enhancing profitability.
The US Labour Legal Frameworks Still in chapter 2, as a mechanism of setting the theoretical constructs of the research, the chapter will also consider scholarly criticisms and insights as to whether the United States, through its labour legal frameworks, has altered the agrarian society’s social, political, and economic welfare of the workers.
In this argument, the chapter will draw the lesson learnt in the 19th century’s riots against establishment of power hegemonies. It is contended by Huff that such riots lead to the emergence of new demands, which truncate to making the United States workforce have both cultural and social autonomy in the work places (247).
This autonomy was a major stepping-stone towards the creation of enabling platforms for workers to claim for wages that are commensurate to their efforts put in the production process without the fear of being prejudiced by the employers.
The acquired autonomy also made employees to incredibly engage in labour strikes. Indeed, due to this autonomy, neither the employers nor the government managed to curtail the efforts for the workers to campaign for better wage positions. For instance, President Roosevelt’s government never succeeded in pushing for the legislative demands enacted by the American federation of labour (Lane and Pasteur 716).
With this failure, the federation had no option rather than to link up with the Woodrow Wilson regime to promote the quests placed by employees. This resulted to an elementary increment of wage position of the workers.
Therefore, exempting labour markets from the action of free market forces is an immense challenge. However, one way of doing this is setting minimum wages. The application of this approach to enhancing wage position of the workers is discussed in chapter three of the research.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Position of Wage Labour in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Setting Minimum Wages In any capitalistic economy, when the free market forces are permitted to regulate labour market dynamic, wage inequalities are produced. To enhance equality, Laliberté argues, “a strong minimum wage can help make a genuine difference in outcomes” (8). Setting minimum wages prevents the emergence of low wage employees coupled with continued wage inequity growth.
The debate on minimum wages is widely controversial since moral considerations as to what comprises a minimum wage that would enable workers together with their families to sustain their lives come into play.
Arguably, setting of minimum wages is meant to ensure that employers do not employ groups that are vulnerable to capitalisation such as emigrants and children by virtue of the fact they would be willing to accept low wages and hence be capitalised so that the employers reap optimal profits at their expense.
In the quest to improve the labour wages through the perspectives of minimum wages, concepts of living wages have emerged in the US’ labour market terminologies. According to Luce, “Basic Family Budget Calculator developed by the Economic Policy Institute, the Self-Sufficiency Standard, developed by Diana Pierce, and the Wider Opportunities for Women” (13) are some of the approaches that are used to compute living wages.
Both of these approaches deploy the data collected by the US’ government institutions to arrive at an estimation of minimum housing cost, transportation, childcare, food, taxes, and healthcare costs. When all these costs are summed up, the government, through the department of labour, is able to come up with the total annual income required for general workers to sustain their lives.
The block figure is then converted into hourly pay rates. The figure arrived at is usually higher than the minimum wage set by federal governments (Luce 14). Another approach of ensuring that the wage position of the employees is improved is setting the minimum wages at levels that would enable workers who work full time to attain the federal poverty line.
Primary Sources Amid the attempts by United States to put in place mechanisms of improving the wages position of the workers, statistics indicates that instances of non-compliance to the guidelines are still evident.
For instance, according to Sates Department of Labour: Wages and Hour Division 2007 statistics facts sheet, “results for the fiscal year 2007 show a total of 4,672 minors who are found illegally employed, an average of 3.7 minors illegally employed per investigation” (Para 10).
Many of these violations involve situations where children who are under the age of 16 were found to work for many hours, very late in the night, and or very early in the morning. This is clearly a violation of working hour standards. With regard to United Sates Department of Labour: Wages and Hour Division 2006 statistics facts sheet, “WHD assessed nearly $3 million in child labour civil money penalties in the fiscal year 2006” (Para. 9).
On the other hand, with regard to United States Department of Labour: Wages and Hour Division 2007 statistics facts sheet, WHD collected “nearly $4.4 million in child labour civil money penalties in fiscal year 2007” (Para.10).
In 2008, according to the United States Department of Labour Employment Standards Administration, this figure reduced only by 0.2 million to stand at 4.2 million U.S. dollars (5). This statistics indicates that the idea of capitalisation of labour is still ingrained within the minds of some employers.
Table showing Preliminary third-quarter 2012 productivity measures as a percent change from previous quarter, at Annual rate (Q to Q) and from same quarter a year ago (Y to Y)
Nonfarm businesses businesses Manufacturing Durable manufacturing Non durable manufacturing sector Q to Y Q to Y Q to Y Q to Y Q to Y Q to Y Q to Y Q to Y Q to Y Q to Y productivity 1.9 1.5 1.5 1.4 -0.4 1.5 -0.7 3.9 -0.1 -0.8 output 3.2 3.3 2.7 3.2 -0.6 4.1 -1.0 7.4 0.0 0.5 hours 1.3 1.8 1.2 1.8 -0.2 2.6 -0.4 3.3 0.1 1.3 Hourly compensation 1.8 2.6 1.9 2.6 1.2 0.6 0.2 0.1 2.9 1.5 Real hourly compensation -0.4 0.9 -0.4 0.9 -1.1 -1.1 -2.0 -1.6 0.6 -0.2 Unit labour costs -0.1 1.1 0.4 1.2 1.5 -0.8 0.9 -3.7 3.0 2.4 Source: United States Department of Labour Bureau statistics (2)
Discussion: The Way forward for the US Labour In the last chapter of the research; chapter 4, discussions and inferences will be drawn on the capacity of United States to precisely shun from capitalisation of labour as an endeavour to improve labour positions. However, it is crucial to note that alleviation of permitting market forces to determine labour prices rather than putting in place policies for setting minimum wages is driving the production sector into difficulties.
This perhaps explains why there has been massive relocation of the United States-based factories such as Addidas to base their productions in Asia. In the new production regions, such companies have been accused of exploitation of workers in the quest for enhancing productivity.
For instance, Nike and Addidas have been accused of child labour and paying very low wages to their employees in the foreign-based production factories. In context of this example, the question that remains is whether the approaches of wage improvements adopted by the US are failing thus prompting it to revert to the early industrialisation age where labour was capitalised.
Conclusion Capitalisation of labour means that people working in industries could be optimised to help in yielding optimal profitability. However, the paper argued that this was a concept applied in the agrarian society. Due to societal transformations, the paper holds that the United States has improved labour wages since the age of agrarian revolution rather than focusing on the ideologies of labour capitalisation.
Nevertheless, due to an intensive search for a mechanism of making the industrial sector competitive, there have been attempts by many firms such as Addidas and Nike to relocate to regions where labour costs are low. Consequently, a dilemma surfaces about whether labour market forces should be applied to determine the pricing for labour, or wages need to be set to certain minimum levels as a mechanism of improving them.
Works Cited Dubofsky, Melvin. The State and Labour in Modern America. North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press, 1994. Print.
Huff, Ann. “Persistent Effects of Job Displacement: The Importance of Multiple Job Losses.” Journal of Labour Economics 15.2 (1997): 165-253. Print.
Kremer, Michael. “The O-Ring Theory of Economic Development.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 108.12(1993): 551-627. Print.
Laliberté, Pierre. “Social justice and growth: the role of the minimum wage.” International Journal of Labour Research 4.1(2012): 7-10. Print.
Lane, John, and Michael Pasteur. “The Low-Wage Labour Market: Challenges and Opportunities for Economic Self-Sufficiency.” Journal of Labour Economics 16.5 (1998): 702-716. Print.
Luce, Sophanie. “Living wage policies and campaigns: lessons from the United States.” International Journal of Labour Research 4.1(2012): 12-45. Print.
United Sates Department of Labour. Wages and Hour Division: 2007 Statistics Facts Sheet, 2007. Web.
United Sates Department of Labour. Wages and Hour Division: 2006 Statistics Facts Sheet, 2006. Web.
United States Department of Labour Bureau statistics. Economic News Release, 2012. Web.
United States Department of Labour Employment Standards Administration. Wage and Hour Division: Wage And Hour Collects Over $1.4 Billion In Back Wages For Over 2million Employees Since Fiscal Year 2001, 2008. Web.
Canadian Identity Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Do Canadians have true identity?
Has there been evolution of Canadian identity since 1867?
Introduction The identity of Canadians relies on certain features and codes established, ratified, and embraced for years (Morton, 1972). The major influences on the identity of Canadians started in the early 1800s. At that time, the French immigrants arrived at Acadia and the River valleys of St. Lawrence. Also, the English began colonizing Newfoundland.
These factors together with the conquest of the British and their settlement in the modern France during the 18th century resulted immensely in the development of Canadian identity. This occurred through their roles in contributing to the exploration of the region. These nations continue to have lots of influence on the identity of Canadians through their cultures and arts.
There are lots of debates on the true identity of Canadians. Some people argue that Canadians do not have true identity, and their identity has not yet evolved ever since 1867. However, others also believe that there is a real identity. This essay explores if lack of identity is a true phenomenon in Canada. In addition, the question of Canada’s cultural evolution since 1867 is discussed.
Do Canadians have true identity? There are three important issues that conventionally surround the debate on the true identity of Canadians. The first one is the commonly disputed relationship that exists between the French and the English Canadians. This emerges from the survival of cultures as well as languages.
Usually, there is also a close connection between the British Empire and the English Canadians. This results in a slow political process that completes liberalization from the imperial powers. Lastly, the English-speaking Canadians have very close ties to the economic, cultural, and military center of the U.S. (Morton, 1972).
In the 20th century, there were strong cultural and political links to Britain. This resulted in the wave of immigrants from Europe, Africa, Asia and Caribbean. Consequently, the identity of Canadians has been reforming, and the process continues to the present, owing to the enduring arrival of several settlers whose backgrounds are neither French nor British.
Therefore, multiculturalism also arises in the discussion. Multiculturalism is defined as a strategy of upholding a variety of different cultures within a community (Driedger, 1996). The government of Canada accepts people from different cultural backgrounds. However, it necessitates that the cultural practices from different communities do not affect fundamental freedoms or the customs of fellow inhabitants.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This implies the negotiations between various cultures in most cases. It is challenging to preserve multiculturalism within a community if the ethnicities oppose and influence one another.
Currently, Canada has different people with different cultures and of various nationalities. In addition, the policies of the constitution also encourage multiculturalism instead of just one national belief. There are lots of questions that are still debatable on the subject of Canadian identity.
It continues to frustrate and animate not only writers and historians but also statesmen, philosophers and artists. The issue has lacked clear description, and even the quest for true Canadian identity remains a subject of self-deprecation.
It could be true that Canadians do not have true identity. The people of Canada often incline to identify themselves with the community and region instead of their nation. The identity of Canadians is molded by different ethics and attitudes since the country has unlimited diversity of cultures due to its history and location.
The idea of multiculturalism as well as bilingualism is very vital to the formation and development of identity. These factors support and challenge Canadians as well. The interaction of various cultures and communities within Canada affects an individual. Contradicting opinions about Canada by its own people and even other nations show that indeed they lack real identity.
When a citizen of Canada is asked his or her nationality, there is no clear response as an individual can answer Scottish, German or Ukrainian. The major explanation to this can be that Canadians do not identify themselves as discrete Canadians.
It is important to identify a common notion that helps identify Canadian people rather than isolate them with their respective areas of origin. Instead of inclining to identification by the place or community, Canadians need to identify themselves with the nation and their country, which is Canada. There is also excessive variety of values and traditions in Canada, making it difficult for the citizens to identify themselves with one another.
We will write a custom Essay on Canadian Identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The present culture of Canadians has been shaped mainly by the many aboriginal cultures. They had been established before the Europeans arrived to North America. Normally, the different cultures were highly incorporated and universal, implying that their views towards politics, artistic as well as spiritual scopes of life were interconnected.
These people formed a very rich part of culture in Canada that is impossible to separate. According to Penny Petrone, telling stories, which is referred to aboriginal culture, was a very important instrument for conveying artistic principles though it was not driven by the current western idea (Diakiw, 2011).
There were policies of the government during the period of colonization to strip off the aboriginal immigrants of their land, theoretically to protect them by employing reserve system. However, trying to integrate them into foreign culture through teaching initially had serious influence on aboriginal cultures. The common cultural practices as well as the local identity have been completely eroded.
In some cases, these cultural practices and identity have been lost as a result of the policies of relegation, integration and de-legitimation. This completely discouraged the aboriginal people, both individually and communally. Several languages have practically vanished.
In addition, a lot of cultural values and norms have been forgotten. For instance, the Beothuk of Newfoundland has completely vanished. However, the aboriginal ways of life continue to exist though they have been influenced much by the Euro-Canadian culture.
However, currently, growing standards of education incorporation with political firmness, the restoration of aboriginal superiority, and regeneration of culture have tremendously increased.
Many inhabitants have prioritized learning of language because they believe that they should make fast steps towards capturing the retentions of their elders. Inherent ceremonies that involve dances and drumming increasingly become successful, and this attracts even foreign contestants.
Most aborigines strive to create these customs according to the European-based systems and norms all together. This has certainly molded the modern situation. In addition, sensitivity towards ethnic rights and customs continues to rise amongst the non-aboriginals not only as expressions of autonomy but also as main aspects of the broader identity of Canadian culture.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Canadian Identity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Has there been evolution of Canadian identity since 1867? Even though the subject of multiculturalism have been deciphered into the Canadian legislation as well as their policies regarding education, linguistic and institutional privileges of their provinces and clear backgrounds are hard to define. Some of the laws in Canada could be blamed for promoting multiculturalism amongst the people of Canada.
For instance, in the year 1774, Quebec act was enacted in Canada. This act legally accepted the practice of Catholic religious conviction. In addition, it documented the seigniorial system in Quebec. In 1841, the union act, which acknowledged the coexistence of two different Canadian colonies, was again passed. Together with the Constitution Act of 1867, these acts promoted the values of multiculturalism (Richard, 2000).
These acts defined the influences of not only the federal state but also the Canadian provinces. Therefore, the acts determined some of the important particulars of Quebec, where the majority were French Canadians. In addition, regulations that governed civil laws were established.
Finally, in relation to education, which is a provincial domain, there was an act that certified public funds to promote confessional schools. The article also safeguarded the religious subgroups in Quebec. Paradoxically, this article was pressed for by the Quebec English Protestants.
They were afraid that Quebec French Catholics could exceed them in number and consequently overpower them. Later, the French Catholics in other parts of Canada also tried to use the same article to protect themselves for the same reason against the English Canadians; however, they gained minimal benefits from it.
According to the legislation on Quebec language, bills 22 and 101, children of certain communities, especially those of the settlers, have been forced to go to French schools, though the regulation has not yet changed the denominational organization in Montreal or even the communal aid of secluded, religious or cultural schools in Quebec.
These are evidences of tries to reveal the origins of multiculturalism in Canada since different communities with different backgrounds would be allowed to integrate easily. In the long run, this resulted in unclear cultural identity of Canadians that people are unable to identify themselves with.
In most cases, it is believed that Canada was founded as a state by commercial entrepreneurs and railway proprietors who wanted a central government that they could use to help them settle and exploit the nation. However, according to the others, particularly French Canadians, association was founded in order to create a new state that would be free from England.
It was assumed that the two instituting groups were to live together. However, the constitutional rights and freedoms of the Catholic French Canadians who were living outside Quebec were neither stated, denied nor disregarded.
In most cases, French Catholic schools have never been supported by public funds. The French was not allowed to be admitted to the communal schools, and the overall integration into the British or Anglo-Canadian domain was viewed as the only means of survival for both the settlers and the French Canadians (Bramadat
The Individual and Leadership Research Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Theoretical Frameworks of Leadership
Individual and Organizational Leadership
Effect of Ethical Leadership in Organizations
Introduction In organizations, effective leadership is important in ensuring that achievement of objectives is realized. Leadership facilitates the attainment of a explicit goal or objective. The goal is common among all the people. To be an effective leader, it is imperative that all objectives are clear and every member understands his or her role.
Various theoretical frameworks and explanations provide insights on various ways that objectives become achievable through effective leadership. Besides, ways of exercising leadership differ across the board. This expository essay illuminates on the broader concept of organizational leadership. The paper will utilize various standpoints held by critical thinkers who have been pivotal throughout this course.
Theoretical Frameworks of Leadership There are various theories that explore the concept of leadership especially in organizational context. Ciulla (2003) explicates that leaders ought to adopt a style that suits their situation. While that is so, leaders have to exhibit specific traits that make them stand out in a group. Trait theories articulate that leaders have intrinsic ability to influence others.
This implies that leaders are inborn and not everyone in the society is able to assume a position of leadership. Another theory that explains the concept of leadership involves cognition and learning. The theorists assert that people acquire leadership traits through experience and being in a position of followership.
Thus, everyone can assume a position of leadership as long as they have acquired enough experience to lead a group towards its goals and objectives. These are among many theories that explain leadership in the context of organization.
Further, it is important to notice that exercise of leadership is dependent on the strategy that a leader assumes. Ellis
The Role of Alexander Hamilton in Federal Governments in the United States of America Opinion Essay essay help: essay help
What is the most significant part of Hamilton’s argument in Federalist 70? Why does Hamilton argue in favour of a single executive? Are the comparisons Hamilton makes to the Roman warranted?
Alexander Hamilton is considered as the founder of principles that govern Federal Governments in the United States of America and thus the true architect of the modern administrative state. Hamilton’s most significant argument in Federal 70 was the creation of a strong executive.
Hamilton in Federalist 70 believed that good governance could only be attained through an energetic and accountable executive. A critical look at Hamilton’s argument that was attached to the structure of government, administration and rule of law as well as policies is still relevant in the contemporary United States of America.
Hamilton expressed that a strong executive is a fundamental requirement for a nation’s economic prosperity, a view he held so dearly that he made political rivalry between him and people who held different views. It is imperative to note that during constitutional convention which was held in 1787, he advocated for a government in the form of an elected monarchy.
This opinion was shot down by delegates in the convention. In spite of the defeat, he continued advocating for creation of a strong executive. Hamilton’s views of a strong executive were anchored on the failures of the confederation plan which aimed at over-devolution of government affairs. It was evident that a plan of devolution that gave states maximum discretion over the federal government was improper.
This was because of difficulties in formulating and ratifying rules to govern the same which took years to come up with largely due to disagreements in boundaries and commerce.
In order to support the views of Alexander Hamilton, failure among states to work under the terms of the Paris Treaty that ended the Revolutionary War made leaders to agree on making a strong government that would supervise affairs of the states. This agreement was reached after states started formulating their own independent foreign policies while other states fought on whom to control the western land.
By 1787, it was evident that the devolution plan was not working and the solution to this would be formulating a strong federal government that would have executive powers over the states’ governments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The quest for a strong executive was echoed by Alexander Hamilton and being the first treasury secretary, he planned and wrote reports on modalities of creating strong executive government. His reports included report on public credit, manufacturing and creation of a national banking system. Hamilton considered three basic principles in his views regarding the newly agitated public administration structure and strategy.
Firstly, Hamilton considered independence, responsibility and power as key principles that would indeed play a role if a strong executive agenda would succeed and give good results. According to Hamilton, the laws that had been ratified by the congress posed limitations on the independence of the federal government. It was his wish that for the executive to be able to implement laws, it required independence and freedom.
It was also evident that Hamilton in his later works (such as in Federalist71) showed that there was need for separation of powers between the executive and the legislature. In addition, he showed that it was important to vest adequate authority to the executive such as freedom to determine how best to implement and administer laws.
Hamilton was strongly convinced that a weak government was bound to deliver poor results mainly due to bad policies. He also believed that there was much needed for a decisive organ that would drive policies on behalf of states’ governments. In addition, Hamilton held the view that it required a strong government to protect the people’s interest if they required to rule and be served at the same time.
It is evident that the Federalist 70 (a book by Hamilton) was probably the first of its kind on the subject of public administration whose relevance was noted almost a century later. The book outlined what was entailed by “energy in the executive”.
On the principle of power, Hamilton outlined that a strong executive required unity, and that there ought to have been a president as the leader of the government who should be in power for a definite duration of time. Also, he said that the president was supposed to be competent enough to be able understand and push policies for the good of the nation.
The third principle of responsibility was aimed at keeping the executive government accountable so that it didn’t exhibit or exercise too much power. Hamilton suggested that for the executive to be accountable, it required Congress that would supervise it.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Alexander Hamilton in Federal Governments in the United States of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although Hamilton’s view on separation of powers between the legislature and executive was received well, he suggested that it could not be enough to vest all the authority to the Congress to check the executive. There was need for a stronger executive branch (Congress) that could have power to impeach even the president.
There was strong need to check the executive so that it does not exercise too much power. Therefore, the proposed government would be responsible for its actions for the good of the citizen of the nation.
In order to prove that his argument was the only way to push for the economic development agenda and a change from agrarian dependent economy to manufacturing, Hamilton in the capacity of treasury secretary was instrumental in the planning and creation of the First Bank of the United States of America which was government-supported.
Hamilton’s view on a long term vision was that when an executive government is in place, it is possible to formulate policies that can change even the economic position of the nation. His vision of a manufacturing driven economy was that it would play a major role for America to engage in global commerce compared to an economy driven by agriculture.
Hamilton’s strong support for a powerful government led by an executive leader was envisioned in the future of America in the sense that an economic transformation would only be possible when a strong executive was is in place to push the agenda forward.
Hamilton’s values for the administration of the United States of America can be summarized as a system that blends a strong executive (monarchy), a strong legislature (democratic) and an independent judicial system which has powers to overrule the will of the majority if liberty is destroyed (aristocracy).
To enable this kind of system to flourish peacefully, there is need to balance them in such a way that none becomes more superior to the other or vise versa.
It was evident that Alexander Hamilton admired and also had passion for Rome. His envisioned America resembled what used to be the administration in Ancient Roman Republic. Rome portrayed a history whose greatness was achieved through trade and commerce. In addition, this history was established and strongly supported by military of elite.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Alexander Hamilton in Federal Governments in the United States of America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is generally viewed that Rome’s administration was strategized to command and conquer. The empire in Rome was mandated to protect the interests of the people led by a central figure. This was the exact vision that Hamilton had for American administration. In his era, Caesar was referred to as a destroyer of republics and thus never enjoyed the admiration of many people.
However, Hamilton admired him and referred to him as “the greatest villain and the founder”. As mentioned earlier, Humiliations view was to have an executive leader whose mandate was to give an informed leadership by pushing forward the policies that would make America great. The Roman Empire shared the same set up.
Hamilton’s vision would be put into operation by employing policies and mechanism that would reduce poverty through funding and assumption or through empowering the rich and employing mechanisms of expanding trade throughout the world. The latter would be put in place while still enforcing domestic fiscal authority.
This strategy would be possible if a strong executive was put in place to push for these agendas. Hamilton’s vision encompassed a strong government’s quest to empower members of the political elite that would transform the administration from within.
To date, America’s administration reflects the foundation that was laid by the founder of modern administration, Alexander Hamilton. His argument regarding the Roman Republic and his admiration of the system of administration in Rome are indeed warranted.
Hamilton participated in the enactment of some of his proposals in the constitution that changed the administration of the United States. Therefore, he can be rightfully referred to as the founder of modern administration in the United States of America.
The Issue of Workplace Equity Analytical Essay best college essay help
Introduction Work equity is a major issue affecting most organizations around the world, regardless of whether they are public or private institutions. While everybody prefers being treated equally at workplace, there are numerous cases when employees are not treated with fairness, to a level of public concern.
Such cases have prompted the formulation of laws in different countries to deal with cases of unequal treatment especially in public organizations. Such laws define the manner in which workers are supposed to be treated, without favoritism in executing leadership or managerial authority (Peetz et al. 406).
This paper explores the issue of workplace equity, focusing on a wide-range of aspects like its background, benefits, disadvantages, and challenges among others.
Background Workplace equity is a broad aspect of management, which ensures that there is fair representation of people in an organization. This therefore means that workplace equity can be described variedly, depending on parameters of representation.
In most cases, workplace equity strives to ensure that the minority groups are well-considered in all aspects of employment, starting with the manner in which employees are recruited to how they perform their duties (Peetz et al. 406). In order to comply with laws and create a positive public image, most institutions offer equal chances for men and women in cases where there are vacant positions to be occupied.
Even though this is the case, some countries may have cultural beliefs, which limit the opportunities of members of a particular gender. Under such circumstances, women are known to suffer most because nearly all societies limit the opportunities of women.
Besides gender, workplace equity ensures that people with disabilities are treated equally with dignity and respect, regardless of their physical situations. Since disabled people are limited, it is important for institutions to have a fair approach, starting with recruitment, training, remuneration, and overall relationship between employees and employers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People with disabilities can compete effectively if they are provided with the physical aid that they may require (Anenson 1). This ensures that tasks assigned to them are well-done within the provided time. In other words, institutions have the obligation of providing facilities, which promote the effectiveness of disabled people with regard to hiring and performance of different tasks at workplace.
Another factor which determines workplace equity is race, especially in cases where the society is made up people from different ethnic backgrounds. In order for this to happen, it is important to consider potential candidates fairly during recruitment, training, and payment. Where equality is not observed, minority ethnic groups may be disadvantaged due to poor representation in different government institutions (Anenson 1).
While private organizations may have customized approaches, relating to the hiring of employees and their retention, public firms need to exercise high degree of fairness to the entire country. Although it is not easy for an entire institution to be fair to all employees in every aspect, it is the responsibility of senior managers to be the ambassadors of equity in all their decisions and actions at workplace.
Theory of equity The issue of workplace equity has been discussed by various theorists and experts throughout history. Following such surveys and researches, John Stacey Adams proposed ideas, which have found significant application in the understanding of quality at workplace. In his theory, Adams mainly addressed the issue of equity in relation to motivation of employees in an organization.
His findings have been found to match with those of other psychologists like Charles Handy and Maslow among other experts in the field (Pravin 316). According to Adams, equity at workplace plays a major role in defining an employee’s attitude towards his or her work. In other words, the theory has a wider view of certain factors that are likely to affect the entire workforce, even though a few people might be directly affected.
This can be qualified based on the fact that fairness and equity are defined in comparison with how other employees are treated under the same working conditions. Furthermore, fair treatment motivates workers, because they feel appreciated for their efforts in advancing the aims and objectives of the organization (Pravin 316).
In describing workplace equity, Adams focused on what people give and receive in return as inputs and outputs respectively. Inputs may include skills and energy, which employees use in performing their tasks, assigned by the management of the organization (Pravin 316). Nevertheless, such efforts are not offered free-of-charge, especially in cases where a person has been hired to receive outputs after offering specified services.
We will write a custom Essay on The Issue of Workplace Equity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this context, it is equally important that to note that inputs go beyond the number of hours people spend at their workplaces. Similarly, outputs comprise of other factors beyond money, which is viewed by most people as the sole output.
The main focus of the theory is the state of those we compare ourselves with in order to establish whether they are treated fairly or not. According to the theory, there are several factors within a workplace, which determine the source of motivation for most people, working in any institution. It is for this reason that people tend to establish a balance between what is given and the reward received as a result of effort and skills.
Through comparison with others, people develop better relationships with friends and colleagues as a way of understanding personal fairness at workplace. Most people get affected when they realize that their workmates are being treated in a different manner (Pravin 316). The response is likely to be negative in cases where their colleagues are rewarded with better terms as compared to what they earn.
This can be used to understand why employees get discouraged when a section of the workforce is exempted from pay-rise or promotion. In understanding workplace equity, it is essential to note that people respond to unfair treatment at workplace differently, depending on the impact of varied treatment accorded to employees.
Discouragement and total hatred are common in cases where a person learns that the kind of rewards offered are less than those given to another group yet they belong to the same professional level (Pravin 316).
Workplace Equity in Canada Workplace equity is highly encouraged in Canada, to ensure that nobody is treated unfairly for reasons, which are not related to one’s ability. The success of equity starts with identifying various forms of discrimination in public institutions before addressing ways of overcoming them.
As mentioned before, women, Aboriginals, and those with disabilities are highly prone to unfair treatment while at work (Zanko 73). In order to promote workplace equity, it is important to establish a way of dealing with the vice and the ability to accommodate people with differences.
Canada is one of the countries with a proud history of workplace equity. In 1970s, the country witnessed wide-spread efforts in support of human rights law, which addressed intentional discrimination. During this time, most Canadians found it hard to secure employment because of existing barriers, which they had to deal with.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Issue of Workplace Equity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There was need for a proactive approach in promoting employment opportunities through change of practices and culture (Zanko 73). It was until 1978 that the government introduced an affirmative action for the private sector. Nevertheless, these efforts bore little fruits as it turned out that employers had not initiated programs to deal with workplace equity.
As a result, the Royal Commission on Equity in Employment was established, chaired by Judge Rosalie Abella. The commission recommended a mandatory program known as Employment Equity, which recognized women, Aboriginals, and disabled people as the designated groups in the country (Zanko 73).
The Employment Equity Act The first Employment Equity Act was ratified in 1986 before it was amended in 1995. The main purpose of the act, which is upheld to-date, is to promote workplace equity in Canada through equal employment and promotion opportunities for all citizens (Catano 80).
In essence, the act ensures that there is full representation of the designated groups in public institutions, based on the needs of the market and the availability of those seeking employment.
In order for the act to be effectively implemented, employers are required to eliminate all forms of employment barriers against minorities, emanating from unauthorized practices and policies. Additionally, employers are supposed to make adjustments within their systems in order to reflect equal representation within the workforces based on eligibility, geography and qualifications (Catano 80).
Even though the sole purpose of establishing the Employment Equity Program is to improve the representation of designated groups in the labor force, it is worth noting that there are benefits, which employers experience as a result of implementing such programs. The following segment discusses some of these benefits.
Advantages of workplace equity to employers The first benefit of promoting workplace equity is that it enhances large markets for goods and services. This is based on the fact that the success of any organization or business is based on its continuous expansion of its customer base (Bailyn 97).
The rise in globalization in the 21st century has led to a significant shift in demographic trends around the world. An institution, which is committed to expansion, ought to widen its scope of customers and employees in order to take advantage of the growing market. Large markets increase the demand for what is being produced thus creating the need for higher levels of institutional production.
Besides the expansion of a country’s market, workplace equity promotes an expanded labor pool to meet the needs of the country. For instance, when equal opportunities are given to all the citizens for specific positions, the government gets an opportunity to select the best candidates from a variety of applicants (Bailyn 100).
It is paramount to note that minorities in the society may also possess relevant skills, which could be needed in a given sector. However, their skills and knowledge can only be recognized if they are considered during recruitment and equal treatment at workplace.
A larger pool of talents ensures that the hiring institution gets a wide-range of options in order to meet the ever-changing needs of the market due to evolving technology and market trends.
Another important benefit of workplace equity is that it promotes good public relations. Institutions, which are known for unfair treatment of its employment, are likely to develop a negative public image, which may have far-reaching effects on its performance and future expansion opportunities (Cadrain 44).
In most cases, citizens are keen to identify with institutions, which seem to address existing employment hardships in the market by offering equal opportunities to potential candidates. As good corporate citizens, such institutions are likely to win the confidence and trust of its employees.
Since public institutions carry the image of the government, workplace equity further presents a positive and likeable image of the government.
Through such initiatives, citizens are able to witness the commitment of the government in promoting equity among people with different needs in the society (Cadrain 44). As a result, the public would be more patriotic and willing to defend their nation because of the equal opportunities it endeavors to offer within the labor market.
Furthermore, workplace equity guarantees better legal benefits, especially in countries where employers are required by law to consider all designated groups of people during hiring and at work. Institutions, which do not comply with the legal requirements, regarding equity, are likely to pay hefty fines or face the punishment recommended by the federal government, which may include sanctions and limited operating space (Budd 2).
When an institution remains committed to workplace equity, it means that there will be no complaints from employees and the public.
In addition, workplace equity promotes motivation among employees. In other words, they feel recognized by their employers and remain committed to performing their tasks effectively. Besides this, institutions are able to minimize retention costs since employees will be satisfied with working conditions (Budd 2).
For this reason, most of them will not have the urge to resign or seek better opportunities elsewhere. As a result, organizations minimize their turnover, thus avoiding unnecessary expenditure on hiring and training of new employees frequently.
Besides the retention of employees, workplace equity plays a major role in pulling qualified candidates who get attracted to the organization because of its fair treatment of employees. Talented people usually prefer working in places where they are treated with dignity regardless of their shortcomings.
Additionally, they value how their colleagues are treated, in order to establish the company’s fairness in handling its employees (International Labor Organization 63). When talented people get attracted to an organization, high skilled manpower is guaranteed to drive the firm’s performance in a competitive world.
This further ensures that labor needs are met with minimal expenses, which are commonly incurred in advertising jobs, hiring, and training. Through such savings, a firm gets an allowance to expand its operations and improve its services without spending a lot of money.
Government Role in Workplace Equity In understanding workplace equity, it is imperative to note that it can only be achieved with collective responsibility. In other words, it calls upon the input of the government, individual institutions, and citizens to ensure that employees are treated fairly. For instance, the government’s role ranges from the formulation to the implementation of laws, which promote equity at workplaces in the country.
In essence, the government drafts laws, describing the need for workplace equity, designated groups, penalties for defaulters, and the implementation process (International Labor Organization 63). Without such initiatives by the government, it would be hard for institutions to promote equity at different workplaces.
Besides formulating laws, which govern workplace equity, the government is mandated to ensure that the laws are followed as stipulated in the act. In other words, no achievements would be realized if no mechanisms are instituted to enhance the implementation process (Zanko 73). In most cases, governments adopt compliance review, which allows institutions to present their progress in terms of workplace equity.
Similarly, follow-up compliance review may be undertaken as a way of assessing the efforts initiated by institutions in implementing workplace equity plans. Depending on the provisions of the law, compliance reviews can take place after a definite period of time, say, after every two years or randomly, to ensure that employers remain committed to complying with the law.
The government also plays a pivotal role in initiating reviews of the law, in order to address the changing needs of the labor market and the dynamic demographic patterns. Such reviews are important in addressing new issues and eliminating errors, which may have been witnessed during the implementation of the laws (Zanko 73).
Moreover, through its implementation, the government takes legal action against those who do not comply with the law through court decisions or fines as stipulated by the law. Such legal actions discourage other institutions from engaging in practices, which go against the law.
In addition, the government creates awareness among its citizens in order for them to understand their rights. Public education is therefore necessary in enlightening the public and the employers on the need of having a fair working environment. Through such forums, citizens also realize their responsibility in the overall process of implementing employment equity programs (Zanko 73).
Importantly, this education ensures that the public is aware of the designated groups of people, and how they ought to be represented at workplace. In essence, it would be hard for an employee to realize the unfairness of the manager if the rights of workers are not known. On the other hand, an enlightened citizen can easily evaluate the performance of an institution, depending on established parameters.
Workplace Equity Challenges Whilst workplace equity has a wide range of advantages, it has been found that its implementation is faced with various challenges, which may vary from one institution or country to another. For instance, some institutions resist equity programs because they believe that the quality of people hired is likely to be compromised.
While this may be the case, it has been argued that the presence of a limited characterization of potential candidates further complicates the issue (Gottfried and Laura 256). In some cases, employers tend to ignore the immense role of employee diversity during recruitment and the manner in which the management relates with its employees.
When qualified candidates do not portray fair representation with regard to existing designated groups, it becomes hard for the institution to comply with employment regulations. This is also based on the fact that one cannot be forced to apply for a given job position, merely because he or she belongs to a minority group.
Another challenge emanates from the perception of most disadvantaged people who resist being considered in a special way because of their shortcomings. Others argue that such appointments and promotions are likely to promote stigma and discrimination against the minorities in the society (Gottfried and Laura 256).
Since disadvantaged people may have equal needs with other groups of people, there is usually a likelihood of people thinking in terms of favoritism. In this line of thought, promotions done within such a context may be considered to be biased.
Implementation of workplace equity challenges also face public and private organizations, some of which may have streamlined command structures. In particular, implementation of such programs highly require the input of senior managers, who have to be convinced exhaustively about the value of intended moves in advancing the agenda of the firm.
This has been found to be hard especially in organizations, which are characterized by decentralization and cultural diversity (International Labor Organization 63).
When the organization is highly diverse, a single policy on workplace equity may not be effective in promoting equal representation of designated groups of people. In some cases, professionals believe in their autonomy, a state, which cannot easily be changed by allowing disadvantaged people to join them.
Similarly, most equity efforts around the world face intersectional challenges. For instance, a program, which is aimed at increasing the number of women, may end up recruiting more white women than black (Peetz et al. 406). Furthermore, efforts to promote gender equity face a wide-range of challenges in cases where the workplaces are dominated by men, coming from traditional societies that undermine women.
In such a state, it might be hard to convince employees and other managers about the need for gender equality at workplace.
Nevertheless, religious diversity equally plays a major role in implementing workplace equity in most parts of the country. This is widely common in cases where faith intersects with sexuality, thus limiting fairness in handling employees. For instance, traditional religionists consider homosexuality and gender non-conformity as sinful and harmful.
In the event that a workplace is dominated by such employees, who strongly subscribe to religion, it would be hard to accommodate people with contradictory behavior and religious standards (Peetz et al. 406).
Even though, there have been efforts to promote equality, discrimination of this nature is still common in most parts of the world. Resistance of this nature is usually strong in cases where the condemnation comes from a traditional Christian or ethno-religious minorities.
Workplace Equity and Politics It is evident that politics play a major role in country, especially in making national decisions and formulation of laws. Based on this, it is important to consider the impact of politics in addressing the issue of workplace equity. Leaders of political parties may influence the kind of laws to be ratified in promoting employment equity.
Importantly, politicians primarily influence the society through decisions taken by the government in implementing and reviewing workplace equity rules (Peetz et al. 406). It is therefore important for such leaders to understand the need for equity and existing factors to be addressed by managers in public and private institutions when recruiting, promoting and relating with employees.
In rare cases, some employees or potential candidates may be discriminated based on their political affiliations. Even though this might be the case, people have the freedom to belong to a given political party without being undermined at their workplaces.
The future of Workplace Equity With the changing labor needs and demographic patterns, the world is likely to experience an array of changes regarding workplace equity. This will also be determined by the growing awareness of different designated groups of people in the society and the need of treating them with dignity.
For instance, governments around the world identify the classes of people who require consideration during recruitments, training, remuneration, and promotions (Bailyn 97). This is likely to be achieved through public awareness, which equally helps minorities to champion their rights in a competitive working environment.
Monitoring of public institutions is likely to improve, especially with advanced technology. During follow-up and compliance review, better methods can be employed in order to obtain a more accurate view of how different managers consider employment equity while running public institutions (Anenson 10).
A good example would be the use of the internet to carry out online surveys in order to determine the achievements realized in promoting fair treatment of workers. Online surveys may save time since the process does not involve the movement of supervisors from one place to another.
Recommendations As seen from the case of Canada, legislation plays a major role in promoting workplace equity in the world. In essence, it gives expansive guidelines on how institutions are supposed to address the issue of minorities in their labor forces.
Of great significance is the need for these legislative statutes to be expanded in order to address the changing demographic patterns like the growing number of lesbians, gay, bisexual and transgendered (Cadrain 44).
With regard to compliance, the review should address all questions of representation at all levels within the hierarchy of the institution. Additionally, these legislations ought to be tougher in order to compel institutions to consider equal representation of demographic constituents of a given society or country.
Additionally, massive public education is highly recommended in equipping the masses with knowledge about workplace equity. Even though one may belong to a group of minorities, it might not be easy for them to push for their rights in terms of being treated by the employer (Budd 2).
Through training forums, people will understand the meaning and implication of workplace equity. Besides equipping the public, managers need to be trained in order to implement workplace equity laws effectively. This would also help them in understanding the fines and consequences of breaching the law.
Conclusion From the above analysis, it is evident that workplace equity remains a debatable issue in most parts of the world. Oftentimes, workplace equity is encouraged to motivate employees and bridge the gap among employees. Of great significance is the fact that workplace equity has a wide-range of benefits, which enhance the performance and growth of institutions.
For instance, organizations are able to retain employees, develop a larger market and promote cultural diversity. On the other hand, the process of implementing workplace equity has always been faced with challenges, including cultural and religious differences. Additionally, equal representation of various minority groups may be hampered by the attitude of employees.
Nevertheless, the effectiveness of workplace equity can be achieved through several approaches, including but not limited to training, public awareness, strong legislation, and compliance review strategies. Above all, the success of workplace equity requires collective responsibility for all the parties involved.
Works Cited Anenson, Leigh. “The Role Of Equity In Employment Noncompetition Cases.” American Business Law Journal 42.1 (2005): 1-63. Print.
Bailyn, Lotte. “Redesigning Work For Gender Equity And Work-Personal Life Integration.” Community, Work
Kofi Annan Leadership Traits Case Study best college essay help
The Five Virtues of Kofi Annan: Case Study Having sat at the helm of the United Nations for two terms, Kofi Annan exhibited astute and strong leadership skills. Admiration for his ability to bring different warring parties together was unending. He always wished for a world where sufferance of innocent global citizens would end. Among the virtues he stand out to have entrenched in his leadership is dignity.
He always believed that all people regardless of their social-economic status, nationality, race and other lines of segregation would have a dignified life. Indeed, the life that Annan envisaged for all people was free of atrocities, poverty and pandemics such as Aids.
Ciulla (2003) postulates that he always saw both sides of the coin in that he could negotiate with perceived criminals such as Saddam Hussein for the sake of innocent civilians who in many instances were caught in the crossfire. To him, dignity was a major virtue of leadership.
Second, throughout his mission as the Secretary General to the UN, he never fell short of confidence in all his actions and attitude. Despite taking positions that put him at loggerheads with major world leaders like Madeleine Albright, Annan had confidence that his cause of action was the best in delivering peace to the world. Third, Annan held courage as an important virtue that all leaders should learn.
He never feared to enhance access to medical care, food and other humanitarian assistance regardless of the risks and dangers this action predisposed him to. Fourth, Annan values compassion, which is a major aspect of transformative and supportive leadership.
He never shied away from the poor and the meek. Indeed, Ciulla (2003) pinpoints an instance where he randomly got out of his motorcade and spent over an hour with a refugee who had fled war in Iraq. Finally, Annan always preached faith. He believed that all leaders should have faith in their actions whenever their actions would end up bringing peace to the world.
Standpoints Held by Different Critical Thinkers Ruth Benedict
The major concept of her works revolves around explaining anthropology and the way it affects normalcy of different people especially those holding leadership positions in organizations and groups.
She articulates that leadership is nurtured and can be uniform across the entire world despite different social, religious, racial and national backgrounds.
Leaders should be consistent in their actions regardless of the contexts they encounter.
To that end, Benedict says that all leaders are able to differentiate between right and wrong and inspire followership that brings about happiness to all people.
She concentrates her main ideas on themes of leadership by articulating that a leader should be ready to try out ‘his/her sword’.
By that, she means that every leader has special attributes, which he/she should use to achieve the goals that the followers.
It is important to note that Midgley holds the view that different leaders are unique and their leadership skills are dependent on the goals they seek to accomplish.
It is therefore upon the leaders to understand their ‘swords’ and act in a way that can provide the best form of leadership to their organizations.
Bailey emphasizes on values and beliefs in leadership.
He asserts that virtuous leaders should be able to make decisions that do not contradict the beliefs of the followers.
Beliefs and values should shape the common goal in a group.
No leaders should exert their personal beliefs and values to the followers.
UN Commission on Human Rights
The global body focuses its attention and activities on the need to uphold human rights regardless of where people live.
UNCHR emphasizes on the importance of human dignity and the need to remove impediments that lead to violation of human rights.
In many instances, UNCHR has spearheaded democratic leadership and governance where governments enshrine human rights as a way of dignifying the lives of their citizens.
Indeed, the organization holds the view that all human beings are important regardless of their location in the world and governments should abide by global standards in enshrining human rights.
Berlin asserts that leaders face numerous challenges and upheavals in pursuit of ideal societies and organizations.
These challenges hinder their ability to perform nobly although they provide different insights to the leaders.
To him, leadership should entail the ability of leaders to overcome such hurdles and achieve their objectives in line with the wishes and aspirations of the followers.
In pursuit of idealistic leadership, Berlin articulates that leaders and organizations should be able to differentiate actions that could impede the achievement of the goals that are in the best interest of the majority.
Application of the Theoretical Standpoints on the Case Study From the above case study, we learn of a global icon who exercised leadership using virtues. Annan was global leader despite his roots being in Africa. He always perceived the world from the lens of globalization and nobleness. Benedict cite him as an example of a leader who defied social and economic backgrounds to achieve his objective of uniting the world and delivering peace to war-torn regions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His virtues were consistent throughout his life as the UN Secretary General. Despite many setbacks that impeded his ability to achieve some of his goals, Annan represents a leader whose ‘anthropology’ did not lead to ‘abnormal’ leadership style (Ciulla, 2003). Since his school days, Ciulla (2003) asserts that Annan was able to nurture his astuteness as a leader and adopt virtues that are important in enhancing effective leadership.
His virtues of dignity, confidence, courage, compassion and faith stuck with him throughout his reign at the UN. As elucidated by Benedict, Annan depicts a leader who has the ability to distinguish between right and wrong and inspire followership that brings about happiness to all people.
Midgley on the other hand would attribute the leadership abilities of Annan to uniqueness of specific leaders. She pinpoints that leaders have ‘their own swords’, which they use to exercise leadership. To her, Kofi Annan was a unique leader whose traits and virtues were outstanding.
To cement her assertions, it is important to highlight that his predecessor and successor have different traits. Indeed, they have ‘different swords’ to exercise leadership. Midgley tends to disagree that leadership is nurtured and asserts that it is inborn and not all leaders are able to exercise leadership qualities in a similar way.
The aspirations and objectives of UNCHR seem to coincide with the virtues of leadership offered by Annan. In particular, UNCHCR emphasizes on the need for human dignity in the world. This would imply that leaders work towards ending atrocities, poverty, diseases and wars that demean and devalue human dignity.
Annan’s virtues dictated that all human beings should live in a peaceful and loving way and instances of wars ought to end (Ciulla, 2003). In fact, Annan pointed out that no government should shield itself in the name of sovereignty given the fact that its citizens have suffered in a huge way.
To this end, he called for other nations to bear the responsibility and obligation to prevent atrocities that occur in some countries. This way, Annan was convinced that the world would uphold human dignity, importance of peace and the need to reduce pandemics.
We will write a custom Case Study on Kofi Annan Leadership Traits specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Berlin perceives Annan from a standpoint of idealism. He sees his leadership style to draw inspiration from his virtues as too optimistic for the world to achieve.
While Annan believes that world peace is possible, Berlin tends to be cautious by saying that there are many challenges for leadership that pursues idealism. Nonetheless, Berlin sees such leadership being very important since it helps leaders to address similar situations in future.
In essence, the objectives that UNCHR has seem to explain the case study in a more elaborate way than the rest of the theories. This is partly because Annan was the custodian of these objectives when serving as the Secretary General of the UN. To this end, his goals and perception of the global society were motivated by the need to uphold human dignity and peace.
His articulation that no country could shield itself in the pretext of sovereignty provided a clear indication of the levels that he could reach in achieving the goals of the organization.
Nonetheless, Annan was an outstanding leader whose virtues provided guidance not only to him but also to the international organization that he served. Virtuous leadership brings about effectiveness. All leaders should therefore aspire to have virtues that uphold human dignity.
Reference Ciulla, J. (2003). The Ethics of Leadership. New York: Thompson-Wadsworth Publishers.
Without Faith, There Can be no True Virtue? Argumentative Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Being Righteous, Sinless and Gracious
Being Virtuous and Having Faith in God
St Augustine Teachings on Faith
Justification of Augustine’s Disputes by Other Saints
Introduction Religion is a concept that has been frequently used to denote the spiritual dominance and practices of Christians. It sets itself apart from the portrayal of worldly perceptions and knowledge. In fact, it is doubted whether those who do not embrace and worship ghost, divinity, or other spirits, and those who have the essential and natural vision on humanity should search for divine knowledge.
It is always difficult to understand Christian teachings because understanding how God exists is also not easy. Based on biblical teachings, there are supernatural and natural beings. Understanding these characters is essential for spiritual nurturing. According to White and Cessario (2001), good religious studies and personal convictions are thus very necessary in nurturing spiritual faith.
Considering these two concepts in our everyday undertakings is important in advancing the faith of an individual and groups. It is not possible to please the Almighty where there is no faith and gracious actions. In the bible, Enoch justified the act of faith and delighted God.
Faith imparts life to the spirit of individuals and any spiritual task that is accomplished without faith generates transgression. Therefore, the Lord considers those who lack the faith to be lifeless in everything they do. In the bible, any faithless individual is compared to the adorned picture that is dull but depicts that object.
Conversely, the spiritual believes that lack affection appears to be wonderful and is not absurd before man. Although the faithless responsibilities might be sparkling before human sights, they hardly pervade the everlasting life according to God.
Such responsibilities are perceptive and obscure because they are of good quality and spirited effects, but are not predetermined according to biblical teachings. It is, therefore, imperative to base our knowledge on St Augustine’s teachings that there can be no virtue without faith.
Being Righteous, Sinless and Gracious Faith is hardly acknowledged where there are no righteous virtues since it may not be instilled without gracious acts. Faith and grace are normally linked up to create real virtue. For one to be righteous, it is important to embrace and live a sinless life because this will lead to faith nourishment. In fact, gracious acts facilitate the faith we possess in Christ and help us to be accepted by God.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, in the bible, a robber who endured pain alongside Jesus had strong faith in Christ and believed in God. The gracious God later forgave the thug and cleansed him of his sins because he had faith (White and Cessario, 2001).
Hence, the Bible teaches that spiritual nourishment cannot lack life, but life can be without the nourishment of self-righteousness. Nobody who sins before God and fails to repent is righteous. As the Bible asserts, the Almighty may not be gracious or have mercy on such a sinful person.
Being Virtuous and Having Faith in God According to the biblical teachings, man is obligated to have faith to nurture the good virtue in him. It is true that people who excel by executing their desired virtues have no everlasting life. Like the biblical burglar, he had no desirable qualities but repented before God and was granted time to live.
Furthermore, the Bible teaches that God will not hear excuses and objections from any man who sins and waits to be forgiven after the time for repenting have elapsed. The Bible affirms that it is the only faith that will save everyone from the bondage of sin (Zschokke, 1830).
However, salvation is going astray when we fail to acknowledge faith and dispense our lives to the virtues relating to bad qualities. The Bible claims that no good feature in man can be available to an endless life that lacks faith. Thus, our work cannot justify our actions, but rather our faith may help us to acquire the desired and prospective virtues.
The tendencies that are present in the course of good personal acts are human virtue. Faith represents the devotion itself, therefore we have fashioned and indistinct faith. A fashioned faith entails two things namely perfecting it and believing it. All these are the proceeds from intelligence confirmed by the authority of our will.
However, indistinct faith is not a virtue and does not necessitate precision on the part of man’s willpower. Besides, the Bible teaches that temperament would not be a virtue if cautions were not there to coherently control and determine the power of man. Hence, all practices that possess values of excellent human accomplishments are virtues.
We will write a custom Essay on Without Faith, There Can be no True Virtue? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This implies that any spiritual object pertaining to faith is beyond human explanations (Zschokke, 1830). God reveals these spiritual objects since they are outside the deliberation of God’s creatures. Not unless, you have sturdy faith to envy good virtues then God can reveal them to humanity. It is clear that God inculcates convention in people whose achievements are higher than their temperaments (St Thomas Aquinas, 2000).
St Augustine Teachings on Faith According to St Augustine, there can be no good care held where faith is not present. One must not imagine that a man will possibly do some finer action without faith. Thus, we ought not to lay down the first-class mechanism before affection. Although men take these occupations as admirable honor, to God they are of no value and not acceptable.
A faithless person is like a horse competing out of the system way and undergoing an enormous work without any intention (St Thomas Aquinas, 2007). Consequently, if one had faith in God, he safeguards the virtue he has as an individual. It is for this reason that where there is no faith there is no excellent livelihood.
Augustine saw that faith must control the intention of a man to have good qualities. Jesus Christ said that his entire body was darkness if his eyes were nothing. Here, the eyeball signified the intention as specified by Augustine. In fact, there is no smile if a man does something with godly intention. Such actions leave one without good grace in that there is a lack of affection when we are working in love.
Measuring good virtues should not be by the facts themselves, but by the aim of the results for doing so (Aquinas, 2009). One may think he or she is implementing a proper virtue, yet it is an activity directly relating to a vice. It is not just before God for one to feed the hungry and dress the naked without having faith, respect, and love for Him. Otherwise, this pleasing quality is unproductive, worthless, and dead in the face of the Lord.
St Augustine demands that whether one fades or not, a faithless grace is nothing. The allegation is true in that faith does speak well about the work of God. Whereas we can fell to good virtues in building strong relations, we are hopeless without faith in Christ. Faith works well with charity. Therefore, it is important for an individual to have faith to set a stable foundation in God (St Thomas Aquinas, 2007).
It is in faith where we pass all other virtues like righteousness, self-control, knowledge, and influence as Augustine reveals. Without faith, we only have the shadows and name of these good virtues, but not the commitment itself. Moreover, in the livelihood of those missing true faith, there is sin and waste. It relates to the author of integrity and the dishonest virtue that occurs where there is no faith in God even if the qualities of an individual are the best.
In St Augustine’s statement, the pagans, Jews, and the heretics fed and dressed the poor. However, their work of good care was hopeless because they did it without faith. He compared them to a turtle who had found a nest for keeping her young birds so that they could not be lost. It was clear that if one had faith in God, he could protect the virtue he has individually.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Without Faith, There Can be no True Virtue? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly, the nest signifies the faith that protects the birds (Aquinas, 2009). Thus, we can also safeguard our loyalty through faith so that our rewards remain unbroken.
Justification of Augustine’s Disputes by Other Saints The spirit of having good virtues where faith is absent was in dispute by St Augustine. St Ambrose justified that by explaining the ordinary strength of the character that survives the vices. One would beautify up the time of faithless life and achieve the impossible virtues. He challenged that without faith no respect to the true God. As a result, any person is inevitable to confuse a virtue for a vice (Saint Thomas Aquinas, n.d).
St Chrysostom John wrote that many of the descendants lacking faith in them are not in the group of Christ. They may prosper in good works of kindness, have fairness, and always come out in care and sympathy, yet their work yield no fruit because they lack faith. He linked this to the story where the Jews asked Jesus concerning what they should do to be righteous.
All he did was to call for faith in the work of the Lord. One should believe, and immediate faith becomes complete in him. Through this, he shall thrive in good virtues in that not anything is excellent without faith. St Chrysostom in the same way insisted that one is lifeless when he excels and shines in good works without God’s faith (St Thomas Aquinas, 2007). It further shows having the valuable and godly burial place whilst attaining nothing from them.
Conclusion In general, one should have a strong faith to have the pleasing virtues. The moral standards resulting from good features are linked with one another. Moreover, it is not normal for the open principles like grace, love, and faith to come to mind without charity. Compassionate faith cannot keep on living without moral virtues.
The inquiry about charity, hopefulness, and sincerity direct us to the conclusion that there can be no charity without hope and faith. If one has faith in God, he preserves the good virtue he has in character. Therefore, without faith, we only have the shades and names of these good virtues, but not the commitment.
It is the only faith that will save everyone from the oppression of sin. Salvation is going lost when we take no notice of faith and give out our lives to the virtues relating to bad qualities. Thus, faith is essential for true virtue in all spiritual aspects.
Reference List Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica: Translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province. Alabama: Mobile Reference Press, 2009.
St. Thomas Aquinas. Summa Theologica Complete. Cairo: Library of Alexandria, n.d.
St. Thomas Aquinas. Summa Theologica: Second Section. New York: Cosimo, Inc., 2007.
St. Thomas Aquinas. The Summa Theologica. Raleigh: Hayes Barton Press, 2000.
White, Kevin, and Romanus Cessario. On the Virtues. Washington: CUA Press, 2001.
Zschokke, Johann. Hours of Devotion for the Promotion of True Christianity and Family Worship. London: Oxford University, 1830.
EasyJet Company Analytical Essay best essay help
Introduction The purpose of this report is to define key problems and critical issues of easyJet, discuss McKinsey’s 7S framework, analyse driving forces, external environment and the position of the company comparing with competitors.
Key Problems and Critical Issues This company has to consider both internal and external problems, for instance, the management of this company faced challenges to control internal management system and implement a strategic plan like motivate the employees, changed the status from private to public, use subcontractors, maintain a relationship with directors and customers.
However, a reporter Sunday Times investigated availability of its low fares and stated that easyJet theoretically asked low price, but practically the customers have to pay more while the price of the services depends on many factors including time factors (earlier flight was much more expensive), taxation policy, unrealistic decision of the management and so on.
SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses Strong brand image in the airline industry;
It has enough financial capability to expand business in a new route;
Outstanding customer service;
Online service and e-commerce facilities;
Easyjet is able to offset high fuel costs;
Loyal customer base
Decrease profit for the global recession
high remuneration to their employees and directors;
Unusual crisis, for example, IT security and fraud risk,
Opportunities Threats It has the opportunity to become a market leader in the low-cost aviation industry;
Increase the number of routes
Long-term objectives to build a strong position in short-haul route while the low-cost market could grow by as much as 300% by 2004;
Extreme competition from other low-cost carriers and Europe’s major carriers;
Internal challenges for entry of potent new competitors;
Legal barriers and environmental problem;
Table 1: SWOT analysis of easyJet
McKinsey Seven 7S Framework for easyJet Strategy: The core organizational strategy of the company is to offer highly competitive fares and sustain in the market by competing with existing and new carriers;
Systems: the management system has considered both manual and technological factors; however, easyJet is fully equipped with IT facilities;
Shared Values: It consists of three essential elements culture, believes and values; easyJet has organized several programs like workshops, and simulations to explain its objectives and develop a good relationship with employees and other shareholders;
Skills: To develop the employee’s performance, it arranged training while it has many young and relatively inexperienced employees;
Style: Stelios was a charismatic leader who struggled to shape the business though he followed the autocratic leadership style to implement major decision;
Staffs: Retention of the employees is the problem while competitors recruit the employees of easyJet providing a higher salary, for instance, British Airways hired away its lawyer providing £500,000 per year;
Structure: easyJet follows a comparatively complicated organizational structure where CEO controlled managers of all departments along with subcontractors, outside vendors.
Driving Forces It is notable that although there are certain deficiencies among the workforce of easyJet, its internal-forces are still quite impressive because of expertise and proficiency of the top management and the CEO (although the CEO is somewhat authoritarian and does not bother much about directors’ advises); so, the forthcoming position of easyJet could be optimistic; however, the external forces are analysed below:
Bargaining Power of Suppliers: the key suppliers like Boeing and Airbus have moderate to high bargaining powers
Bargaining Power of Customers: the customers in this industry respond greatly to raising fares as their switching costs are relatively low
New Entrants: the barriers to enter the market are vast amounts of capital investments and strict laws, which makes it tough for new entrants to start-up and sustain
Threat of Substitutes: there are high threats of substitutes
Competitive Rivalry: there are strong rivalry from other low-cost carriers
Analysis of Statute Vs Competition:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To protect the flag carriers and national businesses, most countries enacted laws to prevent competition; nevertheless, in 1992, the EU passed legislation to deregulate the industry, which meant that all businesses faced extreme rivalry.
Enactment of such statute became a huge problem for luxurious and expensive flag carriers like British Airways, because people now had a choice to travel by low-cost carriers like easyJet, go, or Ryanair; consequently the competition in the industry became very intense; conversely, low-cost carriers from different European nations started competing by offering economical prices to attract customers.
Environmental Scanning Political Factors
Governmental policies like unfriendly taxation or enactment of unfair autocratic laws may pose problems for the players; however, the EU ensures that such actions are prevented and the member states are compliant with the EU-laws.
The industry is recovering after the global financial crisis and new opportunities are generated for low-cost carriers like easyJet and Ryanair
The market players of the industry have incorporated their own corporate social responsibility guidelines in order to make sure that they are conducting ethical businesses and contributing to communities.
The aviation industry is heavily reliant on the uses of technology and so the market players need to keep up with technological advancements in operations and new aircraft models.
The European aviation industry needs to strictly comply with all the environmental laws and make sure that the emission of CFCs is lower; moreover, companies like easyJet need to use fuel-efficient engines.
We will write a custom Essay on EasyJet Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Legal Factors
Legislation plays a major role in the industry; in the 1990s, the European airline industry was greatly regulated, and individual nations wanted to protect their flag carriers; however, in 1992, the EU passed law to deregulate the industry, which meant that all airline businesses were open to competition; as a result, easyJet now experiences free market competition.
Where Is Easy Jet Today Whilst 60 out of 80 carriers (which were established in the same decade) are already bankrupted, easyJet is still in a leading position in the industry; moreover, today, deregulation provided easyJet access to new routes, strengthening its position financially, for example, it has about 100 scheduled flights each day using a fleet of 20 Boeing 737s and serving 26 destination.
Evaluation of Range of Alternative Courses of Action Alternative Solutions Evaluation Criteria for Strategic Alternatives Adopt a situational approach of leadership This report recommends easyJet to consider situational leadership style instead of autocratic approach as it does not follow any specific style of leadership rather leader takes a decision considering present position of the company
Stelio had taken the majority of the decision as per his knowledge and ethics; therefore, he not intended to refund the customer and said his finance directors that you were pulling my hair out, which reduced the perception of the customers and demoralize the management team;
It would be possible to increase market share in the European short-haul routes;
This policy complied with the vision of easyJet
Restructuring Pricing Strategy including refund policy It would help the company to create a strong customer base in certain markets; so, by offering further low fares, easyJet could capture more market share
Revenues may decrease anytime due to adverse economic condition; therefore, the restructuring pricing strategy would provide a backup, so that the customers remain loyal even after diminishing purchasing powers
Operating at economies of scale could be one of easyJet’s core competencies, so, capacity utilization development by reducing production cost would assist the company to offer low price
The growth of the industry could be reduced due to the Eurozone crisis; so, reforming pricing strategy is the only solution to sustain as a market leader
Adopting this strategy has minimal financial risk; however, the European Commission could impose fines for breaking competition law in the EU zone
Improve motivation and focus on staff retention Advisors team feared Stelio’s entrepreneurial management style and they believed that CEO should change his approach to motivate the employees; thus, strategy complied with the vision of the company;
To retain employees, they need to provide competitive remuneration along with facilities;
Implementation of this strategy may create any serious financial problem;
The CEO and top-management should appreciate a good idea of other members;
Table 2: Strategic Alternatives
Recommendation and Conclusion After evaluating the alternative courses of action, it could be said that the best recommendation for the company would be to implement the alternative of adopting a situational approach of leadership so that the business can better perform in certain areas, as suggested in the above evaluations. However, easyJet should remain cautious in undertaking strategies and in decision-making to make sure that there is an active revenue generation even during the Eurozone crisis.
Works Cited Branson, Richard. The Web’s Favourite Airline. 2000, International Institute for Management, Switzerland
Explorer “Light” in Home Environment: The Little Scientific Concepts Expository Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
When Every Step Brings Closer to Another Revelation: Article Rationale Learning is one of those processes that, once started, never end, and this article will deal with some of the issues of earl learning.
The rationale of the given article is based on the fact that in the modern world, the process of information processing and its further efficient application to practice is crucial, which makes a good case for considering the principles of learning at their earliest stage, i.e., at the age of 5 years, and up to the fifth grade (Siraj-Blatchfor, 2009).
Once understanding the way in which children accept information and further on apply it in their cognition of the world, one can possibly develop the most successful paradigm for teaching children.
Concerning the Project: The Learning Process under the Microscope As it has been mentioned, the given project deals with the experiences which serve as the pivoting point in children’s interest in a certain area or issue.
Setting the scenarios of children having motivation experiences which will further on enhance their interest in the specified sphere (Hopkins
The Importance of Cultural Approaches to Negotiation Essay essay help free: essay help free
Negotiation occurs when individuals with conflict of the interests get together to determine how they would allocate resources or work together in the future. The ideas of both parties need to be well presented in the negotiation. Both parties should end up with equally benefiting outcomes.
Negotiation results in problem solving to a common problem between the parties involved. Contradicting issues arise due to different schools of thought and cultural backgrounds. This is the reason why negotiation needs expertise when handling it. Negotiations in business involve open communication, understanding the conflict and search for the solution by the involved parties.
Different cultures approach negotiations differently and thus, utmost understanding is required (Hendon, Hendon
International Economy is Seen as Limiting Developing Countries’ Interests Essay college application essay help
Introduction The international economy has greatly changed over the last decades owing to the forces of globalization, liberalization of markets, and technology. The economy and operations of each nation have been integrated with those of other nations across the globe. Through globalization, it has been inevitable for countries to work without cooperation with others.
The international economy is characterized by increased trade activities in the global platform. New markets and opportunities have been opened up, thus boosting trade and expansion of GDP for the countries. There has however been heated debate on the value of the international economy in serving the interests of developing nations.
Research and analysis by leading economists has shown that the international economy is both advantageous and disastrous. Despite the numerous opportunities presented by the international economy, barriers in realizing national interests of developing countries have been reported. Based on research, the international economy is a force of capitalism and is only beneficial to the developed countries.
This gives a clear opinion that the international economy is to a bigger extent limiting the interests of developing countries. This essay will discuss and analyze the ways in which the international economy limits developing countries’ interests.
At present, few or no country has remained unaffected by the international economy. Some countries have greatly benefited from globalization, while others have fallen victims.
The international economy offers great opportunities for growth and trade with countries, thus boosting national economic growth and development. This has however not been the case for many developing countries, which have grown poorer due to the international economy.
The international economy has created an unstable and polarized world in the long run. This has caused protests of developing countries regarding the international economy. These protests have however been given a deaf hear by developed countries who are practically controlling the international economy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current form of the international economy has done more harm than good in the sense that it only enhances inequality between developed and developing nations (Chua 102).
A huge gap between developed and developing countries has resulted in the 21st century due to the international economy. Through globalization of the economy, the world has been polarized between the rich and poor countries. The developing countries have been put in a compromised situation, thus crippling them to severe poverty. A point of concern is that the international economy is nothing but a tool of capitalism.
This only benefits the developed countries since they have the power to control the market forces by formulating policies which favor their economy. Alongside the creation of the huge gulf between developed and developing nations, the international economy seeks to limit the dominance of individual nations.
The reasons for exploitation of the poor countries should not be seen to originate from the rich countries but rather outside the control of rich countries. This gives an insight on the nature and environment of trade offered by international economy, which only favors the developed countries.
The issues of technology, capital, human power, and political stability favor the rich countries. These are issues are beyond the control of the rich countries, but work in their favor, thus compromising the performance of developing countries in international markets (Held and McGrew 35).
International economy as the herald of inequality Opponents of international economy disagree with the knowledge that it creates fairness in distribution of wealth and provision of trade opportunities. The bottom-line concerning the nature of the international economy is that it is a tool of capitalism and only cultivates inequality between nations.
The developing countries are hereby put in a compromised environment offered by international economy that favors the developed countries. It is true that the international economy has opened up trade, media, better technologies, and steered economic growth. However, this assumption does not outweigh the knowledge that the international market has created an unfavorable environment for inequality and unfair competition.
We will write a custom Essay on International Economy is Seen as Limiting Developing Countries’ Interests specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reasons why so many people around the globe have a negative perception towards the country, which is seen as the new global marketplace is due to the limitations offered by globalization to the developing nations. The United States of America is at the center of debate due to its role in enhancing the global economy.
Being a capitalist nation, the US only looks forward to enhancing its economic prospects at the expense of poor countries. This is a clear justification that the international economy only creates a favorable ground for capitalism and the rich countries (Stiglitz 57).
The international economy is guided by capitalistic structures which have ended up exploiting the developing nations. This market structure has only heightened unfair competition and increased inequality between poor and rich countries. The developed countries led by the US have dominated the global free market. This is only a tip of the iceberg which signifies that the global economy is a platform for the rich but not the poor countries.
Through the rapidly increasing global economic integration, some of the poorest countries have even reported a declining per capita income. This is in spite that the US and other developed countries have enjoyed per capita increase.
For instance, the sub-Saharan Africa countries have been noted to experience a 1.2% decline in per capita while that of the US increased by 1.9% from 1980 to 1998. These statistics give a clear picture of the inequality created by the global economy (David 72).
Integration and expansion of the international economy have heightened poverty levels in developing countries. The number of people living in subject poverty has widened rather than declined over the last three decades. The declining living standards and economic position of the developing countries should not be viewed as a result of poor governance but as a result of inequality created by the global economy.
The US ideology has dominated the international economy in exploitative poor countries. The US-conceived globalization is exploitative to the developing nations and has led to inequalities in wealth distribution and trade.
The issue of multinational corporations should be viewed as a huge barrier to the realization of economic growth in developing nations. These big businesses offer undue competition to small businesses in developing countries, thus chasing them out of business (Stiglitz 57).
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Economy is Seen as Limiting Developing Countries’ Interests by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The market inequality and exploitation presented by the international economy is a limitation to developing countries’ interests. The mode of production and trade in the global markets is capitalist in nature. The developed countries take the opportunities presented by globalization to enrich themselves at the expense of the poor countries.
Developed countries exploit the poor countries through the sell of cheap, capital intensive products at very high prices. This is in relation to the developing nations who sell tools of production, raw materials, and labor at throw away price. International markets assure rich countries of ready market for their high priced products and steady supply of cheap raw materials and labor from poor countries.
In regards to this scenario, precedence for long lasting inequality and exploitation is set which inhibits poor countries from actualizing their economic objectives. Alongside the price disparities of commodities traded in international markets, poor countries have been deprived of money circulation and left with unbalanced foreign trade accounts due to the importation of highly priced finished goods (Chua 102).
Globalised economies have created inequality and dominance of the rich countries. The rich countries have dominated key sectors of the global economy like information technology. This dominance of sensitive sectors of the economy has limited the potentials of poor countries in realizing their goals.
The developed countries use this economic and political dominance to exploit the poorer nations through weaker environmental laws, low wages, and other factors which enable them to dominate global markets.
Poor countries are no longer used as potential markets for high priced finished goods, but also as sources of cheap labor. This is a capitalist approach which has dominated the global economy by exploiting the developing countries (Stiglitz 57).
The continued dominance of developed countries as well as the relationship with poor countries is only sustained through manipulation. The benefits of international economy do not guarantee their persistent participation but rather the manipulation and dependence on developed countries. The developed western nations like the UK and US use their economic and political power to manipulate the poor countries.
The institutions of globalization like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank are used by rich countries to press and manipulate the developing countries. In this perspective, the structure of global economy inhibits fair trade and thus limits the interests of developing countries.
Developing countries have continued to protest against the double standards adopted in global trade with little or no success. The policies, trade agreements, and economic institutions are aligned to the interests of developed countries. The loan policies of the IMF and World Bank are tools of neo-liberal capitalist policies (Chua 102).
Developing countries have been forced or manipulated to liberalize their markets prematurely. Without the strong economic potential like their developed nations counterparts, poor nations have only been put in a compromised state for exploitation. The neo-liberal policies set by the World Bank and the IMF are doctored by the developed nations to exploit poor nations.
These global economic policies require developing nations to do away with trade regulations so as to attract foreign investors. In spite of the fact international economy is an opportunity for economic growth; it ends up damaging the economic prospects of the poor countries. By liberalizing the domestic markets of poor countries, unfair competition is created by the multinational corporations.
It is sad to note that most of the developed nations even exempt themselves from harmful policies advocated by the World Bank and IMF. Based on this analysis, the international economy only deprives poor countries what they deserve and give room for rich countries to capitalize on the weaknesses and opportunities of the poor nations (Held and McGrew 35).
International Economy as tool of absolute dominance The huge economic disparity between the rich and poor countries is a recipe for dominance. The platform offered by international economy favors the rich countries at the expense of poor nations. The global economy is very competitive and only favors the economically and politically empowered. In regards to production and trade, the rich countries are better placed.
This is in regard to their technological know-how as well as capital empowerment. The developing countries are technologically backward and lack the high capital requirements to sustain market competition with developed countries. As a result of this scenario, the developing countries’ interests are compromised (Chua 102).
The developed nations, mostly the US, have dominated the global economy through manipulation and coercion. By adopting the capitalist ideology, the developed nations have been able to replace their selfish and greedy image with a compassionate one. The global economy is governed by capitalistic structures that are used by developed nations to bring about economic and political dominance.
A good example of tools of manipulation and dominance is the foreign aid. This is a deception used by developed countries to advance their interests in the global economy. The percentage of GNP of developed nations used as foreign aid is wanting. This is despite the ignorance of developing countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa which have fallen prey to the trickery of rich countries.
Foreign trade is adequately used in the international economy to seek economic favors and fair trade agreements. This capitalist approach has led to more harm than good to the developing countries (Held and McGrew 35).
The forces of capitalism have encroached into the global market in an uncontrolled way. With liberalized markets, developed nations use their power to exploit the potentials of poor countries. Capitalism in international has led the poor countries to grow in extreme poverty rather than help them to overcome their problems.
Opponents of international economy offer insightful ideas on the manner in which poor nations have been held hostage by the rich nations. The use of medical aid, dollars, food aid, and military aid to poor nations is aimed at dominating them and making them live at the mercies of western nations. Foreign aid is exploitatively used to give favors to rich nations on exploitative economic deals.
For instance, developing nations are manipulated to keep importing expensive products from developed countries, while being coerced to export cheap raw materials to the same countries. This scenario explains why the poor nations will continue to grow in poverty due to their exploitation in international trade (Stiglitz 57).
Lack of fair and transparent market structures in the global economy leaves loopholes for exploitation and dominance of the developing nations. The current structure of the international marketplace favors developed countries like UK and US. The developed countries are conscious of their economic strengths and weaknesses and create regulations favoring all aspects of their economy at the expense of poor countries.
It is notable that the developed countries ensure protection of their weaker segments of the economy while encourage poor countries to liberalize all segments of their economy. This opens pure competition in developing countries, thus catalyzing unfair competition. The overall economic policies and regulations are not fair to developing countries.
This scenario creates a barrier in the fulfillment of the interests of the poor countries. The use of political manipulations in the international economy is rampant and unacceptable.
Most of the developing nations are governed by rogue regimes which coalesce with rich countries to serve their interests with this in mind, the poor countries will continue to suffer from exploitation by the rich countries if fairness in the international economy is not restored (Dunklin 1).
Weakening the position of poor countries in global economy Poor nations have been made vulnerable to catastrophic competition, which has weakened their position in the international economy. The perception that globalization has made poor countries vulnerable to unfair competition cannot be assumed. This is attributed to the huge gap between the rich and poor which has continued to widen instead of narrowing.
Multinational corporations are the main force behind the weakening of the developing countries’ economies. Multinational corporations not only create employment and revenues for the government but also enhance capitalist exploitation. Developing nations are deprived of their potential labor and natural resources by foreign companies.
This is a great catastrophe in the endeavors of realizing sustainable development. Most of the prime natural resources are exhausted by multinationals hence leaving the developing nations with no reserves. This phenomenon is more of harm to poor countries than benefit. This is because the natural resources are exploited and exhausted at a very minimal price or benefit to the nations (Chase-Dunn 62).
Alongside the depletion of national resources and labor, multinational companies kill domestic companies. The competitive environment offered by the global economy is not favorable for developing countries. The young industries of developing countries are not in a position to compete with foreign companies. This is attributed to the technological and capital disparities which give the foreign companies a competitive advantage.
Due to economies of scale, multinational companies are able to produce goods and services at minimal prices and maintain high quality. This is the main reason why multinational companies enjoy monopoly power since they have left no room for domestic companies to grow (Held and McGrew 35).
Import trade is also a disaster for developing countries’ interests and economic growth. The liberalized market structures created by the global economy have encouraged unfair trade. Poor countries are forced to import cheap and better quality products from developing nations. This is simply because the domestic companies can not compete with foreign companies in terms of quality and price.
The high capital endowment and technological knowhow facilitate economies of scale and standardization, thus ensuring high quality and relatively low prices for commodities. In such a scenario, the domestic market in developing nations is made captive of imported products. The import trade and policies are biased in the sense that they favor import and discourage export in developing nations.
Poor countries are manipulated with foreign aid to waive or reduce import duties so as to boost imports and restrain exports. This is a malicious initiative by developed nations whose main goal is to capitalize on the prime opportunities offered by poor countries (Chase-Dunn 62).
Ecological damages are also severely suffered by developing nations due to the global economy. There is a strong link between economic operations and ecological management. The developed nations have engaged in unfair relationships with poor nations aimed at exploiting their natural resources. The developed countries pose a severe problem to developing countries since they try to manage their environment.
This is mainly because natural resources have remained a key element in developing countries’ exports. The global economy has created instability in developing nations, thus limiting them from managing their natural resources. The low priced tagged on natural resources has led to exploitation in order to balance foreign trade payments. This leads to unsustainable production.
Poor nations are facing unbearable foreign debt. In relation with this scenario, the developing nations are put pressure to exploit their natural resources in the endeavors of servicing debt.
Environmental deterioration as well as natural resource depletion is inevitable in developing nations due to the vulnerability they have been subjected to by rich countries. Long-term development in poor countries is hereby compromised due to environmental deterioration (Chase-Dunn 62).
The encroachment and operations of multinational corporations in developed countries are intertwined with political and economic relations. These are relationships, made for convenience and only benefit the multinationals but not the developing countries. Multinational corporations have sought to deal with developing countries in consumer goods industries that are labor intensive.
This is a strategy aimed at exploiting the cheap labor offered by the developing countries. As a result of this relationship, the developing nations have been left to suffer from the violation of labor standards.
Through the immense economic and political powers of the multinational corporations, the citizens of poorer countries continue to suffer. This is due to the massive violation of labor laws regarding working environment and remunerations (Wallerstein 42).
Developing countries have remained attractive to multinational corporations due to their relative abundance of unskilled and low-skilled labor. This is a competitive advantage to the foreign companies which are enabled to produce export goods at cheaper costs. The net benefit goes to the foreign companies rather than the developing countries.
Alongside the exploitation of labor, the operations of foreign companies lead to massive destruction of the environment. Developing nations offer raw materials to multinational corporations at very low cost. This has led to exploitation and exhaustion of the resources, thus heightening poverty levels in developing countries (Chase-Dunn 62).
The extent of the global economy into developing countries only gives power to the holders of capital, who are in this case are the rich nations. Global financial institutions are used wealthy nations to manipulate and exploit developing nations. The immense power of global financial institutions and multinational firms manipulate economic policies in their favor.
The labor markets in developing nations have been most affected by the global economy, whereby it has been weakened. Workers in developing nations have been denied the freedom of unions and movement from country to another thus impairing their bargaining power.
This is an exploitative approach which is dominating the global economy. In reference to the growth of the international economy, membership in unions has been shown to decline significantly, where unions are facing more challenges than before.
All these problems facing the labor market in poor countries as a result of the global economy. Multinationals, foreign investors and global economic institutions impose labor constraints which restrain wage increase and participation in unions (Wallerstein 42).
Poverty and increased dependence of developing countries Despite that it is a complex task to prove the direct link between global economy and poverty in developing countries; studies of different scholars have ascertained that international economy trends have heightened dependency and poverty in developing countries. The effects of international economy on poverty and dependence are due to increased competition.
Foreign trade, investment and government borrowing are key issues of concern which has enhanced poverty in developing countries. The position of poor countries in the global economy has been compromised by western powers.
This has led to increased dependence and poverty rather than benefits. Since the 1980s, the global economy has grown tremendously and has brought more suffering to poor nations than good. The depletion of natural resources and killing of domestic industries are the main causes of poverty and dependency in poor countries (Chase-Dunn 62).
The robust growth of the international economy is disastrous to developing nations. Through globalised economy, growth of developing nations has been made uneven. The total share of developing nations in the international economy has also declined over the years. In this case, the interests of these poor countries to actualize economic growth are limited.
Many developing countries have only found them in a compromised state in reference to the liberalized markets. The deficiencies of developing countries in economic structures and stability have led to exploitation.
The poor infrastructure and societal institutions of developing nations are outweighed by the sophisticated technologies, capital stability and socioeconomic and political powers of the developed nations. The nature of products and services offered by developing countries in international markets are not competitive. This is because most of these developing countries are dependent on agriculture and natural resources.
The developing nations only produce raw materials which are low priced in the global scale. The gap and difference in products dealt by developed and developing nations has led to interdependence in trade.
This is however not a mutual or sustainable relationship since it has led to unbalanced foreign trade. This is attributed to the excessive and high priced imports of developing nations compared to low export to developed nations (Singh 31).
Support for international economy and its benefits to developing countries’ interests The international economy has faced a lot of criticism due to its limitation to developing countries’ interests. However, these criticisms have not taken into account the benefits the international economy may have on the interests of poor countries. Despite that the global market favors developed countries of the West; it has been supported for its ability to inhibit absolute dominance by any single country.
Political and economic interdependence has been cultivated by the globalised economy. For instance, multinational corporations are bound to obey laws in countries where they operate. This is an indication of the nature of the international economy, where it leads to interdependence between countries.
The establishment of global financial institutions like IMF, WTO, and UN regulates the operations trade in the global economy. This is good for developing countries in the sense that their interests are protected (Dunklin 1).
The international economy has also opened economic growth in developing countries. The global economy has come as a relief to developing countries in the sense that it has opened up development. Many poor nations have been opened up for trade and made new centers of growth. This is because the global economy has come with diverse opportunities for countries.
The provision of a ready market for goods and services in developing countries has economic benefits. Foreign investment and multinational corporations have helped developing nations to utilize natural resources. This is in relation to the limited capital and technological know-how of many developing nations. Job creation and improvement of living standards are also scenarios worth praising.
In this case, multinational corporations and foreign investment steers economic growth by creating employment and provision of revenues for the government. This has in turn helped in reducing poverty and improving living standards (David 72).
Conclusion The international economy has profoundly affected all countries over the last couple of decades. While the global economy has benefited some nations, some are in constant protests due to the limitations they have experienced in the globalised economy. In regards to the developing countries, the international economy has been of harm than benefit. The interests of poor countries have been compromised by developed countries.
The international economy is capitalistic in nature and is a tool for exploiting poor nations. The international economy has limited attainment of developing countries’ interests through exploitative economic policies, multinational corporations, manipulative foreign aid, and biases in global financial institutions. Wealthier nations have dominated the developed countries inhibited their economic growth.
On the contrary, poor countries have benefited from increased employment, expansion of trade, and improvement of living standards. The disadvantages of international economy on poor countries outweigh the benefits, thus calling for caution while operating in the global markets.
There is no doubt that poor countries will remain victims of the capitalistic global economy, hence inhibiting the realization of their visions. A thorough review of the structures and mechanism of the global economy is paramount so as to ensure fairness and realization of developing countries’ interests.
Works Cited Chase-Dunn, Christopher. Global Formation, New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998. Print.
Chua, Amy. World on Fire: How exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability, New York: Anchor Books, 2003, Print.
David, Dollar. Globalization, Inequality, and Poverty since 1980, New Jersey: Wiley
Pharmaceutical Industry and Drugs Case Study essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Market size and major players
Research and development
Introduction Pharmaceutical industry has been on the upward over the recent years. This attributes to the growing demand of pharmaceutical products because of changing lifestyles experienced in the modern life. Pharmaceutical industry has a responsibility of developing, producing and marketing of drugs licensed for medication purposes.
It is the only body allowed in dealing with drugs having met the set conditions, which vary from country to country. This research paper will analyze the pharmaceutical industry based on its market size, research and development as well as regulation governing entry of new drug in the market.
Market size and major players Global pharmaceutical market has been reporting an upward trend, which projects to continue over the coming years. Many researches done so far projects that the global pharmaceutical market will produce a total of more than a trillion dollars in its revenue for the year 2012. This is because of the changes that the pharmaceutical industry is undergoing leading to more growth than before.
Some of the current changes in the pharmaceutical markets include the shifting growth from the developed markets, increased focus on biotech developed drugs and approval of new drugs (PRLOG, 2012). Some of the leading players who take nearly half of products in the market are Pfizer, Novartis, Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi among others.
The pharmaceutical expenditures are on the upward trend due to the pharmaceutical consumption experienced all over the world. The total number of pharmaceutical bills by 2007 was estimated to be USD 650 billion among the OECD countries accounting to 15 percent of the health spending.
United States is the leading country in pharmaceutical expenditures per capita of $7,960 followed by Norway and Switzerland. Other leading countries include Netherlands, Luxembourg, Canada, Denmark and Austria respectively (OECD, 2012).
Globalization plays an important role in the pharmaceuticals markets, which is worth mentioning. The states of the third world countries have improved because of globalization from direct participation worldwide. Globalization eases the integration of different countries in forming umbrella bodies with no trade barriers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has necessitated the free movement of pharmaceutical products worldwide. It has created global competition among leading brands in the pharmaceutical industry due to movements and marketing by companies. It has enabled the pharmaceutical companies in the long-term planning as they look for business opportunities in some parts of the globe (Kesic, 2009).
Research and development Research plays an important role of innovating new products, which meets the market demand. As world’s population grows day by day, so does the need for more innovations in solving the emerging problems. Frequent research and developments leads to new products in the market to be used in treating different illness experienced in daily life.
There are a number of agencies which funds research and developments. In some cases, American federal meets the cost of research and developments of drugs in collaboration with the public sector. Over the past years, the federal has laid out policy research, which they have funded to a tune of billions through private and public sectors in US (Austin, 2007).
Similarly, pharmaceutical companies do meet the cost of research and development, which is latter, passed to consumers through buying the products. The global competition and increased need of resistance drugs are pushing private and pharmaceutical companies to research and develop drugs that meets the need of the public.
Meeting the market demand with new products is very important for pharmaceutical company’s research and developments (Swayne, Duncan
Positive Effects of Television on the way People Understand Themselves Opinion Essay college admission essay help
Television helps in building child cognition. Several studies have assessed children’s programs such as Sesame Street. All these studies find that young children who view Sesame Street often have more developed cognition in identifying shapes, numbers and letter than those who do not view the program (Fisch 2004). Besides, these children do extremely well in academics when they join high school.
Conversely, watching television may impair cognition in children. Williams (1986) evaluated cognition in children using a test called alternate uses. He found that the scores of the test dropped after children watched television. Although these findings might have been true, some factors that had no relationship with watching television could have influenced the findings of this study.
Some of these factors could have been tiredness or boredom due to repeating the same test. The work of Williams (1986) is also disputable because children, who like watching, usually follow scenes keenly so that they can recall all the events that crop from week to week. Rather than impairing a child’s cognitive ability, such an activity should help in developing a child’s cognitive ability.
This point can also be supported by the work of McLuhan (1964), who argues that television requires high levels of audience participation. Hence, watching television builds cognition as a child takes part by thinking actively in the entire program.
Television acts as a valuable resource through providing viewers with the latest information about what is happening around them. For instance, a person gets to know when calamities such as Hurricanes strike some parts of the world, or when Iraq is fighting with America.
Such information helps people to understand themselves more as they are able to tell why some leaders of the world may concentrate so much on some issues that other leaders, in other parts, may not consider. For instance, people can get to understand why the American government has to budget for so much money in security and disaster management as opposed to other governments.
However, television does not act as a valuable resource in all topics. Essential topics such as employment openings receive little address from televisions despite the fact that most people are jobless. Hence, we can argue that televisions allow people to understand others, but it offers little when it comes to economic and personal development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Television helps people to understand and appreciate their gender roles. Men dominate most programs on television because few women have jobs. In efforts to investigate the role that television has on making people understand gender, Williams (1986) conducted a study on how children classified men and women after watching some television shows.
All children received a list of traits, and they had to classify these traits depending on whether they were common in boys or girls. After the study, Williams (1986) concluded that television influenced the understanding of men and women roles among children. Understanding gender roles is essential, but it can lead to gender stereotyping.
For instance, girls may refuse to take up subjects that will develop them into media workers because they associate such jobs with men. Also, dividing jobs according to gender orientation promotes gender inequality as organizations place men on leadership positions that pay well while women work as their subordinates with little pay.
Some television programs have made people realize that they can find pleasure in reading books as well as using different methods of instruction in learning. Most people move from one bookshop to the other searching for books that have life stories of characters that they admire in television shows. Also, some television programs like Discovery and History Channels contain lots of educational content.
These channels show some events that took place long ago including wars, as well as evolution of human beings. People get to understand where they came from and why they relate with some societies in certain ways, through watching historical events.
For instance, through watching about Germany armament on history channels, people can understand the roots of the tension between European and American countries. On the other hand, television shows may hamper the habit of reading books in children.
Most children tend to concentrate on watching cartoons and other fun shows, rather than educational programs. Thus, televisions can influence reading and performance in schools, unless parents check what they watch.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Positive Effects of Television on the way People Understand Themselves specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Television shows enhance interaction among different people, thus enabling them to understand each other better. This is because television shows offer a platform from where office mates, who have little in common, can start a dialogue. People commonly watch television series like the Sopranos and sport channels and thus, they always have much to talk about them.
Cartoon shows, also, form a ground for interaction as people from all demographic groups, including children watch them (Datta 2007). In fact, most grownups refer to cartoons when they want to start a dialogue with children, or when they want to cheer up sickly children. Some cartoon channels, which people watch commonly, are Disney Channel, Nickelodeon and Toon Disney.
Television shows, which have characters with admirable values, may impact the relationship between children and other people positively. On the other hand, some television shows may have negative impacts on society. Some examples of such shows are violent games and pornographic shows (Williams 1986). Both violent games and pornographic shows may have an effect on the moral values of children (Datta 2007).
However, the issue of children watching unsuitable content is solvable through screening. For instance, parents can use technology to watch and control programs and content watched by their children (Hobart
Transculturalism and Local Culture in East Asia: Golden Arches Case Critical Essay a level english language essay help
Introduction In the book under analysis, the author introduces cross-cultural evaluation of consumerist trends, particularly expansion of the famous fast food chain McDonald’s in East Asia. In particular, the researcher puts forward the statement that Golden Arches stand for something more important than food consumption.
Rather, McDonald’s has become a cultural and global symbol correlating with contradictory meanings and associations that the world’s known company develops across various economies. The fast food chain is more than food; it also a means of connecting to various societies. More importantly, it has shaped a new vision of pop culture in Asian cultures.
In particular, the expansion of the Golden Arches networks has contributed greatly to development and advancement of the popular culture to the next level. The restaurant network has envisioned a new attitude to life and communication, as well as has introduced tangible changes to East Asian dietary habits.
While discussing cross-cultural influence of McDonald’s expansion, the authors highlight the evident difference between such concepts as transnationalism and globalism due to their contrastive purposes. In particular, McDonald’s is confined to global trends because it pursues to create a new global culture under which all societies and nations would be united by communication and media.
Due to the spread of fast food chains all over the world, the global culture becomes a reality in which people envision Golden Arches East as a part of Asian culture. The globalization process, however, distorts the genuine meaning and role of culture in society. As such, Asian societies undergo simultaneous changes owing to the impossibility to alienate Asian culture from the outside influence.
While focusing on Hong Kong’s culture and external environment, the author insists that the region can be considered “the quintessential postmodern environment, where the boundaries of status, style, and taste dissolve almost as fast as they are formed”i.
In fact, the global trends imposed by Golden Arches symbolism poses threat to local cultures because of the attempt to create globalized perspectives shaping new concepts and antinational traditions. Moreover, McDonald’s stands at the core of consumption culture formation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many economies are engaged with fast food chains development because masses of consumers who are ready to adjust to the new consumerist patterns. The Golden Arches strongly correlate with the standardization and automation modes introduced to the food industry.
Methods Used to Explore Book’s Key Arguments and Theses Data Considered to Analyze the Arguments
In the book, the author emphasizes the impact of McDonald’s culture as a means of connecting various cultures through reference made to anecdotal situations and real-to-life cases of people visiting McDonald’s fast food restaurants and describing their experiences. At the beginning of each chapter, the author applies to personal accounts and makes the corresponding conclusions afterword to draw the reader’s attention.
For instance, while exploring the shifts in Chinese dietary habits, the author resorts to personal recounts of the residents of San Tine village about the meals they used eating in McDonald’s. The accounts, however, were not confined to mere description of types of dishes.
Rather, the reflection was extremely vivid and could be compared with the experiences that a person receives while attending a very refined and respectable restaurant. Being overwhelmed with the food experiences, many people visiting fast food in Hong Kong have become dependent from the American-style consumerist patterns, which are not associated with taste preferences only, but with the cultural and symbolic meanings that this food has for the Chinese
. The real-to-life story about the importance of food consumption ideologies is supported by the author’s reflections on the importance of transnationalism and fast food industry expansion. In particular, Watson argues, “the people of Hong Kong have embraced American-style fast foods, and by so doing they might appear to be in the vanguard of a worldwide culinary revolution”ii.
At the same time, the scholar insists that globalist trends of food consumption do not have a tangible impact on local cultures. It is impossible to distinguish between local and national cultures because transitional processes have become part of the Chinese culture. The Chinese culture has outlined further trends in commercialism and consumption.
While analyzing empirical evidence and tracing historical origins of fast food integration, the author, nevertheless, stresses that McDonald’s does not become the major reason for standardization and automation of food production. Moreover, Chinese dietary habits have been shifts to a new pattern of life in the country.
We will write a custom Essay on Transculturalism and Local Culture in East Asia: Golden Arches Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although GAE was associated with new behaviors and consumerist culture, the main reason for cross-cultural transformation was management. Specifically, Chinese managers do not consider fast food as the invention of the Americans. Most of meals have acquired Chinese colloquial names; Chinese youth has used referring to American snacks as to common lunch activities in Hong Kong.
Due to different culturally predetermined perceptions, Chinese have identified GAE concepts with their traditional outlooks on meals and snacks. Despite differences in food preferences, McDonalds did introduce slight changes to dietary habits in Hong Kong.
For instance, by recounting the story of Mr. Ng, the owner of the Hong Kong fast food chain, the author successfully explains the consequences of cross-cultural interaction, as well as how Americanized meals have integrated into an ordinary life of individuals.
While describing the private case of managing McDonald’s in Hong Kong, the author critically asserts that personnel of the fast food restaurant “…made the transition from an exotic, trendy establishment patronized by self-conscious status seekers to a competitively priced chain offering “value meals” to busy, preoccupied consumers”iii.
Apart from personal accounts, the chapter focuses on statistics and surveys underlining the presence of discrepancies between the ideological filling of American McDonald’s and that located in Hong Kong. Though the Chinese managers have borrowed the ideas from Western fast food industry, the cultural patterns of local consumers have remained unchanged.
To underline the differences in cultural and social perceptions of fast food industry, the author refers to a cross-cultural analysis of custom, traditions, and trend in serving people. For example, the chapter explores the differences in perceiving hospitality, which is reflected differently in Chinese society. In such a manner, the author places an emphasis on the importance of correlating food choice and national identity.
In other Asian countries, such as Korea, McDonald’s acquires a new symbolic and cultural meaning, which predetermined by the desire of Korean people to be both nationalistic and global. In this respect, food consumption culture is not associated with the concepts pursued with GAE, but with the unique patterns these concepts shape within a particular society.
While describing the consumerist trends in China and Korea, the author manages to succinctly and consistently define identical patterns of perceiving McDonald’s within the context of historic and symbolic representation in both cultures. To explain the issue, the author argues, “Koreans’ attitude toward American fast food vary with their gender, economic condition, and political viewpoint”iv.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Transculturalism and Local Culture in East Asia: Golden Arches Case by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, it is hard to persuade Chinese and Korean people that eating McDonald’s meals are not part of their food consumption culture.
The analysis of cultural influences and changing perceptions has revealed author’s valuable contribution to the discussion of international patterns in commerce, as well as how local societies are triggered and represented within this context. The chapters dedicated to the analysis of food habits in China and Korea has put forward the significance of social messages that food industry expansion introduces.
In addition, the main strength of interpreting commoditization in Asian region lies in author’s attempt to contrast and compare the way various Asian societies perceive Americanized patterns of consumption.
Weaknesses of Evidence
Although many explanation shave been provided for trends in globalization and transnationalism, as well as for their impact on the development of American patterns of consumption in East Asia, the author fails to introduce generalized and logical conclusion from the proposed references to other researches and personal observations.
Representing McDonalds both a globalized trend and a signifier of free market initiatives, the author fails to differ it from another concept of GAE that is more associated with a “local” institution.
Evaluating the chapters
Despite the lack of transparency and accuracy of exposition on the investigated topic, the reader will definitely understand the features and characteristics of GAE. While using persuasive evidence, the author provides an account on various Asian societies assimilating global trends in consumption and fast food industry.
In addition, the chapters provide strong parallels between the Western and Eastern food cultures, as well as their obvious differences, that are not lied in menus, but in the social and cultural messages that they deliver. Through use of different names, Asians convert definitions and concepts accepted in American culture and use their own associations. For instance, Koreans cannot consider Hamburger as a snack, but as a meal.
Thus, confronting different culture, fast food industries faces serious cultural and ethnic challenges. Due to the fact that more meanings assigned in a cross-cultural environment do not contribute to the popularity of American food cultures, which poses a threat to the actual idea of McDonald’s consumption concept.
While reviewing the habits, behaviors, and attitudes of Asian societies to fast food centers, the author has made interesting assumptions. In particular, Watson notes that fast food restaurants are regarded as leisure centers, particularly for youth who visit these places for communicating and interacting.
The principle of using McDonald’s for other purposes than eating meals is frequently observed across cultures. In this respect, the chapters provide examples of visiting fast food centre for celebrating various events and organizing various meetings. The priority, therefore, is not given to the menu anymore.
Analysis of Counter-Arguments
Overall, the presented examples, cases, surveys, and author’s personal observations prove that the expansion of Western culture and fast food chains have not undermine the local cuisines, traditions, and authentic preferences in consumption patterns.
Regardless of the homogenous trends of the globalization process, the author skillfully manages to introduce anthropological theories to examine exotic peoples and practices and shed light on the peculiarities of behavior with regard to the consumerist trends. In addition, the chapters present early historical studies investigating the history of McDonald’s development.
In addition, the author discusses people’s lifestyles and views them as consumers. Addressing such East Asian cities as Hong Kong and Seoul, the author highlights possible biases and preferences influencing the system of global production. Specific attention is paid on the detachment of GAE from its Americano origins, as well as assimilation of McDonald’s culture in Asian societies.
The localization process is explained by different experiences that consumers face. In addition, the genuine symbol of McDonald’s food production is under the threat as far as Asian societies are concerned. In particular, the author provides examples of consumers treating the Big Mac as a symbol of American imperialism. At the same time, growing numbers of Korean children celebrate various events at fast food centers.
In addition, Watson stresses that the localization process bears one-way character because the corporation also needs to adjust to new environments to achieve profitability. The chapter shows how consumers, along with McDonald’s management, have changed their fast food centers into leisure cafes, meeting halls, and afterschool clubs.
The contributors, therefore, have paid closer attention to the outcomes of these activities for education, socialization, and family organization. What is more important is that the chapters conclude that there is no connection between fast food boom and development of child-centered consumer culture in Asian region.
Modernization and Modern Transformations in East Asia
Provided the process of modernization is associated with global development, the author sufficiently covers the complexities and challenges of modern trends in consumption.
Addressing the main contributors in studying food production industries, the author notes, “from a cultural point of view, McDonald’s, like many other products of industrialization and modernization, is treated by most Americans as simply a necessity of modern life”v.
Chinese, by contrast, observe the Big Mac has been transforming into an exclusive cuisine because McDonald’s has not just become a place where people order meals. The complexities of social interactions and perceptions of the ‘Americanized’ approach prevented the Asian societies from accepting modern introductions.
Because fast food chains reflect the globalization process, it has also become a modern industrial power and focus of modern business activities. Within local communities, McDonald’s has become the main source of revival of local businesses and economies.
In addition, the author accentuates that the integration of GAE also triggered the development of modern habits and skills among youth. In particular, the author has researched, “parents make every effort to encourage their children to learn all kinds of skills…that are supposedly necessary in the modern world, and will save money to meet their children demand for food…”vi.
Therefore, children visiting fast food centers are engaged into modern patterns of communication, and they strive to become part of popular culture.
Apart from improvement to the communication and culture, Asian societies have also been affected by modern trends in managing fast food industries, which contradict significantly the existing administrative strategies.
In particular, the author argues, “by combining methods of preparation and hygiene with traditional Chinese cuisine, they could recapture Beijing’s fast food market from the control of foreign chains”vii. Taking McDonald’s as a model of management by local communities and governments allow Asian societies to build up a bridge to global culture.
Bibliography Galgano, Michael J., Arndt, J. Chris, and Raymond M. Hyser, Doing History: Research and Writing in the Digital Age. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth, 2008.
Watson, Watson. Golden Arches East: McDonald’s in East Asia. UK: Standford University Press, 2006.
i James Watson. Golden Arches East: McDonald’s in East Asia. (UK: Standford University Press), 10.
ii Ibid., 79.
iii Ibid., 87
iv Ibid., 139.
v Ibid., 53.
vi Ibid., 66.
vii Ibid., 74.
Enlighten Up! Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Yoga has become a common phenomenon among individuals in the modern world. Yoga did not originate from the western societies. It originated from India and has been embedded in the Hindu religion. However, for someone who has not known anything to do with the yoga, the individual may not comprehend what the yoga concept entails. This was the situation before I became acquainted with the yoga.
Long before I joined yoga, I used to think “going to the yoga mat” referred to going to the hall in which yoga was practiced. This might sound funny to someone who has been in the yoga. Nonetheless, I never knew the actual meaning of the concept.
When I was young, my friends would say that they wanted to go the yoga mat, and they would leave and disappear into the hall where yoga was practiced. Therefore, to me “going to the yoga mat” meant going to the yoga hall.
All the delusions associated with my conceptualization of “going to the yoga mat” were eliminated when I got interested in the yoga. Here, I came to understand that “going to the yoga mat” meant that one was ready to engage in the exercises associated with yoga. Indeed, “going to the mat” means engaging in yoga. The yoga mat is a small piece of mat meant for effective exercising during yoga. The mat is used to prevent the hands and feet from slipping during the exercises.
In particular, the yoga mat is used to prevent injuries that may result from sweaty hands or feet. It also prevents the hands and feet from getting bruised during the exercises. In this case, the yoga mat provides padding for the knees and elbows.
The yoga mat is also useful in defining the space in which an individual carries his or her yoga exercises. Therefore, when one says that he or she wants to “go to the yoga mat,” this can be interpreted to mean that the individual wants to engage in the yoga exercises.
Yoga is practiced by many individuals across the world. In fact, it is estimated that close to 18 million yogis can be found in the United States (Brussat, 2012). Yoga has been noted for its mental and physical changes. In this case, yoga serves various functions to different individuals. However, it can be noted that yoga is practiced for mental and spiritual benefits, as well as for healthy bodily exercise.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is argued that yoga promotes flexibility of the body. Some people engage in yoga to ensure that their bodies are physically fit. Yoga is associated with various benefits for its exercises. In this case, yoga enhances flexibility of the body, strengthens the stabilizer muscles, and enhances the development of balance and coordination.
It also reduces the chances of injury, helps in the burning of body calories, enhances the functioning of internal body organs, and eliminates body pain and fatigue.
Yoga is said to bring about tranquility of the mind. In this respect, yoga is associated with happiness. It enhances focus and increases energy among other things. Yoga also enhances self-esteem, facilitates meditation, and enhances discipline among individuals. In addition, it has been argued that yoga is practiced for spiritual meditation. Therefore, it can be summed up that yoga promotes the well-being of the mind.
From the documentary “Enlighten Up!”, it can be noted that yoga means different things to various individuals. In this documentary, an individual was examined as to whether he could transform after being exposed to yoga. Nick Rosen is the character that is exposed to various kinds of yoga and examined whether the yoga had an impact on him. At first, Rosen seemed to benefit from the yoga.
In this case, Rosen got physical and mind benefits emanating from the physical exercises in the yoga classes. Rosen leant that yoga is used by different individuals for different purposes (Karten, 2009).
Indeed, Rosen found that there are various forms of yoga all over the world. He also learnt of the various interpretations of yoga depending on the teachers. Some teachers of yoga claim that yoga is used to deliver an individual to the most preferred path. Other teachers claim that yoga is useful in helping individuals engage their minds.
On the same note, some teachers argue that yoga is beneficial for its physical exercises. Others argue that yoga enhances better sleep. In addition, there are assertions that yoga improves the sexual life of individuals. Furthermore, other individual practice yoga with the aim of making money (Karten, 2009).
We will write a custom Essay on Enlighten Up! specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rosen learnt of the various reasons for engaging in yoga from his world tours learning different aspects of yoga. After his stay in India, Rosen became extremely confused about the whole concept of yoga. In fact, he did not even understand himself after visiting India to learn about the various kinds of yoga (Karten, 2009).
From Rosen’s experience, it can be noted that yoga does not imply the same meaning to all individuals who practice it. In this case, the meaning of yoga is determined by the teachers.
References Brussat, M.A. (2012). Enlighten Up! A Skeptic’s Journey into the World of Yoga. Web.
Karten, H. (2009). Film Review: Enlighten Up! Web.
Technology and Education Essay cheap essay help
In an interesting correlation between technology and university culture, Stephen Marshall presents the notion that it is the very culture within universities that ascribe to a set of strict fundamentals and organizational practices that limits the ability of technology to be sufficiently innovative in implementing new practices and organizational change within institutions of higher learning (Webley, 2012).
Marshall explains that technology acts more like a tool that reinforces current practices and implements already intended changes yet still conforms to the very same unperturbed internal culture (O’Brien et al., 2011). While the views of Marshall are somewhat accurate, as seen in the case of online distance learning courses that attempt to emulate the educational experience of a university, it cannot be stated that they are 100% correct.
For example, Coursera.com, which is a new development in providing a free online learning experience for students around the world, was a direct result of inter-university collaborations by Ivy League institutions in order to innovate the current way in which teachers and students approach the concept of education.
From this example alone it can be seen that the assumptions of Marshall are not entirely correct since that there have been legitimately fruitful efforts established by universities to utilize technology in a way that is completely outside of their internal cultures in order to create an entirely new teaching and learning experience (Young, 2012; Kamenetz, 2012).
On the other hand, when examining the case of the methods utilized to teach English and I.T. (information technology) to students in grades 5 and 6 within the U.A.E it can be seen that technology was used a means of speeding up the process through the distribution of course materials and the creation of computerized learning tools but the basic format by which students learned was still the same regardless of the technologically based methods used to teach them (Autio, Hietanoro
The Case for Professional Boards Essay essay help: essay help
In the given report, the issue concerning the recent insolvency problem which gripped the global business world in 2008 is being discussed. According to Pozen, the root of all evil in the give case was a cadence of unreasonable decisions undertaken by Enron.
After the Sarbanes-Oxley Act had been passed, solid improvements were anticipated. However, the results proved quite unpredictable. In the given report, the reasons for the inefficiency of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act are investigated.
In a rather unique way of researching business problem, the author suggests his own business model as the key means to investigate the causes of the economical decline. According to Pozen, with the help of the model of professional directorship, not only the reasons for the entrepreneurship to sink in 2008 will be found, but also new methods of boosting business will be found.
Among the innovations which Pozen includes in his model of the professional board, a smaller size is highlighted in an especially graphic manner. Indeed, according to the author, numerous industrial companies with smaller boards survived the crisis of 2008, while the companies with larger boards did not.
It is also quite peculiar that the author of the article compares the notorious reform of 2008 with its more successful analogue. What Pozen called “additional governance standards for public U. S. companies” (54) proved quite efficient. Comparing the given reform to the one of 2008, Pozen offers a couple of important ideas.
To start with, Pozen emphasizes that the CEO of the company should not necessarily supervise every single issue that takes place in the company. According to Pozen, a leader can reach maximum efficiency once (s)he gives the company some air and allows the management handle the company affairs on their own for once.
Finally, the author offers his ideas concerning the role of the company director and what the latter should be like for the company to prosper. According to Pozen, the role of a director has changed over the past few years considerably and now demands far more devotion and commitment than it has ever had.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Back to the above-mentioned reform, Pozen explains that it will not have any tangible effect in the U. S. economics, as well as the major functions of the board. Finally, Pozen offers his vision of a perfect company with a perfect leader at helm.
Along with the explanations of what caused the decline of the entrepreneurships all over the world in 2008, the author also outlines the strategies which can lead an employer to efficient leadership and considerable progress, as well as great revenues.
Hence, it can be concluded that the report offers an honest and detailed account of the causes of the economical problems of the 2008. Offering an exhaustive explanation of why the SOX Act did not change the situation for the better, the author of the report made it obvious that the people who developed the SOX Act clearly tried to solve the then economical problems.
However, the problem of the plan which the developers of the SOX were trying to implement was that it offered an even more complicated plan for the chairmen of the boards to comply with. Thus, the author makes it obvious that, for better strategies, it is necessary to make the plan outlines as simple as they can be.
The Possibility of Ecologically Sustainable Forestry Expository Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Ecologically Sustainable Forestry
Theories of sustainability
Problems and Management strategies
Introduction Forests should be managed in an ecologically sustainable perspective, which entails management of forest eco-systems, wood production as well as non-timber values. There is need of maintaining integrity of the eco-system through establishment of wide range and even distribution of forest structures, species composition as well as biological diversity (Swanson and Franklin, 1992).
Ecologically sustainable forestry incorporates conservation of biological diversity. The main problem in creating sustainable forestry is by identifying the main channels to use in allocating the scarce resources in a desirable way. Market eco-systems have basically focused on the means of allocating natural raw materials with a view of maximizing the monetary value attached to it (Abensperg-Traun et al., 1997, pp. 637-641).
Definition of sustainability can be approached from various perspectives and approaches, which may involve thermodynamic, capital-based and human approaches. Thermodynamic approach views sustainability as development confined within the limits of earth’s carrying capacity (Figge and Hahn, 2004). In this case, the quality of life is improved within the confines of the carrying capacity of supporting eco-systems.
In capital-based approach, the environment is essentially form of capital asset, which can be increased through conservation efforts and at the same time, decreased through consumption. Then finally human approach involves the process of considering sustainability as vital channel capable of improving people’s lives when used appropriately (Hopwood, 2005).
Ecologically Sustainable Forestry Sustainability can basically be defined in view of a country’s level of responsible productivity and manufacturing processes. Organization within various countries considers various strategic principles towards sustainable development while at the same time capitalizing on lucrative processes capable of contributing positively towards more sustainable environment and society (Sharma and Vredenbrug, 1998).
Main purposes of sustaining forests are to avoid the risks associated with destruction and at the same time, pursue long-term benefits associated with the world economy. Market dynamics cannot be easily used in measuring environmental contributions towards quality livelihood. In such a case, most countries use GDP to measure quality of living standards within their respective boundaries.
However, there is a high possibility that such parameters ensure loss of value in the process of economic development. This calls for the incorporation of all ecological dimensions in any initiative of sustainable development (Ekins, 2005; Abensperg-Traun et al., 1997, pp. 637-641).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Forest sustainability should incorporate a high level of responsibility in the process of utilizing forest resources. Such explanation incorporates for the needs of the dimensions within the ecological integration and interaction. This brings about the ability to meet various population needs and requirements which could otherwise be met through trade and economic growth(Arrow, 1995, pp. 520-521).
Theories of sustainability Theories of sustainability tend to prioritize and incorporate social responses to environmental and cultural problems. This can be explained in a manner such that each model explains a specific aspect of environment.
For instance, an economic model focuses on sustenance of natural as well as financial capital, ecological model focuses on biological diversity as well as ecological integrity, and political model focuses on social systems dealing with human behaviour. Finally, the religious aspect brings in the symbolic and motivational resources capable of instituting cultural change.
In a wider perspective sustainability explains the intimate and complex relationship of human and eco-systems. The various components of sustainability should be integrated to address various global issues within the domain of maintaining social justice, moral vision and durability (Commonwealth of Australia, 1998).
Economic models seek to tackle sustainability based on capital investments. This is where returns are used on natural resources helping in the creation of new and valuable opportunities. The kind of spending done on the social sector tends to compete with most of the investments geared towards sustainability.
Creation of opportunities with future development in mind creates options for the current poor since greater development is ensured (Strochinskii et al., 2001, pp. 11-19). Ecological models, on the other hand, propose sustainability of biological diversity and ecological integrity whereby the key issue is focusing directly on health status of living world. However, political models on sustainability propose sustenance based on human dignity.
The model tends to be concerned with the connection between local, global environmental problems and human dignity. The main agenda involves aspects on environmental justice and sustainable environmental schemes, which focuses on sustenance of cultural conditions required for the realization of ecological balance. There are also religious views which have played important role in motivating sustainable change (Stoyko, 1998).
We will write a custom Essay on The Possibility of Ecologically Sustainable Forestry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Problems and Management strategies Management strategy in maintaining the forests can be based on property rights. There are both public and private management systems in which case forests tend to be overexploited (Elkington, 1994). Private ownership tends to follow the natural law and instrumental argument.
Conventional economists propagate the fact private property rights lead to efficient allocation of resources, which is also only possible for eco-system structure. Natural forests are considered shared inheritance since they are not created out of anybody’s labour efforts (Wagner et al., 2001).
The problem on sustenance of these forests can be solved based on the principle of common asset trust. This differentiates private from public ownership by creating a third sector representation, which is neither private nor public.
The rights of the future generations can be protected by ensuring that the harvest of renewable resources does not exceed the rate of regeneration (Daly, 2007). The aspect of the forests being owned by all could help in building much responsibility since the costs and benefits obtained from harvesting of forest resources would be shared by owners.
The problem of sustainable management of forests is considered complex since it incorporates natural systems, social systems as well as human values (Berkes, 2004). Variety of vital goods can be obtained from the forests. These resources ranges from timber, genetic resources, water to benefits on climatic regulation all of which are essential for human survival.
Hence mismanagement of forest as a resource could lead to irreversible impacts. This calls for invention of new methods through which environmental problems can be managed as well as new approaches appropriate for identification of various impacts of human activity on environmental problems.
A number of factors can be considered towards obtaining acceptable solutions since sustainable forest management, as well as other environmental problems, are considered multi-faceted.
There is need for inter-institutional partnership involving professional, community stakeholders, the government, business sector amongst other sectors. In addition, improved communication skills in the research field amongst the scientists are necessary (Stuart and Edwards, 2006, pp. 11-19).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Possibility of Ecologically Sustainable Forestry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conservation strategies Focusing on limited conservation strategies may actually not ensure retaining of all other tree species. In such a case, setting aside of biodiversity priorities reserves in conjunction with array of management strategies, which ensures maintenance of elements of original stand structure (Abensperg-Traun et al., 1997, pp. 637-641).
According to Australian federal government conservation of some tree species in Australian mountain ash forest requires retention of trees on logged sites to maintain the populations.
Multi-faceted management approaches tend to be efficient since the failure of one strategy will guarantee protection by other elementary sources of forest biodiversity strategies. These strategies include establishment of wild-life corridors and tree retention projects throughout logged areas (Figge, 2005).
Conclusion The various human economic activities have extensive impact on the environment. Utilization of natural resources such as forests presents a challenge since their depletion at times lead to adverse effects on the environment and ultimately to climatic change. This may as well lead to economic activities having direct influence on the environment through pollution-related effects.
However, technological aspects can be utilized for the purposes of reinforcing sustenance level of non-renewable resources, which consequently minimise the environmental costs of economic activities. The processes of conservation could further be initiated to cater for the substitution of non-renewable with renewable resources(Hart and Milstein, 2003).
Socially sustainable forest lands consider responsible action towards surrounding environment. Such activities require transparent actions in decision making coupled with efficient corporate governance, which assists in creating some fairness in working conditions and at the same time, ensure safety of biodiversity.
There’s need for individuals and business organizations to consider environmental conservation through responsible use of resources. There is need to encourage recycling and at the same time, maintain the rich biodiversity. Strict sustainability principles and policies are required within the manufacturing sector since most of forest oriented industries are part of the sector.
Reference List Abensperg-Traun, G., Arnold, D., Atkins, L.,Viveen, J.
Mobile Computing and Social Networks Term Paper essay help
Introduction The evident rapid growth of the IT sector has prompted the emergence of a myriad of electronic applications, which have the ability to run on mobile devices. Mobile applications are “internet applications designed to run on smartphones and other mobile devices” (Myers et al., 2006, p.36). Many of the mobile applications were initially designed to run as games on the mobile devices.
However, with the development of android, iphones, and ipad technology, the business world was interested in whether such technologies would help in transferring some of the applications running in their desktops to the mobile devices so that they could get an opportunity to persuade more people into their customer pools. Surprisingly, their dilemmas received a positive response.
For instance, applications have been developed to permit persons to take pictures of accident scenes ready to forward them to their respective insurers as part of the data required in the processing of compensation claims. A good example of such an application is the Nationwide® Mobile, an application developed by nationwide insurance company. This application runs on iphones.
It gives policy holders an opportunity to forward their insurance claims immediately an accident takes place. Fundamentally, the application is designed to give a room for the policy holders to take pictures of the scenes of accidents to be attached to the photos in the claim data.
When this is done, the application takes the information contained in the claims to the Nationwide’s server. This approach significantly reduces the time required to process the claims.
Based on the success of the nationwide application, other companies have also developed their own applications, which run on ipads, iphones, and various androids applications. Additionally, people served by these companies get an opportunity to receive massages regarding how far their claims have proceeded via social networks like Twitter and Facebook among others.
Apparently, the application of mobile devices in the business environment is not limited to the insurance industry. Applications also exist, which, while running on mobile devices, permit their users to pay their bills via credit cards. Other applications have the capability of reading and decoding bar codes. Yet, they run on mobile devices. Arguably, mobile computing has led to the revolution of the IT sector.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this line of thought, this paper focuses on assessing the effectiveness of mobile applications, evaluating their benefits, examining of their challenges, discussing the approaches for increasing the availability of mobile devices, and methods of making mobiles devices more secure to hacking. The paper also describes methodologies, which can be deployed to make decisions on which platforms to support.
Effectiveness and efficiency of mobile-based applications
There is an ongoing concern that mobile-based applications would out power the desktop-based application systems due to the convenience provided by the former platform. Arguably, this may not be precisely true since mobile-based applications have their own challenges attributed to their design and the limitation of mobile device hardware such as screen resolution sizes.
However, mass manufacturing of mobile devices supporting a myriad of function-enhancing tools such as cameras coupled with programming languages, encoding, and decoding applications may prove the claim that mobile-based applications would contribute towards making mobile devices effective and efficient in capturing geo-location data and customer data.
Quickly, they would upload them to a processing server without the user having to make use of desktops. Since the technology for production of mobile devices has incredibly improved, it is likely that their costs will continue to decrease. This implies that a larger number of people will afford them.
These, combined with other advantages such as the weight of the mobile devices in comparison with gadgets such as cameras that are used to enhance the operation of desktop-based applications, have the consequences of making more organisations develop mobile-based applications to support and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their service delivery.
For desktop-based applications to be deployed in uploading customer data or to capture geo-location data, external devices that are built extrinsically from the desktops are required. Such devices would include cameras to capture, for example, accident scenes like in the case of an insurance company’s situation.
This means that data transfer between devices is required for a successful reporting and delivery of geo-location garnered data. While this process is time consuming, additional risks are encountered due to the danger of loss of accurateness of the means of transferring the data and the likelihoods of hardware incompatibilities.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Mobile Computing and Social Networks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mobile devices mitigate these challenges since the necessary hardware is crystallised in a single hardware: the mobile device. Challenges of hardware and software incompatibilities are also reduced since, in the development of the applications, designing is done with particular effort being paid to provide a means of making all the crystallised hardware and the software compatible with one another.
The argument here is that mobile-based applications are effective in collecting and subsequent uploading of geo-location data. On the other hand, efficiency of such devices is a function of time required to upload the data. In this end, mobile-based applications encounter major challenges related to their processing speed and capacity.
However, even though desktop-based applications will send the geo-location data faster than the mobile-based applications, the time required for the inter-transfer of data between devices makes mobile-based applications efficient in overall in terms of processing and the uploading time.
Additionally, the current technologies have made it possible for an immense achievement in developing the capacity to manufacture a high-speed processing and large storage mobile devices through a much cheaper means of production. This success goes hardy in improving the efficiency of mobile devices.
Benefits realised by consumers because of the ability to gain access to their own data via mobile applications
Many organisations have recognised the benefits that may result from full exploitation of the new wave of mobile internet. This wave is making organisations benefit immensely in hiking their value-added services coupled with enhancing their competitive advantage.
From the contexts of the customers targeted by these organisations, mobile applications provide easy means of facilitating customers to access their information. This information is available right in their pockets being stored within applications that run from their smartphones.
With regard to Zhang and Adipat (2005), “mobile applications are everywhere in categories of games, social networking, productivity tools, infotainment, data management, and utilities” (p.293).
This availability of mobile applications in a variety of forms makes the consumers receive mobile-supported contents in a superior way compared to classical channels of mobiles among them being the short massage services and mobile browsing.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mobile Computing and Social Networks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consistent with this line of argument, consumers may have three significant benefits accruing from having the ability to gain access to their data via mobile applications. These are volume, speed, and ease of accessibility to advertisements.
The modern-day consumers live in a world in which they anticipate getting anything at the time they want it. Therefore, the time within which consumers can access whatever they want is an immense concern that organisations need to address if at all they want to capture this population that is incredibly time cautious.
Indeed, while attempting to access one’s data through desktops and notebook computers, the patience of consumers is metered since they have to wait until booting is complete besides loading the internet via 3G networks or 4G network in case such consumers live in Japan after which they can then start the search process to receive their data.
Mobile applications save all these chores since information or data is essentially stored within applications. This implies that, when the application is loaded on the mobile device, the consumer will have access to all the information he or she needs within a minimal time. Surprisingly, in case some updating of information is required to be done, it is accomplished in the applications’ background.
Consequently, the consumers are given an opportunity to access other data while, in the mean time, waiting the application to finish loading. In the appreciation of this benefit, Myers et al. lament, “mobile apps are becoming so functional and popular among consumer especially by considering that nearly half of all corporate-issued devices will be mobile” (2006, p.39).
To the consumers, this means that their data will be available right in their pockets. In a nation served by a 3G network, consumers have limitations for storing large amounts of their information in the virtual memories of the internets. However, mobile applications have the capacity to keep magnificent volumes of data including catalogues and videos.
An additional benefit is also realised in that the data is kept within the mobile application prompting improvement of experiences of users who are largely the consumers.
Although the era of billboards advertising is not yet over, mobile advertising is rapidly catching up. Interestingly, this trend is not anticipated to stop any time soon. Opposed to the localised placement of billboards, mobile advertisements enable consumers to have a constant accessibility to advertisement any time they feel like doing it.
Challenges of developing applications that run on mobile devices because of the small screen size
Several challenges are encountered while developing mobile applications. In this extent, Huang (2009) reckons, “the current mobile computing devices such as palmtop computers, Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), and mobile phones have a problem in common of attempting to provide users with powerful computing services and resources through small interfaces” (p.2).
This problem is related to the fact that computing mobile devices have a small screen size, which makes it hard for their users to locate information easily.
While attempting to study the impacts of resolution of computing devices on the effectiveness of usability of mobile computing device interfaces, specifically while viewing web pages, Jones et al (1999) found out, “participants using the high resolution screens were able to answer twice the number of searching tasks correctly thereby spending less time scrolling than their low resolution counterparts” (p.1130).
This finding indicates that screen size is a major challenge when it comes to the precise location of information on web pages. This implies that, even though an application running on Smartphones may be a fast way of browsing through information, screen size introduces a disadvantage in relation to their counterparts running on desktops.
One of the ways of countering the above problem is to develop an application, which requires a user to conduct minimal scrolling. Unfortunately, due to the limitation of the display space, it is impossible to design an application, which would display all information on a single page fitting the screen of a Smartphone, for instance.
Huang (2009) supports this argument by further adding, “Limited screen size makes it difficult to efficiently present information and or help users to navigate to and from the information they want” (p.3).
Another solution to the changes of developing applications that run on mobile devices attributed to screen sizes is to make sure that the applications support a large number of searches so that, during each search, only the precise information is found. Arguably, this can help to incredibly reduce the amount of data required to be displayed.
Somewhat consistent with this requirement, many mobile device application developers are focusing on efforts to develop applications, which have the capability of arranging information in a manner that assumes an inverted pyramid format such that the information displayed starts from the most important before proceeding to the least important.
Other efforts to deal with challenges of screen sizes include putting in place means of limiting texts, which serve non-semantic functions.
Methods used to decide which platform to support
There exist a number of mobile applications platforms. Good examples of these platforms include iPhone, iPad, Windows Phone, and Android. Each of the platforms is different from the other in terms of capability. Therefore, before the development of an application, organisations need to select the appropriate platform that meets their requirements.
Based on this insight, there are three approaches, which can be used in arriving at the right platform to support. These approaches are tied within three schools of thought for mobile applications development. These are vertical development, cross-platform, and web-based application developments.
Applications, which are cross-platform-based, permit organisations to reach for their targets maximally within the ecosystem of mobile software. Such platforms are widely compatible with many mobile operating systems.
On the other hand, web-based development school of thought claims that organisations need to select their requisite platform, which they would like to support based on the ease of use of the various browser components of the platforms. This means that the utmost concern is whether the consumers targeted by the application would be able to use the application developed without necessarily being trained on how to do it.
Nevertheless, choosing the platform to support this way introduces challenges since web-based platforms have a unique drawback in that there is the need to be “always on connectivity besides its requirement to reach the device functionalities from web-based applications” (Huang, 2009, p.5). Lastly, the decision on the platform to support may be made based on whether the platform supports vertical development.
Even in the event of limited resources, it is possible to develop applications operating on vertical platforms. However, it is crucial for the development team to ensure that it has analysed the market thoroughly based on the specialisation of an organisation seeking to develop applications from the contexts of vertical development.
This is done to ensure that priorities are set cutely coupled with the areas that the organisation wants to give services through the application.
Ways of providing high availability for mobile applications
Mobile applications require a high availability because end users need to have uninterrupted access to IT and IS systems. Unfortunately, the current networks that are wireless are prone to network disruptions. Hence, they are not reliable to provide uninterrupted connectivity. To the mobile commerce, this implies that consumers are deprived of their right to have access to information during any time they would want it.
Many mobile-based applications developed by organisations are dependent on wireless networks for their operation. Due to unreliability of these wireless networks, a query emerges on how a high availability can be provided. While responding to this query, it is important to note that any of the methodologies proposed to provide the higher availability should appreciate and consider that wireless networks are prone to disruption.
Hence, the focus should be to ensure that consumers have access to the networks even during offline operations. Consistent with this condition, one of the mechanisms of ensuring high availability is through the provision of mobile data storages, which are advanced coupled with provisions of appropriate management tools.
For a mobile device to operate in an offline mode, it should have the ability to have its own means of data storage. However, according to Juntao (2012), “…the profiles of the standard J2ME will provide only limited data storage and management capabilities” (Para. 2).
In case of phones, which are MDP or ‘mobile information device profiles’, they only have record stores, which are linear and available through the support of RMS, while personal java supports only random files.
Developing an application to work under these environments means that the developer “reorganises data using those generic facilities, which can prove tedious, inefficient, and error prone for large applications” (Juntao, 2012, Para.2). Another approach for enhancing the availability of applications is by building redundant networks, which, while the normal network fails, the redundant network switches on without interfering with the performance and running of the mobile devices’ application.
To ensure a high availability of mobile-based applications, developers may also consider techniques such as server clustering, server virtualisation, trucking, and storage virtualisation among others.
Methods of making mobile devices more secure to hacking
In any situation that involves inter-network interactions, hacking is almost inevitable unless appropriate measures are deployed to protect organisations’ information assets. For the case of mobile devices interacting in inter-network environments, the degree of risks associated with hacking are higher since mobile devices are subjected to hacking at a higher rate than non-mobile devices.
Therefore, advanced methods of protecting mobile device from hacking are necessary if applications running from these devices are to be highly available. Methods for enhancing protection of mobile devices from hackers are dependent on the nature of vulnerabilities. Bluetooth is one of the functionalities of smartphones, which makes it easy for users to share data with other users.
However, it may provide an easy means of enabling hackers to steal confidential information such as credit card numbers and other passwords often stored by users for their ease of memorisation. These risks can be mitigated by ensuring that a mobile device’s Bluetooth is always switched off whenever the device’s owner is not intentionally searching for other trusted connections with whom to share data.
Ideally, this approach of enhancing mobile devices’ security is a device user-oriented approach. Other methodologies also exist such as screen locks. This technique is used to ensure that people who steal mobile devices do not steal information contained in the stolen device. Locking is accomplished through cryptographic software. Hackers seek interaction with the targets by disguising their evil intents.
For this reason, many mobile devices manufacturers are producing devices with higher authentication requests. This provides users with an opportunity to scrutinise the trustworthiness of the network connections before establishing connections. Unfortunately, this approach of enhancing security of mobile devices faces an incredible drawback since most of the users do not pay incredible attention to security threats.
Proprietary approaches can also be applied to enhance the security of Smartphone. However, proprietary software fails to work between various devices that run on different platforms. Additionally, security software can be deployed to counter the malwares utilised by hackers to access data stored in the mobile devices.
The only challenge for this method is that constant updating is necessary since hackers are innovative, as they keep on looking for new methodologies of attacks that would escape the filters of the antivirus software. However, when users of the device constantly buy and update the antivirus software, it is possible for them to remain secure from attacks by various newly innovated malwares, viruses, and spywares by hackers.
Conclusion The rapid evolution of mobile computing has prompted the emergence of several applications, which are used by organisations to reach their consumers much easily as opposed to desktop-based applications.
The paper has argued that, apart from benefiting the consumers, such applications have also made hackers focus their attention on the applications that run on mobile devices with the intention of stealing people’s information that is necessary for executing fraudulent acts.
The paper has also argued that mobile devices depend largely on wireless networks, which are prone to disruptions, a case that introduces a challenge on their availability.
Reference List Huang, C. (2009). Challenges in Human-Computer Interaction Design for Mobile Devices. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science. San Francisco, USA: WCECS.
Jones, M., Marsdens, G., Mohd-Nsir, N., Boone, K.,
The Importance of Theory to a Theorist Argumentative Essay college essay help: college essay help
A theory is usually contrasted with fact and as such, it is erroneously viewed as an idea formed from speculation. In science and psychology, however, a theory articulates principles of observed phenomena which have been validated to some extent (Nelson-Jones, 2006).
A theory’s basic components are a set of assumptions and concepts related to each other that explain, describe or predict a phenomenon. It is noteworthy that theories are never proven true; they are only verified by collecting relevant empirical data that supports the theory and a strong theory is one supported by empirical data while a weak theory lacks empirical evidence.
A theorist is anyone who uses a theory or explains a theory. Therapists for example, are theorists because they use theories to make sense of a client’s distress and use theoretical principles to alleviate the distress. A theory is very important to a theorist for the following reasons:
First, a theory organizes and summarizes knowledge. Principles, assumptions and concepts are the building blocks of a theory and are usually related in such a way that they explain, describe or predict a phenomenon. A good theory is both parsimonious and comprehensive (Gauch, 2003); explaining, describing or predicting a phenomenon with as few words as possible hence acting as a summary presentation of knowledge.
In addition, theories act as conceptual frameworks thus organize assumptions, explanations and relationships in a meaningful model. In therapy for example, a theory gives the therapist a means to make sense of a client’s unhelpful behavior, possible reasons why the client developed the behavior, ways the therapist can help the client change the behavior and consolidate the gains on termination of counseling.
Secondly, theories act as languages in that they give a theorist a worldview or a way for them to analyze phenomena and make sense of it. In counseling for example, the theoretical framework the therapist subscribes to determines how they approach a problem (Nelson-Jones, 2006).
The theoretical framework further influences how therapists handle clients during the counseling period and how they help the clients find solutions to their problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this sense, a theory can limit a theorist’s ability to deal with a problem if they subscribe to only one theory as one theory might prove insufficient to deal with the problem. On the other hand, problem-solving capacity is enhanced if a theorist is eclectic as this gives the theorist several angles from which to approach a problem; combining theories if need be.
The third reason theories are important to theorists is that theories beget knowledge. Research has its basis in theory and good research is a source of theories which expand existing knowledge or bringing forth new knowledge. A good theory can be disproven (Gauch, 2003) and in doing so, a researcher sets out to test an antithesis to the thesis of the theory.
Theory provides a platform on which a theorist makes a predictive hypothesis (Nelson-Jones, 2006) and by collecting data to prove or disprove the hypothesis, the theory is either verified or disproved and altered to match the new evidence. This dialectic process refines existing knowledge and sometimes brings about new knowledge.
In conclusion, it is reasonable to assert that theory is indispensable to a theorist for the three reasons discussed. Theory not only gives a theorist means of making sense of knowledge, but also provides a summary of knowledge, a way to organize knowledge and is a source of knowledge.
References Gauch, H. G. (2003). Scientific Method in Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nelson-Jones, R. (2006). Theory and Practice of Counselling and Therapy (4th ed.). London: Sage Publications Ltd.
Parenting for Healthy Emotional Development Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Factors that affect emotional development
Parent’s role in the development of healthy emotions
Introduction Emotions are feelings that people experience when they engage in interactions, which affect their well-being directly or indirectly (Graybeal, 1998). The significance of emotional traits is that they express how good or bad a situation is as per a person’s opinion. Emotions can be either positive or negative depending on the person affected. The emotions include joy, anxiety as well as sadness.
Emotions tend to provoke certain reactions and, therefore, it is hard to distinguish a genuine situation from the emotions. One of the key achievements of the development of a human being is the ability to overcome challenges by controlling his/her emotions.
Factors that affect emotional development Human development is a process that progresses through various stages, which include self-development and interaction with other people. These processes are affected by different factors some of which are natural while others are environmental. In addition, people are different and unique due to variations in emotional development which occur in stages (Graybeal, 1998).
Growth in emotions provides a firm foundation for social development. The development of emotions gives one the ability to be empathetic to others, handle conflicts in the right way, and understand the importance of regulating emotions. Lack of development of emotions can lead to low self-esteem as well as low performance.
Some of the consequences of undeveloped emotions are chances of peer rejection, poor attachment, and involvement in criminal acts. Emotional challenges differ in the fact that those emotional problems that affect infant, adolescences, youth and adults and the aged are not the same (Wolfe, 1999). Various factors influence the development of emotions.
The factors are either biological, environmental or, a combination of both of them. Genetic influences and temperaments fall under the category of biological factors. Poverty and violence form the environmental factors. There are skills that help to control emotions like being aware of the state of one’s emotion and getting used to fighting negative emotions whenever they come using self-regulatory strategies (Madden, 2002).
Parent’s role in the development of healthy emotions Teachers, peers, and elders can influence the development of children’s emotions until they are mature. At a young age, the minds learn how to interact with others through observation. It is important to put in mind that if your emotions are inappropriate then those who look upon you for their emotional development will adopt the same mistakes or problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also necessary to mind about the communication aspect as it is the main part of emotional development (Perry, 2002). This requires one to pass the best knowledge to those who rely on him or her for growth. This would help such people by playing the role of the emotionally challenged in preparing them for the difficult tasks.
Parents and all parties entrusted with taking care of the young ones determine acquisition of skills in the early stages of life (Madden, 2002). For the young disabled children who are at the risk of having slow development in emotions, care providers are required to offer emotional guidance that is appropriate and sensitive.
When children grow, the social-emotional behavior becomes more complex and it is the role of the parents and guardians to help them live independently. Teaching children by means of encouraging them to disclose anything that bothers them makes them aware that it is not happening to them only but it is a common problem. This will ease the burden in them, and make them have sense of self-belonging (Perry, 2002).
It is significant to have a strong emotional bond to enable one to interact freely without fear in order to create and maintain good relationship with others. This increases the ability to bond with others and develops a positive attitude towards future relationships. Healthy developed emotions are important in the fact that they help one to decide on the kind of friends to associate with all the time.
Disconnection from peer group exposes one to violence, isolation, and social withdrawal. Managing some internal urges like hunger, anger and fear may, as a result, take a long period.
The ability to handle these urges will depend on external regulation from parents while the growth will depend on the experience attained and ability of the mind to adopt them. People must socialize and work with others in order to assist one another where necessary (Perry, 2002).
The family is the first group to work with a growing child. Through sharing things and working with different minds, one feels valued. Consequently, the spirit of fear and lack of confidence to present oneself in front of others is reduced. In such relationships, one is being brought up knowing that there are differences between people.
We will write a custom Essay on Parenting for Healthy Emotional Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, he or she knows that people have different complexion when it comes to skin color, and that all of us have different characters and personalities. This helps in handling situations, for example, why some people are smart while others are not, or why some people are more beautiful than others (Crooks, Jaffe
Workers Safety: Protecting Welders From the Hazards of Poisonous Gases and Other Dangers Expository Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Welding Fumes from Nickel and Chromium
Introduction Multiple industrial operations involve processes that pose many dangers to workers. In the course of performing their duties, industrial workers meet both immediate and non-immediate hazards. Industrial hazards can result from air poisoning, electrical shocks, moving components such as conveyor belts, as well as exposure to radiation.
Welding processes present multiple sources of hazards to workers; hence, a need to enforce mitigating measures. Apart from enforcing high safety standards as recommended by regulating organizations, workers need to understand the level of hazards they face in the course of their duties. This paper reviews safety hazards resulting from confined spaces and poisonous gases during welding processes (Asfahl et al., 2004).
Confined Spaces Many industrial processes need workers to work in confined spaces. A confined is an enclosed area with unique characteristics (potentially hazardous), which isolate it from the wider environment (Asfahl et al., 2004). One of the characteristics that define a confined space includes a limitation to the entry and exit of a worker (Asfahl et al., 2004).
Confined spaces allow workers to do hazardous tasks requiring a unique workstation; hence, a need to limit the residence of workers there. Examples of enclosed spaces include silos, tanks and boilers (Asfahl et al., 2004). Common dangers that a worker can meet in a welding enclosed space include electric shocks, poor ventilation, poisonous gases, and carcinogenic substances.
One of the substances responsible for a hazardous environment in a permit-required workstation includes flammable gases that are more than 10% of their Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) (Asfahl et al., 2004). An environment containing substances, materials, or components that can engulf workers qualifies automatically as a permit-required enclosed area (Asfahl et al., 2004).
Liquid materials could harm/kill a worker through respiratory poisoning, by creating slippery surfaces, or by exerting great force on the body of a worker. On the other hand, solid materials can cause great harm to a worker by exerting damaging force on a person’s body, by trapping a worker, or even by crushing a worker.
Permit-required enclosed spaces present varying thresholds of immediate threats; hence, their grouping into various scales depending on the immediate threat they pose. Some of these areas contain heavy machinery objects, which can cause immediate harm to a worker.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The American Welding Society (AWS) strives to protect the safety of workers through a manual of useful rules. In their textbook presentation, Asfahl et al. explore multiple guidelines that can mitigate hazards present at engineering workstations. It is noteworthy to note that one can develop a wider understanding of safety procedures at engineering workstations by studying both recommendations.
Since Asfahl et al. focus on the wider engineering profession, their study is more detailed, but more general at the same time. Here, Asfahl et al. present safety guidelines that are general to the engineering profession, but not specific to welding.
On the other hand, the American Welding Society manual provides summarised, but specific guidelines, for ensuring the safety of workers at welding workstations (American Welding Society, 2005).
For example, although guidelines for directing the responsibility of workers, safety officers, and emergency teams are discussed, such guidelines form a general database of guidelines for different situations of application.
On the other hand, AWS guidelines apply to situations (such as emission of poisonous fumes from welding rods) that arise from welding processes. Here, one will find specific advice on areas such as the type of safety gear to wear for welding operations in.
Since AWS guidelines apply to persons who do various welding operations, the guidelines assume that a reader is already aware of several facets of his profession; hence, no need to dwell on the same (American Welding Society, 2005). Here, it is unnecessary to define aspects of a worker environment such as a permit-required workstation.
The Asfahl textbook applies to theoretical situations in a classroom setting; hence, a need to prepare a learner with a database of details required for an exhaustive understanding of work safety. As such, definitions of multiple aspects found at the workplace such as a permit-required workstation must precede an evaluation of safety guidelines.
We will write a custom Essay on Workers Safety: Protecting Welders From the Hazards of Poisonous Gases and Other Dangers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In several ways, AWS guidelines and Asfahl’s guidelines complement each other. One will find Asfahl’s guidelines in a more summarised format at AWS.
For example, although there is no mention of a permit-required workstation in AWS guidelines, the guidelines recommend concerned safety officers to decide the need for permission to use some workstations. Generally, all the guidelines found in the AWS document match with safety guidelines presented in Asfahl’s textbook.
Welding Fumes from Nickel and Chromium The potential danger in a confined space can originate from a poisonous atmosphere (such as hazardous gases, dust, or poor ventilation), or from a configuration that can trap; hence, injure or kill a worker. Fumes exuded during welding processes can adversely affect one’s health on exposure (American Welding Society, 2005). Welding fumes could originate from welding materials, base metal, and welding gas.
One of the most dangerous types of fumes that can result from welding includes fumes from nickel and chromium. Unfortunately, nickel and chromium fumes dominate multiple welding processes due to their presence in alloys, welding rods, stainless steel, and chromium coated metals (Workers Health and Safety, 2009). A number of factors may determine how fumes affect the health of a worker.
Here, the period of exposure and the type of welding performed form important considerations. Moreover, the type of safety gear used as well as the type of working environment determines the degree of effect. An understanding of the above factors should tell safety choices undertaken by people in danger of exposure to welding fumes.
An exposure to chromium fumes places a person in danger of cancer (especially lung cancer) as well as skin irritation. Likewise, studies show nickel fumes as potential eye irritants and carcinogenic (especially lung cancer).
In the direction of protecting workers from the dangerous nickel chromium fumes, several organizations concerned with worker’s safety propose multiple guidelines. The American Welding Society propose a number of measures (most of which focus on effective ventilation) to mitigate the effects of poisonous fumes exuded from welding processes.
Again, AWS guidelines offer a summary of useful measures for mitigating exposure to dangerous fumes. On the other hand, other sources of guidelines, such as the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) guidelines offer detailed information on mitigating poisonous fumes at the workplace.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Workers Safety: Protecting Welders From the Hazards of Poisonous Gases and Other Dangers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Here, one can find information on broad safety measures such as the greatest number of hours in a lifetime that a person can work in exposure environments. Still, measures of safety focusing on ventilation at AWS complement those from other organizations focusing on workers safety.
Persons in charge of safety at manual welding workstations need to set up a number of measures to protect the safety of workers. Establishing a low risk work environment that is well ventilated is paramount for mitigating exposure to poisonous fumes at workstations. Besides, all operations must align with basic rules of safety as recommended by recognizable safety manuals.
It is also important to educate workers on the need to take self-precautions for their own safety. Long-term measures (such as measuring the levels of carcinogenic materials in the blood) can mitigate future hazards (American Welding Society, 2005).
Thorium Electrodes Multiple industrial processes rely on of tungsten rods. One of the most important components of tungsten rods is the radioactive thorium oxide (1%-2% by mass) (Workers Health and Safety, 2009). A considerable amount of thorium oxide can find its way to the atmosphere during a welding process; hence, placing a worker in danger of exposure to radioactive substances (Workers Health and Safety, 2009).
Studies show that workers exposed to normal amounts of thorium oxide during ordinary welding operations can live the all of their lives without suffering from the effects of radioactive substances (American Welding Society, 2005).
However, a person grinding a tungsten rod is at a great hazard of inhaling, or ingesting thorium particles; hence, placing such a person in great danger of exposure to dangerous radioactive substances (American Welding Society, 2005).
High airborne concentrations of thorium oxide could result from improper use of thorium electrodes (American Welding Society, 2005). The use of alternating current or poor ventilation can lead to exposure to high concentrations of radioactive thorium oxide (American Welding Society, 2005).
One of the most important measures that can mitigate the danger of exposure to thorium oxide particles is to use thorium free rods. Ensuring proper ventilation at workstations and using effective systems for capturing airborne particles can mitigate the potential of exposure to radioactive substances (Workers Health and Safety, 2009).
Workers who handle thorium electrodes, especially those who grind thorium electrodes must undergo extensive training on safety (Workers Health and Safety, 2009). Moreover, it is useful to adhere to set out safety guidelines as provided by thorium rod manufacturers, and ensure proper storage of thorium rods as well (American Welding Society, 2005).
It is also crucial for persons in charge of safety at welding workstations to design and carry out rules for guiding the actions of workers. Protection from radioactive substances should extend from welding workstations to the wider environment (American Welding Society, 2005).
Here, it is useful for workers to take measures that ensure correct disposal of ground dust and spent welding rods as proposed by various state laws (American Welding Society, 2005).
Like any other safety guidelines, safety measures on the safe use of thorium electrodes need contribution from multiple parties (Workers Health and Safety, 2009). All parties that make use of thorium electrodes must take personal responsibility to make sure that all of their activities align with safety recommendations in the AWS manual (American Welding Society, 2005).
Conclusion Ensuring a safety environment for workers at confined locations requires a multi-faceted approach that integrates the contribution of several parties. Every worker must know his unique position in contributing to the overall safety of a confined workstation. However, persons in positions of authority must design, encourage, carry out and take part in activities that guarantee a safe environment for their workers.
Reference List American Welding Society. (2005). Safety and Health Worksheet New York: American Welding Society Press
Asfahl, C., Hammer, W.,
“The Safety Man Cometh” Analytical Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
The OSHA system was set up to address the safety conditions for the rising number of injuries and death at places of work in the construction industry. In order to create a friendly working atmosphere, OSHA decided to set this mission after having gained experience working in the field both as an employer and an employee. As a result, it was difficult for him to realize whether safety received special attention at the workplace.
However, in 1970, the OSHA Act was enacted. Thereafter, case study was conducted and discovered that over 14,000 workers from America had lost their lives due to poor working conditions, 2.5 million workers became disabled and 300,000 new cases of injuries the work place were reported every year (Randall, 2003). Hence, this mission was mainly meant to reduce hazards at workplace by initiating a uniform law.
The safety man feels that since he started working as a manager in the safety industry, his initiative has been ignored at work places because some foremen do not perform their duties accordingly.
In 2001, some consultations were made and after visiting 27,000 small scale employers, they offered training in safety and health to over 260,000 workers and employers. For instance, workers should be trained how to concentrate on their work.
A new beginning for the company As a result of new ownership of the company in the year 2000, there were a number of changes that took place in order to give special attention to safety measures at places of work. This was not merely focused on reducing risks. It was also meant to reduce the company’s expenses.
The manager therefore felt that it was important to have a reliable person in charge of the company, who would be attributed to the welfare of workers and ready to advocate for change (Randall, 2003).
First of all, the manager had to become conversant with the field by dedicating himself to learn more about OSHA and its measures. He also had to develop a positive attitude among workers and convince them that the success of the company was for the common good to all. Failure to observe the rules of OSHA would make them pay large fines which would leave the company bankrupt with workers jobless (Neelankavil
The Evolution of Education in Hong Kong Research Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Impact of Culture on Hong Kong’s Education System
Evolution of the Education System in Hong Kong
Introduction Despite the proximity of Hong Kong to China, its education system is very different from Chinese one. While the Chinese education system is based on the Confucian culture, Hong Kong’s education is based on the western system. Apparently, the 150 years that Hong Kong was a colony of the British defined forever its education system. Although there is evidence of ancient Chinese values in Hong Kong’s culture, 90% of the education system is foreign (Edward, 2003). The intention of this research paper is to elaborate on the influence of culture in the Hong Kong on education system and give an account of the evolution of education in Hong Kong.
Impact of Culture on Hong Kong’s Education System The British missionaries were the first to arrive to Hong Kong in 1843. Although there is no evidence to prove this, it is believed that the first village school was built in Shek Pai Wan. From that time henceforth, the missionaries started to put up schools all over Hong Kong in the pretext of building churches. By 1980, Hong Kong had more than 20 schools located mostly in the urban areas. Prior to the arrival of the missionaries, education was a reserve of the elite. Wealthy citizens in Hong Kong used to send their children to big cities in China to get a proper education (Anthony, 1990).
To begin with, the Catholic priests were charged with the responsibility of dispensing the gospel to the people of Hong Kong, nonetheless, this did not stop them from being teachers in schools. Later on, the Protestants joined in and set boys-only schools for the British and Chinese children in Hong Kong. In 1861, Frederick Stewart became the founder of Hong Kong’s education after he managed to incorporate the traditional Chinese education system with the colonial one (Edward, 2003).
Due to its close relationship with China, the mentality of citizens in Hong Kong had not changed completely. There still were elements of the Confucian culture, which claimed that only boys could have an education meanwhile women were meant to stay at home and help with household chores. The Confucian culture also demanded that education was only meant to be dispensed to the rich and wealthy individuals in society. This influence of the Chinese culture made it very difficult for the missionaries to sensitize the importance of education to the people of Hong Kong. There were still reservations by the elders in taking their girls to school (Huashan, 2000).
In 1887, the London Missionary Society and Sir James Cantile built the first medical college in Hong Kong. The success of this college (Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese) served as a floodgate for other colleges to open up. In fact, this success led to the opening up of Ying Wa Girls’ School in 1900. During this period, there were contentions between the locals and the missionary about incorporating the Chinese language in the curriculum. However, this issue was ignored by the British administration until 1919 when there was the May Fourth Movement. This movement brought about a new social awareness and led to the inclusion of the Chinese language and culture to the educational system (Anthony, 1990).
By 1970, the majority of the citizens in Hong Kong had received an education. Nonetheless, there was still one more issue - education of poor people. However, this was possible to be resolved with the help of a complete census to enable the government to account for the population. Today, all the schools in Hong Kong are run on a western system; it is no wonder that Hong Kong has been ranked among the top 10 countries with good education systems (Huashan, 2000).
Evolution of the Education System in Hong Kong After the World War Second, in 1950, little was left of the missionary schools in Hong Kong. School structures had been run down, all the textbooks had been burnt and there was a huge shortage of good teachers. During the same year, there was a huge influx of immigrants. This meant that an enormous education system had to be established to cater for the growing number of youths. This therefore forced the government to embark on a serious school building program to accommodate the huge population (Anthony, 1990).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1965, the government announced a change in the educational structure. They decided to set primary education as a priority, in addition, any other expansion in education would be through the aided sector. By 1970, huge improvement in the education system had been realized. For example, better training programs for teachers in colleges had been introduced with the minimum training period for a teacher being increased from one year to two years. Secondly, the advisory board had been greatly improved and its range of services increased. In addition, a special committee for curriculum development had also been instituted. Indeed, the national exam had also been changed to accommodate other foreign languages. Finally, an educational television show had already been prepared for primary going kids (Rozanna, 1998).
Following the success in primary education, it became possible to embark on secondary school enrollment. In 1970, the education board agreed that there was a need to start massive constructions of secondary schools and necessary steps should be taken to ensure that the government would make a provision to subsidize secondary education. In 1978, the government made it official that it would provide three years of junior secondary school at subsidized rates. The same year, the government would also announce that education was no longer an option but compulsory for the first nine years (Anthony, 1990).
After a series of consultations, the government decided that they would need to select 40% of those who had completed junior high school to join the senior classes. Among those selected, four out of ten would pursue languages while the rest would join the technical streams. Besides this selection, the government decided that in the spirit of promoting education, it would give a subsidy for 60% of those who would be selected to join senior secondary school (Rozanna, 1998).
In line with government’s plan to improve both secondary and tertiary education, the government decided to embark on a journey to develop structures and institutions to integrate the disabled individuals in the society. These plans were compiled and handed over to the social welfare for implementation in 1980 (Huashan, 2000).
In the recent past, there have been calls for more open-ended assignments and communal based projects. It has also been necessary to shift emphasis from the technical subjects to social sciences. There has been criticism from some quarters terming some subjects as meaningless and bogus. In particular, the history has described inconsequentiality as it involves too much memorization and little applicability. In general, a lot of work is still ongoing to streamline the education system with a lot emphasis to reintroduce social sciences.
References Anthony, S. (1990). Education in Hong Kong, pre-1841 to 1941. Hong Kong, China: University Press.
Edward, V. (2003). In search of an identity: The politics of history teaching in Hong Kong, 1960s-2000. United Kingdom, UK: Routledge.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Evolution of Education in Hong Kong specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Huashan, C. (2000). Tongzhi: Politics of same-sex eroticism in Chinese societies. Hong Kong, China: Haorth Press.
Rozanna, L. (1998). Staging Hong Kong: Gender and performance in transition. Hawaii, HI: University of Hawaii.
What are Fan Behaviors towards Sports Officials at the Middle School Level? Proposal argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Abstract The objective of this project was to discuss fan behaviors towards sports officials at middle school level. In order to achieve this objective, qualitative research method was used to collect and to analyze data from different secondary sources. The results of the data analysis and literature review indicate that incidences of misbehavior among middle school students during sports events are on the rise.
In particular, most students tend to show disrespect to sports officials by harassing them verbally and physically. The main factors that influence students’ behavior during sports events include frustration, high expectation, crowd demographics, performance of sports officials, and socialization. In order to improve middle school students’ behavior towards sports officials, parents, and teachers should collaborate and help students to internalize the principles of good sportsmanship.
Introduction A sports event refers to “any interscholastic or intramural athletic activity organized and sponsored by any learning institution, the community, or a business”. Sports events are important because they promote the development of students’ leadership skills and physical wellbeing. Furthermore, they help students to identify their talents in various games such as football and basketball. Consequently, most schools promote sportsmanship among their students.
Sportsmanship refers to “the values of fair play, adherence to the rules of the game, respect for opponents, and acceptance of official and referee judgements”. All stakeholders in sports events are expected to internalize all the values associated with sportsmanship. However, most students at middle school level have failed to uphold the spirit of sportsmanship.
This can be illustrated by the rising number of incidences in which middle school students harass sports officials during or after sports events. A sports official refers to a person who is responsible for enforcing the rules of a game or supervising participants during a sports event.
Statement of the Problem In the last two decades, middle school students have increasingly exhibited high levels of cynicism and negativity towards their opponents and sports officials. Deviant behaviors such as verbal abuse and physical harassment have become the norm in most middle school sports events across the country. This trend is explained in part by the fact that students want their teams to win at all costs.
However, considering winning as the most important element of interscholastic sports denies students the chance to develop desirable values such as respect for others, self-discipline and responsibility. Poor character development among middle school students has led to an increase in the number of complaints by sports officials, especial, referees concerning various forms of harassment. Additionally, the number of referees and other sports officials who are resigning from their duties for fear of being harmed by students is on the rise.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Undoubtedly, sports officials are very important since they determine the success of any sports event. The officials are tasked with the responsibility of making judgements within a very short time in order to regulate players’ actions. In this regard, sports officials are bound to make mistakes, especially, in games such as football that are rule-oriented.
Nonetheless, sports officials do not deserve harassment from middle school fans due to the mistakes they make on the playfield. If more sports officials resign from their duties, the quality of sports in most schools will significantly decline. It is against this backdrop that this paper seeks to shed light on the behavior of middle school students towards sports officials.
Significance of the Project Previous studies have shown that the behavior of middle school students towards sports officials is deteriorating despite the efforts made by parents and teachers to promote good sportsmanship among students.
Although the patterns of students’ behavior towards sports officials have been extensively documented, few studies have explained the causes of the observed students’ behaviors. Thus, this project contributes to the existing literature by identifying the behaviors of middle school students towards sports officials and the causes of such behaviors. Understanding students’ behavior towards sports officials has the following benefits.
First, understanding the causes of poor sportsmanship among middle school students will help teachers and parents to develop appropriate strategies to improve students’ behavior. Consequently, sports events will become a source of enjoyable entertainment and an opportunity to nurture the talents of students who intend to pursue careers in sports.
Second, the participation of sports officials in sports events will improve if teachers are able to understand students’ behaviors and to take appropriate actions to improve sportsmanship among middle school students. This will boost the development of sports at middle school level.
Review of Literature Organized sports events cannot take place without sports officials. However, sports officials’ dropout rate in various sports in the country is alarming. One of the major factors that contribute to the high dropout rate is player and fan abuse. According to Balch and Scott (2007, pp. 3-20), the personality of sports officials is similar to that of the normal population. However, middle school students tend to perceive sports officials as people with very different personalities.
We will write a custom Proposal on What are Fan Behaviors towards Sports Officials at the Middle School Level? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most middle school students believe that sports officials lack charisma and are excessively neurotic. This can be illustrated by the fact that any decision made by a referee in a game such as football upsets nearly half the players and viewers. The fans and players who are not able to handle their disappointments often attack referees physically or verbally. However, not every referee is able to handle wild fans and uncooperative players. This partly explains the increase in the rate of sports officials’ dropout in various games.
A successful sports official must possess a unique kind of personality. The official has to be levelheaded, confident, and able to handle the pressure from fans. The decisions made in any game or sports event involves some form of communication between the sports official and other participants such as coaches and fans. The decision of the official must be based on the interpretation of the rules that govern the sports event that is taking place.
However, most contest decisions are followed with ridicule from middle school fans and coaches whose expectations about the outcome of the contest is often very high. According to Wolfson and Neave (2007, pp. 232-247), a good official should be able to ignore the negative feedback from the unsatisfied fans and stay focused on the game. Contrary to this perspective, most officials find it difficult to concentrate on officiating games such as football without worrying about being attacked by fans.
Godsdon (2001, p. 89) opine that sports officials can reduce the possibility of being attacked by unruly students if they exercise values such as honesty and objectivity when officiating games. In this regard, sports officials should avoid communicating with fans throughout a sports event in order to prevent any provocation from degenerating into a physical attack. Moreover, every school is expected to provide an administrator to control students during sports events.
Crowds of fans that show enduring team involvement consist of both good and bad students. The students who lack good behavior tend to exhibit their character in terms of excessive complaints and confrontations, which are often channeled to sports officials or the opponent teams.
Enduring team involvement is not the problem since the degree of association with a particular team does not vary significantly between dysfunctional and well-behaved fans (Kreager, 2007, pp. 705-724). Dysfunctional fans usually take advantage of forums such as radio talk shows and websites to attack sports officials through negative and abusive comments.
Although fans are expected to question the decisions made by officials during a game, their actions often contravene the principles of good sportsmanship. Thus, most officials expect deviant behaviors such as excessive yelling from fans in nearly every game. Given that verbal attacks are expected in every game, what matters is how sports officials deal with them. According to Kellett and Shilbury (2007, pp. 209-229), the level of unruly behavior among fans vary with the type of game or sports event that is taking place.
Middle school students are likely to misbehave in sports events such as basketball, baseball, and football because most of them hold these games in high esteem. In addition, the stakes are usually very high when a game such as football is being played since students often bet with their colleagues on the expected outcome of the game. This leads to the development of the win-at-all-costs attitude among students, which in turn causes misbehavior towards sports officials.
Not sure if you can write a paper on What are Fan Behaviors towards Sports Officials at the Middle School Level? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The misbehavior of fans in middle schools and other levels of learning have led to adoption of laws that protect sports officials in some states in the United States. The laws often protect registered sports officials from being attacked physically or verbally in the course of performing their duties such as officiating sports events or immediately after officiating the events. The penalties associated with attacking a sports official varies from “a first-degree misdemeanor to a first-degree felony”.
Generally, the need to enact laws that protect sports officials arose from a culture that promotes indecent behavior among students and coaches during interscholastic sports events. Most trained officials often turn down the offer to participate in various games if they expect to be assaulted due to trivial reasons such as fans’ dissatisfaction with a contest decision.
The stress experienced by sports officials as they officiate various games is mainly explained by the “fear of failure, fear of physical harm, and time pressure”. These fears arise as students put pressure on sports officials to take actions that satisfy their needs even though such actions might not be appropriate.
Players in various sports events often receive emotional support from their team managers and coaches. They are often trained to cope with failure and to ignore the negative feedback that they may receive from fans. By contrast, sports officials hardly receive any emotional support during sports events.
The officials are often “left alone during times of harassment, with no support from fans, coaches, or school administrators”. This leads to isolation during times of stress. As a result, most officials experience high levels of mental and physical tiredness as they perform their duties. Ultimately, most officials terminate their commitment to serve middle school students as referees or umpires.
Previous studies indicate that middle school students’ propensity to misbehave during sports events is influenced by personal and environmental factors. Deindividuation is one of the factors that lead to misbehavior towards sports officials. Deindividuation refers to “immersion to a group to the point that one loses a sense of self-awareness and feels lessened responsibility for one’s actions”.
Deindividuation weakens self-control, thereby increasing the ease with which fans are influenced by their surroundings. As a result, spectators may mob, insult, or threaten sports officials. Most fans take advantage of the anonymity provided by a group setting to misbehave.
Personal accountability declines and responsibility diffuses as fans increase their involvement in group activities. Consequently, even the well-behaved fans may be encouraged to imitate bad behaviors such as yelling at officials in order to conform to the groups that they identify with.
Disinhibition is a common characteristic of passionate fans of various sports events. Disinhibition is a state in which an individual’s ability to control his or her behavior, emotions, and impulses are greatly reduced. It leads to a situation in which fans are less concerned about the consequences of their behaviors or what others think about them. Disinhibition eliminates the normal constraints on behavior “such as long-term norms, self-monitoring, and self-awareness”.
In this context, fans’ behaviors are mainly influenced by their immediate emotions rather than rationality and self-control. Consequently, fans may express themselves in a manner that contravenes the principles of good sportsmanship. For example, a very passionate fan may cheer his team by shouting too much or insulting a sports official whose decision he disagrees with.
Frustration is a major determinant of students’ participation in violent acts during sports events. Frustration leads to aggression under circumstances in which fans believe that their chance to win in a particular contest was thwarted by a decision made by a sports official.
Students can respond to their frustrations by attacking sports officials as a means of compensating for their loss. This perspective is supported by the fact that dysfunctional fans consider their violent behaviors as a product of hard work rather than an intention to hurt sports officials. In particular, violent fans tend to believe that engaging in violent behaviors is an effective means of fighting for a win that they deserve.
Frustration increases arousal when students are disappointed with the outcome of a sports event. Moreover, socialization greatly influences students’ behavior towards sports officials. Students who often watch violent movies are likely to engage in violent behaviors during sports events. Moreover, they are likely to use weapons to attack sports officials and their opponents or teammates.
Crowd demographic is also a determinant of middle school students’ behavior towards sports officials during and after a sports event. Several studies indicate that male students are more likely to engage in violent behaviors than females students are.
Similarly, sports events that involve teams from different schools are usually characterized with violence because stakes are often vary high. Students from each school usually focus on winning at all costs in order to show their superiority. In this case, sports officials can be on the receiving end if they make any mistake that causes one team to lose.
Methods and Procedures Qualitative research method was used to collect and to analyze the data used to discuss the behavior of middle school students towards sports officials. Qualitative research method was suitable for this project since it focuses on meanings, perspectives, and understandings.
In particular, it focuses on determining the meanings that people attach to their behavior, as well as, how they interpret various situations. Additionally, qualitative research focuses on determining people’s perspectives on various issues in their surroundings. Thus, the qualitative research method facilitated the analysis of the perspectives of various researchers concerning the behavior of middle school students towards sports officials.
The data used in this project was collected through a thorough review of the literature on the behavior of middle school students towards sports officials. This involved reading and analyzing the findings of previous studies and the theories that have been developed to explain fans’ behavior during sports events.
Generally, the data was collected from secondary sources such as academic textbooks, peer reviewed journals, and reports of previous studies. The advantages of using secondary sources of data include the following. First, secondary sources of data on students’ behavior during sports events are readily available through various platforms such as online libraries and e-books. This reduced the time required to collect and to analyze the data needed to complete the project.
Second, secondary sources of data present the views of different researchers and scholars. Thus, it was easy to understand students’ behavior and to analyze the factors that influence it in an objective manner. Despite these benefits, some secondary sources of data are likely to have unreliable information. Consequently, only academic textbooks and peer reviewed journals were used to ensure that the conclusions of the project are based on reliable information.
Hermeneutic analysis was used to analyze the data collected for the project. Hermeneutic analysis involves gaining an “in-depth understanding of the meanings of human practices, culture, works of art and text”. In this project, data analysis involved reviewing and interpreting existing literature on middle school students’ behavior towards sports officials. The interpretations were used to make conclusions about the project’s topic.
Conclusion Results and Analysis
The literature reviewed indicates that cases of misbehavior towards sports officials are on the rise in middle schools. This has led to adoption of laws that protect sports officials from harassment as they perform their duties. Students usually respond to the decisions made by sports officials through deviant behaviors such as verbal and physical harassment. The main factors that determine students’ behavior during sports events include frustration, crowd demographics, the performance of sports officials, and students’ socialization.
The misbehavior of middle school students during sports events can be explained by three theories namely, the social learning theory, instinct theory, and frustration-aggression hypothesis. According to the social learning theory, an individual acquires a new behavior by watching and imitating others. In this context, well-behaved students can gradually learn bad behaviors from their colleagues and begin to practice them. Thus, students’ behavior towards sports officials illustrates what they learn from their colleagues and the society in general.
According to the instinct theory, aggression is an inborn drive. In particular, aggression is an intrinsic drive that can be discharged or fulfilled. This suggests that students can use sports events to discharge pent-up aggression. For example, the celebrations that follow a win in a particular game can help in reducing stress and aggression among students. By contrast, a sports event can increase aggression if students fail to achieve their objectives or goals.
This leads to deviant behaviors such as harassing sports officials. The frustration-aggression hypothesis posits that frustration only prepares an individual for an aggressive reaction. Thus, an individual may or may not express aggression when frustrated. This perspective is illustrated by the fact that responsible students often avoid engaging in deviant behaviors during sports events even if they are frustrated. However, an increase in frustration is likely to result into expression of aggression.
Discussion and Reflection
Sports events play a key role in the development process of students at the middle school level. Teachers and parents value good sportsmanship and expect students to engage actively in sports events. Unfortunately, the level of sportsmanship among students in middle schools is deteriorating.
This failure can be attributed to the permissiveness of the society and school administrators towards aggression in sports events. Parents and teachers alike engage in deviant behaviors during sports events within and outside schools, thereby setting bad precedence for students. Students, on the other hand, have over time developed the culture of winning at all costs, which leads to misbehavior during sports events.
Therefore, parents and teachers must collaborate to help students to internalize the principles of sportsmanship. Parents must help their children to understand that losing in a sports event is not the end of everything. They should encourage their children to learn to cope with failure and appreciate the contributions of sports officials in every game.
Teachers and school administrators should focus on promoting discipline among students. Moreover, they should establish a conflict resolution mechanism to address any disagreements that may arise between sports officials and students in order to avoid violence. Students are also expected to act responsibly and to respect sports officials in order to benefit from sports events.
References Atkinson, M.,
History of Vietnamese Diaspora Qualitative Research Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Memory is another Country: Women of the Vietnamese Diaspora
Views of Nguyen
Memory is another Country: Women of the Vietnamese Diaspora The author of the book is Nathalie Huynh Chau Nguyen and the Praeger publishers printed it in 2009. The author is a renowned scholar in matters affecting women in society, particularly those living in foreign countries. Currently, she is an ARC Australian Research Fellow serving at the Australian Centre.
She holds a doctoral degree having won a common wealth scholarship to study at the University of Oxford. She has authored several books and articles and one of her bestselling books is the Vietnamese Voices: Gender and cultural identity in the Vietnamese Francophone Novel. The book was written in 2003 and went on to be nominated for an international award. Another book that she has written is the Voyage of Hope: Vietnamese Australian women’s narrative, which was published in 2005.
Apart from books and other published materials, Nguyen has been engaging in online reviews whereby she has analyzed the writings and views of many scholars. The author takes a feminist approach whereby she reports some of the issues that women face in society (Nguyen 8).
She notes that women are unable to realize their objectives and ambitions because of factors such as religion, male chauvinism, and defective social structure. She teaches that the individual should not be judged based on his or her gender because everyone has a unique capability, irrespective of the sexual category.
Introduction The topic, Vietnamese Diaspora, is important in understanding some of the problems that foreigners encounter in other countries. Unfortunately, Vietnamese never left their land at will, but instead they were forced to vacate because of the escalating conflicts and continued disagreements over governance.
The fall of Saigon and the subsequent takeover by the Communist regime fuelled conflicts that made it unbearable for citizens to coexist peacefully. The topic is important in understanding the role of peace and peaceful resolution of conflicts because any confusion might lead to deaths and continued suffering.
Nguyen undertook her study on the lives of Vietnamese living in other countries through ethnography whereby individuals are given an opportunity to narrate what they experience, as well as how they feel being refugees. Ethnography is one of the qualitative research designs that explore the cultural problem of a group. Through ethnography, Nguyen expresses the culture of Vietnamese graphically and in written form.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Views of Nguyen Through the book, she proves that remembering is one of the most effective ways of explaining and expressing the past. Moreover, it is an imaginative way of dealing with any form of a loss in an individual’s life. In the world characterized by conflicts leading to forceful transfer of population, the use of the technique understanding people’s lives is considered effective. She requested the interviewees to give an account of their lives in foreign land. In particular, she interviewed forty Vietnamese women.
In her analyses, she categorized issues into several subtopics, including divergent views of families, the importance of homeland, the return of Vietnamese, cross-cultural interactions, conflicts among various generations, and finally the unspoken issues that women encounter in their daily lives.
The role of Vietnamese women in society has changed dramatically following the influences of the west. Studies show that women have always occupied inferior positions in Vietnam, with Confucianism being the major cause of women’s tribulations in society.
For many years, women have been considered the sex objects meaning that their major role was to satisfy the desires of women, including preparing food and ensuring that all activities related to the home are conducted in time.
Towards the end of the Sago dynasty, there was a shift in the roles of women, as a number of intellectuals called on the government and the society in general to consider giving women a chance to realize their potentials through instituting reforms that would give women an advantage in matters related to political, economics, and education.
Christian missionaries played a critical role in ensuring that the government protects the interests of Vietnamese women while at the same time making sure that women are empowered through community projects (Ong and Meyer 45).
This was at the turn of the 19th century when it was made clear that each person has a potential in society, irrespective of gender and economic background. In 1898, a reform movement was formed with the major aim of protecting the interests of women, whose main objective was to liberate women from the hands of men.
We will write a custom Book Review on History of Vietnamese Diaspora specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Methodology Qualitative methods explain why a given pattern of events has taken place. On the other hand, quantitative methods explain what and when of a phenomena. Ethnographic research and phenomenology as approaches of qualitative research were appropriate in her study. Ethnography helps in the investigation of culture women. Phenomenology helped in investigating the realities of culture, as well as how it affects women as regards to their status in oversees countries
Analysis This allowed women to participate fully in the revolution with their interest being forcing their way out in education and economics. The formation and subsequent leadership of the Communist Party in the country allowed women to take up positions in the government, as the party insisted on gender equality.
Before the introduction of the western ideals in the Vietnamese society, women in the country were expected to respect the Confucian laws, which are known to pin down the contributions of women in society. The Confucian laws tend to set up a certain hierarchy with an aim of enforcing obedience that is based on an individual’s age and sex.
Based on the traditional law, old people would definitely have the most powerful positions whereas the youth, particularly women, were expected to occupy the least positions in the social ladder. A married woman was to obey the husband and other men in the family, including her own son when the husband dies.
This proves that the power of women was very limited to an extent that a woman had no power to negotiate for her own marriage, but instead the parent was expected to do so (Stevens 54). In fact, the family had the right to sell their daughter to any stranger provided adequate resources were given out. Fewer women held positions of influence when compared to men who had all the rights to inherit property, divorce, pursue a course of their choice, and engage in politics
Towards the end of the 19th century, the Saigon dynasty failed to protect the country from foreign aggression, paving way for the western missionaries who had an enormous influence on the lives of Vietnamese women.
Western traders inserted too much pressure on the Vietnamese society to accept change, with political intervention from western powers playing a role in shaping the local activities in the country. Through this, urbanization was realized, which led to internal unrest. Missionaries combined efforts with other Vietnamese reformers to convince the government that the reason for backwardness was the low status of women who had no education (Eberhard 78).
The fall of country’s leadership led to the formation of the communism, women have continuously enjoyed their freedoms, even though male chauvinism and defective policies continue to hamper their achievements. The government has always been under pressure from local and international activists, who are mostly from western countries, to allow women to undertake courses that would allow them to compete favourably in the global market.
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Vietnamese Diaspora by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Before the 20th century, many women were encouraged to undertake courses that are feminine in nature, including nursing and secretarial related courses. This means that women would not have an opportunity to undertake science related courses in institutions of higher learning, as society had already determined certain courses for them (Zhang 89).
In the 20th century, women in the western societies forced their governments to provide mechanisms through which they could study sciences, particularly medicine, in the institutions of higher. This urge spread out to parts of Vietnam, with local pressure groups fighting for the rights of women calling on the government to come with measures that would ensure women study sciences ion universities.
Before this, the standards for enrolling in the sciences courses were very high consequently locking out many young women with an ambition of studying medicine. In the United States and various parts of Europe, the government came up an affirmative action in education that would give women an advantage to study sciences (Stevens 76).
Works Cited Eberhard, Wolfram. A history of China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. Print.
Hoyle, Richard. Research methods in social relations, Wadsworth, Fort Worth, 2002. Print.
Nguyen, Nathalie. Memory Is Another Country: Women of the Vietnamese Diaspora. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger, 2009. Print.
Ong, Nhu-Ngoc, and Meyer, David. “Protest and Political Incorporation: Vietnamese American Protests, 1975–2001”. Centre for the Study of Democracy, 4.8 (2004), 89-95. Print.
Stevens, Keith. “A Jersey Adventurer in China: Gun Runner, Customs Officer, and Business Entrepreneur and General in the Chinese Imperial Army. 1842-1919”. Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 32.1 (1996): 79-112.
Zhang, Zhan. “Modernization of China”. Asian Social Science 6.4 (2010): 154-159. Print.
A Review of Toronto Production of Les Miserables Critical Essay college essay help near me
Les Miserables is a genuine musical. The story is picked from the literal works of Victor Hugo. It is a tale of a man’s journey to emancipation coupled with the forces of the class-struggle and civil unrest in France, after the defeat of Napoleon. It is largely elaborated in scope and scale.
The production was previously inaugurated in 1985. It has been on show for a long time. Les Miserables is considered to be the most ancient musical play. The show is so famous that even if one has not been conversant with it, he or she can identify its famous musical piece, such as “I Dreamed a Dream” and “Bring Him Home” among others.
In the last 28 years, various productions have been set on various stages all over the world. They include the famous Canadian production, which Mirvish show presented in Toronto. The presentation took place in 1989 at the Royal Alexandra Theater. During 2009, Mackintosh Cameron introduced a modern version of Les Miserables to mark the commemoration of its 25th anniversary. Director Laurence Connor was recruited to re- formulate and re-conceive the play for a recent tour.
This 25th anniversary formed the foundation of the last Canadian Production. The modern version of the play has been totally re-conceptualized and re-designed. A famous and memorable turn-table stage used in the initial production is conspicuously absent, but not missed at all. The new version of the stage is particularly more dynamic. The director reveals several nuances in the narrative. He incorporates other character scenes that were not initially present, or that were not strongly expressed before.
They were skeptical about the use of projections because technology was regarded as du-jour. They have rarely been used in the theoretical productions. However, for a considerable part of this production, the projections are magnificently employed to display the visual palette without attracting a lot of attention.
Consequently, the director has made a decision to remove projections that describe the plot and time occasionally. He uses them to explain the course of the play when the story line is skipped. Coincidentally, the pace of the sound tracks to this new production has also increased, especially at the beginning of the prologue section. This makes the production difficult to follow.
The robust direction and design were supplemented using a star-studded, predominantly Canadian cast. The main role of the convict (Jean Valjean) who has corrected his ways is performed by Ramin Karimloo. He was raised in Richmond Hill and is considered as a legend. This production coincides with his epic return to Canada. Karimloo provides an electrifying performance. He unequivocally brings something exceptional to the role he plays.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He adds exquisite passion and burning vigor to his character Valjean. The former Canadian idol plays the part of hard, but lovelorn character known as Eponine. Melissa provides an exhilarating and well-polished performance. In fact, some critics can argue that she was particularly among the best casts. Saunders and Horner provide exemplary comedic performances in their roles. They were playing the roles of the scoundrel inn care-takers.
Valjean spent 18 years incarcerated because he had stolen a loaf of bread. However, he violates his parole which leads inspector Javert to pursue him for years. The directing of the production is loyal to the previous versions, which have been paid homage to by millions of audiences. The manner in which the show opens is very impressive. The musical begins with the image of a male figure being chased down by law enforcers carrying rifles.
This sets the mood for a ruthless and cruel encounter. The design team is faced with a gigantic task of creating a better version of the play, while still upholding the values and illustration of the previous performances. The earlier versions have been considered by the majority of viewers as iconic. The costumes are transformed from drab and shabby to modern designer clothing. The design team makes good use of the windows, doors, and lighting to establish a grim and murky atmosphere.
Even though the original turn table is dropped in favor of a modern set, the magnitude of the barricade set is equally impressive. Something that the viewers should take into account is the ability of the cast to challenge their own vocals. Jill Blackwood is exemplary on her role as Fantine.
In conclusion, with the exemplary new staging and a refurbished scene founded on the famous paintings by Victor Hugo, it is presumed to be the best version of the Les Miserables. As the production continues to attract more viewers, most critics and new fans argue that this presentation will break a lot of records in the film and theater industry.
The movie version has been nominated 8 times for academy awards. It was also awarded the Golden Globe Award. I would recommend it to anyone who has not had the opportunity to view this production to try it out. They would be impressed by the musical presentation.
E-waste Management Plan for Melbourne School Essay best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Across the globe, management of e-waste has presented series of challenges to the gains made on environmental conservation efforts. The e-wastes have accumulated as technological invention progresses. Despite the rapid accumulation of the e-wastes, little efforts are in place to manage this environmental menace.
The biggest challenge has been the fact that e-wastes are non biodegradable. Thus, this analytical paper attempts to create an e-waste management plan for the local school. Besides, the paper will create a comprehensive waste management poster as desired by the company in Melbourne.
Managing e-wastes Creation of an e-waste sensitization unit
The school should urgently establish an e-waste sensitization unit to roll out series of environmental conservation efforts within its compound. For instance, the e-waste sensitization unit may be encouraged to advice the stakeholders of the school to observe the basic rules of e-waste disposal such as collection of these wastes in designated containers or collection points.
Besides, the unit may engage the stakeholders in e-waste management education through posters, organizing social e-waste management events and rewarding the best e-waste management practices (Prashant 2008). As a result, the school will be in a position to practice a preventive e-waste management strategy instead of the current responsive strategy.
It is important for the school to introduce a recycling policy for e-waste management programs. Specifically, recycling involves proper collection of the e-wastes such as computers, printers and other officer equipment in well marked containers. The e-wastes should be carefully sorted before dumping in the collection containers.
As a precautionary measure, the containers should have tight lid to limit cases of harmful gases escaping into the environment (Wang and Tay 2002). The school should then contact recycling agents to collect these wastes periodically at a fee.
Waste management poster The process of creating an effective waste management poster is complex and requires series of considerations especially on content and the target audience. In the case of the company based in Melbourne, the poster should accommodate the basics of recycling food wastes and other office wastes. This message should then be communicated in a very simple and practical language to capture full concentration and interests of the employees (Fisher 2001).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first step in creating the poster involves identifying the degradable food wastes and non degradable wastes within the office environment (Wang and Tay 2002). This step is followed by reviewing the sustainable but simple waste management strategies within the company’s budget (Dunphy, Griffiths and Benn 2007).
The third stage involves application of creatively in design for the poster to command wider appeal. Finally, the elements of design, proportionality and summary of information should be balanced to reduce message ambiguity. These elements were considered when designing and creating the waste management poster below for the company in Melbourne. The poster is applicable in the office and home environments.
Reference List Dunphy, D., Griffiths, A.,
Determinants of birth rate on a global scale Research Paper essay help site:edu
Research for quantitative research and methodology Determinants of birth rate on a global scale
Understanding the factors that lead to increased or decreased birth rates across the world is key to implementing development agenda. Research demonstrates that a country’s birth rate could have an impact on the future development path of that country. If a country has women with high birth rates, then that the country could have high population that could imply adequate workforce for economic activities.
However, that can only happen provided that children who are born are provided with quality health care. Quality health care could go a long way in ensuring that a country’s population is healthy and active in local and national development activities (Ooi, and Kai 30). On the other hand, a country with low birth rates could imply that the country would face labour challenges in the future. Therefore, countries have always tried to balance their economic developments and birth rates.
Quantitative research methods involve the collection and analysis of data in the form of numbers (Creswell et al. 210). The methods have found much application in social sciences because they are used to test hypotheses in research studies.
The research methods could also be used to do further analysis of data obtained through qualitative research methods (Östlund et al. 380). Empirical methods are being used in the field of international entrepreneurship (IE) as researchers attempt to gain insight into the relatively new field of study (Coviello and Marian 490).
Research also demonstrates that IE researchers need to utilise coherent and thorough methodological approaches to make the field grow sustainably in the future (Yang, Xuehua and Chenting 613). This would call for more rigour and less tendency towards simplicity. Researchers could design their projects with aspects of pluralism that could accommodate methods that capture the dynamic aspects in IE.
Differences between research questions and hypotheses The project answered the following research question: What is the impact of infant mortality rates, GDP, percentage urbanisation and rates of female unemployment on global birth rates?
The research question was developed to determine whether global birth rates were influenced by GDP, infant mortality rates, percentage urbanisation and rates of female unemployment. The research began with the research process of identifying the above research question. Research questions are formulated when a research gap exists in a particular research area. Research questions are formulated because researchers understand the boundary between what is known and what is not known.
The project adopted one research question because it could be answered through one study and over the period of time available for research. The research question was developed at the initial stage of the project development. The project adopted only one question to reduce the complexities that accompany study designs and use of statistical tools for data analysis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Studies that use many research questions involve very complex designs and analyses. The above research question contains the population and circumstantial factors that were studied. The global population was studied to understand the dynamics of birth rates in relation to female unemployment, GDP, urbanisation and infant mortality rates.
The dependent variable in this research question is birth rates while the independent variables are infant mortality rate, percentage of urban population, GDP and female unemployment. It would be expected that the dependent variable would be affected by the independent variables either positively or negatively.
For example, if the rate of female unemployment is high it would be expected that the global birth rate would also be high because women would be doing less in formal employment. More females would be married and bearing more children than those females who would be in formal employment.
On the other hand, the research project used the following research hypothesis: There is no relationship between global birth rate and the rate of female unemployment, percentage urbanisation, infant mortality rate and GDP.
The above statement was clear and testable, and it was not worded in a question format like the research question. The study hypothesis was not stated in the form of a question. The project adopted the concise hypothesis statement because it could be easily understood by others.
The hypothesis assumed that birth rates were not influenced by GDP, infant mortality rates, percentages of urbanisation and rates of female unemployment. The hypothesis was stated in the future and was tested through the statistical analysis used in the project. The above research hypothesis was a null hypothesis which the project aimed at testing to determine the statistical differences between predicted relationships.
Difference between a correlation and a relationship
A correlation is more specific (bivariate) than a relationship which is a general association of two or more variables. Correlation is one way of testing relationships between two or more variables. A relationship is an attribute that associates two or more variables in a certain order while a correlation describes the extent to which two variables vary together. Correlations could have positive relationships or negative relationships. In addition, there could be zero correlation when none of the variables changes.
Rationale and hypothesis
The research had the following rationale:
We will write a custom Research Paper on Determinants of birth rate on a global scale specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The study aimed at finding the current birth rate figures across the world.
The study aimed at associating birth rates with urbanisation, GDP, female unemployment and infant mortality rates.
The research attempted to understand the global trends in birth rates.
Various countries across the world have different bodies for collecting data on birth rates. The United Nations has an agency for coordinating the collection and analysis of data on birth rates across the world. Various factors have been suggested to influence the birth rates across the world.
Female unemployment, urbanisation, GDP and infant mortality rates are among the factors that have been suggested to have influence on global birth rates. The study hypothesised that there was no relationship between the above factors and global birth rates.
Scope of the project and dataset selection
The concluded research was comparative. The research was conducted to determine the impact of GDP, infant mortality rate, urbanisation and female unemployment on global birth rates in 2010. The research used data from 10 countries randomly selected across the world (n = 50).
The sampling of the countries went a long way in ensuring that the research achieved its goal of getting a cross-sectional view of global birth rates. The fact that only 50 countries out of more than 250 countries were selected implies that the selection of the countries was limited.
There were a number of factors that led to selection of countries. For example, a good number of countries were lacking key data entries that were essential for analysis. Therefore, the research was explorative in nature, and the selection of the countries is too limited to offer a thorough representation of countries across the world. Statistical power of a study is mainly dependent on the sample size used. Big sample sizes for studies lead to more statistical power than studies with small sample sizes.
The study used three data sets obtained from United Nations repository of data (http://data.un.org/), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and statistics (https://www.imf.org/en/Data) and open government data from https://data.gov.uk/. Birth rate and infant mortality data were obtained from United Nations repository of data (http://data.un.org/).
GDP data were accessed from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and statistics (https://www.imf.org/en/Data) while the https://data.gov.uk/ provided crucial data on the dynamics of birth rates across the United Kingdom. Data were accessed from the said websites and entered in a Microsoft Excel file for subsequent statistical analysis.
Data analysis was done using GraphPad Prism statistical software. Results were presented and discussed. The discussion section analysed the implications of the statistical results in the study. The interpretation of the statistical findings went a long way in understanding the relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variable.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Determinants of birth rate on a global scale by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The results interpretation in any study is crucial in rejecting or accepting the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is accepted when the statistical findings show insignificant differences. On the other hand, null hypothesis is rejected when statistical results show significant differences among variables under investigation. In such circumstances, the alternative hypothesis is accepted.
The independent variables were GDP, rates of female unemployment, percentages of urbanisation and infant mortality rates while the dependent variable was birth rates. The research study variables were selected following rules and suggestions from previous theories and conceptual models. To ensure that the study variables were consistent with the hypothesis, they were aligned with past studies and feasibility.
From the literature review, female unemployment, GDP, percentages of urbanisation and infant mortality rates were among the factors that were found to have an influence on global birth rates. The study utilised quantitative data which were in the form of numbers. It has been demonstrated that high numbers in quantitative form of data have some statistical importance which is interpreted to explain study findings. The study viewed the independent variables as the study factors assumed to have an influence on the dependent variable.
In the case of this study, the independent variables were not manipulated, but they were recorded because the data were already collected. The dependent variable in this study was presumed to change based on the changes observed in the independent variables. The study variables selection went a long way in ensuring that the study was not biased and that it did not have confounding factors. Studies that have confounding factors and biases cannot be used to infer about the population from which a sample is taken (Malterud 485).
The study hypothesis was developed following suggestions proposed in previous studies. The previous studies which addressed the choice of hypotheses for various studies used and analysed different theories in science (Baxter and Susan 544; Holosko 670; Kochhar and Parthiban 75).
Some of the theories have been tested and verified to be useful in the scientific process of developing hypotheses for studies. On the other hand, some theories on hypothesis development have raised concerns in the scientific community. As a result, the controversial theories are rarely used to develop hypotheses in studies because they could result in biased study findings and conclusion.
Interpretation and conclusion The relationship between the variables in the study was analysed using linear regression tests. Regression analysis tests do not assume that the independent variables are related to the dependent variables in a study (Östlund et al. 370; Bachmann et al. 1128). They yield a line of relation that could be used to formulate a formula for establishing further relationships between variables (Preacher et al. 440). The statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad statistical software. The results are shown in the following figures:
The regression analysis results for comparison between birth rates and infant mortality rates showed that the relationship was significant (R square= 0.8880, P <0.0001, DFn and DFd = 1.000 and 43.000). The results indicated that the slope for the best-fit values was 2.437 ( or -) 0.1320 while the slope for the confidence interval was 2.171 to 2.704. The number of countries analysed for the relationship was 45 (n= 45).
The linear regression analysis results comparing birth rates and rate of female unemployment showed that the relationship was not statistically significant (R square = 0.8612, P = 0.2430, Sy.x = 6.751, DFn and DFd = 1.000 and 15.00). Slope values for the 95% confidence intervals were 0.7235 to 0.2053. It was shown that a total of 32 values for both the variables were missing.
The relationship between birth rates and the percentages of urbanisation was not significant (P =0.0607, R square = 0.1288, Sy.x = 14.06, and DFn and DFd = 1.000 and 26.00). The slope values for the 95% confidence intervals were -02030 to 0.8562. It was demonstrated that a total of 21 values for the independent variable were missing.
The regression analysis results for the comparison between birth rates and GDP showed that the relationship was not statistically significant (P = 0.3766, R square = 0.0210, Sy.x = 1.039e 012, and DFn and DFd = 1.000 and 39.00). Slope value for the best-fit parameters was -177e 010 ( -) 1.316e 010 while the slope for the 95% confidence interviews were -3.84 010 to 1.486 010. The number of values missing for the GDP variable were 9 (41 values were analysed against values for the dependent variable).
The results obtained were within the 95% confidence intervals. The overall results showed that only one factor could be influencing the outcome variable. The relationship between the infant mortality rates and birth rates was significant. The findings were crucial because they showed that the two variables were significantly related. The results indicated that birth rates were higher in countries which had high cases of infant mortality.
The implication could be that many women were giving birth (per 1000 persons in the population), but many infants were dying. The high rates of death among infants could be attributed to several factors. Countries which have poor health care systems have been shown to have high cases of infant mortality.
Components of the health care system that could be contributing to the high mortality rates could be poor maternal care, inadequate health care facilities, and unqualified health care personnel, among others. The results are important for public health personnel and policymakers because they could be used to reverse the high infant mortality trends (Heron and Betzaida 1).
The other three factors were thought to have influence on global birth rates were shown to have no statistical significance on the dependent variable. The linear regression analysis results obtained for GDP, percentage urbanisation and rates of female unemployment showed that the factors had no significant variability. The variations were assessed by determining whether the slopes obtained were significantly non-zero.
Many values for both the independent variables and dependent variable were found to be outliers. Outliers in statistical analysis could lead to bias in study findings. To avoid biased study findings, the values found to lie outside the normal limits were manipulated to ensure that they were within the limits of statistical analysis. Research also demonstrates that too much manipulation could introduce bias in study findings (Yang et al. 610).
The study was limited because it was demonstrated that there were several values missing for the independent variables and dependent variable. The missing values implied that some countries did not have entries for some factors. The missing values could have contributed bias in the study findings.
Future research studies should aim at using countries with all data values. It could also be recommended that future studies increase the sample size to prevent errors associated with small sample sizes. The study used data from 50 countries (n = 50) from a population of 255 countries across the world. In addition, research studies in the future should use more statistical tests than those used in this study. Many tests will go a long way in ensuring that the studies will be more complex and powerful than the current study.
Works Cited Bachmann, Lucas M., et al. “Sample sizes of studies on diagnostic accuracy: literature survey.” BMJ 332.7550 (2006): 1127-1129. Print.
Baxter, Pamela, and Susan Jack. “Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers.” The Qualitative Report 13.4 (2008): 544-559. Print.
Coviello, Nicole E., and Marian V. Jones. “Methodological issues in international entrepreneurship research.” Journal of Business Venturing 19.4 (2004): 485-508. Print.
Creswell, John W., et al. “Advanced mixed methods research designs.” Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research 2.1 (2003): 209-240. Print.
Heron, Melonie, and Betzaida Tejada-Vera. “Deaths: leading causes for 2005.” National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 58.8 (2009): 1. Print.
Holosko, Michael J. “What Types of Designs are We Using in Social Work Research and Evaluation?.” Research on Social Work Practice 20.6 (2010): 665-673. Print.
Kochhar, Rahul, and Parthiban David. “Institutional investors and firm innovation: A test of competing hypotheses.” Strategic Management Journal 17.1 (1996): 73-84. Print.
Malterud, Kirsti. “Qualitative research: standards, challenges, and guidelines.” The lancet 358.9280 (2001): 483-488. Print.
Ooi, Giok Ling, and Kai Hong Phua. “Urbanization and slum formation.” Journal of Urban Health 84.1 (2007): 27-34. Print.
Östlund, Ulrika, et al. “Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: A methodological review.” International journal of nursing studies 48.3 (2011): 369-383. Print.
Preacher, Kristopher J., Patrick J. Curran, and Daniel J. Bauer. “Computational tools for probing interactions in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis.” Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics 31.4 (2006): 437-448. Print.
Yang, Zhilin, Xuehua Wang, and Chenting Su. “A review of research methodologies in international business.” International Business Review 15.6 (2006): 601-617. Print.
Talent and Succession Management Strategy Case Study college essay help near me
Executive Summary Succession planning strategies have become very important in the current competitive market. There has been a shift of focus in succession planning strategies. Initially, it was a method meant to select the most appropriate chief executives. However, firms currently use it as an approach of selecting the most qualified candidates for various positions. At BP, the management has been keen on its selection of individuals to hold various posts within the firm.
The focus has been to select candidates with appropriate skills to these positions. However, the current strategy has not been effective enough in identifying and nurturing talents among its employees. This has affected its efficiency. The management must therefore, consider refocusing its strategy to be comprehensive enough to capture special talents among its workforce, and determine the approach of using the talents in its management strategies.
Introduction and Background of BP Company Introduction
The current business world is becoming very competitive, especially due to the increasing number of firms competing for the same market. According to Rothwell (2010, p. 112), business units must find ways of managing this competition if they expect to succeed in protecting their market shares.
In such a competitive environment, marketing plays an important role in enabling firms to understand the needs of their consumers, produce goods that meet their needs, and deliver this product in a way that would yield maximum value to them. This way, a firm would be able to attract and retain a large pool of loyal customers. According to Hawkey (2002, p. 35), marketing has gained a lot of relevance in the near past.
There has been a shift of focus from the 19th century’s emphasis on production strategy, to the 21st century’s focus on social marketing. In those early years, competition was almost nonexistence. Firms’ main concern was to present their products to the market. Consumers lacked alternatives, and therefore, they would be forced to buy what was presented in the market.
This changed as we approached the 20th century. In the current market, the competition is so stiff that firms have to employ marketing strategies in order to remain competitive. For this to happen, Olsen (2013, p. 89), says that a firm must have a pool of talent among its employees at managerial levels. It must have the right people who are competent enough to take it to the next level in terms of creativity and innovativeness.
Succession planning strategy has therefore, been considered very important in the current business environment as a way of identifying and nurturing talents. Succession planning in the current business environment goes beyond selection of top management officers. It also involves having the right workforce at various sensitive positions within the firm.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Liteman (2003, p. 78), for a firm to be able to take maximum advantage in the marketing strategies, there is a need to have a skilled and talented workforce that has the capacity to manage the changing environmental forces. Skilled labor is major assets that can enable a firm survive negative environmental forces in cases where other competitors failed. Talent is core in enhancing creativity and innovation within a firm.
Firms may find it challenging to identify some of the relevant talents that can help them move a step further towards success. It requires the management to develop strategies that would help them identify and nature talents among its workforce as a way of gaining relevance in the market.
BP is one of the leading oil companies in the world. It has gained a reputation in the market because of the competence of its successive leaders. This would make one believe that succession-planning strategies at this firm is effective. It would be important to capture some of the background information about this firm.
Background of BP
BP, also known as British Petroleum, is a large British oil company that was started in 1908. A group of geologists, led by William Knox was commissioned to conduct an exploration of oil in Iran, and their exploration proved successful. When the geologists confirmed that there were rich oil reserves in Iran, they quickly developed Anglo-Persia Oil Company as Burmah Oil Company’s subsidiary.
When the British government realized the potential of the oil reserves in Iran, it moved with speed to take a leading shareholding in this new company in order to control its operations. At this time, tension had started developing in Europe, and countries were preparing themselves for war. The firm experienced massive expansion during the First World War. During this time, oil had become an important commodity in the industrial sector.
The firm received another major boost in the Second Word War as it played a major role in providing fuel both to the industrial sector and to the military during the war.
It expanded vary rapidly through mergers and takeovers. It has also formed strategic alliances with some of the leading oil and gas companies such as the Royal Dutch Shell and the Russian TNK to improve its global market coverage. The early success of this firm was attributed to its effective leadership. Top management of this firm remained focus on the market forces, and this helped it grow rapidly.
We will write a custom Case Study on Talent and Succession Management Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Randhawa (2007, p. 82), BP currently operates in over 80 countries across the world, with over 20,800 service station. It has taken a vertical operational approach, which means that it is involved in oil exploration, production, refining, marketing, and distribution of petroleum products. It is also involved in power generation, petrochemicals, renewable energy, wind power, and biofuels.
This diversity is a clear sign that this firm has had the right workforce at the management and other levels within the firm. Based on its revenues in 2012, the firm was ranked the world’s fifth largest company. Although BP has been very successful in the market, it has met some challenges that have affected its operations in the market. The world is increasingly getting concerned with issues of environmental protection.
However, BP has scored poorly in its environmental protection strategies. The firm has been subject to a series of litigations due to failure to manage its plants or other petroleum facilities. In 2005, its Texas Refinery Plant exploded, causing death of its 15 workers. It was fined millions of dollars because of this accident. In 2006, Prudhoe Bay oil spillage that spread to North Slope in Alaska earned it $ 25 million for lack of its ability to protect the environment.
The Deep-water Horizon remains the largest oil spillage in the history of this industry. This has not only earned this company serious loss in terms of billions of dollars in fines, but has also tainted its image in the market. In a business environment that has become increasingly sensitive on environmental protection, BP has lost its glorious image to some of its competitors, especially in United States.
The recent unfortunate accidents clearly demonstrates that BP need to identify better talents that would enable it achieve efficiency in its operations. It is a sign that its current succession planning strategies are not effective enough to identify the most appropriate talents for various sectors within the firm. Its diversification into renewable energy is a sign that the management has been effective enough to tap on new talents that can bring new ideas to the firm.
However, the series of accidents that have taken place in the last one-decade resulting in deaths and huge sums of money being paid as fines is a clear warning that the current strategy is not successful enough to identify the most appropriate talents for its operations. According to Goad (2004, p. 78), the Deep-waters Horizon oil spillage was because of incompetent engineers at this firm who underestimated the pressure and the reaction at the exploration site.
This resulted into massive loss to this firm and damage of its reputation in the market. Reactive strategies are no longer appropriate in the market. The firm cannot wait for such unfortunate incidences to occur in order to initiate a reaction. It must have a proactive team that has the capacity of understanding the changing technological factors and determine how the firm can operate within these factors.
The fact that this firm has been on record for polluting the environment over the last decade demonstrates that there is a gap in the current talents that are within this firm. The current workforce lack special talent that can enable them understand the instruments used in the exploration, production, transportation, and storage of petroleum products. It is a clear indication that something must be done to rescue BP from any possible accidents that may hurt its operations further.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Talent and Succession Management Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Objectives of the research
Sobol (2007, p. 79) notes that research is a very complex and expensive process that must be conducted with a clear purpose to be met. Stating the objectives helps the researcher in identifying facts that should be collected from both the primary and secondary data sources. As stated in the introduction, energy sector is the backbone of other sectors of the economy in any given country.
Therefore, this important sector must be treated with a lot of care in order to achieve maximum benefit from it. With the current prevailing external environmental factors, firms are under great pressure to find ways of operating at their best in order to remain competitive. Efficiency, effectiveness, and innovativeness are key to achieving the desired success in the market. These factors concern the capacity of human resource. This means that the management and employees at various levels must have the right skills and talents.
Talent has been considered a core value that enables firms to be creative in their operations. BP must find a strategy of identifying and nurturing talents among its top management and other junior employees for it to be successful in the market. Its succession planning strategies must be effective enough to identify employees who have the best capacity of undertaking various activities within the firm. The following are some of the specific objectives that this research seeks to achieve.
To understand the succession planning strategies that BP has been using to identify the most qualified individuals for its top leadership.
To determine the current strategies that are used at BP to identify and nature talent among its employees
To determine the level of talent that has been natured at BP using its current strategies.
To determine how the current talents at BP has given it a unique market advantage over its competitors.
To identify some of the gaps in the current succession planning strategies that makes it less effective in identifying and nurturing talents among its employees.
To develop a strategy that would be most appropriate for this firm in identifying and nurturing of talents for its top leadership and junior employees.
The researcher seeks to meet the above objectives in an effort to give a report that will make BP a better and more competitive firm in the sectors where it operates.
Literature Review According to Goad (2004, p. 56), employees are the most important assets that any organization can have. Success of a firm depends on the quality of the employees, especially at the top management. It is becoming apparent that firms’ competitiveness in the market would directly depend on the quality of workforce it has.
Successful firms in the market are creative and innovative. They develop products that are unique, giving their firms opportunities of taping into new markets that are yet to be flooded. In the energy sector, the stakes are even higher, especially due to the increasing concern for the environment.
Firms in this sector must come up with ways in which they can make their productions in the way that is very safe to the environment. This means that these firms must have appropriate leadership and workforce that will be able to bring innovation in their respective areas of operations.
Succession planning strategy has been considered very crucial for firms as a way of identifying talents and skilled workforce with the capacity of understanding the prevailing market forces. According to Sims (2007, p. 92), although many people view succession planning as a relatively new approach of selection of employees and top managers, it has been in existence for a very long time. Firms are faced with the challenge of redefining themselves beyond their current operations.
Randhawa (2007, p. 30) notes that firms are still struggling to find the best employees who can handle various duties effectively. Although a few have developed succession planning strategies that enables them to identify, develop, and retain special talents among their employees, most firms still lack such programs.
According to Jackson (2011, p. 90), firms have failed to develop strategies that can enable them identify the most appropriate workforce, retain them because of their skills, and help them develop their career even further. Randhawa (2007, p. 94) notes that although BP is one of the best employers in various countries around the world, it has experienced a relatively high employee-turnover within the past one decade. What makes this situation even more unfortunate is that some of these employees are hired at rival firms.
They transfer all their skills and experience to these rival firms, giving them a better chance of beating BP. This is attributed to lack of clear strategies that can be used by the firm to identify and retain the most qualified employees to boost its operations.
According to Goad (2004, p. 71), succession planning is taking a completely new dimension in the current competitive business world. Firms are forced to go a step higher in their operational strategies in order to achieve success. The market is experiencing changes, and firms must adopt these changes in order to remain competitive in the market. In the energy sector, there has been a strong shift of focus from the use of petroleum products, to bio-safety products.
Companies in the energy sector are forced to shift their focus into environmental friendly fuels. To achieve this, there is need to have a management unit and a workforce that understand the environmental dynamics.
Succession planning strategies therefore helps in identifying and nurturing special talents within the firm that can enable it manage the dynamic market environment. BP Company is one of the leading energy firms in the world. Its ability to remain competitive in the market largely relies on its human resource management strategies.
Discussion Current human resource development strategies at BP
BP has come to appreciate the importance of having highly qualified human resource at various levels of management. The firm has developed strategies, which are geared towards helping it develop its current workforce to increase their capacity in handling various activities within the firm.
The management has developed in-service training programs for its employees, which is meant to instil knowledge on them on the current issues, especially changes brought about by the emerging technologies.
These learning programs have been developed to not only target junior employees who are at operational levels in this firm, but also leaders in the senior management positions. This has yielded positive fruits for this firm. According to Dahlke (2012, p. 95), BP has been able to adopt the emerging technologies within the past one decade at a relatively faster rate than before.
Employees form one of the strongest pillars within an organization that will always determine the capacity of a firm to be successful in the market. The performance of employees depends on a number of factors. As Atwood (2007, p. 89) notes, one of the important factors that would determine the performance of employee is their level of competence. Different tasks within this organization require different skills that employees should have.
Having a workforce with the right skills would always determine the success levels that can be achieved within the firm. BP needs technocrats, besides the qualified management unit. In each category, there must be a way of selecting the best-qualified candidates. The status of this firm shows that the management has made an effort to recruit the most appropriate candidates for various sectors.
Performance management involves close monitoring and coordinating of employees’ performance with a view of optimizing it in order to increase its performance. At BP, the management has set structures meant to monitor activities of employees per department, and ways in which this performance can be enhanced.
The firm has been promoting teamwork, a scenario where employees form small workgroups with the aim of achieving specific objectives within a short time span. This way, it becomes possible to break down strategic objectives into short-term goals, and to determine how these goals can be realized in the best way possible in order to make the firm achieve its strategic objectives.
Succession planning has increasingly become important in the current market because of the increasing levels of competition. According to Rothwell (2005, p. 38), the market competition has gotten so stiff that it forces firms to develop new approaches of remaining competitive. Identification and nurturing of talents has become very important in nurturing employees to assume various leadership position.
Firms require people who have learnt skills in various fields with the capacity to make the firm achieve success in its operations. However, it is important to note that these skills are commonly found in other competing firms. For this reason, firms need more than just skills in employees. They need a workforce and a management unit that have the capacity to come up with something that is beyond the market expectation.
They need a workforce that is innovative enough to come up with new ways of running various activities. They need talent in leadership. At BP, the management has programs running to help nurture creativity and innovations among its workforce. The program creates an environment where people with creative minds are given opportunity to transfer their creativity into practical actions within the firm. However, it is important to note that the current structures at this firm leave some gap.
For instance, the programs do not focus on how the firm can identify these talents even in cases where employees are reluctant to demonstrate that they have special skills. The current system has been more focused on how to identify skills other than talents. Skills are important for efficiency, while talent is core to having innovative workforce. This firm must develop new approaches of identifying talents as proposed in the recommendations below.
In succession planning strategies, Fager (2007, p. 57) says that a firm should have a clear mechanism of assessing talents whenever there is need to hire individuals at the managerial positions. Talent assessment involves identifying the level in which the identified talents are relevant to the organization. As stated above, the strategies used by BP in managing its human resource is more effective in identification of skills other than talents.
However, the system has been very effective in developing skills and talents that have been identified among its employees. The firm has large laboratory equipment in the United Kingdom and in the United States. At these facilities, the management would offer its workforce opportunity to test their newly developed skills.
This has helped the firm come up with a group of employees who understand the changing environmental factors. The management has been proactive in its talent and skills assessment strategies. The firm has been developing strategies meant to encourage creativity in its workforce.
According to Singer (2010, p. 135), having career development programs within a firm helps in nurturing employees and improving their performance which helps in improving its overall performance. At BP, there is an elaborate career development program meant to enhance the performance of the workforce and improve their workplace experience. In order to motivate employees, it is always important to create an environment where they feel that they can enhance their career paths.
BP has perfected this strategy. At this firm, employees are given perfect opportunity to develop their careers in various fields. The firm has in-service training programs, which are meant to enhance the capacity of its employees. The firm has also developed scholarship programs for its employees who are intending to further their education in different fields.
Employees are also offered promotional opportunities based on their performance record at the firm, and their loyalty demonstrated after a given period. This has seen employees make concerted effort to improve their performance and loyalty to the firm because they are well aware that such efforts will always be rewarded.
Most of the senior managers of BP are employees who have been with this firm for very long time, starting their careers as junior employees and earning promotions based on their commitment to the firm. This makes other employees feel that they have a better future with the firm in case they can remain committed to it, and enhance their performance.
Conclusion and Recommendations Conclusion
It is clear from the discussion above that succession-planning strategies are very important in enabling a firm to be competitively unique in the market. Technological advancements have brought common ways of approaching various operational activities within the firm. Firms within the same industry would have similar tools and equipment for their operational activities based on technological inventions.
This means that a firm cannot rely on some of these universal tools to gain competitive advantage in the Market. BP has come to realize this fact. Some of its major competitors in the market can easily access most of the sophisticated tools it uses in its production strategies.
For this reason, the only way of achieving success in the market is through development of a unique workforce. To do this, succession planning is very important for this firm in identifying special skills and talents among its employees. The current succession planning strategies at BP have been effective in nurturing talents.
This has helped the firm to achieve success in the market. However, the discussion above shows that there is still a gap in this strategy, a fact that has denied BP an opportunity develop new ways of improving efficiency at various plants, especially in the North American regions. It would therefore, be necessary for the firm to consider the following recommendations.
In order to achieve maximum benefit in the market, the management of BP must realize that the current succession planning strategies are not optimally effective, and this could be the reason behind the recent series of accidents at some of its plants. This is a clear demonstration that the firm needs to identify more qualified and talented workforce, and skilled managers who understand the prevailing technological changes to help it operate efficiently. The management should consider the following.
Succession planning strategies should not just be focused on the top management of the firm. Every individual within the firm is a candidate for promotion to a higher rank. Before they can be promoted to those higher, ranks, adequate training is important to ensure that they can manage new responsibilities.
Succession planning is not one session event that should only be undertaken when it is confirmed that there is need for promotion. Rather, the management of BP should consider it a continuous training process meant to impart desirable skills on employees to enable them handle future responsibilities.
Firms are currently using technology in their succession planning strategies in order to ensure that the most qualified candidates are picked for various promotional opportunities. BP should consider using this approach to enhance its performance.
List of References Atwood, C 2007, Succession planning basics, ASTD Press, Alexandria.
Dahlke, A 2012, Business succession planning for dummies, John Wiley
Effects of PCBs on the Immune System, the Respiratory System, and the Liver Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Abstract Toxicants are poisonous substances that are produced artificially and introduced to the environment as a result of human activities. These toxicants have serious implications on human health. For instance, they have been found to affect vital organs of the body and lead to death in some cases.
PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) are among the most dangerous persistent organic toxicants in the environment that have been known to adversely affect the health of humans, animals, and the environment. This article focuses on the effects of PCBs on the respiratory system, the immune system, and the liver.
A toxicant is a xenobiotic substance that produces hazardous effects on the body or the environment. Toxicants are introduced into the environment through as a result of human activities. Most of these toxicants mostly circulate through the body and accumulate in specific target organs, which they eventually affect adversely.
However, others can damage any cell or tissue that they come into contact with. There are numerous toxicants in the environment, including heavy metals, non-metals, radioactive pollutants, and persistent organic pollutants (Kacew
People’s Responsibility in the Social Media World and Its Effects on the Reputation Research Paper college admission essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Risks associated with using social media
Practices of good use of social media
Abstract Social media has developed to become one of the largest and popular platforms in the cyber world. However, this rapid growth has brought many challenges on the use of the social media platforms. This is because social media portrays users and their characters over the internet.
This allows for sharing of many aspects of their lives appropriate, offensive, tormenting and useful. Through social media, there is sharing of messages, photos, videos and documents easily. Technology is indispensable with easy access to internet enabled mobile phones, digital cameras, smart phones and web enabled video cameras used in everyday life. With the sharing of such personal information on the internet, various vulnerabilities to reputation are inevitable.
Technology has greatly advanced with the possibility of people creating and modifying tasteless images and videos online using easily available software. Employers can also obtain personal information by doing profile search on employee profiles for recruitment purposes. This can be damaging to employee-employer relations and life at large. Content posted online is permanent since it is available for reference.
Social media offers a dangerous platform where people can create false profiles and enter chat rooms with unreal names. It is important to think before making commitments to the online associations and relationships or posting images, videos and content. Some aspects of private life need to be kept confidential, not for the whole world to know through social media platforms. The available social media platforms include Face-book, twitter, MySpace, meet-up, LinkedIn, Google Plus, Instagram and Flickr.
We are responsible on social media for whatever content we decide to share irrespective of the perspective. Hiding or using a wrong identity does not help since the computer or web enabled device has a unique ID that identifies it online. Authorities can be able to trace the source and origins of the material posted online and hold them accountable. Social media are vital in peoples lives as they use it for business, hating on others, bullying, offend others, network and share information.
Risks associated with using social media The way people interact, communicate, do business and learn has undergone a revolution by social media. This presents risks in security, privacy, legal, intellectual property, and employment practices (Merril
The Impact of Export Trade on the US Economy Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction The international trade in the US grew much faster after the Second World War. Trade between the United States and the rest of the world has played a significant role in the growth and development of the US economy over the past years. Since the US is a superpower nation, other countries view trade with the country to be quite important.
There are a number of benefits that arise from the trade relationship between the US and the rest of the world. First, the exports and imports of goods and services result in an improvement in the standards of living of the citizens. This comes about because exports generate revenue to the economy while imports increase the amount of commodities available for consumption. This further leads to a reduction in the prices of goods and services.
On the other hand, international trade has a negative impact on the economy in a number of ways. A major drawback is the risk of survival of the domestic industries. Economists claim that international trade results in the reduction of job opportunities and wages. This can be attributed to the fact that an increase in import leads to a reduction in the amount of goods and services produced by local firms. On the contrary, surveys show that the imposition of restrictions on trade does not favor both consumers and the producers.
Aim of the paper The paper seeks to analyze the impact of export on the US economy. Specifically, the paper will analyze the impact of foreign trade on GDP, standard of living (measured using per capita income), and other variables.
There are several studies that have been carried out to analyze the impact of export trade on the US economy. Besides, there has been continuous debate on the trade-off between the positive and negative impact of trade on the US economy. The result of these studies has called for the needs to come up with policies that create a balance between the negative and positive impact of trade. An example of such study was carried out by James Jackson in the year 2013 (Jackson 6b).
In the study, Jackson used the computable general equilibrium model that integrates data on export trade and other economic variables for about 100 countries. The author also made use of the Michigan Model and Estimates as an extension of the computable general equilibrium model (Jackson 16b).
The study was based on cross sectional secondary data. Jackson observed that export and import trade enables countries to use their resource endowment more proficiently. This enables them to maximize the variety of goods and services they provide to their citizens. It also results in an increase in the standards of living (Jackson 11b). The author further stated that the economies of the world engage in trade with an aim of maximizing their national interest.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jackson further pointed out that nations engage in trade on the basis of comparative advantage. The author stated that individuals within a nation will tend to focus on areas they have strong skills. Based on this, the citizens will focus on the production of goods and services in the areas they have comparative advantage and exchange with countries that produces other goods and services (Jackson 14b). This creates the concept of exports and imports in international trade.
In the paper, Jackson stated that export trade alone does not account for the economic expansion or contraction of key variables in the economy such as income level, output level, wage rate, and distribution of income because exports accounted for only about 14 percent (in the year 2012) of the GDP of the country (Jackson 11b).
However, the author stated that from a production point of view, import and export trade leads to movement of both labor and capital from productive sectors of the economy to less productive sectors. This strengthens specialization and improves efficiency in the economy.
The research conducted by Jackson further reveals that the movement of capital and labor from one sector of the economy to the other results in an adjustment of costs and improvement of efficiency. Jackson had the same findings in the earlier research paper that was published in the year 2008 (Jackson 27a).
The second study was conducted by Robert Krol in the year 2008 (Krol 1). In the study, “the author carried out a review of the empirical studies that evaluate the impact of foreign trade on the US economy” (Krol 3). Specifically, the author focused on the factors that cause an increase in import and export trade, the positive impact of foreign trade, the effect of international trade on employment and wages, and the cost of restrictions on foreign trade. Krol reviewed the work of various scholars and came up with a number of observations (Krol 4).
To start with, Krol observed that the concept of comparative advantage was a key motivator for international trade. This implies that countries still engage in trade on the basis of their comparative advantage (Krol 4). Further, Krol observed that there are a number of factors that explain the growth of import and export trade.
The study showed that the growth of income explains about sixty six percent of growth in foreign trade, trade freedom accounts for twenty five percentage of the growth of foreign trade and a decline in the transportation cost explains the rest of the expansion of foreign trade (Krol 4).
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Impact of Export Trade on the US Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, it can be observed that the three factors explain the growth in international trade. The study also pointed out that a change in government policies on foreign trade had a significant impact on the expansion of foreign trade. A change in any of the factors will result in a change of the volume of international trade. The research further indicated that an expansion of international trade has contributed to a high rate of growth in the economy.
It also contributed to the growth of income in economies that are open. The author has indicated that a unit growth of trade results in a unit growth of per capita income (Krol 4). Further, removal of trade barriers across the world will result in an increase in the growth of world income by approximately $2 trillion. Such action will result in the growth of income of the US economy by about $500 billion.
Further, the research shows that free trade between nations result in significant economic benefits. Further, Krol observed that competition that arises as a result of free trade results in lower prices of goods and services. Besides, such competitions lead to an increase in the variety of goods and services that are being offered to the consumers (Krol 4).
The final research was conducted by Oscar Afonso in the year 2001 (Afonso 1). In the paper, the author attempted to explain the economic theories that explain the impact of international trade on economic growth. In the study, Afonso focused on “the impact of international trade (from a commercial and technological aspect) on physical accumulation and quality of productive factors” (Afonso 1). The author observed that during the classical period, international trade had a positive impact on economic growth.
The research further shows that during the neoclassical period, import and export trade did not have an impact on the economic growth of the nations that were being analyzed. This situation was experienced until the 1960’s (Afonso 27). Further, the author stated that the recent theories have explained better the positive relationship between international trade and economic growth. Afonso also pointed out that there is significant empirical evidence to show that trade liberalization affects economic growth positively.
The author pointed that in developed economies, trade liberalization increases the domestic rates of innovation. Finally, Afonso pointed out that the effect of international trade varies depending on the level of growth and development of the trade partners, the level of technological development, and level of human capital development.
Thus, the author stated that countries cannot achieve equal results from international trade. Based on the literature review above, it is evident that engagement in export trade generates positive results on an economy. Thus, data for the US economy will be collected to verify the above findings
A comprehensive internet research will be carried out as part of secondary research on the available data on export trade on the economy of the US. The data will comprise of export of good and services, import of goods and services, total investment, gross national savings, foreign direct investment, employment, and GDP per capita.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of Export Trade on the US Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Specifically, the data will be retrieved from the US Bureau of Commerce website (US Department of Commerce 1). The source is reliable because it is updated by the US Department of Commerce on a periodic basis. The data will cover a period of 33 years that is, between 1980 and 2012. The values of these variables are presented in exhibit 1.
Discussion To analyze the impact of export trade on the economy, it will important to first analyze the degree of association between the variable. This will be measured by the correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient matrix is presented in exhibit 2.
The correlation coefficient matrix indicates that there is a strong positive association between the export of goods and services and import of goods and services (0.9652), total investment (0.8289), gross national savings (0.7628), foreign direct investment (0.7739), employment (0.9262), and gross domestic product (0.9546). This implies that an increase in revenues from export will result in an increase in the other variables.
Apart from the establishing the degree of association between the variables, the coefficient of the variables can also be established to determine how a change in variable will result in a change of the other variable. This can be achieved by carrying out a regression analysis.
A simple regression will be carried out to determine the effect of exports on the other variables. The result of regression analysis is presented in exhibit 3. The positive coefficients in the regression analysis indicate that an increase in export by one unit results in an increase in the values of import (by 1.4734), total investment (by 0.948), gross national savings (by 0.6161), foreign direct investment (by 0.2009), employment (by 0.0355), and gross domestic product (by 6.3202).
Conclusion The paper carried out an analysis of the impact of export trade on the economy of the US. Secondary data was collected to analyze the impact of export trade on various economic indicators. The study shows that indeed the export trade has an impact on the economy of the US. Specifically, export trade has a positive impact on total investment, gross national savings, foreign direct investment, employment, and gross domestic product. The results are consistent with the observations in the literature review section.
Exhibits Exhibit 1 – Data
Export of goods and services $billions Import of goods and services $billions Total investment $billions Gross national savings $billions Foreign direct investment $billions Employment Persons millions Gross domestic product, constant prices $billions 1980 591.94 619.34 1,212.53 1,135.58 35.69 99.30 5,833.98 1981 588.22 612.51 1,299.61 1,236.02 48.55 100.40 5,982.08 1982 514.68 551.03 1,135.17 1,120.63 22.67 99.53 5,865.93 1983 484.26 574.47 1,191.91 1,044.83 18.30 100.82 6,130.93 1984 509.49 682.53 1,462.76 1,259.43 41.72 105.00 6,571.53 1985 493.86 682.25 1,452.17 1,198.07 32.72 107.15 6,843.40 1986 512.52 724.69 1,460.14 1,126.08 56.67 109.60 7,080.50 1987 565.73 791.06 1,495.39 1,206.83 90.93 112.44 7,307.05 1988 667.13 832.59 1,502.99 1,344.61 86.77 114.97 7,607.40 1989 728.72 856.04 1,541.64 1,328.27 98.86 117.33 7,879.18 1990 770.63 878.94 1,489.98 1,269.88 67.68 118.80 8,027.03 1991 805.60 841.92 1,367.42 1,271.40 31.30 117.71 8,008.33 1992 839.67 883.04 1,420.27 1,217.08 26.19 118.49 8,280.03 1993 848.14 931.45 1,498.00 1,224.20 66.47 120.26 8,516.18 1994 913.40 1,030.88 1,648.98 1,369.35 58.46 123.07 8,863.13 1995 1,005.25 1,117.55 1,686.90 1,493.83 71.56 124.91 9,085.98 1996 1,055.18 1,172.29 1,785.07 1,616.63 105.21 126.72 9,425.85 1997 1,138.13 1,259.05 1,939.15 1,802.79 125.92 129.57 9,845.93 1998 1,121.28 1,311.47 2,072.42 1,933.09 210.44 131.48 10,274.75 1999 1,145.62 1,449.13 2,221.12 1,966.82 335.18 133.50 10,770.63 2000 1,238.72 1,671.68 2,340.53 2,029.05 364.04 136.90 11,216.43 2001 1,138.52 1,549.53 2,186.77 1,868.98 185.03 136.94 11,337.48 2002 1,093.25 1,558.89 2,158.91 1,693.03 91.96 136.48 11,543.10 2003 1,111.14 1,649.20 2,215.42 1,649.41 68.05 137.73 11,836.43 2004 1,225.13 1,867.38 2,418.65 1,796.50 151.52 139.24 12,246.93 2005 1,311.19 2,037.27 2,564.23 1,918.81 138.97 141.71 12,622.95 2006 1,431.67 2,180.40 2,666.08 2,127.26 286.42 144.42 12,958.48 2007 1,571.79 2,246.31 2,590.43 1,927.60 321.67 146.05 13,206.38 2008 1,709.47 2,366.39 2,380.47 1,757.38 307.99 145.37 13,161.93 2009 1,457.15 1,814.05 1,877.33 1,420.47 128.11 139.89 12,757.95 2010 1,670.90 2,134.46 2,020.71 1,595.25 245.49 139.07 13,062.98 2011 1,857.81 2,361.78 2,059.90 1,621.03 228.46 139.87 13,299.10 2012 1,411.40 2,192.96 2,203.92 1,781.61 178.27 142.39 13,587.65 Source of data – US Department of Commerce 1
Exhibit 2 – correlation coefficient matrix
Export of goods and services Import of goods and services Total investment Gross national savings Foreign direct investment Employment Gross domestic product, constant prices Export of goods and services 1.0000 Import of goods and services 0.9652 1.0000 Total investment 0.8289 0.9056 1.0000 Gross national savings 0.7628 0.8003 0.9435 1.0000 Foreign direct investment 0.7739 0.7799 0.8078 0.8339 1.0000 Employment 0.9262 0.9427 0.9333 0.8639 0.7555 1.0000 Gross domestic product 0.9546 0.9806 0.9160 0.8229 0.7465 0.9819 1.0000 Exhibit 3 – summary of regression output
Import of goods and services Total investment Gross national savings Foreign direct investment Employment Gross domestic product, constant prices Coefficients 1.47344195 0.947981706 0.616098386 0.200852621 0.035517018 6.320219593 R-square 0.931670731 0.687073688 0.581869667 0.598961275 0.857864653 0.911197485 Works Cited Afonso, Oscar 2001, The Impact of International Trade on Economic Growth. Web.
Jackson, James 2008a, Trade Agreements: Impact on The US Economy. Web.
Jackson, James 2013b, Trade Agreements: Impact on The US Economy. PDF. Web.
Krol, Robert 2008, Trade, Protectionism and the US Economy. PDF. Web.
US Department of Commerce 2013, US Economic Accounts. Web.
The Role of Supply Chain Risk Management in Ensuring Smooth Functioning Synthesis Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Model and theory analysis: Review of research
Introduction A number of issues such as changes in product design, branding and employee are likely to cause risks that threaten supply chain. Risk management in this field is a fundamental activity at the executive level in most organizations.
Several studies have developed various models and theories that attempt to provide an explanation of the need for supply chain management in reducing risks. The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze some research articles from various authors with an aim of exploring theories and models developed over the last few decades.
Model and theory analysis: Review of research Lin and Zhou (2011) carried out a study to address the impact that product design changes have on supply chain, with a special focus on the risks involved. Using a case study, the researchers developed some concepts that attempt to explain how supply chain runs under risks when the product design changes significantly.
The theory attempts to show that such changes predispose an organization to a number of risks in supply, policy and delivery. Moreover, this theory suggests that change in product design leads to an array of risks at the internal level, which in this case involves research and design, production, planning, organization and information.
This theory seems to indicate that any change in the product design that may have a significant impact on the customer and retailer’s perception of a product is likely to expose the supply chain system to these risks, which means that both customer-requested and company-initiated change in product design exposes the supply chain system to these risks.
Using an in-depth longitudinal case study, Khan, Christopher and Burnes (2012 examined the impact of product design on the supply chain risk. The case study was based on a major cloth retailer in the United Kingdom. The researchers aimed to address the questions associated with the increasingly important issues of the impact of product design on the risks involved in supply chain management. The case study leads to a concept that was used to explain the impact of product design in the supply chain and the associated risks.
The researchers theorize that risk management in supply chain is heavily dependent on the product design, where recognition of a design is a creative function of managing risks. In addition, the theory attempts to show that recognizing product design is a fundamental platform, on which risks are managed with ease and effectiveness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This concept attempts to show that recognition of product design must be one of the major activities as well as requirements for risk management at the executive level. In addition, this theory seems to have closer association with the theory developed by Lin and Zhou (2011), as both of them emphasize on the need to consider product design as one aspect or factor that may lead to risks as well as effective management of risks in the supply chain.
Christopher and Peck have attempted to present a good analysis on how supply chain management can effectively control risks by building a resilient supply chain system. Although the research is an analysis of findings rather than an empirical study, it provides the reader with some important theories that attempt to explain how product design impacts the supply chain in modern organizations.
An important model developed in this article is the argument that building a resilient supply chain depends on a number of features that can be engineered into the supply chain to improve resilience. Among these factors is the need to focus on product design, which should be incorporated into the general designing for the supply chains in organizations.
In addition, the concept argues that product design plays a major role in the process of understanding the supply chain and its structure. According to the article, products are the major aspect of a supply process, which means that their nature and impact on the whole process are fundamental. Therefore, failure to focus on product design when engineering supply chains is likely to involve risks that threaten the integrity and effectiveness of a supply chain management in a globalized business environment.
This theory is important in providing some background information on the need to focus on product design when managing and engineering supply chains. In fact, it shows the important role that product design plays in mitigating risks in supply chains.
The article by Chopra and Sodhi (2005) is based on real-life examples of how risk management in supply chain poses threats to the business process in a modern business environment. The authors used two cases in which an electricity supply plant operated by Royal Philips Electronics in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was hit by a lightning in 2000.
The massive surge the impact of the lightning caused at the grid started a fire that completely destroyed the plant’s microchips. Nokia Corporation was one of the major customers of the Royal Philips at the time. The impact of the lightning caused a massive reduction in the number of microchips at the Royal Philips stock, which made corporations like Nokia and others find it difficult to deal with the company.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Supply Chain Risk Management in Ensuring Smooth Functioning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it is worth noting that Nokia Corporation had more than one supplier in its supply chain strategy, which made it possible to switch from ordering chips from the Royal Philips on a temporary base. This proved effective in risk mitigation.
On the other hand, the authors compared this situation with the impact of the problem at Telefon AB Ericsson Corporation, another major customer of the Royal Philips Corporation. This company had a single provider of chips in its supply chain. The company suffered from the problem, which led to a complete shut down of operations until the Royal Philips resumed production.
From the two examples, the authors attempt to develop a theory, in which they explain the need for an effective design in the supply chain system. In this theory, the authors argue that corporations that use multiple designs for a product that is either sold or outsourced are likely to mitigate the risks involved when one product line or design is affected by any problem that may arise. In other words, this theory hypothesizes that multiple supply chain designs are more effective in risk management and mitigation than single-design supply chains.
Supply chain management in the process of supplying and delivering high risk products such as oil and gas proves to be one of the most crucial aspects of managers in these corporations.
In fact, high risk but, at the same time, high profitable oil and gas production and supply provide a good example of how risk management in the supply chain can be enhanced with product design. Vosooghi, Fazli and Mavi (2012) used this example to develop additional concept of product design and its impact on supply chain management in the oil supply industry.
The researchers use the fuzzy analytical hierarch process (FAHP) to weigh and analyze the risks related to crude oil supply chain. The study, carried in Iran, developed some theory that can be used to explain how risks can effectively be managed and mitigated in crude oil supply process.
This model argues that regulation and environmental risks as well as cooperation polices can be viewed from a design perspective. Although the theory does not deal with product design, the conclusions made in the article indicate that the way, in which the product is designed, usually influences the effectiveness of risk management in the supply chain.
The aerospace industry is another high-risk field that requires attention when studying risk management and product design. Sinha, Whitman and Malzahn (2004) developed a study, in which they aimed at explaining how risk management can be effected in aerospace industry. The researchers argue that most of the supply chain systems involve a single supplier, which is likely to increase risks involved.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Supply Chain Risk Management in Ensuring Smooth Functioning by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, risk management proves to be an important area of management in companies that adopt this system. The researchers’ aim was to develop a model that can mitigate risks in supply chains adopted by aerospace companies. The results of the study have provided some models that can be used to mitigate risks in these companies.
According to the study, IDEF0 concept is a model that mitigates risks in the aerospace supply chains. The model has five stages: risk identification, risk assessment, planning, and failure analysis and continuous improvement. Although this model focuses on a number of issues, it is worth noting that the design of the products in the supply chain system is a fundamental aspect of the model.
Tang (2007) published an article that explains the risks involved in supply chains and how they can be managed with effectiveness even during crisis. The researcher develops a model that attempts to show how supply chain managers can enhance the supply chain to navigate through major disruptions whenever they occur.
According to this model, inherent fluctuations are the first aspect that increases the risks, which implies that they should be the first issues to address in management. Secondly, the model indicates that corporations must design and reengineer their supply chain systems to enhance resilience and the ability to withstand the impacts of major disruptions. In addition, the model indicates that enhancing residence is strongly linked to the process of retaining apprehensive customers.
Goh, Lim and Meng (2007) developed a study, in which they attempted to develop a model for enhancing risks management in globalized supply chain networks. The study, carried out in Singapore, provided a scholastic model that indicates the need for risk management in supply chain to reduce the threats involved in globalized organizations.The model, known as multi-stage global supply chain network, incorporates a number of supply chain aspects in a globalized business system.
For instance, it considers a new focus on related risks such as supply, demand, disruption and exchange as the most important areas of focus in managing risks.
In addition, the model provides a new solution methodology that makes use of Moreau-Yosida regulation, design and logarithm that enhances the process of risk management and mitigation in diagnosing risk associated problems in globalized and multi-staged networks. Although this model is difficult to implement, it is highly effective in managing and mitigating risks in supply chains.
Sheffi (2001) takes a different approach to developing a model for risk management and mitigation in supply chains. In this article, Sheffi (2001) takes an example of risks posed by terrorism as a major threat to modern supply chain systems. The author analyzes the companies that were affected by the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US. Using several examples, the researcher develops a model for explaining the importance of supply chain management in risk mitigation.
This model focuses on two issues. First, it argues that corporations must adopt strategies to set certain operational redundancies in order to enhance their preparedness for risks. Secondly, it focuses on reduction of reliability on lead time and certain demand scenarios. The model suggests that private public partnership is the best way, trough which companies can organize themselves into networks that will enhance risk management and mitigation.
In 2007, American corporations IBM, KPMG and ACE sponsored a study with an aim of revealing the best practice for managing risks in supply chains. The researching institute, the Economic Intelligence Unit, developed a comprehensive study and a report that show their hypothesized model for managing supply chain risks in the modern concept. In its simplest form, the model suggests that risk management is a discipline that has moved from loss avoidance to assume a new position as the key contributor to market advantage.
According to the model, this is achieved through improved corporate reputation and better stand among the companies with the role of oversight such as rating industries. In addition, the model hypothesizes that risk management in supply chains has become an area that needs both technology and workmanship, because ideas must be generated, devised and implemented.
In addition, it indicates that technology is an additional source of risk for supply chains, especially at a time when supply of products has gone virtual thanks to the internet technology. However, the author’s model does not imply that technology should be avoided. Rather, it suggests that technology and workmanship should be integrated to provide the best method for mitigating and managing risks in supply chains.
Conclusion From this analysis, a number of aspects should be noted. For instance, the models developed over the years to enhance risk management in supply chains tend to focus on the product, product delivery and internal aspects of the management. They incorporate the ideas of understanding the risks, developing prior knowledge of the risks, ensuring everyone is involved, company-company or company-public sector relations and the use of technology.
Although the models are different, most of them attempt to show that supply chain is one of the areas of corporate management that runs under high risks due to the link between the company and other parties in its supply chain system.
Therefore, changes in product design, branding and employees are likely to cause risks that threaten supply chain. Risk management in this field is a fundamental activity at the executive level in most organizations. These models/theories have attempted to provide an explanation of the need for supply chain management in reducing risks.
References Chopra, S
Ethical Dilemmas in The Case of Wilma Research Paper a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Identifying the Problem
Applying the ACA Code of Ethics
Nature and Dimensions of the Dilemma
Potential Courses of Action
Evaluating Potential Courses of Action
Implementing the Course of Action
Making a Follow-up
Identifying the Problem A code of ethics is very important in the professional lives of people in different professions. However, a code of ethics cannot replace human minds that have the ability to question, judge, experience emotions, and even act depending on different situations. Ethical codes cannot replace the struggles that people in helping professions like counseling go through with simple quick solutions.
The ethical struggles are sometimes unique situations, puzzling questions and demanding personal responsibilities that call for practical solutions not clearly stated in the codes of ethics. Sometimes conflicts arise between unclear codes of ethics and the need for practical solutions thereby presenting dilemmas.
The case of Wilma, a counselor in a community agency, and Donna who is a client suffering from an anxiety disorder and panic attack is a real dilemma. Wilma discusses information that is considered private by Donna in a public place. The right to privacy implies that the decision of information such as opinions, emotions and personal data that someone is willing to share with other people is at an individual’s discretion. There is also a problem of breach of confidentiality on Wilma’s side.
The code of professional ethics requires Wilma to keep the information she has on Donna a secret (American Counseling Association, 2005). The code of ethics applies even if the information seems harmless. There is a moral obligation by Wilma to ensure that Donna adheres to her treatment plan and gets better from her current situation hence the dilemma as stated in article 7.B.1 (South Carolina Department of Labor Licensing and Regulation, 2006).
The simple fact that Wilma makes an inquiry on Donna’s progress in the presence of another person is a breach of privacy. Wilma’s frustration with Donna’s laxity with the homework she is given during the therapy session causes her to ask Donna about the homework. The context in which the confrontation occurs is wrong as both are in a public place. Furthermore, Wilma is not alone since she is in the company of a friend.
Perhaps Donna’s visits to the community agency counseling center are a secret and the information divulged to anyone else may lead to further complications especially now that she is being helped overcome her condition of panic and anxiety. There is a possibility that Wilma is the reason Donna is not able to complete all her homework. They may be having problems such as a personality clash or a situation where Wilma is not competent enough to handle Donna’s case.
A case of fidelity presents itself in this situation. The situation is a combination of an ethical and a clinical issue. An ethical issue arises due to the breach of the right to privacy and confidentiality. A clinical issue, on the other hand, comes about as the context in which the confrontation occurs may be a precipitating factor in a panic attack episode. Donna may get a panic attack as a result of the counselor’s indiscriminate behavior.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Applying the ACA Code of Ethics Wilma’s conduct is evidently inappropriate according to the American Counselors’ Association (ACA) Code of Ethics. Section B.I.b code of ethics on respect for privacy states that, “Counselors respect client rights to privacy. Counselors solicit private information from clients only when it is beneficial to the counseling process” (ACA, 2005, p. 8). At the specific moment, there is no therapeutic process in play hence a breach of ethics.
In section B subsection 1.c, there is a code concerning respect for confidentiality, which requires “counselors do not share confidential information without client consent or without sound legal or ethical justification” (American Counseling Association, 2005, p. 8). Wilma shares Donna’s issues from a personal perspective. The concern does not appear therapeutic since it is out of frustration that she chooses to check on her client’s progress and not as part of the therapy sessions requirements (American Counseling Association, 2005, p.8).
According to section B in subsection 3.c., the code is clear on the setting in which to divulge confidential information. It is in a public setting that Wilma makes her inquiry from Donna. Donna is a waitress in an eatery that is obviously a public place. The sessions are meant to take place in a private place where the client does not feel intimidated or have feelings of insecurity with regard to personal information in possession of the therapist.
The code states that “counselors discuss confidential information only in settings in which they can reasonably ensure client privacy” (American Counseling Association, 2005, p. 8). ACA code of ethics in section C subsection 2.a requires that therapists practice according to their limits of competence. Their competence is established by things such as the counselors’ education levels, supervised experience and necessary credentials.
Nature and Dimensions of the Dilemma As mentioned earlier, the situation between Wilma and Donna is an ethical dilemma. This is a pure dilemma as the ACA codes of ethics require that Wilma maintains confidentiality unless otherwise stated.
Nevertheless, an obligation stated in the principle of beneficence binds Wilma to ensure that Donna gets well. The fact that Wilma is a counselor in a community agency also presents a possible challenge that she may not be competent enough to handle cases of anxiety and panic attack disorders yet Donna needs help to overcome her current condition.
Potential Courses of Action There is a need for Wilma as a professional counselor to follow strict guidelines as required by the ethical decision making model. At this stage, she must identify potential action plans to solve the ethical issue presented. There may be a need to be very strict with Donna, therefore, undermining her right to autonomy. She may also choose to let Donna go if Donna is not willing to accomplish her therapeutic tasks since Donna’s well-being is largely dependent on how well she accomplishes her tasks.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Ethical Dilemmas in The Case of Wilma specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, failing to accomplish these tasks is synonymous to time wasting. A possible alternative is following Donna to her place of work and checking on her progress in private. This is likely to help her accomplish the therapeutic tasks required to make Donna get well. Wilma also has a choice of changing the therapeutic approach she uses on Donna as a new approach may yield better results.
There is a chance to refer the client as Wilma may consider Donna’s case as that which is beyond her competence level. This is in accordance to chapter 36 article 7 section B.10 of South Carolina Department of Labor Licensing and Regulations (2006, p. 21), which states “when a professional counselor determines an inability to be of professional assistance to a potential or existing client, the counselor must, respectively, not initiate the counseling relationship or immediately terminate the relationship.
In either event, the counselor must suggest appropriate alternatives and be knowledgeable about referral resources so that a satisfactory referral can be initiated. If the client declines the referral, the counselor shall not be obligated to continue the relationship.”
Evaluating Potential Courses of Action There are possible repercussions that may arise due to the course of action taken. The repercussions should be considered in detail for the best course of action to be applied. Since Donna has a legal right to autonomy, her freedom of choice should at all times be respected even by her therapist.
The respect holds even when the choices she makes have little or no sense, for instance, the choice of not completing her therapeutic homework. There is a possibility that Donna may take actions against Wilma if her autonomy is undermined. The actions may include reporting Wilma to her seniors or even taking legal action.
Wilma’s plan to release Donna from her therapeutic care may also have consequences. The consequence of this action is failure to maintain the client’s welfare to the highest possible level that is a legal duty of the counselor.
Following Donna to her place of work may present a legal issue. This action can be interpreted as stalking. The final possible plan of action is referring the client. However, this action may also have its shortcomings. The suggestion may not go well with Donna for reasons such as fear of the unknown.
She can also interpret her case as so hopeless that she cannot get help elsewhere having failed in the first instance. Donna may also experience feelings of rejection since she may not consider the referral objectively and might take it personally. In such a case, it is important to let Donna know that she is special and unique and that she needs someone who understands her better.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical Dilemmas in The Case of Wilma by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Implementing the Course of Action The most appropriate course of action in the Donna and Wilma case is to refer the client (Donna). Perhaps there are reasonable explanations why Donna fails to do her homework. These reasons may be beyond Wilma as a professional counselor. This then requires Wilma to accept that her competence is limited.
Therefore, she should allow Donna to seek help elsewhere. The referral is in line with the ethical principle of veracity. The principle of veracity is the counselors’ honesty in accepting their limitations as professionals. Wilma should be careful to consider all consequences the situation may bring to her as a professional (Akfert, 2013).
There is a need to explore all options carefully as referring Donna might bring up additional ethical issues. Wilma needs to do a critical evaluation of the decision to refer Donna and check if it is fair to do so. Wilma must consider how comfortable she can be with the decision if the same is suggested for her.
She should be comfortable recommending this solution to another counselor in a similar dilemma. She should also consider the universality test, which is a necessary condition for approval of the course of action taken (Akfert, 2013). The universality test entails how well the issue goes down with the press and the community at large. The action should receive positive publicity should the information leak out to the press.
Making a Follow-up The final stage in the ethical decision making model is making a follow- up. Wilma should follow up Donna’s case to check whether her referral yields the anticipated outcome. Counselors handle an array of diverse of circumstances and each clinician has his own distinct style of handling the different situations. Therefore, Wilma should accept her shortcomings in handling Donna’s case and resolving the dilemma.
References Akfert, S. K. (2013). Ethical dilemmas experienced by psychological counselors working at different institutions and their attitudes and behaviors s a response to these dilemmas. Educational Sciences: Theory
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Recognizing employee contributions Report best essay help
Due to challenges on both external and internal working environment, organizations are now left with no option but to adopt effective incentive programs for their employees in order to maintain or improve organization’s performance. This is mainly on the basis of employees’ efficiency and effectiveness at work.
Relating payment to performance has been the dream of every employer though it is a very difficult endeavor. It is true that fair pay is a cornerstone of the agreement between every employer and employee during the time of employment. But one common assumption made is that additional payment can directly influence performance of a specific employee. Take an example of employees in admissions office in a university.
Developing ways of motivating and recognizing employees’ contributions to enroll students is not that easy. One way would be to involve employees in decision making process regarding their pay. Because they are aware of attitudes required of them to perform better, this would be an effective tool to empower them.
Various methods can be used in determining incentive pay. In this case, there will be two ways of determining incentive pay in order to attain admissions objectives. Firstly, incentive will be paid based on employees’ performance in term of average time spent with every new student admitted. Time is critical during admission and therefore employees should take the least time possible with each new student admitted.
This will ensure that students do not spend so much time in queues waiting to be served which usually leads to exhaustion and subsequent dissatisfaction. This means that the bigger the number of new students admitted, the higher the incentive and vice versa. Secondly, incentive pay will be determined by each employee’s capacity to communicate university’s values to students during their first day. This is tricky but very important method of determining incentive pay.
Paying employees for performance using this method is difficult because it is hard to measure specific performance outcomes. The first method will be tailored towards individuals where each employee will be given incentive based on the number of new students admitted. However, in the second method, employees will be assigned to groups where they will be required to come up with the ways of communicating the core values of the institution during the time of admission.
Creating an effective incentive pay program will involve a number of key steps. To start with, it is important to state again that an incentive pay is a reward to encourage employees to behave in a certain way. Then, questions should be asked about who must be a part of the program, what the objectives are, what the types of incentives are needed, whether any form of training is required to participants to understand the program better , and how and when the program should be implemented?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The participants are employees in the admissions and the objective is to meet admission goals. Incentive will be given in a form of money and reward at the end of academic period and all employees will be trained on this in order to understand the program. It is important to remember that this program is needed so as to recognize employees’ contribution in admission of new students. They will be motivated by considering how good they perform in terms of quantity and quality of work done.
Reduced time during admission, new students’ satisfaction, and employees’ motivation are some of the expected benefits of the program. It is rational to state that the success of this program will be determined by extensive involvement of the employees to develop it to a greater extent.
Employees’ perspective will be considered with regard to what their interest is and what is likely to motivate them (pay, rewards, time-off). The program should be simple to understand and employees should be able to simply figure out what they have earned without much difficulty. Finally, the program will be communicated to the entire organization through a well-developed communication plan.
The concept of a balanced scorecard is simple and can be executed in many different ways. It was designed and formalized in early 90’s with core objective of using balance parameters to measure the status of a business (Kaplan, 2008). It goes beyond looking at financial metrics to include other parameters in a balanced equation to evaluate how a business or an organization is doing. The original scorecard addressed four main areas:
Financial: how financially successful is the business?
Customer perspective: how can you win customer loyalty and retain it?
Internal business environment: what is your success in executing core objectives of the company?
Innovation perspective: what elements contribute to learning, innovation and improvement?
Below is a balanced scorecard tailored to emphasize on shareholder value, employee value and customer value for the university. Three different measures are used as a perspective for each of the three values.
Area Shareholder’s value Customer’s value Employee’s value Measure Increasing shareholder’s value Customer’s (student’s) satisfaction Employee’s satisfaction Variables Maximizing shareholder’s value Increasing loyalty, repeat Employee’s retention, Employee’s motivation Regarding the shareholder’s value the key objective of the university would be ensuring that shareholder value is maximized over a long period of time. Share value is determined through forecasting free cash flow of the institution.
Creating incentive package for the employee in the admission office of the university is not an easy task. It tags along with major difficulties. Before looking at the difficulties, it is important to illustrate reasons for giving incentive pay in order to face the challenges facing us head-on. Incentives are given to align pay to performance, to allow good performance to earn more and motivate poor performers.
We will write a custom Report on Recognizing employee contributions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Incentive program can be a tool of communicating clearly various measures of success and to ensure that everyone in the institution understands them. There are two main challenges in designing the incentive pay in our scenario. To start with, it is very hard to measure employees’ output using the parameters stated. For instance, it will be challenging to quantify how it is better to ensure that each employee is handling students and communicating the core values of the university during admission.
Although a questionnaire will be provided to every student, rating using this method may not give accurate measure of employee performance. Secondly, employee may just do exactly what they are measured on. It is critical to remember that each employee has a baseline pay and incentives are paid when an employee performs above expectations. When parameters are well understood by everyone, they are likely to just meet what is required to earn incentive pay. This will hinder them from going a mile ahead to perform exceptionally.
Incentive pay plan is made up of many different elements though cash reward is the one predominantly used by virtually every organization, especially in sales and marketing (Vinogradov