Table of Contents Outline
Introduction: About the Course
Goals, Mission Statement and Values
Outline The introduction describes the aspects of the course, organizational structure and design. I the next section, the goals, missions and values applicable at Target Inc. are discussed. The next section discusses the organizational chart which is indicated in appendix 1. The next section discusses the organizational structure of the company, including design, span of control and functionality. Finally, a conclusion of all sections is done.
Introduction: About the Course According to Burton, Obel and DeSanctis ( 63), organizational structure and design is a course designed to provide guidelines in the intricate and intrinsic aspects of the organizations in the modern day setting. Organizations are dynamic in nature, necessitating identification of structures and forms that enhance performance.
The course is comprised of the aspects of organizational structure such as the design and charts. Under this section, learners get an idea of the existing structures and their effect on performance. Organizational structure influences the aspects of labor, control, hierarchy and centralization of roles (Drucker 355). As a result, it is possible to understand the roles of all individuals, even in virtual organizations
According to Drucker (320) and Hoffman (376), organizational structure and design provides learners with competencies in the management of the intricate organizations in the modern world. Through the use of a practical approach based on theories, this course prepares students for their careers in all fields and industries. The range of competencies in management of an entity makes it possible for learners to understand the interplay between strategy and objectives.
Goals, Mission Statement and Values Missions
Target Inc. mission statement is to make the company the favored shopping destination in all categories by offering exceptional value, ongoing ingenuity and outstanding customer care as indicated by Dowling (40). The brand promise is hinged on exceeding expectations in both quality and affordability, worded as ‘Expect More. Pay Less’.
Target Inc. has a mission which is closely bound to its values (Brenner, Putt’ and Lefeld 14), which include corporate responsibility, targeting the community, commitment to diversity and protection of the environment. In achievement of these goals, the organization operates on an intricate philosophy which applies to all in the management. All managers are responsible for definition of goals, establishment of strategies, development of plans and organizational goals as well as control of outcomes.
Jean and Stanley (452) concurred with Brenner, Putt, and Lefeld (12) that organizational design entails the process of selection and management of structures and cultures in order to ensure that organizations attain all goals and objectives. The design process is a multi-pronged approach to integration of all aspects of the company in order to ensure goals are achieved (Drucker 320).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At Target Inc., the management has ensured a narrow span of control, structured in a functional design in order to ensure that stores in all geographic locations are represented. Similar efforts have been duplicated at the stores level.
The company’s organizational structure is designed into corporate and stores level, as indicated on appendix 1. The corporate level is comprised of top management including the CEO who also doubles as the director; CFO (who also acts as the CAO and EVP), relationships chairman, President of Target Sourcing Service, President of Target.com, President of Target Financial Services, President of Community Relations and President of target Foundation, Senior VP of Merchandising, Executive VP Corporate Secretary and General Counsel and Senior VP of Target Sourcing Services of Regions II and III. Management at the stores level is comprised of various store team leaders who control operations at the various stores.
The top management is involved in strategy development (Daft 6, and Triplett 3). As indicated, the top management oversees expansion, labor sourcing, development of standards and financial oversight as well as acquisition of merchandise. Store level management is involved in handling of consumer needs by ensuring that the strategies and standards are implemented accordingly. As indicated on appendix 1, division of labor is achieved through horizontal and vertical approach, making it possible for clear reporting structures
The company’s organizational structure is both mechanistic and organic. At the stores level, the structure is organic, since it designed to change depending on the number and sizes of stores. However, at the corporate level, the structure is mechanistic, since the responsibilities of overseeing the stores are similar across all stores (Jean and Stanley 452).
The factors affecting the structure also vary depending on the level of management. At the corporate level, the structure is influenced by business strategy and organizational change. At the stores level, the structure is hinged on the external environment, behavioral expectations from consumers and the size of the store in question.
Target Inc. favors a narrow span of control, mainly because this offers the company the flexibility and control over all functions (Hoffman 381). This also tightens the circles of power, making it possible for decision-making and strategy formulation to take place without bottlenecks.
Conclusion Organizational structure influences the outcome of operations in an organization. The manner in which the various roles and functions interplay has an impact on the ability of the organization to achieve its goals. Right from the design to the implementation stage, organizational structures are the backbone of every organization.
We will write a custom Essay on Target Inc: Goals, Missions and Values specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Target Inc has achieved significant success in its industry. A clear indication of its organizational structure indicates a functional design based on geographical locations. In addition, the organizational structure reveals a two tier approach with corporate and stores level structures. This ensures that the organization achieves concerted and uniform growth both at the grassroots and the top.
Works Cited Burton, Richard M, Borge Obel, and Gerardine DeSanctis. Organizational Design: A Step-by-Step Approach Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print.
Brenner, Sarah, Casey Putt, and Kylie Lefeld. Target Company. Nov 2009. Web.
Daft, Richard L. Organizational Theory and design. Thomson Learning. 2007 Web.
Drucker, Peter. Management Drucker Series Management. Classic Drucker / Butterworth-Heinemann Massachusetts: Taylor
Representation of African-American identity and race, gender and class in the Bamboozled Term Paper essay help free: essay help free
Introduction The modern American society is consumption-oriented, a case that is essentially fostered by the Media. Therefore, “much of what comes to pass as important is based often on the stories produced and disseminated by media institutions” (Brooks and Lisa ‘Gender, Race and media representation’ 297).
This implies that many of the things that people construct within their minds are articulated to symbols, images, and narratives that are filmed, televised, or even broadcasted in other forms of media. The mediated symbols, images, and even texts create awareness among people of what it infers by being black, Latino, Native American, female, male, white, or even a resident of the urban or rural area.
Media has also the capacity to segment many of these societal differences across gender and race. In simplistic terms, as evidenced by media genres, some movies like Bamboozled that is written and directed by Spike Lee present media as critical in the determination of what shapes social realities of people. In the context of the movie Bamboozled, the paper argues that African-American identity, race, gender, and class are enormously stereotyped.
Stereotype Presentation of African-American Identity, Race, Gender, and Class Stereotyping of African Americans in the movie Bamboozled is evident even on the casing of the DVD containing it. Right from the beginning, Bamboozled is a satirical movie depicting the modern minstrel show. It features characters that are black. They also wear black faces.
The highlights create and construct the meaning of being black both internally and externally in the mindset of the audience. Though educated at the Harvard University, Delacroix has to undergo myriads of torments acerbated by his white boss (Thomas Dunwitty). As if endeavoring to satirically criticize and make fun out of Delacroix‘s identity as an African- American, Dunwitty talks similarly to the male blacks living in the urban areas.
He also consistently makes use of the word ‘nigger’ in his conversations coupled with proclaiming that he is essentially more black than Delacroix by virtue of the fact that he has married a black American woman and that they both have two children who are of mixed races. While Delacroix creates a TV script portraying black Americans positively, he demises it as “cosby clones” (Lee Bamboozled min.32).
Hence, he rejects it. Angered by this decision and with the aid of Sloane Hopkins, Delacroix decides to create a minstrel show in which he portrays the blacks in the extreme way. The picture shown below is an extract of the scanned promotional posters on the Bamboozled DVD.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Source (Brooks and Lisa ‘Lessons learned or bamboozled?’ 289).
From the promotional poster, African Americans are presented as cannibals as evidenced by the red color. Therefore, the poster implies that African-Americans are merely half human beings and half-animals. In the film, cannibalism motif is implied by the depiction of blacks as having abnormally big teeth that have abnormal gaps in between (Piehowski 14).
When black characters wear black faces, an impression is created to reinforce the stereotypical association of Africa with awful things because black is superimposed with additional blackness. The question that arises here is whether the identity of black people is housed by their pigmentation, or it is expressed through particular mannerisms.
Arguably, if the identity of being black is contained in the skin color, “those who perform the minstrel exaggeration of stereotypical traits become part of black life” (Black 19). Lee may have intended to provide a tool for addressing the abuse and misuse of the African American skin color ‘black’, which is also the identity of this human race particularly through TV depictions.
However, the movie may be argued as having not delivered the satires intended because people would tend to interpret the film as a true depiction of the identity of the African-Americans. Delacroix himself perhaps evidences this fact. He had created the film originally as a means of inciting his boss to fire him over extreme expression of racism.
Unfortunately, he ended up changing his mind to embrace the film as a source of fame and recognition while claiming that it was a satirical piece of work while fully aware of its capacity to profile the identity of the African-Americans in a negative way. Consequently, as Black argues, the film turned out as a reflection of the intense contempt that Delacroix had inside himself pertaining to the black identity (19).
Moreover, Bamboozled characterization raises questions on the African-Americans’ understanding of their race and gender issues. Arguably, although the movie opens by warning the audience to shun from taking things the manner they appear at facial value through Delacroix’s explanation of the meaning of satire, Womack raises questions of the blacks’ capacity to recognize their racial identity. Mantan: The New Millennium Minstrel Show is full of black actors who wear black faces.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Representation of African-American identity and race, gender and class in the Bamboozled specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They also make incredibly funny and racist jokes about the African Americans. With regard to Piehowski, Mantan: The New Millennium Minstrel Show also deploys “offensively stereotyped CGI-animated cartoons that caricature the leading stars of the new show” (13). In the making of the show, the main aim of Delacroix was to make his boss fire him on grounds of extreme racism.
This would make him get an opportunity to look out for employment in another company. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Even the black street performer seems also satisfied with the profiling. Manray exemplifies this case. Precisely, while Womack becomes horrified immediately when Dealcroix opens the reality about the film’s contents, Manray considers it as an opportunity for gaining fame and wealth through his dancing skills.
To Delacroix‘s surprise, instead of being fired as he had anticipated, Dunwitty endorses the show. It also becomes incredibly successful. When the show gains popularity in the TV, Womack and Manray become mega stars. On the other hand, Delacroix alters his mind and defends the show claiming that it is only a satire. While Delacroix is proud of the awards and fame that he receives, Hopkins is on the other hand intensively worried about her contributions in the development of a racism-oriented show.
Later in the Bamboozled, the Mau Maus engineer plans for bringing the show down by deploying violence due to the anger he has about the show’s content. Womack gets tired of the show and quits. This creates a room for Hopkins and Manray to come close to one another. Delacroix attempts to break this relationship by claiming that Hopkins had slept with Manray to earn her position. However, this plan fails to yield fruits.
For instance, Womack says, “I don’t know who I am” (Lee Bamboozled min. 52). Interpreted beyond the facials value, Womack is a characterization name reflecting destabilized racial and gender identities that are captured in the movie. It “probes issues of sexuality, what it means by a woman, race, or what it means to be black” (Brooks and Lisa ‘Lessons learned or bamboozled’ 291).
The paradox and confusion are further amplified through the characters’ actions of rejecting, realigning, relinquishing, and confirming the racial stereotypes associated with the African-Americans. For instance, the movie reminds the audience “to keep it real” (Lee Bamboozled min. 71).
However, Dunwitty claims that he is blacker in relation to some of the blacks including Delacroix since he is married to a black woman. This exemplifies the hatred that Dunwitty has by being associated with blacks. His association with the black people creates more hatred for himself in relation to the way blacks hate themselves.
The presentation of African-Americans’ gender, class, and how the two relate cannot escape criticism. The movie, presents a sexualized anxiety of coming into terms with physical prowess of the African-American people. In this context, Bowdre argues, “nodding to history, Lee shows how the public fascination with other black males’ bodies continues today” (128).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Representation of African-American identity and race, gender and class in the Bamboozled by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the context of class, the film highlights the top dancer’s (Manray) original status before he was empowered by a show that only helps to highlight how his racial backgrounds denied him an opportunity to rise up economically. The film portrays Hanray as a poor street dancer who embraces the dancing role in the show as a tool for getting wealthy tantamount to the white community.
Through the songs in which Hanray and Womack take proactive roles, the stereotypic association of African American with low social class life often involving slavery is brought into the lime light. To evidence this argument in the film, the sonorous voices of both Manray and Womack bring up lively tones that are characteristic of historical slave songs. In the film, the audience is made by hilarious presentation to become blackface performers (Lee Bamboozled min. 87).
This way, the audience acquires sexual license. For instance, a Sicilian member of the audience posits that he has become “blacker than a nigger” (Lee Bamboozled min. 101) by showing his penis to the rest of the audience. Arguably, this implies that blacks are defined by nakedness, a trait attributed to the stereotype that they belong to a low class society, which was often tagged as poor in the racist historic America.
On a different perspective, Tondeur and Tyrone argue, “Bamboozled emphasizes performing black masculinity in an effort to recreate white femininity” (10). This implies that race and gender are vastly interrelated in films that stereotype African-Americans like Bamboozled.
Through the stereotyped African-American identity, race, gender, and class, Bamboozled sends a clear message to the audiences’ minds that black entertainment is principally designed to ensure that curiosities of the majority white Americans are fulfilled. To fulfill this curiosity, African-Americans are depicted as lesser human beings as evidenced in the movie in the movie when Dunwitty accepts the show created by Delacroix reflecting the African-American people in an incredibly negative way.
In fact, Hopkins becomes cognizant of the fact that she is being exploited in the show to make fantasy out of her identity. This prompts her to seek mechanisms of defending her identity as an African-American. For this reason, she compiles racism footages from various TV shows, cartoons, and even movies with the intent of making Delacroix realize the harm the show had. Unfortunately, Delacroix turns back from viewing them.
However, learning from this case amid the recognition of the exploitative nature of the show, Manray declares that he will no longer put on black faces. The executives in charge of production of the show are angered by this move. Arguably, this shows that the executives take advantage of the ignorance of the African-American on their identity to help acerbate their negative stereotyping.
In Bamboozled, coming into terms with the negative presentation of the African- American racial identity attracts serious consequences. For instance, Dunwitty fires Manray right on stage besides ordering him to get out of the production studio. This act clearly shows and confirms the stereotype perception spread by the Bamboozled by portraying African-Americans as having lesser human rights since it is evident that Manray was given neither a warning nor a notice for his firing.
Unfortunately, the Mau Maus who are predominantly composed African- Americans fail to embrace the fight that was staged by Manray aimed at seeking appreciation of the identities of the African-Americans. This presents them as ignorant. In fact, Mau Maus who make a public statement that they would murder Manray live on webcast kidnap him.
The authorities are unable to trace the internet’s feed source while Manray is assassinated. Later, the police track down Mau Maus whom they spray with bullets leaving only one person (Mc Serch) who also declares his willingness to die rather than facing an arrest. Arguably, these senseless killings of Mau Maus confirm that human rights are less significant when acts of extra judicial killings involve African- Americans.
This argument is significant because people are not told in the movie that the Mau Maus were armed or whether they actually threatened the lives of the police so that a decision would be reached to shoot them senselessly. Worse of all, the person who survived the spray of bullets (Mc Serch) had an originality of the white race. Does Bamboozled then clearly show that the applicability of human rights is dependent on the race of the people engaged in criminal activities such as murder?
The struggle to fight for negative stereotyping of the African-American is eminent in Bamboozled. Hopkins is immensely enraged by the ignorance that Delacroix has towards people of his race: the African-Americans. Therefore, she confronts Delacroix demanding him to watch under a gunpoint the movie she had previously prepared.
On watching the movie, Delacroix attempts to seize the gun from her. This results to his shooting. Hopkins flees from the scene leaving him watching the movie wounded and lying down. As Tondeur and Tyrone assert, “the film concludes with long racially insensitive and demeaning clips of black characters from Hollywood films of the first half of the 20th century” (11).
Cameras are then tilted towards the lifeless body of Delacroix with the last images shown depicting Manray performing his last Mantan: The New Millennium Minstrel Show episode live on stage. The situation in which Delacroix comes into terms with his identity makes it clear that, no matter how ignorant one may be towards his/her race, gender, and class, the fact remains that such identities do not cease to exist simply because they are ignored.
Consequently, Delacroix evidences how accepting negative profiling for individualistic reasons such as gaining fame and wealth only leads to further acerbating of the associated stereotyping. Bowdre contends with this argument by further asserting, “the movie directly implies that the White executives who control the entertainment channels support black entertainment mostly in a condescending manner, one that is not that much different from slave-era treatment of blacks” (127).
The preciseness of Bamboozled to possess this motif is arguably contained in the vivid intermingling of class, race, gender, and economic perceptions held by the traditional white community against the African-Americans. The reinforcement of the stereotypic perception encounters an immense support in the film.
In fact, instead of black characters aiming to disapprove these perceptions, they give them deeper roots to be anchored in the minds of the audience. For instance, with regard to Black, “Lee shows how Delacroix satirically uses the images and mannerisms of blacks from blackface minstrel showing how he seeks to escape his blackness, symbolized by being trapped in his job’”(19).
Therefore, instead of depicting satire through the film’s themes, Delacroix appears to be the object of the satire. Since he is black, being the object of the satire makes the interpretation of his mannerism better comprehended at facial value. The case is in contrast with his earlier warning at the beginning of the movie.
Conclusion Through the movie Bamboozled, the African-American identity, race, gender, and class are presented as inferior in relation to those of the white people. The paper has argued that, through the presentation, the traditional stereotypes associated with African Americans are confirmed. This implies that, through Bamboozled, Lee succeeds in creating the impression that the modern black entertainment is designed such that it satisfies the white people’s curiosity about the blacks’ identity, class, gender differences, and racial stereotyping.
Works Cited Black, Ray. “Satire’s Cruelest Cut: Exorcising Blackness in Spike Lee’s Bamboozled.” The Black Scholar 33.1(2003): 19-24. Print.
Bowdre, Karen. “A Black Camera Book Review: The Spike Lee Reader.” Black Camera 22.2(2008):127-128. Print.
Brooks, Dwight, and Hebert Lisa. “Lessons learned or bamboozled? Gender in a Spike Lee film.” Communication Studies 47.5(2004): 289–302. Print.
Brooks, Dwight, and Hebert Lisa. “Gender, Race and media representation.” Gender and communication in mediated contexts 3.2(2003): 297-318. Print.
Lee, Spike, dir. Bamboozled. Twentieth Century, 2000. Film.
Piehowski, Victoria. “Business as Usual: Sex, Race, and Work in Spike Lee’s Bamboozled.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 33.1 (2012):1-23. Print.
Tondeur, Cristy, and Simpson Tyrone. “Bamboozled by Blackness: Movie Review: Bamboozled.” Black Camera 16.1(2001): 4-11. Print.
The Pardoner’s Tale Term Paper college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction: Repentance as the Ultimate Choice
Calling for the Lord Almighty: Pater Noster and The Pardoner
Pater Noster in Anglico and The Pardoner: The Similarities
Asking for Forgiveness: When Timor Mortis Is Stronger than Ever
When the Heart Breaks in Three Parts: The Holy Trinity
Facing the Dread of Death: Forgiveness as a Way to Overcome It
Seized by the Fear of Death: Timor Mortis in The Pardoner
Conclusion: When the Pardon Is Finally Given
Introduction: Repentance as the Ultimate Choice Of all the stories in Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer The Pardoner’s Tale and its Prologue must be the most famous and by far the most memorable of all the “tales”. Setting a challenging plot and developing a rather unpredictable twist, Chaucer wrote a unique work which deserves taking a closer look at. Despite the fact that the Tale and the Prologue revolve around the issue of morality most of the time, the two stories manage to touch upon a range of other issues, among which the one of repentance takes a good chunk of the poem, which makes The Pardoner and its Prologue display certain similarities with the Middle English penitential lyrics.
Calling for the Lord Almighty: Pater Noster and The Pardoner To start with, The Pardoner’s Tale and the Middle English penitential lyrics touch upon the issue of the relationships between a man and God. While in the Middle English penitential lyrics, the idea of a man establishing relationships with God is obvious.
Indeed, according to Luis Alberto Lázaro, The Pardoner’s Tale offers a lot in terms of revealing the specifics of the Christian belief and the ways in which people speak to the Lord, contrasting it sharply to the ways offered by the Medieval church: “Chaucer himself recited his lines in front of a courtly audience, entertaining his listeners with· biting stories about unscrupulous clergy or dissolute women” (Lázaro 147).
Indeed, if considering Chaucer’s poem closer, one will see that the author tries to convey the idea that people should remember about the words of wisdom that the Bible says and let God into their souls and minds: “Now for the love of Christ Who died for us, forsake / your oaths, great and small” (Chaucer).
Comparing the given feature of Chaucer’s poem, it is necessary to mention that the Middle English penitential lyrics by Patterson actually manages to get the same message across, though in quite a different way: “Une fader in hevene riche, / Thi name be hallid ever i-liche” (Patterson 108).
It should be mentioned though, that, in contrast to the Middle English penitential lyrics, in which the author addresses God in a direct manner and with a certain message to get across, whether it is a plea or appraise: “Ne lete us falle in no fondinge” (Patterson 108) the characters in The Pardoner’s Tale mention the name of God rather as a way to make sure that the Lord will keep them from certain harm: “Now for the love of Christ Who died for us, forsake / your oaths, great and small” (Chaucer) seems an exclamation than a plea; moreover, it seems that the manner of mentioning God’s name I rather a habit than a conscientious attempt to address the Lord.
Hence, the constant mentioning of the Lord’s name in The Pardoner’s Tale and The Prologue can also be considered a specific satire which Chaucer used in his works, as it has been mentioned above. As a matter of fact, satire is the key word that depicts Chaucer’s The Pardoner’s Tale, which also makes the poem differ from Patterson’s Middle English penitential lyrics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While The Pardoner’s Tale portrays the people in the poem in a rather satirical way: “My holy / pardon will cure you all, provided that you offer / nobles and other sterling coin, or else silver rings, / brooches, spoons” (Chaucer), the character in Patterson’s Middle English penitential lyrics are depicted in a much more serious manner: “Jhesu cryst whane he sculd dey” (Patterson 102).
Nevertheless, both authors touch upon the same issue, i.e., faith and a man’s relationships with God, with Chaucer revealing the most despicable sides of human nature: ““O / Lord,” he said, “if only I could have all this treasure / to myself” (Chaucer), and Patterson describing the fear and awe that a sinner feels when speaking to God: “I am duclus sum in to my bed, / terribilis mors [conturbat me]” (Patterson 103).
Pater Noster in Anglico and The Pardoner: The Similarities Much like Pater Noster, Pater Noster in Anglico has a number of issues in common with Chaucer’s The Pardoner’s Tale, i.e., the topic, the theme, the metaphors, to name a few. Despite a comparatively small size, Pater Noster in Anglico yet manages to convey a lot of ideas which Chaucer also offers the readers to consider in his poem.
To start with, Pater Noster in Anglico begins with addressing to God: “Une fader in hevene riche” (Patterson 108) and is altogether devoted to praising the Lord’s name. Likewise, The Pardoner’s Tale is also filled with the lines in which people address God in a certain manner: “‘By God’s precious heart,’/ and ‘By His nails’ and ‘By the blood of Christ in the / abbey of Hales” (Chaucer).
Filled with references to Lord Almighty, Chaucer’s poem, however, contrasts with the naivety of the prayer mentioned by Patterson. While the latter is written for the sake of glorifying the name of God, the people in Chaucer’s poem mention the Lord’s name and the names of saints in vain, which is already a sign that they do not take their beliefs too seriously: “By St. John, you / shall not depart so easily!” (Chaucer).
In addition, while the overall tone of Patterson’s poem is uplifting and high-flown, Chaucer’s characters mention the Lord’s name when talking about the most despicable things, which also adds to the contrast between the two books: “Nay, old churl, not so fast, by God” (Chaucer).
Perhaps, the message which both The Pardoner and the Middle English penitential lyrics works so well because neither of the works uses actual people or even their credible impersonations to convey the key idea. It is not secret that in both cases, the characters are exaggerated versions of themselves.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Pardoner’s Tale specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Each of the characters in the Pardoner’s Tale is a classic stereotype. In other words, the character in Patterson’s poems is a generic image of a praying man, which makes the given image a typical generalization. Hence, the characters in both Chaucer’s and Patterson’s poems are generalized, which serves to make the chain of authors’ arguments even more impressive: “It would be strange indeed if Chaucer had intended his characters to be recognizable as particular living individuals, or as scientific phenomena, and nothing more” (Miller).
Hence, in both poems, the characters are easily identifiable, yet hardly relatable to any particular person, which makes the argument concerning faith and church all the stronger.
Asking for Forgiveness: When Timor Mortis Is Stronger than Ever Another issue which the two works both touch upon is the one concerning forgiveness. One of the major themes in Chaucer’s poem, the given issue helps draw the line between the Kingdom of God and the church; the author obviously stresses that there is a considerable difference between the faith in God, and its representation in the form of a church and its clergy.
It is quite peculiar that Chaucer depicts the clergy in a rather unpleasant way. As a matter of fact, Patterson does not mention any clergy or even church in his poems whatsoever – there is only the Holy Trinity and him, a portrait of an average sinner praying to the Lord. As Hicks stresses,
Unlike Augustine’s Christian teacher who exercises dignity, restraint, and moderation when he delivers his homily, Chaucer’s Pardoner inverts Augustine’s precautions on action in his sermon. He speaks in an unpleasant, irritating voice and displays unnecessary, distracting gestures when he presents his moral tale; thus, he inverts Augustine’s standards of homiletic decorum. (Hicks 83)
When the Heart Breaks in Three Parts: The Holy Trinity Along with the rest of the Middle English penitential lyrics, the poem by Chaucer shares a lot of similar issues and ideas with the poem named in Patterson’s book as “Alas, My Hart Will Brek in Thre.” However, as it has been mentioned before, Chaucer’s poem is a satire; hence, the mentioning of the Christ, the Holy Spirit and God is a parody on the then idea of the Trinity: “The oath of the three ‘To lyve and dyen ech of hem for oother’ (703) parodies the mutuality of the divine Trinity.
If successful, this drunken effort to ‘play God’ would of course spell disaster for the race” (Hatcher 247). Like Chaucer, Patterson also mentions the Holy Trinity, yet does so to create the atmosphere of spirituality: “Alas, my hart will brek in thre” (Patterson 103).
Comparing the above-mentioned idea to the one conveyed by Patterson in his Middle English penitential lyrics, one must admit that Patterson’s poems are completely deprived of the bitter irony which Chaucer’s lines are shot through. While the latter manages to develop the idea of faith with the help of the most noble and uplifting images of repenting poor sinners and the Lord Almighty taking care of their lives, Chaucer offers a bitter reality where indulgences are sold as a token of forgiveness from the havens above.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Pardoner’s Tale by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, the two poems provide a rather sharp contrast when compared. Even though Besserman and Storm claim that “That Chaucer held some views in common with the Lollards does not mean that he necessarily held all, and to attribute to him condemnation of Canterbury pilgrimage must surely strain credulity” (Besserman and Storm 406), it is still obvious that Chaucer makes an attempt to remind the readers about the Holy Trinity and make them forget about the power of the corrupt clergy.
Facing the Dread of Death: Forgiveness as a Way to Overcome It Another recurrent theme that one can find in both The Pardoner and the Middle English penitential lyrics is the idea of forgiveness. Again, offered in a rather subtle way in The Pardoner’s Tale, in Patterson’s lyrics, it is rather on the nose. Anyway, it cannot be denied that the issue is in the spotlight of discussion in The Pardoner’s Tale as well as in the Middle English penitential lyrics.
Again, while in Patterson’s poems, the idea is considered from a viewpoint of redemption, Chaucer takes the examples of how the issue of guilt is handled by the lowest of the low: “Here in / my bag I have relics and indulgences, as fair as any / man’s in Britain, which were given to me by the / pope’s own hand” (Chaucer).
Indulgences, one of the worst ideas that have ever occurred to the clergy, as the means to buy one’s innocence, represent the scale of the moral lapse of the given time slot. Likewise, Patterson also talks about forgiveness, yet his idea of forgiving one’s sins is way more devout: “God graunte vs grace hym for to seure” (Patterson 103).
It is also quite peculiar that The Pardoner offers the idea of forgiveness, and, to Chaucer’s credit, rather subtly, one must admit: “God forgive you your trespasses / and guard you from the sin of avarice” (Chaucer) is, perhaps, the only line in which the word “forgiveness” is mentioned.
However, the idea of looking for repentance is definitely there in Chaucer’s poem. The poem even begins with a cry for forgiveness and the need to repent: “Our Host began to swear as if he were mad; “Help! / Alas! By the nails and cross of Christ, this was a false / churl and a false justice!” (Chaucer).
Compared to Chaucer’s work, Patterson’s poems seem to be more explicit in their idea of forgiveness, like prayers are supposed to be: “Semper in sinnis I ete my bred” (Patterson 103); it is quite important that the author of the poem does not even beg for forgiveness – like a mere mortal in front of God, the author knows that he will be judged like a sinner is supposed to.
However, Patterson’s “Alas, My Hart Will Brek in Thre” also touches upon a very interesting thought which is not developed by Chaucer, yet can serve as the continuation of the idea of forgiveness. According to Patterson, death can be viewed as a logical ending to the life full of sins.
The author starts with the fact any human being is a sinner by default, which is why in the end, terribilis morttis awaits for him/her: “Infirmus sum, I may not Rise. / Terribilis mortis conturbat me” (Patterson 103). However, in the final lines of the poem, Patterson makes it clear that for a sinner who is waiting for his earthly suffer it end, death can be considered as a way of salvation: “In Celum ther is Joy with the! / terrbilis mortis conturbat me.” (Patterson 103).
Therefore, Patterson suggests that death is already repentance for the sins made during one’s earthly life, while Chaucer insists on the fact that guilt cannot be washed away either by money, or by the sands of time: “The Pardoner may have made a mistake, but Chaucer did not” (Swart 47).
Seized by the Fear of Death: Timor Mortis in The Pardoner Finally, the fear of death as the central theme in The Pardoner’s Tale and its prologue must be discussed. At the given point, the connection between Chaucer’s and Patterson’s works seems obvious; while in Chaucer’s work, the characters decide to defeat the fear of death and, thus, kill the Death himself, in Patterson’s Middle English penitential lyrics, the fear of death is described as a phenomenon.
It is also quite peculiar that the descriptions of death as Chaucer and Patterson see it also differ. Chaucer depicts death as the force that comes out of nowhere and takes people away, leaving their relatives and bellowed one mourn in grief: “A / stealthy thief that men call Death, who slays all the / people in this country-side, came with his spear and / struck his heart in two, and went his way without a/ word” (Chaucer).
Patterson, however, in his penitential lyrics described death as something that is quite natural to fear; the character in his poem fears the death despite his age, belief, or experience: “In August whan the levis falle […] timor mortis conturbat me” (Patterson 107). Thus, Patterson not simply depicts death as The Grim Reaper, but also makes it obvious that it is natural or a human being to be afraid of death.
Hence, the poem somewhat contrasts with the theme of Chaucer’s poem, in which the three men decide to oppose the death and, therefore, defeat their fear of it to a certain extent; at least, they no longer stay motionless in fear, but decide to do something to get rid of death instead of waiting for the day when it strikes them. However, it cannot be denied that the manner in which the three overcome the fear of death seems rather a parody of the Biblical redemption. As Hatcher explains,
When they have slain Death, no one will ever die again – and the world will therefore be perfect. Conceived on a binge, this plan parodies Christ’s redemptive act: his was self-sacrificial whereas theirs is murderous; his overcame the death of the soul whereas theirs aims to overcome the death of the body; his preserved but transcended the natural mortality of individuals whereas theirs aims to subvert the state of nature. (Hatcher 247)
Finally, the development of the characters’ attitude towards death must be mentioned. In Chaucer’s poem, there is a logical development of the idea of death, which starts with sin and fear: “They made the devil’s sacrifice / Within that devil’s temple, wicked wise, / By superfluity both vile and vain” (Chaucer) and ends with an acceptance of the fact that a human is mortal: “And therefore I must / keep my old age as long as it is God’s will” (Chaucer).
In contrast to Chaucer’s characters, the character of Patterson’s lyrics does not evolve – he is fixed on the idea that death is something to be feared: “Thanne ofte thynke on cristes passion / Whan timos mortis conturbat me” (Patterson 108). Hence, in a certain aspect, Chaucer’s work is stronger than Patterson’s preachy tone: “And Pardoner, I / pray you draw near again, and let us laugh and make / sport as we did before” (Chaucer).
Conclusion: When the Pardon Is Finally Given Taking the above-mentioned into account, one must admit that there is a considerable range of similarities between the Middle English penitential lyrics and the poem written by Chaucer, especially when it comes to discussing The Pardoner’s Tale.
Even though the works by Chaucer and the ones by Patterson belong to completely different genres and have considerable differences in their topics and styles, they still discuss the same issues. Hence, it can be considered that, much like the Middle English penitential lyrics, the poem by Chaucer is shot through with the idea of guilt and repentance.
Works Cited Besserman, Lawrence and Melvin Storm. “Chaucer’s Pardoner.” PMLA 98.3 (1983): 405-406. Print.
Chaucer, Geoffrey n.d., The Pardoner, His Prologue, and His Tale. Web.
Hatcher, Elizabeth. “Life without Death: The Old Man in Chaucer’s ‘Pardoner’s Tale’.” The Chaucer Review 9.3 (1975): 246-252. Print.
Hicks, James. “Chaucer’s Inversion of Augustinian Rhetoric in ‘The Pardoner’s Prologue and Tale’.” Essays in Medieval Studies 3 (n.d.): 78-95. Web.
Lázaro, Luis A. n.d., Orality and the Satiric Tradition in The Pardoner’s Tale. Web.
Miller, Robert P. “Chaucer’s Pardoner, the Scriptural Eunuch, and the Pardoner’s Tale.” Speculum 30.2 (1955): 180-199. Print.
Patterson, Frank Allan. The Middle English Penitential Lyrics. Norwood, MA: The Columbia University Press. 1911. Print.
Swart, Jacobus. “Chaucer’s Pardoner.” Neophilologus 36.1 (1952): 45-50. Print.
The Case of Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Suggested Performance Appraisal Program
Introduction When examining the case of Palmetto Pharmaceuticals and the decline in client patronage indicated by Andrew Lowerston, it becomes immediately apparent that the problem lies in the way in which sales representatives view the customer-client relations model.
While a primarily sales oriented approach does address the issue of selling products, it fails to sufficiently address the issue of maintaining a constant stream of customers. As such, a method of evaluation must be implemented which shows the sales representatives the impact of their current approach and how it adversely affects the company’s overall sales performance.
Suggested Performance Appraisal Program In this particular case, the most appropriate appraisal system to address the issues discovered by Lowerston is to implement a 360 degree feedback system. Such a system works by having multiple avenues from where data on employee performance is collected, this comes in the form of employee performance data being collected from managers, coworkers, from the employees themselves and, most importantly, from customers and suppliers (Drew, 2009).
Such a method would be an effective means of resolving the issue of the case since it enables customers to provide a certain level of feedback on the way in which they were treated by the company’s sales representatives. By comparing the performance input created by managers and other employees with that of the clients, the company will be able to show the sales representatives the impact of their actions vis-à-vis the actual performance of the company (Drew, 2009).
The advantage of this particular method is that while it will show sales representatives that they are complying with the sales metrics set by the company, it would also indicate that they are actually failing when it comes to the broader goals of the company in terms of maintaining a constant stream of consumer patronage for its products (Downs, 2012).
As a result, this would necessitate a distinct change in performance on the part of the sales representatives wherein they would be more inclined towards developing long lasting relations with their clients rather than focus on a quick sale for the sake of meeting a metric. Unfortunately, the inherent problem with this particular method of appraisal is the fact that it takes a considerable period of time for an evaluation to be completed (Downs, 2012).
For example, feedback forms need to be sent to managers, other employees and to customers at which point they have to be filled out and returned to the company. This can take a considerable amount of time and, in the case of some customers, the forms may not be entirely accurate. Not only that, in some cases the performance indicators that are filled out by managers and employees may not be entirely accurate as well and, as such, this places considerable doubt on the accuracy of this particular approach on performance evaluation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Based on an analysis of the pros and cons of the 360 degree feedback system as well as its possible use in the case of Palmetto Pharmaceuticals, it can be stated that given the need of the company to evaluate its sales representatives based on the input of consumers, the 360 degree feedback system presents itself as the most viable option in this particular instance.
While it may be true that there are some problems related to the time it takes to analyze the data and the issues regarding the overall accuracy of the information collected, such factors are relatively minor compared to the potential benefits accrued.
Reference List Downs, L. J. (2012). Integrated talent management: Building a Strategy One Block at a Time. T D, 66(8), 42.
Drew, G. (2009). A “360” degree view for individual leadership development. Journal Of Management Development, 28(7), 581-592.
Emile Durkheim Life and Career Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Early life
Division of Labor
The law and social solidarity
Durkheim’s critique of Spencer
Causes of division of labor
Consequences of labor division
Early life Emile Durkheim is considered as the pioneer French educational sociologist. His life was dominated by his educational profession, although he was extremely and affectionately engaged in the affairs of French people. Durkheim was born in 1858 to a rabbi in the southern French region of Lorraine. He studied the Old Testimony, Hebrew and Talmud, while simultaneously following the frequent course of exercising in luxurious educational institutions (Bolender Initiatives, 2011).
After his conventional Judaism confirmation at the age of thirteen, Durkheim, under the impact of a Catholic lady instructor, had a brief magical encounter that led to his attraction to Catholicism. But later, he converted away from all spiritual participation, though undoubtedly not from attention in spiritual activities, and became an agnostic.
His dreams thus switched on, he shifted to one of the excellent educational institutions in Paris, the Lycee Louis-le-Grand. During this time, he made preparations to sit for the difficult entry exam that would grant his admission to the famous Ecole Normale Superieure, the conventional educational centre for the French intellects and elites. Durkheim succeeded after his third attempt in 1879 (Lukes, 1985).
Durkheim integrated with young scholars at the Ecole Normale; these are the people who would later create a significant contribution in the intellectual lifestyle of France. Although admittance to the Ecole Normale was an accomplishment, Durkheim once confessed that he was unsatisfied at the Ecole.
He was an extremely serious, studious, and dedicated person, later dubbed “the metaphysician” by his colleagues. Durkheim was disappointed with the fictional and esthetic focus that dominated the school. However, Durkheim was influenced by his three years study at the Ecole Normale. Although some of his lecturers frustrated him, he stated that he was greatly indebted by others (Lukes, 1985).
Educational Career Before graduating, Durkheim had resolved upon his becoming a philosopher. He viewed that it was hard to eliminate philosophy from the society problems of that time. Durkheim wanted to involve himself with a course that would offer an explanation of the great ethical questions that distressed the society.
He wanted to offer practical assistance to the matters of the community. This contributed to his decision of becoming a scientist in study of society. He considered creation of a scientific sociological system to be crucial to direct the moral wellbeing of the society. This became an entire life commitment for Durkheim.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Durkheim became a philosophy teacher, but after teaching philosophy for five years, he obtained a leave to further his studies at Paris and later in Germany. In Germany, he specialized in the analysis of methods of training and analysis in ethical philosophy and the social sciences.
In his reviews on his experience in German, Durkheim was passionate about the perfection and scientific detachment in research. He emphasized that France should replicate Germany in application of philosophy to social and political issues. He appreciated the efforts of German philosophers and sociologists who proposed the social origin of moral responsibility; the sociologists proposed that ethics was a positive and independent discipline (Lukes, 1985).
Durkheim was recognized as a potential contributor in social sciences and social philosophy at twenty-nine. This was after the publication of his academic life in Germany. He had published significant articles in social sciences; later in 1887, he became a staff member of the University of Bordeaux.
In the university, he taught both pedagogy and sociology in philosophy department. He aimed at applying sociology in education to change and renew the society. With continued publication of his work, Durkheim continued to elicit a lot of controversy and disputation. In 1898, Durkheim established a sociology dedicated scholarly journal to consolidate the gains he had obtained by creating a lot of interest in sociology (Lukes, 1985).
The scholarly journal became an attraction for an extremely gifted group of young academicians, coming together, regardless of their diversified disciplinary interests. Their common interest was a shared commitment to Durkheimian approach to sociology. Later, the journal changed the notion of the French public on sociology with its continued analysis of sociology literature.
Durkheim became the first person to become a professor of social sciences nine years after joining the Bordeaux University. In his years in Paris, he continued to play his role as the editor of the sociology journal. He also continued to lecture in education, ethics, philosophy, religion and Comte (Lukes, 1985).
Division of Labor According to Durkheim, division of labor increases workmanship skills and labor productivity. For this reason, division of labor is an important factor for logical and material growth in a society. Division of labor also comprises a moral character which is more significant; it forms a feeling of solidarity in a society.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Emile Durkheim Life and Career specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Durkheim applies marriage example to depict the how division of labor creates a feeling of solidarity. He suggests that if labor division was reduced between genders, material lifestyle will diminish and only sexual relationships will remain. Labor division is not only about economics; it affects the social and ethical relationships. Nevertheless, in marriage, couples are bounded by their likeness outside labor division (Durkheim
The Archstone Company Portfolio Essay custom essay help
Company overview Archstone Company is a self-governed Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT). The company ranks among the major developers, operators, and investors of real estates in the US. As of 30 June in the year 2011, the portfolio of the company contained 434 real estates situated in Europe and the US, which denoted 77,084 entities, taking into consideration units going through construction.
Almost the entire portfolio of Archstone is centralized in big cities at the coastal regions of Boston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego, and Seattle. Archstone was made private following a 22 billion US dollars purchase by the non-public real estate companies Lehman Brothers Holdings and Tishman Speyer in conjunction with numerous major investment banks in the US in October in the year 2007 (Murray 5-8).
Economic data of the US
GDP- over 1.7 per cent
Rate of unemployment- 8 per cent
Inflation- 2 per cent
Population inclinations and demographics: California
The state of California is situated at the West Coastal region of the US. In North America, California stands as the most densely inhabited sub-national unit. If California existed as an independent nation, it would be the 34th most populated nation worldwide. In comparison with the next largest state in the US, Texas, the population of California is a third larger.
California overcame New York State by population size and took the first position by population size in the year 1962, a position it has held to date (Joppke 23-27). The state of California is home to some of the largest inhabited areas in the US (San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles Area), in addition to eight among the top fifty greatly inhabited cities (for instance, San Francisco, San Diego, and Los Angeles).
In the year 2011, the population of California was approximately 37,691,912. This population size represents a 1.2 per cent augment when compared with the population indicated by the census of the year 2010. By the close of the first decade of the 21st century, California’s population escalated by 3,090,016 naturally.
The population data of California illustrates a population of approximately 38,292,687 people as at the beginning of the year 2009. In the year 2010, unlawful aliens comprised an approximated seven percent of the entire inhabitants in California.
The seven percent population represented the third greatest proportion by State in the US, representing approximately 2.6 million people. Of the unlawful alien population, over half came from Mexico.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the year 2010, inhabitants born in California formed the preponderance of the population and thus denoted the foremost instance ever since the California Gold Rush (Harris 2-5). In terms of the highest growth by states in the US, California ranks number thirteen and its fertility rate stood at 2.2 in the year 2008.
There is not a single race or ethic community making preponderance in terms of population in California, which makes it a marginal-preponderance state. The number of non-Hispanic whites in California constitutes 40 per cent of the entire population. By the year 2005, 58 per cent of people in California spoke English as mother tongue, whereas 28 per cent spoke Spanish, making Spanish the second most used language in California.
Approximately half of the total 60 native languages in California are no more used, and the remaining half is endangered. In this state, the official language is definitely English (Joppke 28-31). The assumptions of demographers affirm that the State of California will comprise of a Hispanic preponderance at some point in this century because of the high immigration and birth rates when judged against those of non-Hispanic society.
Archstone has numerous advantages for being in the Californian market since the year 1946. Throughout this period, Archstone has formed powerful connections with residents as well as members of the municipal (Pacelle 3-6). The aforementioned connections assist the company with letting and new expansion schemes.
Archstone Company is susceptible to a number of local economic situations with the greatest part of their portfolio in the Californian market, which makes them vulnerable to Californian market situations because of their deficiency with respect to market diversity (Wilson and Zurbruegg 257-278).
Throughout the last 5 years, Archstone has not been successful in demonstrating constant income on its investment in real estates, projects, and buildings.
Dividend and return of capital
Archstone has a sturdy dividend history. The company has constantly issued a dividend since the year 1992 with consecutive increase for the last fifteen years (since 1997). This signifies that the company boasts of a well-created stand in its markets and gives expectations to have a dividend issuance into the coming years. The table below shows the most recent dividend information for the company.
We will write a custom Essay on The Archstone Company Portfolio specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dividend Information Dividend Yield: 6.00 % Dividend Yield 5yr Avg: 6.60 % Dividend Rate: $ 4.85 % Dividend Payout Ratio: 1,868.00 % Dividend Payout Ratio 5yr Avg: 625.00 % Dividend Growth Rate 3yr Avg: 4.92 % Dividend Growth Rate 5yr Avg: 7.50 % Dividend AllStar™ Ranking: 4 stars Consecutive Div. Increases: 15 years Dividend Payment Type: None Dividend affirmation Date: Oct-18-2012 Dividend Ex Date: Oct-29-2012 Dividend Record Date: Oct-31-2012 Dividend Pay Date: Nov-14-2012 Dividend Amount Current: $ 1.2600 Dividend Amount Previous: $ 1.2300 Dividend Disbursements: Past one year disbursements: 4 Dividends Paid Since 1992 Table 1: Dividend information (Feng, McKay, and Clemon 341-343)
The strongest attribute of Archstone is the competitive advantage it has in the market. The company boasts of an attractive branding and capacity to maintain low costs. These points of strengths for the company should augur advantageously for its future viewpoints and maintain them sustainably for the time being (Frantz 100-103).
This Real Estate Investment Trust has excellent assets with fine locations, cost of capital that is low in comparison with cost on capital, and restricted lease turnover risk in markets, which will experience higher demand as compared to new supply to challenge its functioning properties.
Managers and board of directors in additio ratingn to major investors have purchased and sold shares of Archstone at an appealing steady and equal rate (Ursery 11-13). There is no cause to believe the company shares are accruing to any further extent unless selloff shares given the future economic situations (Reprise, Rykodisc, and Warner 430-433).
Numerous monetary institutions are greatly hoarding shares from Archstone, which is constructive for the company. The major direct shareholders of Archstone include Neely Alfred, Chief Development Officer (CEO) and President of Smith High-rise Division, and Jack Callison, the head of operations in the United States.
The named shareholders have more than a million shares altogether. Managers’ pay comes from operation inducements and equity grants. In total, the directors and managers have ownership of 6 per cent of the company.
The top ranking institutional holders of the shares of Archstone are Stichting Pensioenfonds ABP, Cohen
Economic History of Canada: How Did the Settlers Facilitate Economic Growth? Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Background of Early Industries and Trade
What was the Role of Settlers in Economic Growth of Canada?
Introduction Canadian economy was typical of water transport until mid 19th century. Major industries involving fur, lumber and fish depended on the expansive waterways in the country for transport. It was only after this period that agriculture and mining became dominant. These industries depended on rail and road as their major transport channels.
Undoubtedly, fishing industry attracted foreigners such as Portuguese and French traders who identified the economic wealth of Canada. Many of these colonialists developed the fishing industry and brought in new technologies of fish preservation and storage. The study of economic history of Canada involves the analysis of the prevalent economic institutions and industries.
According to Easterbrook and Aitken, Canadian economic history revolved around the export of ‘staple products’ whose market existed outside the boundaries of Canada (213). This analytical paper seeks to highlight the evolutions of various industries in the Canada.
The paper will attempt to explain how and why various economic institutions and industries were relevant and remain important in economic history of the country. The major analytical part of the paper will concentrate on the role of settlers in developing the economy.
Background of Early Industries and Trade Many communities living in the central parts of Canada were hunters and gatherers since the ancient era. They hunted animals with fur-bearing traits to make clothes.
Besides, small mines of copper and silver were important in creating ornaments for these communities. Although there were some aspects of trade among the native communities, the level of business was not profound and specialized. External trade that emerged involved French and British traders.
They came to the land in search of fur and fisheries. In exchange, they brought iron-made tools, weapons and other items that the native communities valued (Greasley and Les 296). This in turn led to an unprecedented trade among the natives and the foreign traders. As such, fur trade became one of the aspects of Canadian economy that led to the penetration of inland Canada.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fur was of important use by the European settlers and traders who found their way to Canada. The products of fur such as beaver hats fetched high value owing to their escalating demand in Europe. Although there were many traders, French traders dominated the fur trade.
Easterbrook and Aitken say that they had controlled the commercial activity through New France and other towns located in the interior parts of Canada (237). Nonetheless, the English traders began their trade in Hudson Bay to put up with the increasing competition from the French traders. This in turn resulted to fierce rivalry due to the perceived dominance in fur trade.
It is worth mentioning that fur-trade did not support settlement since the traders had a handful of workers to aid the shipment process of fur to Europe. The trade also insinuated that the traders were unlikely to direct their voyages to the west part of Canada since there existed no elaborate routes (Marr and Donald 217).
This way, only few settlers were willing to occupy the Canadian territory. Thus, the native population remained relatively low. Owing to the political nature of medieval Canada, the French lost their share of the fur trade when their main town (New France) came under control of the British Crown.
Fishing was a major aspect of Canadian economy in the 19th century. It was the prime activity in such areas as Nova Scotia. Due to the increased demand for fish, other areas also started concentrating on the fishing industry. Greasley and Les articulate that the entrance of the United States into the West Indies trade prompted a surge in the demand for fish (301).
Major traders designed expansive storage facilities and fishing equipment to allow for expansive fishery business. Like fur industry, fishing did not allow for settlement in the country and majority of fish products constituted the exports. Much of the fish was exported to the US. The fishing industry did not last long in the country.
Timber industry became pivotal in the country owing to the increase in construction activities across the world. By the early 19th century, timber had become a staple product of the Canadian economy. Although the demand for timber remained negligible in the country, external forces led to an increase in its demand outside Canada. Norrie says that Europe had diminishing supply of the commodity from its countries (417).
We will write a custom Essay on Economic History of Canada: How Did the Settlers Facilitate Economic Growth? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many high quality sources of timber had been exhausted in Europe. Such species as the great oak in England suffered depletion and there was an apparent need to look for other sources of the same commodity in other countries. In the US, major forests began to disappear while at the same time, the population was increasing exponentially.
All these factors led to the heightened demand of Canadian timber. In addition, Canada had high quality and long lasting timber products from such species as white pine. The extensive Canadian forests had remained largely unexploited. This prompted the external traders to come to the country in search of the valued commodity, which was disappearing fast in major European and American markets.
While the demand for timber was rising, traders were contending with narrow routes and dangerous transport system of timber. Canada had no elaborate ways of transporting timber after cutting it. The loggers would subsequently float timber in meanders and rivers that were headed towards the coastal regions.
Some of the timber products such as the oak were hard to transport to the harbors due to their inability to float on water (Norrie 423). With increasing need for work force to make timber trade an effective and efficient venture, many passengers who accompanied the ship vessels became settlers in Canada.
Indeed, timber trade was among the major factors that encouraged settlements. As the timber industry matured, there was an increase of competition. Besides, tariffs and preferences led to improved industries where the quality of ships that transported timber improved remarkably.
As such, many immigrants began to enter the country prompting massive settlements within the country. The settlers took their roles as loggers. Indeed, by 1850, there were over fifteen thousand Irish loggers within the country. As the population of the immigrants increased, other ventures became feasible. In particular, many loggers who stayed within the country began to cultivate plants and keep livestock.
The timber industry also encouraged increased competition for land. Land distribution became a major debate with the British crown formulating ways through which land could be distributed fairly. Many of the immigrants who went to Canada were paupers. The authorities therefore had to contend with alleviation of poverty although majority of the issues encountered by the immigrants remained hugely unresolved.
The arrival of many starving Irish soldiers in early 19th century acted as precursor for imposition of restrictions to migration (Emery and Kenneth 260). Although the lower parts of the country were unfriendly to the immigrants, it became apparent that many of them sought refuge in upper parts of Canada. Consequently, the authorities imposed a reduction in the land grants accruing the immigrants and instituted a new land system.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic History of Canada: How Did the Settlers Facilitate Economic Growth? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For the immigrants who had some form of capital, land was available for them to lease. This is in lieu of the fact that majority of the land controlled by The British American Land Company was mainly meant for agriculture. As such, agriculture became another aspect of Canadian economy.
Although agriculture had been a small aspect of the Canadian economy, it flourished by the end of 19th century. In Ontario, agriculture was profitable for many settlers who had begun cultivating their lands. Increase in mechanization and adoption of technology insinuated that farmers specialized in marketable agricultural commodities.
They included eggs, milk, potatoes and other vegetables that were in great demand in the urban and urbanizing regions. According to Norrie, majority of the farmers started to appreciate the need for elaborate agricultural ventures, which had surpassed numerous aspects of the economy (426). In other areas especially the prairies, wheat was a major crop that had become profitable. Majority of the wheat from Manitoba and Alberta was exported to Europe while the rest was shipped to America.
It became clear that wheat farming was a profitable venture not only for the settlers and the natives but also for the foreign investors. Due to perceived low risk, huge foreign direct investments especially from Europe started to flow into the country. Driven by external forces such as dwindling crop yield in Europe, many European nations directed capital investments to Canadian prairies (Marr and Donald 233).
This implied that wheat farming had reached its peak by the beginning of the First World War. Nonetheless, many investors overlooked the risks associated with wheat farming and it was only in 1916 that it dawned to them that the sector carried with it numerous risks. The drought that engulfed the country in 1916 led to unprecedented losses.
The industry had not witnessed such losses since its emergence. Many foreign investors incurred losses and shifted their investments to other countries.
Rapid withdrawal of investments in the wheat sector insinuated that Canada was unable to produce half the amount of wheat it was producing prior to the drought. However, agriculture in other areas of Canada was thriving despite the pessimism that foreign investors had shown in the industry.
Further, Canada had an indigenous financial system by the end of 18th century. Driven by colonial policies and capitalism, the country’s banking system began in 1972. This trend continued in numerous of other states where similar financial institutions became operational. By the end of the 19th century, Canada had over thirty-three chartered banks (Marr and Donald 223).
In addition, financial policies by the Government of Canada had made the sector to be lucrative for majority of investors. Emery and Kenneth say that insurance firms also opened their operations and it became apparent that the country was ready for an established financial services sector (256).
Indeed, by 1832, the country’s first stock exchange was opened. Montreal Stock Exchange was the pioneer in the sector leading to accelerated need for other similar financial institutions.
Later, Toronto Stock Exchange was established. With the increasing need for a financial system that would deal with commodities, Winnipeg Commodity Exchange became operational in the early 20th century. This ushered an era of elaborate financial system in the country. This eon was hugely driven by capitalism, which had overtaken parts of Western Europe and America.
Moreover, it is worth mentioning that the economic history of the country was motivated by the need to industrialize. Ideally, the country’s native population was relatively small to support any form of aggressive economic growth. To this end, various factors led to the industrialization and growth of the economy.
Subsistence production and natural resources were major drivers of the economy. Mining remained a natural venture for tradable commodities such as gold. In Quebec and Ottawa, there were large resources of gold and other minerals like silver and copper (Pomfret 143).
Although a commodity market was not well established, trade in mineral commodities was rampant in West Indies and propelled the economic welfare of the natives. Massive resources of other minerals such as iron, oil and natural gas complemented the initial resources making the mining industry among the significant industries in the country.
Mechanization of technology and other aspects of mining increased the profitability of the mines leading to an accelerated growth. The foreign traders were not solely interested in timber and fish. Some of them came to engage in the trade of minerals and saw it as lucrative and profitable.
What was the Role of Settlers in Economic Growth of Canada? With the above industries and sectors, the country experienced economic growth until the Great Depression of early 1930s. Why were the settlers important in economic growth of Canada? While many economists argue that Canada could have developed economically with little facilitation of the settlers, it is apparent that the settlers were vital in the country’s business history (Pomfret 148).
At the outset, settlers provided labor force that was apparently lacking in the country. Due to the thriving timber industry that led to the influx of foreigners, the local population could barely satisfy the international demand for the commodities. Emery and Kenneth postulate that the settlers who came to Canada as mere loggers had an impact in the development of the economy (258).
Indeed, economists argue that the settlers facilitated the production of more volumes of timber leading to increase in revenues for the government. Besides, many traders who later settled in Canada had a profound knowledge of routes and waterways where transport of commodities was easy. In particular, French traders understood the terrain of Canada and provided routes through which commodities could go be exported back to Europe.
Further, it is important to mention that various aspects of the Canadian industries changed dramatically owing to the external trade. For instance, the concept of shipbuilding in order to export cargo from the country to other nations became rampant after the arrival of the settlers.
Economic historians point out that there were 46 ship vessels transporting timber from the country by 1826 (Pomfret 154). However, Pomfret points out that this number grew tremendously to reach about 1500 vessels by 1845 (154). This implied that more timber could be transported than earlier on.
Another aspect of settlers and foreign trade that changed the Canadian economic history was the ability to create massive storage facilities for fish. It is through these preservation technologies that the country was able to exploit its rich fish industry and increase its exports.
Fishing technology also improved greatly with many technologies of deep sea fishing emerging. The technologies that came with the settlers and the foreign traders increased the trading potential of the country leading to an increase in the demand for the commodities that Canada was producing.
In addition, Marr and Donald assert that the arrival of settlers in many parts of Canada precipitated the expansion of underdeveloped industries (234). Particularly, many settlers helped in clearing land for cultivation making Canada to start reaping benefits and revenues from agriculture.
Initially, agriculture was not profitable due to difficulties of clearing fertile lands especially in lower parts of the country. The presence of settlers ensured that the country had substantial labor force through which land clearing was possible. Besides, the settlers who had significant amount of capital were able to lease land and engage in agricultural activities that were profitable.
In Ontario, settlers began planting such plants as corn, vegetables and reared dairy cattle. This increased the demand of the products in areas where such products were needed. In the Prairies, the settlers also invested in grain growing with wheat being the most profitable crop.
The success of settlers who ventured in agriculture culminated into increased urge by people and the government to invest in agriculture. In fact, by the early 20th century, the major investments in wheat fields were from external governments and corporate organizations. This implies that the settlers had profound impact on the Canadian economy.
It is important to highlight that Canadian settlers also led to changes in social and economic policies of the land. Of particular interests is the institutionalization of major government properties. Due to increased immigration, land became a debatable issue where many people did not access land in a fair manner.
The Canadian authorities came up with a subtle land policy where the land acquisition had to follow certain processes (Emery and Kenneth 260). Under Canada Company that operated in many parts of Ontario, land acquisition reduced from hundred acres to forty acres. This was an attempt to curb the increasing speculation about land. Settlers could buy huge tracts of land cheaply. They could later resell the lands at a profit prompting the intervention of the authorities.
The case was also similar in Eastern parts of the country where The British American Land Company restricted the sale of huge tracts of land within the country. It is important to note that the settlers precipitated land reorganization. This increased the ability of the country to increase its agricultural yields by having a superior land system.
Other policies that Canadian authorities raised included the minimum wage of labor. The Minimum wage Act was initiated in 1870s to cushion the laborers in the expansive lands held by the settlers from exploitation (Pomfret 399). Although the act was not applicable to all townships at the beginning, by the early 20th century, majority of the country was under the act.
This made the conditions of work in all sectors to be in favor of employees. It led to an increase in productivity and consequently, it improved revenues for the government and the settlers who were now the majority of famers in the country. Moreover, such trade agreements as Ottawa Agreement and Equalization of Payment Act became major aspects of the economic policies of the country. The settlers in the country precipitated enactment of such landmark policies.
The settlers also led to changes in social policies. For instance, the cholera outbreak of 1932 led to increase in healthcare access for majority of the population including the settlers. Legislations were put in place to alleviate poverty levels among the immigrants while at the same time reducing the costs associated with health care.
The challenges that many paupers from Europe experienced became the focal points of new policies on social and economic progress not only for the native Canadians but also for the settlers. The government came up with new policies that would enhance the ability of the citizens to live in dignity and out of poverty. Some of these policies gave hope to majority of the settlers although they were not implemented immediately.
Finally, the settlers were instrumental in enhancing the processes of urbanization and globalization. Among the initial township that the settlers inhabited, there was an increase in migration making the demand for local products and commerce to increase. In Quebec, Ontario and Montreal, many native populations migrated to the areas in the hope that they would get employment opportunities. This in turn spurred unprecedented economic growth leading to increase in revenues for the government (Pomfret 399).
As the migration increased, there was creation of expansive tracts of land that could sustain agriculture. Besides, new agricultural products gained markets in highly urbanized localities and regions. It is important to recognize that the country became fully urbanized by 1980s making it among the countries in the world whose majority population resided in cities. This is not only advantageous for the country’s economic growth but also for the entire industry sector where labor is easily accessible.
Conclusion Essentially, economic history of Canada dates back to the French revolution in the mid 18th century. From a small and disintegrated economy, the country came under consolidation during the rule of the British crown. As early as 1810, the country was engaging in foreign trade with the French, Portuguese, and English traders.
At the time, fur was the most traded commodity owing to its value in making beaver hats back in Europe. Since the main system of commerce was barter trade, Europeans could exchange iron tools, weapons, alcohol and cloth for fur. Timber industry also became an iconic sector that propelled the economy at the time.
It is during this time that American forests were disappearing fast due to an increase in population and European timber industries had exhausted much of their timber. As such, Canadian timber attracted numerous buyers from all over the world. The impact of timber trade in the country was the unprecedented influx of immigrants and settlers. Other industries that supported early trade included fishing and agriculture.
Although the latter was not expansive, the settlers developed it leading to its profitability. The economic history of Canada is attributable to the settlers who came into the land by mid 19th century. The rationale is that they led to increase in mechanization of technology and provided labor force for different industries.
Besides, they led to urbanization of various regions leading to centralized market for goods and commodities. Due to their increase, Canadian authorities proposed numerous amendments to the preexisting policies to enhance social and economic wellbeing of the populace. As such, the settlers played a critical role of growing the Canadian economy.
Works Cited Easterbrook, William and Aitken, Hugh. Canadian economic history. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988. Print.
Emery, Herbert and Kenneth, McKenzie. “Damned if you do, damned if you don’t: An option value approach to evaluating the subsidy of the CPR mainline” Canadian Journal of Economics, 29.2 (Feb. 1996): 255-70. Print.
Greasley, David and Les, Oxley. “A tale of two dominions: comparing the macroeconomic records of Australia and Canada since 1870” Economic History Review, 5.2 (Mar. 1998): 294-318. Print.
Marr, William and Donald, Paterson. Canada: An Economic History. Toronto, 1980. Print.
Norrie, Kenneth. “The Rate of Settlement of the Canadian Prairies 1870-1911” Journal of Economic History, 35.2 (Jan. 1975): 410-27. Print.
Pomfret, Richard. “The Mechanization of Reaping in Nineteenth-Century Ontario: A Case Study of the Pace and Causes of the Diffusion of Embodied Technological Change” Journal of Economic History, 36.2 (Sep. 1976): 399-415. Print.
Pomfret, Richard. The Economic Development of Canada. Ontario: Pearson Press, 1993. Print.
SWOT Analysis Swatch Group Case Study custom essay help
In 2010, the Swatch Group has managed to introduce $ 10 billion of sales through presentation of 19 brands meeting the demands of the established market segments (Deshpander et al. 3). In addition, the company’s success was due to the revival of famous brand Omega confronting Rolex. Finally, introducing advanced Co-Axial technologies has allowed the company to sustain a competitive advantage successfully.
Despite the success of the company and focus on multi-brand development, the company experienced a serious financial recession in 2009. Apparently, the decline was due to the establishment of high-cost monopolized boutiques that were less competitive as compared to those offering multiple brands. Time-sensitivity was another issue that the Swatch Group had to face.
In order to follow the company mission to introduce value as a priority for product promotion, it was highly important to cooperate with the leading manufacturers of the watch parts, such as Nivarox (Deshpander et al. 5). In addition, the CEO of the Swatch Group, Nick Hayek, has introduced a new communication strategy focusing on developing brands and inviting such celebrities as Daniel Craig and George Clooney as sponsors.
A narrow-focused approach on branding campaign can limit the competitiveness of the company and introduce potential threat on the part of other competing businesses.
Analysis With regard to the SWOT analysis, it is possible to highlight a range of brand strategies that a company has introduced to meet the customer demands. In particular, Hayek has introduced a multi-brand concept development that allowed to stay afloat and face all possible risks at losing a certain brand.
Focus on brand development, on the one hand, might lead to the loss of certain consumers due to the inability of the producers to predict the needs and preferences. On the other hand, developing brand families based on innovation management is a step forward toward penetrating to an international market. Finally, maintaining a monopoly in brand development, which can lead to a less attractive image of the company’s product.
Recommended Action Despite a well-organized and consistent strategy of promoting brand image through advancement of technology, development of brand families, and improving communication techniques, the company should still pay attention to the threat of their monopolized brand development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Promoting a single brand to various markets can increase profitability, but for a short period because it is impossible to expand customer base endlessly. Therefore, the Swatch Group should work on expanding their customer segments, but not on developing the concept of the Marketing Mix.
Focus on product development and quality improvement should be a priority for the company to meet consumers’ fast-changing demands. Exploring new possibilities for enhancing product functionality is much more beneficial because it can change the fixed costs, as well as the controlling variables.
Emphasis placed on technology innovation is relevant because it contributes to the development of new products and brands. However, the watch manufacturers should strike the balance between quality and functionality to meet the demands of broader market segments.
The marketing strategy of the Swatch Group should pay attention to high quality, low costs, and accurate watch materials. The main objective of the company consists in achieving innovation and creativity, which leads to expansion of the international market, as well as establishment of a strong brand loyalty among the consumers.
The company’s marketing mix concept should consist of the following aspects:
The target consumers of the Swatch Group involve those who are interested in exclusivity and exceptional quality. However, this segment is too narrow for the company to increase its revenues. The focus on uniqueness is beneficial, but the unique products can be sold at much lower prices. Such a strategy can expand the customer base significantly.
The company provides greater opportunities for developing a wide range of products. However, creating a broad range of watches can lead to increased cost, which does not contribute to company’s profitability and performance.
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The pricing strategy should be limited to the exclusiveness of the product and emphasize its high quality. Therefore, all products offered by the company are of premium price. Apart from this strategy, the Swatch Group should also develop the strategy that would propose moderate prices to middle-class consumers.
Interactive and direct promotion is possible through Internet because it can reach larger amounts of target customers. Therefore, the Swatch Group can introduce its advertisement on various websites.
Promotion strategy should be connected with strengthening the positions that have already been established. This strategy can increase the popularity of the brand and provide new opportunities for company’s development.
In order to measure the outcomes, it is necessary to take control of the customer’s feedback placed on the websites, as well as the sales growth rates. In addition, the company can spend some time on research and development activities to define which segment of the market is the most active one and which one is passive. The latter can be identified as a weakness that can further be improved by the above-identified strategies.
Works Cited Deshpander, Rohit, Karol Misztal, and Daniela Beyersdorfer. “The Swatch Group”. Harvard Business School. (2012): 1-25.
Language Issues: Dialects, Terminology and Grammatical Variation Report (Assessment) essay help online free: essay help online free
Developing the Assessment: The Relevant Issues Dialects and their development: the two sides of the sword
Among the things which needed to be done in the course of the given assignment, understanding the way dialects develop was the first and the foremost. Therefore, it was necessary to consider language development from a social standpoint, learning about the social processes that impact language development (Moyer, 2010, p. 11).
Terminology as an additional layer of the English vocabulary
Another peculiar issue that required an in-depth research was the difference between the British and the American English. It was rather intriguing to find out that the American language actually was actually developed out of the English of the XIX century (Werckmeister, 2012, p. 15). However, the above-mentioned explained a lot about the specifics of the American pronunciation, vocabulary and sentence structure.
Identifying Grammatical Variations: Cast the Standards Aside Hisself and himself: more than a slip of the pen
“He only gets a ticket for hisself.”
In the given sentence, one can observe the effect of the so-called “socially marked forms” (Parker
The Government of US Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
The US is the only state in the international system with the busiest elections calendar. This is because elections are held at state, federal, and local levels. This means that the American voter would vote more in his or her lifetime as compared to German, Japanese, and British voters. High-visibility elections are given much focus due to the intense lobbying and voter mobilization.
The senatorial, presidential, and governorship mobilizations are conducted by professionals, such as media advisors, pollsters, speechwriters, and political scientists. Presidential mobilization emphasizes more on mass communication. In this regard, television adverts are often utilized to access voters.
Furthermore, high-visibility elections are based on issues rather than ethnicity and partisan politics. At the local levels, elections are waged on small scale because local politicians do not have enough resources to launch formidable elections. It is surprising to learn that even judicial offices are contested in the US.
In other parts of the world, judicial officers are simply appointed by governmental agencies, such as the judicial service commission. The main aim of contesters is to reach potential voters. Individuals seeking political offices are faced with a dilemma of balancing scarce resources with the demands of voter mobilization.
The author reveals some of the astonishing factors that are considered when designing a campaign structure. One of them entails the steps that would be taken when formulating campaign policies while the other factor relates to cost-effectiveness (Gerber and Green 37).
Cost-effectiveness and restructuring of campaigns are the two useful factors that influence voter mobilization in any voter recruitment process. The two factors influenced the electorate in the just concluded US presidential elections in a number of ways. Regarding cost-effectiveness, it is always important to consider the number of votes that a single dollar would bring before spending.
In a densely populated region, making phone calls would be ineffective because few voters would be reached. In a densely populated region, a door-to-door campaign would be effective. Door-to-door campaigns are costly, but they generate high number of votes as compared to making phone calls.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In particular, randomized door-to-door campaigns have higher chances of soliciting high numbers of votes as compared to any other technique. The technique is preferred in the US because of a number of reasons. One of the advantages is that it defines the observed population. The observed population consists of all individuals who will be sampled. Another advantage is that the sampled population is divided into a number of groups.
The sampling itself is random meaning that those mobilized would represent all groups in a sample. Another advantage is that an intervention strategy would be devised upon studying the group behavior. For instance, members from the treatment group would be contacted through emails, encouraging them to vote for the preferred candidate.
The above technique was applied in the just concluded presidential elections. The Republicans and the Democrats had limited resources yet they had to reach many voters in the country. In regions considered that belonged to Republicans, Democrats employed randomized voter recruitment technique because it would help in identifying some of the behaviors of voters.
However, each party had an effective method of reaching voters. It is because of advanced voter mobilization techniques that the pollsters predicted a cutthroat presidential competition. However, the party that had the ability to blend the various techniques emerged winner.
Works Cited Gerber, Alan and Donald Green. “Social Pressure and Voter Turnout: Evidence from a Large-scale Field Experiment.” American Political Science Review 102.2 (2008): 33-48. Print.
The Role of Resocialisation in Society Term Paper essay help
Table of Contents Resocialisation in Organisations
Features of Resocialisation
Coping With Resocialisation
Resocialisation can be described as the change of existing social roles with new ones (Ferrante, 2010, p. 139). People are made to adapt to the new roles because of the situations they get themselves in. Socialisation involves making people more aware of their roles in the society. The process of resocialisation occurs in many areas and has both positive and negative outcomes. This paper discusses the process of resocialisation and the ways in which it affects an individual and the society.
Resocialisation in Organisations Different organisations have different ways in which they conduct their affairs; most of them have a set of codes and rules, which all those who want to be part of them have to respect. These codes and rules are meant to give an identity to all those who are either active in the organisation or who identify with its ideals.
New people who join such organisations are made to observe these rules to enable them to be identified with it (Ferrante, 2010, p. 143). Resocialisation involves making people, who are part of an organisation either willingly or unwillingly, transform their behaviour and personalities to suit their new environment.
Organisations work hard to adopt resocialisation to control the level of engagement of the people who are active in them. Pante (2006) reveals that business organisations have codes of conduct, which their employees need to abide by (p. 84). These rules are meant to organise the way work is done with clearly defined roles and responsibilities for each individual.
Some students have to balance between working and doing part time jobs while in college. They become resocialised by working so that they can reduce their overdependence on parents. The students are forced to accept their new roles by their parent’s lack of money for their college fees.
New members of an organisation are made aware of the new roles they are supposed to assume. They are made to undergo certain procedures, which prepare them for the new roles that they are expected to assume. The resocialisation process helps them to change their behaviour, attitudes and perceptions towards the organisation and the business activities it undertakes (Goffman, 1968, p. 25).
This approach makes recruits’ expectations and attitudes suit the environment in which they become part of both in the present and in the future. Organisations have their own internal power and influence, which makes them carry out a set of resocialisation procedures that their members need to conform to.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organisations have different reasons for resocialising their employees. Some organisations are more interested in resocialising their members more than others.
These organisations are motivated by the need to be seen as strong, attractive and invincible in the societies in which they transact. For instance, legal systems are known for their aggressive approach towards resocialising people who are active in them.
Police officers who have just been enrolled must measure up to the highest moral and legal standards to discharge their duties effectively. Law enforcement systems expect their staff to be selfless and diligent to maintain law and order in the society. Students who have to work part time do so willingly.
Their resocialisation occurs because they need to earn a living; they are more self driven and is not similar to that the new police recruits undergo.
Employees who join an organisation are made aware of the work procedures they are supposed to follow; their resocialisation is more formal and is done to help them settle in their new jobs as quickly as possible. Both employees and organisations depend on each other mutually for their objectives to succeed.
Features of Resocialisation Resocialisation takes place in many forms, which have a big impact on the perceptions, attitudes and behaviour of the people who undergo the process. Some procedures are carried out to shift the loyalties of the person being resocialised to the organisation or group which he or she is about to become part of.
Resocialisation is done to make a person have a sense of belonging in the new environment that he lives in. There are various types of procedures that are also carried out during resocialisation; this is done to highlight the significance of the occasion being celebrated (Andersen
Essentials of Buddhism Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction and Background The lifestyle of a Buddha
Many scholars have not managed to make a good analysis of the life of Buddha. However, majority of them believe that Buddha existed, provided teachings and also helped to establish a monastic order.
Concepts governing the belief system of Buddhists
It is believed that that some Buddhists concepts like yoga, rebirth and karma have been in existence for a very long time. Later on, these concepts were absorbed in Buddhism.
In terms of the life and the world, Saṃsāra refers to a fundamental ethos or worldview which perceives all living beings to be in some continuous and endless cycle of birth, life and death.1 On the other hand, Karma means “action” or “deed”. This term can also be described using the law that associates actions with reactions or causes with effects.2
The concept of rebirth in Buddhism is also highly valued. In this regards, rebirth refers to a belief system which maintains that almost all the souls have the ability to reincarnate. Rebirth is not similar among all living creatures. Special or selective rebirth confirms that only selective minority souls are able to undergo rebirth.3
Perception of the world among Buddhists
One of the staunch belief systems of the Buddhists is attached on the notion that solution to problems can be caused through suffering. There are different ways of avoiding suffering. For example, suffering can be avoided by observing rightful living especially on how people behave, their verbal utterances, feelings as well as beliefs. Suffering can also be avoided by eliminating bad desires and finding ways of getting what we actually need.
There are four splendid platforms of truth among Buddhists. The human life is filled with trauma and various forms of suffering according to the first pillar of truth. Although some people might have few problems, there are those who are always struggling to have a decent life. Such people include those subjected to torture, starvation, hatred, war and acts of terror.
As a result, individuals will always live in fear especially whenever they think of disturbing issues like getting old, sickness and death. No matter how individuals try to avoid their negative thoughts, there is always a constant reminder that prompts people about death.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All forms of suffering are associated with the second pillar of truth. It is believed that the need to survive contributes significantly towards suffering experienced by various people. Sometimes, people might try to be humble, but this does not help to reduce the level of suffering. In fact, the level of painful experiences increases as one tries to achieve the most desired relationships.
Most types of human suffering can be terminated according to the concept of the third pillar of truth. Individuals can manage to live a comfortable life by doing away with activities that are not necessary. This means that people should always aim at being simple, direct and straight-forward.
The path or way to eliminate the sources of suffering is the fourth noble truth. This is achieved through meditation whereby individuals are required to practice awareness or mindfulness. This also requires individuals to be mindful of the things that are likely to subject them to torture. In order to achieve the latter, people should increase their awareness and appreciate the condition of a particular situation. This eventually makes them to realize the desired relationships and avoid instances of being complex and unnecessarily manipulative.
The Gallant Eightfold Path
The right view or perception is the first aspect of the path. This is based on how we see the world. Wrong views may be experienced when individuals impose their expectations on different aspects of life and express some form of fear on such things. On the other hand, the right view is realized when people express simplicity on different things and avoid any form of fear.
Right intention is the second aspect of this path. This aspect requires people to avoid being manipulative by abandoning their expectations, fears and ambitions that cannot be met. Thus, people should not work according to their intentions.
The next aspect is called the right speech. Under this provision, it means that the intentions of the people are expected to be pure. People should strive towards eliminating any form of embarrassment. Individuals should express their feelings in a sincerely genuine and straightforward way.
The fourth aspect is known as right discipline and is based on renunciation. People are expected to avoid complicating issues and instead practice simplicity. Thus, there should be a clear and straight-forward association with family members, jobs and meal times. All the frivolous and unnecessary complications should be discarded.
We will write a custom Essay on Essentials of Buddhism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fifth aspect of this gallant path is called the right livelihood. This requires individuals to be happy of the different jobs that they undertake in order to earn their livelihood. We should not wish of having a better job while neglecting the current one. Instead, people are expected to form comprehensible associations with their jobs and do their parts properly.
The next feature of the path is called the right path. This requires individuals to avoid any form of struggle or negative tendency when approaching a given spiritual discipline. Individuals are recommended to appreciate different situations by working gently and avoiding any form of aggression.
The seventh element of the path is known as right mindfulness. This means that one should be careful and be able to pay attention even to the minor details of their experiences. They are also required to be mindful when talking, working and also on their attitude towards family members and friends.
The last characteristic of the path is called the right concentration. Individuals should avoid being absent minded as a result of being captivated by different speculations and entertainments. In order to achieve this, appropriate discipline is a vital component.
The 4 immeasurable elements
In Buddhism, the four immeasurable elements are set in a manner that individuals can be able to generate wholesome attitudes through meditation. Hence, meditation is given a very significant platform in the life of a Buddhist.
The Middle Way or Path
The middle way has different meanings. In simple terms, the middle way is used to refer to a practice that is non-extremism in nature. This path helps people to avoid cases of self-mortification or self-indulgence.
The Nature of existence
In Buddhism, the nature of existence is based on various ideologies such as nonintellectual theories, and different concepts about the world according to philosophers. They are used to help people make decisions on what to do or what to avoid.
The existence marks
Buddhism has three main marks that are highly valued. Impermanence is a Buddhist’s notion that terms different experiences as being unsteady, irregular and temporary. This implies that human experiences come in parts while existence depends on the surrounding conditions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Essentials of Buddhism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the world is always changing and this means that it is not possible to establish any permanent relationships. The Buddhist’s notion of suffering and pain mainly refers to the situation whereby an individual feels disturbed. Buddhism tries to make individuals to be realistic and avoid cases of being extremely optimistic or pessimistic. Individuals experience pain mostly when they try to relate themselves with the outside world.
Moreover, an individual should avoid fantasizing about things that he or she is not capable of achieving or obtaining in life. Egolessness is the last Buddhist’s notion. This is an aspect that helps individuals to avoid suffering. In order to achieve this quality, an individual should be capable of analyzing the mental constituents of objects or people.
This doctrine is used to explain that a phenomenon arises through both the process of action and reaction. It is mainly used to explain the frequent chain of suffering that a human being is most likely to undergo while still alive.
The aspect and value of emptiness
This term explains why properties lack any intrinsic value. This belief system is based on the fact that all properties are relational in nature.
This term implies the act of separating from the main group or mainstream Buddhism religion. This is based on passion, aggression as well as ignorance. People should not struggle in order to live. Doing so will only add extra complications to the lives of people.
Eras of the Buddha
A Buddha era refers to a time in history when people recall and observe the teachings associated with the earliest Buddha. This means that the various eras of Buddha exist during the human existence period.4
Various practices in Buddhism
The term practice does not refer to mere acceptance of Buddhism. It involves the ability of an individual to be committed to Buddhism practices such as through chanting and conducting daily meditation.
To begin with, yoga is mostly used in Tibetan Buddhism and refers to the meditative or physical disciplines that help to generate mystical experiences. On the other hand, refuge in the jewels as applied in Buddhism include the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. Being a refuge in Buddha helps an individual to transform annoyance into compassion. Refuge in Dharma and Sangha helps in transforming an individual from illusion into wisdom and from a desire to openhandedness respectively.5
Ethics is also another important area of practice in Buddhism. Buddhist’s ethics refers to the principles or practices that enable people to act in meaningful ways other than causing any kind of harm. In Buddhism, the main ethical code is known as the five precepts. These precepts do not represent the commandments but focuses on training principles taken willingly and which require high levels of sensitivity and intelligence.
The monastic life refers to the decision by certain people (who are commonly known as monastics) to live a pure life. This is mainly to help such individuals to preserve and disseminate Dharma for the benefit of other people.6
Buddhism also values that art of meditation. The latter is based on two themes. The two themes relate to the ability to transform the minds of people and at the same time explore their minds. There are various types of meditation. For instance, samatha meditation enables a mediator to develop a peaceful mind by observing a strong mental concentration. This helps to free the inner obstacles and impurities from the mind. It also enables the mediator to have strong concentration that is attained in a jhana state.7
Besides, the theravāda Buddhism aims at identifying the reasons behind human suffering. These factors are referred as craving and they are believed to carry a number of defilements. There are increased stressful situations that people go through largely due to lack of satisfaction and hatred that exist among people. In order to do away with such sufferings, individuals are expected to develop measures that can provide permanent solutions. One way of doing this is by conducting internal investigation and making an appropriate analysis.
The vipassana meditation refers to a mediation technique whereby then mediator observes oneself continuously and realistically while mediating. It also refers to a form of wisdom that has the ability to snuff out afflictions. The overall aim of Vipassana meditation is to help attain nirvana.
Zen helps individuals to have a satisfactory understanding of their life by avoiding being misled either through language or thought in Buddhism. Zen Buddhism is popular in Japan and Korea and is categorized into two schools namely Rinzai and Soto. The former focuses more on meditation while the latter focuses more on sitting.
Tantras are the main pillars of Vajrayana. In simple terms, tantra refers to internal realization that fights ordinary appearances and helps in accomplishing Buddha purities. Vajrayana and Tantra ioncorporates all the necessary concepts found in Mahayana and at the same time includes some physical techniques that are specifically meant to improve Buddhist practices.
Historical developments of Buddhism and why it among the fastest growing religions The philosophical roots of Buddhism
The philosophical roots of Buddhism can be traced back in ancient India. This was towards the end of first millennium. Since there was lack of satisfaction on the practice of conducting sacrifices and rituals, there was a lot of social and religious strife. As a result, different groups reacted by rejecting and failing to respect the powers given to the Brahmans and Vedas. It is perhaps necessary to explore the Indian Buddhism in detail.
Indian Buddhism is grouped into a number of periods. These include early Buddhism, Nikaya Buddhism, early Buddhist schools, late Buddhism and Vajrayana/Esoteric Buddhism. Each of these groups grew and expanded independently leading to a widespread of the religion.
The Pre-sectarian Buddhism was also instrumental in the growth of Buddhism.
Pre-sectarian Buddhism refers to the earlier Buddhism known to almost every scholar. The main scriptures in pre-sectarian Buddhism are Agamas/Nikayas and Vinaya Pitaka. Most of the previous information contains basic teachings. As a result, people believe that Gautama Buddha had similar teachings. These teachings had a direct association with the noble eightfold path, dependent origination, the noble truths, the five aggregates and also the marks of existence.
The earliest Buddhist schools were also effective in spreading the philosophy of the religion. These are the schools which triggered the splitting of sangha.
This was attributed to the Vinaya differences as well as monk’s separation and doctrinal differences. In the early Buddhist schools, all information was passed orally. Oral transmission was conducted from the assembly in order to prevent oral transmission errors. Different people were assigned the role of reciting whereby some groups recited monastic rules while others engaged in reciting discourses.
The earliest beliefs in Mahayana Buddhism indicated that there was another school that was established to out-compete the earlier “Hinayana schools”. When Christianity suffered a major split in Europe, it gave way for Buddhism to thrive.8 This trend has continued for a relatively long period of time while Buddhism has remained intact without any splits.
During the late Mahayana Buddhism, a total of four different thoughts were developed. These were the Madhyamaka, Buddhist logic, yogacara and Tathagatagarbha. Both Yogacara and Madhyamaka dwelt in the teaching of deep underlying ideas in Buddhism. These philosophies have been regarded as major impetus towards the growth of Buddhism religion.
Vajrayana Buddhism refers to a ritualistic and an esoteric path found in Mahayana Buddhism. In terms of sociological development; Vajrayana Buddhism triggered hereditary priesthood development in parts of Nepal and Tibet.
The diverse development of Buddhism
At first, Buddhism recorded a slow spread in India until the coming of strong supporters of Buddhism. These supporters triggered the construction of religious memorials. Buddhism also spread in Maurya Empire and to the surrounding areas like central Asia, Afghanistan and Sri Lanka.
Currently, the religion has spread far and wide and has believers across the world. Buddhism religion is slowly turning out to be unpopular in India but it is still practiced in other countries especially those surrounding India. Although formal membership in Buddhism is different amongst communities, all the members relate their faith to the earlier formula where all the practitioners rely on the three jewels.
It is also pertinent to note that Nava-bauddha (also called neo-Buddhist) refers to the Ambedkar followers. Ambedkar started practicing Buddhism in the year 1956. It also led to the spread of the religion. The demographics of the current Buddhist followers is also an influencing factor that has prompted the growth of the religion. Previous research shows that Buddhism closely follows Christianity, Hinduism and Islam in popularity. It is also believed that Buddhism was the earliest and largest religion in the early 20th century.
The development of schools and cultures in Buddhism
People who practice Buddhism group themselves into two groups namely Mahayana and Theravada. Other scholars have made considerable efforts to classify Buddhists according to their cultural or geographical areas. Such groupings include Tibetan Buddhism, Theravada and East Asian Buddhism.
Theravada is the earliest Buddhist school which grew at unprecedented rate. Although some branches of the school have ceased to exist, some branches like those located in south East Asia and Sri Lanka still survive. The commentaries of Pali Canon were largely used as important spiritual guidelines at the Theravada school.9 It is definite that the teachings acquired from this school spread in different parts of the world and as a result, the teachings were quickly adopted and practiced among new and old adherents of Buddhism.
The growth and development of Buddhism as a religion is also believed to have been accelerated by the renowned Mahayana traditions. This growth was noted as early as the fifteenth century. During this time, a number of Mahayana centers were established to facilitate learning.
Mahayana Buddhism is still very common in parts of China, Korea, Singapore, Vietnam, Russia and Japan.10 Bodhisattva in Buddhism is used to mean “enlightenment being”. In Theravada Buddhism, the term Boudhisattvas is used to relate the previous existence of Gautama Buddha.
The Vajrayana traditions are still very common in Tibet, china and Mongolia. It is imperative to note that vajrayana is practiced differently both in Tibet and China although it is valued by Buddhists in both regions.
Buddhists texts are of different forms and have been used to advance the ideologies of the religion. The value of these texts depends on the nature of a school where as some schools relate some texts with religious objects, other schools use a scholastic approach to classify these texts.11 One of the widely used scriptures in Buddhism is the Mahayana Sutra.
Finally, different opinions can be used to establish whether Buddhism is a religion or not. This is due to the fact that different people have conflicting ideas regarding Buddhism as a religion. However, reaching an accurate conclusion depends on a good understanding of the term religion.
Bibliography Butler, Mike. “Introduction to Buddhism” Buddha Dharma Education Association and BuddaNet. 2012. .
Cheah, Joseph. Race and Religion in American Buddhism: White Supremacy and Immigrant Adaptation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Eliot, Edward Arnold. Japanese Buddhism, London: Sage, 1935.
Keown, Damien Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Kinnard, Jacob. The Emergence of Buddhism: Classical Traditions in Contemporary Perspective. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011.
Kogen, Mizuno, Essentials of Buddhism, Shunju-sha, 1972, English translation. Tokyo: Kosei, 1996.
Kozak, Arnold. The Everything Buddhism Book. Avon, Mass: Adams Media, 2011.
Molloy, Michael. Experiencing the World’s Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009.
Richard, Gombrich. Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. New York: Routledge, 1988.
Footnotes 1Jacob Kinnard, The Emergence of Buddhism: Classical Traditions in Contemporary Perspective. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011), 48.
2 Michael Molloy, Experiencing the World’s Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change. (New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009), 324.
3 Michael Molloy, Experiencing the World’s Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change. (New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009), 324.
4Mizuno Kogen, Essentials of Buddhism, Shunju-sha, 1972, English translation. (Tokyo: Kosei, 1996), 56.
5 Arnold Kozak, The Everything Buddhism Book. (Avon, Mass: Adams Media, 2011), 66.
6 Gombrich Richard, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. (New York: Routledge, 1988), 89.
7Joseph Cheah, Race and Religion in American Buddhism: White Supremacy and Immigrant Adaptation. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 271.
8 Damien Keown, Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. (Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 1996), 59.
9 Mike Butler, “Introduction to Buddhism” Buddha Dharma Education Association and BuddaNet. 2012.
10Michael Molloy, Experiencing the World’s Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change. (New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009), 88.
11 Arnold Eliot Edward, Japanese Buddhism. (London: Sage, 1935), 16.
Fair Trade as an Alternative to Free Trade Essay custom essay help
Introduction A major characteristic of the 21st has been the expansion in global trade. This trade has been catalyzed by the advances in communication and transportation technologies that have led to an exponential increase in the interactions between countries and people in a process known as globalization.
International trade has had positive results on participating nations and efforts have been made to liberalize trade for the benefit of all. Free trade has been promoted as a means of stimulating economic growth and increasing the wealth of a nation. Because of conventional trade practices that are structured under a free trade system, a lot of wealth has been created. However, in spite of the advances made in global trade, extreme poverty remains rampant in the developing world.
The World Bank (2012) reports that 22% of the world population (1.3 billion people) is still living in extreme poverty. The failure of the conventional trade system has forced people to reconsider the assumption that free trade is the best way to create wealth and benefit all of humanity.
Other systems have been proposed to try to remedy the failures of free trade. Fair trade is an alternative model that purports to overcome the failure of conventional trade and foster economic development the Third World. Fair trade is a new way of doing business that emphasizes on empowering small-scale producers in the international market.
Differences in opinion exist between free trade and fair trade advocates. Free trade proponents argue that free trade is the key to universal economic development and an end of poverty (Sidwell, 2008). They envision a world that is united into one hemisphere-wide free trade area with everyone enjoying the benefits of free trade.
Opponents of free trade view such a reality as damaging to the interests of people and groups who cannot compete with the major corporations that will stand to gain the most from free trade. Fair trade advocates argue that while globalization and international trade are not harmful in themselves, the manner in which they are implemented makes them harmful.
This paper will set out to argue that fair trade can be a practical alternative to free trade. To reinforce this claim, the paper will demonstrate the ways in which fair trade can help overcome the numerous economic damages attributed to free trade and result in a sustainable and universally beneficial economic system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More International Trade: An overview The last century has been characterized by an increase in international trade. This increase in international trade has led to more specialization by countries and economies of scale in production as countries aim to produce greater quantity of products for trade. To reduce tensions in international trade, trade treaties have been entered into by many countries.
The first major multilateral trade treaty was the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which was formed in 1948 (Kowalski, 2007). This agreement had the major objective of reducing or eliminating tariffs all together in order to promote international trade. The GATT was replaced with the World Trade Organization (WTO), which was formed in 1995.
This new international trade regulator has the primary objective of promoting international trade by administering the agreements made by member states (Kowalski, 2007). Like its predecessor the GATT, the WTO also seeks to promote free trade and prevent protectionist measures by individual countries.
Countries have held talks aimed at producing agreements that will advance free trade and its inherent benefits even further. Stencel (2008) observes that the WTO is the world leader in most of the talks held on free trade initiatives. In spite of the general move towards promoting free trade, trade organizations have still acknowledged the benefits of some form of intervention.
Jackson (2001) notes that while efforts have been aimed at expanding free trade; there has been a trend towards higher degree of intervention and regulations especially by developed economies. These regulations have been necessitated by the realization that in addition to the economic implications of International trade, there are also environmental and social implications.
While trade can be a powerful tool in elevating people out of poverty, international trade has not achieved this noble quest. Oxfam (2002) observes that while international trade has been a source of unprecedented wealth, “millions of the world’s poorest people are being left behind with increased prosperity going hand in hand with mass poverty and the widening of already obscene inequalities between rich and poor” (p.7).
Even the WTO, an organization created to promote free trade, acknowledges that a universal implementation of free trade might not be the best option in the present time. Jackson (2008) accentuates the fact that the WTO specifically refers to “fairness” and has demonstrated a paramount concern with rules and regulations in coming up with international trade arrangements.
We will write a custom Essay on Fair Trade as an Alternative to Free Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The inclination towards fairness even by a body that seeks to break down trade barriers and foster free trade suggests that fair trade might be the sustainable and preferred form of trade.
Fair Trade and Free Trade: A definition Fair Trade
Fair trade emerged as a movement that offered an alternative to the conventional way of conducting international trade. Moore (2004) traces the origins of the Fair Trade movement to the post World War II years when US churches began projects to sell handicrafts made by European refugees.
These projects were a form of charity since they hoped to help the producers by purchasing their products at a higher price. There is no universally accepted definition of Fair Trade. However, the most widely used definition developed by FINE defines Fair Trade as:
A trading partnership based on dialogue, transparency and respect, and that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers – especially in the South. Fair trade organizations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. (Moore, 2004, p.74).
The Fair Trade model differs significantly from the normal supply-chain model of business in that there is monitoring and certification inbuilt in the system to guarantee that fairness and accountability is achieved. Free trade advocates assert that the openness to the international economy prompted by fair trade will catalyze economic development for all countries.
On the international level, the main certification body is the Fair Trade Labeling Organization International (FLO) and it is an association of producer organizations, traders, and labeling initiatives (FLO International, 2010).
Fair trade is a concept grounded in the belief that paying producers in the developing world a fair price will promote sustainable development and therefore accelerate economic growth in the third world (Stencel, 2008). Fair trade has therefore emerged as both a movement and a set of business initiatives that aim to improve the socioeconomic conditions of producers in the developing world while encouraging environmental sustainability.
The free trade theory advances that the ideal market environment is one where goods and services can flow among nations without any government-imposed restrictions such as taxes, tariffs, or quotas. The free trade movement has therefore sought to lower trade barriers between countries and promote the movement of goods and services between countries (Sidwell, 2008).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Fair Trade as an Alternative to Free Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While the free trade ideal has not been achieved, liberalization measures, which aim at reducing trade barriers, have been in action for many decades and they aim to eventually remove all trade restrictions thereby achieving free trade. Economic arguments have been the most important contributors of free trade since historical times.
The liberal concept was formulated by Adam Smith in 1776 and in it, he argued that free trade leads to international division of labor and the subsequent interdependence between countries (Sidwell, 2008). This interdependence is good since it fosters stability, prosperity, and peace for all participating nations. The liberal concept therefore calls on nations to abandon any kind of trade restriction because they will only mitigate the positive impacts that trade has on the individual country and its trading partners.
Free trade is supported since it promises to bring about economic benefits to a country by encouraging the participation of the private sector and increasing competition. Free trade activists are opposed to fair trade, which they regard as a form of protectionism because it tries to limit the free market (Glockner, 2010). Free trade advocates feel it is best to let the market work on its own since freer trade promotes economic well-being not just for a marginal group of producers but the entire global community.
Positive Impacts of Free Trade
Free trade benefits both the customers and the producers. The customers gain since they have a bigger variety of products to choose from since products are obtained from all over the world. The prices are also lower due to the economies of scale and competition among suppliers.
The suppliers also gain from an increase in turnover and therefore make significant profits. Kowalski (2007) claims that trade barriers are responsible for the high price and limited choice that consumers have to deal with since tariffs and other barriers to trade distort the market.
Free trade results in increased efficiency and the production of higher quality goods. The theory of comparative advantage holds that a country is able to maximize its wealth by concentrating on things it does better relative to other nations and buying other products through trade (Kowalski, 2007). The free trade model therefore avoids wastages and enables consumers to enjoy the best goods and services.
Free trade leads to greater openness and greater integration with the global economy. This integration is beneficial for all countries with the WTO observing that “trade liberalization helps poor countries to catch up with rich ones and that this faster economic growth helps to alleviate poverty” (Jackson, 2001, p.25). The rate of economic development for developing countries that have opened up their markets has been phenomenally high. On the other hand, countries that have resisted opening up to trade have developed at significantly lower rates. This suggests that open trade has a positive impact on the economic well being of a country.
Negative Impacts of Free Trade
Free trade leads to loss of jobs as some industries are rendered unprofitable due to competition from foreign players. Free trade opens up the local market to foreign competition (Kowalski, 2007). If the local industry is still in its developing stage, it might not be able to compete favorably with the mature foreign competitors.
Without some form of protection through tariffs or trade barriers, the infant industries cannot survive in the competitive international trade arena. The foreign industry will be able to provide higher quality goods at a lower price and this will drive the local industry out of business. This will increase unemployment levels in the country as industries are forced to close due to the intense competition from the international market.
Free trade exposes producers to frequent price fluctuations and small-scale producers especially in developing nations might not be able to cope with these price uncertainties. Sidwell (2008) observes that free trade is based on “free individuals voluntarily seizing market opportunities, rather than attempting to manage production and restrict the market place” (p.5).
The system is characterized by an absence of any price-fixing mechanism and the trading partners rely on the forces of supply and demand to dictate the market prices. In this system, producers are exposed to market fluctuations and they are at risk of suffering from loses if the market prices are poor.
Free trade takes place in an uneven playing field, which places the developed nations at an advantage. The primary good produced by most developing nations is agricultural products. These countries are unable to gain a good price for their exports due to government action by developed nations.
Many industrialized countries, particularly the US, offer subsidies to their domestic farmers. Swain (2009) observes that these subsidies are an effective mechanism of protecting the farmers from prevalent market realities that would make it impossible for them to make a profit.
However, the subsidies come at a high cost for developing world producers who cannot compete with the underpriced and overproduced goods from the First World. In effect, these subsidies keep food prices artificially low and make it impossible for producers from developing countries to compete with the subsidized products from farmers in the rich countries.
Khor (2000) reveals that the developed countries demand that the developing countries reduce their own trade barriers on agricultural products, which allows the cheap subsidized products from the developed world to flood the market.
For a country to experience notable gains under free trade, it has to fulfill a number of key conditions. The country has to have perfect access to markets, an ability to adjust production techniques to suit the market needs and increase or decrease production in response to market realities, and a good infrastructure.
The country should also have a well-developed human capital base and enterprise capability for new exports. Most developing countries have not yet achieved these conditions and they are therefore unable to cope effectively with the rapid trade liberalization imposed on them.
Khor (2000) affirms that in the context of agricultural production, conditions such as adjusting outputs in response to market information are simply unachievable. In addition to his, most developing countries are unable to determine how fast their exports grow since they lack the necessary infrastructure to facilitate increase in trade.
Free trade promotes the exploitative practices that huge corporations engage in as they try to reduce the cost of production. Multinational companies such as Nike have engaged in the outsourcing of production to developing nations (Wladimir, 2009). This helps the companies to benefit from the wage differences and therefore cut production costs and gain greater profits.
Free trade is not concerned with the conditions under which production takes place. While most developed countries have stringent safety standards, majority of the developing countries have low safety standards and there is little concern for the welfare of the workers. Free trade encourages the exploitation of the poor who provide the labor, sometimes in unsafe environments, for international businesses in return for minimum wages.
Multinational Companies (MNCs) such as Nike have been accused of ignoring the poor human conditions under which their subcontractors produce their goods. The subcontractors who are in countries that have poor human rights records pay their workers pitiful wages and offer harsh working conditions. MNCs are not take advantage of the fact that they are not legally accountable for the actions of their foreign subsidiaries since the subcontractor is an independent legal entity (Wladimir, 2009).
The preoccupation with increased production and reduced production cost has led to the environmental impacts of business being ignored (Jackson, 2001).
Economic growth normally takes precedence over economic considerations as can be construed from the failure by some countries to take part in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol out of economic considerations. The USA, China, and India refused to participate in the agreement that promised to have a positive impact on the environment since the binding measures proposed would come at an economic cost.
Fair Trade as an alternative to Free Trade Clearly, conventional international trade practices, which are aimed at promoting free trade, are not adequate in promoting sustainable economic development especially for the developing nations. The neoliberal concept of free trade has proved to be incomplete in addressing the unique conditions faced mostly by producers in developing nations (Glockner, 2010).
Free trade is devoid of social and cultural considerations and the focus on liberalization and deregulation fails to address development issues in the third world countries. The fair trade movement seeks to counter the harmful impacts that free trade has on the poor nations.
For the numerous benefits offered by free trade to be enjoyed universally, all participating countries need to be equipped properly to participate and enjoy the same benefits.
At the present, developing countries are disadvantaged since most of them depend on the export of raw materials whose prices have been systematically decreasing while the prices of imported capital increase. Practicing free trade is therefore not beneficial for all and only fair trade can ensure equality among all participating nations. Fair trade proponents propose that developing countries should be treated differently in the international trade setting.
Merits of Fair Trade
The Fair Trade Movement guarantees that producers are able to earn a decent living by dictating that produce purchases must pay laborers a price “sufficient to make a living” in order to quality as Fair Trade certified.
A study by Ronchi (2002) on the impacts of fair trade on Costa Rican coffee farmers showed that the farmers who were involved in fair trade had incomes that were on average 39% higher than their peers in the free trade system. This group of fair trade participants exhibited a higher improvement in their lives with 33% being able to keep their children in school longer and repay all their long-standing debts.
Fair trade practices respect the cultural diversity of the various participants in trade and producers and buyers consider themselves as equal commercial partners and treat each other with mutual respect.
This is significantly different from the free trade principles where the producers and the buyers are unequal commercial partners with the buyers having a higher bargaining power that enables them to dictate the prices that are mostly unfavorable to the producers (Glockner, 2010). Big businesses are able to impose unfair trade terms on small farmers who have to agree since they lack alternatives or any real bargaining power on the issues.
The principles of the free market involve the buyer seeking the lowest price with little regard for the long-term human relationships with the producer. Ehrlich (2010) observes that in the free market, the buyers do not consider the harmful effect that low prices may have on the developing nation producers.
Fair trade principles contradict this free market approach by taking into consideration the long-term human relationship between the buyer and the producer. The buyer seeks to buy at a price that will ensure that producers are able to make a decent living.
Fair trade overcomes the limitations of fluctuating prices by using a price-fixing arrangement. Jackson (2001) asserts that the stable income guaranteed by the fixed price paid to producers through fair trade is the most important benefit accrued by producers through the system. This arrangement greatly benefits the producers in a number of significant ways. To begin with, the set price is always fair since it takes into consideration the needs of the producers thereby ensuring that they are able to make a profit and enjoy a decent standard of living from their products. Small farmers greatly benefit from the insurance against price fluctuation and they are able to better plan their operations due to the assurance of consistent sales.
While free trade proponents frown upon protectionist measures, such measures are a necessary to shield developing nations from unfair competition from developed nations. Developed nations already have an economic head start and they enjoy the best production facilities and technology.
Pitting such economies against the poor developing countries in a free trade market is unfair since the two parties are unevenly matched. Some mechanism for giving the developing world an advantage in international trade is therefore necessary. Fair trade proponents “seek special protectionist measures for the poor” (Sidwell, 2008, p.5). Fair trade fosters development by providing a safe environment in which disadvantaged producers can join the global market.
This development is promoted by providing an avenue though which producers in developing nations can get higher payments for their products. Fair Trade recognizes that there is a great disparity between the capability of producers in developed nations and developing nations. The movement therefore seeks to enable the developing country producers to become sustainable businesses both in the local and international marketplaces.
Fair trade encourages sustainable development in developing countries therefore making reducing or doing away with the need for aid by these countries from the developed world. It does this by acknowledging that existing world trade practices that are rooted in free trade principles are harmful to the developing world.
Fair trade therefore seeks to promote a just distribution of wealth among nations. Sidwell (2008) notes that most consumers in the developed world view fair trade as “the purest form of aid” and deem it more effective than giving to charity. Fair trade is a potent development tool through its underlying “trade-not-aid” philosophy. It acts as a poverty reduction initiative by providing the means through which developing nations can participate in the global market under conditions that are favorable to them.
Fair trade initiatives remove the middlemen who end up taking majority of the profits gained by farmers. In a free market environment, famers in the developing world are mostly made up of individuals who are uneducated and unaware of the market conditions.
The farmers have to rely on the middlemen who know their way around the market and can therefore get the produce to the international market (Moore, 2004). The middlemen buy the goods from the farmers at very low prices and end up keeping most of the profits. Fair trade removes the middlemen from the business cycle and the farmers are therefore able to keep most of their profits.
Fair trade results in safer working conditions for workers in the producing nations. Since producers are the primary stakeholders in the Fair Trade business relationship, they are expected to fulfill some conditions by the buyers. Moore (2004) states that producers are expected to make positive steps towards providing safe and healthy work conditions and other social benefits to their workers.
Producers have to demonstrate a commitment to worker safety and social benefits in order to be included in the Fair Trade program. Gross violation of worker safety may be grounds for being omitted from Fair Trade market.
Since producers want to benefit from the financial gains and security that are inherent in fair trade, they provide the most favorable working conditions for their workers. Fair trade also ensures that exploitative practices such as child labor are not utilized during production. The constant monitoring of producers ensures that they adhere to the set labor standards and avoid any exploitative practices.
For participants to benefit in free trade, they have to have credit access and adequate capital investments. Most small-scale producers in third world countries lack access to financial facilities. They are therefore unable to venture into the international market and enjoy the benefits of free trade.
Fair trade tries to remedy this by providing access to pre-financing and credit for the producers (Stencel, 2008). Through their cooperatives, farmers are granted finances that they can use to buy the necessary farm inputs and therefore produce the trade commodities.
Producers are able to enjoy lower interest rates on the credit they obtain through fair trade. According to FLO International (2010), buyers are required to offer producers pre-financing at attractive interest rates. This move by the fair trade movement has led government agencies and conventional banks to start offering cooperatives and producers access to credit at competitive rates.
Fair trade induces local capacity building by strengthening the local producers’ capacities. Ronchi (2002) observes hat fair trade encourages institutional capacity building and farmers are encouraged to sell their products through cooperatives. These institutes encourage the improvement of product quality by individual farmers and the producers are also taught about new marketing strategies that can be employed to increase sales.
The producer organizations set up workshops and seminars to teach farmers about new cultivation methods and effective marketing strategies. Considering the fact that most farmers have little education and do not know much about international trade, the lessons provided on the export process are some of the most valuable benefits of fair trade (Ronchi, 2002).
Free trade results in producers being thrust into an aggressive market for which they are not well prepared. Fair trade tackles this issue by introducing producers to the international market in a sheltered environment.
Producers are able to deal directly with buyers in an environment of trust and mutual respect. Ronchi (2002) states that the direct experience with buyers and mutual trust and respect environment increase the confidence of producers who then feel better empowered to deal professionally in a conventional market system.
Fair trade takes positive action to deal with the harmful environmental impacts that free trade encourages. Producers in the Fair Trade market are encouraged to conduct their production in such a way that they mitigate environmental damage. Before being accepted into the fair trade network, the producers have to comply with a number of requirements that emphasize on sustainable development and environmental development.
The standards for example state that producers must undertake their operations in such a way that they “establish a balance between environmental protection and business results through the use of a combination of measures such as crop rotation, cultivation techniques, crop selection, careful use of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides and, as relevant, shade production” (FLO, 2010, p.15).
Registered producers are also expected to reduce their use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and in as much as possible, try to use non-synthetic fertilizers and biological means of disease control. Periodic FLO inspections occur to ascertain that small producers have complied with the requirements and if not, they are rejected from participating in the fair trade network.
Case Studies Oxfam
Fair trade has gained the support of a number of reputable international organizations including Oxfam. Oxfam is “an international confederation of 17 organizations networked together in more than 90 countries, as part of a global movement for change, to build a future free from the injustice of poverty” (Oxfam Australia, 2012).
The organization aims to increase development in the world by ending poverty and injustices. According to Oxfam, the current application of free trade contributes to the poverty experienced by low-income developing countries.
Oxfam (2002) reveals that developing countries seeking to improve their economic situation by exporting to developed nations face disproportionate tariff barriers compared to those encountered by developed countries that export to the developing countries. Practices such as farm subsidize in the Developed nations lead to trade distorting in the international trade arena with farm products being at an artificial low price.
Oxfam sees fair trade as a more beneficial system for small producers in the developing world. The organization therefore promotes Fair Trade products in the developed world and it encourages consumers to buy these products and make a difference in the lives of the producers in developing countries. Through its commitment and campaigning efforts, fair trade products have gained greater visibility and achieved higher sales.
Fair trade principles have become prevalent and major corporations are today taking part in the fair trade market. The multinational corporation Starbucks is engaged in the marketing fairly traded coffee through its various outlets all over the world.
This development has been prompted by an increase in consumer demand for coffee produced under socially and environmentally friendly conditions and the increased advocacy of established Fair Trade organizations. Involvement of companies such as Starbucks in the fair trade movement has expanded the market for fair trade products and therefore benefited the producers in the developing world.
Criticism to Fair Trade In spite of the numerous benefits attributed to fair trade, the movement faces some criticism due to its philosophy and market practices. Fair trade does not encourage diversification of products by third world producers. As it currently stands, fair trade focuses on a small spectrum of products such as coffee, bananas, and cotton.
Glockner (2010) suggests that this focus makes farmers in developing nations specialize more on specific products thereby increasing their dependence on the foreign market. This is not sustainable since the demand for the products that the farmers over-specialize in cannot be guaranteed in a free market economy.
This claim is corroborated by Lindsey (2002) who notes that increased specialization led to an oversupply of coffee on the fair trade market and this decreased the international price of coffee therefore hurting all coffee producers.
Economists argue that the fair trade movement is doomed to fail since it ignores the free market realities through its interventional schemes to lift prices (Lindsey, 2004). This makes it possible for inefficient producers to remain in the market since fair trade guarantees them some profit despite their poor production methods. A free market would force such producers to improve their efficiency and the quality of their products or else risk being forced out of the market.
Future of Fair Trade Fair trade has gained significant popularity in today’s market and fair trade products are among the fastest growing segment of the food market. Even so, fair trade still accounts for a modest 1% of the global market. This is a very small market share and if the advantages attributed to fair trade are to be felt by more producers, the figure needs to increase dramatically. Due to the limited scope of fair trade, comparably fewer producers have been able to prosper from the movement and majority of the producers have been left out.
Ehrlich (2010) notes that the inefficiency of the fair trade value chain is to blame for the small volumes of products traded through fair trade. These inefficiencies in processing, trading, and marketing lead to higher mark-up prices for the consumer. The growth of the market is therefore limited since there is limited demand for these non-competitive fair trade brands with a high price.
Poncelet et al (2004) advices that fair trade should focus on the creation of high-quality products in order to foster growth of the market and therefore increase the volumes that can be sold. The authors also suggest that fair trade production should implement policies that encourage diversification. This diversification will promote economic growth and sustainability since the producers will not be solely reliant on a few key products for trade.
As fair trade has become more recognized, its products are today distributed and marketed through mainstream channels such as supermarkets and supply chains. Proponents of fair trade express their fear that the fair trade label may be used as an additional marketing tool by corporations that do not ascribe to the fair trade philosophy. Low and Eileen (2005) state that this fear is not unfounded since fair trade products placed alongside their non-fair trade alternatives on supermarket stands have experienced a 30% increase in sales. Corporations might therefore set out to exploit this market appeal of fair trade products. Involvement of corporations in the fair trade movement is a positive development since it increases the volume of sales for fair trade products. The movement should therefore increase its monitoring process to ensure that the big corporations live up to the philosophy behind the movement and foster the development of developing country producers.
Discussion While fair trade is critical of free trade, they both support globalization and an increase in international trade. The significant difference is that fair trade incorporates a broad range of social justice issues as opposed to free trade, which is primarily concerned with trade liberalization.
Efforts by the fair trade movement over the past two decade have been aimed at including social justice issues. As a movement whose primary goal is to fight the negative effect of Free Trade, Fair Trade has succeeded and remains to be the most “practical and campaigning response to the perceived and observed injustices of the capitalist system” (Moore, 2004, p.79). The movement has improved the livelihood of thousands of producers in the developing world and fostered socio-economic development.
The Fair Trade movement is gaining popularity with consumers in the First World countries becoming increasingly aware of this concept of fair trade. Fair Trade organizations have demonstrated that offering producers in developing countries fair prices for their goods can help offset the inequalities that a free trade system creates. The success of the fair trade system has demonstrated that consumers are willing to pay a premium for products that have a benefit to the environmental and producers in developing countries.
Conclusion This paper has argued that fair trade can serve as an alternative to free trade. It began by offering a brief overview of international trade and its importance to the world. While trade has led to the creation of wealth for nations, producers in the third world still experience widespread poverty.
This reality has forced people to reconsider the assumption that free trade is the best way to create wealth and benefit all of humanity. The paper has revealed that fair trade is the only way through which developing countries can counter the massive non-tariff barriers that Northern countries impose on them and therefore enjoy gains in international trade.
Fair trade guarantees a fair price for the producers therefore securing the rights of these exporters who are harmed by the free trade model. Fair trade is rapidly gaining popularity and many organizations and consumers are using it as an alternative to free trade. The principles and key philosophies of fair trade are necessary for producers in developing countries to improve their livelihoods and experience sustainable growth.
References Ehrlich, S.D. (2010). The Fair Trade Challenge to Embedded Liberalism. International Studies Quarterly, 54 (1), 1013–1033.
FLO International (2010). Generic FairTrade Standards for Contract Production. Bonn, Germany: Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International.
Glockner, C. (2010). Analysis of Fair Trade as a Concept of Sustainability. Vienna: GRIN Verlag.
Jackson, K.E.(2001). Free Trade, Fair Trade: Trade Liberalisation, Environmental and Labour Standards. UNEAC Asia Papers, 4(1), 21-34.
Khor, M. (2000). Rethinking Liberalisation and Reshaping the WTO. Davos: World Economic Forum.
Kowalski, K.M. (2007). Free Trade. NY: Marshall Cavendish.
Lindsey, B. (2004). Grounds for complaint? Fair Trade and the coffee crisis. London: Adam Smith Institute.
Why Does Conflict Occur in the Employment Relationship? Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Application of Theories in Analyzing Workplace Relationship
Developing a Quality Workforce
Maintaining a Quality Workforce
Introduction Work is basic to the individual condition. It establishes what we accomplish during much of our active lives. It encourages human interaction and it enables people to establish their sense of uniqueness.
It enables people to fulfill their material needs and to benefit from modern inventions and achievements of civilization. “Our views towards work and its management have undergone significant changes over the past couple of decades, with much of it being the product of national contexts being increasingly subject to global economic influences” (Abbott 2006, p. 187).
As a result, Administrators should try to devise better organizational strategies that can enable them to deal with workers efficiently. This paper examines causes of conflict in employment relationship with specific reference to Wal-Mart Company.
One of the evident challenges in many organizations and companies is the occurrence of disagreements among employees and their managers. Workers can settle disputes that strain their relationships through various mechanisms. Generally, “most squabbles in organizations often revolve around issues related to wage demands, terms of service, administrative strategies, and company goals” (Dunlop 2008, p. 276).
In broad terms, “employment relationship is concerned with the theory and practice associated with the management and regulation of the employment relationship” (Dundon 2007, p. 234). Specifically, it deals with social and sometimes political aspects of the workers association and the sharing of authority between the administration and workers. It is also concerned with the occurrence and expression of disputes and the legal and social regulatory structure in which workers relationships exist.
Employment relationship is a modern expression that defines industrial relations. Industrial relations generally refer to the upholding of the association that exists between labor organizations and administration, and related processes that encompass collective bargaining, dialogue and discussion and industrial dispute (Daniels 2006, p. 24).
The application of the expression ‘employment relations’, instead of industrial relations indicates the socio-economic and legal progress made in the employment relationship that have been witnessed over the past few decades (Stone 2005, p. 124). Disputes usually arise in employment relationship due to the absence of consultation by administrators with their laborers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, workers can frustrate the restructuring plans of a company if they are not involved in making such decisions. “Since participation is often concerned with negotiation, conflict may occur between employees and management, particularly, where employees participate in higher-level decisions and differing interests are most likely to be visible” (Stone 2005, p. 127).
Wal-Mart is a leading retail chain in the United States of America. Founded in 1962, the company has since doubled its fortunes to become the dominant player in North America’s retail industry. Wal-Mart has since opened 3,800 stores in America and 2,800 stores across the globe.
In 2010, the company hosted over 2.1 million workers in America and other parts of the world. Notwithstanding its financial fortunes, Wal-Mart has faced serious challenges in managing its multicultural and large labor force. It has not been able to provide a work environment that meets the expectation of its workers and the public.
Wal-Mart’s failure to manage its human resources appropriately has had negative effects on its reputation and financial performance. Thus, there is a need to make changes in the company’s human resources management system.
Application of Theories in Analyzing Workplace Relationship A number of theories can aid the analysis of the causes of conflict in employment relationship. The Unitarism theory begins from a number of suppositions and values which states that employment dispute is a preventable feature of interactions between administrators and workers.
Disputes in the work environment may occasionally occur between these two parties, and they are an irregularity in a relationship, which is intrinsically likely to be helpful. “Those holding this perspective perceive managers and employees as having a common interest in the survival of their organizations, such that when conflicts occur it is unlikely to manifest itself to a point that will render the firm insolvent” (Fox 2006, p. 56).
Personality challenges, unsuitable staffing, and promotion activities, usually cause separations and lack of unity in an organization. A rational administrative team should eliminate potential causes of disputes that may interfere with the normal operations of an organization.
We will write a custom Essay on Why Does Conflict Occur in the Employment Relationship? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In other words, the management team should execute impartially and equitably staffing and promotion activities. Administrators should establish proper communication channels and alert workers about the core interests of the organization. Human relations theory that is guided by unitarism will form the basis of analyzing the employment conflict at Wal-Mart.
Human relations theory states that minimizing workplace disputes depends on the capacity of workers to gain self-satisfaction in the organization. In this case, employees are a distinct entity from other materials applied in the production (Legge 1995, p. 345).
Thus, “if workers are denied autonomy on the job, or are reduced to acting as mere extensions of the machinery they operate, it is argued that they will invariably find ways to subvert the methods of control that enforce these conditions” (Gennard 2002, p. 202). The most important job of administrators is to influence industrial relations to make workers feel comfortable in serving in an organization.
In addition, workers should contribute on matters related to the management of the organization (Beardwell
Witchcraft Fiction Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Witchcraft Fiction Transformation
Women Victimization and Affirmation
Women, Satan and God
Introduction The Malleus Maleficarum is a historical book that was written in the middle age. The term Malleus Maleficarum means ‘The witch hammer’. The book guided investigators as they eradicated witchcraft in the society. The effect of this historical book is intensive in the modern society despite the time that has elapsed since it was first published.
The essay will discuss women’s victimization and affirmation in relation to witchcraft. Moreover, the relationship between witches and demons will be outlined. Historical ideologies based on witchcraft as discussed in the Malleus Maleficarum and how such ideas can be transformed by fiction will be scrutinized.
Background Christianity doctrines failed to accept the existence of witchcraft and dismissed the ideology of Malleus Maleficarum as mere superstitions.
Witchcraft victimized women to a great extent as sentence of witches was fatal. The historical book solved the problem of uncertainty, as witches would only be branded if they fitted the description. In fact, approximately 9 million women were hanged or burnt alive after they were regarded as witches.
Before the guidelines, witches were branded based on mere suspicion or failure to comply with Catholic doctrines. The Malleus Maleficarum intensified the works of investigators and was regarded as a book that was soaked in blood. The witch hunting exercise took place for a period of 250 years and realized good results (Kieckhefer 24).
Witchcraft Fiction Transformation Witch hunting was meant to eradicate evilness that was associated with witchcraft in the society. Emphasis was on witches and not wizards since women engaged in witchcraft more than men did. The investigators’ court judged both witches and those that were accused of sacrilege.
The Catholic doctrines did not agree with ideology of existence of witches who could transform nature permanently. According to Christians, belief in magic powers of witches was regarded as blasphemy. The devil and witches could not cause permanent transformation on human beings, according to Christian doctrines.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, the suffering that was inflicted on Job involved natural factors like diseases, which are manipulated by God. Christians argue that if witches and demons had power to transform nature, then there would be a lot of disorganization in the world (Ankarloo and Clark 11).
The Malleus Maleficarum argues that the power that is influenced by physical factors, like that of a witch cannot exceed natural phenomena (Broedel and Hans 9).
The devil has power to study the stars and witches call on his intervention in their evil acts by observing certain star patterns. It should be noted that, the devil and witches cannot manipulate the pattern of stars; nature cannot be transformed by demons or witches. The craft that is used by the devil, like in the instance of studying the stars, can never be adequate to transformation nature permanently. Permanent situations like disease or cure can only exist by other power and not that of devils and witches (Ankarloo and Clark 16).
Power influence among the witch, devil and God has been scrutinized in the Malleus Maleficarum. Permanent transformation can only occur when the superior power influences the weaker powers. For example, the devil could cause permanent transformation of nature only when permission is granted by God.
There are those scholars who postulate that witchcraft and magic do not exist. Others argue that there is witchcraft although its influence and effect on nature exists in the mind. In addition, there are postulations that although magic may be imaginary the cooperation between the witch and devil is real (Kieckhefer 20).
The three postulations have been nullified in the Malleus Maleficarum as none of them adequately explains the effects of the devil and witches. According to Thomas S., witchcraft exists and it is a sacrilege to argue that there are no witches. However, transformation of nature by demons and witches is only possible if permission is granted by God. Notably, it is wrong to postulate that effects of witches are imaginary.
Devils have power over men and can transform them if God permits. According to Malleus Maleficarum, angels who fell from heaven became devils and were more powerful than human beings. Witches are defined as women who try to behave like these devils and win more people to their religion (Kieckhefer 12).
We will write a custom Essay on Witchcraft Fiction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The belief that the effects of witchcraft can only be presented mentally was also misplaced and its application led to false persecution of people. For example, there are women who were branded as witches simply because they confessed having a strange illusion. According to the Canon law, witches were supposed to be killed as stated in the Holy Scriptures.
Malleus Maleficarum has been associated with death and suffering of many people based on social structure. The book encouraged hunting of witches and in the process innocent people were killed. It should, however, be noted that Malleus Maleficarum also had positive impact especially on women.
Witch branding was more specific and there were more investigations than judgments after Malleus Maleficarum was introduced. There are arguments that the historical book was discriminative as women were the only victims. Moreover, the method used to suspect and brand witches was not fair. Witch hunting was the only way to cleanse the society off evil and prevent spread of crime to male gender (Ankarloo and Clark 17).
The scientific field was regarded as being sacrilegious in the middle age. The historical book used the information that was well known to enable people cope and understand nature. Malleus Maleficarum tried to unite people by eradicating witchcraft in the society in the best way possible.
Although Christians differed with the analogy of witchcraft, the effect of Malleus Maleficarum was intensive and penetrated all levels. It should be noted that, before the Bible, Malleus Maleficarum guidelines were universally used to save people from evil (Broedel 16).
Women Victimization and Affirmation There are different approaches that have been used to comprehend the nature of witchcraft. The female gender has been associated with a higher incidence of witchcraft as compared to the male gender. The Malleus Maleficarum compares a woman, tongue and Ecclesiastes as they commonly reach extremity.
When a woman is holy and righteous she is known for the best virtue and when she becomes evil her wickedness is extreme. A woman is described as evil that can never be avoided by the society. Women are portrayed as being naive and are easily tricked by the devil into witchcraft.
Moreover, women are easily influenced by spirits than men thus are easily converted into witchcraft and superstitions (Kieckhefer 18). In addition, women are portrayed as gossipers and, therefore, spread evil to fellow women at a higher rate than male gender. There are postulations that the subordinate role assigned to female gender renders women vulnerable to witchcraft and superstitions. Society victimizes women and they shield themselves with witchcraft.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Witchcraft Fiction by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are perceptions that women are less intellectual than men are and are thus likely to fall into witchcraft. For example, according to Malleus Maleficarum, only one woman could comprehend philosophy. Furthermore, the first woman was formed from a bent rib, which shows that women are imperfect and cunning. Women are described as being weak in faith and easy trusting, traits that are required in witchcraft (Ankarloo and Clark 11).
There are allegations that the women who were weak and intellectually challenged by men saw witchcraft as the only means of vengeance. Women are associated with poor memory and most married men said that their wives were the cause of their sorrow. Women who practiced witchcraft had their love converted to hatred and by all means sought vengeance.
The voice of a woman is said to be deceitful, as she does not mean what she says. Most of kingdoms have suffered due to women wickedness. For example, wicked Jezebel was cursed due to her wickedness and led to destruction of Jews. Women are also known to go to extremity to get what they desire.
For example, women dress and adorn themselves to capture the attention of men. According to Malleus Maleficarum unsatisfied sexual desires that are more pronounced among women are the root causes for witchcraft and superstitions. It should be noted that witches are more likely to be infidel, ambitious and sexually unsatisfied. Since women were most likely to be involved in witchcraft as compared to men, Malleus Maleficarum aimed to reduce the majority (Broedel 27).
Despite the wickedness that is associated with women, there are instances where they are praised in the Malleus Maleficarum. When the naive nature of a woman is not corrupted by witchcraft, then she will be holy and righteous. For example, God appointed Mary to be the mother of Jesus Christ because she was righteous.
Women innocence is greatly valued as virgins are seen as being pure and not evil. Sex was sacred and adultery was punished by death. Women accused of having sexual relations with the devil were branded as witches and killed (Kieckhefer 22). On the other hand, those who valued their purity were greatly rewarded.
Women, Satan and God According to varied arguments, witches work in conjunction with devil and it is impossible for them to cause harm on human beings without cooperation. The Malleus Maleficarum uses various approaches to determine whether harm can be a sole responsibility. The analogy of Job in the Bible has been used to show how devil inflicted suffering on him in absence of a witch but with permission of God (Ankarloo and Clark 21).
The superior power of the devil must not consult the inferior power of the witch before any action. Consequently, inferior power only consults superior power when the task is beyond its ability. Christians dismiss the idea of existence of any power that can transform nature permanently. The Malleus Maleficarum states that permanent transformation can only be done in accordance to the will of God.
The devil does not need the witches to complete his mission but rather uses them and in the end destroys them. According to this perception, witches are used involuntarily by the devil and should not be punished for actions that are beyond their control. On the contrary, there are arguments that evil is voluntary and should not be seen as a responsibility. For example, a person rapes for pleasure and not obedience to some power. Witches should be punished because they find pleasure in evil deeds (Stewart 8).
Since the devil is in a spirit form, he requires witches to get in contact with humans. It is impossible for the devil to cause harm or cause permanent transformation without any intervention by witches. There are arguments that transformation can be realized by power of imagination and not necessarily by body contact. For example, a person is not likely to sit on a broken chair simply because he imagines the possibility of falling.
Transformation in this case is not caused by body contact but by invisible power of imagination. Malleus Maleficarum argues that magic should not be associated with evil powers simply because we are not aware of how the effect of transformation is realized (Broedel and Hans 23).
Conclusion Malleus Maleficarum played a great role in eradication of witchcraft in the middle age. Women have been prejudiced and affirmed in this literature. Scholars and psychologists have different perceptions in regard to Malleus Maleficarum. There are those who criticize the book for being responsible for deaths of many innocent people in the middle age while others appreciate its efforts.
Historians should appreciate the efforts of Malleus Maleficarum in eradicating witchcraft. The guidelines could not be perfect to ensure that no innocent soul was lost during the witch hunting exercise. The approach was directed to women because they were the majority, and this should not be seen as discrimination.
Works Cited Ankarloo, Bernard, and Stuart Clark. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe in the Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 2002. Print.
Broedel, Peter. The Malleus Maleficarum and the Construction of Witchcraft: Theology and Popular Belief. Manchester: Manchester University. Press. 2004. Print.
Kieckhefer, Richard. Magic in the Middle Ages. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 2000. Print.
Stewart, Maxwell. Witchcraft in Europe and the New World. New York: Palgrave publishers. 2001. Print.
Public Relations Plan – New Startup Company Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help
Table of Contents Company’s Name and Logo
Executive summary of the situation
Public Relations Objectives
Public Relations Programs
Company’s Name and Logo The name of the company is New Startup Company. This is a chain of stores that deals with two sets of consumer goods. There is a segment that deals with consumer goods and the segment that deals with fashion. This is a new name that is supposed to help in reestablishing the brand of the company. The company’s logo will also be changed.
Executive summary of the situation The case presented in this paper focuses on a company that performed excellently in the past. However, the company no longer performs well in the present time. Several managerial problems or weaknesses are linked to the declining popularity of the company in the market.
The company has lost its stability and is about to be closed. There are declined sales, lower customer turn up and dead stocks. The management of the company has been focusing on how to deal with this unremunerative situation. It is pointed out that the main cause of poor performance of the company is lapses in management. This is seen in a number of business trends, which have been seen in the company for the past few years.
They include regular complaints from customers about the services that they receive from the company, complaints about high prices of goods and services and frequent employee strikes in the company. The company has also been accused of being inactive. This means that it has failed to promote its goods and popularize its services in the market besides shunning corporate social responsibility.
All these issues point to one thing; the failure of the company to embrace public relations in its practices. Therefore, a public relations oriented plan is crafted in this paper. It is aimed at revenging Smarktlinks. In the plan, business objectives, as well as public relations objectives are clearly stated and explained. The strategies of reviving business are outlined and incorporated into public relations programs.
Business Objectives According to Gaulden
The National Petroleum Construction Company Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Introduction The National Petroleum Construction Company is a global construction company which received many awards in fabrication of steel structure sections. It was established in 1973 as a Public Joint Stock Company and its fabrications facilities are located at Mussafah – Abu Dhabi.
It started with providing and fabricating the required steel structure for the onshore and offshore Oil and Gas production industries. In 1978, it developed and widened its operations by inaugurating a custom pipe coating facility at the field. In 1979, the company fought an escapade into offshore activities for the Oil industries, installation and knitting works.
In 1986, NPCC began the manufacturing storage tanks which are used in storing various types of petroleum products. In 1994, NPCC built a new modern facility in Mussafah which can produce and fabricate up to 67,000 tons of steel annually. After that by just two years, another modern facility was constructed for fabrication of pressure vessel.
This facility has a capability of producing 6,000 tons per year of pressure vessels in different type and size. The Company takes all developing steps and urban growth carefully to achieve the goals and achievements over the years. That dynamic growth strategy makes NPCC to reach a place in league with the major international EPC contractor of the Oil and Gas industry.Aqeel A. Madhi is the Chief Executive officer and HussainJasem Al Nowais is the chairman-GHC of the NPCC.
Nowadays, NPCC is regarded as a successful and fast-developing global company that ensures high quality services and products in the sphere of gas manufacture, storage, engineering, and installation. More importantly, the company sustains a competitive advantage in integrating offshore and onshore projects.
Core values The National Petroleum Construction Company is an excellent provider of offshore and onshore services in the sphere of production of gas, as well as delivery of petroleum products. The NPCC takes prides in its highly competitive and confident employees who are able to control and coordinate of advanced technologies. The company is actively involved in the production, testing, and inspection that take control of the modern technologies.
The NPCC ensured well-equipped environment in which employees operate. Therefore, the company’s managers realize the importance of ensuring a favorable organizational culture that motivates their employees, as well as provides highly effective coordination and collaboration. The Board of Directors is conscious about its strategic objectives and, therefore it is committed to producing high quality products that meet the established international standards.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employees are considered as the most important and valuable asset of the company. Therefore, the staff strives to ensure training and development programs for their employees, as well as provide efficient social schemes. According to the NPCC managers, wellbeing of their employees can guarantee expert services for their clients.
Products and Technology The company, as the provider of offshore and onshore activities, also offers the following services and products to their customers (Product
Tourism and language Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Tourism is beneficial to any country’s economy. It brings people from different cultural backgrounds together. In addition, it connects people who speak different languages. Tourists visit sceneries for various reasons. In this regard, they find themselves in unfamiliar environs.
Sometimes tourists face obstacles in their line of activities. These include language barrier, different cultures, remote areas, hostile natives, poor infrastructure, and meager facilities, among others. These are essential elements for successful tourism excursion. However, of great concern to tourist industry is language barrier. Language is very important as it ensures effective interaction and communication with the locals.
Language is therefore very important in tourism as it acts as the gateway to local environment. In essence, effective tourism cannot be achieved without proper communication channels. Various countries have initiated language-training centers for minimizing language barrier. This paper will explore various articles on tourism and language. It will also seek to establish its significance in tourism (Jayaprabha and Saredha 267-282).
Tourism and language Tourists visit different sites all over the world annually. Most people in Europe and America take time off visiting various sceneries throughout the world. Countries like Egypt, Kenya, Dubai, the United States, and Brazil, among others receive millions of tourists each year.
Moreover, due to their varying origins, they speak different languages that require translation for better understanding. In most cases, tourists take time to learn the language of their hosts. This enables them to interact best with the hosts. In some instances, they use tourist guides as interpreters. However, this does not offer better cultural bonding than the former. Tourism language is therefore essential for all prospective tourists.
Tourists who wish to visit the United States usually take English tests to allow for good interaction with the hosts. Moreover, those that go to countries in Asia and Africa also take the opportunity to learn local languages like Swahili, mandarin, and Arabic, among others (Cheng, Li, Petrick, and O’Leary 53-61).
Scholarly article Remodeling a changing language of tourism: from monologue to dialogue and trialogue
This article, by Graham, gives a description of the remodeling of tourism language. Graham gives an account of the top-down approach utilized in the earlier decades of tourism. During these periods, instructions were taken from above, that is from the industry without negotiation by the tourists or the toured.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, tourists would incur avoidable expenditure in this structure of management. Tourism industry was therefore framed in accordance with the social control that existed during these periods. The author goes on to state that tourism language was articulated in a monological discourse as well as in unilateral with little chance of diversion.
However, this has since changed with the advent of technological advances. Digitalization of communication has proved significant in changing the modernist project witnessed in the nineties. This has allowed for a shift from top down approach to an interactive setup (Dann 59-70).
Technological advances such as the advent of the internet, among others, has brought about these changes since customers are able to channel their complaints through the digitized forum for better handing of their grievances. Present evidences show complete transformation of tourism language due to the digitalized communication system.
This has brought about egalitarianism as well as ethos of dialogue, which was once none existent. Moreover, even trialogue can be done successfully in the current situation. In essence, the author gives an account of the changes that have occurred in tourism language over the past century. He therefore concludes that a better democratization has been achieved with the shifting paradigm of media in tourism language.
The article is well researched with sources from credible journals among other references. Graham has written numerous publications on tourism and existing trends. He has a deep understanding of the industry and he has done well to relate its complexities with regard to social control. Tourism language has therefore undergone numerous changes over the past century (Dann 59-70).
Web article Central America’s language tourism
The article emphasizes on the importance of English to groups like Spanish, Italians, and French who attend English classes in Britain. In the process, they see great sceneries and they are referred to as language tourists. This is similar in other cities such as Antigua, Granada, and Leon, among others.
These cities have beautiful sceneries that attract large groups of language tourists. For instance, the article gives a description of the happenings in London during summer, when language tourists flock London. During their visits, some of the tourists catch a glimpse of Big Ben and the queen, among others.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Tourism and language specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They also get an opportunity to interact with locals, which provide them with a combination of learning, culture, and fun. Those who go for Spanish language schools have several tantalizing locations to visit. These include old towns, Mayan lakes, volcanoes, and hammocks among other popular routes for tourists (Mulcair 1).
The article also talks of the splendid locations for studying Spanish language at affordable prices. Moreover, it gives tourists an opportunity to interact with the locals in those areas. Hospitality in such areas is essential for it has increased the number of language tourists in those towns.
The author goes on to describe possible tourist attraction centers that thrive in Central America. In addition, Mulcair provides listeners with tantalizing elaboration on language tourism in Central America (Lewis 1). The article is well researched by a BBC correspondent who has experience in writing tourism articles.
Moreover, the article is balanced with exquisite description of events in intriguing manner. The article also gives fact on old colonial towns in Central America that drives tourism. In addition, it gives details on tourism routes that pass through Mexico. The article; therefore, emphasizes on the importance of language in tourism. It gives evidence of language tourism as a show of this fact (Mulcair 1).
Opinions Translating your tourism website in other languages – is it worth it?
This article talks about translation of tourism website into different languages to enable access from various people. This is important in tourism since its essence is to invite as many different people as possible. Wintle goes on to describe the various options utilized by website owners to access people from different cultures and languages.
In this regard, the author gives a vivid description of the differences that exist between simple translation and multilingual websites. The author does this by exploring the advantages and disadvantages of all the methods provided. Firstly, Wintle explores a simple translate which is also known as Google translate.
This method involves on the fly translation of website information by Google translate. Wintle gives its advantages as quick and easy to use. However, the article also mentions its disadvantage as inaccurate. Moreover, search engines cannot pick it. Its presence in other countries is also limited (Wintle 1).
The next option that the author describes is known as the multilingual site. In this case, one or more pages of a website are translated into other languages. It has the advantage of allowing for indexing by search engines. This helps in attracting more traffic and hence tourists. This option incurs a high cost and may be complex to materialize given that each page may require translation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tourism and language by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The third option, as Wintle says, is the dedicated websites for each target market. In this case, websites are translated in accordance with the required target language. Wintle believes that this is the best option although it has its associated costs that are quite high.
Nonetheless, Wintle agrees that tourism websites require translation into various languages to attract more tourists. The paper is based on Wintle’s opinion, which is derived from research. This viewpoint is quite understandable given the level of explanation and depth involved. Language is therefore quite essential in tourism (Wintle 1).
Popular information source English for tourism
This article, by Hardwick, emphasizes on the importance of English as an international language. In fact, she states that the language is essential for anybody who deals with tourists from any part of the world. She therefore goes on to elaborate on a course that introduces various aspects of the language for tourism purposes.
In this regard, the article tackles the main points in English. Likewise, it emphasizes on essential vocabulary to enhance service delivery in tourism industry. In addition, the article gives description of English for tourism on various areas. These include hotel English, airlines, ethical tourism, destinations, responsible tourism, and business travel, among others. It encourages both tourists and the industry to invest in English as it improves understanding.
The website also contains articles written by other professionals like Richard Sidaway, among others. The article contains important information on hotel amenities that are common in various hotels around the world. In this respect, it tries to educate tourists and tourist guides to have such information at hand for better service delivery in the tourism industry (Hardwick 1).
The British council website is a popular information source where various people who range from tourists to students research information that are related to travel requirements and English tests, among others. Information provided in this website must therefore be credible to ensure that only correct information relating to travel and tourism is taken.
This source is therefore credible despite not having references as may be given in other scholarly articles. Moreover, information received in the article is meant for a wide range of people. This requires use of understandable language. In this regard, the article has used simple language for universal use and understanding. In addition, the article uses facts based on observations made throughout the recent past. For instance, English language is well known to be utilized in almost every part of the world (Hardwick 1).
Conclusion Tourism and language are inseparable. Language complements tourism and the converse is true. Tourism has developed over the years to allow for interactive liaison between the stakeholders involved. Moreover, it has abandoned the top-down approach previously observed.
The articles are quite essential in giving an in-depth description of the relationship between tourism and language. Moreover, they attribute these changes to technological advances that have brought about globalization. In essence, understanding of various languages is essential for success in tourism industry (Hemingway 1).
Works Cited Cheng, Chia-Kuen, Li, Xiang, Petrick, James, and O’Leary, Joseph. “An examination of Tourism Journal development.” Tourism management. 32.1 (2011): 53-61. Web.
Dann, Graham. “Remodeling a changing language of tourism: from monologue to dialogue and trialogue.” Pasos. 10.4 (2012): 59-70. Web.
Hardwick, Carolyn. English for tourism. 2012. Web.
Hemingway, Alexandra. Using your language skills: Hospitality and tourism. 2012. Web.
Jayaprabha, Palanisamy and Saredha, Arumugam. “Automatic conversion of web content into ontology-based resource description language for tourism domain.” International Journal of innovation and learning. 12.3 (2012): 267-282. Web.
Lewis, Benny. Where are all the language tourists? 2012. Web.
Mulcair, Amy. “Central America’s language tourism.” BBC. 28 February 201: 1. Travel. Web.
Wintle, Fabienne. Translating your tourism website in other languages – is it worth it? 2012. Web.
Tourism and Cultural Change Research Paper college admissions essay help
Introduction Cultural change is prevalent in virtually every part of the world. This change is highly influenced by cultural mix, which is brought about by tourism. Tourism brings people from different cultural backgrounds together. It ensures that cultural mix is achieved. Over time, cultural mix brings about change, which is usually gradual. Tourists visit various sceneries throughout the world. This ensures that they meet different people from varied cultural backgrounds.
In essence, cultural change is a result of tourism and media, among other factors. However, tourism plays a significant role in cultural change. Cultural change has raised concern over its long-term repercussions. For instance, a number of cultures have been swallowed by others considered superior. This has brought about cultural decay in various parts of the world. Cultural change is highly observed among the youths.
Furthermore, some cultures merge to form new ones. A number of countries have initiated plans to preserve their cultures. Moreover, some tourists go about exploring for unique cultures. These include the Maasai culture in Kenya and the Bushman culture in Namibia, among others.
It is therefore essential that cultural change be closely monitored with a view to preserving cultures that are beneficial to society. This paper will explore various articles on tourism and cultural change. It will also seek to establish its significance in tourism (Butler and Hinch45).
Tourism and Cultural change Cultural change is widely evident throughout the world. Various ethnicities have lost touch with their cultural backgrounds. Media is widely blamed for this change. However, tourism is also a big factor in cultural change. People from different cultural backgrounds meet in tourism industry. In the process, cultural mix is achieved as they try to move along.
This is highly evident among tourists that go for exploratory purposes with the intent of migrating to those areas. Once they migrate, it is only a matter of time before cultural change starts. Tourism; therefore, has a big influence on cultural change. It begins the onset of cultural change.
This is quite detrimental to inferior cultures. For instance, most western cultures have swallowed their superior counterparts. This has destroyed diversity and cultural prowess that was once magnificent. Moreover, the introduction of international languages like English, Spanish, and French, among others has worked to escalate cultural change. Tourism and cultural change are; therefore, inseparable since they complement each other (Loulanski 837-862).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scholarly article Cultural tourism in an ethnic theme park: tourists’ views
Yang’s scholarly article explores cultural tourism through the perspective of tourists. It looks at factors that affect cultural tourism on the side of tourists. The paper explores experiences of tourists in cultural tourism with a view to ascertaining factors that influence cultural tourism.
To achieve this, the author borrows from several sources like secondary sources, informal interviews, surveys, and observation to come up with quality research on the subject. In this regard, the author explores their views on cultural authenticity and experiences, among others.
From these results, the author finds that most tourists are more concerned with satisfaction than specific issues relating to authenticity of cultural assets. In essence, they are not concerned with the specifics of cultural change; instead, they are concerned with overall satisfaction and experience from tourist sites. This shows that less focus is placed on monitoring cultural change than on overall satisfaction.
That is, cultural change takes place unnoticed. The article also mentions that a number of tourists showed concern about misinterpretations, high costs, and poor service, among other issues in the sites. This shows perceptions and cultural differences between the visiting and the visited culture. In essence, the article gives experiences and views of tourists on cultural tourism. The paper is; therefore, well research with a view to establishing cultural changes caused by tourism (Yang 320-340).
Web article Authenticity and commodification in changing tourism trends
This article talks about issues of authenticities, which relates to culture commodification. The authors affirms that commodification of cultures is common in various sectors of the industry. In fact, she claims that this occurrence in culture is relevant in many destinations globally. She lists the numerous authors that have contributed to this topic over the years.
These include MacCannell and Shepherd, among other theorists. Moreover, she reviews the concepts of authenticity in the concept of cultural change. In addition, Bougot explores the advantages and disadvantages of culture commodification. Moreover, the article goes on to explore staged authenticity as a resistance tool utilized by some host communities. The article continues by stating its shortcomings in conducting literature review on cultural commodification.
Moreover, it focuses on the impacts of commodification in locals that reside in areas sites but are not actively involved in tourism industry. This shows how essential cultural change is to the tourism. It also shows the impact caused on locals by cultural change. This paper is well researched with a view to establishing commodification and authenticity trend s in tourism. It succeeds in doing this although it calls for further research on the same.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Tourism and Cultural Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author uses a wide range of sources to support her arguments. These sources are derived from credible texts that are important in strengthening her arguments. Moreover, she relates these trends to the modern tourism techniques like poverty tourism. In essence, tourism has led to commodification of culture (Bougot 1).
Opinions Group pushes cultural tourism
The article emphasizes the need for cultural tourism. It gives a detailed discussion of the need for a push towards cultural tourism. In fact, the author uses quotations to show evidence of the need for increased cultural tourism. In this regard, the author pushes for preservation of heritage to attract cultural tourism.
It gives examples of Filipinos who have worked towards preserving heritage for tourism purposes. Moreover, the author talks of the need to empower artisans as proposed by one of the members instead of saving them (artisans). Moreover, the author emphasizes on cultural preservation by mentioning the venue, which was chosen after its listing in the World heritage sites, this was done in 1999.
The author shares information from the forum in which they discussed ways of preserving world heritage for increased cultural tourism. Moreover, the author attributes need for heritage conservation to function as a medium for resolving conflicts, rebuilding post-disaster societies and resuscitating peacekeeping (Orejas 1).
The author also believes that preservation of heritage sites brings about many benefits to the community and its neighborhood. These include benefits in education, economy, and psychology. These are important in building strong relationships between individuals concerned. In essence, the author attributes peace building to preservation of cultural assets like heritage sites.
The author goes on to mention the fact that communities that preserve literature are important in attracting cultural tourism. In essence, the author emphasizes on the need for cultural preservation for the greater good of society. In this regard, the paper does not encourage cultural change as seen in other sections of the paper.
In fact, it emphasizes the fact that varied cultures promote cultural tourism. This is important since most communities have devalued their cultures and instead acquired other cultures to achieve tourism. This paper is well sourced since it is based on opinions of theorists and researchers on cultural tourism, among others (Orejas 1).
Popular information source The Impact of Culture on Tourism
OECD is a popular information website where materials related to tourism and economic developments are retrieved. The website has information on tourism and cultural change as it connects different countries with common objectives of economic development. Tourism plays an important role in economic development of these countries as they seek to increase their revenues. This article tackles impact of culture on tourism.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tourism and Cultural Change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It begins by lauding facts on the importance and presence of cultural tourism. In fact, it considers cultural tourism as the most increasing and biggest global tourism niche in the world. It then goes on to affirm the importance of culture in enhancing tourism. The paper also notes that creative industry is also partly involve in enhancing tourism.
Culture brings about attractiveness and competitiveness for promotion of tourism. The paper asserts that most locations around the world are actively improving both their intangible and tangible cultural resources to improve their suitability as tourism destinations. Moreover, this is aimed at bringing uniqueness in a globalized world (OECD 1).
The paper also goes on to explore effects of culture on tourism. Moreover, it examines the connections between culture and tourism. In this, the paper states that culture is one of the main driving factors in tourism industry. It states this because culture enhances the uniqueness and attractiveness of tourism destinations around the world. Likewise, it adds to the competiveness of these destinations.
However, this can be seen to bring about cultural change since the motivation is tourism and not culture. In essence, the paper concurs with the fact that the need for tourism has led to cultural change. That is, locations around the world are working to shape their cultures in a manner that would attract more tourists.
In this regard, change is unavoidable if tourism can be achieved. In fact, numerous locations have even opted to leave their cultures and strengthen others for tourism purposes. For instance, some communities that consider their cultures unattractive have acquired cultures they consider attractive to lure tourists. This is detrimental to culture because it promotes cultural decay (OECD 1).
Conclusion Tourism and cultural change are attached. Tourism influences cultural change. On the other hand, cultural diversity also influences tourism. For instance, some tourists visit people to learn their culture. In the process, there is cultural exchange with brings about change. Cultural change can also be attributed to other factors like technological advances, which has made tourism easy and fast. In addition, media and internet have played important roles in influencing cultural change.
However, it is essential to note that tourism has also contributed towards preservation of culture. This is evident in countries like Kenya and Tanzania where The Maasai culture has been preserved for tourism purposes. Nonetheless, this is quite rare because, more often than not, tourism brings about cultural change (Reisinger and Turner 112).
Works Cited Bougot, Claire. Authenticity and commodification in changing tourism trends. 25 Nov. 2011. Web.
Butler, Richard and Hinch, Tom. Tourism and indigenous people: Issues and Implications, Jordan Hill, Oxford: Elsevier Ltd., 2011. Print.
Loulanski, Tolina. “The sustainable integration of cultural heritage and tourism: a meta-study.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 19. (2011): 837-862. Web.
OECD. The Impact of Culture on Tourism. 2012. Web.
Orejas, Tonette. Group pushes cultural tourism. 13 Nov. 2012. Web.
Reisinger, Yvette and Turner, Lindsay. Tourism and Politics: Global frameworks and local realities, Kidlington, Oxford: Elsevier Ltd., 2011. Print.
Yang, li. “Cultural tourism in an ethnic theme park: tourists’ views.” Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. 9.4 (2011): 320-340. Web.
Tourism and Material Forms of Culture Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction The tourism industry has experienced massive growth over the years. It is one of the world’s principal businesses and has been sustained by the increase in international trade. Its contribution to the global GDP in 2011 was 9% with 255 million people working in the tourism industry (World Tourism and Travel Council 1).
Many people travel far and wide to see, discover and enjoy the culture and heritage of other people. In turn, it has led to civilization and peaceful coexistence among the world’s inhabitants.
Tourism has both positive and negative impacts in a community or region. Tourism helps in preserving traditions, financing the guarding of the customs and heritage, improving dialogue and mutual understanding and alleviating poverty. Its negative impacts include damaging of the heritage through depletion of resources if not well run and administered and social degradation.
Tourism has to be well managed to ensure sustainability in the long term. Preservation and enrichment of cultural tourism can be achieved through involvement and participation of local communities; formulating policies to guide the local governments or regions in managing their tourism sites and changing people’s attitude and perception of tourism.
Cultural tourism is that form of tourism that involves a country’s or region’s lifestyle, their history, art, architecture, religion and beliefs that aided in shaping their way of life. It is one of the biggest and fastest growing worldwide tourism markets. Cultural tourism has become very competitive and attractive and as such, many countries have taken a keen interest in it as a source for economic development. Therefore, they are vigorously developing and promoting their tangible and intangible cultural assets to ensure their uniqueness and attractiveness.
Each country has its own unique cultural attraction sites. In this research, four regions are described. The regions selected are Liab Klong Phraya Bunlea area in Thailand, Azerbaijan, Egypt and Brazil. The various forms of tangible cultural tourism in the regions are highlighted, their impact on the economic growth and how the local government is involved in ensuring sustainability of the cultures.
Forms of material culture Material culture can be termed as a form of culture that comprises all tangible, physical and man-made artifacts, objects, resources, items, spaces and expressions that define the past and modern day. Forms of material culture include buildings such as churches, temples, mosques, industries and temples; monuments; artifacts; goods and products; historic towns; archeological areas; landscape; and tools.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More UNESCO has tried setting a global structure for protecting the various forms of culture and heritage. Through the various conventions and declarations held since 1972, arts, monuments and different types of built environment have been protected (Robinson and Picard 18).
Research examples Liab Klong Phraya Bunlea community, Thailand
Tourism is a key revenue earner for the Thai Republic. The industry successfully developed due to the injection of more than ten thousand million baht to improve and ensure its growth (Buranakitti, Keraaatiburana, and Wata 86). Liab Klong Phraya Bunlea area covers Lad Bua Luang, Song Pee Nong and Bang Len districts.
The tangible cultural assets in the Liab Klong community comprise of archeological sites, native foods, traditional goods, raw materials and agricultural products.
In the three districts, the material forms of cultural attractions include a shrine of the city god; Rat Bua Luang, Tri Para Sima and Suttawat temples; Ya Mi Auk Koy Rot, Nu Rul Da Ya, Na See Rud Deen and Al Furqon mosques; Phraya Bunluea, Pisorn, Kwang Wat Tee, Lamrang Nong Plamor, Mekala, Mue Kong, Lak Chai and Ton Tan canals; products and goods from shells, coconuts, corn peel, flowers created from menthol and dried grass frames; and native foods such as preserved fruits, baked bagasse fish, coconut candy and crisp rice (Buranakitti, Keraaatiburana, and Wata 88-89).
From the examples given, it is seen that this community has many tangible cultural assets and therefore, preservation is of utmost importance.
The massive growth of the tourism industry has come with its own positive and negative repercussions. The standards of living of the people have tremendously increased. This is attributed to the income generated from tourism, both directly and indirectly. Despite this, nature, environment and culture have all been negatively affected.
To ensure proper management and conservation of tourism sites, the Thai government through the local government organization decided to engage the local community and entrepreneurs by holding seminars where ideas could be shared on ways of improving the community’s cultural sites.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Tourism and Material Forms of Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, it came up with a three year development plan (2010-2012) for promoting transport and all public utilities in the area; improving the education system and promotion of indigenous knowledge to preserve religion, art and culture; educating people on the significance of natural resources and environment through promotion of programmes for improving landscapes and eliminating waste products and coming up with a methodology for managing the income generated from tourism (Buranakitti, Keraaatiburana, and Wata 90). With all these efficient measures in place, the tourism industry in Thailand is set to blossom and grow.
Azeri culture of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan is one of the ancient nations of the world. It has many cultural monuments and works of art. Due to its location and different climatic zones, it is very attractive for tourism. Artists in the country decided to explore their abilities and creative skills and therefore came up with fine and rich works of folk arts.
The folk arts are used to exhibit the people’s way of life, their artistic tastes and the state’s image and significance (Baku Tourism Information Center 3). Other cultural assets include historic buildings and monuments such as Azikh cave, maze of alleys and remnants of fortification such as the Palace of Shirvanshahs and Maiden Tower.
The tourism sector contributes 10% of GNP, 8% of export and 8.1% of jobs (Bayramov, Aliyeva, and Mikayilov 1). However, the sector is unexploited. This is seen clearly when compared to Turkey which earned US$20.807 billion in tourism revenue in 2010. Cyprus made a profit of US$2 billion while Azerbaijan earned US$100 million (Bayramov, Aliyeva, and Mikayilov 2).
The sector is untapped and impeded by high costs of travel and hotel accommodation, poor service quality, low levels of tourism marketing and promotion, poor infrastructure, lack of skilled guides and interpreters, difficulty in visa processing and lack of travel guide books (Bayramov, Aliyeva, and Mikayilov 5).
To increase revenue generation from tourism, the Azerbaijan government should aim at improving infrastructure such as electricity, water, gas and proper sanitations; increasing commuter buses to tourism sites as well as providing traveling guides in the buses; construction of more restaurants in the tourist localities; building and improving hotels for accommodation purposes and ensuring the services offered are of high quality meeting international standards.
Since most historical spaces are closed, the government should ensure that these sites are refurbished and reopened to the public. Educating the local people on the ways of protecting their cultural sites and ways of earning income from tourism should be encouraged and lastly, the government should ensure that extensive marketing and advertising is done both internally and internationally.
Cultural tourism in Egypt
Egypt is an African country with numerous monumental landmarks making it one of the most popular destinations. Tourism is one of its major income earners. Examples of landmarks in Egypt are the famous pyramids (Giza, Sakkara, Dahshour, Abu Rawash and Mydoum); Luxor temple; the Sphinx; museums such as Egyptian and Coptic; Sultan Hassan Mosque; castle of Qaitbay; monastery of St. Paul and amphitheatre of Kom El-Dikka.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tourism and Material Forms of Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Egypt’s tourism sector was producing annual revenue of more than US$12 billion (Global Heritage Fund 3) with an economic growth of 7% per year (Reuters 2).
In early 2011, there were nonviolent demonstrations demanding for a change in government and leadership. This revolution hugely impacted on the tourism sector as fewer tourists visited the cultural sites due to fear of the upheaval. This led to a decline in the revenue generated by US$4 billion (Global Heritage Fund 3). Political stability has since prevailed after election of a new government.
In 2012, the economy growth rate was 2% and the number of tourists visiting Egypt in the first nine months stood at 8.8 million with an additional 4million expected by the end of 2012(Trade Arabia News Service 1). It is projected that the number of tourists will increase in 2013 to 15million (Trade Arabia News Service 4). The Egyptian government, through the Egypt Tourist Authority is boosting the tourism sector by funding and supporting festivals to ensure a continuous stream of tourists into the country.
Cultural tourism in Brazil
Brazil’s tourism economy is the fastest rising in Latin America. In 2011, the industry contributed US$79 billion to the GDP and 7.7 million jobs (World Travel and Tourism Council 1). The industry is boosted by the influx of tourists to its world heritage sites. These sites include historic towns and centers of Ouro Preto, Olinda, Sao Luis, Diamantina and Goias; Sao Miguel das Missoes ruins; Sanctuary of Bom Jesus Congonhas; City of Brasilia; Pantanal Conservation area and Jau and Iguacu National Parks.
However, Brazil’s tourism industry is hampered by the lack of adequate infrastructure such as airports, ports and hotels; poor service delivery and lack of properly trained workforce (Lohmann and Dredge 1).
With the FIFA world cup being hosted in Brazil in 2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016, the government is tasked with improving and increasing the airports, ports and hotels to accommodate tourists expected there in 2014. Moreover, the government has invested in the industry by increasing its funding by 5.2% and marketing tourism (World Travel and Tourism Council 4).
Conclusion The examples described above show the importance of cultural tourism on a country’s economic growth. Tangible cultural assets have become vital elements for promoting tourism. Proper management of cultural and heritage sites ensures sustainability of tourism and enhances economic growth. Involvement of local communities in protecting the cultural sites, offering quality services, good infrastructure and ensuring security of tourists are some of the factors that develop tourism.
Works Cited Baku Tourism Information Center. “Azerbaijan Culture: General Information on Azeri Culture.” Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Azerbaijan. 2012. Web.
Bayramov, Vugar, Leyla Aliyeva and Xalid Mikayilov. “CESD Policy Report on Tourism Sector in Azerbaijan.” Center for Economic and Social Development. July 2011. PDF file. 15 Nov. 2012.
Buranakitti, Sarinyarapat, Ying Keraaatiburana and Chakraphat Wata. “The Cultural Tourism Development Model of the Local Government Organization in Liab Klong Phraya Bunlea Community.” American Journal of Scientific Research. 58 (2012): 85-96. Euro Journal Publishing Inc. Web.
Global Heritage Fund. Heritage on the Wire: Egypt’s Tourism Sector Tumbles amid Violence. 2012. Web.
Lohmann, Gui and Dianne Dredge. Tourism in Brazil: Environment, Management and Segments. Routledge. 1 June 2012.Print
Reuters. “Egypt Invests in Tourism and Film Industry to Boost Economy.” Al Arabiya News Channel, 23 Sep. 2012. Web.
Robinson, Mike and David Picard. “Tourism, Culture and Sustainable Development.” United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2006. PDF file. 15 Nov. 2012
Trade Arabia News Service. Egypt Sees 12million Tourists in 2012. 15 Nov. 2012. Web..
World Tourism and Travel Council. Brazil is leading the Travel
Doing Business in India: Outsourcing Manufacturing Activities of a New Tablet Computer to India Report college admission essay help
Introduction The main aim of the report is to explore and state the conditions according to which it is possible to choose India as the most appropriate country for outsourcing in relation to the tablet computer industry. The justification of the choice is provided in the report with references to the criteria which are significant for operating within the industry successfully.
India can be discussed as the most suitable country for outsourcing because its labour market is characterised by the highly educated and skilled work force, high quality services provided, possibilities for cost savings, and developed technologies along with favourable government policies, and the fast growing infrastructure, and these factors can be considered as beneficial for implementing effective outsourcing policies (Bullen, LeFave,