Waste management involves collecting, transporting, processing, and disposing of waste. The sustainability aspect helps in enhancing maintenance of aesthetic, healthy, and ecologically sound environs. Effective waste management practices within the construction industry reduce environmental degradation, which affects both fauna and flora (Waste n.d.). There are numerous waste materials in the construction industry, especially solid wastes, which still lack a strong policy for disposal.
Therefore, construction managers ought to device suitable disposal techniques that can make the processes within this industry sustainable. Waste management strategies should be sustainable in order to create a cleaner environment, as well as conserve resources of nutrients, raw materials, energy, and water. Large construction projects produce wastes that construction managers must devise ways of mitigating.
Construction, demolition, and land clearing debris (CDL) that comes from the mentioned project require salvaging, recycling, and complete prevention (Ma 2011). Removing valuable and reusable construction resources prior to demolishing structures constitute salvage. In large construction projects, wood, cardboard and gypsum wallboard are highly likely to be the main eco-friendly materials that remain after work completion.
The reduction strategy identifies potential wastes at the constriction designing stage and devises effective and efficient prevention processes. After identifying how to prevent waste, a contractor goes further to identify salvageable wastes for donation, or reuse in the current or another scheme (Reducing Waste – Waste Management 2013).
These techniques are effective in reducing costs at which contractors will dispose waste materials. Besides, firms that give priority to waste management market themselves to numerous clients who have great interest in participating in programmes that keep the environment green. By recycling and preventing waste materials, contractors are reducing depletion of natural resources, reducing greenhouse gases and creating less pollution due to reduced manufacturing emissions (Ma 2011).
Most of the products in the constriction industries are solid in nature, and with the growth of urban centres, there are limited spaces to use as disposal sites. At the same time, energy is currently more expensive and raw materials are becoming meagre day-in, day-out. Notably, the aforementioned changes result in rise in pollution on water, air and soil, thus bringing into fore the need for modern systems of waste disposal, which are cost effective in the long-term perspective.
Climate change has forced all sectors to employ approaches that tend to minimize harm to the environment. In Australia, there is the National Waste Policy that the Waste Management Association of Australia (WMAA) together with the government has put forth to responsibly manage wastes in the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In its responsibilities, the WMAA ensures that all the approaches to waste management within all sectors are sustainable in order to keep waste production at minimum levels and encourage reuse of such resources several times. Australia aims to protect the environment from harm that can emanate from industrial products.
For example, in 2001, the country introduced the Product Stewardship for Oil Program (PSO) that aimed at encouraging environmental sustainability. PSO encouraged sustainability by offering incentives to oil firms to re-refine their used oil and re-use them, instead of disposing (Product Stewardship for Oil Program (PSO) n.d.).
The concept of sustainability remains a key topic in the 21st century, as nations grapple with different strategies to minimize emissions of greenhouse gases, reuse, or recycle wastes. Sustainability intends to facilitate the use of waste management processes and techniques that ensure that the current generation fully meet their objectives without compromising on the objectives of the next generation.
For instance, if a sugarcane company in Australia like Bundaberg Sugar uses bagasse to produce electricity that can run its internal operations, it reduces consumption of energy that is produced from fossil fuels (Bremner 2012). Therefore, in producing their own energy from sugarcane wastes, the company minimizes the amount of wastes that it disposes to the surrounding, as well as conserves energy by using energy produced from environmentally friendly components.
In Australian Capital Territory (ACT), construction and demolition activities produced close to 310,000 tonnes of waste consisting of dirt, asphalt, concrete, and timber (Sustainability: Think Green Every Day n.d.). In 2008/2009, the ACT was able to recycle over 90% of the demolition and construction wastes using numerous Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs). Notably, of the 310,000 tonnes of waste in 2008/2009, only 27,500 tonnes went into landfills, with the rest turned into valuable resources streams for local and regional use.
The ACT Government has worked towards reducing the amount of wastes that go to landfills with the aim of attaining zero net emissions by 2060 (Bremner 2012). The current resource recovery techniques intend to enhance sustainability. Wood and paper wastes, for example, are ideal resources for generating energy since they have high-energy content. Clearly, the waste management approach does not deprive the future generation of using the same form of energy given that it does not cause harm to the environment.
The ACT Government came up with the Sustainable Waste Strategy 2010-2015, aimed at achieving full resource recovery and a carbon neutral waste in all areas (Bremner 2012). In understanding that waste generation has been on the rise, the waste management legislation encourages reuse and reduce as ways of avoiding waste. In addition, recycle and recover form the aspect of alternative use of waste, while safe and appropriate disposal of waste becomes the last resort.
We will write a custom Essay on Sustainability and Waste Management in the Australian Construction Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sustainable waste management approaches are cost effective in cutting on the cost of disposing such waste products. Moreover, the fact that they do not harm the environment reduces involvement of firms in corporate social responsibility of conserving the environment. If the environment is highly degraded, companies in all industries will have to use more funds in restoring the environmental dynamics both at present and in future.
For example, recycling a tonne of plastic materials saves two tonnes of CO2 that could have gone into the atmosphere (Bremner 2012). Environmental sustainability has a direct link with waste management, as the process, if not managed well jeopardizes safe food, clean air, and clean water, which are basic human needs. In the end, improper waste management causes harsh effects for public health. If wastes are not managed properly, they pollute the environment, thus making it unsafe for human life.
Waste management techniques must inculcate the aspect of sustainability in their solutions. Development continues to be the main objective in all parts of Australia, but the development process must be sustainable in the manner in which they manage wastes.
There is need to create awareness among communities about the essence of recycling and recovering waste materials, as well as minimise landfill option in order to achieve a sustainable waste generation. As evident from the essay, generation of renewable energy from waste is a sustainable approach that the entire world should adopt to create a cleaner environment.
List of References Bremner, A. 2012, A study into commercial
Plague Disease Myths Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help
Plague refers to a disease spread by fleas which are infected by their hosts, in most cases rats. The fleas used to change host especially after the death of the rat, and the next host they preferred may have been human being. During that process, they infected humans.
Plague was first experienced in Europe in the mid of the fourteenth century when the first wave of the infection killed about twenty five million people. The infection continued spreading throughout Europe in the eighteenth century, and at that time the cause of the bacterial infection had not been ascertained yet. Upon infection, an individual experienced severe pain, and in a few days eighty percent of the infected people succumbed to death.
In one school, the plague killed twenty boys almost simultaneously. This caused other students to stay away from school as they opted not to attend it (Schoolmaster 1484). Considering the case in England, the plague was caused by filth in the streets and the sputum and dog’s urine which clogged the rushes on the floor of houses (Erasmus 1512).
The rich in the society managed to flee from the country, and as a result, the poor were the ones who were left vulnerable to the disease. This also happened in Paris where only a few porters and wage earners who resided there were left (Versoris 1523).
Johann Weyer wrote in his The Deceptions of Demons in 1583 that individuals also spread the deadly plague by smearing the gates to the city of Casale in Western Lombardy with a certain ointment that caused the disease. Thus, everyone who touched those gates was infected, and as a result died.
Unfortunately, the heirs of the deceased are the ones who made payments for the gates to be smeared so that they would have obtained a quick inheritance. This was the case at Casale where it was reported that people got infected by simply touching the gates (Weyer 1583).
Each and every household which was affected by the pestilence was immediately quarantined, and in the event of that person’s death in a specific place, the one had to be buried in that particular place. Furthermore, many people died because of hunger since the roads were under heavy guard to ensure that no infected individuals travelled from one place to another. (Staden 1571)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gold was used to meet the expense of pest houses so as to quarantine the infected while gallows were used to punish the violators of health regulations. In addition, the gallows were also used to frighten other people, and bonfires were used to eliminate the infected (Motto 1576). A particular woman whose husband had a fever was sure he would have died, but he was miraculously healed. He was fed by a piece of bread that had touched St. Domenica’s body. The bread was sent to him by Angelica. (Centennni 1624).
An individual really thought a lot about what would have happened in the event their household would have been invaded by the plagues. It was a tough time as everyone wondered who they would lose first to the disease, the daughter first or the son. It also happened that after the son had died, the daughter followed, and eventually the individual died as well.
Even in the season of severity, an individual would still have compassion and be charitable. Convalescents and servants of two pest houses were fed by a particular individual who also paid guards and gravediggers with alms sent to him/her by the lordships (Dragoni 1630).
The infected patients hung toads on their neckline so that their venom would draw out the poison of the disease within a few days (Roachas 1647). In Barcelona, there was a high demand for nurses who although called to serve neglected the patients in many instances and made them die quickly so that they could collect the agreed fee (Parets 1651). News was received that in Rome Italy it was now violent. People opted to refrain but four individuals opted to believe in providence rather than not see a fine place (Reresby 1656).
People feared to buy wigs with the assumption that the wings were obtained from the heads of people who died of the plague (Pepys 1665). The European nations including France, Holland, Spain and Italy prohibited ships from England. As a consequence, foreign trade and manufacture of goods declined causing a stoppage (Defoe 1665). The plague was believed to be a punishment from the gods due to the sins of the people and remedies were not considered to be available like in the case of ordinary maladies (Bertrand 1720).
The events happened from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century affected the whole of Europe (Clark
Public Health’ Social, Psychosocial and Economic Factors Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Referring to the recent lectures and examined readings, I have learnt that there is a range of factors influencing the public health, and these factors are social, psychosocial, political, and economic ones; thus, the public health is affected by the fact of living in rural or urban environments, by climatic changes, and by differences in ecosystems (Costanza 2012, p. 24).
I received the opportunity to think over such a significant fact that ecosystem influences the public health directly, but a man has the more influential effect on the ecosystem itself, and this effect is often negative that is why it is important to become ‘Earth Friendly’ (Landon 2006, p. 158). Furthermore, I have changed my vision about the role of living in the rural territories for the people’s health because today I know that many people living in the country suffer from depression, poverty, and even violence (Landon 2006, p. 183).
On the other hand, the life in cities is also challenging for people because they can suffer not only from the hazardous effect of the industrial pollutants but also from social isolation (Landon 2006, p. 183). At this stage, I can also think about the direct connection between the public health, environments, and policies because the effective policies can contribute to improving the public health (Costanza 2012, p. 24).
This knowledge is important for individuals because reflecting on aspects of living in the rural and urban territories, people can choose the places to live to improve their health and quality of life (Lopez 2012, p. 230).
Changes in ecosystems influence individuals complexly because, for instance, the extreme use of fossil fuels leads to air pollution and provokes asthma, and the use of fossil fuels leads to climatic changes which cause mental health because of the necessity to adapt to new conditions (Landon 2006, p. 157). Moreover, people with low incomes can choose to move to cities in order to avoid poverty because, for instance, poor quality of housing leads to poor hygiene and emotional stress (Landon 2006; Lopez 2012, p. 230).
This information is also related to the life in communities because, according to Lopez, communities are responsible for improvement of their ecosystems and for promoting their social capital (Lopez 2012, p. 228). Connections with the other persons are important for people to improve their mental health, and this idea is correlated with the discussion of negative effects of social isolation typical for many urban territories with high-rise buildings when the social balance is absent (Lopez 2012, p. 230).
Governments can also play an important role in improving the public health because, according to Baum, the liberal-democratic approach is effective to contribute not only to economic development but also to direct disease prevention and health promotion (Baum 2008, p. 73-74; Baum 2008, p. 383). Moreover, governments are responsible for developing policies to prevent negative effects of climatic changes which can lead to malnutrition and lack of resources (Landon 2006, p. 139).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The learnt concepts and ideas are also important for the future career because now I can refer to the concrete associations between the people’s psychological state and the environments where they live; thus, I can refer, for instance, to the issue of loneliness which affects depression, to inappropriate nutrition because of unemployment, or to the development of cardiac and respiratory diseases because of living in a city (An ensemble of definitions 1998; Landon, M 2006, p. 200).
To decide about the risk of infectious diseases, I should refer to the aspects of climate and social factors influential for the people’s health because poverty or the lack of water resources can lead to violating the principles of hygiene, for instance (Health A to Z 2013).
The knowledge about all the aspects of environments in which the patient lives is important for me to create the complete picture of the health risks for this person, with references to social, psychosocial, and economic factors which can seem insignificant for clients themselves (Health A to Z 2013).
Reference List An ensemble of definitions 1998. Web.
Baum, F 2008, ‘Health Economic Policies’, in F Baum (ed.), The New Public Health, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 371-388.
Baum, F 2008, ‘Politics and Ideologies: The Invisible Hands of Public Health’, in F Baum (ed.), The new public health, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 71-97.
Costanza, R 2012, ‘Ecosystem health and ecological engineering’, Ecological Engineering, vol. 45. no. 1, pp. 24-29. Health A to Z 2013, .
We will write a custom Essay on Public Health’ Social, Psychosocial and Economic Factors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Landon, M 2006, ‘Action at global and local levels’, in M Landon (ed.), Environment, health and sustainable development, Open University Press, Maidenhead, pp. 198-207.
Landon, M 2006, ‘Global climate change and human health’, in M Landon (ed.), Environment, health and sustainable development, Open University Press, Maidenhead, pp. 139-155.
Landon, M 2006, ‘The balance of ecosystems and human health’, in M Landon (ed.), Environment, health and sustainable development, Open University Press, Maidenhead, pp. 156-166.
Landon, M 2006, ‘The urban environment and health’, in M Landon (ed.), Environment, health and sustainable development, Open University Press, Maidenhead, pp. 183-197.
Lopez, R 2012, ‘Social Capital’, in R Lopez (ed.), The built environment and public health, Jossey-Bass, Hoboken, pp. 227-245.
Arguments against Young Marriage and Their Rebuttal Essay essay help online free
Counterargument #1: lack of experience The arguments against young marriages are quite convincing. For the most part, these arguments point at the current social flaws and the need to address them. One the arguments voiced most often is that young people have little to no experience in building relationships (Dahl, 2010).
Indeed, young people have little to no experience in creating a family. It is important to stress that creating a family means handling not only personal interactions, but also economic and financial issues, as well as share household responsibilities. Older people have already encountered problems of the kind and, therefore, know how to solve them, whereas younger people, presumably, do not.
Rebuttal: age-related prejudices
However, being old does not being mature, and the ability to solve complex marital issues does not appear out of nowhere once one reaches a particular age. Instead, such experience is acquired in the course of social interactions, which young people are engaged into to a greater degree than the ones that are older.
Researches have shown that younger people are more flexible in their approach towards sharing responsibilities and accepting new roles (Report on causes and consequences of early marriage in Amhara region, 2006) and can adapt towards the new environment much faster than older people.
Counterargument #2: Education and Career Another argument that addresses the significance of career is also legitimate (Bayisenge, n. d.). Indeed, in the present-day world, being educated and having good career opportunities means being able to provide for the family.
Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that people should first consider their education issues, evaluate their employment chances, consider possible career opportunities, and only then start relationships. Since the process of professional growth takes much time, for most business people, marriage is possible only when they reach the age of thirty (Bayisenge, n. d.).
Rebuttal: numerous opportunities of the XXI century
Nevertheless, the given statement is easily proved wrong by considering the opportunities that present-day education and employment spheres have to offer, particularly the opportunities for distanced studying and employment, as well as part-time employment (Goldin
International relations theories debate Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
States remain the core units in the study of international theories (IR), practices, and disciplines. The position of the state as the core unit of this study is not likely to change in the near future. When studying IR, state policy is the subject of several analyses. For instance, it is the state’s decision to go to war, to invoke trade restrictions, and to enact environmental treaties. In addition, it is the decision of the state to enter into any international agreements and to decide whether or not to abide to the stipulations that are spelt out by such agreements.
Even IR theories that do not focus on the importance of state will often touch on the relevance of a state’s practice. The study of IR concerns itself with the actions of the state, and the effects these actions have towards other states. States are often analyzed as common units when considering IR theories and practices. This essay argues that it can be assumed that formulation of theories in the study of IR necessitates the consideration of the state as a unitary actor that seeks to maximize its power or wealth.
All theories, be they in science, mathematics, psychology, and physics are aimed at simplifying complex concepts by making them explainable. Different theories can be grouped depending on the similarities of their assumptions. Any theory can only be confirmed after it has been tested.
Therefore, theories will take a long time before they are truly accepted in scholarly circles. Several theories of IR assume that states are the main elements in global politics. Theories that put states in the middle of international relations do not ignore the other elements that formulate IR. The rationale behind states being the main actors in IR theories is that it is almost impossible to propose a theory without having examined the singularity of the state.
By focusing on the analysis of the state as a single unit, international relations scholars usually hope to understand the mechanisms behind international politics. The advantages of using this approach often outweigh the disadvantages. The opponents of this approach argue that it is empirically beneficial to consider a wide range of factors and not only the state. In addition, it is argued that considering more factors enhances the research on international relations.
The debate on this aspect pits those who favor empirical advantage versus those who favor theoretical accuracy. In this case, realist theorists are pitted against non-realist theorists such as neoconservatives and idealists. However, focus on the simplicity of IR theories is more beneficial because theories are meant to simplify concepts as opposed to making them more complex using empirics. The structure of realism favors this concept.
Another reason why it is important to consider states as unitary actors is because it can be assumed that the needs of the states represent the needs of a particular society. According to realist theorists, the state is a homogenous unit with homogeneous needs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the state and its politics being unitary, eliminates the need for sorting out various elements of domestic countries. In addition, the state is considered as a single entity with a uniform political path. Realist theories are formulated under the assumption that national interest coincides with a state’s power.
On the other hand, non-realist theories operate under the assumption that national interest coincides with a state’s survival. In addition, non-realist theories assume that the state seeks to ensure its survival and the pursuit of power is only relevant when a state’s survival is at stake. According to realists, a state’s need to seek power stems from human nature. Consequently, this human nature helps in the definition and interpretation of a state’s actions.
Both power and survival occur at the state’s political level, and this is further validation of the realists’ argument. By considering the state and its actions as a central unit, it is possible to analyze several theories that touch on international politics. Most of the theories that oppose realist theories usually forward a more context-specific item of national-interest. For instance, there is a constructivist IR theory that has nuclear war avoidance as its main item of interest.
Therefore, such a theory claims that the national-interest of any state and its citizens is to avoid a nuclear war. However, realists can argue that this item is covered in the pursuit of military and economic power that is specified by realist theories. Most of the specific items that are focused on by non-realist theories relate directly to the state. Considering liberal and constructivist theories cover issues that fall under the state’s jurisdiction, realists conclude that it is simpler to analyze the state as a unitary actor.
States are sovereign units that have unlimited authority over the areas they cover and the inhabitants of those regions according to liberalist and realist theorists. Any decision that is made by the state applies to all citizens that live in that state. For instance, if the state decides to increase the import tax, all the citizens will feel the effects of this decision. The laws that are followed by citizens all around the world are dependent on the jurisdiction of particular states.
Even international laws are dependent on the states’ association with other states. The relationship between states is the fundamental principle in IR. Therefore, it is hard to analyze IR practices without considering the state as a unitary actor. The concepts of states, their jurisdictions, their relationships with other states, and their internal hierarchy are the main argument in neorealist theories.
These concepts also necessitate the consideration of states as unitary actors. The proponents of theories that dispute the position of states as unitary actors argue that sovereignty of these units is relative. According to this school of thought, the sovereignty of any state tends to rest on another unit such as a monarch, a parliament, or a group of citizens. These units ‘lend’ their sovereignty to states.
We will write a custom Essay on International relations theories debate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the argument about states being the units that regulate citizens’ actions is flawed. The opposing group argues that it is hard to assign sovereignty to a state without considering the other units of power within a state. The examples given to dispute states’ sovereignty include states whose policies are made by few elite individuals, democracies with power-wielding parliaments, and states that are ruled by a dictator. Even though the actual policy makers may vary, the state is still the symbolic bearer of power.
The technicalities that undermine the sovereignty of states are not enough reasons to dispute the position of states as unitary actors. The reason for this is because the units of power that are defined by non-realists are not recognizable to other states. For instance, the American congress cannot get into talks with the Queen of England even though the two are units of power within their states.
The state’s responsibility of speaking and acting on behalf of its citizens enhances its unitary actor status. Other actors such as non-governmental organizations lack this aspect. For example, a non-governmental organization cannot speak or act on behalf of its members. Moreover, the actions of such an organization do not necessarily bind their members. In addition, most of the other organizations attract membership voluntarily.
On the other hand, membership to states is involuntary and the actions of states are binding to their citizens. These unique abilities underline the central nature of states. The importance of state actors over other types of actors is the subject of their consideration as units of analysis when dealing with major IR theories.
There is a lot of criticism toward theories that are centralized on states being unitary actors. Several schools of thought dispute the notion that the only way to analyze IR theories and practices is by using the state-centric perspective. Several theories have been forwarded as rebuttals to state-centric theories. Some idealist, liberalist, and neoconservative theorists dispute the legitimacy of the concept of ‘national interest’. The concept of the state being a single entity that represents the interests of all citizens is disputed by idealists.
It is argued that the concept of national interest is ambiguous and self centered in nature. Considering the state as a single unit is a misleading concept according to opponents of this concept. The idea that one interest might apply to all citizens in a particular state is often criticized. This critique is based on the fact that in a single state, several people are affected by the same issue differently.
For instance, global warming is considered a national interest in most states across the world. The interests of the nation are said to represent the interests of its citizens. However, global warming does not affect all citizens in the same way. For example, global warming has made some areas warmer and therefore more suitable for farming while other areas are losing productive land as a result of its effects. This example successfully disputes the concept of national interest.
Realist theories are formulated with the concept of national interest as their central agenda. Non-realist theories are formulated under the assumption that most of the so-called national interests do not cover the interests of every citizen. Therefore, non-realist theories make use of special interest groups within a unitary state to better define the needs of different people within the society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International relations theories debate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Subdividing a society into several autonomous groups is said to eliminate the bias that is usually achieved by treating the state as a unitary player. However, this rebuttal fails to put into consideration some important points. First, even though states are not essentially homogeneous, their actions apply to all citizens irrespective of their sub-divisions. The other important thing to put into consideration is that refuting the legitimacy of national interest does not necessarily prove that a state’s authority is not important.
Reiterating the necessity to consider states as unitary actors in the study of IR does mean that all other approaches are false. However, theories that focus on this approach have made a better argument as opposed to theories that do not necessarily agree with this approach.
Theorists that favor consideration of states as unitary actors use the central nature of the state to study patterns in IR. This approach is also used to help states address their challenges and those of their citizens. In future, states are likely to remain as the central subjects in the study of international relations. This is in spite of the fact that some of the lesser actors are gaining importance in the international political arena. IR theories are not constant and they are subject to change.
Introduction to the speech The importance of states in the study of IR theories cannot be ignored. States are considered as important units when it comes to defining IR practices. This has often been the trend in the study of IR theories and practices. The success of this trend has seen it survive a lot of criticism from some IR theorists while it continues to enjoy support from others.
Today, our team will prove that IR study is based on the assumption that for the purpose of creating any IR theories, states should be considered as rational unitary actors that seek to maximize their power. I will now open the floor to our first proponent.
Conclusion to the Speech The position of the state in the study of IR cannot be ignored. The state is the unit around which several IR theories are formulated. Several of these theories support the consideration of the state as the central element in IR study. The support accorded to this approach is based on the fact that it simplifies IR study. It is also likely that this approach will continue to be used by IR scholars even in future.
Freedom and equality Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Freedom and equality are a prerogative of all the citizens in democratic states. The rule of law must be upheld and applied impartially to all the people irrespective of their color, race or social status. Oppression and discrimination of any kind must be eliminated to build a society that values freedom and equality of its people.
The use of state powers by the political elite is a source of oppression, authoritarianism and disregard of human rights, freedom and equality of citizens in such states.
States have used powers to oppress their citizens and as quoted by Kolin, the rule of political and economic elites which is oppressive must be abolished and replaced with a mass based democracy (94). He argues that the rise of the authoritarian state in the US, for instance, came as a result of collaboration between the presidency, Congress and federal agencies which worked together to oppress the citizens. Political elites have managed to consolidate their power through legal processes and institutions.
The growth of state power undermines democracy and the will of the people, as argued by Kolin “As state power grew, there developed disconnect between theory and practice of democracy” (94). Authoritarian governments established federal agencies, legal processes and other bureaucratic governmental institutions for consolidating state power resulting in political repression.
Emergence of state powers has led to the rise of authoritarian governments which have perpetrated inequality and infringement of citizens’ rights and freedoms.
According to Kolin, the US government has committed legal, political and social atrocities against its citizens at different times in history (138). Inequality takes different forms and, as explained by Chief Joseph (1) in his speech to the congress, oppressions of his people in his time included forceful eviction of civilians from their land, impartial application of the law and racial discrimination.
Further, according to Liliuokalani of Hawaii (1), his people joined the United States against their will and only consented because they could not match the power of the United States. According to Liliuokalani of Hawaii, the conquest contravened the basic rights and freedoms of the natives and their constitution by undermining the power of their local leaders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More State power has been used to oppress civilians denying them equality and basic freedoms. States should, therefore, embrace democracy and eliminate political elites who lead states to authoritarianism.
World trade center, what science and physics said about it? Use of state power to cover atrocities perpetrated by the government is wrong and must be discouraged. The American government through various state agencies was directly involved in the process of concealing vital data and information about the 9/11 attack. The report and findings submitted by the commission formed to investigate the incidence are inconsistent with many scientific theories and lack any scientific basis.
The analysis of the information released by the government about the 9/11attack and the collapse of World Trade Center 7 reveals two things: inconsistency with basic laws of physics and deliberate falsification of data to serve the government’s authoritarian plans.
In the video “Science and Ethics”, Steve Jones highlighted several scientific discrepancies in the report submitted by the commission. First, he argues that the nature in which the world trade center 7 building collapsed was inconsistent with the laws of physics. The collapse was fast, straight down and uniform and collapsed forming a pile of rubble despite the many steel columns used to reinforce the walls.
He argues that the “fire from the furniture, jet fuel and other organic sources in the building” was not enough to melt the steel bars reinforcing the walls. Secondly, the collapse of the building was symmetrical and took place seven hours after the collapse of the twin towers. The nature of the fall contradicted the “law of conservation of momentum” or the pancake theory which disagrees with the speed at which the building fell.
Thirdly, the government had insured the building two months before the attack, raising concerns that it might have been aware of the attack before it took place.
The government declared the areas around the attacked buildings safe despite scientific data showing the dust in the area was highly toxic. Heavy metals like asbestos and mercury were found in the soil around the area of attack. These metals are highly carcinogenic although the government declared the area safe ignoring the scientist’s reports.
We will write a custom Essay on Freedom and equality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government identified Bin Laden as the mastermind of the attacks. He came out a week later and denied the allegations although the government prevented the media from broadcasting his statement.
In conclusion, State power is a powerful shield the government uses to cover its atrocities and failures. Democratic states should set up structures to independently check the operations of the government to avoid excessive use of state power by the political elites.
Wars Wars have been used by powerful countries to extend their rule and force weak opponents to subjection. America has politicized wars and uses them to acquire political advantage, domination and extend its imperialistic plans across countries in the world.
The use of state power to promote imperialism, abuse of human rights and wars should be discouraged by all modern democratic states. American call for global peace is hypocritical judging from its contribution to such initiatives.
merica in the past has used its power to extend its imperialistic agendas across various countries in the world. According to Atwood (104), “America is the largest world imperial power” having orchestrated two neo colonialist wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. It has established military camps in 140 countries out of 191 countries under the United Nations.
Peace is a fundamental pillar of every democratic state but according to Atwood (133) “America is not a peaceful country that cannot avoid war at all cost” but war is an American tradition and a way of life. America is always ready to fight any nation that undermines its superiority having invested resources in preparation for war.
The double standards applied by the United States in pursuit of world domination are unimaginable. For instance, according to Atwood (159), in the fight against the Soviet domination, the United States armies through the CIA recruited 50,000 Muslim Mujahedeen volunteers, trained and supplied them with weapons to counter Soviet domination calling them freedom fighters. However, America has listed Taliban among the world’s terrorist groups for resisting its Afghan domination.
The political elites in the United States have used the country’s military power to colonize the world. According to canton antiwar speech against global wars condemned the act of the ruling class to exploit the middle class and called for global peace (Debs 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Freedom and equality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More United States should use global peace as a tool of spreading democracy and the rule of law globally. Wars and military interventions from the American armies expose the country to risks of external terrorist attacks and internal unrests from disgruntled citizens.
Works Cited Atwood, Paul. War and Empire, The American way of life. New York: Pluto press, 2010. Print.
Chief Joseph. “Speech to congress”. in W.C. Vanderwerth. Indian Oratory: Famous Speeches by noted Indian Chieftains, Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971, ISBN: 0-8061-1575-0, pp. 292. Print.
Debs, Eugene. “The Canton, Ohio Speech, Antiwar speech”. Ohio,16 June 1918. Print
Jones, Steve. “Science and Ethics” Youtube. Youtube, 22 May 2006. Web.
Kolin, Andrew. State Power and Democracy. New York: Macmillan Palgrave, 2011. Print.
Liliuokalani of Hawaii. “Official Protest to the Treaty of Annexation ” US congress, Washington D.C, 17 June 1897. Print.
India’s Broken People –The Dahlit Research Paper essay help site:edu
A video titled “India’s Broken People –The Dahlit” describes the lives of people, and a society which is separated by classes. Structural–Functional, Social Conflict and Symbolic Interaction social theories will be closely examined to determine an alignment with the Indian society and its norms.
In the Structural-Functional Theory, “the structures can be compared to organs or parts of a body”. This is especially true when looking at the people of India. Those who are on the “bottom” are forgotten, and their social status does not matter. There is abuse and hard work, just as for human legs that take most pressure and carry the weight of the body.
The geographical location or more specifically the physical environment that people live in and work, have a great impact on the financial status and have many influences on the reasons people live in poverty. This can be compared to a place of illness or pathology, as people are unable to get better without the help of the rest of the organism, which is the higher society. “The functions can be compared with the purposes of these structures”. This relates to the different divisions of society where each has a particular and important role.
The community affects the needs of the people, and the collective of people determines the relationship towards such community by the near districts. It is evident that businesses and companies that want to develop and prosper will not set up a location in an area that has low standards of living and high crime because of poverty rates. It is aligned with the support system of the social life because in case the society loses its base or “legs” it will not be able to “walk” towards progress and human rights, it becomes unreliable.
It is not a small portion of the population but the majority that feels repressed and violated. It is as if the legs have been injured, they must either be fixed or cut off. In this case, the poor have been simply “removed”, which did not resolve anything, on the contrary, worsened already deteriorated conditions. “A social system is composed of many interrelated and interdependent parts or structures”.
The society is like a single organism. Indian people are oppressed and this takes the whole system of society down. The “high” society needs people for labour or economy, social support and welfare of the nation. The inability to provide the medical assistance, leads to people being sent away. This shows that there is a significant disorganization with the healthcare system, and the country must change its practices and processes. People are getting ill, and this separates the classes even more.
Social Conflict Theory relates to the “exploitation of one class of people by another class”. This is particularly clear from the video because people are born into poverty. They are unable to move further up the ladder, as they are already “marked” by social “rules”. The conflict itself has deep roots within individual needs of people, social conflict and unique culture.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The only response that people have received were violent put downs of peaceful protests, brutal and unjust treatment. “Society consists of two classes: those who own the means of production (Bourgeoisie) and those who provide the labor (Proletariat)”. In this case, the rich get richer, as all the resources go to the elite of society. The rulers use the working class for one thing only, to get richer with lowest possible costs. One of the most important aspects of any national and working class movement is the organization.
The population must be educated on the current issues and unite with the common goal. The community affects the needs of the people and the collective of people determines the relationship towards such community by the nearby districts. It is evident that businesses and companies that want to develop and prosper will not set up a location in an area that has low standards of living, high crime and poverty rates. “Society is best understood and analyzed in terms of conflict and power”.
Here, the conflict is between those who are forced to the bottom and segregated, and those who hold all the power. Power gives strength which is used to regulate policies and laws, leading to low salaries for workers and abuse of the judicial system. The working class is forced to exist down below, as they have no voice and ability to spring to power. This type of life was existent before and is still continuing. People are very much limited by their resources and ability to voice an opinion that will be heard.
Symbolic Interaction Theory states that “society exists within every socialized individual”. From the video, it is possible to see that even those who are born into poverty know about the connection between people in their social class. They depend on each other to create a community of mutual understanding and help. The unfortunate fact is that while the majority of society is fighting for human rights there is violence and denial of just treatment within the society itself, from citizens towards other citizens.
Everyone wants to create their own society, aligned to their needs and wants. The theory also proposes that “we internalize social expectations, a specific language, and social values. We learn to share meanings and communicate symbolically through words and gestures”. This relates to the dialects that exist between different groups and classes, as well as the expectations of the high society for others to be of proper “symbolic” position in the society.
It is evident that the techniques that were used by the government could in no way establish communication or cooperation from citizens, but only led to further separation between people and politicians. This had become a symbol of the rich and poor India, as the communication is cut off, and officials believe that the problem will dissipate by itself. “From this we learn what is proper or improper, whether we are “good” or “bad”, who is important, and so forth”.
From birth, the people of India are hurt with a sad truth that they are “bad” and there is no place in society for them. Their living conditions and absence of opportunity grimly remind of their place in society. Discrimination has become an accepted negative symbol for the higher society, and segregation draws a line between those with full social advantages and those who are belittled and stereotyped, which in turn leads to people being outcast and forced to live in poor conditions.
We will write a custom Research Paper on India’s Broken People –The Dahlit specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The battle for human rights and between different classes has been prevalent for a long time. The conflict is between the government which has all the resources, power and control, and the social class that struggles to make ends meet and support the order and proper ways of life. The reality shows that there are many people who possess much more than is needed for the necessities of life, so social regulations must work to exclude such division.
Problems of Internet Addiction Disorder Problem Solution Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Brain Damage
Loss of Self-control
Loss of Interest in Life
Solutions to Internet Addiction
Brain Damage Internet addiction has many negative impacts on one’s life. The two major effects are brain damage and reduction in cognitive capabilities. Various researches have shown that individuals are better in reasoning and handling matters that require good cognitive abilities before they get addicted to the Internet.
Addiction to the Internet comes with a reduction in this ability since the Internet prevents one from thinking as it provides almost all the answers to their questions. Individuals tend to go ahead and search everything on the websites, including the simple tasks they used to handle on their own before getting addicted to the Internet. Another possible cause of a reduction in the brain capabilities is the kind of the materials that one is exposed to on the Internet.
Exposure to sexual materials makes one spend most of their time thinking about sex. According to the use and disuse law in science, it is only normal that the brain develops in the direction of use. In terms of sex and matters related to it, the individual addicted to pornographic sites on the Internet will therefore be way too good in sexual matters. This, however, comes with a negative impact as far as thinking about other life issues is concerned.
It is common knowledge that one may be seated in an exam room and, instead of thinking about the solutions to the questions, the mind is wandering as he/she is thinking of the last scenes seen on the Internet. The person also spends time thinking about when he/she will be free to use the Internet again. Some even go as far as escaping activities that could develop their cognitive abilities just to have a glimpse of the funny internet scenes (Young, “Caught in the Net” 34).
Violence The victim’s tendency to be violent increases since once an individual is addicted to the Internet, he/she becomes exposed to violent materials in the form of games and movies. In most cases, it occurs because they lose the ability to reason and handle matters using dialogue.
Thus, they think that using their muscles to iron out issues is better and much easier than sitting down to discuss them with anybody. A dialogue and other diplomatic means of solving conflicts are seen as a waste of time by those addicted to the Internet. The major reason behind this is that they will want to spend most of their time on their addiction rather than on other life issues, such as solving disputes between them and other human beings.
Some persons become violent because of the violent movies or pictures that they download from the Internet (Block 306). Almost every new action movie or picture downloaded from the Internet teaches the addicted individual a fighting skill. Unfortunately, most of these individuals are not professional wrestlers and they have nowhere to practice, and the only available area to apply their skills is on fellow human beings who have no idea of what is going on in the lives of the addicted.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They also find satisfaction from winning such violent wars as their victims do not possess the same skills. This motivates them and makes them watch more violent movies on the Internet to learn more fighting techniques. At the end of it all, they lose themselves in violence, as they develop high levels of violent behaviors leading to isolation, since people tend to avoid their company (Watts 88).
Loss of Self-control An individual addicted to the Internet loses self-control and other social abilities. Self- control is all about being able to use your brain to say No to some things and Yes to others.
Unfortunately, those addicted to the Internet lose this capability as they are not in a position to differentiate between what is good and bad in their lives (Damasio 42). Furthermore, addiction to the Internet comes with other addictions, such as pornographic materials, drugs, and masturbation. Once an individual has many addictions, he/she has no room to ponder on whether to be into actions related to the addictions or not.
A simple thought related to such persons’ addictions, or mentioning of the act related to their addiction, comes with a strong urge forcing them to repeat the act. This is indeed degradation of the social ability of individuals and their ability to control their lives. Eventually, they end up losing their lives in the addictions. The levels of violence are likely to go up, as analyzed in the previous paragraph, which has to do with temperamental issues. At times in life, all that is required of an individual is to control their tempers.
This will prevent one from indulging in regrettable actions, but those addicted to the Internet resort to other means of solving temper related issues. They only consider violence the best option to exercise in all circumstances. This is the reason individuals addicted to the Internet become more violent every day. If it happens that one loses their temper at the lowest agitation, they will therefore lose friends, and this will definitely impact their lives negatively (Martin 72).
Social Isolation Social isolation is also a major negative impact of being addicted to the Internet. Individuals are good in socializing before they get addicted to the Internet. There is usually a balance between social life and other life matters. This, however, comes to an end immediately after one becomes an Internet addict (Pinker 32).
Individuals addicted to the Internet will want to spend most of the time alone in closed rooms away from distraction as they want to give all their concentration to their addiction, since having friends around them may not give them a chance to give undivided attention to the Internet scenes.
We will write a custom Essay on Problems of Internet Addiction Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Friends tend to engage them in conversations that require concentration while they are using the Internet, yet they want to have all the time to surf the Internet. Thus, they develop poor relations with their friends, as they are not willing to follow the conversations with them and, in most cases, they take a lot of time to answer questions that are necessary to keep the conversations going.
When they finally answer the questions, the answers are usually wrong or kill the conversation, and with time, friends and family members lose interest in conversing with the individuals. The temper and violence issues also have a great impact on the individual’s social life. Nobody will enjoy staying around a person who punches them from time to time. All persons enjoy their peace and staying around calm people who can handle their tempers. Unfortunately, this is not the case with the individuals addicted to the Internet.
Loss of Interest in Life The Internet is a major issue in the lives of the addicted. They will spend a good amount of hours staring at Internet sites, reading funny materials, or watching silly movies. Addicted individuals will want to sacrifice every aspect of their lives just to have time to go through the Internet. Sleep becomes a thing of the past for these individuals. They go to bed with their laptops or Internet-enabled phones. All they do is chatting over the Internet with people they do not even know.
When caught up with sleep, they go out of bed to wash their faces. They do their best not to fall asleep easily, thus having more time to chat with their so called “friends”. For married couples, addiction may cause breakups or even divorces in extreme cases (Young, “Internet Addiction” 7). This happens when one partner finds it difficult to stay around the addicted. For instance, an addicted individual will laugh in the middle of the night just because of an interesting chat or scene on the Internet.
They end up waking up their partners in marriage, and with time, their partners will want to sleep alone in separate beds just to have some sleep. This way, the sexual contact, or even the romance, that is meant to keep a couple together disappears. The addicted individual may find sexual satisfaction from the Internet pornographic scenes forgetting that they have partners who need them. This is another reason as to why married individuals end up cheating on their partners.
It is common sense that if one cannot get what they want from their partners, they will look for it elsewhere. Eating is also a thing of the past for individuals addicted to the Internet since they eat less quantities of food, and with time, they become emaciated and lose their strength. A truly internet addiction is a vice that kills all the other aspects of one’s life (Dijik 46).
Solutions to Internet Addiction Feasible solutions refer to methods that can be used to solve the problem and that will provide a desirable outcome. These solutions are;support from family members and rehabilitation of the addicted individuals. Family members, friends, and other people in the lives of the addicted have a big role to play to help them out.
Family members and friends can create social events that make the addicted forget about the Internet for some time (Wallace 39). They can take them for swimming, mountain climbing, or enjoyable picnics. It is always advisable to replace bad addictions with good addictions like jogging, playing chess, or scrabble. Such activities will see the addicted spend less time on the Internet, and later on, they will be out of their trap.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problems of Internet Addiction Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rehabilitation centers can also be attended by individuals who really want to overcome their addictions. At the centers, they will be taken through therapies that are likely to reduce their level of addiction (Welch 99). They may be treated with the help of music play lists, positive games, or even lessons that discourage them from using the Internet.
The use of mobile phones that are not Internet enabled is another way of fighting the addiction. This means that the individuals will only use the Internet when they get to cyber cafes or their computers. Indeed, Internet addiction is a vice that can take away an individual’s life, if not done away with at early stages, and thus dealing with it is a worthy endeavor.
Counseling is also another step that can be taken to ensure that the addicts are saved from their obsession. This process involves getting a psychiatrist to talk to the addicted individuals so as to understand why they prefer the Internet compared to the normal social life. Sometimes, people end up being addicted to the Internet due to unsolved psychological issues that can be dealt with by the psychiatrist.
Works Cited Block, Jerald. “Issues for DSM-V: Internet addiction” American Journal of Psychiatry 165.1 (2008): 306–307. Print.
Damasio, Antonio. The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York, NY: Mariner Books, 2000. Print.
Martin Paul. Sex, Drugs
Business Case Analysis: MySpace Company Case Study cheap essay help
MySpace.com Company: A Brief Background In the recent past, the number of companies operating in the social networking industry has risen exponentially. The rise is attributed to, among others, the increased growth in information and communication technology (ICT). The companies operating in this field include, among others, Facebook, Linkedln, and Twitter.
Facebook is perhaps one of the largest and most dominant of these companies. MySpace is another company operating in the global social networking industry. Currently, this company has approximately 125 million users (CrunchBase, 2013). The site provides internet users with a platform to connect and share with each other with regards to culture and content.
Compared to other companies operating in this industry, MySpace is a relatively old company. It was a leading player in this industry in 2005. In spite of this long history, there are several issues that are currently facing the company. When the company was started, the founders wanted to exploit the socializing potential among internet users. However, the economic potential of the company was only realized when it was purchased by News Corporation.
In this paper, the author carries out a critical analysis of the company from a business perspective. A number of frameworks, theories, and concepts that were introduced during the semester are used in this analysis. The problems facing the company, as well as the underlying causes of these problems, are analyzed. Finally, recommendations are made to address these issues.
MySpace.com: A Detailed Company Analysis Key Issues Affecting MySpace.com
When it was acquiring MySpace, News Corporation was hoping to make profits from the venture. However, MySpace is facing a number of critical issues that News Corporation needs to address if the envisaged returns are to be realized. The key issues include, among others, the following:
Competition from other social networking sites. The industry is saturated with many players offering similar services. The competitors include AOL, Yahoo!, and Facebook.
The need for the company to generate revenue through advertisements, especially from the big brands in the global market.
The need to enhance user confidence in the site, especially with regards to content.
The need to strike a balance between revenue generation and user satisfaction.
Keeping up with changing trends in the industry. Such changes affect access platforms and the generation of user friendly features.
The need to transform the users of the site into customers, or at least make them potential sources of revenue generation.
Analysis of Key Business Issues
It is noted that MySpace has an outstanding potential for generating revenue through social networking platforms. However, the issues the company is currently facing can easily lead to its demise. Opportunities for the company are immense, but the management is unwilling or unable to exploit them.
Marketing strategies and decision-making processes are major impediments to growth and future direction of MySpace. Upon acquisition, it was realized that the marketing objectives of existing MySpace managers differed significantly with those of News Corporation technocrats.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management at News Corporation is more concerned with generation of profits. However, the founders of MySpace are more concerned with user satisfaction. Both dimensions are important. However, the varying objectives may result to losses. Intense focus on customer satisfaction may render the company unprofitable. On the other hand, intense focus on revenue generation may lead to low quality services. Such services may push users away from the site.
The ethical issues surrounding the services offered by MySpace are critical to the company’s business model. Majority of MySpace users are youths. Their parents and guardians are worried about glorification of sex and drugs in the site. The system does not clearly define the nature of the content promoted.
Recommendations Several measures can be taken to address the issues facing MySpace.com. Decision making should take the center stage in the operations of the company. The management and the development teams should be separated. The decisions made by MySpace developers and News Corporation should be harmonized to come up with shared objectives for the company.
The company’s value chain also needs to be addressed. According to Laudon and Laudon (2013), the company is currently using the push-based supply chain model. The model predicts customer demands and then pushes products to them. Developers of MySpace should also desist from focusing solely on customer satisfaction. The management at MySpace should provide services targeting the predicted customer demands. The management should also make efforts to increase revenue generation without compromising quality of services.
The internet is changing at a very fast pace. As such, focusing on one aspect of an online business, such as customer satisfaction, can result to losses in the long run. Speedy exploitation of online opportunities is paramount. Failure to do this gives competitors an edge in the market. As such, the need for revenue generation at MySpace should be balanced with the need for customer satisfaction.
Enhanced management of customer relations and clearly defined user policies will boost the confidence of the customers. However, the policies should not stifle business. Lack of clear boundaries in with regards to content can endanger the survival of MySpace in the industry.
References CrunchBase. (2013). MySpace. Retrieved from https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/myspace
We will write a custom Case Study on Business Case Analysis: MySpace Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Laudon, K.,
American Education Reform Problem Solution Essay college essay help
The vision for all children, regardless of their societal setting, should be to receive meaningful education that prepares them for responsibilities, opportunities and challenges that lie ahead, in order to have a significant impact in not only their societies, but also the international economy.
It is for this reason that the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and their affiliates continue to push for Common Core State Standards (CCSS), though their efforts lack the support of policymakers, who are fixated on the use of standardized tests for the purpose of accountability.
Following the enactment of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in 2001, more attention was given to fulfilling the needs of students by employing CCSS and assessments to evaluate student and school performance. However, this system left educators as the only party responsible for the performance of students and schools, while policymakers set out to increase the number of standardized tests administered to students as a way to benchmark their performance levels and set prerequisites for graduation or promotion.
Educators acknowledge the importance of measuring student learning through the appropriate use of standardized testing and logical accountability measures, though they continue to assert that there should be proper balance between teaching and testing. As such, reforming the American education system requires a lot of work to be done, beyond the administration of regular assessments, through professional development, aligned curriculum, and access to resources for educators to advance their knowledge and collaboration efforts.
One of the requirements of the NCLB is the administration of standardized testing in all 50 states on an annual basis for all students above the third grade. These tests are motivated by the notion that students will feel increased pressure to perform well, owing to the eventual reward or punishment, which will then increase their learning and achievement.
The use of tests is vital for monitoring student learning, but the current accountability system under the NCLB Act has brought about serious implications including: reduced attention to critical elements of the curriculum that are not mandated to accountability testing, compromise of student learning time to test preparation and testing, and the shift of educators attention to attaining a minimum score as opposed to gaining knowledge.
Popham (11) claims that the use of a test-based accountability system is rational since it provides educators with a means to assess the comprehension level of their students, though the absolute reliance on this strategy obstructs proper teaching and learning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lunenburg (2) argues that high-stakes testing does not increase student learning. Instead, it interferes with student motivation and narrows the curriculum as teachers provide instruction based on the appropriate response to test questions.
This is done at the expense of vital skills traditionally provided in schools, including problem-solving, critical thinking and group work. In the last decade, the time spent on test preparation and testing has increased drastically, in similar proportion to the lost instructional time and additional testing expenses.
Proponents of more testing argue that the improved rate of student achievement, owing to additional tests, outweigh the extra costs of testing or money paid to testing companies, and fail to realize that the increase in number of ‘bubble students’, or those whose scores are concentrated at the minimum score, compromises the development of every student’s full potential (Nelson 8).
There are different kinds of assessments administered in schools, including those mandated by the state and those developed at the district level, though the recent focus on data reporting and analysis has made all assessments high-stakes assessments with implications for students, schools and teachers.
State tests mandated by NCLB are aimed at determining whether the students are satisfying state standards on an annual basis, and are administered in the spring to sum up the school year. The test scores are then compared to those of previous years in order to determine the effectiveness of a school. However, Lunenburg (3) argues that the use of a single summative test score to assess student achievement is flawed as it does not reflect on the progress of the students.
A study performed by Nelson on two mid-sized urban school districts revealed that students in grades 3 to 10 spend between 20 and 50 hours every year taking high-stake tests, and an additional 60-110 hours preparing for those tests. In addition, an estimated cost of $6.15 for every lost instructional hour translated to an annual testing cost of about $700 per student.
However, this study did not take into consideration a variety of other time and testing costs including: cost of test prep materials, the teacher’s non-classroom time spent preparing the test, time and cost of special education testing, cost of preparing hardware and technology for testing, and time spent on data reporting and analysis.
We will write a custom Essay on American Education Reform specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other costs not incorporated in the study are those pertaining to time spent by students on quizzes or teacher-made tests, and the time spent on assessing homework and grading tests (Nelson). Nonetheless, Nelson (27) observed that the scrutiny of current testing policy, in regard to budgetary costs, would spark policymakers to consider alternative uses of teacher and student time, like allocating more time to non-test subjects in the curriculum.
According to the study performed by Nelson, the abolishment of testing would free up between 20 and 40 minutes in every school day for most grades, and in some cases, add an entire class period for students in grades 6-11. Furthermore, it would be possible to relocate about $100 of the amount used on every student for testing to buy instructional programs or provide technology.
According to Nelson (28), reducing the time and costs of testing by even half of the current levels would still produce considerable benefits to the learning school day, and create funds for the preparation of tests that are better suited to enhance knowledge acquisition, and even increase the access of teachers, students and parents to valuable resources and information.
In the recent past, different states have started to acknowledge the pleas of educators to focus less on excess-testing and more on imparting meaningful knowledge. The Texas legislature, for instance, decided to slice the amount of high school end-of-course mandated exams for graduation from fifteen to five.
On a similar note, the New York Orchard Park Central School District proposed that the 2013 state assessments be used in evaluating the progress of the state in introducing the CCLS, as opposed to assessing the performance of students or the effectiveness of educators (Popham).
According to Popham, the level of poverty in the communities where various schools are situated does not serve as an indicator for the quality of education or instruction that occurs in the classroom but has the largest impact on the variation of test scores from one institution to the other. Besides the amount of wealth in the community where a school is located, the resources available in that school also affect its performance and test scores; hence the distinction in the scores of Beverly Hills’ schools and those in Birmingham.
Using test scores to evaluate teachers is erroneous since the scores of the students are only partly dependent on the kind of education that they receive. These scores are also a reflection of the interference of the community on the student’s education, long before the child interacted with the teacher in the classroom (Popham).
The results obtained from high-stakes tests inform the state of the resources available in a school, and the socioeconomic status of the community, but not about the quality of education provided within those schools. If standardized tests continue to be administered, the outcomes of those tests should be provided to parents, teachers, school districts, and other relevant parties for accountability purposes instead of using them for research and intricate systems for evaluating schools and teachers (Lunenburg).
Not sure if you can write a paper on American Education Reform by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the purpose of testing should be to enhance instructions offered to students and assist in improving schools, rather than to sanction, punish and shut down schools. It is not rational to issue tests to students for the sole purpose of determining the impact that their educators have on imparting knowledge.
A measure of achievement should be one of the components used when assessing the school. Nelson (31) suggests that state and school districts should evaluate the cost implications of the entire testing and assessment systems employed in typical school districts, including the cost and time for test preparation and lost instructional time.
Nelson also proposes the incorporation of support measures to enhance the evaluation literacy of teachers that is required for improving and employing classroom assessments, as well as the appropriate utilization and interpretation of formal tests. It would then be the responsibility of the state to hold teachers accountable for employing the best assessment practices.
It is important that all parties concerned with testing students to determine their progress or check teacher and school effectiveness to streamline their processes.
To achieve this, school districts should include educators in the evaluation of testing systems to establish their usefulness in improving teaching, and in so doing, abolish any assessments that are not meaningful. In the effort to promote student knowledge acquisition, it may also be advisable to either reduce or abolish interim testing since they have no useful impact in promoting the teaching process.
Nelson claims that these tests are exceedingly complicated, confusing, and do not reflect the state standards, but instead lead to an increase in “bubble students” and mediocrity. While in this process, it may also be advisable to do away with redundant, obsolete state tests and establish Common Core assessments designed by PARCC (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers) or SBAC (Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium) as the only state-mandated assessments.
In conclusion, teachers should embark on processes that allow them to drastically reduce the time spent on assessment preparation and benchmark testing. This can be achieved by shifting their focus from administering old tests to gaining new skills and knowledge that is vital for executing the Common Core standards in a setting that does not motivate learning through the promise of reward and punishment.
Another way to save on time and costs is to embed assessments in instructional materials. This can be achieved through challenging tasks and projects that require students to engage at their own pace, and use brief tests to check their comprehension in the course of the training schedule.
Works Cited Lunenburg, Fred C. “America’s Obsession with Student Testing: Costs in Money and Lost Instructional Time.” International Journal f Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity 15.1 (2013): 1-4. Print.
Nelson, Howard. Testing More, Teaching Less What America’s Obsession with Student Testing Costs in Money and Lost Instructional Time. Washington, D.C: American Federation of Teachers, 2013. Print.
Popham, James. Classroom evidence of successful teaching, mastering assessment. Boston, MA: Allyn
What Attitudes, Beliefs, and Assumptions Correlate with Individual Support for Hate Crimes Directed at the Muslim Community Post September 11, 2001? Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Problem or Objective
Subject for Study
Introduction Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, Muslims have become victims of hate crimes because of the attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions that link them to terrorism. According to various academic research publications, counter terrorist groups and other Muslim groups including the Metropolitan police, there were about 962 Islamophobic offenses in London in early 2009 (Umbreit, Lewis,
The Role of Melatonin in Determining the Sleep-Wake Cycle Expository Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Melatonin and Sleep
Regulation of Melatonin
Introduction The pineal gland that is positioned in the brain produces the hormone melatonin (Blask, 2009). Melatonin plays a significant role in the circadian control of sleep as well as in restraining the development of malignant cells. In addition, melatonin improves the performance of the immune system (Blask, 2009). This paper is a patient education material on the role of melatonin in determining the sleep-wake patterns.
Melatonin and Sleep The human body undergoes regular cycles every twenty-four hours. These cycles, which entail sleep, secretion of certain hormones and regulation of body temperature, are referred to as circadian cycles. The suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus contains a rhythm-creating system that regulates the secretion of melatonin (Jarvis, Russell
Facing the problem of market positioning for Qatar Airways bran Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Statement of the problem
The current research addresses the problem of positioning of corporate brand of Qatar Airways through strategies for improving customer satisfaction. This problem is significant since brand development and brand management encompass one of the important aspects for making an organization gain global competitive advantage
Purpose of the study and delimitations Purpose of study
The purpose of this study is to aid in resolution of the problem of determining ways of positioning the corporate brand of Qatar Airways through strategies for improving customer satisfaction. It seeks to draws knowledge from the body of literature on techniques of marketing research and their applications in solving marketing problems and formulating marketing strategies in helping to resolve likely marketing problem of positioning the corporate brand image for Qatar Airways
Limitation and delimitations
In the quest to achieve this concern, this research has a major limitation since it uses a small sample size (34 respondents). However, this limitation is countered by random distribution of questionnaires to persons of different demographical characteristics so that the responses to questionnaires reflects general customer views about Qatar airways
Research findings such as Wirtz and Chung Lee (2008) and Yelkur (2007) contend that customer satisfaction comprises one of the most important aspects for incorporation in the marketing planning strategies for organizations considering global growth plans as a measure for securing competitive advantage. Qatar airline is one of such companies
It is hypothesized that Qatar Airways has poorly positioned its corporate brand Image by building strong local customer relationships, but insufficient customer relationships to global clientele. Various factors and variables may affect satisfaction of consumers depending on the industry within which a business operates. For the airline industry, it also hypothesized that independent variables such as product (which include services, quality and brand image) offered by Qatar Airways affect perceived satisfaction and hence customer satisfaction.
Literature review Research on the best strategies for positioning cooperate brand of an organization has yielded huge body of literature on organizational brand inventories and brand elements to induce customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is a critical element of retention of existing clients for an organization coupled with attraction of new ones (Yelkur, 2007).
Customers possessing good organizational reputation share it with other people. This aspect creates the urge amongst potential customers to experience the service or product offered by an organization. Brand inventories are aimed at availing comprehensive profile of the manner in which products coupled with services that are sold by a given organization are branded and marketed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hill and Ettenson (2005) note that profiling a product or a service “requires marketers to catalogue visually and in writing various products or services sold, the names, logos, symbols, characters, packaging, slogans, or other trademarks used” (p.86). Outcome of any product profile requires accuracy, high precision, comprehensibility, and reflective of the status of a product or service brand for a given organization.
Brand inventories should highlight the brand elements utilized to build brand loyalty and the manner in which this goal is accomplished coupled with how it is reflected on any necessary marketing program. Qatar Airways’ competitive brand profiling is done to unveil the probable points of difference coupled with points of parity. In these extents, brand’s inventory is valuable at Qatar Airways, as it helps in determining the platforms anchoring customer perceptions.
A brand identifies and distinguishes an organization from other organizations even though two or more organizations offer similar products or services. Organizations not only sell products or charge for their services, but they also sell their brands (Hill
Introduction to Clinical Trial Research Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Criteria for patient inclusion
Introduction This is a review and critique of the Wonder Drug Protocol based on its design, objectives, criteria for patient inclusion, study procedures, and safety and efficacy parameters.
Design Before the beginning of any clinical study, the research team and the sponsor must ensure that several components of the study are in place (World Health Organization, 2002). The study must be accurate and efficient in terms of design. It is imperative to balance all aspects of the business and scientific validity of the trial.
The Wonder Drug Protocol used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and a parallel group design (Spilker, 2000). The main objective of this study design is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Wonder Drug in patients who have a mild to moderate severity condition of probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
The design aims to demonstrate similar primary and secondary efficacy measurements, which would be the same as those used in other cases of anti-dementia trials. A good clinical trial research design provides objectives of the study design. This protocol has a clear objective for the study. The objective acts or provides guidance on primary and secondary endpoints for assessment during the study.
The protocol provides the aim of the clinical trial research at a 5-center phase II. The process involves screening of AD patients followed by a random process of assigning either a placebo or Wonder Drug everyday for 40 weeks, which would consist of 30 doses. The design indicates that half the patient will take placebo and the other half will receive the Wonder Drug. It also shows that the study shall be performed in one, three, and six months after the baseline.
This is adequate information that can answer pertinent research questions. However, the protocol does not provide any schematic diagram of the study design. The protocol shows the study duration after the baseline and sequences of administering both the placebo and the Wonder Drug.
The study design shows the amount of dosage for AD patients, dosing regimen for patients, packaging of the Wonder Drug in 5 mg tablets, and labeling of the drug as scratch off labels for all experimental drugs. It also shows that the drug shall be administered orally. These are requirements in a clinical trial study design, and this protocol clearly captures them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It also shows drug storage and accountability, as well as dispense of medication. The protocol insists that the placebo and experimental drug must be stored in a locked cabinet with restricted access. At the same time, the place must have favorable conditions in terms of light and temperatures. There is also drug accountability during shipment, which requires acknowledgment. This must cover per patient administration and visits before and after the drug return.
The Protocol provides follow-ups of adverse events. The study investigators shall follow up all patients who exhibit any adverse cases until the condition ends, becomes medically stable, or until when the patient can no longer be reached for follow-ups. The protocol also shows that all participants who stop the study because of adverse outcomes shall receive medical attention as provided for in the treatment of participants based on the outcome of the study. It will sufficiently document and report all cases for further evaluation.
A study design should also indicate when participants should discontinue participation in the trial. For instance, the Wonder Drug Protocol shows that a participant may discontinue the trial in cases of laboratory test abnormalities. In this case, the laboratory outcome may indicate abnormal ranges.
Such patients may only continue the study at the discretion of the investigator. Laboratory technicians must monitor outcomes and report to the site in case of adverse results outside the required ranges. The investigator must make decisions that involve the patient continued participation or further tests.
The study design also accounts for patient confidentiality. It will adhere to the Declaration of Helsinki and Institutional Review Board (IRB) guidelines. All stakeholders in the study affirm that they shall maintain patient confidentiality, patient’s rights and protect patients against any form of violation.
In this study, all patients shall have unique identification numbers and initials of their names for reference purposes. Data analyses shall use a blind technique to protect patients’ identity. In case of any review of participants’ details outside the informed consent, the Protocol recommends a written permission from the participant. The sponsor and the investigator have recognized serious consequences that concern overlooking of ethical responsibilities in clinical trial research.
The study design identifies possible risks and provides steps to mitigating such risks. It has safety, risk, and adverse event provisions. In these cases, outcomes may warrant termination and treatment of participants.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Introduction to Clinical Trial Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The protocol also recognizes that death may be an adverse outcome from the trial. Risks may also involve patients’ withdrawal of consents, noncompliance with the protocol, loss of a responsible caregiver to facilitate visits, and in cases where a sponsor terminates the project. The protocol does not provide methods of mitigating all these risks.
While clinical trial research may have some benefits to participants in terms of monetary compensation or treatment, this study design fails to account for availability or lacks of any benefits to study participants. Sponsors, investigators and other stakeholders should clearly indicate benefits associated with the study trial.
Objectives A clinical trial research should have a detailed description of both primary and secondary objectives and purposes of the study. The protocol meets this criterion by providing both primary and secondary objectives of the study trial.
The primary objective of the clinical trial research is to assess the efficacy of the “Wonder drug in improving both the cognition and overall clinical functioning of patients with Alzheimer’s disease” (Darn Good Drug Company, n.d). Further, secondary objectives of the project are to “study the efficacy of Wonder drug in improving activities of daily living (ADL), and in reducing depressive and behavioral manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease patients” (Darn Good Drug Company, n.d).
However, this protocol does not discuss any issues that relate to the study feasibility. Moreover, there are no details about resources, skills, and experiences of key figures in the study. The protocol also does not indicate any pilot study information prior to this study.
Criteria for patient inclusion A good clinical trial study must include participants’ inclusion and exclusion criteria. In most cases, women of childbearing or breastfeeding tend not to take part in several studies. Generally, pregnant women should not take part in clinical trial studies, unless there is a clear reason for including them.
Investigators tend to recruit people of different ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic backgrounds to ensure that study benefits are evenly distributed among participants. This study has several inclusion and exclusion criteria to meet unique requirements of the Wonder Drug and placebo.
The first mandatory inclusion criterion for participants in this study is the informed consent, which both the participant and caregiver must sign before taking part in the study. The study would include women and men aged 50 years and above, and women must be surgically sterile or have two years of post menopause. No pregnant or lactating woman shall take part in the study. There were also specific tests and evaluations, which study participants, had to meet.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Introduction to Clinical Trial Research by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On exclusion criteria, the study did not include participants with any other critical neurological disease apart from AD. Moreover, investigators excluded alcoholics, substance users, and people with cases of schizophrenia. These procedures were guided by laboratory test outcomes.
Clinical trial participants are mainly volunteers. The protocol fails to show whether participants were “forced, coerced, or enticed into participating by the desire to please one’s doctor, get excess money, or misleading promises of a cure of an illness” (Medpace Clinical Pharmacology, n.d). These are wrong practices in clinical trials, which do not define a research participant as a volunteer. Volunteers also have the responsibility of ensuring that they satisfy all research entry criteria.
This is the inclusion and exclusion criteria in clinical trials. It defines research terms and provides characteristics of people who should or should not take part in the clinical trial. The criteria could include age, weight, disease states, medication, sex, socio-economic background, and allergy among other factors. These selection criteria offer safety to participants and protect the sponsor and investigators against possible lawsuits.
It is imperative to note that different clinical trial studies have various inclusion and exclusion criteria for study participants.
Study procedures The protocol has study procedures based on different visits during the trial. The initial stage involves a screening visit. The protocol only insists on participants who have passed both inclusion and exclusion criteria and have signed the consent form.
During this stage, potential participants take part in different tests, such physical, laboratory, x-ray, blood tests, hematology, and other relevant tests to meet the requirements of the Wonder Drug. Patients must also score required points on the Hamilton Depression Scale. Moreover, this process also accounts for all concomitant medications used within the last 30 days. At this stage, trial participants must also review all study data.
The second visit is the procedure for conducting baseline activities, which is scheduled 30 days after baseline screening. Investigators shall randomly give participants their placebo and Wonder Drug at the baseline visit for a period of four weeks on a daily basis (30 doses). Half of the patient would take placebo while the rest would receive the Wonder Drug. The process involves laboratory tests based on the study schedule and vital signs. Laboratory technicians would observe any changes during these days and record them.
The procedure also involves conducting a third visit 35 days after the baseline visit. Investigators must conform to the protocol requirements based on the dates of conducting procedures. The procedure would involve drug return and evaluation of compliance with the protocol. In addition, investigators would also take note of any adverse effects and abnormal variations.
Another procedure involves the fourth visit. This happens three months after the baseline visit or with a difference of 14 days earlier or later. This process involves evaluation of abnormal events, variations in concomitant therapy, and participants’ safety assessment.
Finally, the fifth visit occurs six months after the baseline visit with a difference of 14 days either earlier or later. The visit must follow the study schedule. It also involves safety evaluation, changes in concomitant therapy, and adverse outcomes. The investigator also notes any changes based on screening outcomes. This is the last visit of the study.
The protocol provides a clear study procedure, which other research can duplicate in similar studies. However, this protocol fails to account for follow up visits after the conclusion of the study. Such visits are necessary to encourage many people to participate in later studies.
Safety The protocol accounts for safety of research participants by focusing on the vital signs, participant examination, laboratory tests, and other relevant examinations. Safety analysis would involve the comparison of outcomes with baseline values and any changes during the trial period.
The study pays specific attention to adverse events (clinically or laboratory) among participants during the study. Hence, any cases of abnormalities are safety concerns to investigators and the sponsor. Moreover, any cases of emerging adverse outcomes shall also be of special interest because these are the main reasons for several study procedures.
The investigator would decide whether patients with safety concerns should continue with the study. For evaluation purposes, there would be records for adverse outcome treatments, type of events, affected body systems, and severity. The protocol also notes that frequencies of treatment for adverse outcomes are necessary for the record.
The sponsor shall rely on Safety Monitoring Board (SMB) to conduct safety procedures. This is an independent body, which ensures that all participants in the trial are safe during the study.
On this note, one can conclude that the protocol meets safety standards required in a clinical trial study.
Efficacy The protocol has both primary and secondary efficacy measurements for the study. The primary efficacy parameter is “Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Score (ADAS-COG) while the secondary efficacy parameter is Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)” (Darn Good Drug Company, n.d). It posits that both primary and secondary efficacy measurements would be the same as others used in other anti-dementia studies.
In primary efficacy evaluations, the researchers would apply a suitable method for a parallel group with a design that can support several centers. It would involve the normal intent-to-treat evaluation. The process would be random for all participants who were eligible for the study. The study shall also focus on endpoints assessment or last observation available in the case of a patient.
The study has a clear efficacy, including primary and secondary analyses with relevant means of conducting subsequent evaluations.
Conclusion The Wonder Drug Protocol has a standard clinical trial research. It meets most of the criteria used in such studies. Hence, it is a reliable tool for clinical trial research. It has long inclusion and exclusion criteria to ensure that only eligible participants take part in the study.
This ensures safety of participants and reputation of the sponsor and other stakeholders. However, a long list of exclusion and inclusion criteria may present considerable challenges during participant recruitment. Besides, there are no indicated benefits for the study participants, which could discourage many potential participants. The protocol also fails to account for feasibility of the study, any available pilot test, qualifications, skills, and resources required to ensure that the project is successful.
References Darn Good Drug Company. (n.d). Protocol. Toronto, Ontario: Darn Good Drug Company.
Medpace Clinical Pharmacology. (n.d). Study Participant Information: Participating in Medical Research with Medpace Clinical Pharmacology. Cincinnati, Ohio: Medpace CPU.
Spilker, B. (2000). Guide to Clinical Trials. Philadelphia: Raven Press Ltd.
World Health Organization. (2002). Handbook for good clinical research practice (GCP): Guidance for implementation. Geneva: WHO the Offi ce of Publications.
The Akan Clan System Term Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Eight Akan Clans
The Clan System
The Idea of the Family
Introduction The Akan is the most numerous ethnic group in Ghana. The Akan constitute almost 50% of the population of Ghana (Labi, 2009). They occupy about two thirds of the territory of the country. It is also important to note that the Akan people have preserved their major traditions and beliefs. They also have social stratification of their ancestors. The Akan people are divided into eight matrilineal clans (Nkansa-Kyeremateng, 1996).
Each clan has certain characteristics and has a specific totem. These characteristic features affect social, political and economic spheres of the Akan people. It is important to understand peculiarities of each clan to have a better understanding of the life in Ghana. The present paper focuses on the Akan clan system. In this paper, I consider major peculiarities of the eight clans and analyze the impact this social structure has on the present life of the Akan people.
Eight Akan Clans As has been mentioned above, there are eight Akan clans. All these clans have their totem which can be regarded as something more than a spiritual symbol. The Akan people see their totem as a kind of ancestor. Thus, members of the clan inherit traits of their totem animal. Thus, the totem is a part of their history and a symbolic representation of their identity.
Thus, the Aduana group is one of the clans. This group arrived in Ghana in 1500. They believe their ancestors brought fire to people. Hence, their totem is a dog with fire in its mouth (Nkansa-Kyeremateng, 1996). Aduana contemporary states are Akwamu, Asumegya and Kumawu.
The Agona group arrived in Ghana in the middle of the 16th century. These people believe their ancestors were refugees from Mande. This group’s totem is the parrot. These people are believed to be good at trade. Their modern states are Akyem, Bosome, Dankyira and Kotoku.
The Asakyuiri group is not numerous. They believe their king Asare Nyansa “brought all kinds of craftsmen (weavers, carvers, smiths and embroiderers)” and let his people learn the crafts (Nkansa-Kyeremateng, 1996, p. 30). Their totem is the vulture. The modern Asakyuiri state is Akrokerri.
The Asenie people believe their ancestors “emerged” out of the earth (Nkansa-Kyeremateng, 1996, p. 31). Their totem is the bat. There is no modern state of this group. However, Asenie people always note their background and are proud to be a part of this clan.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Asona people’s totem is the crow. They believe their ancestors came with the Asakyuiri group and settled in the area. The Asona clan founded a number of kingdoms. Though, there are no modern Asona states.
The Ayoko clan arrived in the region when Asare Mintem ruled. Their totem is the hawk. Their ancestors were warriors. They founded Ashanti Kingdom.
The Tena-Bretuo arrived from the north. Their totem is the leopard. Their ancestors were brave warriors and winners. The totem of this group symbolizes bravery and even aggressiveness of these people. The Tena-Bretuo modern states are Ashanti Mampong and Kwahu State.
The Ekuona people believe their ancestors came from some region behind Fulaniland. Their totem is the buffalo. This clan played a very important role in the trade with Europe.
The Clan System Clearly, each clan has certain history and distinctive features. Some clans are constituted by brave warriors and others include skillful craftsmen. Some clans are good at trading. However, there are features which unite all Akan people. Their attitude towards the concepts of the family and clan unites them. The Akan people believe that they originate from a common ancestor.
Thus, they think members of the clan have a strong bond (Labi, 2009). Moreover, the Akan people believe they can recognize a member of their clan even if the latter is a stranger and lived in another area (Akanba, 2010). They also think that members of the clan are relatives. This is why they do not marry a person, who is from their clan, but have to look for their partners in other clans.
The Idea of the Family It is also important to note that the idea of the clan is closely connected with the idea of the family. The Akan people believe that the family is the most important unit of the society (Nkansa-Kyeremateng, 1996). Importantly, cooperation within a family or between different families is very important for the Akan people. It is also important to add that younger generations respect older people and consult them in different cases.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Akan Clan System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The closest family members are parents and siblings. However, extended families are very important for the Akan society. They rely on each other and they solve difficult issues together. Hence, it is possible to note that the members of the clan are ready to help each other as they see each other as members of a big family.
As has been mentioned above, the Akan people have a matrilineal system. Thus, the woman is the keeper of the family. If there is no woman in a family, the family disappears (Nkansa-Kyeremateng, 1996). At the same time, the father is the head of the family. He is responsible for providing for the family and protecting it. The father is the breadwinner in the family.
The Governance It is also necessary to note that Akan clans are governed by a chief. The chief is chosen among the best people of the clan. Remarkably, there is a specific tradition to choose a chief. The most respectable people of the clan gather and decide who is worth being the chief (Nkansa-Kyeremateng, 1996).
Moreover, the chief does not rule the clan by himself. The chief listens to some advice of the oldest and most respectable members of the clan. Hence, several members of the clan make the most important decisions together after a discussion. Again, viewpoints of older members of the clan are seen as the most valuable.
This collectivism is one of the most distinctive features of the Akan people. They are ready to cooperate and listen to different viewpoints. They are respectful and they try to preserve their traditions and beliefs. It is important to note that the Akan people honor their ancestors and are proud of their roots. They are also committed to their clans as well as families.
Conclusion On balance, it is necessary to note that there are eight clans in the Akan society. Each clan has certain history and distinctive features. However, they also have a lot in common. The Akan people believe that the family is the most important unit in the society. They are ready to help each other.
They also make important decisions together. Though each clan has a chief, he always takes into account viewpoints of other members of the clan. Thus, the Akan society is constituted by several clans which can be regarded as big and strong families.
References Akanba, M. (2010). Revelation: The movement of the Akan people from Kanaan to Ghana. Milton Keynes, UK: AuthorHouse.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Akan Clan System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Labi, K.A. (2009). Reading the intangible heritage in tangible Akan art. International Journal of Intangible Heritage, 4(1), 42-57.
Nkansa-Kyeremateng, K. (1996). The Akans of Ghana: Their history
Neuroanatomy and Neural Processes Expository Essay essay help free: essay help free
Neuroanatomy and neural processes are directly linked to the learning and memory functions of the brain. According to brain science, learning capabilities cannot be separated from memory capabilities. The learning process works in tandem with the memory process. Moreover, the learning process is updated from time to time during the lifetime.
The neural process that is involved in learning is quite a complex process and various neurologists have been studying it for a long time. It is for this reason that the available knowledge on neural processes keeps changing as research progresses. This paper offers a description of neuroanatomy and the neural process that are related to learning and memory.
Both neuroanatomy and neural processes depend on the “chemical and electrical changes in the neuron synapse for learning and memory to transpire” (Wickens, 2010). The part of the neural system that is responsible for storing memory is the cortex. On the other hand, the hippocampus is the part of the neuroanatomy that differentiates between short and long term memories. The other aspect of the neuroanatomy that is pertinent to the learning process is the cerebellum.
The cerebellum helps in the acquisition of procedural memories and motor skills. The amygdale aids in the learning processes that involve transformation of short-term memories into long-term memories. In addition, the amygdale is responsible for the process that transforms emotions into memories. Another section of the neuroanatomy is the basal ganglia. This section aids subjects to acquire stimulus responses and problem-solving capabilities (Pinel, 2009).
The neural processes that help in the acquisition of new information are closely connected to the process that enables consolidation of information. In a study that was conducted to investigate the neural processes, it was found that synapses are greatly improved by the learning process (Wickens, 2010).
The study was conducted through the observation of the reverberation that occurs when the synapse changes the structural composition of neuron cell-assemblies. Neurologists suggest that long-term potentiation starts when glutamates are released from neurons “that cross the synaptic gap and bind to hippocampal receptors” (Newson
“The Hurt Locker”: Music in the Movie Essay best college essay help
The film The Hurt Locker is an action thriller produced and directed by American director, Catherine Bingelow. The film presents a realistic performance of the events soldiers go through while in the line of duty (Barker 23). The film is extremely arousing, heartbreaking and suspenseful. For that reason, the film not only entertains the viewers, but it also gives them a reason to hate the war.
Additionally, with its strong music and sound effect, the film manage to be more appealing, tense and full of suspense, probably than most of many action thrillers set in Hollywood. This film, therefore, present a narrative technique that intelligently breaks with long-established Hollywood narrative techniques. This paper focuses on how music enhances the theme and specific performance of various characters in the film, the Hurt Locker.
Analysis of the films content and theme
Though set in Iraq, the Hurt Locker is quite different from most of the films shot in Iraq largely because it concentrates much on the lives off the bomb experts. The Hurt Locker does not explore political background of Iraq.
The main theme of this action thriller is the narcotic addiction of the war. While focusing on this theme Kathryn Bigelow manages to build tension between the three main characters in the film. Bigelow also manages to create tension and suspense in the scenes where the three characters engage in a fight with terrorists in Iraq.
Bigelow, through her masterful direction, portrays the war as extremely dangerous. For instance, in the first scene, the viewers get to see how deadly it is to go to war. In this scene, the viewers see a team of bomb experts sent to disarm an IED that is buried in one of the roads in Iran. Sergeant Thomas, the team leader of the three experts sent to disarm the bomb, wears a heavy protection suit and rushes down the road to disarm the bomb.
However, as he approaches the IED, one of his team members, Sergeant J. T. Sanborn, spots an Iranian man carrying a mobile phone. He tries to inform Sergeant Thomas, but it is too late, the man dials the phone and a massive explosion follows. Sergeant Thomas is killed in the explosion. Throughout the film, the viewers witness the struggles soldiers go through while in the line of duty. Therefore, in the film, Bigelow explores how war can be dangerous and addictive at the same time.
Description of how the music supports the film, creates moods, gives us emotions, and tells us about a character or where we are
The film is a realistic action film that represent the difficult times that soldiers go through in time of war (Barker 23). The film portrays both personal lives and the lives soldiers when in the line of duty. Besides costumes, color, lights and props, the realistic nature of the film is well portrayed in the use music and a sound design, which, to a larger extent, helps the film achieve its main theme of war addiction and its dangers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the film, music composers use instruments such as guitar, piano, Plexiglas, violin, and various ethnic flutes. Most of the music tracks used in the film are gloomy and foreboding, with exceptional instrumentation that generate a sense of tension. Though the composers try very much to keep instruments to a minimum, the overall effect of the instrument is felt throughout the entire film.
The music enhances the tension in most of the enthralling and emotionally charged scenes of the movie. For instance, the final track in the film, The way I Am, enhances the entire mood and thoughts of the movie. While listening to this track, viewers are left in a state of sympathy for the soldiers who risk their lives in battles.
In the action scene where SGT James discovers that the first improvised explosive device (IED) he detonated is just the first step in the numerous IED set up, the music playing in the background help create tension and emotion among the audience. In the scene, the music begins on a solitary note then deviates into a whole cluster of patterns. For that reason, the tension created through the music make the scene goes beyond fear.
Because of the tension, viewers are left wondering on the possible events that would follow what was happening in this scene. The music in that scene, therefore, enhances a reflection the dangerous environment of the war.
The use of music in the film also enables viewers to know more about the main characters in the film. In the scene where the three EOD technicians fights the terrorists and enters warehouse and discovers that it is the location of a bomb factory, the composers uses melodic approach in the music to enhance the soldiers characters.
Immediately the soldiers enter inside the warehouse, they are extremely surprised to find a small boy lying dead on a table. The boy has a bomb entrenched in his stomach. In this scene, the viewers witness Sergeant James breaking down emotionally and starting to cry like a small child.
The melodic music in the background makes the scene gloomier as James break down to tears. Before this scene, SGT was portrayed as a strong and brave soldier that does not fear war. However, with the aid of music from the back ground, the audience gets to know that even the bravest soldier can have a weak spot. He decides to neutralize the bomb in the boy’s chest.
We will write a custom Essay on “The Hurt Locker”: Music in the Movie specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Afterwards, James leaves the warehouse carrying the body. The melodic sound makes the scene unforgettable and emotional. The viewers also realize that soldiers are also capable of breaking down emotionally. As a matter of fact, the composers’ ideas to use melody created from strings and Erhu made Sergeant James character memorable and real.
Lastly, the soundtrack, There will be bomb, which is frequently used in different action scenes not only promotes a highly charged environment in which the characters operate on, but also gives a realistic representation of the purgation of their feelings and emotions. This is witnessed towards the end of the movie in the scene where sergeant sanborn states that he is tired of the war and only wants to go home.
Conclusion Through effective use of sound and music design, the film, The Hurt Locker, is able to presents a masterly reflection of reality and does not create any illusion of life. The actors’ performance in bringing out the theme is quite outstanding.
The message this action movie deliver is quite understandable, as it present a realistic story of how war can be an addictive drug that can make soldiers abandon everything including their families. The Hurt Locker is not a war film; rather it is a real film, which concentrates on the life of soldiers, who are devoted to perform their duties.
Works Cited Barker, Martin. A Toxic Genre: The Iraq War Films. London: Pluto Press, 2009. Print.
The Hurt Locker. Ex. Prod. Kathryn Bingelow. Universal City, Ca.: Summit Entertainment. 2005. Film.
“Annie Hall” by Woody Allen Essay online essay help
Annie Hall is one of the most popular comedy films in Hollywood. Its popularity not only transcends from its themes but also from prestigious awards that the film has scooped from the industry. It is one of the comic films that won four major awards in Hollywood. Woody Allen used the film to highlight the issues that surround love and romance in the contemporary society.
As described by the star, Annie Hall is a romantic comedy that reveals the issues, which affect intimate relationships between individuals of the opposite sex. The star of the film exhibits theme elements when he falls in love with Diane Keaton, who acts as the female costar in the film (Eagan 90). Based on this information, this study therefore seeks to analyze the contents of the film, theme, and effects of music in the film.
Themes and Content One of the key themes in the film is a necessity and absurdity that are associated with love. Alvy manages to conquer Annie’s love and reveal how love can be ridiculous and fleeting but at the same time very essential in life.
This point is exhibited when the star of the film subscribed to the idea that relationships may be absurd but are very important for an individual to lead a healthy life. To this end, Alvy Singer is also worried about relationships and, therefore, consults the pedestrians on the key elements of a successful relationship (Bailey 124).
Alvy portrays the complications that are inherent in modern relationships when he tries to reflect on his past relationships with his two ex-wives. Despite the fact that star vowed to love the two women until death separates them, he could not understand what made him break the vows. The same case applied to his relationship with Annie when both of them decided to ignore the effects of connection between them (Eagan 92).
Assessment of the content of the film reveals that the element of love has been used to highlight the transformative aspect of art. The aspect of transformation is a common feature of love in real life situation (Bailey 123). For purposes of compatibility in their relationship, both characters transform their behavior to ensure the success of the engagement. Annie exhibits the willingness to adopt new lifestyles after falling in love with Alvy.
A character such as Rob also embraces transformation when he decides to move to LA and adopt a new lifestyle. The main characters in the film, Alvy and Annie fall in love. However, their relationship is short-lived, since the two separate even before the end of the film. The scenario indicates how modern relationships are marked by unpredictable and frequent conflicts (Eagan 89).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Annie Hall is one of the comic films that have also been used to highlight the effects of cultural stereotypes in the society. Alvy labels himself as a comedian from the Jewish culture. This stereotypical approach creates comedy in the film and also highlights the element of diversity in the society (Bailey 124). The stereotype is also used in the film to eliminate cultural barriers between the characters. For example, regardless of the cultural differences between Alvy and Annie, these two unlike people fall in love and spend time together.
The two characters interacted and associated with family members from both cultures. Alvy made an effort to interact with Annie’s parents and shared a meal with them in California. However, the meeting was marked by laughter and easiness as Alvy got the opportunity to share his experiences with Annie’s family. Most characters in the film tend to get used to being culturally stereotyped except for Annie who refused to be stereotyped (Bailey 125).
Performance taken by the characters revealed that the film relied on humor to convey its message to the audience. It integrated various elements of humor to create laughter. Various activities and events were also used to create the comic effect in the film. For example, Annie is a singer who composed songs that mainly delved on love and romance, Rob acted his part by portraying the themes of the song, and Alvy played a significant role in creating the comic effect in the film (Eagan 89).
Annie revealed that social interaction for romantic purposes must be demonstrated by performance. On the other hand, Alvy indicates that performance in romantic relationships must be associated with satisfaction. For example, he made jokes on the issue of sexual satisfaction and doubted his sexual performance when he felt insecure about his love (Bailey 123).
Apart from sex, drug abuse has been employed in the film to portray the themes of freedom, the youthful nature of the characters, rebellion, and open-mindedness. The main characters in the film were youthful individuals who were very likely to rebel against the rules set by the parents. Annie’s initiative to use drugs after having sex indicates the role of drugs in leisure and entertainment (Eagan 89).
Effects of Music To bring the themes and content into perspective, the director of the film used jazz music in the background of the film. The music also reveals the behaviors of the characters in the play. In spite of the organization of the film, jazz music creates an aspect of tranquility. This, therefore, conforms to the theme of love and romance. The whole film revolves around the issues of love, comedy, and romance. Jazz music creates a greater impact by combining the three elements together.
Jazz music is also used to give emphasis on the theme of love. For example, when Diane Keaton performs a song titled ‘It Had to Be You’ in the background of the film, the audience is able to reflect on the main theme of love. The title of the song portrays a promise or a vow that was made by the lovers in the film. The song is performed twice to create more emphasis on the main theme (Eagan 88).
We will write a custom Essay on “Annie Hall” by Woody Allen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Music is also used to create a festive mood when the boys choir performed a Christmas Medley. The song reveals that the setting of the film is developed in a festive season when most individuals were on vacations (Bailey 123). The Christmas Medley is also used to highlight the element of tranquility and peace.
Music is also used to portray the aspect of dilemma that greatly affected the main characters of the film. For example, Alvy was in dilemma after having separated with two women before meeting Annie. The aspect of dilemma is exhibited by the song, which was titled ‘Hard Way to Go’ and was performed by Tim Weisberg (Eagan 95).
Works Cited Bailey, Peter. The Reluctant Film Art of Woody Allen, Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2010. Print.
Eagan, Daniel. America’s Film Legacy: The Authoritative Guide to the Landmark Movies in the National Film Registry, London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2010. Print.
Here are the instructions to this assignment: 1.) Review and analyze the “background company materials” that is attached. Reading scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Here are the instructions to this assignment:
1.) Review and analyze the “background company materials” that is attached. Reading this will allow you to make segmentation decisions.
2.) Review and analyze the “market segmentation table”. This table has been prepared to summarize the key characteristics of each market segment.
3.) Use the “market segmentation table” to evaluate each market segment and produce your own overall ranking of the four segments.
Competitor Analysis: Burjeel Hospital Research Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Direct and Indirect Competitors
Competitor Analysis Table
Introduction Burjeel Hospital is the biggest private tertiary healthcare facility in Abu Dhabi. It was officially opened by Sheikh Hamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Chairman of Crown Prince’s Court in April 2012. It has more than 200 beds 10 operation theatres. The hospital has several royal and presidential suites.
This enables it to provide its services to wealthy patients. Burjeel provides several services that previously necessitated patients to travel abroad to seek quality care. The U.A.E. healthcare industry is highly competitive. Therefore, it is vital for Burjeel to use several strategies that would improve its competitiveness in the industry.
Direct and Indirect Competitors Burjeel Hospital has state-of-the-art facilities that enable it to provide high quality care to its patients. However, it faces stiff competition from Al Noor Hospital and Gulf Diagnostic Centre Hospital, who are its direct competitors. Direct competitors are firms that sell similar products in the same market (Young
Maintenance Issues, including Outsourcing and Fatigue Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help
Evaluations are continuously being done by organizations in order to get both operational and organizational efficiency with an ultimate aim of lessening the costs.
Outsourcing makes organizations like the aviation industry to achieve their strategic goals. Airlines’ costs of operations are costly hence outsourcing makes them economically viable by making them offer services which can be relatively cheaper. Outsourcing in an industry is the process of getting goods, services, consultation, or combination of any of them which are not within the management chain of command of the needing organization.
Outsourcing is the practice of an industry entrusting to an outside unit/body the doing of an activity that was performed previously in-house with an aim of maximizing profits with minimal costs. Financial consideration is very vital in outsourcing within the aviation industry.
However, there is a need to consider other parameters, which can have direct impacts on the service being provided as well as operational feasibility and this cannot be done in isolation. Hence, the aviation firm has to evaluate the overall effect that outsourcing will lead to; collectively as an operation.
Workers’ unions tend to resist the idea of outsourcing as they prefer the aviation firms to provide job security to their members. Hence, as a Repair Station manager, I will try to limit the number of workers’ unions my employees get registered to in order to avoid the complexity that arises when it comes to offloading the redundant workforce. I will do this by ensuring that the management team is very strong and united whilst making the unions weak as this makes it easy to outsource with an aim of reducing the costs.
Aviation firms at times require complex services in operation, and when a service becomes complex. Multifaceted outsourcing involves complex contract negotiations with the service provider.
Enforcing these contracts could result to high transaction costs hence the aviation firms should prepare policies guarding these, and if possible hire internal specialists permanently rather than outsourcing for them if need be. For example, piloting skills are very complex and specific hence as an airline manager I would train and equip all employees with skills needed rather than outsourcing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I could also outsource from both domestic and foreign facilities to a level that is proportionate with the required capacity and prefer recent outsourcing practices. Training employees will provide an act of specialization, efficient use of equipment and provide a platform of utilizing by products as well as development of auxiliary facilities and avoidance of fatigue accredited to monotony.
Maintenance of activities is either done on the aircraft or the component of the aircraft, and this necessitates air carrier skills in repair capacity and capability hence such activities should not be outsourced and should rather be managed and controlled by the airline itself. Management should center on the key roles of the company in order to augment its efficiency.
Hence, outsourcing in this scenario may make the aviation firms delegate non-core activities to specialized service providers which will make the firm to focus on its core objectives, whether medium or long-term while at the same time giving room for diversification of opportunities.
Core objectives can be achieved by improvising the business strategies like advertising for seats as well as carrying out market research. Outsourcing issues like dwindling and unskilled workforce can lead to airplane accidents, incidents of flight delays or cancellations, and risks of terrorism.
Thus, the management should employ staff and if not outsource and also establish a department tasked with checking on these issues as well establishing high regulation standards governed with airline operations. In conclusion, outsourcing is a good practice that can help in developing strong and strategic alliances between companies that improve on the value within a supply chain, which in turn helps in creating a competitive edge for the outsourcing firm.
Right to Counsel Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The legal understanding of such a notion as the right to counsel has been shaped by several important cases. This paper is aimed at discussing the case Strickland v. Washington which implies that a citizen should be entitled to effective assistance of counsel (Dimitrakopoulos, 2007, p. 184).
There are several questions that are related to this court decision. First, one should show how a defendant can prove that the assistance of a counsel was inefficient or unreasonable. Secondly, it is important to find out what a judge should do if he/she believes that the attorney does not adequately represent the rights of the client. These are the main issues that should be examined more closely.
Overall, according to this court decision, a defendant may expect an attorney to defend his/her interests in an efficient and reasonable way. Moreover, the deficiencies of an attorney must not deprive a person of the right to fair trial (Dimitrakopoulos, 2007, p. 184).
Under such circumstance, a defendant must prove that the performance of the attorney did not meet the standards that are set for legal professionals (Levenson, Manheim, Dougherty,
Ethics of Wasta and the Use of Social Capital Report writing essay help
Introduction Reflectively, the concept of Wasta involves a contractual agreement between members of an ethnic group with each group having specific obligations on how to treat each other. This analytical treatise will attempt to explicitly review the concept of Wasta and its application in real life. Specially, Wasta’s key similarities and differences are going to be compared between other equivalent occurrences. The first point of interest is the literature review, which will describe wasta and take a look at its roots.
Then wasta will be matched to the related incidents in different cultures, Chinese (Guanxi) and American (Nepotism or Cronyism). Afterwards a case in which a workplace ethical dilemma is going be dissected and operated on. Finally recommendations are going to be offered in an attempt to diminish the harmful consequences of wasta in the business setting. The paper will then provide a comprehensive conclusion on the best approach of implement the wasta without having to harm the business operation environment.
Literature Review This part of the paper will review various literatures on the concept of wasta and its application in the business environment. The literature review will dwell on the definition of wasta, the types of wasta, and how the business environment may benefit from wasta without having to compromise its sustainability or suitability. In addition, this part will dwell on empirical and comparative studies on the concept of wasta.
“Wasta is an Arabic term that refers to an implicit social contract, typically within a tribal group, which obliges those within the group to provide assistance (favorable treatment) to others within the group”. There are many ways to define wasta but they all come down to one, which is favoritism.
There are two types of wasta, mediation wasta and intercession wasta. Mediation wasta is to solve tribal issues without resorting to court. For example, if there were any problem between two families they would use mediation to resolve the issue without involving authorities. Intercession wasta is a way to exploit connections in order to get a job. The type of wasta that is most commonly used is the intercession.
To explain further, even though wasta is commonly used nowadays, there was a time when it was much simpler. “Wasta was used as a means of mediation between families to resolve conflict. The head of the family, tribe or clan acted as the waseet (middleman) to mediate and adjudicate within the tribal group and to negotiate points of conflict with other tribal groups”.
Before the 12th century, people in the Arab countries resorted to using wasta because it provided means for survival; “The desert climate was harsh, raiding occurred between tribal groups, and there were few formal avenues for conflict resolution”. Over time, wasta evolved from mediation to intervention. The waseet was no longer needed because people with close relationships could directly go to one another to get wasta.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Wasta is now used to gain an advantage to enter the workplace. According to an article on The National newspaper “wasta gives employers access to students and graduates who stand out, through the recommendations of professors who have spent a lot of time getting to know and teach the candidates”. There are also negative uses of wasta.
Sometimes, people that have been hired by the use of wasta may not perform up to certain standards. Middle East Online states that employees are promoted as a favor from their family even though they do not work properly. Wasta can be used in two ways. Some of the uses are morally or universally acceptable and others are contemptible. As an example, you can compare corruption to networking. In order to see if corruption is bad, we need to limit it to favoritism.
Favoritism is defined in “How Favoritism Affects the Business Climate: Empirical Evidence from Jordan” as “it is the use of personal connections to receive preferential treatment”. In addition, they also state that favoritism makes state-business relations unfair and unpredictable and thereby raises the risks of investors and the barriers to competition. To elaborate on it further, we can use Jordan as an example.
The success of an entrepreneur depends much more on his wasta than on his competitiveness, people tend to neglect investments in productive assets and new business ideas, which is detrimental for Jordan’s national competitiveness. In addition, they also stated that business people will spend more time and money on having a good relationship with customers which results in higher investment costs.
Wasta is making Jordan’s business relationship inefficient with regards to legislation. Members of Parliament are elected so that the people could get jobs rather than for their political ideas. In addition, they also stated that members of parliament “neglect their duty to design and decide on reforms that serve the country as a whole”. Thus, the above elements of wasta have direct impact on doing business and the workplace environment.
Comparative In the comparative literature review, the paper will examine the types of guanxi within the context of wasta. Besides, the paper will discuss the phenomena of individuality and nepotism in workplace as contributed by practicing wasta. In addition, the comparative analysis will be applied on each of the above elements in terms of their application to the concept of wasta.
Wasta may seem just related to the Middle East region but there are other similar types of wasta practiced in other cultures like Chinese and American. The Chinese society operates as a circular network of relationships with family members in its core and other relatives and friends are arranged based on how trustworthy they are. Guanxi is “deeply embedded in China’s culture, with a history of more than 5000 years”. In the Chinese culture, people protect each other and companies protect the business interest of their members.
We will write a custom Report on Ethics of Wasta and the Use of Social Capital specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Guanxi is about having close relationships with people or companies in order to secure favors. Securing favors “include preferential treatment in dealings, preferential access to limited resources and increased accessibility to controlled information”. For example, when a person is seeking employment and if she is a friend with one of the managers then she is able to secure the job through that relationship, Guanxi.
However, Guanxi requires that the favor be reciprocal. For example, if that same person mentioned above got the job then she would have to do something to compensate the other party for the job. Guanxi is the social phenomena and Confucianism is the major life philosophy. Guanxi stems from Confucianism with “a primary purpose is to achieve harmony, the most important social value”. Guanxi follows Confucianism in the sense that family is the center of relationships.
There are four principles that distinguish Guanxi from other phenomena: transferability, utilitarianism, reciprocity, and intangibility. All four are discussed. The first principle is that “guanxi is transferable among parties (i.e., A and C) related through a common connection in the middle (i.e., B)”. For example, Ahmad and Mohammad are friends who work for company XYZ.
On the way home, Ahmad got a speeding ticket for 500 dirhams and would like to find a way to eliminate it. He remembers that Mohammad once told him that he has a friend in the police department so Mohammad asks his police friend to get help get rid of the ticket for Ahmad. The second principle is that Guanxi is more utilitarian than emotional because it is based on exchanging favors whether there is a relationship between people or not. However, other scholars prefer relationships or connections to be present for Guanxi.
A third principle would be that Guanxi is reciprocal. If a person does a favor for someone then that person has to pay for that favor. The fourth principle is that Guanxi is intangible. “Guanxi members are tied together through an invisible and unwritten code of reciprocity and equity. Failure to respect the commitment substantially hurts one’s reputation, leading to a humiliating loss of prestige or face”.
As mentioned before wasta exists in other countries as well but with different titles. In United States there is nepotism, which is originated from Italy (16th or 17th century) and it means “grandson” or “nephew” according to Adam Bellow.
Social capital could be seen as simple networking or corruptive nepotism. Social capital by definition is the networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to function effectively.
Networking is simply put just the relations that you have established with the people you know, for example if you received a job that you are qualified for because of a friend’s recommendation to the responsible authority then that is considered to be a result of networking. On the other hand nepotism is when people in high ranks favor people they know not just because of their merits but just because they know them, in some cases they would be favored over someone who is more qualified.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics of Wasta and the Use of Social Capital by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In an article by Margret Heffernan on the CBS website she attempts to show the good that nepotism brings, when in reality she is talking about social capital and networking. One of the examples she gives is when teenagers are trying to apply for college and university their parents try to use their contacts to make their children stand out. They also try to polish their contacts to make them better than they actually are.
The bad reputation that nepotism has is because if people in power favored their relatives the company they are running won’t reach its full potential. In an article the Work Study journal titled nepotism; the authors discuss the implications and the immoralities of nepotism, which occurs in American businesses. In the article the authors don’t just discuss the negatives they also talk about the positive outcomes of nepotism.
Starting the negative, in the article there is a discussion, which revolve around the family member not being as qualified as the other. Another argument against nepotism would be that married couples and family in general usually come with their quarrels and their history. A good way of using nepotism would be that if the family member was actually qualified and the person in control gave them the job so they wouldn’t have to waste time looking at other candidates.
Comparative aspects between wasta, guanxi, and nepotism The elements of wasta, guanxi and nepotism are related to each other. In fact, their application is often confused. It is thus important to highlight their similarities and differences. Guanxi follows the method of Confucius and is based on the relationships that are interpreted in a hierarchy form.
One common factor between guanxi and wasta, is that the Chinese build guanxi or relationship over a very long time and using this phenomenon is legal, as well as with wasta is legal in the Arab countries. Another common trait is that both focuses on blood connection, so exercising such phenomenon and giving favoritism applies to family member most of the times.
In guanxi the managerial tie with other companies or public sectors has a progressive effect on the corporation’s performance 3, however with wasta it’s the opposite of guanxi, because it creates inefficiency in workplace and lose of productivity due to hiring incompetent workers since they used wasta to get the job and causing decrease economy. 
One of the common factors between nepotism and wasta is that both are viewed as creating unproductively in the workplace as mentioned before in the paper. Both nepotism and wasta are viewed in a positive way, when it comes to getting a job or getting in to university for the adolescents and teenagers.
Nepotism is viewed in a negative way most of the time; but wasta has mixed views as mentioned earlier about it in the Jordan case. Nepotism is viewed in a positive way only when it creates productivity in the sense that when hiring a family member and that person is qualified then nepotism is not an issue, but according to the views mentioned from Jordan wasta is only viewed positively when the a person does have that connection and relation which makes it possible for that person to get a job.
From the above reflection, it is apparent that nepotism, individuality, and guanxi often occur in the field of business, communication and workplace environment. Irrespective of the form, these elements promote workplace ethical dilemmas.
Empirical studies Basically, empirical studies on wasta are those studies that involve direct participation of the target subject in order to shade light on its application, merits, and demerits. The main studies discussed were conducted in Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Kuwait, Emirates and Saudi Arabia.
A study was conducted in a university in Egypt that was directed towards wasta and its influence on competency. People who participated in the study were given a summary job description and qualifications necessary for a bank teller position. In addition, they received an employment record that included a hypothetical employee’s name, education and his demographic data who was working as a bank teller.
The employee was always a male and 24 years old. Participants in the study were asked to read the data and answer questions related to his competency. The data was manipulated. Instead of writing the words “presented wasta”, it was titled as “other remarks”. Moreover, his qualifications were manipulated by indicating that he was either qualified or unqualified. 70% percent of the questionnaires were returned complete.
The employee’s competency ratings ranged from 2.8 (low) to 4.81 (high). After the questionnaires were completed, the participants were asked to show the extent to which they believed that the employee used wasta and the extent to which they thought he was qualified. The results were that employees who used wasta were less competent than those that did not which resulted in a decrease in his competency level. Also, they viewed wasta as less moral.
Another study was conducted in organizations in Lebanon, Syria, Kuwait, Emirates and Saudi Arabia concerning the importance of networking on women and wasta on career development. The survey asked nearly 200 managers and used several people to get the most consistent data.
With regards to networking, the results showed that over 90% of respondents confirmed that there was no networking in their organizations.
It is probably due to the fact that 66% of the respondents found it difficult to form networks and that it is an issue for woman managers because they are unrepresented in an environment that constitutes males. With regards to wasta, 86% of respondents had used it to advance in their career but some want it to be reduced. In addition, they also stated that it could be helpful for recruitment and promotion.
Some of the respondents say that it is beneficial and some say that it should be reduced. They say that it should be reduced because some people do not have proper connections and can be unfair to them. 93% of them said that you should have influential family members in order to get a good job. Also most of them stated that wasta is more important than gender for recruitment.
To show the effects of wasta on the business environment in Jordan, a German research team conducted a study. They asked main stakeholders, local businesspeople and citizens about the difficulties of doing business in Jordan and the reasons why it is difficult.
It results in a greater investment risk because people use most of their time and money on social relationships, which increases the investment costs and they neglect investment because an entrepreneur’s success depends more on wasta. For some, wasta is beneficial. People say that it increases the chance of getting a job and it gives them access to proper healthcare.
In addition, 86% of the businesspeople said that wasta can help them to communicate with the bureaucracy and 56% use it regularly. 64% of the interviewed public sector employees stated that administrative procedures can be completed more quickly or more easily with wasta. In addition, the interviewed people say that it is an essential part of the Jordanian culture. Jordanians perceive wasta in different ways. Many do not approve of it because it is unfair and some consider it as corruption.
A study was conducted in a university in United States to show the view of 197 students on nepotism and merit. The students were given a case study that described three candidates for a banking position. One of the candidates was based on merit and the candidate was more qualified than the other two.
The second candidate was based on nepotism had equal qualifications as the first candidate, but had family relationship to one of the top managers. The last candidate had the least qualifications was only incorporated as a form to prevent “the possibility of demand characteristics influencing the results.” The outcome of the study showed that even though the students believed that nepotism is not just, but believed that the kinship connection could help getting the job were less favorable than getting the job based on merit.
From the above literature review, it is important to note that the concept of wasta cannot be ignored in a work or business environment. Apparently, the empirical and comparative studies indicate that wasta should be regulated due to its numerous demerits such as its cost on efficiency and profitability of a business and increased nepotism. However, regulated wasta is still instrumental in business management within the Arabic business environment since it encourages commitment and social pillar of doing business.
Workplace ethical dilemma Workplace ethical dilemma often occurs when the underlying moral values of a work environment are compromised. Irrespective of a work environment, the main determinants of ethical dilemma remain the same since the underlying causes of these dilemmas are related to moral, behavioral, and interpersonal discrepancies.
This part of the paper will review the background, framework, decision making, and monitoring the outcome of the strategies designed to minimize workplace ethical dilemmas. Specifically, the focus will be on measurable and quantifiable decision making parameters that justify the identified workplace ethical dilemmas framework.
The Background In order to understand the significance of the research, it is necessary to review the background of a typical workplace environment. Getting a job is stressful and there are always other applicants who are more qualified for the job that one may desire. A representative of the Human Resources office told an applicant for a position in the bank that there are two other qualified applicants.
Those applicants have had more experience from the internship that they did with highly respectable companies as well as they have higher grade point average. Also the other two applicants have scored higher grade in the applicant screening that was conducted earlier. Now the applicant who was told about the other two applicants is in a dilemma to whether use his uncle’s wasta to get the job or not.
Framework The main elements of a framework include moral imaginations, ethical issue, and relativism as dependent on the dynamics of human resources and communication in a workplace.
The ethical issue would be whether the applicant should contact his uncle and secure of a bank management trainee job and neglecting the other applicants who are more qualified for the position or to personally secure the job. Stakeholder is any individual or group who affects or is affected by the decision made within the firm. The stakeholders in this dilemma would be the uncle, the firm, the other applicants, the costumers, the existing and potential employees, and the applicant himself.
Moral imaginations are element that distinguishes good people who make ethically responsible decisions from good people who do not. The alternatives for the applicant are to either to contact his uncle to get the bank management trainee job or utilizing his full potential to get the job despite the other more qualified applicants.
Ethical relativism states that there is no rational way of determining whether an action is right or wrong other than by asking whether people of particular society believe that it is so, in other words there is no absolute moral standard and it should consider the culture, time, and place.
With respect to the Middle East region where wasta is acceptable and commonly used, contacting the applicant’s uncle to get the job is permissible under the theory of ethical relativism, because the society’s perception of wasta is a normal phenomenon. It would be unfair to neglect those that are more qualified and experienced because of former opportunities, thus they more suitable for the job. However, under ethical relativism, it would be acceptable to ask the uncle to secure the job for the applicant.
If the uncle decides to helps the applicant, his nephew, then he would get the job even though he might not be qualified enough to fulfill the needs of the company. As a result, the company and the uncle’s reputation would be compromised due to my poor performance. Also, it would be unfair for the other applicants to be rejected despite their higher qualifications and experience.
Moreover, it would also affect the current employees because they will be discouraged from working hard because the applicant is less qualified than they are and he will be working among them even though there are better employees. If he does not work there, the current employs morale will increase because they will see that the employees are being chosen based on their merits.
On the other hand, if he does not ask for his uncle’s help, then he might end up not getting the job because he will not be as qualified as the other applicants. The applicant’s family will frown upon the uncle because they will see that he gave the job to a stranger when his relative needed the job. As a result, one of the other applicants will most probably get it because of their merits.
Utilitarianism states that the right action is the one that would produce the greatest net benefits or the lowest net cost on those affected by a decision. The stakeholders affected by the applicant’s decision whether to contact his uncle to secure the job or not would be then the people affected would be his uncle, the firm, the other applicants, potential employees and the customers.
Under the theory of utilitarianism, it would not be appropriate to get the job because it is not the greatest good for the greatest number of people. It would be beneficial for him but it would impose more costs on the other stakeholders.
If the applicant gets the job with his uncle’s help and if it shows that he is qualified for the job through his performance then the uncle’s reputation would be stained and he will not be as capable of handling the demands of the job as the other applicants would. As a result, the firm’s reputation would be damaged.
If the other applicants find out that he got the job because of his uncle’s help then they might not apply for other jobs offered by the company. Hence, the company will be losing the talent offered by these applicants that would have otherwise been employed. The customers experience with the company would be compromised and will not be as satisfactory as if someone more qualified was interacting with them. Therefore, the customers may feel the need to find another company that will meet their demands more effectively.
On the other hand, if the uncle does not help then his reputation would remain intact because the applicant’s performance would not be shown. Instead of him getting the job, the other applicants would because they seem to have the potential to succeed in the trainee position. If the other applicants get the job then it would increase the firm’s productivity because their contribution to the company’s performance will be higher.
Ethics of care states that we have moral obligation to the people we have close relationship with, such as family and friends. This rule is different from other ethical rule, because it is not impartial compared to the others.
Ethics of care emphasizes that we exist in a web of relationships that should be preserved, and we should apply ethics of care only to those we have special relationship with and attending their needs, values, and well-being. Since the uncle is family and the applicant is related to him, he has a moral obligation toward this nephew. This means that under ethics of care, it is his obligation to attend the nephew’s needs and value, and use his wasta and influence so I would get the job.
Since the applicant is related to the uncle, he has moral obligation to use his wasta to help his nephew get the job that he wants. The applicant would expect that his uncle would help him get the job because it is a benefit and a must under ethics of care, one day the applicant will also return the favor and when the uncle needs his nephew there is an obligation to care and attend his needs as well.
The ethics of care neglects the ethic of justice and rights towards the other applicants. If wasta is used and the applicant gets the job the rights and justice to the other competitors are being violated, since they might be better candidates and not even getting the chance to be considered for the job by the company.
As well as violating the rights and justice of the company, which has the right to hire whoever it wants, because the uncle might be pressuring the company in to hiring his nephew and the uncle might be using ethics of care in the sense that he and the companies high mangers have a connection and relation, thus the they seem to have the obligation to attend for the uncles demands.
Rights are split into two parts, a positive right and a negative right; a right is a prerogative to claim something. The difference between a positive and negative right is that a positive right is a duty of others to deliver and meet the required necessities, for example food is a positive right because it is a necessity.
On the other hand a negative right is a duty of others to not interfere in specific acts, for example contracts are a negative right. Under positive rights the uncle should not give his nephew the job because he should be looking out for what is best for the company and what will help it succeed. Also the other applicants have the right to be given the job because they are more qualified.
The categorical imperative, developed by Immanuel Kant, consists of two formulations. The first formulation has two criteria the first is ‘universalizability’, the reason to do something must be ones that that everyone could act on, and the second is reversibility, the reason why someone is doing something is because they don’t mind it being done to them. The second formulation is that people shouldn’t use others as means to succeed.
Under the first formulation of the categorical imperative the applicant shouldn’t ask his uncle to help him get the job under the ‘universalizability’ criteria because if every person in power gave jobs to their family and friends even if they weren’t qualified companies will not be as successful as they are because their productivity won’t be optimal.
Customer satisfaction will be low which is going to decrease the company’s profitability. Also under reversibility the applicant shouldn’t ask for his uncle’s help because he wouldn’t want someone to take the job that he is more qualified for just because they were related to the person in charge.
Under the second formulation the applicant also shouldn’t because he would be asking his uncle to ignore his principals and just help his nephew progress instead of just letting him get the job with his own merits. The above formulations kill the spirit of competition and undermine the technical requirements in doing specific tasks.
Making the decision Decision making involves selective and non selective approach in order to match the decision to the prevailing rationale framework. Specifically, it is necessary for the relevant personnel to design a systematic system for monitoring the outcome against the expectations.
After discussing and viewing the ethical standards, my decision would be to not use my uncle’s wasta to get me the job. The reason why this decision has been made is because of the violation of some of the ethical rules, such as under utilitarianism it violates the wellbeing and greatest good of the majority of people and it also violates the rights and categorical imperative.
Monitoring the outcome Reflectively, the process of making the decision should not operate independently. Rather, it should be dependent on the framework identified for the result to be easy to verify and align to the expected behavior and actions. After the decision has been made and implemented, it should be monitored and evaluated to confirm if the choices made are right or not.
Thus, if it was not the right choice then it needs to go through the ethical framework again. For instance, application of the first and the second categorical imperative proposed by Kant would weigh the merits and demerits against a standard system of tracking the outcome.
Conclusion The concept of wasta involves a contractual agreement between members of an ethnic group with each group having specific obligations on how to treat each other. There are two types of wasta; mediation wasta and intercession wasta. Mediation wasta is to solve tribal issues without resorting to court.
Intercession wasta is a way to exploit connections in order to get a job. Apparently, the phenomena of wasta such as guanxi and nepotism and individually known to promote workplace ethical dilemma since they are characterized by nepotism and greediness especially when they are not regulated. The evidence from the comparative and empirical research indicates that wasta is a major contributor to workplace ethical dilemma. Reflectively, using an uncle’s wasta to get a job is not moral rights.
Bibliography Andy Barnett, Bruce Yandle, George Naufal. 2013. “Regulation, trust, and cronyism in Middle Eastern societies: The simple economics of “wasta”.” The Journal of Socio-Economics 41–46.
Bellow, Adam. 2003 . “In Praise of Nepotism: A Natural History.” August 24.
Cunningham, Robert, and Yasin K. Sarayrah. 1993. Wasta: the (Andy Barnett 2013) hidden force in Middle Eastern society. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
E. Alan Buttery, Y.H. Wong. 1999. “The development of a Guanxi framework.” Marketing Intelligence
The Smurfette Principle in the Modern Media: Feminism Is over? Essay essay help online: essay help online
Coined by Katha Pollitt in the distant 1991, the term “Smurfette Principle” described the phenomenon of female characters existing in media for the sole purpose of being the male counterparts and having no identity other than that: “The message is clear. Boys are the norm, girls the variation; boys are central, girls peripheral; boys are individuals, girls types.
Boys define the group, its story and its code of values. Girls exist only in relation to boys” (Pollitt, 1991, April 7, para. 4).Also known as a “token woman,” the given character originated from the attempts of the entertainment industry to market their product to a particular audience (Thompson
Bone Healing Stages Expository Essay a level english language essay help
According to Johnston (n.d), bone healing after a fracture undergoes the reactive, reparative, and remodeling stages. However, healing may be complicated because of bleeding disorders and surgical risks.
According to Johnston (n.d), the reactive bone healing stage lasts for two to three weeks. This is a very painful and inflaming stage. When healing starts, hematoma, the extravascular blood clot, which forms around the injured site because of the death of blood cells, constricts the flow of blood. Within the fractured area, fibrocartilaginous callus develop and replicate, forming granulation tissue which seals the fractured area (Browner, Jupiter, Levine
Mineral and Water Function Expository Essay college admission essay help
Minerals and water play vital roles in the body. Lack of minerals and water in the human diet may result into serious health problems. According to Grosvenor and Smolin (2012), the body depends on the food taken in order to obtain minerals. Water is always obtained when one drinks water or from the foods taken. The most common and essential minerals needed in the body include calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium and zinc.
Calcium helps in strengthening of teeth and body muscles. This mineral can be obtained mainly from milk products. Iron helps in distribution of oxygen in the body and can be obtained from meat, fish, liver and some chicken products. Magnesium is crucial in formation of bones and general workability of the nerves. Potassium balances the body fluids while zinc is necessary for growth and development. These minerals can mainly be obtained from vegetables and animal products.
Stanfield (2010) points out that just like the minerals mentioned above, water also plays a very important role in the body. This researcher explains that 90% of the body is composed of water. The body obtains a given percentage of water from foods taken, and through direct intake by an individual.
According to Grosvenor and Smolin (2012), one of the main functions of water is to regulate the body temperatures. Many enzymes in the body work at given temperatures and therefore water ensures that such temperatures are attained for the enzyme-controlled processes to take place. Besides, water acts as a coolant, especially through perspiration. In addition, it acts as a lubricant, especially in the joints of the body.
Its presence in the saliva in the mouth during chewing helps to avoid shock or damage emanating from friction of the joints. Stanfield (2010) says that without water, nutrients like proteins and carbohydrates cannot be absorbed in the body. In this case, water helps the chemical reactions that make these two nutrients become absorbable in the body. Therefore, water is crucial in the whole process of food digestion and transportation of food nutrients and oxygen in the body.
The above explained roles played by water show that it is one of the most important nutrients in the body. Lack of it may result into dehydration. As Stanfield (2010) points out, dehydration of the body poses serious impacts to an individual and can be life threatening. Some of the effects of severe dehydration include loss of general body weight, sight becoming dim, wrinkled skin, reduced urination, increased headaches and nausea, and weak immunity due to poor or no absorption of essential nutrients.
Dehydration makes all the important body processes come to a stop, greatly reducing the working ability of the body, a condition that is fatal. According to Grosvenor and Smolin (2012), incidences where the body is dehydrated should be avoided to avoid pre-mature deaths.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This can be done by drinking enough water. Although the body can generate water from some foods and fruits ingested, one should not rely on this as a source of water to the body. Stanfield (2010) recommends that one should take between 7 to 8 glasses of water a day or more when in exercise to avoid incidences that may lead to great water loss in the body. This would help one remain healthy and strong.
References Grosvenor, M. B.,
The Movement of Indigenous People Away from City Centers, and in Saudi Arabia in Particular Term Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
There are many things that affect the movement of people globally and within a nation. Demographics is the study of the reasons why people move around. There are many factors that influence the migration of people, from social, to cultural and personal.
Religion, people’s education, their national preferences and the surrounding environment all play a crucial role in where people chose to live or where to move to. The changing times have been especially influential on the migration of the indigenous people, but the historical records are partly lost or non-existent (Turner, 2006).
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the background reasons for the movement of indigenous people away from city centers, and in Saudi Arabia in particular. An objective look will be taken at the different criteria that lead to changes in migration patterns. More specifically, the migration determinants and demographics of the indigenous people are closely related to the global economics and societies, but are also interrelated between each other and local, intercultural societies (Carnes
The Role of Mediation in the Workplace Expository Essay essay help online
Different groups of people can be involved in disputes because conflicts are caused by the diversity of opinions, visions, interests, and needs. If those people who work together to complete the project cannot understand the needs, motives, and interests of each other in relation to achieving the common goal, the work can result not only in the failure but also in developed confrontation between the parties. That is why, it is rational and appropriate to involve the third party in discussing the issue in order to assist in resolving the conflict.
This process of assisting in the resolution of the dispute observed in a workplace, a family, or a social group is known as mediation. From this point, mediation is the complex method used to resolve disputes as a result of helping the parties to find the right solution for their conflict (Moore 2003). Mediation techniques and methods serve effectively to resolve the workplace disputes because these techniques and approaches are selected according to the concrete situation and in relation to the expected outcomes.
Thus, the role of mediation in the workplace is significant because effective mediation contributes not only to resolving the current dispute but also to preventing conflicts in the future because the balance of powers is regulated by mediators, and employees receive the opportunity to improve their communication and collaboration.
Theories of Mediation Mediation can be discussed from the point of its theoretical significance and practical role for resolving the conflicts. Thus, the theory of mediation is based on the purpose, principles, and role of mediation as the method of the dispute resolution. The development of the idea of mediation and its theory is a result of the people’s focus on finding the resolution for all the conflicting situations in order to keep the balance (Beer, Packard,
Locke’s Natural Law of Property Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Natural laws, rights and property Locke was a man in England who supported Shaftesbury. Shaftesbury was a politician who desired the powers of the king to be restricted. He made moves in the parliament at that time to prevent James, the brother of King Charles from becoming the successor to the throne. However Shaftesbury was defeated and he was sent on exile together with Locke to Netherlands. This is where Locke wrote the two treatises that advocated for property as a natural right, the need and role of the government.
Locke proposed views on property as a natural right that have proven to be contentious. First of all he said that in the beginning God gave the land to all the humanity. There was nothing like private property in the beginning. It is men who started the concept of private property.
The divine law given by God was that land should be owned communally by the people. Locke’s view on natural laws from which men derived their natural rights was normative and not descriptive. His ideas were based on what should be the practice in the society and not what was happening at that time. Locke put forward that the natural laws could be understood by anyone as long as they employed their human reasoning (Tuckness, 2010) There are three natural rights that a human has.
First it is the right to live. The second natural right is the right to freedom as long as it does not obstruct other people from exercising their right to live. The third right, which is the most contentious is the man’s right to property as long as it does not interfere with other men’s right to freedom and life.
According to Locke if any one interfered with the three natural rights he was disobeying God. If God had given someone the right to live he had also given the individual the right to own property. Locke saw labor as something owned by the individual. Anything that the individual mixed with his labor becomes his property. Labor was a good thing because as people engaged in productive labor there was production of goods and services that served every one (Locke, 1988 , II, para 27).
The natural right to property according to Locke was affected by the application of labor to a certain piece of land. As the land becomes scarce there arises a government to take care or protect the private property of individuals. The government only rules with the consent of the people. If the government does not ensure that the people are able to exercise their three natural rights then the government is removed and there arises a new government that will take care of the people.
Locke noted that with the introduction of a monetary system, an individual would be able to own more land than he would be applying labor to directly at one particular time. A businessman is able to accumulate land and the concept of private property arises.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Criticisms First of all, in laboring in a piece of land there is no right that the laborer has to the piece of land. The land has an owner who gets the proceeds of the firm. Locke viewed labor as something that the worker owns. The view was criticized by Karl Marx since in the capitalist society; there are the rich elite who own property and other means of production.
They employ the workers in their companies. There is a high level of unemployment in the society causing the workers to withstand adverse working conditions and low wages since they know if they quit or complain the employer would just recruit from the reserve of employed workers. Simmons contested Locke’s view that the labor belongs to the individual. He put forward that worker’s labor actually belonged to the rich (Simmons, 1992, p335)
On land being a natural right, this would be a hard concept to apply in the world today because it is a scarce resource. Hume contested the idea of natural right to property since it a scarce resource. He said that an individual could only own a piece of land after getting the financial resources to purchase the land (Hume, 1978, p489). That is why in the governments of today, countries have three categories of land.
There is private property and public land. Once someone has purchased a piece of land no other individual can access the land to labor in it or put into other uses without the consent of the owner(Waldron, 2010). The owner has the right to do anything with his land as long as it is legal use of the land. Public land is owned by the state and is communal property such as parks and other recreational centers.
Locke began with the idea that in the beginning land belonged to all the people equally. The concept of communal or common property was supported by several scholars. Plato had the similar views with Locke. He believed that concept of private property should not be encouraged. It would only go to ensure that the interests of just a select
few and not everyone in the society (Plato, 1993, 426b-c) Aristotle however saw the benefits of private property. He put forward that private property ensured efficiency in the market place. Every one now was forced to mind his own financial affairs and ensure his business was running place (Aristotle, 1988, 1263a)
I disagree with this view because even in the olden days, land was a scarce resource. There were fights and wars between different kings as they choose to possess more land. The one who owned the land was the one who had survived and won the battles. Later, in the evolution of society and the increase in economic development, people started to trade for land using money instead of fighting.
We will write a custom Essay on Locke’s Natural Law of Property specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I do not agree with Locke that the government in place would work to ensure that people are able to exercise their natural law to property. Like Marx, I agree that one of the ills in the society is the creation of the elite class that is politically connected. The rich elite are able to influence the government to put policies and market systems that help them in amassing more wealth and suppressing the poor.
The people cannot really overthrow the government when they realize what they are doing is wrong. The workers are in the mercy of the rich elite who control the government. Karl Marx did not have any faith in a government that promoted private property without inequality. He therefore saw the workers getting tired of the rich elite and arising to overthrow the government in a socialist revolution (Marx
Amnesia and Long-Term Memory Research Paper essay help: essay help
Introduction Amnesia is a mental condition that is characterized by loss of memory. The affected individuals may not have a good memory of an event that occurred in a short period prior to the reference time. Amnesia manifests itself differently and the kind of information that is lost by individuals may differ as well.
The memory is disturbed and a piece of information that had been acquired may be blurred or appear completely. In other cases, amnesiacs may only recall new events or newly acquired information and lose the information that had been in the memory for a long time.
In some scenarios, an individual loses memory for a particular event. In other cases, the individual is able to have a good memory of given information but cannot recall its roots. An amnesiac may recall tragic event like road accident that occurred in his or her life. However, he/she may not be able to recall the events that occurred just before and after the scene. Other individuals may have good memory of skills learned in school while they are not able to develop a cognitive ability for their personal identities.
Several factors can cause amnesia and more studies carried out psychology pertaining to amnesia reveal causal factors. There are individuals who experienced such problems since their childhood. The condition could be acquired at a later stage in life following the causal factors. The condition could result from drug use, mental disorder, stress, and depression following a traumatic experience, or physical damage to the brain following an accident or shock.
Abuse of drugs such as excessive use of alcohol may interfere with an individual’s cognitive ability. Drug effects could also be witnessed in the situation where a patient is induced with a drug before an operation. Wrong use of such drugs may pose problems to the patient’s memory. A traumatic experience like a tragic car accident may interfere with the victim’s memory of the events that occurred before or after the accident.
These factors interfere with the function of hippocampus, the section of the human brain that is responsible for the development of memory, storing and organizing information. Information could be present in one’s memory but cannot be accessed. The inability to recall an event may occur just because the information is not organized in the memory area for proper retrieval.
Lack of proper long-term memory is a hindrance to the learning process and acquisition of new skills. It also impedes the individual’s personal development. An area of interest is thus a mechanism that is to be used to manage this condition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The research question This paper is based on the previous studies and seeks to determine which criteria (if any) are the most appropriate in the management of amnesia to enhance long-term memory. It attempts to find out if the subjects of amnesia can be made to acquire new semantic information after and attack. A brief look at the types of amnesia, their causes and how they are manifested in different individuals provide a basis for the studies that have been carried out to investigate the appropriate remedy.
Types of Amnesia
Amnesia can be categorized according to their nature and effects or according to their causes. Based on the nature, amnesia can be categorized as anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia. In anterograde amnesia, an individual experiences loss of short-term memory.
He or she is not able to retain new information or event in the memory and transfer it into permanent temporary. The information that was received after the attack cannot be retained for long in the memory. The attack results into disorder in the functioning of the brain that bars the transfer of information from the short-term memory to long-term memory. In retrograde amnesia, an individual is not able to recall the events that occurred before the attack. Both the types of amnesia can occur in an individual.
Based on the causal mechanism, there are different types of amnesia. These include hysterical posttraumatic amnesia, transient global amnesia, dissociative amnesia, childhood amnesia, among many others. Posttraumatic amnesia follow a traumatic event and could be anterograde or retrograde (Cantu, 2001, para.12). Transient global amnesia occurs spontaneously with irregular causes.
Causes of Amnesia
The occurrence of this condition may follow several factors. Some of the factors are mental disorder and posttraumatic stress. The condition could result from organic factors like trauma, a disease, or an effective drug that damage to the brain (Sharma, 2011, para.2-7). Amnesia could also follow psychological factors resulting from the traumatic experience.
Some forms of amnesia are witnessed from the childhood of an individual and could be attributed to the gene factors of the parents. Other types of amnesia occur spontaneously like the transient global amnesia. It could be an effect of a defense mechanism following a traumatic experience.
Effects of Amnesia
Amnesia has a number of effects on the victims. Some of these effects may be seen shortly after the attack whereas the others may take longer to be seen.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Amnesia and Long-Term Memory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the common effects is the inability the affected individual to see into the future. The individual cannot recall past events and thus cannot have an imagination of what the future events might be like. The damage that is caused to the hippocampus in the brain does not allow the victim to recollect the past in order to picture the future. Besides, the condition usually results in a psychological problem in the end.
Management of amnesia
Various studies have been carried out to determine the most appropriate mechanism to manage amnesia and the fate of these victims after the attack. What emerges from the studies is that the management of the condition will highly depend on the cause and subsequently the type of amnesia identified.
As has been stated, some forms of amnesia are short-lived and may only occur once in a lifetime. Such conditions may improve even without an intervention. Others would prevail for a longer period and require some form of therapeutic intervention or medication. Change of an individual’s lifestyle following a directive by an occupational therapist may provide a good remedy for some forms of amnesia.
The management of transient global amnesia may not be the same as that of dissociative amnesia. An effective method that has been observed for the management of most types of amnesia is through psychotherapy. Dissociative amnesia could be managed through this method. It is necessary that the clinician be very comfortable with the different types of psychological interventions to be used such as behavioral therapy, hypnotherapy, cognitive therapy or psychopharmacological management (Sharma, 2011, para.14).
There have been false perceptions that psychotherapy could lead to the cases of corroboration of memories. In their study of amnesia, corroboration and dissociation in relation to childhood abuse, Chu et al (1999) found out that recovery of false memory was very common in the victims of child abuse that were not under therapy. The study followed arguments that the therapeutic services provided by the clinicians contributed largely to the development of false memory, especially in the victims of child abuse (Chu et al, 1999, p.749).
The study involved an examination of dissociative symptoms and details of child abuse among the participants. Indicators of amnesia following a traumatic experience were also sought from the participants. Different aspects of the victim’s recovered memory were also examined. The results that were obtained from the study suggested that psychotherapy treatments are not behind the development of pseudomemories after an attack (Chu et al, 1999, p.754).
Tsai (2011) provides a brief report of an individual who suffered amnesia and is not able to recover from the situation. Despite the medical intervention that the patient has undergone for over seven months, Dr Theresa Wang is still not able to forget the horrible car accident in which he sustained severe injuries (Tsai, 2011, para.3).
She has obtained various forms of medical treatments and therapy all to no good. As such, the medical practitioner has set given up her job to go and relax with the family members. The necessity of psychotherapy is evidenced in this case. The healing process should also not focus on the cause of the accident as was maintained by the husband of the doctor. In this scenario, a psychological intervention (through group therapy) may do better than the medical approach in management of amnesia.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Amnesia and Long-Term Memory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effective management of the amnesia also consists in the identification of the condition. The different types of amnesia like TGA should not be confused with other medical conditions like cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In a case study, Harrison and Williams (2007) provided an insight on the proper management of transient global amnesia (TGA).
It requires a proper identification of the signs and symptoms that are associated with the condition. Transient global amnesia is characterized by a temporary loss of anterograde memory (Harrison
Water Balance Comparison Essay custom essay help
Introduction Berkeley is located on a sea level of Berkeley hills parts of Pacific Ranges; it has a total area of approximately seventeen square miles. 59% of the land is bare land while the rest is covered by water, Mediterranean climate conditions are experienced in this region with damp winters and dry summers.
Summers in this area are cooler as compared to the normal Mediterranean summer due to presence of California currents. On the other hand, Terre Haute lies on the west-central Indian beside the eastern bank River Wabash which dominates the whole city (Darrel Hess, 2005, pp. 248). The city occupies a total area of thirty two square miles whereby 97% of the city island and approximately 3% is covered by water. The temperatures are warm during summer season and cold in winter.
During summer season in Berkeley the prevailing winds from Northwest are generated by high pressure from California coast, the Japanese current drives the surface water along the southern coast. In winter the Northern breeze are the prevailing winds, this shows that the water level are high.
Water budget for Berkeley, California
J F M A M J J A S O N D P 13.0 11.2 9.4 3.7 2.4 0.5 0.1 0.1 1.3 3.1 6.2 10.6 PE 2.6 3.2 4.5 5.6 7.1 8.4 8.8 8.2 7.5 6.3 4.3 2.8 P-PE 10.4 8.0 4.9 -1.9 -4.7 -7.9 -8.7 -8.1 -6.2 -3.2 1.9 7.8 Change in ST 0.0 0.0 0.0 -1.9 -4.7 -3.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 7.8 ST 10.0 10.0 10.0 8.1 3.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 9.7 AE 2.6 3.2 4.5 5.6 7.1 3.9 0.1 0.1 1.3 3.1 4.3 2.8 D 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5 8.7 8.1 6.2 3.2 0.0 0.0 S 10.4 8.0 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Water Budget for Terre Haute, Indiana
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC P 7.4 6.8 9.6 9.4 10.1 10.2 8.1 8.2 8.7 6.9 8.4 7.5 PE 0.0 0.0 1.8 4.9 10.2 13.4 15.8 13.8 9.9 5.2 1.7 0.1 P-PE 7.4 6.8 7.8 4.5 -0.1 -3.2 -7.7 -5.6 -1.2 1.7 6.7 7.4 Δ ST 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.1 -3.2 -6.7 0.0 0.0 1.7 6.7 1.6 ST 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.9 6.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 8.4 10.0 AE 0.0 0.0 1.8 4.9 10.2 13.4 14.8 8.2 8.7 5.2 1.7 0.1 D 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 5.6 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 S 7.4 6.8 7.8 4.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.4 Analyses of the charts From the above charts Berkeley receives more precipitation compared to Terre Haute on the first three with the highest evaporation rate. From April to December Terre Haute receive the highest precipitation as compared to Berkeley.
Terre Haute rainfall is fairy distributed through out the year; May being the wettest month of the year. Between April and August Berkeley has low rainfall in the year with January being the wettest month on the year. Berkeley has high temperature compared to Terre Haute due to the presence of west coast Mediterranean climate. The actual evaporation is high in Berkeley as compared to Terre Haute as a result of high temperature and pressure in the region.
Berkeley has a high storage of water as compared to Terre Haute this is due it geographical location on coastal region with water bodies covering 41% of it land. A lot of vegetarian in the region has also contributed to the high water storage in the region. It’s clearly shown that Berkeley holds the highest amount of moisture between January and March which is brought about by a lot of vegetation in the region (Darrel Hess, 2005, pp. 342).
Terre Haute is on high altitude, the presence of mountains in the area blocks the wet winds from the ocean condense them to form relief rainfall in the region which leads to constant rain throughout the year. On the other hand, Berkeley being on the coastal plain humid winds result to convection rainfall in the region.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This occurs when water in the ocean is heated leading to evaporation of warm light air which rises and condenses on higher altitude to form convectional precipitation(Darrel Hess, 2005, pp. 185). These humid winds are strong from November all the way to March and hence contributing to the high precipitation. However, because of high pressure and temperature it has lead to the actual evaporation in the area.
The topography, prevailing winds, undergrowth and the soil in the region determines the water deficit in a region. Although Terre Haute receives constant rainfall through out the year it experiences water deficit between July and September. Terre Haute location on the hilly region explains why it not easy to store rain water for a long time leading to runoff.
This explains the presence of Wabash River in the region as the biggest river in the continent. California being on a coastal region it able to retain precipitation for a long period of time in spite of the high temperatures .From the chart above it also shows that the two regions have the same surplus of water due to less vegetation in the region (Darrel Hess, 2005, pp. 453).
Conclusion In conclusion the climatic condition in the two areas determines the type of plants found, Terre Haute’s vegetation is adapted to cold winters and warm winter. This region has long evergreen vegetation with no underground plants while Berkeley has short ever green vegetation with a lot of underground plants. Berkeley city has high water storage as compared to Terre Haute due to it topography, elevation, prevailing winds and climate.
Reference Darrel Hess, Tom L. McKnight. (2005). Physical Geography: A Landscape appreciation. Prentice Hall, pp. 559.
Sociality as a defensive response to the threat of loss By Tim Johnson, Mikhai Myagkov and John Orbell Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
This article gives an analysis of how individuals use sociality as a defensive response to the risk of loss. This article applies the aspect of the prisoner’s dilemma to address the problem. The prisoner’s dilemma is one of the major problems in the game theory, which helps to understand the reason why two people will not cooperate even though it may be their best interests to do that.
This analysis seeks to find out how people generally react to the risks that usually occurs in social relationships. This article begins by identifying the fact that although people do cooperate, defections also take place often (Tim, Mikhail and John 1).
The main argument of the article revolves around the idea that people will be more willing to enter into a relationship where the game payoffs are framed as losses rather than gains (Tim, Mikhail and John 1).
In other words, this article proposes that people are now more concerned in making decisions which will shield them from dipping into loss rather than gaining. The authors have begun with a critical literature review where they have summarized the previous study which has been conducted on the field. Previous study has revealed that in some cases, people cooperate in the prisoner’s dilemma games where they would choose against their interests. Such decisions lead to maximization of the social welfare.
Tim, Mikhail and John also emphasized on the fact that universal cooperation is very rare (1). This implies that an individual is usually faced with the challenge of concluding on how others are going to decide in the prisoner dilemma’s game. Therefore, an individual will be faced by the dilemma of whether to enter into such game or other wise refrain from entering. They are also faced with the dilemma of choosing the person with whom to enter into the game.
Tim, Mikhail and John have also recognized the fact that the previous literature has barely mentioned anything to do with how people will react to the danger of going into a prisoner’s dilemma games (2). They emphasized on the idea of risk tolerance. Tim, Mikhail and John also discussed about the risk aversion.
For instance, one should not trust strangers. However, if we manage to gather enough information about them we will be able to understand their behaviour. Otherwise, people will refrain from entering into the games with people for whom they don’t have information. People tends to be risk tolerant when the payoff involves losses but risk averse if the payoff in the game involves specific gains (Tim, Mikhail and John 2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This article has also outlined the utility function. This involves the objective values like lives lost or saved are plotted on the horizontal axis, subjective utility on the vertical axis while the status quo is plotted at the intersection (Tim, Mikhail and John 3).
In this case, the function plotted in the quadrant on the upper right side can be identified with the economic theory of diminishing marginal utility for every life saved. On the other hand, the utility function in the left quadrant in the lower side demonstrates steeply declining losses or the lost lives (Tim, Mikhail and John 3).
This function can be analyzed based on its nature. In this case, one unit loss in the status quo will hurt more than the gain. In other words, for every extra unit of status quo lost, an individual will be hurt more than in the preceding unit. This article has extended on the traditional expected utility which just differentiates losses and gains. It is based on the assumption that probability of the occurrence is the most appropriate measure for risky outcomes.
The prisoner’s dilemma has a significant implication in the concept of sociality. In most cases, people are involved in exchange relationships with each other. The article has identified the fact that the decision made by individuals to enter or not to enter in a relationship is based on the empirical regularity they document (Tim, Mikhail and John 2).
Therefore if all other factors remain constant, it is expected that individuals will tend to take the social risks only in the cases where the payoffs are based on losses rather than gains. This concept can also be applied in political arena. In voting, the voter is faced with a decision to make. For instance, they gauge the available alternatives and choose the best (Plott and Levine 148).
The concept of the prisoner’s dilemma can clearly be explained through a situation where the decisions of two prisoners affect the other. For instance, we have two suspects who are arrested by the police and then confined in two different places. It is assumed that the police do not have enough evidence on the crime the prisoners committed.
Then, the police visit each separately. Both prisoners are then given same deal. In case one prisoner testifies against the other and the other remains silent, then the one who remains silent gets one year term jail while the other is released.
We will write a custom Essay on Sociality as a defensive response to the threat of loss By Tim Johnson, Mikhai Myagkov and John Orbell specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, if both prisoners choose not to betray each other and therefore remain silent, then they will both be sentenced for only one month in jail. However, if each prisoner betrays the other, they will get a three months jail sentence each. In this case, every prisoner must choose either to defect or to cooperate. That is, they have the opportunity. In this case scenario, it is clear that there is one choice which will maximize the interests of each of the prisoners. The dilemma is now how each of the prisoners is going to act.
If the two suspects are only concerned about minimizing the time they stay in jail, they can either choose to betray or to cooperate with the other. This results into a non-zero sum game because each player may cooperate or defect (Blum and Booth 56). In the prisoner’s dilemma game, each of the participants is determined to maximize their own payoff with no concern on other person’s payoff.
However, both players may choose to betray each other. When both prisoners play defective, the decisions lead to a Pareto sub-optimal solution (Tutor2. par 6). In this situation, every prisoner makes a rational decision. That is, a decision which maximizes their gains (Rapoport and Chammah 124).
In the prisoner’s dilemma, the most dominant choice is defection. Therefore, the only equilibrium solution in this case remains the fact that all the players to defect. This is because the players are assumed to behave rationally (Barash par 4). However, the compensation would have been relatively higher in case both the prisoners decide to cooperate in their decisions.
On the side of the iterated prisoner’s dilemma, this game is played again and again. Unlike in the classical case, the prisoner has the opportunity to punish the other for not cooperating in the previous cases (Edgar 98). According to the economic theory, both players will defect in subsequent cases regardless of the number of times the participants plays.
Cooperation can only be equilibrium when they are allowed to play random number of times or unlimited number of times. However, the problem of betrayal can easily be mitigated through intimidation by threatening to punish those who are engaged in defection (Heylighen par 3).
The prisoners’ dilemma has a significant implication in politics. This is because the actions of individual politicians have a significant impact on others. In some cases, politicians may benefit for cooperation and lose for not doing so (Paul 309). In some cases, politicians do cooperate and gain while in others fails to do so and consequently lose.
The principle of the prisoners can also be applied in other social contexts. According to Myagkov and Orbell, when people are assumed to be free to choose the people with whom to enter into the games with and also to defect or to cooperate can be useful in modeling of markets (3). In such a case, individuals may decide to avoid relationships which they perceive as exploitive and for a more attractive relationship. This may provider an incentive of not defecting.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sociality as a defensive response to the threat of loss By Tim Johnson, Mikhai Myagkov and John Orbell by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In politics, the concept of the prisoner’s dilemma can also be applicable. For instance, In case two candidates are free to decide on the policy positions in order to optimize the number of their votes, both will tend to choose the policies which they think will maximize their share (Congleton 4).
However, the decision made by one politician has a significant impact on the other. This can also be demonstrated by the rational choice theory which implies that every individual will trend to make decisions which maximizes their interests (The New York Times February 26, 2000. par 2). This is also applicable at the international level. This can clearly be described through the realism theory which describes how states do or think in an effort to secure their interests (Squidoo par 5).
The game of the prisoner’s dilemma has a significant implication in the field of economics. For instance, advertisement can form a good example of the political dilemma. For instance, there was time when advertisement was illegal in the United State. The decisions made by the individual companies had a significant impact on the other companies. In other words, the success of every company was determined by the decision made by others.
During this period, the success of company X is to some extent determined by the advertisement decisions made by company Y. On the other hand, the returns from the advertisement conducted by firm Y is influenced by the advertisement measures carried by company X. However, in case the two companies choose to advertise simultaneously at the same time, the effect neutralizes itself and the sales remains constant.
Nevertheless, there are increased costs incurred through the advertisement activities. However, in case one company decides not to advertise, then the other one will gain significantly from advertisement. Another case of political dilemma can be illustrated through the case of drugs in spot. Schneier demonstrates a situation where decisions by various players to use performance enhancing drugs affect the performance of others (par 2).
In this case, the most feasible level of advertisement for the company X will be determined by advertisement undertaken by company Y. In this case, both companies can gain significantly if they choose to cooperate. For instance, they can both reduce their operational costs in case they decide to advertise at a level below the equilibrium (Milgrom 306). In case all the companies cooperate and decide not to conduct any advertisement, then every company will reduce its expenses and the profits will generally increase in the industry.
The principle of the game of the prisoner’s dilemma can also be applied in the pricing among cartels. In some cases, a number of companies may decide to set their prices at a certain level. In this case, a company may choose not to adhere to this regulation which implies that they defect. They may also decide to cooperate and keep their prices at the agreed level. The companies which defect in this case gain profits at the expense of others (Hang 59).
Conniff (2001) observed that risky behaviour can also be revealed among other animals. For instance, this can be demonstrated in a phenomenon where an antelope jumps high up into the air when chased by a cheetah. However, it would be more reasonable for the antelope to apply all their energy trying to run horizontally as far as possible. There are also some animals which usually tend to dance just in front of their predators before dodging away.
In conclusion, this article has given a clear analysis of the concept of the prisoner’s dilemma games and its implication in social, political and economic context. It is based on the principle that individuals will tend to act in such a way that they maximize their interests. However, these decisions may in one way or another affect others.
Works Cited Barash, David. “Rogue Elephants Play Congressional Chicken.” Chronicle, 2011. Web.
Blum, Jonathan and Booth Rupert. The Prisoner’s Dilemma. U.S.A.: Powys Books, 2005.
Congleton, Roger. “The Median Voter Model.” Uoregon, 2011. Web.
Conniff Richard. Why We Take Risks. DISCOVER .Vol. 22 No. 12 December 2001.
Edgar David. The Prisoner’s Dilemma. London: Nick Hern Books, 2002.
Hang Amelia. Prisoner’s Dilemma. UK: Lulu.com, 2003.
Heylighen Francis. “The Prisoners’ Dilemma.” Pespmc1, 1995. Web.
Myagkov Misha and Orbell John. “Mindreading and Manipulation in an Ecology of Prisoner’s Dilemma Games: Laboratory Experiments.” Phoenix, 2011. Web.
Rapoport Anatol and Chammah Albert. Prisoner’s Dilemma: A Study In Conflict And Cooperation. Canada: University of Michigan Press, 1965.
Schneier Bruce. “Drugs: Sports’ Prisoner’s Dilemma.” Wired, 2011. Web.
Paul Milgrom. The Evolution of Cooperation. Journal of Economics Volume 15, Number 2, 1984, 305–309.
Plott Charles R. and Levine Michael E. A model of Agenda Influence on Committee Decisions. The American Economic Review, Vol. 68, No. 1. (March 1978), pp. 146-160.
Squidoo. “Realism.” Squidoo, 2011. Web.
The New York Times February 26, 2000. “Political Scientists Debate Theory of `Rational Choice”. Phoenix, 2000. Web.
Tim Johnson, Mikhai Myagkov and John Orbell. Sociality as a Defensive Response to the Threat of Loss. Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, 14195 Berlin, Germany. 2001.
Tutor2. “Oligopoly – Game Theory.” Tutor2u, 2011. Web.
Whether Housewives Happier than Full-time Working Mothers Report custom essay help
Introduction The world is opening up to women in terms of added responsibilities and equal political, social and economic representation. Therefore, it is upon the society to ensure women participate, in building the economy (Flechl 5).
Thus, this research compares women who stay at home without working and those who constantly go to work. It evaluates their levels of satisfaction, attitude and morale. The report also seeks to understand from their children and spouses on how they view them, in terms of their choices, as well as their productivity in the society.
Statement of purpose This project intends to find out the various challenges women face, if they are homemakers or employed. It tries to measure their level of satisfaction and joy, if they stay at home or go about their jobs. In most cases, society discriminates those mothers who remain at home to care for their families, and instead favor those who have jobs (Stone 60).
Reason for the topic The society is becoming a place of prejudice where people do not respect one another even due to their differences. This is manifested mostly on issues of race, gender, beliefs or preferences (Stone 105). That is why, when a woman decides to stay indoors and the other decides to go to work on accounts of happiness, they are treated differently.
Project design In order to come up with this project, I prepared several questionnaires for working and nonworking mothers, recorded observations in the neighborhood of those mothers who stay home to care for their families and to the work places of working mothers (Flechl 41). In both instances, I asked them a number questions to do with their happiness on the choice or path they had taken.
Experts’ Opinion on the Project With affirmative action taking new twists in the society, most experts agree that issues favoring minority groups especially women should be given grave consideration. This follows the argument that there is a sense of harmony, when these people are integrated in the community, to play their roles. Experts also noted that there has been elements of discrimination toward mothers who stay home and even at times, to those who work (Sachs 69).
Conflicting Results among Experts Experts agree women who stay home and those who go to work should be evaluated in terms of happiness, although the scope of their argument is considerably wide. They suggest other forms of discrimination towards women also include other aspects such as race, leadership and responsibilities that should also be researched (Flechl 29). Therefore, with the reduction of these discrimination elements, then society can begin to treat women differently by letting them play their roles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Knowledge from Experts The experts suggested that there is the need to investigate the feelings of the minorities for the betterment of the society. It is vital to understand how they go about their domestic duties and at their workplaces. We should understand how they achieve their satisfaction and morale in every life setting. All these research should be broad but specifically target women and girls because they suffer the most (Stone 29).
Influence of Review Literature In the 21st century, women are treated differently than it was in the past. The general society now agrees women should also seek employment and work for their families. This is because of increased sensitization in many societies (Sachs 93). Moreover, to grow the economy, women need to work for productivity and to prevent gender demonstrations and economic insecurities.
Changes and Methods of Social Research The changes effected in the report include the need to investigate why women decide to stay home, while their counterparts go to work (Stone 132). This crucial information was obtained by asking women various questions, by general observation, reading books, journals, magazines and searching the Internet. There were also consultations with women organizations and groups who champion their welfare.
Method of Subject Selection Women were picked on the criterion of age, education, empowerment and their relation with their children and spouses. Younger mothers who are educated and have awareness tend to embrace work than those who are not. Still other new generations of mothers are emerging who prefer to work in their home, as they care for their families. Therefore, on both aspects, the level of satisfaction was different (Flechl 41).
Research Results The report indicates that, if mothers have better education, they tend to seek for employment, to support their families. In addition, social awareness and policies have been put in place that wholly supports mothers who go to work (Sachs 161). However, some mothers with equal educational level feel contented thus deciding to work in their home or just not work at all.
Research Challenges There were a number of setbacks encountered while investigating this project. These include some of the mothers both working and none working providing untruthful information. Some answered well-intended questions with suspicion, while others simply refused to speak at all. Finally, there were problems of time, while conducting the interviews thus many vital questions were not exhausted (Flechl 37).
Overcoming challenges To counter-attack these problems, I ensured the interviews were friendly and lively without making them official. The research had to begin early so as cover a wide scope of questions from the mothers (Stone 181). I also won some these women’s trust by rewarding some of them and striking informal deals of confidentiality. These boosted my research in terms of interviews.
We will write a custom Report on Whether Housewives Happier than Full-time Working Mothers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion In summary, the society should take the role of women seriously, both working and nonworking. Working women should be respected for helping build the economy and still care for the families.
In addition, a woman who prefers to stay in her house should not be viewed as incapable of attaining happiness, as those who are working. The society should understand that both of them play differently roles to achieve productivity and satisfaction (Flechl 5). Therefore, despite challenges, it is vital to appreciate the fact that mothers work extra hard to care for their children, spouses and still feel satisfied.
Works Cited Flechl, Viktoria. Work Life Balance – A Comparative Study of Women in Senior Management. Norderstedt, DE: GRINN Verlag Publishers, 2010. Print.
Sachs, Wendy. How She Really Does It: Secrets of Successful Stay-at-Work Moms. Cambridge, MA: De Capo Press. 2006. Print.
Stone, Pamela. Opting out?: why women really quit careers and head home. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. 2007. Print
Thruth in Drama Report college essay help near me
The extent of a truth in logic is elucidated by the ‘truth’ value of a logical statement. In most instances, either “false” or “true” is used to expose the truth value. In the case of “In a groove”, “Tajomaru raped Masago” is true since Tajomaru actually raped Masago and thus would be considered a falsehood if he did not rape her.
However, the truth value may be supplementary values also, especially in multi-valued logics. This mostly occurs in cases where a numerical value is used to state how true the issue may be. In these particular instances, where the value is between zero (0) and one (1), one would be used to state that it is utterly correct and zero would indicate that it is completely false.
In certain situations where the circumstances are such that they may require further scrutiny for verification, the statement may be considered half way false and at the same time half way true, thereby placing the truth value at 0.5. To establish a logic truth as being valuation worthy, one does not require truth values in an exceptional sense.
The correlation between creative writing and truth has for a long time been quite impulsive. If the raconteur cheats about the fable being true, which of course would only be meaningful in the event of the literary globe maintaining its own values of truth, then fiction would be considered as being real in the world that it formulates. In any case, creative writing is taken as being neither a falsehood nor being true. Rather, it is somewhere in the midst of the two states.
In this particular narrative, the rudiments that we would consider as being the truth statements include;
Tajamoru and Masago left at different times.
Even though the aspects would differ, Masago seemed inclined to the fact that she wished Takehiko would die according to all the separate accounts.
Masago’s horse as well as Takehito’s quiver and his bow were stolen by the same person who was Tajomaru.
Masago was desecrated by Tajamoru.
The duo was led into the forest by Tajomoru.
There appear several discrepancies in the cast’s tales regarding the goings-on and they vary from the minute details right up to the vital aspects of the tale. There are so many inconsistencies that emanate from the different versions that are given by the characters in their statements regarding the happenings. For example;
The statement that Masago gave totally left out the fact that she carried out an elongated discussion with Tajomaru subsequent to the rape ordeal and consequently she was willing to leave with Tajomaru on condition of her husband’s death.
The clergyman who was passing through stated that he very unambiguously saw more than twenty arrows in the gentleman’s quiver, quite contrary to what the bounty hunter said he counted which was slightly less.
The final statement is delivered to the reader by the late Takehiko’s ghost and this is facilitated by a go-between of the spirit world. Takehito, through the go-between, shows apparent disdain for his wife in the course of his narration of his version of the story.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This indicates that each individual in the cast narrates a certain fact that they deem a truth but is contradicted by another person thus making it a falsehood. In actual sense, the ethical contradictions in the narrative may be much more crucial than the literal ones.
In an effort to cover up their own dishonesty, it is quite evident that the characters have all switched their statements exposing the fact that they are ethically and morally corrupted. This situation abandons the person reading the story without the ability to pin point who is specifically responsible for what in an objective manner.
In a synopsis, it is their emotions that guide the reader in making a decision as to who on a literal point, is telling the truth since it is the emotions that make them believe in one specific person much more than the rest.
This comprehension dawns on the reader almost at the close of the narrative as they find out that they are not able to garner enough verification that may enable them decipher who is literally right. The need for prejudice as well as self rationalization rather than truth as well as facts to decide what may or may not be true is what drives the reader to discover that they need to acknowledge the reality that they themselves are also ethically compromised in a way.
In the final analysis, as stated by one critique of narratives, he points out the fact that a complete unit is not the computation of its distinct divisions. Rather it is the disputed correlation that exists amidst the said parts.
The anonymous critique signs of by broaching the question that inquires on ways that people (we) may be able to set a basis to go by through narrative that may shift people (us) down as a discursive anthology of persons who are apt to the task as well as the outfit that may enable them advance on the current troubles that affect them.
Ethical Issues Facing Social Researchers Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Research refers to a systematic study aimed at making new discoveries or arriving at a dependable solution through an accurate gathering, analysis and interpretation of information. Research can be adventurous and fun because a researcher gets to learn so much and interact with new aspects and concepts which are previously unknown. However, researchers face numerous ethical issues whenever they are conducting research and this is the focus of this discussion.
Ethical Issues One of the ethical issues that researchers face is getting participants in their research (Babbie, 2008, p.45). There is an ethical principle in social research known as voluntariness. This principle requires that any participant to a research must participate willingly without being coerced, forced or induced.
This is especially in cases where researchers would use prisoners or students in learning institutions for their researches. In line with this is a principle, it will no longer be possible for researcher to conduct any kind of research until those participating show willingness to do so without any kind of inducement such as monetary promises.
The other ethical issue when it comes to social research is the issue of informed consent. This simply means that social researchers and indeed any researcher must ensure that all their participants have a clear understanding of the kind of activity they are engaging in prior to them participating in the research. All participants should be well aware of the nature of the research and the likely consequences they are likely to face whether positive or negative.
The ethics that are applicable in social research also require that researchers take due caution and protect their participants from any potential harm or risk (Babbie, 2010, p.56).
The harm in this case refers to both psychological as well as physical. In ensuring that the participants in a research are fully protected, researchers are required to maintain a high level of confidentiality thereby ensuring that the information provided by the participants is not released to nay other person. Further, researchers can only use such information obtained only for the purposes of research only.
Social researchers are also required in some cases to ensure that their participants are anonymous. This means that their identity is not known and this is especially because of the nature of research which may involve release of highly confidential information. This ensures that participants in a research study are not later victimized based on the information they provided.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ethical Dilemma While there are well laid down ethical rules and standards which social researchers are required to observe when conducting their research, there are times that the need to e accurate and therefore obtain valid result may require the researcher to overlook some of the ethical standards (Kimmel, 1988, p.55). It is in this case that researchers face an ethical dilemma where one hand, they need to abide by the ethical standards while on the other hand, there is need to obtain accurate information regarding the study.
Conclusion Ethics is about what is right or wrong, good or bad. In this case, social researchers are faced with challenges whenever there is a dilemma of observing the ethical standards and obtaining correct information. It may not be possible to give a specific position considering that ethics is wide. Therefore, one may have to deal with a specific issue depending on the circumstances of the case.
One aspect that I found quite interesting as far as research ethics is the fact that it is sometimes caught between a rock and hard place in the sense that there is a dilemma between wanting to protect those participating in the study while at the same time there is need to get accurate results.
It therefore becomes very tricky at times for researchers. What I found disturbing in research ethics is the fact that sometimes researchers flout the standards of ethics in an attempt to get accurate results. It therefore becomes quite disturbing as one wonders where a balance can be struck between getting accurate results and remaining ethical
References Babbie, E. (2008) The basis of social research. New York: CengageBrain.com.
Babbie, E. (2010) The practice of social research. New York: CengageBrain.com.
Kimmel, A. (1988) Ethics and value in applied social research. London: Sage.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Issues Facing Social Researchers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
The Kashmir Crisis: An Ethno-Religious Perspective Essay essay help free
Introduction In recent history, the Kashmir region in South West Asia has been a subject of confrontations and wars between the nations of India and Pakistan. The two states claim the territory as theirs; a disagreement that has disintegrated in a war about three times. At the onset of India’s independence from Britain in 1947, the country had a large Hindu population, while the newly created dominion of Pakistan had a majority of Muslim population.
As a semi-autonomous region, Kashmir citizens had the choice to join either of the two nations – India or Pakistan. The dilemma, however, arose from the fact that, although the leader of Kashmir was a Hindu, the general populace was mostly Muslim. Pakistan favored governing the territory because the population was largely Muslim such as that found within Pakistan (a Muslim state), while India desired to govern the territory Kashmir because the rulers were Hindu.
The Kashmir Region The Kashmir region is geographically made up of beautiful valleys and green forests. Even in the midst of the conflict that has seen the two nations lay claim to its ownership, it has sufficed as a prime tourist destination. According to Taylor, despite the widely held belief that the Kashmir conflict is primarily a geo-political one, the undercurrents that spur the conflict are purely ethno-cultural (1991, p.305).
As stated earlier, Pakistan is largely a Muslim nation while India is mainly composed of Hindu populace. The ethno-religious views prevalent in both countries dictate that, to cede ground to the other would be tantamount to giving up on the particular religion.
For instance, Pakistan was granted the status of a dominion, separate from India, because its population was largely Muslim, distinct from the Hindu populace of India. Subsequently, for many Pakistanis, claiming Kashmir for their nation’s territory mirrors the very factor that granted them independence from India – religion. Therefore, to give up the claim for Kashmir would be tantamount to giving up Pakistan’s very own claim for independence.
As aforementioned, the two nations have fought about three wars over Kashmir – in 1947, 1965, and 1971, and in all these instances, Pakistan was decisively beaten. An insurgency covertly supported by Pakistan, in 1989, destabilized the region; nevertheless, there is still no definitive solution to the fate of the Kashmir region between the two states to this very day.
Conformity and the Kashmir Crisis Conformity is the practice of changing one’s attitudes, beliefs, and practices in order to align with the prevailing attitudes, beliefs, and practices of one’s society. In India, the prevalent religion is Hindu, and the majority of the representatives in the Congress and the executive profess the Hindu faith.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All the prime ministers of India have been of Hindu faith. Conversely, Pakistan, as a Muslim nation, has had only Muslim Prime Ministers throughout its history. Therefore, unlike other western democracies which strive to separate the state from religion, in these two Asian democracies, state and religion, freely mix. Many political and economic decisions in both countries more often have religious origins.
As a result, the need for politicians to conform to the prevailing ethno-religious attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs in these two countries has played a role in escalating the Kashmir conflict. According to Tavares, the militants in Kashmir wage a battle against India in an effort to build a theocratic state in Kashmir (2008, p.280).
Despite the belief that the people of Kashmir should have a right to self determine, both India and Pakistan are unwilling to cede any ground, and the stubborn nature of all leaders involved indicates a proclivity towards societal conformity in the leaders, leading to a stalemate.
In India, a Prime Minister, for instance, willing to allow Kashmir to join Pakistan because the majority of the citizens in the region are Muslim would immediately lose influence, power, and political power. A loss in a subsequent election would not be surprising.
Therefore, as much as an Indian leader may want to solve the Kashmir conflict by ceding ground because Kashmir should rightly come under the Pakistani sovereignty, the need to conform to the prevailing national attitude would constrain him or her. Similarly, any Pakistani leader willing to let go of the Kashmir region perhaps because India, being the more powerful nation, should govern the Kashmir would easily fallout of favor with the electorate.
Therefore, the Kashmir conflict has continued, not that a solution to the conflict is unattainable, but because the political leaders of the two countries have to continuously conform to the prevailing politico-societal beliefs (Kumar 2002, p.11). As stated earlier, the undercurrents that fan the flame of the conflict are largely ethno-religious.
Social Perception and the Kashmir Conflict Social perception is the gradual process through which people acquire beliefs and attitudes from the unique cultural experiences that prevail around them. The socialization experiences that encompass an individual create the basis on which the individual views the world.
We will write a custom Essay on The Kashmir Crisis: An Ethno-Religious Perspective specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In India, many of the citizens confess and stand by to the Hindu faith. With the exception of the northern province of Punjab, where the majority practices the Sikh faith, much of Indians professes the Hindu faith. Therefore, the social perception of the average Indian man is heavily influenced by the cultural dictates of the Hindu faith.
As such, the social perception of Indians relies heavily on the dictates of the Hindu faith. Because many religions teach the uniqueness and superiority of the particular religion over all others, the social perception of Indians encourages a non-compromising stand on conflicts such as the Kashmir conflict.
The non-compromising stand stems from the fact that in dealing with Pakistanis and the majority of the people living in Kashmir, the Indians deal with persons of another faith – Islam. Since the social perception of an Indian includes the belief in the supreme nature of the Hindu religion compared to other faiths, to compromise would mean accepting the superiority of another religion, which would go against the average Indian’s social perception.
On the other hand, the social perception of the majority of Pakistanis and people living in Kashmir is heavily influenced by the Islamic faith. Similarly, the belief in Islam and the huge role it plays in the social perception of Pakistanis precludes the possibility of a conclusive peaceful solution to the Kashmir crisis; because, the Islamic faith that influences a Pakistani’s social perception also announces its superiority over other religions.
Therefore, as much as this fact may not be acknowledged, the Kashmir conflict is primarily a religious conflict influenced by the social perceptions of the citizens of these two countries (India and Pakistan), these social perceptions being based on religion. The interest that the Muslim terrorist group Al-Qaeda has on the conflict gives credence to this religious angle to the conflict.
The late Al Qaeda leader, Osama bin Laden, in 2002, warned the USA against supporting India in the Kashmir conflict. The interest that Al-Qaeda has on Kashmir stems from the terrorist organization’s belief in the creation of Islam based states – theocracies.
Social Cognition and the Kashmir Conflict Social cognition is the process through which an individual processes information about the society around him or her and then uses this information in interacting with others and in individual decision-making.
In relation to the Kashmir conflict, social cognition determines the approach that the various leaders of the two nations use to try to resolve the conflict. In India, the successive Prime Ministers view the conflict from a Hindu religious angle, while the Pakistani leaders view it from a Muslim religious angle. All parties, therefore, view their own specific religions as the best, and endeavor to influence the other party to subscribe to their view – leading to a stalemate and thus a continuation of the crisis.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Kashmir Crisis: An Ethno-Religious Perspective by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Change of Social Perceptions that may lead to Conflict Resolution in Kashmir As stated earlier in this paper, the major factor that has led to a lack of resolution to the Kashmir conflict has been the social perception of the citizens and leaders of the nations of India and Pakistan.
Given that the social perceptions of the citizens and leaders of the two countries are steeped in religious dogma, the first social perception that will need to be addressed in order to resolve the Kashmir crisis is the social perception based on religion. Because both nations are democracies, the fate of the citizens of Kashmir should be determined by a referendum whose results should be accepted by all parties (Ganguly
Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Beethoven’s Seventh symphony has no equal. The symphony is articulately arranged and established with unique flow of both chords and musical patterns. Listening to the seventh symphony one may note that the music is purely priceless; it is not an impersonation of someone’s ideas.
Thus, it can be argued that with its rich texture and timbre the symphony is exceptionally great. This illustrates that the seventh symphony is beyond any common explanation. The manner it stimulates thrills and captures the imagination of the listeners with its musical beauty and glory, it is awesome. The introduction, for instance, is developed and arranged in a manner that it strikes an addictive attention.
This can be allied to the manner the instruments have been arranged in order to synch with the tempo. More so, the symphony’s imposing orchestra chords, and the compliments of wind instruments such as oboe makes the symphony have a taste that is extremely majestic. Hence, the smooth ascendancy of its sonorities makes the symphony rhythm and movements have an effect that cannot be compared to any other symphony (Grove 80).
It ought to be noted that Beethoven gave the symphony its magnificent touch by establishing strong rhythms which are tied to the symphony’s themes. With the impact of individual dynamism the symphony is etched along the pillars of integrating diverse instruments with selected and tested alterations.
These measures seem to have aided the composer in developing the diverse elements which are apparent in the symphony. Consider the fact that the seventh symphony is almost without any elements of slow movement, yet its mood is extremely exuberant. Yet, it has less melody which is also complimented by less usage of strings.
From such a creative alteration of chord the symphony is equally propelled to its greater heights by the manner Beethoven injecting both major and minor chords interchangeably. Also, as the symphony gains in moment, it is evident that he introduced a new melody which is accompanied by dissimilar rhythm, bassoons as well as clarinets yet the temple and the pulse of the symphony remains intact.
More so, another notable feature of the seventh symphony is the way the diverse musical notes are exploited from a simple texture to the more complex key patterns we find the notes being craftily altered.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the use of violin the symphony captures the imagination of orchestra lovers, while at the same capacity he sets motley of short notes against external rhythm of the symphony. And this established the allegretto movement in the composition (Steinberg 54). Subsequently, the arrangement of strings and the usage of G-sharp which is elaborately sustained by brilliant twining of horns, trumpets and other assorted instruments are superb.
What I have discovered is that the symphony has unique delay effect that is difficult to pick. This can be testified by the way singular octaves rise and drop creating a sublime melody. And this can be said to be the third feature that is unique to the seventh symphony. The instrumentation of this symphony indicates that it is divided into four major segments. Each segment is defined as a movement.
However, according to diverse music pundits the second movement which is popularly known as Allegretto is the most popular. Though, the symphony itself was developed with the core introduction being etched on the traditional orchestral traditions, it is no surprise that it has such a lengthy introduction, yet so impressive and aesthetically independent both in content and character and this separate the seventh symphony from the preceding symphonies.
It ought to be noted that it has definite and impressive structural design that can be said to be anchored within the range of C-major. And this makes the seventh symphony rhythmically a danceable piece. Note that, the rhythm is well tied to the entire instrumentation where the tempo is neither fast nor slow and this makes the entire piece to be a movement in the dancing context.
Thus,in exploring the entire configuration of seventh symphony we can argue that the arrangement sand the composition is total consigned to exposition which is equally transferred with dynamic transpositions. And this gives the symphony the movement depicted as allegro.
More so,the other factor is that the establishment of diverse tones ranging from the F-ajor scale with minor tones moving towards 6th scale with the extent of A provides a sound explanation of symphonies tendency to move towards its unique simplicity which is in the domain of E, a dominant feature all through the symphony.
In essence, this establishes the symphony’s unique context both in presentation and performance. With unconventional method the tones,chords,harmonies as well as the tempo are all integrated to give the piece the unique timbre making the symphony danceable and equally enjoyable to listen, it has a smooth texture that is a product of harnessing the elements of treble G-major which happens to e the ultimate musical hierarchy.
We will write a custom Essay on Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The vivacity which is evident in tone and rhythm ascertains the symphony’s audacity and its splendid vitality. It ought to be noted that the manner the symphony transcends and descends is an ultimate score in symphonic movement.
With sustained chords, smooth flow of basses, violin and unassumed dominance-note- E establishes the resounding melodic tune swayed by elaborate accompanienment of D-major which is also supported by the home-keys. The seventh symphony can be said to be the genius composition by Beethoven in his earlier symphonies (Hopkins 155).
Works Cited Grove, Sir George. Beethoven and his nine symphonies .New York: Dover, 1999.
Hopkins, Antony. The Nine Symphonies of Beethoven. London: Heinemann, 2001.
Steinberg, Michael. The Symphony: a listener’s guide. Oxford, 1995.
Customer Service Operations and Excellence Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
An overview of The BMI Meriden Hospital
BMI Meriden Hospital Quality of customer service
Conclusion and Recommendations
Introduction High quality and superior customer service is one of the principal requisites for success in business within the private sector, as well as the public sector.
Even though the public sector is not an absolutely for-profit outfit, it is also facing challenges of the need to offer high quality services to the members of the public partly because provision of public services under various ministries is no longer an exclusively preserve of the state (Birkland 2010, p.32). This paper is a report on customer service operations and excellence of the Meriden Hospital in Coventry, Warwickshire in the UK.
An overview of The BMI Meriden Hospital The Meriden Hospital is one of the many hospitals and clinics belonging to the BMI Healthcare organization owned by the General Healthcare Group PLC (GHG) (Moore 2002, p.155). BMI Healthcare situated in Coventry, Warwickshire, is the largest private hospital group running about seventy hospitals across the UK (BMI Healthcare 2011).
General Healthcare Group (GHG) came into being in 1993. The Meriden Hospital is sufficiently equipped with state-of-art medical facilities and has fifty-two patient bedrooms. The BMI Meriden Hospital offers various healthcare services ranging from ordinary routine checks to complicated surgery, thanks to its integration of the latest technology, as well as its on-line customer support services round the clock.
BMI Meriden Hospital Quality of customer service Superior customer service, as well as overall success in business, is certainly an outcome of strategic planning, strategic management, and well designed marketing schemes that are informed by concrete knowledge of the target markets.
As mentioned earlier, even though the performance of a given player in a particular Industry depends on a range of factors, the quality of customer service is imperative to profitable performance of an organization. However, it is pertinent to note that there is a direct relationship between employees’ satisfaction and the quality of customer service offered by a certain organization (Kuballa 2007, p.6; Phongkusolchit 2008, p.28: Allen
American Art Creation Importance Essay a level english language essay help
In modern globalized world, scientific and technology improvements have resulted in diffusion of culture among communities; when a community’s culture is diluted, chances are that originality of artifacts of its cultural heritage will be distorted (Hillls, 2001). The American art industry has been influenced by European styles; this paper discusses why it is important for artists to shed the European influence and create American art.
Discussion Artists communicate to their target population through the products they make; with this in mind, if they are to communicate with the Americans effectively, they need to use artifacts that the Americans can understand. Every society has its unique way of communication through symbols, signs, and arts; when artists’ works remain original, they make work of art that creates a sense of belonging with the Americans and the end result is better communication.
When an art-piece is made unique, it stands out among other, the value of the artwork is enhanced when its stand out with its unique message. The value may be monetary or the attachment that it is going to get from the people. Americans have some historical events, occurrences, valuables, and artifacts that define their culture; when originality and influence from the European style is maintained, then artists will be seen to add more value to the Americans heritage (Wienand, Booy
Strategic Management: The Case of Nike, Inc. Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Marketing Environment and Success Strategy
Drivers to Superior Performance
Strategic Management Tools
Marketing Strategy and International Markets
Competitive Advantage and Value Creation
Introduction Nike Inc. is an international company based in the United States, which deals with sportswear and other apparels. The company is ranked as the top seller of sports shoe and clothing. Nike was started in 1964 by Bill Bowerman and was originally called Blue Ribbon Sports, but was later changed to Nike in 1978. During that time, its main goal was to produce low cost, high quality shoes for Americans to break Germans control over domestic trade (Nike, Inc., 2009).
Today, Nike not only distributes its products domestically, but also all around the globe. It has market regions in continents such as Asia, Europe, and United States. Besides, Nike has produced many brands such as Nike Skateboarding and Nike Pro. This paper focuses on the Nike Company and the strategic methods and tools that have led to its superior performance.
Products According to Peters (2009), Nike produces a wide range of products, which are categorized according to their relevant sports. Nike’s first products were track shoes, which were meant for running: the company has managed to design and produce shoes for different games such as baseball, hockey, football, basketball and Cricket.
This is due to the ever-increasing number of customers favoring the company’s products. The latest product that has been produced is the Cricket shoe named as air zoom Yorker (Nike, Inc., 2009). Air Zoom Yorker is better because it is 30% lighter as compared to the one designed by Reebok. Another new product is air Jordan XX3, which is meant for basketball.
Additionally, as a company that relies on collaborative marketing, Nike together with Apple Inc. has designed a product that is able to check runner’s performance through a radio device, which is placed inside the shoe and is connected with the iPod nano. Nike has also produced shoes that contain flywire and lunarlite foam meant to make the shoe lighter.
The Nike sports brand records the mileage, lost calories, and time used. According to Mintzberg, Ahlstrand, and Lampel (2005), product differentiation and market segmentation form the basis for strategic management in marketing. In this light, meeting customers’ demands has been the strategic objective in Nike’s plan.
Marketing Environment and Success Strategy Dess and Alan (2006) affirm that the marketing strategy used by Nike is an essential element for its success. It has enticed its customers through advertising with a slogan ‘Just Do It’. Nike has also teamed up with athlete celebrities through sponsorship agreements. It has many elements of advertising such as advertising through television.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first advert was created by Wieden and Kennedy at New York marathons. Similarly, Nike has also won Emmy Awards for commercial advert. The advert that won the award was based on what an athlete could face if there was Y2K realization on 1 January 2000.
The second commercial advert was called ‘move’, which marked the famous athletes. In product promotions, Nike pays players to wear their products such as t-shirts, shoes and shorts in order to advertise them. Such players include Michael Jordan, and through him, the promotion has boosted Nike’s publicity and sales. It also sponsors many football clubs in Brazil, Netherlands and United States.
Golf players like Tiger Woods and Michelle Wie have also benefited from the sponsorships. Nike also sponsors high school basketball and has developed websites for various sports such as nikerunning.com (Johnson
The Problem of Work-Family Imbalance in Society Report best college essay help
Introduction Compared to other developed countries, the United States of America has the highest number of people experiencing the problem of work-family conflict. This problem is brought about by many factors, but it is majorly caused by the long hours that most people spend working in order to cater for all their needs. The middle class income earners are the ones who are mostly affected as they have to work for extra hours or do two or more jobs in order to live a decent life.
It is ironical that Americans experience more work-family related conflicts compared to Japan where people are known to die due to overwork. This problem is worsened by lack of enough laws to protect the rights of those who are working and at the same time have families. An example is the lack of paid leave which make many people to opt not to have the leave and end up overworking themselves. This paper will tackle the problem of work-family imbalance using a case study and suggest the possible solutions to the problem.
Formulation of the problem In the given scenario, Chris is faced by several problems that he needs to address before things get out of hand. Being a young man, he has the challenge of bringing up his son alone and catering for all his needs, i.e., financial and the parental role of being with the child and teaching the other life lessons that can only be taught by parents. Since the son is still young, Chris has to work hard to continue providing for his needs until he is able to fend for himself.
Although his relatives help him take care of the son, he can not rely entirely on them because their help is occasional and he needs to have a long term solution to the problem. The mother of the son lives away from them the son visits her over the weekends. The absence of the mother in the family probably contributes to the work-family imbalance problem that Chris is facing in raising his son.
The greatest problem that he is facing is how to balance his job and the family which constitutes of his son. At the online food retailer where Chris is employed, the working hours are not very regular. As a result of this, Chris is forced to adjust in order to conform to the employer’s demands.
Normally, he is supposed to work for an average of eight hours, i.e., from 9a.m to 5p.m but at times, he has to work until late in the night because this is when the shop gets many customers. This is an advantage to the employer because it is the peak time of the business.
At the work place, Chris has to work cautiously and do his best in order to offer quality services and pass the three tests that ‘ODACO’ uses to measure ‘performance beyond expectation’ which would earn him some extra money and a good reputation too with the employer. Meeting the set targets in his place of work not only earns him extra money which can be used to cater for any extra needs of the son that may arise from time to time but also causes him to have a feeling of satisfaction.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For a period of time, Chris is able to manage this kind of lifestyle and everything seems to be working out in his favor but after some time, things start to change for worse. Chris has to look for a way to balance his life because neither his family nor his job is doing well. His constant worry about his son when at work and his work when with the son is a problem that needs immediate attention because everyone around him is worried that he may not be able to perform his duties at home or at work effectively.
His lack of sleep and constant worry about his ineffectiveness at work and also at home may affect his health if not addressed immediately. The meeting that Chris initiates with his manager after receiving a text message that he is not performing his assigned duties effectively is expected to help him come up with a solution to this problem.
Chris is not the only one who is undergoing such work-family imbalance problems. Williams
Desegregation: Civil Rights or State Rights Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Author’s Background
Historical Content in the Document
The Purpose of the Document
The Main Argument in the Document
Introduction In a segregation system, people of a particular race or ethnic group have a different education system, commercial and housing facilities from that of other race(s). The document, “Desegregation: Civil rights or State rights”, by Charles Clotfelter, addresses the historical and legal aspects of the desegregation movement that followed the Supreme Court ruling in 1954 (Clotfelter 2006, 2).
The ruling generated much debate as to whether the segregation practices violated the civil rights of the blacks. The 1954 Supreme Court ruling caused debate over the meaning of civil rights and state rights.
The Author’s Background The author is professor in public policy with particular interests in economics of education. The author presents an analysis of the court cases that led to the elimination of the desegregation practices involving the blacks and the whites in the US. Using specific examples, the author argues that the Supreme Court ruling, in the Brown vs. Board of Education, was not in line with the provisions of the constitution or the 14th Amendment.
He supports the ideologies of the Conservatives as constitutional relative to the Liberals. He cites Barry Goldwater, a conservative, whose views on integration and civil rights conflicts the Supreme Court ruling (Clotfelter 2006, 4). He believes that the civil rights, as enshrined in the constitution, are different from state rights and they were not violated by the segregation practices. Consequently, the Supreme Court erred in making the ruling in support of segregation.
Historical Content in the Document The document addresses the historical events that gave rise to the desegregation movement. At the time, segregation in public education between the blacks and the whites was a common practice.
The document explains the 1954 ruling, by the then Chief Justice, Earl Warren, on Brown vs. Department of Education, enraged many white citizens especially in the South who were against integration (Clotfelter 2006, 2). The document identifies the Plessy vs. Ferguson case, an earlier case where the Supreme Court upheld that racial segregation was constitutional if the facilities were equal.
The Purpose of the Document The major purpose of the document is to point out that the Supreme Court ruling erred as the segregation practices did not amount to violation of individual civil rights. It cites the original Constitution and the 14th Amendment as not applicable to public education and therefore, the ruling was an abuse of judicial power. Further, the document describes the ensuing debate regarding the civil rights and state rights that followed the ruling.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It outlines the Conservatives’ perspective regarding segregation and racial integration (Clotfelter 2006, 7). Citing Barry Goldwater’s speech, the document explains that the state rights are different from civil rights and that segregation practices did not violate individual civil right as suggested by the court’s ruling (Clotfelter 2006, 5). The document targets the US citizens where it explains how the ruling failed to recognize and uphold the principles of the American Constitution.
The Main Argument in the Document The document’s main argument revolves around the Supreme Court’s decision on Brown vs. Board of Education that overturned an earlier Plessy vs. Ferguson ruling. The document describes this ruling as a misuse of judicial power. In its ruling, the Supreme Court reasoned that segregation violated individual civil rights.
In this respect, the document explains that the civil rights cited are not legal rights as identified by the Constitution or the 14th Amendment (Clotfelter 2006, 9). Instead, civil rights are moral rights that do not have any legal element. The document cites Governor George Wallace and Senator Barry Goldwater sentiments to support this argument.
Conclusion The Constitution protects the rights of every citizen. The Supreme Court ruling with regard to segregation in the Brown vs. Department of Education case cited violation of individual rights in its judgment. This raised debate over the definition of civil rights and state rights. In the document, the author cites various aspects where the court erred in passing the desegregation decision. It explains that racial segregation does not violate individual civil rights but moral rights, which have no legal implications.
Bibliography Clotfelter, Charles T. 2006. After Brown: The Rise and Retreat of School Desegregation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Business Entities, Laws and Regulations Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Starting a restaurant/bar The case of starting the business for the two friends, Lou and Jose, has implications in terms of entity, Laws and regulations. The best business entity for this choice of business is a partnership. The reason for this selection is that there is scanty information on the experiences of the two friends with regard to management of a restaurant as well as a bar.
If the assumption is that the two friends have business management skills, a general form of partnership is ideal (Bevans, 2006, p 73). There is also ready capital funding from the investor. Since the agreement with the investor s that the investor gains a percentage ownership, the implication draws management commitment to Lou and Jose.
Taxation implications During the first years of the operation of a partnership, it is expected that operating losses may be incurred. As a result, these losses are shared amongst the partners operating the business.
The implication is that the returns of the partners is not nominated for taxation, but could be exempted. Secondly, in comparison with other business entities like corporations, taxation is done at the level of investor or partner with regard to business earnings (Smith, 2009, p 6). Due to these tax benefits, this form of business entity is ideal for these entrepreneurs.
Liability issues A general partnership in this case has an unlimited liability. This comes as a disadvantage to the partners since there is lack of protection of the partners’ assets in the event of creditors claim. However, for this kind of arrangement, the risk to the partners is low considering the fact that capital will be provided by an investor who will own the business partially.
Laws and regulations The laws and regulations for starting a restaurant require compliance to some laws and regulations. Some of the laws and regulations require a registration certificate in the state, health department regulations certificates, fire department permits, sales tax registration, building, and construction permit.
Other regulations that require compliance will be acquisition of state liquor license for the operation of the bar. The major risks involved in running a restaurant are financial. The business is a lucrative venture but it does not have direct success particularly in its start up stages (Lee, 2005)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Birth clinic business start-up The two friends do not have sponsorship able to finance their business start up costs. Depending on their mode of running the business, they can choose either a partnership or sole proprietorship. The ideal entity in their case would be a general partnership. As the business will be in its initial stages, management and responsibility of Tara and Akiva would be highly required.
This is preferred to limited partnership due to its simplicity in running the business (Spadaccini, 2010). Since they are certified and licensed practitioners, they can choose to bring other interested practitioners in their business in order to help secure the huge start up loan that they intend to borrow.
Taxation issues With regard to taxation, partnerships have tax advantages leading to crucial comments claiming that taxes are only reported in partnerships but not paid. Since it is a general partnership, its tax implications resemble those enjoyed by the starters of restaurant above. Taxation depends on the nature of the investors as well as business earnings.
Liability Running the clinic as a general partnership has an unlimited liability to the partners. In the event of failure to pay back the borrowed loan, the creditors have a right to take the assets of either the partner. The implication therefore is that each partner has a full liability to the obligation of the business
Laws and regulations Before starting a birth clinic business, one has to pass experience and education aspects in order to obtain a license as a practitioner. Since the two friends already have these basic requirements everything the legal requirements for the area that they should register the business for taxation purposes as required by their state or country of operation. Under the medical regulations, equipment and construction requirements should be up-to-date for those willing to establish private medical clinics.
During practice there, are set codes that medical practitioners are required to adhere to. For instance, physician’s codes spells out the conduct and behavior of physicians, medical assistant’s code that defines the ethics of a person affiliated to a medical organization (Keir, 2007, p 53)
The risks involved in the practice of private clinics are when the patients develop complications requiring intensive care admission, where the facilities available cannot handle the situation. As a business, the risk involves money investment. Should the business fail to perform, the two investors may find it hard to repay the huge loan borrowed to fund the startup costs.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Business Entities, Laws and Regulations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Construction Scenario Michelle is an experienced person in the operation of the jackhammer. Because of her qualifications, she is a probable candidate for the advertized position. The hiring manager must not discriminate against her condition and deny her the position. She is covered under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), which prohibits discrimination against pregnant women at the workplace (Ford, 2011).
In the case of Nick, he is a college graduate suitable for the jackhammer despite being epileptic. Therefore, he shall not be discriminated against because of his epileptic condition bearing in mind the Disability Discrimination Act. With provisions of this Act, he shall not be disadvantaged on grounds of epilepsy.
Felipe has two disadvantages in his employability. In the first place, he has a language barrier such that he cannot speak any English. Secondly, he doesn’t have a high school diploma.
However, he has experience enough with a jackhammer. Felipe has a chance to be considered for the post advertized by the hiring manager on grounds of experience. Besides, the Jobseeker’s Employment Act (JEA), entitles to getting employed without being discriminated against due to a language barrier. On the other hand, due to law qualifications, this Act also covers him with respect to age and compensation he is entitled to as a worker (Schimdt, 2000).
With respect to Erick, age is a factor to consider. Although, he does not have the educational qualifications, there is no doubt that he is the most experienced of the applicants. Others have relative experiences. In some cases, applicants do have required academic merits for the position but lack the comparative experience held by Eric.
If the construction company seeks quality output at the jackhammer, Eric is the choice. However, it is natural for the hiring manager to be indifferent to Eric’s application, considering his age. Assuming that he is not hired because of his age, he can petition this discrimination under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act 1967(Sergeant, 2006, p 91).
References Bevans, N.R. (2006). Business organizations and the cooperate law. Clifton: Thomson Delmer
Ford, L.E. (2011). Women and Politics: the Pursuit of Equality. Boston: Cengage Learning
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Entities, Laws and Regulations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Keir, L. (2007). Medical assisting: administrative and clinical competencies. New York: Thompson Learning.
Lee, R. (2005). The Everything Guide to Starting and Running a Restaurant: Secrets to a Successful Business. Avon: F W media, Inc.
Schmidt, R. (2000). Language Policy and Identity Politics in the United States. Philadelphia: Temple University Press
Smith, J.E. (2009). Taxation of Business Entities 2009. Mason: Cengage Learning.
Spadaccini, M. (2010). Forming an LLC: In Any State. Miller Works: Entrepreneur Media, Inc.
Sergeant, M. (2006). Age Discrimination in Employment, Volume 13. New York: Gower Publishing.
Structure of UK Business Essay best college essay help
Employment structure is wide topic that changes with time caused by numerous reasons such as technological and economical development among others factors. In a broad way, employment structure can be defined as the general distribution of the workforce among the three main employment sectors which are; primary, secondary and tertiary sectors.
Discussion Depending with the stage of development, most countries have its population in a certain stage of employment and such example can be explained by pointing out at those countries that are at the early stages of development. Most countries at the early stages of development usually have its population in the primary stage of development and most cases it involves primary behaviors like agricultural activities and so on.
During this development period, a country will also grow in terms of industrial base and hence there is considerable increase in the activities at the secondary sector. This increase is observable through increase of machinery in the farms which obviously replaces the human labor resulting to migration of people to urban areas in such of new jobs in the factories and in big industries.
At the next level, there is demand for more development especially when a country becomes economical urbanized. At this particular time, there is great need for social services and other services such as education, health care, and tourism among others which gives rise to development of the tertiary sector that is characterized by wide use of computers, machinery and robots which also replaces the secondary sectors.
In United Kingdom, this concept of development can be observed to have impacted the society in a large way. For instance, it can be argued that, today there are few instances in which the population is working in the primary sector; this can be attributed to the wide spread urbanization in Europe and the high level of machinery use which has been heavily integrated in the industries taking over the primary sectors in a big way.
Additionally, the primary sector has lost the grips due to the fact that there is less or exhausted primary resources such as coal and land among others.
Today, the United Kingdom makes a lot of imports of the non-renewable resources such as fuel, uranium and natural gas but however, the number of individuals working in the secondary sector has reduced drastically over time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This situation can be as a result of the fact that few people are required to work in the industries since they have already been replaced by robots in the factories. At the moment, the tertiary sector is the most pronounced and marks the main area of development in UK. In fact, today, a great number of the UK’s population now work in hospitals, schools, offices and in the financial sector as well.
Moreover, since most people have become wealthier, there is also considerable increase in demand for leisure activities including tourism, sports such a rugby and football which are very pronounced in UK today especially the Barclays premier league which has gained popularity across the globe.
Conclusion The above mentioned situation can be summarized in the graph presented below which clearly show the number of people working in the different sectors and it obviously indicates that a great number of people work in the tertiary sector today.
Reference Internet Geography. Employment structure menu. Web.
Impacts of the market structure on the business behaviour of companies in the Structure argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction Business structure can be viewed as organizational and other attributes of a market. These are the characteristics which have a significant impact on competition and hence the pricing (Tuto2u 2011). The main aspects of the market structure includes the total number of the firms, the extent to which the industry is vertically integrated, the share of the market, costs, structure of buyers, turnover of customers and the product differentiation (degree of differentiation) (Tuto2u 2011).
The business structure has a significant impact on the business behaviour. There are certain behaviours which characterize each business structure. This is in turn determined by the aspects of a particular business structure.
Discussion There are several market structures under which any organization can fall. These include the perfect competition, monopoly or the oligopoly. Each of these has its unique characteristics. In the perfect competition, there are many firms in a certain industry. A good example of a competitive market is the hotel industry.
It is characterized by a large number of firms which compete with each other. In the perfect competition, there are very little barriers to entry. This implies that it is easy to venture into a certain industry. Every participant in the perfect competition is a price taker. This implies that every firm will take the price which is offered at the market. An individual firm in this case does not have any power to influence the market price.
Another category of the market structure is the monopoly. This is the business structure where there is only one firm in the market. There is a high barrier to entry into such a market. In this category of the market structure, the firm is the portico maker. This implies that the firm has the power to determine the price.
Therefore, there are high chances of customer exploitation in this market structure. This is because there is no competition for customers. This may also discourage the firms from innovation because the firm does not face any threat from competitors.
The other form of the market structure is the oligopoly. This form of market structure is characterized by few firms which produces differentiated products. There are high barriers to entry. This is the reason why there are a few firms in an industry. Firms in this form of market structure are the price makers because there are just a few firms in a certain industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this discussion, it can clearly be seen that the market structure for the airline industry is oligopoly. This is because there are just a small number of companies in the industry.
However, there is a higher level of competition in this market structure compared with the monopoly where there is only one seller. In the airline industry, each company has the pricing power. This is because there are just a few firms in the industry. However, it is important to note that these firms do not have the power of setting the prices just to the levels they want.
In the airline industry, every organization affects the market. However, an organization is also affected by the decisions made by other organizations in the industry. The set up costs on the airline industry is extremely high.
Therefore, although there are high profits to be made, high costs forms a barrier to entry. For instance, setting an airline in the United States of America is extremely expensive. This is the reason why there are just a small number of companies operating in the market. This is unlike the case of a hotel which is easy to start up.
In airline industry as an oligopoly, there are sometimes price wars. This is where one company cuts its prices and others follow by doing the same. This process may usually continue and leads to unhealthy competition which may significantly affect the profitability of an organization.
For instance, the British Airways was faced by price wars in 2009 where it was forced to cut down the price of its tickets by 36 percent (Knapton 2008). This negatively affected its profitability. Airline companies usually engage in price wars with an effort of expanding their individual market shares.
Reference List Knapton, S. 2008. Price War As Airlines Fight For Passengers Web. Available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/2605029/Price-war-as-airlines-fight-for-passengers.html
We will write a custom Essay on Impacts of the market structure on the business behaviour of companies in the Structure
Performance of UK Business (Productivity) Essay essay help free: essay help free
Introduction Productivity is a key issue in the business field. It is the amount of output that is produced for inputs used. It should therefore be maintained to the highest level possible since it is one measure of success and prosperity.
There are however some instances where it becomes hard to maintain productivity especially when there are many limiting factors or obstacles. Although productivity may not seem to be a big issue when carrying out business activities, in the long run, it is almost everything. Labour productivity is for example considered by economists as the key indicator of economic health (Haslam, Neale and Johal 2000).
This piece of paper gives an argumentative discussion of the performance of the UK business with much emphasis being given to productivity and related issues for instance the productivity gap and the Policies that the UK government could introduce to increase productivity in the country.
The Productivity Gap Productivity gap in this context refers to how the UK has a lower level of productivity in relation to most of the developed countries. The UK’s productivity gap is attributed to various factors all leading to some business disadvantages of the nation in relation to other countries such as the United States, Germany, and France.
Some of the contributing factors include poor labour relations, lack of proper investment, trade distortions, lack of technological advancement, poor business policies, and lack of entrepreneurship among others. The poor performance of the UK in terms of productivity has been an issue of concern and has attracted debate from different individuals and groups (Buxton 1998).
Policies that the UK Government Could Introduce To Increase Productivity There are various policies that could be introduced in an effort to increase productivity in businesses in the United Kingdom. The policies could be deduced from the problems faced, for instance, the ones mentioned above so that the policies can help handle the challenges. Some of the policies therefore include those touching on aspects like competition, privatization, and deregulation (Buxton 1998).
Policies that enhance productivity such as those that facilitate foreign direct investment, European integration and trade liberalization should thus be established and emphasized as they would play a great role in increasing the country’s productivity. A macroeconomic policy is also crucial. This is because these policies will promote investment and trade through elimination of obstacles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government of the UK should also establish general policies that are aimed at improving the situation of the business sector for instance those aimed at encouraging the establishment of new and innovative business ventures. This is because policies that are aimed at dealing with the entry obstacles alone may not be in a position to boost productivity in different sectors but a combination would do better. Taking a positive move towards handling the failures experienced is also advisable (Seager 2007).
Conclusion Being a crucial business aspect, productivity should always be enhanced. It is evident that the UK business sector has been affected negatively by various issues, the major one being productivity gap. Some of the challenges that should be handled in an effort to deal with this ordeal include the ageing population, technological progress and climate change as well as globalization.
The UK’s government could also impose some effective policies as mentioned above so as to solve the problem of productivity gap and hence increase productivity in the business sector.
Reference List Buxton, T. 1998. Britain’s Economic Performance, 2nd Ed. New York, Routledge.
Haslam, C., Neale, A. and Johal, S. 2000. Economics in a Business Context. New York, Cengage Learning EMEA.
Seager, A. 2007. “Britain narrows productivity gap”. The Guardian. Web.
Nokia SWOT Analyses Report essay help site:edu
Introduction Nokia is currently one of the biggest dealers in telecommunications equipment. Its presence has been greatly felt both locally and across the globe due to the wide expansion in business it has been experiencing. Nokia has spread its business everywhere to cater for customer needs and increase growth of telecommunications within the industry.
It has produced different brands of mobile phone infrastructure on top of the other telecommunication equipment. “Interbrand ranked it the world’s most-valuable brand…,” (Hempel, Para. 3). It provides various mobile communication equipments in all major telecommunication markets and protocol such as CDMA, GSM and WCDMA. This paper will analyze the Nokia Company discussing its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats facing it.
SWOT Analysis The company, being a major organization in the world has various strengths that help it continue to be competitive in the industry. It also has some weaknesses, which, if not taken care of, would cause it to be faced out of the market. We will also see the various opportunities of growth that it could utilize to enlarge its business and the likely threats facing it.
One of the biggest strengths it has is that it has a geographically wide network of distribution when compared with other organizations in the industry. “Everyday a quarter of the world’s population connect using Nokia…infrastructure and solutions,” Its branches are all over the world and this obviously increases its sales. Its Human Resource Department is composed of highly qualified individuals and professionals who work as a team.
Its financial base is very strong and always stable since it is constitutes of various divisions which are very profitable. Also, its new strategy, “notably the shift to software architectures and mobile internet models, the continuing quest to set efficiency benchmarks, and the need to chase emerging markets without sacrificing too much margin” (Faultline, Para. 3), has worked perfectly to maximize its sales.
Nokia gives the customers exactly what they want. Its products are user friendly as everyone is able to use them without any technicalities. This is coupled by the fact that its mobile phones contains as much accessories as anyone would want pushes their demand even higher “the company…remains the No. 1 mobile phone maker in the world,” (Barkoviak, Para. 1).
It provides an assortment of products for all classes thus satisfying the needs of its wide range of customers. Since its products are high quality and durable, they attract a higher price, which customers are willing to pay, and therefore brings in more profits as compared to other brands.
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Some of the weaknesses that Nokia has are the price of its products. The products’ value is relatively high as compared to other products of the same modification in other companies. This makes customers settle for cheaper phones with the same qualities offered by other dealers.
This is made worse by the fact that Nokia does not consider the common ordinary person who earns little money. Even in their product promotion strategy, it does not seem to include them as one of its target. This people constitute a large portion of the market and therefore, there is loss of profits that could have been brought in by such people.
Besides, some of the products are complex to use for an ordinary person and most of the people do not even know what some of the items in the phone are used for. In some countries, there are very few customer service centers, e.g. in India, and this makes the relation with customers very poor and of low quality.
Further, Nokia produces phones that are modeled to operate on a global standard and in doing so, it has not catered for specific needs of other customers causing other brand to dominate such markets, e.g. North America. Also with the changed management, Nokia’s sales have been decreasing “which could indicate a local weakness or change in strategy,” (Finance Work, Para. 6).
There are many opportunities available to Nokia for it to expand its activities. In India, for example, the there is increased penetration of telecommunications in its markets. Statistics show that “India continues to be one of the fastest growing major telecom markets in the world,” (Budde, P. 1). Nokia can take advantage of its wide range of products which have different features and for different consumers to increase its market share in the country before other companies can rise to the occasion.
With the increased purchasing power of Indian people, all it needs is a good marketing strategy to attract the right customer. Once it has an identified portion of the market and gained customer loyalty, it will be hard for other companies to penetrate through and it will have established a solid ground of monopoly or controlling a large segment of the market.
To continue profiting from its vast market share, it has to deal with certain threats that are facing it. For example, new companies are rising up to fight for a share of the market and therefore posing a big competitive challenge to Nokia. Such companies are “Motorola, Samsung and Sony Ericson,” (Kasi, Para. 5).
We will write a custom Report on Nokia SWOT Analyses specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, companies like Apple and RIM have brought new developments in the phone industry such as the Smart phones and the consumer is rapidly going for the smart phones. It has been established that, “any cell phone company that hopes for world domination must lead the Smart phone market too,” (Hempel, Para. 5). Nokia definitely needs to shape up or ship out in this market.
Conclusion Nokia Company is a big company controlling a large market share of the telecommunications industry. However, for it to continue being such it has to strategically use its competitive powers to the maximum. In addition, it should work on its weaknesses and seize opportunities it has. Also, develop a way of adapting fast to new developments. Once it has done that, it will continue to dominate the industry.
References Barkoviak, Michael. Nokia’s Phone Problems Continue, as Company Struggles to Create Appealing Smart phones, DailyTech LLC, 2010
Budde, Paul. India- Key Statistics, Telecommunications Market and Regulatory Overview, Communication Pty ltd. 2011. Designed by Arcaeda.
Faultline. Nokia Restructuring from Strength for Mobile Internet. Free Whitepaper- Transforming IT Culture, June 2007
Finance Work. Critical Economies and Market Analyses: Weakness in Nokia. Finance work, [September 2006]. Retrieved from http://financewonk.blogspot.com/2006/09/weakness-in-nokia.html
Hempel, Jessi. Nokia’s North America Problem: To stay No. 1 in the High-end Cellphones, the Finnish Phonemaker has to Take on Apple and RIM on their Home Turf. So far it hasn’t got a foothold. Fortune Magazine. Jan 2009
Kasi. Marketing Mixx: Nokia SWOT Analyses, . Online. Web.
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Sport Event in Eugene Emerald Company Report online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Like any other company, the Eugene Emerald’s have devised a marketing strategy with the hope of maintaining and ensuring that they generate the maximum amount of revenue from eth available market.
The baseball game has generated allot of passion and excitement among American fans over the years and this has been partly due to the motivated and continued aggressiveness of entities such as the Eugene Emerald’s. The success or otherwise of the team and company alike falls squarely on the ability to formulate implement and adequately maintain a viable and successful marketing strategy.
Background Eugene Emerald’s has played host to many of professional and semi professional games since 1971. Over the years, the game has developed into a micro self-sufficient enterprise that deals and controls in its own market and market forces. The company therefore has been faced with the challenge of developing and facilitating a successful marketing plan for the 100000 fan base.
It has based its marketing plan on the need to increase game attendance as well as increase the purchase of team products such as caps in every game played. The management has so far implemented an objective marketing strategy that targets increasing the Latino participation as a target market and means to achieve the firm’s objective.
Statement of the problem The effectiveness and ability of a marketing strategy to meet the company’s objective relies heavily on the execution and implementation of the specific provisions and strategic plans. The Eugene Emerald’s target market strategy has been used over the years to increase the number of fans attending the game as well as a means of increasing the cap per game statistic. This research interrogates the actual effectiveness or otherwise of the target market strategy.
Methodology The research took a qualitative approach that involved the researcher attending the Emeralds game on August 4, 2011 versus the Tri-City Dust Devils as a way of obtaining first hand observation and customer experience. This approach allowed the researcher to interrogate the specific aspects of the marketing strategy and make a conclusion on its effectiveness to the company and in achieving the organizations objectives.
Data collection The observations and reflections from the game were written down and later analyzed in three thematic categories. The customer experience, amenities and the in game entertainment. Each theme was discussed in specific detail of experience best fit analysis and strategy gaps that need to be filled. The data also analyzed the price effectiveness of the existing strategy in as far as pricing is concerned as well the entertainment value of the animal house theme night.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Results and discussion Customer relations
The first impression made by the employees in an entertainment activity matters allot in determining the chances of their repeated attendance to the event. The manner in which employees are treated therefore goes a long way in ensuring that at the customer goes home with a god impression and hence building on the goodwill of the service.
The employees at the reception however seemed rather overwhelmed by the number of fans and therefore compromised on the greetings and acknowledgements that are supposed to be issued to the customer. They however made scanty attempts at passing on greetings especially to those who are familiar and frequent fans. The number of greetings was higher however at the beginning of the issuance of passes but reduced as the number of fans increased.
This was followed by a long period of waiting since the number of employees who were allocated a single task was too few to handle the overwhelming fans. It took the assistance of security personnel to show me the directions to the seat. This was however partly attributed to the fact that most of the fans have visited the stadium more than once and therefore knew their way round. It is also very likely that a new person would waste a lot of time looking to be directed.
The immediate work areas looked tidy but in need have urgent re painting. It would seem as if the work areas received attention only during the games but none after. Signs of hurried cleaning were enough proof that the areas had only been recently tidied. The employees were rather neatly dressed and their uniforms were identifiable with the companies name due to their branding.
Majority also showed a firm grasp of knowledge of the affairs of the stadium and were very helpful to those who they assisted. They operated under an effective delegation system and certain employees specialized in specific problems. Some dealt specifically with credit card failures while others dealt with ticket loss and similar problems. This ensured that the employees delivered fast and quality service through teamwork.
The employees were also highly motivated and displayed an enthusiastic sense of hospitality they gave every complainant an opportunity to respond to their services through comments in a suggestion box that was pinned at strategic points with the relevant materials. They generally portrayed a god company image. Given the opportunity, I would however increase the number of employees to ensure that they maintain a consistent level of service delivery.
Market mix The price structure was also seen to be specifically tailored to suit the different income ranges. The $2 price of a beer was friendly to low and high end customers and the uniformity provided harmony in the interests. The product mixes however seemed to lean heavily on the average earners bracket.
We will write a custom Report on Sport Event in Eugene Emerald Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This caused a disservice to the 1000 high end customers who required high end service and had to settle for the available packages. The general tidiness and cleanliness was above the minimum standard the facility design required few directions as the services are situated in plain sight. The role played by the merchandise operations that engaged in the sale of caps played a great role in stimulating loyalty and ratio to the game and the facility. The caps went a long way in selling the companies name.
Amenities Secondary and auxiliary services were found to fairly attract the attention of the consumers. Despite their cleanliness and tidiness they still need a lot of modernization and renovation to embrace the 21st century technology. The facilities mission and goals are clearly stipulated as being in line with the spirit and objective of the sport.
The customized features of booths and wall paintings inspired a sense baseball into the minds of the customers. Visitor services are located in plain sight and therefore were easily accessible and identifiable. Services of similar nature such as information and telephone services are located and grouped in one direction to ease the accessibility and convenience of such services.
The displays inform of the stadium as well as the pitch clearly align with the spirit of the game and the mission and objective of the facility. There was however a great problem in the merchandise locations and distribution points.
Due to the limited space in the facility majority of the customers often left without visiting the merchandise booths despite their location in plain sight and easy accessibility. There was however enough concession for distribution and all interested customers were adequately served. The e facility therefore needs to re evaluate the location and positioning of the merchandise selling points.
Facility appearance The facility has a shouting appearance that is blended through painting to the strategic seating arrangements that allow for a diverse fun base for either team. The maintenance program however fundamentally failed to cover the side facilities and focused on the main facilities in as far as painting is concerned.
The facility is however in good condition and free of any hazardous structures. It however needs to consider an expansion plan in as far as capacity is concerned if it is to host bigger games such as championships. The backup facilities were adequately maintained cleaned and painted and looked to be in good condition.
The cleaning system also provided structural concerns as the trash cans seemed to be overwhelmed and required regular empting. The facility could therefore operate better with bigger cans that would accommodate the high amount of trash. The facility’s features such as door handles and hand railings are in good condition but in need of modernization to improve and increase the level of customer satisfaction.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sport Event in Eugene Emerald Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The facility is an old but effective asset that has the opportunity of generating greater income levels and increasing the level of consumer satisfaction through modernization.
Challenging Sexuality in Movies “Brokeback Mountain” by Ang Lee and “Boys Don’t Cry” by Kimberly Peirce Research Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
How sexuality is challenged
Introduction The two movies “Brokeback Mountain” and “Boys Don’t Cry” essentially reveal the nature of intolerance and hatred that still pervades rural America today. Audiences sympathized with the main characters in the stories because they were victimized for their sexual choices.
Brandon in “Boys Don’t Cry” and Jack and Ennis of “Brokeback mountain” are all people living double lives. They reside in conservative societies, and have to disguise their sexual preferences in order to fit in. By exposing the struggles, elations, mistreatment, and death of these individuals, the movies have challenged conventional notions of sexuality.
How sexuality is challenged Falls City – a Midwestern, all white rural community – is the setting for the movie “Boys don’t cry”. Berardinelli (3) believes that “people who live in such environments know very little about the gay community”; hence their “tendency to become homophobic”. The main character in the movie –Brandon Teena- makes a lot of friends in the community. She charms her way around, and spends a lot of her time with two particular individuals – Lotter and Nissen.
This is the reason why it becomes quite horrifying when these friends turn against Brandon and kill her. The audience now thinks of the main character as a betrayed and misunderstood person. “Boys don’t cry” succeeds in portraying the other side of sexuality by focusing on a very complex individual. Brandon Teena is at first uncertain about the hostility that she might receive from the people of Falls City.
This is the reason why she chooses to hide her biological characteristics through various tactics. Thereafter, she feels left out and alone. As the movie comes to an end, one then identifies with her horror and anguish when her friends rape her. It is her untimely death that stirs up the highest level of emotions among audiences. By the end of the movie, one views Brandon Teena as a holistic and real human being who happened to live in a place where very few people understood her.
This motion picture did not sensationalize or exploit all the deep issues at play; it focused on telling the story of the main characters as accurately and as flawlessly as possible. The scriptwriter did not give any psychological explanations about Brandon’s ‘deviance’ (as some would like to perceive her).
Similarly, “Brokeback Mountain” also portrays fully developed and well rounded characters through Jack and Ennis. Viewers are expected to understand them as they are, rather than try to figure them out through the scriptwriter’s forced interpretations (Ramos et. al 59). These two motion pictures illustrate the multi-layered components of being gay in American rural communities. None of the individuals has been mythologized either; everyone has flaws in sexual relationships as well as in other social interactions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All too often, American indie movie makers have moved too close to the conventional. Most of them emerge as lectures and are often used as propagandistic tools. “Brokeback Mountain” and “Boys Don’t Cry” do not fall prey to this trap as they are not intercepted by the author’s personal opinions. In this motion picture, the love story of two gay men is presented to the rest of the world, and by the end of the story, one feels the pain associated with the heartbreak that Ennis and Jack encountered.
The universality of their emotions and their ups and downs even causes one to associate the movie with popular love stories like the “Titanic”. In most gay-themed creations, authors normally have a tendency to talk about the gay rights movement; this does not occur in “Brokeback Mountain”.
Jack and Ennis are two seemingly normal men who fell in love with each other. The two individuals want to be together but are prevented from doing so by the fear of estrangement from their community. When Jack suggests to Ennis that they can start living together at a ranch nearby, Ennis vehemently refuses. He is afraid of the intolerance in his neighborhood and also worries about his family.
The two men cannot be together even after Ennis divorces his wife because he is attached to his children. Eventually, one gets the idea that they are meant to be together but cannot be owing to their circumstances. Their less-than-perfect relationship makes it quite believable (Ramos et. al 45). In fact, these predicaments are quite common in heterosexual relationships as well thus explaining why the movie resonated with both people from all walks of life.
Viewers are able to know about sociological components through Brandon Teena and through others’ reactions to her. Matters such as sexual identity and the sociological versus biological roles involved in it are highlighted in this main character’s life choices.
The importance of role playing in modern life has also been emphasized through this movie because not only does Brandon walk, talk and look like a man, she also develops feelings for members of the opposite sex. Gorton (14) illustrates that “audiences can identify with this character because they get to see just how difficult it is to live and behave like a man when one is biologically a woman”.
Brandon had to tie up her breasts and dress up in masculine attire in order to convince her friends and lovers that she was male. Members of the audience are likely to be confused at some point in the movie because everything about Brandon- her voice, her gestures, and movement-are highly convincing. Role playing for people with alternative sexual persuasion is a common concept and it can be easily understood as their only way out of the “entrapment they feel” (Gorton 13).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Challenging Sexuality in Movies “Brokeback Mountain” by Ang Lee and “Boys Don’t Cry” by Kimberly Peirce specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fluidity with which she handles these tensions depicts just how difficult it is to live that kind of life in Midwestern communities. Role playing is not just limited to the boy who is trapped in a woman’s body; it also takes place in “Brokeback Mountain”. While Ennis and Jack did not have to cover up their biological characteristics in order to match their psychological inclinations, they still had to disguise their attraction to one another away from the public.
Role playing was therefore a way of dealing with “the resentment that the public or their family may have had towards their union” (Lee 32). They had to go for fictitious fishing trips in order to spend time with one another. None of their spouses found out about the extra marital affair directly from the two, so this was something that had to be closeted. Jack and Ennis played the role of husbands, but “what they really wanted to do was to live together” (Lee 34).
The two motion pictures represent a step in the right direction; homosexuality had been a rarity in Hollywood creations for a long time. A historical analysis of gay representations in film reveals very humble beginnings. At first, being gay was something that solicited a certain level of amusement.
None of the characters in the 1930s movies were out rightly gay; some of them had masculine and feminine characteristics. Audiences never thought much about this depiction because it did not challenge conventional knowledge of sexuality. In the early to mid twentieth century, most Hollywood pictures refrained from the subject of homosexuality because civil society and religious movements had accused the industry of perpetuating immorality amongst the masses.
Later on, that is, in the 1960s and 70s, homosexuality elicited disdain, pity and even mockery in films. People who lived that lifestyle were to be feared rather than respected. Most of them were portrayed as dangerous psychopaths, who would commit heinous crimes. In essence the movies were demonizing gays secretly. Ramos et. al (40) affirm that Hollywood’s “pedagogy is frequently invisible and unconscious”. It did not occur to scriptwriters that they were real people who were incredibly dynamic.
These depictions were quite inaccurate, but they created images which stuck in viewers’ minds. Movies became one of the few platforms for introducing gay people to the rest of the world. Hollywood dictated “how people came to understand and think about homosexuals” (Packard 12) As Ramos et. al (40) explain “individuals are often not aware that they are being educated and constructed by media culture”. In the 1990s, depictions of gay characters became common; even though most of them appeared to be one dimensional.
For instance in the movie “My Best Friend’s Wedding”, a gay character known as George is depicted as “a very flamboyant individual who laughs very loudly and likes to listen to feminine songs” (Shapiro
30 W J Essay a level english language essay help
Identify 3 key concepts, each followed by an explanation, relevant quotes, and/or examples from the readings (with citation, e.g. Suh, p. 6). A key concept can be one single word (e.g. “duhkha”) or a phrase referring to a cluster of ideas (e.g. “five skandhas”). Look for concepts that are crucial in understanding all readings assigned for the week, or for those explicitly explained in one reading and alluded to in another.
Write down the questions you need the professor to explain further during the synchronous session (you may also write N/A if everything seems clear and you do not need me to clarify anything); and Write down one discussion question and post it to the Discussion Board one hour before our synchronous session begins, so that the professor and the discussion leaders can preview the questions
Personal care: This is a trying time and we will only get through it if we remember to take care of ourselves and of each other, physically and mentally. For this part, I would like to “hear” what you have done to take care of yourself and/or of someone else. It can be something as simple as “I went to the gym everyday” or “I took a walk in the Metropark because nature relaxes me” or “I made myself some comfort food.” It can also be something like “I talked to my therapist” or “I checked in with three friends in the past week to see how they are doing.” This part is not meant to be intrusive; it is just a reminder of the necessity of self-care and mutual care
Public Relations Campaign Essay essay help: essay help
Executive Summary The Newlandia Education Foundation (NEF) was established in early 1900 by the missionaries. Formerly known as Newlandia Trust of Hope, the charitable organization has grown tremendously since its establishment (Newlandia Education Foundation 2010). Currently staffed with six dedicated members, NEF has been able to live its dream of promoting education in Newlandia.
The Newlandia government has set aside a small allocation from its budget to support the organization. With three schools to support at the moment in south Newlandia, the funds by the government are hardly enough to meet all the expenses. It has therefore been forced to turn to the public for donations to keep the organization and its projects running. In order to raise public awareness, a successful public relations campaign will have to be launched.
Project Overview A public relations campaign is necessary to raise awareness to the outside world about an existing company. It further helps to raise awareness of the current situation of that particular company (Bobbitt and Sullivan 2008). To understand the problem at hand, it is important to give a brief overview of the project and the need to launch the campaign. Newlandia Education Foundation has been in operation for many years now with its main goal being to provide education to the Newlandians.
It has already established three schools that it is currently supporting in Shalel, Rajan and Calina in the south region of Newlandia. These small schools are proof that the organization is up in hand to provide quality education regardless of sex, religion or even the economic background of the residents. The residents in these villages are struggling individuals who can hardly support themselves financially. Accessibility to these villages is not easy due to lack of proper infrastructure. The roads are in pathetic conditions.
The southerners mostly rely on fishing as their main source of income (Newlandia 2010). The schools are under-resourced and in poor conditions. The reading materials are hardly enough to cater for all the students and the school’s infrastructure is in poor condition. Imagine a situation where children are subjected to sit on a cold floor in a windowless classroom and with inadequate learning materials to gain knowledge from.
It is an un-imaginable scenario but one that clearly portrays the children’s struggle to quench their education thirst. Despite this struggles, one of the school has produced a graduate currently studying teaching at the University of Pacific. This is proof that the education projects undertaken by NEF are not in vain.
The problem being faced by NEF is the ability to keep the schools running to cater for the needs of all the students in Southern Newlandia. With a population of 750,000, the schools are not enough to accommodate all the school-aged children in the region. A project to build three more schools is underway but the project will require support from other communities in Newlandia.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Northern and Central Newlandia for example do not seem to understand the situation at Southern Newlandia. They need to be made aware of NEF’s existence and its role in the community. The government also needs to chip in more money to support the organization. A public relations campaign will therefore come in handy to raise awareness and to lobby for public’s support.
Objectives Of The Public Relation Campaign Through an aggressive public relation campaign, Newlandia Education Foundation (NEF) will begin to seek attention from both the members of the public and other donors. A research conducted indicated that only few residents of Newlandia knew about the existence of NEF. Shockingly, it was just a few of them who knew the core business conducted by NEF.
Most people seem to think that NEF is part of Newlandia Children Foundation (NCF) which has gained major popularity among the Newlandians. The campaign will play a huge role to bring out the difference between the two organizations and any other organization in Newlandia that might cause confusion.
The other objective is to win both the public and private support of the organization. The campaign will seek to give NEF the good reputation that it possesses. This will help to shed light on the real intention of the project carried out by NEF for the goodwill of children who are unable to access learning facilities. The establishment of a goodwill and understanding between NEF and Newlandians is the main objective of the campaign.
The campaign will also help to establish and reinforce the professional image of NEF. This helps the public to view the organization in a positive manner hence winning its support. Failure to create a positive image will lead the organization losing its credibility. Positive image helps to create good perceptions of the organization’s good name and the kind of projects that it undertakes.
The general goal of the project will be to raise public and government awareness. The awareness will help NEF raise sufficient funds to run the current and future projects. The public will be inclined to offer any kind of support to keep NEF running. The government on the other hand will be obliged to increase its monetary allocation to support the projects.
Communication Strategy Any public relations campaign should have a set communication strategy in order to achieve its goals and objectives. It targets the audience to whom the message should be communicated to and how the communication will be done. Communication strategy is very essential for the success of public relations campaign.
We will write a custom Essay on Public Relations Campaign specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reaction of the audience is determined upon reviewing the communication strategy. Using the wrong mode of communication can render the campaign futile. The key message to be communicated should also be carefully considered. Misrepresentation of words can alter the initial meaning of the message. The communication strategy to be applied by NEF should therefore be simple and straightforward.
The primary target audience will be the general public and the government. The secondary audience will be private individuals, companies and external donors. The campaign should first and foremost target both the Northerners and Central regions. The North East of Newlandia has a population of over 200,000 people. The region is swarmed with copper mines industries. This is an indication that the Northerners have the financial ability to support the Southerners to access education (Newlandia 2010).
The Central region on the other hand has many industries ranging from agriculture to timber processing. With a population of about 15,000, it is the home of the famous Van On Organic Coffee Plantation, one of the leading coffee plantations in Newlandia. The residents of this region have enough financial power to back the ongoing projects in Newlandia (Newlandia 2010).
The government of Newlandia should also be notified of the situation at the Southern region of Newlandia. The campaign will especially target Mr. K.L Gupta who is currently serving as the Finance Minister and Infrastructure. He is also the chairman of the Newlandia Conservative Party and is actively involved in the politics.
Private individuals include accomplished businessmen in Newlandia such as Mr. Rohan Singh and Mr. Bill Klempf. Mr. Rohan has great influence in the business sector and can easily influence other business owners. Mr. Klempf on the other hand is one of the most powerful business people in Newlandia. Born in an equally powerful family, he owns major booming businesses in Newlandia. Though he rarely gets involved in community organizations, the campaign can lure him to support NEF and the Southerners.
As a businessman, he will be keen to learn the current situation at the Southern region and discover the untapped potential of the region. In a bid to establish himself in the region, he is bound to support NEF’s project initiatives to win over the hearts of the Southerners. The industry organizations are other audiences that should be targeted. Newlandia has established industries and organizations such as the Newlandia Organic Coffee Growers Association and Newlandia Garment Industry.
External donors will also be key targets. The WorldHelp for example is one of an external donor that should be targeted. A multi-national organization based in Atlanta, it is deeply involved in charitable programs all over the world. With a keen interest in such projects being initiated by NEF, WorldHelp will be following the implementation of the projects at a very close range (WorldHelp 2010).
Media and Events
The other important stage of the campaign is to establish the appropriate channels that will be used to deliver the message to the target audience identified above. This includes media activities and events that will help promote the campaign. Use of lobby groups or individuals is also another avenue to gain publicity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Relations Campaign by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main channel that the campaign will use is Newlandia Broadcasting Corporation Television (NBC) which is a public media. The television has wide media coverage. The other public media that will be utilized is the Newlandia Times newspaper. The paper reaches many people who don’t have visual means of receiving news and information. Another form of print media that will be used is the Newlandia Tourism Authority Newsletter.
The newsletter can be used to cover the tourism attractions in Southern Newlandia. With fishing as the main activity in the region, the newsletter will help to attract tourists in the region hence increasing public awareness and support. Lobbyists will also be used to deliver the intended message to the target audience. Newlandia has avid campaigners such as Lakshmi Shankaran, married to Henry Abalone, who is also a campaigner and a journalist.
The couple will provide a fantastic avenue to take out the word of the suffering children at the Southern region. Active involvement in media events held by the Newlandia Business Development Authority will also be an appropriate channel to gain public awareness. Lastly, it will be important to involve the south region local newspaper to highlight the situation at the South. The Mouth Of The South will be utilised for this purpose.
The Key Message
The main message to be communicated to the audience will be the need to support the education programs initiated by NEF. It will also differentiate NEF from other organisations that have initially been confused with. The core business of NEF will also be brought to the public.
The audience should be notified of the hardships being experienced at the South and the need to support the schools currently running. They should also get involved in the future project of building more schools in the region that will be implemented within 18 months.
The Communication Models And Theories To Be Applied The campaign will apply the public information and the two-way asymmetric models as opposed to the press agentry/ publicity and two-way symmetric. In the public information model, it is used to convey correct and true information to the audience. The press agentry/publicity model is full of propaganda and will kill NEF’s credibility.
The two-way asymmetric is also favourable to communicate to the target audience. It will help the organisation to get a feedback from the audience to enable it apply the appropriate theories to convince them. This model is better as it will allow the audience to see the logic from NEF’s point of view. The aim of the campaign is not to negotiate with the public hence the reason to disregard the two-way symmetric model.
The appropriate theory to be applied is the accommodation theory as opposed to the cognitive dissonance theory. The accommodation style allows the speaker to adjust their communication style to accommodate different classes of audience. It is therefore ideal in our project to gain social approval from all the audiences targeted. In cognitive dissonance theory, the audience tend to avoid views that seem not to support their own feelings (Jamieson 1985).
Conclusion The public relations campaign will not only be used to win over the public’s support but also to make it aware of NEF’s existence. The organisation requires monetary support and learning materials that will help the students excel just like one of their student, Rangi.
The learning conditions are harsh, yet the children are willing to go beyond all means to gain that academic knowledge. Their efforts can only succeed if the people of Newlandia can join hands to make their dream a reality. That will be the main task of this public relations campaign, but one that is sure to succeed.
Reference List Bobbitt, R.
Basic Premises of Cognitive Development Theory Essay essay help site:edu
People are not born as smart as they become when they reach their adolescence. At the same time, every infant has to be put in a specific environment to have an opportunity to acquire knowledge and develop his or her intelligence.
The basic premises of cognitive development theory lie in the development of a person as he or she grows in terms of intellectual, analytical, learning, and other skills. Many outstanding researchers contributed to the analysis and application of cognitive theories to educational domains and development of an individual. As such, cognition of the world is developed while a person grows while it can be clearly seen only when a person passes through the stages outlined by researchers.
As suggested in the study by Taylor (2005), “it is obvious that newborn infants are not capable of complex thought patterns but also that they are born with the capacity to develop the ability for complex thought” (p. 8). As such, the cognition of the world is closely related to the development of skills and complex thought in infants while it also progresses with aging. Cognitive development can be clearly understood from theories presented by such outstanding researchers as Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget.
Development of intelligence is one of the aspects that can be seen from the theory of cognitive development. Intelligence is believed to be an integral part of human nature by both theorists under discussion. For instance, Vygotsky thought game an important component of learning because he understood that developing intelligence it is necessary to take into account the preferences and behavioral peculiarities of the age. As such, children should be approached in a different way than adolescents.
At the same time, Piaget believed that children could alter their knowledge with regard to the new knowledge they acquire. For example, “children begin to construct knowledge in new ways at a few critical points in development. When this happens, they revise their theories radically” (Kail
Supreme Court Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Name of the case and its citation The case in Question is the case of “Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations, S.A, et al. v. Brown et, ux.,” (Syllabus1, 2010, n.p). “Co-Administrators of the Estate of brown, et al., Certiorari to the high court of Appeals of North Carolina Supreme Court No.10-76. Argued January 11, 2011-Decided June 27, 2011” (Syllabus, 2010, n.p).
Parties to the case
The Petitioners are Goodyear Dunlop Tires Corporation, a Tire Company and the respondents are North Carolina residents who lost their sons in a bus accident in France.
There was a fatal bus accident outside Paris in France amounting to the deaths of the respondents sons who hailed from North Carolina. The suit was brought by Goodyear Dunlop Tire Operations based in France complaining about wrongful death damages in the North Carolina state court claiming that the deaths were as a result of a tire failure caused By Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations who are based in Ohio.
The petitioners were three subsidiaries of the Goodyear Dunlop Tires company who took part in organization and operations in France, Turkey and Luxembourg. The petitioners were not registered to carry out business in North Carolina and their tires were specifically made for the European and Asian Markets.
The petitioners did not sell, advertise, solicit, manufacture, design nor did they have a place of business in the United States. They did not engage with the North Carolinas residents in the Buyer-seller contract. However, some of their products managed to penetrate the North Carolina market through their affiliates in the United States of America. They applied for a petition to have the trial taken to France which was rejected.
The constitutional issues in the case
The first Constitutional issue arising in this case was whether the North Carolina Supreme court had general jurisdiction in the matter. This is a contentious issue as goodyear was a company registered in Ohio and did not carry out any of their operation in North Carolina or in the United States of America. In fact there products were only found in the United States due to the actions or inactions of their affiliates.
The issues on jurisdiction that arose in this case were issues of ‘lex fori’. This is whether the North Carolina Court was the most appropriate court to hear the petition as France had the most substantial connection with the case. The mother company was registered in France and companies in the United States were only its subsidiaries. The accident also happened in France outside the United States of America (Ginsburg, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another issue concerning jurisdiction was whether the case in France would be more favorable and comfortable to the residents of North Carolina in terms of affordability and comfortability.
Decision of the court in terms of votes The decision of the court was unanimous. All the nine jury members voted for dismissal of personal jurisdiction by the petitioners.
Opinion of the court
The North Carolina court in dismissing the motion for petitioners and upholding the jurisdiction of the trial courts held that north Carolina would be the most suitable place for the trial of the case as there was organized marketing of the company’s product in the United States Market as the tires that caused the injuries were made according to quality standards of the United States standard and bore markings which were similar to other tires in the united state and accordingly distribution was through a stream of commerce.
The Courts also stated that the victims of the accident were children of North Carolina and the Parents were residents of North Carolina so the courts of North Carolina would be in their best interest. This was because they were going to be cost effective and the residents were accustomed to the procedures of their home courts and had faith that the matter would be handled without prejudice.
Rationale of the opinion and concurring opinions
The above decision is supported by the case of “International shoes company Limited v Washington” (Bickford, 2011, p. 25). Where it was held that as long as there is minimal connection to a state a personal jurisdiction can be made as long as courts handle the matter fairly and without prejudice.
This is also supported by the fourteenth Amendment Provisional Clause. Since the evidence showed that the petitioners actions were regular and continuous action could take place in North Carolina and this is supported by the case of Helicopteros, (466 U. S., at 416.), (Erbsen, 2011).
There are also contrary opinions to the decision of the jury in the Goodyear’s case and this is illustrated in World-Wide Volkswagen Corp. v. Woodson, (444 U. S. 286, 297). In this case, it is argued that although a country does have some connection to the facts of the case and particulars of the case in a minimal way, it does not give that country the right to have general jurisdiction of the case provided that the personal jurisdiction of the case would ensure fair play and dissemination of substantial justice (Tizard, 2011).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Supreme Court specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Significance
This is a prima facie case in laying out the procedures to follow in solving jurisdictional issues between the home country and the foreign country (Bickford, 2011).
Reference List Bickford, J. (2011). Opinion analysis: No jurisdiction over foreign Round-up: Posted Thursday, June 30th, 2011. Web.
Erbsen, A. (2011). Personal Jurisdiction, Goodyear v. Brown, and Homely Line Drawing: prawfsblawg. Web.
Ginsburg, B.R, J. (2011) Goodyear v Brown. Web.
Syllabus1 (2010), Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations S.A. v. Brown October Term, 2010. Web.
Tizard, C. J (2011) Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations S.A. v. Brown Syllabus, New Orleans. Web.
The Opium Trade: Why did it flourished in 19th century China Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Lucrative Business
Floating in a Sea of Despair
A Matter of Opinion
Throughout human history, the trouble that emanates from the activities of smugglers, pirates, and black market profiteers has been a major problem for monarchs and other heads of state. The same thing can be observed today from the pirates of Somalia to the Colombian drug cartels.
There are three reasons why smugglers, criminals and lawbreakers would risk their lives to buy contraband such as opium and these are listed as follows: they have found a lucrative business; they are desperate; and they find it a matter of personal opinion whether they must be considered as astute businessmen or enemies of the state. This argument stems from a close study of a book written by Captain Arthur Cunynghame.
Cunynghame served as a British sea captain and also as the aide-de-camp to Major-General Lord Saltoun. He was a commander of a ship under the royal crown of Britain and at the same time commander of troops assigned to the East India Company. The main argument stated earlier was the result of studying Cunynghame’s personal recollection of the cause and effect of the Opium War of the late 19th century. The following is taken from one of his recollections, an insight into the mindset of the people involved in the opium trade and Cunynghame wrote:
The difficulties and dangers which were placed by the Chinese authorities in the way of obtaining it, together with the immense price to which, in consequences, it had obtained, caused its sale to be undertaken only by the most lawless as well as avaricious of the community, who risked their lives in this pursuit … the cruelties resorted by the mandarins in its suppression, and by the smugglers in retaliation, are almost incredible.
Lucrative Business It is easy to understand why business-minded people flock towards a money-making scheme that assures them a tidy profit. This is simply the dictates of human nature. No person in his right mind would do something that promises verylittle pay if there is an alternative source of income that promises a three-fold increase in income.
More importantly human nature dictates that a person should find an efficient method for achieving a particular goal. In this case the goal is to make money and the methodology adopted is smuggling banned products.
The high yield profit from the importation of opium is the result of the insistence of the 19th century Chinese government that opium is destructive to the health and well-being of the general population. Opium was therefore ruled as an illegal substance. It created a dilemma within Chinese society. For many centuries opium was never considered a deadly menace and a prohibitive drug. On the contrary it was viewed as something of a miracle cure that provided relief to different maladies ranging from headaches to emotional stress.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to one commentary “It would be normal at such times for some people to use opium to relieve stress, much as the modern world has used Valium.” As a consequence the demand for opium began to increase dramatically as supply dwindled. It was therefore necessary to deal with the consequences of the demand of paying customers. There was a tremendous incentive to bring in opium from outside sources.
As a result opium began pouring in huge quantities but only through the able hands of smuggler and unscrupulous individuals. The presence of the British merchants exacerbated the problem because just like the others, they saw nothing wrong with the sale of opium. The drug must be regulated and not banned.
It can also be argued that growth of the illegal trade in opium was also due to the porous security and law enforcement capability of the Chinese government. At a time when there were too many ports to unload opium and that there were many areas that cannot be efficiently monitored by nation attempting to manage and secure an incredible land mass – the biggest country in the world. Thus, combining the profitability of the illegal activity and chance for success it was not surprising that many took the risk.
Floating in a Sea of Despair The second major reason why people in late 19th century China would risk life and limb in the smuggling of opium is rooted in desperation. This desperation stems from poverty. Many of the minor players in the opium industry struggled to make ends meet and the possibility of augmenting their income is something that is difficult to pass up. Consider for instance the number of employed needing a source of income. There are also people who went through difficult times and the smuggling of opium was an easy way out.
The sense of desperation is not only limited to monetary reasons. There is also the desperation that comes from those who desperately needed a dose of the opiate drug. There are two forces that intensified this feeling of depression. On one side were the legitimate users of opium and limited their use for medicinal purposes only. But on the opposite end there are the opium addicts that require their regular fix.
It has to be pointed out that there was a serious problem when it comes to the supply of opium. The Chinese people from mainland China are not the only ones consuming large quantities of the illegal substance. When the Lord Cunynghame was on his way to China he passed by Singapore and he documented the deplorable state of the nation of Singapore because many of her citizens were opium junkies.
Many Singaporeans during that time were no longer productive citizens because of the ill-effects of opium addiction. Thus, there was not only competition within Chinese society but there was also competition from abroad. This has incredibly increased the sense of desperation from smugglers, peddlers, and users.
We will write a custom Essay on The Opium Trade: Why did it flourished in 19th century China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A Matter of Opinion Cunynghame made a brutal assessment of the opium trade and he said that smugglers and black market profiteers would go to great lengths in order to participate in the lucrative business of buying, selling, and delivery of opium.
Aside from poverty, quick profit, and desperation another major reason why many join the ranks of smugglers can be seen in the ambivalence when it comes to the characterization of the opium smugglers and black market profiteers. The government condemned them as enemies of the state and lawbreakers deserving of extreme punishment. But there are others who see them as businessmen.
The ambivalence was the result of how people interpret the meaning and significance of opium. For those who consider it as a miracle cure, there is no justification why the government should prevent others from using it. It is a matter of freedom and personal choice to be able to use a specific drug that is effective against a particular medical condition. But the Chinese government was quick to point out that overall; opium is a destroyer of society.
The smugglers were encouraged no end by the presence of British businessmen who find nothing wrong with the sale of opium. A smuggler can easily justify their actions considering that other powerful entities are enriching themselves from the sale of what was supposed to be illegal products.
It must have created confusion at first when the government suddenly ruled that opium could no longer be made freely available in China. The confusion was due at first to the fact that no such ruling was ever made in China. For the longest time people use it as a form of herbal medicine.
Furthermore, the smugglers and black market profiteers must have found it difficult to reconcile the fact that the Chinese government sent their attack dogs to capture and punish them but the British with the backing of their government were expected to make a profit from the sale of opium. It did not take long for many of them to realize that opium’s status as an illegal or legal substance is a matter of opinion.
Final Argument There were many ways to shut down the opium trade in 19th century China. The government saw the negative impact of opium use to the general population and used its power to crush the growing industry in the importation and use of opium in China.
Severe measures were passed and captured smugglers were severely punished to act an example for those who are attempting to bring in more opium to the country. But instead of instilling fear, the opium trade flourished. There are no other explanations other than profitability, poverty, and perception.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Opium Trade: Why did it flourished in 19th century China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The opium trade flourished in 19th century China because it was highly profitable. It was an easy way to earn significant amounts of money provided the smugglers and peddlers were not caught. There was a huge demand for it coming from two types of customers.
The first one uses it for medicinal purpose and the second were the high number of opium addicts. The second major reason why the opium trade thrived in spite of the illegal status of the drug is linked to poverty. The lack of reliable sources of income and the lack of opportunities to make good money pushed many to join a gang of smugglers or become a part of a supply chain.
This is why even if the Chinese government made it clear how smugglers should be punished for breaking the law, many were still willing to try. The final reason why the opium trade was such a major success in 19th century China is the realization that the legality of the business is subject to personal opinion. The Chinese smugglers saw how the British government profited from the trade of opium it was therefore unfair for them not to take a slice of the market.
Bibliography Cunynghame, Arthur. The Opium War: Being Recollections of Service in China. PA: G.B. Ziebber
The Culture of Fear Essay essay help online free
Introduction The culture of fear is a new phenomenon growing among the American citizens. It refers to the tendency to adopt irrational scares, especially when advanced by the media, politicians, and monomaniacal advocacy groups. This qualifies as paranoia associated with issues such as road rage, breast cancer, pedophiles, blacks, immorality, plane crashes, among others. Glassner and Wainwright provide the reader with statistics to debunk most of the misrepresentations advanced by the media.
Masquerading ‘experts’ who in reality are phonies with dubious qualifications being trotted up to back the media’s prejudicial notions are exposed with the backing of statistics. An interesting point that Glassner brings to attention is how these journalists seem quick to brush aside genuine experts who seek to discredit their generalizations of solitary incidents into ‘trends’.
Glassner’s ‘The Culture of Fear’ is quite a revelation of matters concerning misplaced fears based on delusions by the press. It touches on issues than include fear for airline safety, road rages, teenage pregnancies, monster moms, youth violence, terrorism, crack babies, pedophilia, kidnappings, overemphasis of diseases such as SARS and West Nile Disease, feminists’ banter on silicone breast implants, and racial stereotyping among others (Glassner 2010, p. 3).
It also provides an explanation of why people succumb to these ploys by the media, politicians and lobbyists. Finally, Glassner offers suggestions on how to counter these irrational fears propagated by such falsities. Wainwright’s ‘A Sociology of Health’ is a complex text on health issues.
For the purposes of this paper, the focus is on chapter two, which discusses ‘Doing Better, Feeling Scared: Health Statistics and the Culture of Fear’. Wainwright’s work is a reflection of Glassner’s many concepts, with more emphasis laid on the statistics, to debunk the paranoia that comes with ignorance. However, he gives a detailed explanation of the nature of ‘actuarial risk’ (Wainwright 2008, p. 91). This paper will discuss both authors’ contributions jointly.
The culture of fear is not new: it continues to breed with the sustaining efforts of the opportunistic politicians seeking votes from the public by playing on people’s emotions through mass media.
It thrives on sensationalism and exaggerated reports of occurrences to keep people tuned in and single-minded advocacy groups that exaggerate the prevalence of certain diseases and conditions to solicit funding. Unfortunately, these extreme, albeit spectacular depictions are detrimental to society in terms of propagating further hardships and eclipsing the real, and usually less popular problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, Glassner posits that the widespread anti-breast cancer campaigns spread fear among affected parties, making it less likely for daughters whose mothers had breast cancer to conduct screening tests. He also gives the example of the hype over illegal drug usage, such as marijuana, cocaine, and heroine.
Focusing on these abusers shifts our attention from the abuse of legal drugs and the negligent prescription of wrong medication by health practitioners. Another instance is the decline to handle violent crimes by instigating bans on gun ownership and possession. The media works on the philosophy ‘if it bleeds it leads’ which explain the gross exaggerations and christening of incidents into trends. It happens when there are several sequential or even sparse occurrences of newsworthy events.
A good example is the youth killings in Littleton Colorado, which earned the title ‘monstrous youth’. Such generalizations of specific people’s crimes into an entire category’s nature are a major reason why paranoia spreads among the public. “Entire categories stand out as innately dangerous…” (Glassner 2010, p. 9). Consequently, parents no longer trust public schools.
Politicians are notorious for their scare mongering, especially during campaigns. Glassner quotes Richard Nixon who once stated, “People react to fear, not love…They don’t teach that in Sunday school, but its true” (Glassner 2010, p. 15). Surely, if that is the motto of politicians, then the country is in for a great scare. The last group addressed in this category is lobbyists, who single-mindedly misrepresent the prevalence of certain diseases and conditions to hike funding, or in support of their ideologies.
A good example is the feminists who launched an anti-silicone breast implants campaign until the FDA banned them in 1992, yet extensive research found no connection between these implants and deteriorated health of individuals who had them (Wainwright 2008, p. 148). The issue of health and fear also occurs in the form of people feeling healthy, yet believing that they will fall ill.
Countless journals constantly present data in millions of Americans with rare diseases, epidemics like SARS, West Nile Disease, and the Gulf War Syndrome. All this is at the expense of numerous Americans ‘actually’ suffering from malaria and malnutrition, among other dangerous conditions. It seems ironical to note that these figures once combined or summed up come up to over 500 million Americans yet the last census only accounts for less those 300 million citizens.
Glassner proposes that there be a shift from the sensational to the mundane if change is to occur. “We have the resources to feed, house, educate, insure, and disarm our communities if we resolve to do so…We can choose to redirect some funds to combat serious dangers that threaten large numbers of people…At election time, we can choose candidates that proffer programs rather than scares” (Glassner 2010, p. 210).
We will write a custom Essay on The Culture of Fear specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He notes that whereas in the last three decades the crime rate has declined by almost thirty percent, press coverage has shot up to 600%! The result of this discrepancy is the appearance of an increasing crime rate. The same applies for many other societal vices on the decline such as suicide rates and abortions.
The public will always be vulnerable to deception by opinion leaders because most people cannot reason probabilistically, and they lack understanding of the rules of inference and statistical evidence. Education on probability may be of help, but the burden lies on the deceivers to correct their ways. The society needs to take accountability for its actions, or lack of actions, especially in failing to route for corrective policies, instead of blaming drug addicts, or blacks, or other marginalized groups in need of welfare and respite.
References Glassner, B., 2010. Introduction to the Tenth Anniversary Edition. In The Culture of
Fear. New York: Basic Books.
Wainwright, D., 2008. Chapter 2, Doing Better, Feeling Scared: Health Statistics
and the Culture of Fear, In A Sociology of Health (pp. 89-96). Oregon: Sage Publication Ltd.
Strategic Management Problem Solution Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Present and potential future projects
Effects of implementations of future strategies
Executive Summary Strategic management forms an integral aspect of any organization operations. Strategic management guides an organization towards achieving; its goals, objectives, mission and vision successfully. Some scholars assert that strategic management is a vital tool that helps management to allocate resources effectively. In an attempt to understand how strategic management influences business organizations, this essay looks at the operations of Rotary Engineering Limited Company (REL) and Jurong Town Corporation (JPC).
REL is a world leading petroleum producer, whereas, JPC is a public owned corporation that offers a competitive economic platform for an organization to produce, and enhance its economic improvement. The main activities carried by JTC are; construction, technoprenuer centre, underground oil reservoirs, incubators, wafer fabrication hub, and chemical production.
The company’s mission is to facilitate Singaporean economic performance. On the other hand, REL is a petroleum producing company that operates in Singapore, and in major Asian countries such as; Saudi Arabia, India, China and Malaysia. The company’s mission is to produce quality products that meet customer’s needs. To achieve its long-term goals, the company embraces strategic plans, as the route map to achieving its goals.
A viable strategic management is essential for any organization, as it incorporate organization goals, objectives and mission in relation to the long-term plans. Although, the two organizations operate in different economic structures, individual strategic plans have helped them to cope, both with internal and external environment. Additionally, strategic decisions have steered them towards improving their performance.
Nonetheless, it has not been smooth sailing for the two companies; challenges have emerged, compelling the management to devise alternatives in order to adjust themselves to the demands of steady growth. Induced pressure that results from steady growth has resulted in delegation of duties to subordinate staffs, some of whom are less competent. However, despite of its steady growth, REL revises its strategic policy and management organization to suit the new demands.
Introduction Competitive organizations need to make deliberate measure to cope with the existing cutthroat competition. The existence of such stiff competition renders managers to devise alternatives, and means to remain ahead of their competitors. To achieve this, managers design and implement strategic plans to sustain performance effectiveness. Strategic plan is an evolving initiative aimed at aiding an organization to cope with complex external environment (Porter 1996).
Thus; strategic plan forms an integral part of any organization as it encompasses strategic objectives. The strategic objectives outline both current and medium- term goals, which assist organization in achieving its long-term goals (Dess, Lumpkin
The Oiled Paper Umbrella Research Paper cheap essay help
Abstract Umbrellas have evolved throughout the history of ancient China, Egypt, and the Middle East. Oiled paper umbrella is a type of umbrella that emanated from China during the ancient times and has evolved and dominated the world due to its unique features.
The unique features of oiled paper umbrella include smooth bamboo handle, waterproof shade, light paper, and colorful collections. A study, carried out in colleges, confirmed that students prefer oiled paper umbrella as compared to other umbrellas, thus designers and entrepreneurs should target students and entire youth as potential customers of oiled paper umbrellas.
Introduction The oiled paper umbrella is a special umbrella that emanated from China during the ancient times but has currently gained international recognition that, it is virtually present in all countries. Johnson argues that, versatility of oiled paper umbrella to various occasions and functions has made it gain international significance as compared to the ordinary umbrellas (8).
This implies that, oiled paper umbrella has unique appeal to diverse cultures across the world due to its unique design and variable colors. Since the oiled paper umbrella has dominated the world, this project seeks to establish the unique features that are inherent in the umbrella design that make it appeal to so many people across the world.
Review of the Literature As aforementioned, the oiled paper umbrella is unique umbrella that Chinese invented during the ancient times. The Chinese made the oiled umbrella using bamboo, wax, paper, and various colors that give different tastes. Royal families and emperors used red and yellow colors with special designs while ordinary people used blue or other colored umbrellas.
According to Smith, oiled umbrellas serve several purposes in the Chinese culture in that they do not only provide shade against rain and sunshine, but also as act as artifacts of decorations in weddings and prevention of evil spirits in religious ceremonies (1).
In addition, other people across the world use the oiled paper umbrella as gifts to their loved ones and souvenirs of the Chinese culture. Despite the fact that the oiled paper umbrella originated from China, it has spread across the world, because its unique design and multiple colors appeal to many people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Methodology To establish unique features that are inherent in the oiled paper umbrella, a study was carried out in a college. The survey targeted 200 college-going students and ensured that there was gender balance to enhance the credibility of the research findings.
According to Walter, the appealing features of the oiled paper umbrella include oil that repels water, smooth bamboo handle, and colorful designs (8). Therefore, the study hypothesized that students would cite these unique features as inherent components of the oiled paper umbrellas that have made it dominate the world’s markets with much value.
In the study, the researchers interviewed 200 participants to state the umbrella they like and name its unique features. The researchers displayed four types of umbrellas with five sets, each having different colors. The study collected numerical data in terms of points. When each participant selected the desired umbrella, it was a point; moreover, every named unique feature was a point too.
The study expected that, since the oiled paper umbrella has more unique features as compared to the ordinary umbrellas, it would score more points. Edwards asserts that, artifacts that have many attractive features are more appealing than those with minimal features are (13).
Hence, smooth bamboo, waterproof shade, light paper, colorful collections, and unique design of the oiled paper umbrella are many attributes that made it score more points in the survey. Comparatively, the ordinary umbrellas only have good design features and exist in colorful collections; however, they do not have bamboo and paper components plus waterproof shade.
Therefore, the research findings are relevant to both designers and entrepreneurs since they give an idea about students’ preferences and tastes concerning umbrellas. Designers will employ these findings in designing customized umbrellas that target students and by extension youths, as a generalization of the findings. Moreover, entrepreneurs will employ these findings in targeting youths as potential customers of the oiled paper umbrellas.
Research Project Timetable
The researchers carried out the study on a weekend viz. Saturday and Sunday, between 9am and 4pm, because most of the students are free and have ample time for interviews. Between 9am and 4pm, researchers visited students at various places within the college: in hostels, classes, and field or entertainment centers. The objective of the study was to interview 200 participants, 100 males and 100 female students, in consideration of gender perception of umbrella features.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Oiled Paper Umbrella specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Resources Required
The study required resources such as the interviewers who carried out the study during the two days and analyzed the data. The interviewers used questionnaires and stationery as recourses when collecting required information from participants. Other resources that were critical include samples of four types of umbrellas each having five sets of different colors.
Conclusion Invention of umbrellas began a long time ago, about 4000 years, in various parts of the world such as China, Assyria, and Egypt. Bellis explains that, the ancient umbrellas functioned as shade against sun and rain, but they have evolved with time in that, they currently function as beauty artifacts in weddings, souvenirs, and gifts (5). Due to its unique and attractive features, the oiled paper umbrella has gained international recognition because international designers and fashion industries are reproducing it across the world.
Currently, in Europe and the United States, the oiled paper umbrellas cost between 10 to 100 dollars, depending on quality and design of the umbrella. The study carried in a college proved that students preferred the oiled umbrella to the ordinary umbrellas. Thus, research findings are relevant to both designers and entrepreneurs of umbrellas, for they provide probable tastes and preferences of students.
Works Cited Bellis, Mary. “Who Invented the Umbrella?” Invention History Database, 2011: 1-7.
Edwards, Cain. “Arts and Design of Artifacts.” European Fashions and Designs, 2010.
Johnson, Kenneth. “Evolution of Oiled Paper Umbrellas.” Chinese Exhibitions, 2010: 1-4
Smith, James. “Oiled-Paper Umbrella.” Inventions of the Chinese, 2009: 1-3.
Walter, Paul. “Chinese Oiled Umbrella.” International Arts and Exhibitions, 2008: 1-13.
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The Wabash Watershed Essay essay help site:edu
Introduction Climatic changes are as a consequence of both natural and man-made factors. Natural factors may relate to floods, epidemic, warming as well as rising in sea-level.
On the other hand artificial factors may concern pollution including the green-house emissions. In the above mentioned instance, diverse climatic aspects are considerably altered either seasonally or equally permanently. It ought to be noted that climatic variations are a major issue of concern. Both plant and animal life depends on the dynamics of climate to breed or survive. Exploring the issues surrounding Wabash Watershed in regard to the 1961-1990 periods, it can be argued that a lot of disparities can be detected.
During the wake of 1960s the concept of global warming was not a serious issue. As the date testifies the period was in essence clean and free from massive climate changes. As is evidenced by the areas topographical consideration, the population was equally moderate. However, as the region became more and more exposed to increased human activities, the regions weather patterns assumed a new dimension which is testified by the unstable, rain and temperatures.
Thus the data stands as the key indicator of climatic patterns before the effect of global warming began to be experienced. Floods, flash floods, heavy rains and animal immigrations can be said to be some of the effects of mounting rate of climatic changes. Hence, the data wrapping around the scope of maximum temperatures ranging from 1960-to-1990 exposes a trend that shows that from 1960 to 1982 began to increase considerably.
This was followed by disrupted rain patterns and this is also illustrated by the unstable temperatures variations both in short and long term observations. What this shows is that the changing climatic variations are hazardous. Consider the fact that changing temperatures may increase the instances of drought, low water levels, increases floods as well as influx of diseases and diseases resistant organisms. Therefore, the trend is in essence a negative pointer that can be attributed to global warming.
Looking at the entire data presentation it can be said that the environment was gradually giving in to warming. This can be linked to the available data which indicates that in the wake of 1970s the temperatures were deep low, while the subsequent years shows the great deal of variation with an increase in temperatures. And this shows why at some point the region had the coldest season as is evidenced by the wake of January 1977. Thus, it can be established that the issue of environmental warming was affecting the climatic patterns gradually.
With each impact on temperatures so did the variation took place. Hence, the scope of precipitation, moisture, moisture deficit, evapotranspiration and surface runoff took a new dimension. This can be allied to the fact that decreased moisture on the surface, low precipitation as well as increased temperatures played a role in altering the environment as well as the natural buffers that checked the abnormal climatic changes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Climatic changes Though, some theorists envisioned that we would see a more pronounced warming of minimum temperatures than maximum temperatures. This might result in a reduced range of temperatures.
This trend indicates that if global warming persisted so do the abnormal climatic changes that equally affected the natural dynamics of water retention in the atmosphere, where evaporation increased including unstable moisture deficit. In essence, the scope of differing temperature ranges indicates that the global warming is in reality playing a role in reshaping the established climatic patterns.
Thus, in regard to reduced ranges of temperatures, it is evident that the region experienced some of the harshest conditions in the wake of 1970s as well as the dawn of 1980s. More so, this paints a vivid picture of how these changes allied to fluctuating temperatures affected the range and instances of precipitation and evapotranspiration within a duration of 5 years begin from 1980s.
Also the tens years range establishes that in the wake of early 60s some instances of reduced temperature ranges were witnessed. Equally, examining the gradual temperatures recorded an imminent trend observed regards an increased peak from the 1970s and is a pointer that this was the emerging common trend. Many theories that look at global warming envisage more drought and less surplus water conditions for inland or continental locations.
Diverse trends in precipitation can be witnessed along the random instances of specific amount of precipitation And this could be fatal to both animal and plant life. Also incase of low temperatures this may cause droughts as well as an increase in animal migration not to mention an increase in water in the moisture and this may cause freezing.Exploring the dynamics of global warming, we are left with two pertinent challenges, an increase in temperatures, or a drop in temperatures. In both cases drought is pertinent in some regions, it ought to be noted that an increase in temperature may result in shifting sea levels and more so causing flash rains as well as floods.
Generally, what this indicates is that with escalating global and local temperature variations evaporation is expected to increase. Hence, the eventual change would entail having increased moisture which could result in more instances of fog and subsequently result in higher minimum temperatures and this would affect apposite climate for animal and plant reproduction. Therefore, the trend shows that global warming as is explained by climatic theorists could cause fatal crisis in regard to food security in days to come.
Argument The way both maximum and minimum temperatures seem to fluctuate suggests that these changes have deep effect on global climate. In reference to actual evapotranspiration, surplus/deficit conditions and runoff/streamflow, we might expect to get more instances of drought, heavy rains, flashfloods and equally long spells of winds. This can be attributed to the global warming theory that posits that increased instances of greenhouse gases would eventually result in earth’s atmosphere being impacted.
We will write a custom Essay on The Wabash Watershed specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reason is minimum temperatures are increasing rapidly than global and local maximum temperatures. According to the available data this can also result in an increase in precipitation and this would be precedent by an increase in temperatures and evaporation.
The clear-cut answers to the trends being witnessed can be provided by having well established policies designed to curb greenhouse emissions as well as stop massive deforestation. This would help in controlling the changing instances of temperatures. It ought to be noted that with reduced instances of greenhouses the witnessed climatic abnormalities could be checked.
Also, it is crucial to note that the primary features of greenhouse gases which are water vapor, methane and carbon dioxide could be controlled by having environmental friendly greenhouses and this would entail planting more trees and using less farm chemicals which are released to the atmosphere.
Basically, what this study shows in regard to carrying out studies on environmental issues like global warming is that it is essential to understand what surrounds us. Examining the data it can be stated that the study has provided a new window for human race to understand that mans survival depends on stable environment.
Also it would be prudence to argue that the study shows that stable maximum and minimum temperatures plays a central role in our lives. However, with the emergence of global warming the study makes an informed proposition that global warming is one of the foremost threat to global and local climatic conditions. The study has established that global warming do affect diverse aspects of our very own survival from availability of water to food security.
Thus, it would be instrumental to note that earth’s resources do considerably rely on the balance between maximum and minimum temperatures. The studies do indicate that researching on diverse aspects of the environment would be instrumental in establishing the apposite measures of tackling both natural and man-made features affecting the environment.
Concerning the study on environment and is established by this research it would be also important to examine data regarding crop and animal production. Also examining the information surrounding instances of animal migration, instances of severe drought, heat waves as well as changes in rain patterns would provide a solid insight into how climatic changes are effected by abnormal temperatures, evaporation, surface run off, as well as moisture.
The information from such observations would help in establishing critical measures of controlling global warming or any other instances affecting the temperatures. As the studies depict temperatures plays a considerable role in the manner global climate is sustained or manipulated.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Wabash Watershed by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The proposition of this study can be correlated to the fact that global warming is major threat to both animal and plant life. This can be allied to the fact that the established changes could and will continue to impact on the environment if unchecked.
Looking at the implications of the study the foremost thing is to understand that human activities are the core factors in regard to global warming. More so, as the study offers the apparent changes can be controlled and the current status be rectified. As is apparent before the wake of 1980s the global temperatures had not fluctuated as such.
However, with each passing year we have noted in the provided data that moisture deficits increased as the greenhouse emissions mounted. According to the data provided and the critical analysis of the diverse aspects of climatic changes, it obvious that setting the record straight in regard to implications of global warming is core implication of this study.
It is from such observation that the future studies may be based upon in order to establish the apposite strategies of dealing with this issue or a similar one. Thus, to the environmentalist, the research has provided a new dimension of addressing climatic changes. While to the scholars and the government the study has provided a critical insight in regard to the best climatic variations can be managed to avert disasters (Adabashev,1966).
The current trend which can be linked to global warming has a played a global role in creating escalating instances of food shortages as is being witnessed today in Africa. The impact of global warming can also be linked to the random flash floods being witnessed in regions surrounding the Pacific Ocean.
Such issues do have a direct link to climate changes. Examining the manner food security has been compromised over the years or from the wake of 1960s, it can be alluded that climatic changes have played a central role in decreasing food production globally. When we examine the impact within the local scope it is evident Wabash Watershed has exposed instances of decreased water levels as well as high temperatures.
Such instances have in certain quarters resulted in explosion of drug resistant diseases or as is with the tropics the emergency of pests resistant to pesticide. Therefore, the current trend which is predominantly linked to global warming has a critical impact on the entire scope of climate. As is evident climate changes do determine if a particular region would be inhabitable or not.
A good example is the recent tsunami in Japan as well as swam attack in Chad and Niger in northern Africa. If the trends continue in their current direction, the people living within Wabash Watershed may find themselves warped in unexpected cold seasons as well as instances of extreme heat waves. This can be allied to the fact that as the temperature fluctuates so do other features allied to the environment such as water.
Thus, if the trend goes unabated it is likely that in days to come the region may experience instances of dryness or equally frost. Not mention that the available results do establish that the way the region temperatures have fluctuated stability cannot be attained without considering the effects of global warming. The region is no exception, its rivers are running dry, and while the animal life stands endangered this is a pointer that anything can happen.
Some of the major effect the people of this region may encounter may include loss of native and drought resistant plants. Also the instances of extreme cold as was witnessed in the wake of 1970s cannot be ruled out.
On a similar note the people may face a challenge from explosion of epidemic due to decreased temperatures thus giving raise to the growth of disease causing organism. Also proliferation of parasites, prolonged cold and dry seasons, delayed rains, acid rains as well as increased moisture deficit are some of the people of this region may encounter if the trend persists.
This can be as a result of abnormal water loss due to extreme evaporation, random precipitation as well as low forest density. Thus, the people ought to be informed and be sensitized of the dangers correlated to climate changes. As a number of scholarly have established climatic changes do alter the pace of environmental harmony and this in most instances results in catastrophe.
In conclusion, climatic changes due to global warming can be destructive. As the information provided depicts, diverse environmental agents are destroyed where such are allowed to flourish. Therefore, implementing the apposite structures to deal with greenhouses emissions would be a major step in sustaining the normal level of temperatures which are suitable for normal precipitation, moisture levels as well as evaporation (Bonnett, 2008).
References Adabashev, I. (1966). Global Engineering. Moscow: Progress.
Bonnett, A. (2008) What is Geography? London: Sage
American Art and 1920 Jazz Age Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Art during the War
American Art during 1920 Jazz Age
Introduction American art includes the historical paintings and other visual artistic expressions. Realistic paintings of portraits and landscapes are some of the art types produced at the onset of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In the height of the industrial revolution in America, the America craft movement which began as a response to the industrial revolution was one of the major developments taking place.
Exhibitions that were done in New York City such as the Armory show of 1913 are examples of modern art that started penetrating America. Before this show, artists from America concentrated on western paintings and arts from European countries. When the First World War ended, Paris was used as the center of art in the world. Since this development, movements have sprung in America that have completely changed modern art.
Art during the War The period during the war in America was characterized by a negative attitude towards fine arts. Most of the art that was produced during this period included paintings from famous painters like Washington Allston. This caused the painters to become disillusioned with the status of the art.
Apart from paintings, portraits were another form of art that received much popularity. These portrait paintings exhibited the kind of energy possessed by builders of the American nation and the confidence that was in them. During this period, there was also a remarkable emergence of genre painters. They were involved in painting the American scene. For example, Audubon provided detailed and impressive paintings of birds alongside other paintings of other figures that were regarded as legendary (Henkes, 2001).
In the first half of 19th century, the first school of American landscape painting came into existence. This school of art painted landscapes with descriptions of the American people. Their work of art was a show of appreciation to nature that has continued to define American art.
In addition, the Americans passion for objects was depicted through paintings. Portraits of sculpture are also another form of art that was prevalent during the war period in America. Though artists like John Frazee had not received intensive training in producing art, they produced original and excellent work from wood and marble. The sculptors of America were highly influenced by neoclassicist personalities from Denmark.
American Art during 1920 Jazz Age With the end of the war and its characteristic art of paintings and sculptures, American art started to change in the 1920s with the arrival of the Jazz movement. This period was characterized by the emergence of jazz music accompanied by dance. The movement was sparked by the advent of radio after the end of the war.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The arrival of jazz movement brought about totally different cultural practices and art. The most instrumental pioneers of Jazz music are the African Americans although it was later suited to white Americans. African Americans only used the white Americans to make the jazz culture popular. The jazz culture made it possible for African Americans to share their cultural ideals. Places like New York were often used by African American artists as centers for playing jazz.
The jazz music introduced by African Americans played in most radio stations causing youths in the 1920s to shun the traditional cultures that were being propagated. During this period, there was also a complete shift in art after the introduction of fads and radio concerts.
Throughout 1920s, jazz music was very popular despite stiff competition that was coming from other forms of music. Common dances that had been developed by the African Americans became popular as part of American art among other white Americans. The radio stations embraced these new forms of music so the Americans were given a chance of enjoying new artistic forms (Infoplease, 2011)
Conclusion The Jazz age was truly a turning point for the American art from the art that existed during the period of war. During the war, American art was characterized by paintings and sculptures that represented the Americans aspirations and their love for culture. However, there was a complete change in art after the introduction of the jazz music. It initially originated from the African Americans but later spread to other white Americans.
References Henkes, R. (2001). World War 2 in American art. Carolina: McFarland.
Infoplease. (2011). After the Civil War. Web.
Understanding Media and Communication Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
“Form of realism”
“Modes of representation”
List of References
Introduction Films are lengthy plays recorded on electronic devices, which focus on telling factual, mythical, tradition, scientific and fictional stories. A film results from the creative skills of the producer who writes the script that the actors follow while acting. Most films attempt to replicate real situations, which have transpired in the past. Conversely, music is a composition that consists of lyrics. However, visual images as evident in the presence of images and sounds lack in music.
Evidently, such media platforms pass information to the mass in an extensive manner. Nonetheless, they make use of different styles thus translating the intended messages. This paper aims to contrast the two media platforms based on certain aspects that include ideology, realism and audience. Transmedia narratives are story narrated over different media platforms. A story falls into this category once it conforms to three or more media platforms.
The exponential developments in the media world have facilitated the growth of transmedia narratives. Diversification of media platforms will be the predominant factor driving the growth of transmedia narratives by creating more platforms. The discussion below compares two media platforms thus music and film. The discussion exemplifies the techniques and devices used in storytelling in music and films (Abba 2009).
Ideology Ideology is a general term that describes certain ideas or values that people follow. Overtime, mass media has been an avenue that fosters definite ideas. This means media platforms can lead to changes in ideologies. Films have the capability to tell lengthy and complex narrative because they can accommodate a dynamic cast. In addition, they make use of sound and picture in messages. Film uses different techniques to suggest its significance.
On the contrary, music uses few techniques since it faces limitations. Music only makes use of sound. Therefore, it cannot integrate all the techniques and devices into sound. However, films can integrate the techniques and devices into sound and images. The visual ability in films means that they have the capability to influence persons. Music can influence ideologies due to its rhythms and creatively used lyrics.
Essentially, both are influential; however, films seem to exude significant influence. With the digital advancement, a filmmaker can now film complex pieces. In order to enforce certain ideologies, films use devices such as rhetoric techniques. Music and film have applied rhetoric relatively equally. Evidently, rhetoric refers to any part of the story where the storyteller asks a question yet the artist comprehends the answer. The style is evident significantly in film than music (Post and Gold, 2006).
Audience Transmedia narratives exude diverse story lines. Transmedia narratives require fanatical audience that will endeavor to follow the variety of stories that exist. These narratives capture a wide range of audiences because they are present on numerous media platforms. It worth noting that music commands a large crowd than film because it is cheaper.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A vital element of transmedia narratives is that they bring the audience on-board. Once the audiences participate, they can adjust the storyline making it linguistically and ethnically suitable for the industry. This means that the audiences have a certain level of responsibility to add to the entire plot. This makes transmedia narratives more acceptable. The level of participation in altering the plot would be minimal since film involves diverse issues that include cast and resources.
Conversely, altering the plot would be easier since it involves lesser people and resources. This means the flexibility of music gives it an edge over films, which are rigid. Transmedia allows a single story telling on a multitude of ways. With the technological advancement, transmedia will help to explore previously untapped market. Indeed, it would suit audio oriented stories while film would be suitable for graphical and audio oriented stories.
“Form of realism” Realism involves making a representation of real life situation in literature of arts. It fundamentally involves replicating a real situation. In contrasting the two media platforms with regard to realism, it is imperative to analyze their capability to replicate situations and scenarios. Films are competent of replicating situations exemplarily since it has both visual and audio capability. When they have a trained cast, they can bring out any story magnificently well.
However, films require a substantial amount of resources to support the crew and equipment. Story telling on film requires an assortment of skills. This is because a film requires a script, which captures the basis of the story. Conversely, the process of storytelling in music is considerably simple but requires a gifted person. Telling a story in a song requires the singer to blend in the ideas, which is not an ordinary fit.
However, storytelling through music is much simpler and inculcates fewer techniques and devices. On the contrary, storytelling through films involves many devices since it can accommodate a larger cast. This means that it can have antagonist protagonist, narrator, foil, and confidant. The antagonist, narrator, and antagonist represent the varying views, which may exist due to a certain story.
The use of such a cast gives depth to the story telling in films since the story has to give space to allow the varying speakers to assert their views. Such diverse thought brought about by the cast will trigger the audience to pay attention. This means that the audiences are not just ordinary listeners. It is challenging and impractical to integrate such a cast in a song because it would lose certain aspects such as rhythm.
Indeed, films have the capability to replicate a situation given the right cast and resources. These are attributable to the sound and visual aspect of films. In addition, film allows the audience to see the narrators and members of the cast. Music integrates poetry into lyrics to create rhyming words and thus improve rhythm in the song. Poetry represents the most incorporated style in music (Khlentzos 2011).
We will write a custom Essay on Understanding Media and Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “Modes of representation” These modes present model of film making utilized in the past. These modes represent the patterns that film production engaged. These modes apply in film making by providing guidance to the filmmaker on the procedures to follow. This reveal an aspect of film making that is procedural (Isaken
Personality and Emotional Development Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Personal development of every child is as important as acquisition of scientific facts and learning of the basic laws of the universe. Ability of a person to apply social-emotional skills in adulthood can be considered as a positive contribution of the system of education to it. Positive social development in a wider range of social roles and responsibilities of an individual can be reached through such personal skills and capabilities as leadership, respect to others, non-abusive behavior, and ability to negotiate.
An individual should respect others, be able to negotiate over certain issues, avoid verbal and physical abuse to persuade a person or display his/her emotions or ideas, and try to succeed in all activities he/she participates in. as such, all abovementioned skills can be analyzed in complex with regard to their close connection to each other.
Family environment can be as encouraging as discouraging in terms of development of social-emotional skills of children. As such, the best qualities of the family environment that can positively contribute to the development of social-emotional skills in children include the following:
Encouragement of initiatives and leadership skills in children can make them be more independent and active in their activities;
Respect for decisions of children as well as other adults in the family is the key quality to developing of respect and non-abusive behavior in children;
Discussion of problems openly is aimed at making children not afraid of having their own ideas and making decisions in accordance with the viewpoints of other members of the family. If parents notice some changes in the behavior of their children, they should be ready to discuss it openly within the family and with the teacher.
At the same time, family environment can have negative effect on development of social-emotional skills. In this respect, the qualities that can inhibit the child’s development for a range of roles and responsibilities in society include lack of respect in the family to the opinion of other members.
This can be seen through prohibitions and denial of a child’s own will when parents tend to decide what is ‘better’ for their children. Existence of this quality in the family may prevent a child from obtaining such social –emotional skills as leadership and ability to negotiate because he/she is taught at home to have no personal viewpoints.
On the other hand, such quality as verbal or physical abuse can prevent a child from respective adults in general and those who can resemble the one who makes the child suffer from abusing. Moreover, a child can treat abusing as a norm of behavior and use it as an argument when he/she can see no chance for peaceful negotiation. In addition, physical and verbal abuse can be the reason for a number of other problems in a child’s development.
Classroom environment can be really encouraging for students in terms of development of their social-emotional skills that can be further applied to a wider range of roles and responsibilities. For instance, a teacher can introduce group activities so that children could practice their leadership skills and show respect in reaching an agreement while working on the assignments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As suggested by Slaving et al. (2003), “cooperative learning activities can be planned with groups of children at different levels who can help each other learn” (cited in Slavin, 2009, p. 46). Besides, a teacher can “create rules in the classroom that recognize positive behavior, such as co-operation, caring, helping, encouragement and support” (Elias, 2003, p. 8).
At the same time, another positive quality of the classroom environment that can contribute to development of social-emotional skills is relationship between students and attitude of the teacher toward interest groups and encouraging students to make friends.
Classroom environment can become the reason for problems a child encounters in terms of social-emotional development. For instance, if a teacher does not care about the relationship between classmates, children can behave in a negative manner affecting others and preventing each other from making progress.
Besides, a teacher can negatively affect children in case he/she show disrespect for one of student or another teacher thus showing a vivid example. Probably, students would follow such an example and disrespecting people with no reason and abusing them verbally or physically to show them superiority would become a norm.
Such theorists as Erik Erickson and Maurice Elias have contributed greatly to understanding the necessity of developing social-emotional skills of children.
For instance, Erik Erickson introduced a number of virtues that can be developed in a specific age; as such, competence is one of the virtues that can be developed in the age of 6-11 years and a teacher should make sure that no child feels inferior when comparing himself/herself to other children in class. At the same time, Maurice Elias presented explanation of emotional intelligence, a concept that can be seen when people try to respect each other and negotiate to reach and agreement.
References Elias, M. J. (2003). Academic and social learning. Brussels, Belgium: International Academy of Education. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Personality and Emotional Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Slavin, R. E. (2009). Educational psychology theory and practice (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Indigenous people in Australia Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Prior to the arrival of the Europeans in the Australian continent in the 19th century, the land was inhabited by a group of people who are today referred to as the Aborigines. According to Lydon (2005, p. 201), archeologists have estimated that these people have been on this continent for about 60,000 years. In addition, he notes that these people had managed to develop their own social, political and economic system although when the European landed on the continent, they regarded these systems as backward and archaic.
Indigenous history of Indigenous peoples in Victoria
The housing crisis Term Paper best essay help
The housing crisis is an economic bubble affecting many areas in the United States. House prices were high and peaked in 2006. Gradually, the prices began to decline in 2006 and 2007.
They’re still lowering to date. As this picture unfolds, it emerges that any form of the housing bubble of the United States leaves a ripple effect which directly hits not only the valuation of homes, but also the states home builder’s, the home supply retailing outlets, the real estate industry as a whole as well as the mortgage markets. The crisis has posed a very huge risk to the American economy.
As Randel stated, “the Federal Reserve lowered interest rates during the period of 1995-2000 which created easy credit for banks to make loans. Rates were extremely high by 2006 hence lowering demand and increasing monthly payments for adjustable mortgages” (Randel, 144). This increased supply and consequently ended up in further lowering housing prices.
Popular belief that houses as opposed to other investments do not fall in value sparked the huge number of Americans to buy homes. However this is not the case.
Furthermore, it’s also widely believed that homes result in above average returns on investment. It is therefore only reasonable to take for granted that the price of houses only just manage to top price increases over the elongated term.
In the years of 2005 through to 2006, there were copious advertisements as well as shows on television which were aimed at enhancing investment in the real estate sector. Books on real estate investment were being marketed and sold all over. This sparked investment in the housing industry.
Clarey observed the fact that, “as home prices began to rise in early 2000-2001 following reduced interest rates, purchase of homes was on the rise” (Clarey, 256). Speculators bought houses in large numbers with an intention of selling them back for a quick profit.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although the undertakings occurred well over twenty years ago, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were considered responsible for the credit crisis that resulted after the housing bubble of 2001-2007 burst. The two companies had a huge government backing and were both chartered by the US government as government sponsored enterprises (GSE’s).
The treasury department of the United States of America has been widely criticized for going out of their jurisdiction in the field of spending taxpayer’s money. This authority is preserved for congress only and this is held in the constitution of the United States of America.
The treasury also stands accused of overstepping boundaries that are put in place by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008. The two companies operating as monopolies had more disadvantages than benefits. Scrutiny by Sowell revealed that “the two companies made huge profits because they purchased and invested in mortgages and mortgage based securities with lower capital requirements than other financial institutions and banks” (Sowell, 213).
In 1977, the (C.R.A.) Community Reinvestment Act was passed. The act offers a scaffold for organizations that deal with finances, institutions of the community as well as local and national governments to be able to mutually encourage banking services geared towards the entire people of a society.
The C.R.A. basically ruled out lending of money in biased ways with consideration to factors such as race; this is referred to as “redlining”. The Community Reinvestment Act also gives confidence to efforts to fit the credit requirements of all categories of people in a society. These include inhabitants of modest to lower income areas
The US congress, being in charge of the government regulatory authority largely contributed to worsening of the housing crisis. In the year 2008 alone, the government of the United States of America apportioned well over US $ 800 billion to extraordinary credit as well as salvage that was relation to the housing bubble in the United States of America.
More than half of that money was directed to the quasi- governmental organizations of the Federal Housing Administration as well as the Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Furthermore, the treasury department on December 24, 2009 went ahead and made an unprecedented pronouncement stating that it was going to support Fannie Mae as well as Freddie Mac by giving them unending financial aid for a period of three years from there henceforth.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The housing crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was against a backdrop of their recognition of the fact that they had incurred losses of much more than US $ 400 billion till then. During the large number of house buying, some brokers handed low interest mortgages to parties that were not qualified to handle large debt.
Lenders did not factor customers’ claims of income and promoted adjustable rate mortgages as they promised greater returns than fixed rate mortgages. Currently uninformed house buyers are unable to meet the terms of their respective contracts and are defaulting on their payments. Many Americans have already lost their houses to foreclosure. It is the laxity in government regulation that has greatly affected the mortgage industry.
By signing the 2008 housing and economic recovery act into law after it had been passed by the congress of the United States of America, President G. W. Bush made wider the ability of the institution FHFA to control Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac that had spiraled out of control.
The law also enabled the treasury department of the United States, the clout that would lend finances to the ailing institutions of either Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. This would be bordered by the sole fact of the quantity of liabilities that the federal government as a whole is allowed to obligate to by the law.
The law that was signed on July 30, 2008 by President G. W. Bush, pushed up the maximum of the treasury departments debt by US $ 800 billion, adding up to a whopping grand total of US $ 10.7 trillion. This apparently was in the hope of the latent want for the treasury department to have the elasticity that would enable those help the Federal Home Loan Banks, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac.
In a synopsis, avoiding a repetition of the housing predicament hardly deserves an overhaul of the financial or any other structure. What would work better is an acknowledgement that the key policies on housing in the United States are highly flawed and need to be restructured.
The first step in correcting the situation is to straighten out the United States government policies on housing. Strict requirements may be enforced so as to regulate lending and borrowing activities. Added to that, rules that promote fair, easier and responsible lending practices should be strictly adhered to by the stakeholders. This will be of benefit to both borrowers and lenders in the economy
Works Cited Clarey, Aaron. Behind the housing crash. South Carolina: Book Surge Publishing, 2011. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The housing crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Randel, Jim. What every homeowner and homebuyer needs to know: The housing crisis. Connecticut: Rand Media Co., 2009. Print.
Sowell, Thomas. The housing boom and bust. New York: Basic Books, 2010. Print.
Why slavery is wrong Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Frederick Douglass condemns the act slavery. This is revealed from his arguments and examples he has given that condemn this act.
In his work, Douglass recounts the manner in which slaves were prevented from getting knowledge by their masters in order to keep them ignorant. When Douglass wrote his work, slavery was seen as a normal thing in the society that could not be eliminated. Black people were perceived to be incapable of participating in economic and civil rights activism and thus should be held to work for white people.
Douglass narrates ways through which the whites strategize to keep black people in a state of slavery from birth time and throughout their life time. They do it by not telling them their place of birth and hiding them from their parents. When slave children are growing, they are denied education because they know they would be empowered to live on their own. Slaveholders deny slaves the art of writing and reading so that their story would never be told. According to Douglass, this is an inhuman act.
Despite the fact that slaves are held hostage and deprived of the opportunity to get an education, they should use all means to get knowledge as a means to be liberated. From Douglass story, “he gets to know that the only means to freedom is through education when Hugh Auld warns his wife not to teach slaves because it would ruin them.”
When Douglass heard this story, he got the idea of how whites manage to keep blacks in a state of ignorance so that they cannot come out of their captivity. Douglass sets an example of self education when he learns to read and write using his personal means.
Thereby, freeing himself from slavery and using it to fight for the rights of fellow slaves. According to the book, “Douglass got freedom as a result of self education, but he does not guarantee that education itself gives freedom in itself.” It is a means through which slaves can understand injustice done to them and their colleagues; they get to know that they are equal to their masters in all ways.
In the context of the book, Hugh Auld foresees that this awareness brings suffering and a sense of guilt among slaves. Once slaves are aware of injustices done to them by their masters they live with pain and if they try to escape, their lives will be in danger. This reveals how damaging slavery is to the slaves if they are made aware of their rights.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In his book, Douglass reveals how damaging slavery can be to the slaves themselves and their masters. He wrote that, “The moral health of slaveholders is in question when they assert their authority and power on slaves.” Douglass revolves around this theme and depicts it as unnatural act of humanity.
He describes some characteristics of slave masters in order to reveal the negative impacts of slavery. He writes that, several slaveholders have been tempted to commit adultery, rape and even bore children with slaves. These behavior patterns such as adultery threaten to split families of slave masters.
According to Douglass, some men who bore children are forced to intimidate their own children by selling them or punishing them while their wives become nasty. An example is given of Thomas Auld who develops distorted religious ideologies so that he can forget the sins he has committed. As a result of slave holding, Sophia Auld is transformed from a perfect woman to an evil lady. Hence, Douglass argues that slavery should be abolished for the good of all people.
In his narration, Douglass brings out a characteristic of correct and false Christianity. His distinction is that true Christianity is the “Christianity of Jesus” while false Christianity practiced by slaveholders is the “Christianity of this land.” He continues to say that Christianity practiced by slaveholders does not show their goodness but a sign of hypocrisy to hide their brutality.
In summary, Douglass tries to convince his audience that slavery is wrong as seen from his arguments against slavery, and examples he has given. He has proven that it is wrong to enslave others because it is inhuman and against Christian ideals.
The Effects of Intellectual Revolution in US Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Ignorance or New Literacy
Introduction Ever since the agrarian, industrial and scientific revolution, the world has been experiencing a lot of changes that have affected the lifestyles, cultures and beliefs of every society in the world. It is due to these changes that people started to fight for human rights, democracy, equality and so on.
Ever since its early days of establishment, USA has been known to be a nation that contains intellectual and rational individuals. These individuals conatin the knowledge and skills required to make a great nation. As a result, the nation has been renowned for its excellence. The main basis of this excellence has been the sustainable education system of the country coupled with favourable social structures that aimed at developing the cognitive capacity of individuals to a great level.
However, with the rapid advancement in technology that has been experienced in the last few decades, the level of rationalism and intellectuality of the people of the United States has become questionable. Is the country losing its intellectual and rational ways? This is the question that many people keep on asking themselves.
Some believe that the citizens of the country have become ignorant while others believe that the country is in the middle of a literacy revolution. These claims have come about due to the changes that are being experienced in the print and visual media. Initially, people used to utilize a lot of print materials. Students used to read poems, books, novels, journals and so on within and outside the class.
This trend has however changed and now individuals are doing more of watching than reading. At the same time, the internet, especially the social media has changed the manner in which individuals interact, think and write. Due to this fact, a study should be conducted to determine the effects of this advancement of the intellectual capacity of the nation. This essay therefore explores the effects of these developments on the intellectual and rationality capacity of individuals of the United States.
Ignorance or New Literacy Severalarguments have been raised pertaining to whether Americans are becoming ignorant to literacy or they are undergoing a great revolution. Several scholars have come up with their theories and opinions pertaining the issue. In her book, The Age of American Unreason, Susan Jocoby states that Americans have changed the manner in which they think and perceive things (Jacoby 1).
According to her, much of the problems that the nation is facing have been due to the ignorance that has risen from the public. This ignorance has come about due to the changes in that the society is experiencing. There has been a rapid decline in the use of print media by the public for the last three or so decades (Jacoby 5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People are not reading as much as they used to back in the day. Instead, the spend much of their time watching television, playing video games and surfing the internet. The number of 17 year olds who read nothing other than their course material has doubled between 1984 and 2004 (Jacoby 6). Due to this fact therefore, these individuals do not have the relevant knowledge and skills that are required to build and sustain a great nation. Susan therefore blames technology for the problems that the nation is currently facing.
On the other hand, Thompson and McKean believe that the nation is undergoing an intellectual revolution. According to them, the intensity of this change is so great that it will result to the creation of more rational and intellectual individuals that the nation had never had before. All this can be attributed to the introduction of new technology. Through the use of the internet and social media, individuals have had the chance to read and write about a lot of issues (Thompson 3).
This has in turn developed them into great writers. At the same time, social media and networks such as tweeter and facebook has given them a chance to easily associate and socialize with one another. This has made it easier for them to share information and ideas. These changes have thus made them understand life in a better perspective by being able to define the problem and come up with solutions (McKean 5).
Personally, I tend to believe that technology has increased the thinking capacity of individuals. It has enable people to view issues from a different perspective. At the same time, the flow of information and ideas is much easier. People are now exposed to a lot of things than before.
This has made them to be more intellectual and rational individuals. The state should therefore put much emphasis on the use of technology. A lot of studies and research should therefore be conducted to ensure that technology is used in a way that will bring about positive change to the people of the United States.
Conclusion An intellectual revolution is going on in the United States. This change aims at producing rational individuals who are more learned and ready to face the challenges of life. This change has resulted to a decline in the utilization of print media and an increase in the use of visual media. The nation is therefore not suffering from any intellectual problem.
Works Cited Jacoby, Susan. How Dumb can we Get? Incurable-Insomniatic. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on The Effects of Intellectual Revolution in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More McKean, Erin. Redefining Definitions. NYTimes.com. Web.
Thompson, Clive. The New Literacy. Wired Magazine. Web.