Executive Summary The waste assessment was conducted to identify the waste generating processes and how to minimize waste at Nowra Chemical Manufacturers. The assessment indicates that wastes are mainly generated during the production of various chemicals. Specifically, wastewater is produced in the process of cleaning the manufacturing facilities. The wastewater is collected in a single waste tank where the chemicals in it mix to form solid waste (sludge).
Thus, the main waste minimization opportunity is to eliminate the formation of sludge. This can be achieved by installing at least three different waste tanks to collect wastewater. Wastewater that contains a specific chemical will be collected in a particular tank to prevent sludge formation. This strategy will enable the company to reduce the cost of waste management significantly.
Description of the Facility Nowra Chemical Manufacturers (NCM) is a medium sized producer of various chemical products in Australia. The company has employed 45 people who are specialized in various disciplines such as chemical engineering. The company produces “over 200 specialty chemicals, which include various detergents, cleaning products, and disinfectants” (NCM 2014). These products are manufactured in the company’s production facility that covers 5 acres of land.
The company’s production site is located in Nowra, New South Wales. The site has three sections, which include the administration block, the storage area, and the factory. The factory area has 24 reactor tanks that are used for various chemical processes (NCM 2014). It also has 38 mixing vessels that are used to blend various chemicals and raw materials. The capacities of the vessels vary from 200 to 20,000 liters. The factory has 20 tanks that are used for bulk storage of raw materials and finished products that are in liquid form.
Currently, the company’s waste management practices focus on reducing discharge of effluent into the ambient environment. In this regard, the company has built bund walls to prevent spillage of wastewater and chemicals. The company also recycles wastes and steam to reduce pollution. Moreover, it strives to reduce the wash down water that it uses to dispose wastes from 50KL to 30 KL per week. These practices cost the company $60,000 annually (NCM 2014).
Rationale for Waste Assessment The reasons for conducting the waste assessment include the following. First, it will help the company to comply with the regulations in its industry. The government of Australia requires all manufacturers to submit annual reports on the amount of wastes that they discharge into the environment (Chauhan 2008, p. 57).
Manufacturers are also required to report on the actions that they have taken to reduce pollution. Second, the assessment will enable the company to achieve its desire to reduce wastes. The assessment has identified the areas that require improvement in terms of reduction in waste production. It has also recommended strategies for reducing the wastes. Third, implementation of the recommended waste reduction measures will enable the company to reduce its operating costs.
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Site visits were conducted in order to collect the data that was required for the assessment. The first visit focused on collection of firsthand information concerning the operations at the manufacturing site.
Specifically, the aim of the visit was to identify the sources of the wastes, the disposal routes, waste generation rates, and the composition of the wastes. Subsequent visits were conducted in order to review the company’s waste management system. The main objective of the subsequent visits was to identify opportunities for waste minimization and safe disposal of wastes.
The data used for the assessment was collected through the following strategies. First, interviews were conducted during the site visits to collect information concerning the waste generation processes. The interviewees included the company’s technical manager, production engineer, and the general manager. Second, observations were made during the site visits to identify the waste disposal routes and the composition of the wastes generated by the company.
Finally, data was collected by reviewing relevant documents such as the company’s environmental sustainability reports, financial statements, and strategic plans for waste management. These documents provided important information such as the amount of waste generated per year, the cost of disposing the wastes, and the strategies being used by the company to minimize waste.
Waste Generating Processes
The company’s wastes mainly consist of solid and liquid materials. Sludge is the main solid waste produced by the company. The liquid waste mainly consists of used water and toxic liquid chemicals. The liquid waste is often treated before being discharged into the ambient environment. This helps in reducing the environmental effects of various toxicants in the liquid wastes (Kumar 2007, p. 78).
NCM produces a large number of chemicals on a regular basis to meet the needs of its customers. As a result, it uses a wash down approach to clean vital facilities such as reactors and mixing vessels after every operation. This process generates large volumes of wastewater that is contaminated with various chemicals (NCM 2014).
The wastewater and toxic liquid chemicals are collected in a waste tank where they are treated before being discharged into the environment. However, mixing the liquid wastes in the tank leads to formation of large quantities of solid wastes in the form of sludge. Overall, the company produces 25 tons of solid waste (sludge) and 2,400 KL of wastewater annually (NCM 2014).
We will write a custom Case Study on Sustainability and Waste Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The disposal route begins at the waste tank where the liquid wastes are collected. The sludge produced in this tank is transferred to another tank where it is diluted and discharged into the company’s sewer. The sludge that remains in the tank is shoveled into filter bags to separate water from any solid wastes (NCM 2014). The sludge is then disposed in landfills that have been hired by the company.
The cost of disposing the wastes is very high due to the inefficiencies in the company’s waste management system (Australian Government 2008). In particular, the waste management system is labor intensive since most of the processes such as shoveling sludge is done manual. Additionally, the solid wastes have to be transported by trucks to landfills where they are disposed. Overall, the company spends approximately $60,000 annually to dispose its wastes.
Results from the Waste Assessment Solid Wastes Analysis
Sludge formation in the company’s waste stream is mainly caused by 41 chemical products that are regularly produced (NCM 2014). The 41 chemicals are categorized into three groups namely, anions, nonions, and others (disinfectants, emulsions, and oils). These chemicals react differently when mixed in wastewater as shown in table 1.
Chemicals in wastewater Results Anions mixed with anions No sludge is produced Nonions mixed with nonions No sludge is produced Disinfectants, emulsions, and oils mixed together Sludge is produced Nonions mixed with anions Sludge is produced Anions mixed with disinfectants, emulsions, and oils Sludge is produced Nonions mixed with disinfectants, emulsions, and oils Sludge is produced The production rate of each of the three categories of chemicals that produce sludge is summarized in table 2.
Chemical category Tons per year Anions 696 Nonions 571 Disinfectants, emulsions, and oils 433 Total 1,700 Waste Management Costs
Table 3 presents a detailed analysis of the cost of managing the company’s solid and liquid wastes.
Item Cost per unit in $ Cost per year in $ Water intake 0.30 per KL 3,487 Effluent Regular wastewater 0.04 per KL 461 BOD wastewater 0.70 per KL 2,822 Suspended solids 0.55 per KL 2,028 Labor 40 per hour 31,200 Equipment operation 876 Warehousing/ storage 8,250 Transportation (sludge) 75.30 per ton 1,920 Neutralizers 8,400 Figure 1: comparison of waste management cost items
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sustainability and Waste Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 2: Six-year waste management costs
Analyses of Results Waste Generation
Table 1 indicates that solid waste (sludge) is generated when wastewater that contains different categories of chemicals mix. In addition, sludge is produced when wastewater that contains disinfectants, emulsions, and oils mix.
Table 2 shows that anions form the largest share (40.94%) of the chemicals that cause sludge formation. Thus, much of the sludge formation can be attributed to wastewater that contains anions. The data presented in table 1 and 2 means that generation of solid waste can be reduced if the company avoids mixing wastewater that contains different chemicals.
Table 3 and figure 1 indicate that labor is the major cost item in the company’s waste management budget. This is attributed to the fact that the waste management system is labor intensive. Figure 2, shows that the waste management costs have been increasing in the last six years. Thus, the company has to minimize its wastes in order to reduce its operating costs.
Waste Minimization Opportunities
The alternatives that the company can adopt to minimize waste include reduction of wastewater and solid wastes. Reduction of wastewater is likely to reduce the costs associated with treating wastes and discharging them into the ambient environment (Anand 2010, p. 89).
However, achieving significant wastewater reduction will be difficult since future increase in production will lead to increased water intake. However, the company can achieve significant reduction in solid waste generation if it integrates clean production principles in its operations (Berkel 2000).
In particular, the formation of sludge can be eliminated if the wastewater is discharged according to the chemicals that it contains. This means that the wastewater that contains each chemical will be discharged in a separate tank, thereby eliminating the formation of sludge (solid waste).
Cost Benefit Analysis
The costs associated with implementing clean production principles in order to reduce solid wastes include the following. First, the company will incur the costs associated with modifying its waste disposal system in order to prevent wastewater with different chemicals from mixing. Second, the company will incur the costs associated with conducting chemical mixing trails in order to identify more chemicals that are likely to form sludge when mixed.
Finally, the company will have to train its employees on how to implement the new waste disposal system. In this case, the company will have to pay for the training if it is outsourced.
The benefits of implementing the new waste disposal system include the following. First, the volume of solid waste (sludge) will reduce considerably. As a result, the cost of disposing wastes will reduce significantly. Second, the company will not be required to change its production system by eliminating some products or using alternative raw materials (Australian Government 2008).
Thus, the company will improve its competitiveness by reducing its waste management costs without changing its product range. Third, reducing sludge formation will reduce labor costs significantly. Labor costs will reduce because disposal of sludge is labor intensive. Finally, the storage space that is currently being used to store large filter bags that are used in the solid waste disposal system will be available for storing other items.
The new waste management system will enable the company to realize cost reductions as shown in table 4. Cost reduction will be achieved in water intake, labor, warehousing, and transportation.
Item Current cost per year in $ Expected cost per year in $ Savings per year in $ Water intake 3,487 3,200 287 Effluent Regular wastewater 461 461 0 BOD wastewater 2,822 2,822 0 Suspended solids 2,028 2,028 0 Labor 31,200 10,400 20,800 Equipment operation 876 1,000 -124 Warehousing/ storage 8,250 2,750 5,500 Transportation (sludge) 1,920 640 1,280 Neutralizers 8,400 8,500 -100 Total 59,444 31,801 27,643 Recommendations for Waste Minimization Objectives
The aims of future waste minimization include the following. The first objective is to reduce the volume of solid waste (sludge) by 60% in the next two years. The second objective is to reduce the volume of wastewater from 2,400KL to 1,200 KL (50%) in the next two years. The final objective is to train all the five employees who are working in the technical department on the new waste management system.
The waste minimization strategy is to prevent sludge formation at the disposal point. In this regard, the waste disposal system will be modified by installing different waste tanks to collect wastewater that contains each of the major chemicals that produce sludge. The reduction in sludge formation will lead to reduction of wastewater since little water will be required to dilute solid wastes at the treatment plant (Berkel 2000).
Implementing the Recommendations
The first stage should focus on conducting chemical mixing trials to identify all the chemicals that are likely to form sludge when mixed. This will enable the company to determine the number of waste tanks that it should install to dispose wastewater that contains various types of chemicals.
The second stage should focus on training the employees on the new waste management system. The training should focus on improving environmental conservation awareness among the employees, cleaning procedures, installing waste disposal facilities, and effluent management.
In the last stage, the company should modify the effluent stream by installing at least three waste tanks to collect wastewater that contains each of the three types of chemicals that have already been identified as major causes of sludge formation. Each tank should have a unique color to prevent confusion during disposal of wastewater.
Timeframe for the Implementation
Activity to be implemented Time Chemical mixing trials 3 months Training employees 8 months Modifying the effluent stream 12 months References Anand, S 2010, Solid Waste Management, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Australian Government 2008, Cleaner Production Demonstration Project at Nowra Chemical Manufacturers,. Web.
Berkel, R 2000, Cleaner Production for Process Industries. Web.
Chauhan, B 2008, Environmental Studies, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Kumar, A 2007, Environmental Studies, John Wiley and Sons, New Delhi.
NCM 2014, About Us: Sustainability. Web.
The Dilemma of Recognition over Redistribution Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
When following up on the issues of equality in a multicultural society, there is a common dilemma concerning whether to prefer recognition or redistribution. The dilemma involves both policy makers and culturally diverse groups. It is not clear whether different cultural groups only prefer to be ‘compensated’ for their earlier misrepresentation, mistreatment, and misrecognition. Siapera, a social theorist, defines recognition as the practice of being familiar with the unique aspects of a certain cultural group.
On the other hand, Siapera associates redistribution with issues such as gender equality and equal wealth distribution. There are other sociologists who have contributed their views to the debate involving recognition versus redistribution. Nancy Fraser is of the view that recognition and redistribution are two separate issues and they should not be merged.
Another sociologist by the name of Alex Honneth argues that by giving diverse cultural groups recognition, their redistribution issues are consequently solved. Groups that advocate for gender equality and recognition of ethnic minority groups are examples of how the dilemma of recognition over redistribution manifests itself.
The dilemma of recognition versus redistribution is manifested in everyday social life. Since the dawn of civil rights movements, several stakeholders have expressed different points of views when providing a solution to inequality.
While some activists have clearly favored recognition, others prefer redistribution as the solution to inequality. This dilemma has found its way into modern day politics. An example of how this dilemma has been manifested in recent times is in the debate surrounding the incorporation of Ebonics in the American school system.
Ebonics is an African-American dialect of the English language. Incorporation of Ebonics into the American school system amounts to recognition of the uniqueness of African-American culture. However, most people including some African American activists were against this decision and instead preferred redistribution of educational resources.
Research Conducted by Weber and Tarba Report online essay help
Introduction The research paper selected and why it was selected
The research paper selected for review is Mergers and acquisitions process: the use of corporate culture analyses by Yaakov Weber and Shlomo Tarba. The paper was selected as it discusses cultural integration challenges encountered by organisations seeking to come together to form mergers or acquisitions.
Based on the rationale that the research by Weber and Tarba (2012) presents, the paper is selected for review. The research paper builds on the current research findings on the importance of creation of organisational cultural harmony in mergers and acquisitions.
Structure of report
The paper begins by discussion of the purpose, rationale, and related literature followed by the methodology adopted by the authors. The research findings are then presented before giving the conclusive remarks.
Summary of purpose, rationale, and related literature Purpose
Mergers and acquisitions have a problem of organisational cultural integration. For instance, when the merger between Westpac Corporation and St. George Bank was formed, issues of fear of retrenchments, cultural differences, and survival syndromes emerged.
Considering this example, it is important to develop both theoretical and practical approaches for resolution of these challenges in organisational management literature. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which Weber and Tarba (2012) fully discuss the challenges of acquisitions and mergers in terms of organisational culture integration and how the proposed solutions measure up to the indentified challenges.
When a merger or acquisition occurs between two organisations, tensions emerge between the different entities due to differing organisational cultures. Employees are the most affected elements of an organisation in the event of a merger. This assertion holds for employees are the active components of an organisation that are directly subject to established organisational cultures.
Human resources play the function of helping in the management of the challenges occurring from differing organisational cultures of the organisations coming together to form a merger.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, amidst this effort, cultural integration challenges are inevitable. For this reason, it is important to determine both the challenges and solutions to integration of organisational cultures affecting organisations coming together to form a merger or acquisition. This observation underlines the relevance and rationale for reviewing the selected research paper.
Clarity of the research question
In both qualitative and quantitative research, research questions form the basis for communicating the intentions of conducting a specific research. Scientific research contains research question(s) preceding conceptual frameworks since the review of existing research should correspond to the intention of conducting a given research. The clarity of a research question is gauged based on two main important aspects.
The ability to specify the type of research being undertaken constitutes the first aspects, while the second aspect encompasses the capacity to identify particular research objectives. The objective of the Weber and Tarba’s (2012, p.288) research is specified in the purpose statement as ‘advancing cross-cultural management during mergers and acquisitions’. However, the authors only state the purpose of research and then proceed to examine their conceptual framework without providing clear research questions.
A review of literature on the findings on cross-cultural differences in post-mergers or acquisitions over the last twenty years from the time of the research reveals mixed findings.
Relying on the theoretical and empirical research findings on impacts of cross-cultural differences in mergers and acquisitions, Weber and Tarba (2012, p. 288) argue that the findings reflect ‘contradictory and perplexing findings’. From one perspective, the research confirms that impacts of cultural differences between organisations forming mergers or acquisitions produce negative implications in terms of their performance.
However, by quoting the work of different scholars, Weber and Tarba (2012) argue that some literature on effects of cross-cultural differences in mergers and acquisitions may also have positive impacts apart from negative effects to the success of mergers and acquisitions. These findings pose the question on whether to propagate and encourage cross-cultural differences in organisations in the post-merger state.
Weber and Tarba (2012) argue that most executives and managers involved in planning and subsequent execution of mergers only appreciate the roles of cross-cultural differences in affecting the success of a merger or acquisition in the post-merger or acquisition stage.
We will write a custom Report on Research Conducted by Weber and Tarba specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This assertion is based on in depth search and review of literature on how cross-cultural differences are handled in all stages of formation of mergers and acquisitions. For instance, the authors argue that the involved parties ignore or mishandle cultural differences during the decision-making process.
The authors attribute the above challenges to excessive focusing of scholarly literature on cultural differences in the post-merger state while ignoring its impacts on planning and negotiation phases. They also argue that concepts of culture are not clear to executives; hence, the assessment and implementation phases become problematic.
Therefore, in the conceptual framework, the authors examine literature that builds on the importance and how culture measurement and assessments are accomplished after defining organisational culture in the context of mergers and acquisitions and discussing the various perspectives of culture in an organisation.
Research methodology and design Description and evaluation of methodology
This research did not deploy primary data collection methods. Consequently, there is no specific research site or context. However, the case studies deployed coupled with empirical and theoretical literature is confined to studies of successful and failed mergers and acquisitions.
Methods of data collection
The maim method of data collection used was conducting scrutiny of secondary data drawn from empirical and theoretical research on the processes of mergers and acquisitions formation. The main concern was particularly on studies incorporating perspectives of cross-cultural culture and its impacts on the success and failure of mergers.
Case studies were incorporated to avail data on practical scenarios on the implication of cultural differences on success of mergers and acquisitions. The evaluation of the appropriateness of the chosen research methodology depends on various considerations for quality qualitative research.
The methodology for qualitative research deployed in a research should have some specific characteristics. According to Yardley (2000, p.216), such characteristics include ‘credibility, reliability, use of rigorous methods and verification, validity, clarity, and coherence in reporting’ among others. According to Cohen and Crabtree (2008, p.333), scholars largely contend that ‘qualitative research should be ethical, be important, and be clearly and coherently articulated and use appropriate and rigorous methods’.
In the light of the identified qualities of good research methodology, validity is a striking trait vital for consideration in studies using case studies as the main research methodology. Validity can both be internal and external. Yardley (2000, p. 220) defines validity as the ‘best approximation to the truth or falsity of proportions’. External validity implies the degree of truth of various claims raised in the research and the existing variables.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Research Conducted by Weber and Tarba by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, Cohen and Crabtree (2008, p.333) posit that external validity implies the ‘extent to which one can generalise findings’. The method utilised in a qualitative research should aid the researchers to attain optimal levels of validity for their research for their work to add significant knowledge to the body of knowledge they seek to amplify. Case studies are important in this extent since they provide means for challenging various theoretical constructs and assumptions.
Methods of data analysis
Analysis involves examination of secondary data derived from literature on the formation of mergers and acquisitions to extract information on the extents of consideration of aspects of cross-cultural differences at various phases of mergers or acquisitions formation. Through this examination, gaps in the incorporation of cultural differences in processes of merger and acquisitions formation are identified.
The research paper by Weber and Tarba does not indentify its sample size. It does not also indentify the number of empirical theoretical studies or even case studies reviewed. The selection criteria of the different researches used in their review are also not indentified.
Research requires consideration of ethical issues in its design. In research, design, ethics implies compliance to acceptable research standards. Ethics in research is taken care of by conducting a research in a respectful, honest, and humane manner, which is engulfed within the values of collaboration, service, and empathy.
In the context of research by Yaakov Weber and Shlomo Tarba, validity, as an essential ethical issue, is well addressed. Case studies aid in the establishment of a practical framework for operation of suggested theoretical principles, which enhances the validity of the research. Ethics of research are observed by enhancing originality and provision of valuable research findings.
Adoption of research design in the future
Weber and Tarba’s research observes validity as an essential outcome of qualitative research deploying case studies and other forms of secondary data. The research offers possible insights and solutions to the challenges of corporate culture coupled with its implications in the pre-merger or acquisitions, the negotiation stage and the post-merger or acquisition stage.
The solutions offered are consistent with the identified gaps (lack of consideration of corporate culture in the planning and negotiation phases in formation of a merger or an acquisition). This implies that the research methodology is adoptable in other similar research study in the future.
Main findings and implications Outline of the main findings
One of the chief findings of the research paper by Weber and Tarba (2012) is that the management teams and executives in charge of planning for mergers and acquisitions do not consider perspectives of cross-culture in the planning and negotiation phases of mergers or acquisitions’ formation. In addition, they do not have adequate knowledge on different organisational cultures; hence, evaluation and assessment of the implications on mergers and acquisitions become problematic.
The research notes that measurement of various organisational cultural differences is important at three stages. The authors report that at the planning phase, evaluation, and assessment of cross-cultural differences are the three important phases in a bid to increase the profitability of organisations.
Profitability increases since the identification of challenges anticipated in a merger or acquisition is possible on measurement of cross-cultural differences in organisations coming together to form a merger or acquisition. On identifications of cultural differences and upon their measurement, the authors argue that cash flow expectation can be determined and the impacts of the differences on the EPS and stock prices evaluated.
The research also notes that incorporation of perspectives of cross-cultural differences at the phase of mergers and acquisitions formation is important at the negotiations phase. Assessment and measurement of cross-cultural differences at this phase is crucial for various reasons as it aids in preparing for negotiations.
These preparations include provision of a mechanism of enabling organisations to understand communication challenges due to differing organisational culture, identification and drawing of red lines and strategies to handle cultural differences expected, and establishing a mechanism of determining the costs for the formation of mergers and acquisitions.
At the stage of negotiations, assessment and measuring of cross-cultural differences is of great importance in the effort to set up payment structures in relation to hardships for enhancing the integration process. Identification of challenges expected in mergers and acquisitions helps in the attainment of the negotiations’ objectives.
At the stage of contract signing, assessment and measurement of cross-cultural differences aids in the acceptance of appropriate prices while considering risks of cultural differences coupled with challenges of a merger and acquisition implementation. It also helps in determining the required levels of cooperation coupled with determining the requisite plan for implementation.
The third finding is on the importance of assessment and measurement of cross-cultural differences the in the integration process for organisations forming mergers or acquisitions. Through the measurement and assessment of cross-cultural differences, organisations are in a position to establish the correct approach of integration, determine the appropriate units for integration within organisations in the context of desired common culture.
The findings have the implication of calling for deployment of cross-cultural differences measurement in the planning, negotiation, and post-merger or acquisition phases, screening, and then classification of the potential candidates to engage in a merger or acquisition. This way, it becomes possible to avoid failures of mergers and acquisitions due to cross-cultural differences.
The findings also imply that mergers abort due to the failure to include the perspective of cross-cultural difference in the planning and negotiation phases of merger and acquisition formation. Hence, by understanding the various cultural differences amongst potential candidates for forming an acquisition or merger with, communication strategies for successful recruitment coupled with training can be developed in line with the prevailing organisational cultural differences.
The researchers provided important insights on how to evade failure of mergers and acquisitions due to the cross-cultural difference in the involved organisations. The study was based on case studies of experienced failures on mergers and acquisitions deals to consider the aspect of cross-cultural differences in all phases of forming acquisitions and mergers.
However, the researchers did not infer from their findings to explain how such information could be applied through the application-specific findings on avoiding failure of mergers or acquisitions applicable to each case.
Conclusion Highlighting key points
In the research conducted by Weber and Tarba using the evaluation of both theoretical and empirical studies on effects of cross-cultural differences in formation of mergers and acquisitions, the authors conclude that the perspectives should be considered in the planning, negotiation, and post-merger or acquisition phases. The findings of their research indicate that the incorporation of these perspectives may aid in reduction of failure rates of mergers and acquisitions.
Suitability of the research design
Although case studies are deployed to evaluate the role of cross-cultural differences in the success of mergers and acquisitions, this research design has the limitation of failing to infer back to the case studies to establish appropriate course of action that could have avoided failure of specific mergers and acquisitions discussed in the case studies. However, the findings are important for consideration in the future mergers involving organisations with differing cross-cultures.
Reference List Cohen, D.
Fostering a Lean Six Sigma Culture Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free
Abstract This paper evaluates the implementation of the lean six-sigma culture in DHL, which operates in the logistics industry. The paper illustrates the company’s history and growth since its inception in a bid to provide the background information on the firm’s operations and success.
The critical event that motivated the firm to integrate the lean six-sigma culture in its organizational culture is identified. Moreover, the paper identifies the problems facing the firm and the decisions taken in order to resolve the issues by evaluating the current state and the future state.
The effects of adopting lean six-sigma on the firm’s organizational culture and corporate governance are identified. Furthermore, the paper outlines the lean methodology adopted and the process of implementing the lean six-sigma culture in the organization.
Company history and growth DHL is a private limited company that was founded in 1969 in Bonn, Germany. The firm operates in the Express Logistics industry and it deals with the provision of logistics and communication services. Initially, the firm operated in Europe, the Asia Pacific, and the Americas. However, the company has entered and developed market recognition in other markets over the past few decades.
The firm has four main divisions, which include global forwarding, supply chain, mail express, and freight. The mail division’s operations entail press distribution, philately, franking, delivery of written communications, cross-border parcel and mail delivery, mailroom and printing, mail advertisement, document management, and home delivery.
The express division provides “express services coupled with local and international courier services to individual and corporate customers, while the operations of the global forwarding and freight divisions entail transportation of goods through air, sea, road, and rail” (DHL, 2014, par. 5).
On the other hand, the supply chain division offers, “diverse logistic solutions such as managed transport, warehousing, supply chain management, and business process outsourcing” (DHL, 2014, par. 6). Moreover, the firm also offers end-to-end solutions with regard to corporate communications. The firm also offers marketing services such as packaging, customer correspondence solutions, and lead logistic services amongst other services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since its inception, the firm has undergone remarkable growth emanating from integration of effective corporate, business, functional, and enterprise level strategies. The firm has been committed towards exploiting the prevailing market demand in an effort to achieve its profit maximization objectives. The company operates in over 252 countries (DHL, 2014).
The firm has effectively defined its business operations in addition to integrating the concept of strategic partnership in an effort to penetrate the global market. In 2013, DHL announced its desire to collaborate with two oil and energy companies, viz. OEMs and EPC Contractors. This move will further enhance the company’s growth. The firm’s growth has also emanated from its commitment to position itself as the global market leader with regard to provision of logistics.
Critical events that motivated adoption of lean six-sigma Goldsby and Martichenko (2005) define six-sigma as a “management methodology that attempts to understand and eliminate the negative effects of variation in processes” (p.57). On the other hand, the term lean is concerned with elimination of waste and enhancing flow and speed.
In this light, the concept of lean six-sigma is “the process of eliminating waste by integrating disciplined efforts that contribute to the development of comprehensive understanding on how to reduce variation and enhance speed within an organization’s supply chain” (Goldsby
Biblical Worldview Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The Bible is the most trusted Christian reference book in which issues concerning creation, life, death, worldly things, and many other pertinent issues to the human life are found. The book of Genesis has in-depth information concerning the “natural world, human identity, human relationships, and civilization”.
The book begins by underscoring the source of life in terms of the creation of the Earth and the development of human relationships as well as civilization in terms of ruling over the land. Despite the fact that the Bible was penned many years ago when human relationships and civilization had not developed significantly, the lessons learnt from it are of great importance and highly relevant to the modern life.
Biblical worldview By looking into human life from a psychological perspective, it becomes clear that human beings live in accordance with some innate values that are acquired from religion, culture, and society. Hence, Christians live according to their Christian values that are acquired from religious teachings based entirely on the Bible.
This assertion implies that a Christian lives in accordance to biblical teachings since such precepts form the basis of his or her innate human values from which self-judgments are based. Therefore, the Bible shall continue to have a great impact on human life for as long as Christianity exists to determine the level of human identity, relations, civilization, and relationships.
In the book of Genesis from chapter 1 to chapter 11, many lessons emerge concerning the “natural world, human identity, human relationships, and civilization”. On the natural world, the reader learns many issues about the nature concerning its creation, purpose for its creation, and its relevance to life. From Genesis chapter one, God created the natural world where He began by creating heavens and the Earth. On the Earth, He created land mass by pushing the water bodies aside.
From thence, He created the lively world creatures, which depended on the Earth for their survival. After reading the book of Genesis, it becomes apparent that God has power over everything that He created and thus He can destroy everything at will as stated in Genesis chapter 6 verses 7.
However, the purpose of the natural world is to sustain life for plants and animal creatures, and God has power over the natural world since He is the one who controls the natural events, which bring either death or sustainability to human life. For instance, in Genesis 7, God used rain to cause floods on the Earth when He found that people had become iniquitous and thus He had to destroy them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the contemporary life, Christians acknowledge the power of God over the natural world, which they have no control over although some humans, through their knowledge, claim to have control over some natural events, but the in reality, God has the supreme power over life and the natural world.
On human identity, the book of Genesis describes human as a supreme creature, which was created in the likeness of God before receiving power over all other creatures on the Earth. God loves human beings and they have power over every living creature that was created by God.
The original love of God for human beings did not last for long until when Adam and Eve committed a sin by breaking the first law of “not eating the forbidden fruit and they were chased away from the Garden of Eden”. However, God’s love for Adam and Eve did not fail even in their sin, but He gave them more responsibilities and induced death in the package.
The third element is relationships as stipulated in the book of Genesis. Human beings are social beings and after the creation of man and every good thing given to him, God found out that he was unhappy and lonely and thus woman was created. Apparently, man was lonely due to lack of another human being to interact with at the beginning.
Hence, human relationships have their roots in the creation era. However, other dimensions of human relationships are found in the book of Genesis that came about after Adam and Eve had been chased away from the Garden of Eden. From Genesis chapter 4, Adam and Eve bore two sons, viz. Cain and Abel, whose relationship as siblings led to the murder of Abel by Cain courtesy of jealousy.
Jealousy is an element of human relations even in the contemporary life and it has its roots in all aspects of human relations beginning from siblings to workmates, and it is often the root of human evils against each other in the daily life. In addition, human beings had a common language, which unified them until they decided to build the tower at the Babel.
God realized that the common language strengthened human relations and enabled them to do nearly everything that they agreed with ease, and thus He decided to stupefy their language by introducing other languages before scattering them away in different parts of the world as explained in Genesis chapter 11.
We will write a custom Essay on Biblical Worldview specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the modern life, language is the main barrier to major developments in the world, since language determines the place of belonging and human character in the eyes of others. However, the introduction of a common language plays a major role in enhancing human developments in the contemporary life.
Lastly, the history of civilization runs back to the beginning of human life in terms of human relationships and interaction with the Earth. After Adam and Eve were chased from the Garden of Eden and cursed by God, in Genesis chapter 4, they had their first-born son, which marked the beginning of human procreation in the world.
Through the usage of common language and vocabulary across the entire Earth, human beings attained great social developments until God introduced many languages that caused confusion in order to halt their progress. Through civilization, some people acquired the status of rulers such as Noah whom God gave the authority to build an ark before He blessed his family and ordered them to fill the Earth after the deluge.
Conclusion Biblical worldview of Genesis chapter 1 to chapter 11 is an important exercise from which one learns the origin of the natural world, human identity, human relationships, and civilization. From the beginning, the gradual development of human relationships and civilization had close relationship with the natural world, which humans had no control over.
In the contemporary world, human beings have developed vastly through the acquaintance of common languages that God had once broken. However, humans have little control over the natural world. Hence, Christian values remain strong in the contemporary life by acknowledging God to have power over all aspects of life.
Bibliography Griggs, Donald. The Bible from Scratch: The Old Testament for Beginners. Louisville: Presbyterian Publishing Corp, 2002.
Hindson, Ed, and Gary Yates. The Essence of the Old Testament: A Survey. New York: B
The Arab-Israeli Conflict Historical Significance Research Paper writing essay help
The Arab-Israeli conflict is the term to discuss the prolonged tensions between Arabs and Israelis which are based on differences in cultures, visions, values, religions, political paths, political orientations, and territory questions. From this point, the Arab-Israeli conflict can be discussed from the perspective of the conflict’s historic significance and from the perspective of its importance for Arabs and Israelis.
In spite of the fact that the Arab-Israeli conflict has deep historic roots based on a range of political and military tensions, much attention should be paid to the role of cultures, ideologies, and religions in developing and resolving the conflict which divides Arabs and Israelis into two continuously conflicting camps (Landes, 2007, p. 845). That is why, the conflict can be analyzed not only through the historical lens but also from the anthropological perspective.
Thus, the causes of the Arab-Israeli conflict are in the opposition of Zionism followed by Israelis and Nationalistic ideas supported by Arabs; in differences regarding the nations’ mentality; in religious differences referred to Judaism and Islam’s values; in approaches to the culture of honor and shame; and in Israel’s orientation to the West when Arab countries follow the Eastern path of development.
The Historic Background of the Arab-Israeli Conflict To understand the causes of the Arab-Israeli conflict, it is necessary to focus on the historic background or on the roots of the prolonged opposition between Arabs and Israelis. During the late part of the 19th century, the development of Zionism as the focus on the historic connection between the Jews and the lands of Palestine led to the active Arabs’ opposition because of their intentions to discuss the lands of the Jewish people as the Arabs’ historic territories (Ovendale, 2002, p. 20).
Arabs and Israelis supported their declared rights to obtain the lands referring to the histories of both the nations. Following the Hebrew Bible, the Palestinian lands belonged to Israelis. While referring to the Quran, the discussed lands were the Muslims’ ones, as it was mentioned in the scripts (Scham, 2006, p. 60). As a result, Arabs stated their rights to live at the Palestinian territories and intended to oust Israelis from these lands for ever in order to contribute to the Arabs’ unity.
During the early part of the 20th century, several Palestinian riots were developed to expel Israelis for the territories and to state clearly the rights of the Arabs to obtain the Palestinian lands. The riots and revolts developed in the 1920s led to the intensification of the conflict, and the Israeli War of Independence ended with the creation of the modern independent State of Israel (Scham, 2006, p. 61).
This fact provoked the development of the further conflicts and wars. The Arab-Israeli conflict cannot be discussed as resolved even today, as it is found with references to the Gaza War (2008-2009) and Lebanon Wars (Bar-Tal, 2001, p. 620; Goldschmidt
Spotlight on Ford Motor Company fostering a Lean Six-Sigma Culture Case Study essay help free: essay help free
Introduction The history of lean manufacturing philosophy and six-sigma production philosophy began in 1980s. During this time, many organizations were focusing specifically on total quality management (TQM) as a strategy for increasing performance. Organizational performance was then measured in terms of outputs and profitability without necessarily focusing on the inputs or processes.
The Toyota Company first adopted the lean manufacturing philosophy with the goal of minimizing wastes. On the other end, the Motorola Company focused on costs that were associated with variation of products, thus leading to rejection of many finished products when subjected to quality testing. To resolve these challenges, Motorola incorporated the six-sigma philosophy.
The benefits accruing from the two production philosophies were integrated to form the lean six-sigma production philosophy that was adopted by organizations such as Ford, Allied Signal, Honeywell, and GE among others. This paper discusses the case of Ford in an effort to demonstrate how the company fostered the lean six-sigma culture as a tool for improving performance through elimination of costs of variations (six sigma) and wastes (lean manufacturing).
Company’s History and Growth Ford Motor Company or simply Ford is an American multinational organization, which was established in 1903. Its main offices are based in Dearborn in Michigan. It manufactures and sells various types of vehicles under the Ford brand name. Luxurious automobiles are sold under the Lincoln brand name.
In addition, it owns Troller, FPV, and SUV. The latter is based in Brazil. The company also engages in the production of tractors. It has stakes in various other automobiles that manufacture organizations such as Mazda (Japan), Aston (the UK), and Jianglin (China).
In its manufacturing plants, Ford established flow and large-scale systems of manufacturing. It also embraced large-scale techniques of management of workforce through an elaborated sequential manufacturing system that was characterized by mobile assembly lines.
By 1914, this approach became a common practice that was adopted by many industries (Karel, Haslam
Reframing Competency in Management Development Essay essay help
Table of Contents Summary of the article
Critique of the article
Summary of the article The business world has been attracted by the competency framework in various ways. This is happening at a time when the right calibers of employees are urgently needed by organizations so that they can devise ideas in form of innovations and inventions.
Most organizations are in need of individuals who have the best management practices even in the subordinate positions. As a matter of fact, business organizations have always struggled to obtain the right crop of people who can be effective managers in various positions.
On the other hand, the rate of change in organizational management is so rapid that the demand to attain the required objectives is sometimes bypassed. According to the authors of this article, business organizations are always facing impacts associated with continuous transformations (Antonacopoulou and Louise 27). Therefore, it is the responsibility of business managers to come up with innovative solutions towards the increasing challenges.
It is against this growing challenge that competency framework has been put in place in order to address the current management issues. The enthusiastic application of this framework has provided some solution in spite of the fact that the implications may have diverse effects.
Hence, there is need to undertake a critical evaluation of this framework. The appraisal will assist in assessing the viability of the management development processes in organizations. The authors have also offered an extensive discussion of the impacts of current research activities. It is imperative to mention that the targeted audiences for this article are business managers who desire to remain relevant in the fast-changing business world.
Critique of the article To begin with, the arguments presented by Antonacopoulou and Louise on the competency framework are logical (27). For example, quite a number of organizations have resorted “to seek quick fixes to long term problems” (Antonacopoulou and Louise 27) instead of pursuing long term solutions to challenges facing their organizations.
The desire to develop managers, the rising concern on cost reduction measures and the rapid demand for change have compelled business organizations to seek quick alternative measures in order to remain effective in the market. However, such short term solutions are sometimes not effective at all because the root cause of the challenges are obviously not tackled. There are instances when the term competency has been used in the wrong context so that a decent picture of these business organizations can be created.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the outset, the text is well organized, structured and easy to follow. The language used in the text can be easily understood by most readers. The authors take a different perspective when exploring the aspect of competency in business organizations. This enables the audience to remain attentive and also desire to explore the alternative views presented by the authors. Moreover, the article has an abstract section that gives a brief analysis of what has been covered in the rest of the text.
The most important terminology in the whole article is competency. Antonacopoulou and Louise are categorical that each person has unique virtues that contribute towards competency (28). When individuals interact in social settings, these virtues can be recognized quite easily.
The authors note that competency should not be limited to certain skills and knowledge. Better still, the demonstrated behaviors and the anticipated standards of performance are not adequate to define competency. However, emotions, perceptions and attitudes are fundamental in the definition of competency as stated by Antonacopoulou and Louise (27). This is a broad way of exploring the element of competency. The definition is acceptable in understand its precise meaning.
Another critical terminology in the paper is the competency framework. It “examines the epistemological basis of the competency approach” (Antonacopoulou and Louise 27). In other words, a competent manager is always sought by organizations. Therefore, the competency framework provides the best approach for enhancing management development in this dynamic business world.
In order to support their assertions, the authors have used various sources of information. Evidence has been provided from the past research activities through a long list of references. Moreover, the arguments presented by the authors also support the main points in the article. For instance, the competency framework has been applied when searching a competent manager.
As already mentioned, business managers are the main intended audiences for this text. It is obvious that the information contained in the article is relevant and most suitable for this group of individuals. They require such type of information so that they can learn how to become competent as managers.
Besides, the authors have put forward a critique section in the article that explores management development in terms of opposing competency theories. For example, managerial roles can be standardized using the universalism approach or theory. Opposing and supporting views from other authors have also been summarized in the text. These provide a solid ground through which the audience can make their final judgments since the authors are objective throughout the text.
We will write a custom Essay on Reframing Competency in Management Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, there are quite a number of weaknesses that have been spotted in the article. Although there are words and sentences that evoke strong responses while reading through the article, the authors have failed to support such assertions with strong empirical evidence. A case in point is the statement “people are social creatures” (Antonacopoulou and Louise 28).
Another slight drawback in the text is that empirical data has not been included in the analysis. Theoretical evidence of the growing pursuit for competency is necessary in the article. As much as the authors have supplied a lot of analytical information on the subject of competency among managers in organizations, the audience can be convinced a lot when raw data is used in the discussion.
Conclusion Managers who have undergone sufficient capacity building and training are required in the management of modern organizations. This has been adequately emphasized in the body of the critiqued article. In addition, a competent workforce is required so that the goals and objectives of an organization can be attained. From the analysis, it can be seen that the article was properly structured and therefore easy to read and understand. The purpose of the text has also been brought out clearly.
For example, taking risks and being innovative are integral features of competency that should be emulated by managers. It is also interesting to note that the competency-based framework has been backed up by other literature sources. The authors have also managed to remain objective throughout the article. Nonetheless, empirical data has not been integrated as part of the evidence to the claims asserted by the authors. Lack of such data tends to weaken the arguments presented in the article.
Works Cited Antonacopoulou, Elena, and FitzGerald Louise. “Reframing Competency in Management Development.” Human Resource Management Journal 6.1 (1996): 27-29. Print.
The O.J. Verdict Video Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The O.J. Verdict Video shows clearly how Simpson’s murder case was one of the most publicized legal trials in the history of the United States. From a personal perspective, I would state clearly that the trial was a “watershed” in the country’s interpretation of the law. The video shows the nature of United States’ cultural and legal systems.
The case placed the issue of injustice and racism squarely before the people of America. The video shows how the problem of racism continues to affect the country. The O.J. Simpson trial was a clear indication that the American people had never changed their minds about the issue of racism.
After the media started to give the trial much attention, it was evident that the case was going to divide the country along racial lines. From the very start, the whites strongly believed Simpson was guilty while the blacks thought he was innocent. The unfolding events and trials led to different positions and views about the case. Throughout the trial, it was evident that the experiences of the African Americans with the country’s criminal justice system would definitely have a great impact on the direction of the case.
According to the African Americans, O.J. Simpson was yet another victim drawn into the country’s unfair legal system. For very many decades, the country’s criminal justice system has been unfair. Simpson was rich and capable of fighting back. As observed in the video, the whites were certain that O.J. Simpson was guilty and therefore it was necessary to imprison him. However, Simpson had already hired the “right” people to defend him in court.
The counsel of prosecution failed to present enough evidence against the suspect. This is a clear indication that the “abuse strategy” used in the country was not going to work anymore. Fuhrman’s discovery of gloves stained with blood was a major issue. As a result, the people raised new questions over Fuhrman’s acts of racism and incompetence. There were concerns that the prosecutions might have planted the evidence against Simpson.
From the complexity of this case, it would be agreeable that the American justice system has always failed to protect the minority citizens. During the same time, the country’s news outlets continued to cover the trial. The outstanding fact was that the whites strongly believed O.J. Simpson was guilty. On the hand, the African Americans believed that Simpson was innocent.
The video explains how race has been a major factor in the country criminal justice system. Studies have clearly indicated how most of the African Americans encounter numerous challenges such as unfair trials and discrimination. Although the jury dismissed the evidence because it was inadequate, the outstanding fact was that the whites believed there was a “miscarriage of justice” after Simpson earned a “not-guilty” verdict. At the same time, the African Americans celebrated because one of their own did not go to prison.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This video informs the viewer that, no matter how the African Americans ascend or acquire wealth, the outstanding fact is that they will always remain “unfortunate” in the United States. That being the case, the government and relevant authorities should work harder to address the issue of race in the criminal justice system. The O.J. Simpson’s case should therefore be a wake-up call towards ensuring that the law treats every citizen equally.
Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership Explicatory Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Assessment of research design and results
The chapters’ originality and conceptualizations
Introduction Explicit review of this analytical paper resonates within an unlimited time frame. Reflectively, the review will authenticate relevance of the first two chapters of the book which apparently failed to comprehensively capture conceptualized ideas discussed within its periphery of ideal and actualization.
Besides, the critique paper reflects on the methodology strategy and adopted methods. In addition, the critique investigates research designs and conceptualized results which are quantifiable and assess the same in terms of relevance in the present organization structure. The scope in this scenario is to capture influence the power of reframing and simple ideas in complex organizations.
Title critique The title of the two chapters given as “the power of reframing” and “simple ideas, complex organizations” in my opinion, fail to comprehensively reflect on the aspects discussed in the texts. As a matter of fact, the first chapter is silent on segmentation of the different management strategies and the dynamics and unique aspects of the segments of organizations that results in reframing.
The title of the second chapter does not capture focus of this chapter as that pointed towards understanding a quantifiable aspect of environment on social welfare in a place of work (Bolman and Deal, 18).
Content critique As a matter of fact, most of the references used in these chapters are outdated and may not present an accurate literature review on current issues of the topic. Therefore, in my opinion, the authors ought to have used updated recent literature in order to put into account various social and technological dynamics that directly impact organization environment.
The authors are not specific on the timeframe for the alleged causes and measurement indices for an otherwise result. This approach does not comprehensively capture the key theme which is a reflection on the influence of perceived and real environmental factors on the performance of organizations.
Moreover, since the first two chapters dwell on aspects of role congruity, workplace initiative, supervisory roles, and other physical environmental factors, it is unfair to conclude that managers and management systems do not work in complex organizations (Bolman and Deal, 18).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Assessment of research design and results The authors employ simple correlation analysis involving measurement of dependent and independent variables. These variables are space and facilities required in doing the job, relationship with supervisors in the workplace, equity and treatment of workplace, communication systems at work place, and environmental factors at work place.
The simultaneous application and measurement of independent and dependent variable are great and captures true value representation of the target population. In addition, I would recommend the author to use intrusive regression analysis that quantifies the relationship between two variables. When properly used, regression analysis produces quantifiable and realistic results within a minimal error range.
In practicality, the research may assign variable Y to represent the essence of communication systems at work and their relevance to the duties carried out by employees and x being a dependent variable such as intrinsic motivational input from management. The same procedure is used to calculate the results for Y variable when x is an extrinsic part of the motivational aspect.
This calculation is repeated for the number of measurement variables to obtain an accurate relationship and correlation between every pair of quantifiable factors ((Bolman and Deal, 9). Once respective values are obtained, it is easier to mathematically draw intrinsic and extrinsic relationships between dependent and independent variables.
The chapters’ originality and conceptualizations The most essential part of a properly written research paper should reflect on conceptualization and maintain originality. This research paper doesn’t provide a clear link between one variable to another and is majorly based on assumptions.
Besides, the analysis presented may not present a complete reflection of the actual situation in different work environments. Due to the special nature of the interest group, every work environment is unique. Therefore, results obtained in this analysis may be biased and void of actual situation in the work environment.
Different work environments require different motivational factors. For instance, technical work environment is inclined towards following strict safety rules. On the other hand, social work environment is flexible to different conditions. In order to build an ideal work environment, organization structuring should be inclined towards inclusion of managerial perspective since this organ monitors progress of the working group (Bolman and Deal, 19).
We will write a custom Essay on Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Specifically, a good working environment should be flexible, relevant, and comfortable within set measurement standards that support intrinsic and extrinsic relationship environment has on the performance of employees. However, these measures should be specific to a work environment, skills of employees, and goals of an organization. Besides, it is important to consider the size of an organization and the nature of its duties.
Conclusion Conclusively, the first two chapters of the book Reframing Organizations capture various issues of environmental impact on the performance of employees and managers in organizations.
However, it is not specific on a time frame. Besides, the two chapters are silent on unique aspects of environmental influence on performance in place of work. However, the authors have succeeded in separating different elements that make organizations different, despite applying same management strategies. The situation is even complex in highly stratified organizations.
Works Cited Bolman, Lee and T. Deal. Reframing organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership, New York, NY: Allyn and Bacon, 1994.
Concept of the Ethical Judgments in the Field of Arts and Natural Science Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help
Ethics has been one of the most important aspects of the societal fabric that holds it together and strives to promote peaceful coexistence. It helps define one’s actions on the basis of how such actions would affect other members of the society.
In Arts and Natural Science, ethics is considered a key ingredient that must be held by professionals in these areas when conducting various activities. According to Boetzkes (90), there has been an argument that ethical judgments limit the methods available in the production of knowledge in both the arts and the natural sciences.
It would be important to investigate the truth in this statement in order to come up with the relevant conclusion. This research will focus on how ethical judgment can impinge the creativity. When conducting a research, it is very important to work with specific research question as a guideline to what is to be achieved from the research. In this research, the guiding questions states as below.
Do ethical judgments limit the methods available in the production of knowledge in both arts and the natural sciences?
This question focuses on the controversies that are common in the field of Arts and Natural Science. According to MacKinnon (37), controversies are always an indication that there could be a possibility of a breach of ethics among the parties involved. The question seeks to find the truth about the effect of ethics on these two fields. It would be investigating if there is a way in which ethics could impede creativity in the field of Arts or Natural Science.
In order to develop a clear background in responding to the above question, it would be important to understand some of the potential knowledge issues in the two fields. In this regard, there will be an attempt to try investigating the extent to which ethical considerations constrain the manner at which Arts are created. In Natural Sciences, it would be necessary to investigate the relevance of ethics, and its real impact on the activities of the scientists.
To adequately respond to the above raised issues, it would be important to draw from real life issues of natural scientists and artists and how they have been able to manage the issue of ethics in their respective fields. According to Mizzoni (45), there has been a massive controversy as to the level of creativity that can be considered ethical in Natural Science. Scientists have been focusing on coming up with creative ideas that can enable them advance their fields.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it is important to note that some of their creations have been considered controversial. Cloning is one such controversy that has not been able to pass the ethical test. Scientists have been able to clone animals, and recently, there has been an attempt to clone human being. This is a clear sign of advancement in the field of Natural Science. However, the problem comes when there is a feeling this development is not morally upright.
Human being is a complex creature that must have ability to reason rationally and make decisions based on understanding of how their decisions can affect other people. When scientists create a human being, it may not be very easy for them to control the actions of such a human being. This means that they will be creating machines that they are not able to control.
This can be disastrous. It is at this stage that ethics would be seen to impinge the development of Natural Science. Scientists feel that they have the capacity to create a human being. However, ethics warns that such attempts can be disastrous if care is not taken. This way, a scientist who was planning to develop his or her field will be denied the opportunity because the society does not consider this ethical.
Another aspect where ethics has been seen to impinge development in the field of Natural Science is on the issue of genetically modified foods (GMO). The society has become weary of the type of food they eat. According to Briggle (78), people have become very sensitive on the nature of food presented to them as they try to ensure that they eat healthy foods in order to have good health.
This has made them very suspicious of genetically modified foods because of the feeling that they could be having some hormones that are not healthy to human beings. Although proponents of genetically modified foods have come out strongly to say that these foods are safe for human consumption, a section of scientists have raised a number of issues concerning these foods. As a result, the society has not wholly accepted the fact that genetically modified foods can be safe for their consumption.
This has affected the work of scientists who are trying to be ethical by limiting their advancement of knowledge in this area. In some parts of the world, especially in many countries in Europe, genetically modified foods are prohibited by law. This means that it would be unethical for scientists to advance knowledge in this field because it is of little or no use. Moving to other countries like the United States, to make advancements in this field would be viewed as being unethical.
This is because the society back at home would view such actions as trying to justify what is considered illegal by moving in other societies where the vice is legalized. This may have a thin line with trying to move to the states within the United States that have legalized marijuana to smoke the substance.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Concept of the Ethical Judgments in the Field of Arts and Natural Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although such an individual would be acting within the law, ethically, there will be a guilt that he or she is doing what the society disapproves. Such guilt may affect the capacity of a scientist to come up with new adventurous ideas in a given field.
To the artists, the need to be ethical in their activities has been seen as a form of impediment to the development of some of their activities. As Rollin (56) notes, artists are always encouraged to maintain ethics in their activities. However, there are cases where ethics may be seen as an impediment in the production of knowledge in the field of Arts. Some of the works of art may be considered as being unethical. Artists always use their artistry to communicate different ideas they have.
This means that the outcome of a piece of art will be based on the societal standards of a given artists. However, what one society considerers ethical may be unethical in another community. In a global world, the society has been reduced into a small village where geographical boundaries play no role in defining societal practices. This means that a piece of art made in Africa may easily find its way to the United States, United Kingdom or in Saudi Arabia.
These societies may have different ways of viewing pieces of art. What the Americans consider as normal may be very unethical in Saudi Arabia. For instance, the society in the United States is slowly accepting gays as members of the society who deserve to be respected despite their sex orientation.
However, this still remains a taboo topic in Saudi Arabia. An artist in the United States may come up with a piece of art that depicts or promotes gay practices because the American society is tolerant over this issue. However, this is very unacceptable in the Saudi Arabian society because it goes against Muslim religious teachings.
An artist who is specialized in production of such artworks would have to ensure that such works do not find their way to the wrong market. The artist will also have a negative reputation in this society because of such work. If he or she prefers to remain ethical and avoid controversies, he may be forced to avoid this field of work.
When responding to this question, the main difficulty that a researcher may counter is the real definition of ethics. What one considers as ethical may be considered as unethical by another individual. This means that it would be necessary to find what a wider society considers ethical. This may be a challenge, especially given the diversity in our society. This means that any issue that has generated substantial controversy would be considered as unethical.
Works Cited Boetzkes, Amanda. The ethics of earth art. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010, Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of the Ethical Judgments in the Field of Arts and Natural Science by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Briggle, Adams. Ethics and science: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Print.
MacKinnon, Barbara. Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
Mizzoni, John. Ethics: The basics. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Print.
Rollin, Bernard E. Science and Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Print.
A Rhetoric Analysis of Barack Obama’s Speech “The Perfect Union” Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents The Audience
Further Study: FAQ
“The Perfect Union” was a speech delivered by Obama in 2008. The speech has elicited argumentative debates among people. Obama’s speech is criticized for having rhetoric statements and sensitive topics that no one would dare talk about. This essay provides an argumentative rhetoric analysis of Barack Obama’s speech – “The Perfect Union”.
The Audience In his speech, Obama is very conscious and aware of his audience. His primary target audience is the American population and especially the voters. After addressing the entire American population, he goes further and splits his audience into different groups.
The second group that he addresses is the White Americans. In his speech, he lets them know that there are racial wounds that continued to affect them and many generations. Obama cautiously addresses the challenge of racial discrimination, making sure he does not cause more pain or divide people further through race. However, he does not shy away to put his point across and make his stand known.
Thirdly, Obama addresses the black Americans. As a matter of fact, he is aware that people see him as a black American. Therefore, the people are keen to see how he handles the issue of race.
His message for them does not show any favoritism of race. He notes that, ‘a similar anger exists within the segments of the white community’ (Obama Par. 35). While addressing them, he explains at length that there existed a general feeling among the white when the blacks got better services. The feeling was that of paying for mistakes they did not commit.
Obama shows his wealth of knowledge on the issue that affects people of America. He selects his words carefully while addressing racism that has for many decades affected American people He crafts his speech to be convincing and instead of the issue of race eliciting pain, this time it soothes. The audience is rather calm and does not elicit any aggressive emotions. This is a clear demonstration that he knew his audience well and their needs.
Obama then makes his point clear, aiming to give a solution to the challenges faced by the people of America. He cautions the American people from thinking that forgetting about racism would solved the problem.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The message contained in his speech is that of peace and unity. He wants them to learn to live with one another and appreciate differences in race. Obama ensures that he has addressed the two groups equally so that he unites them together as one people and one audience. He further discusses at length the importance for Americans to speak in one voice and work together in unity.
Rhetorical Fallacies In his speech, ‘A More perfect Union’ Obama’s opening statements reveals the purpose the speech intended to meet. Obama obtains his first statement from the United States Constitution, ‘We the people, in order to create a perfect union’ (Obama par. 1.). These words reframe and capture the rationale of the Constitution.
Obama employs three rhetoric strategies in his speech. His speech rest upon: emotional, ethical and logical fallacies. He identifies himself with his audience persuasion. The famous quotes he derives from the constitution, makes even those who do not know the constitution, feel the importance of messages communicated (Stoner
The Lingual Theory: A Hybrid of Semiotics and Stand Point Theories of Analyzing Films Research Paper college admission essay help
Table of Contents The Semiotics Theory of Communication
Standpoint Theory of Communication
The Need for a New Theory of Communication
The New Lingual Theory of Communication
Application of the Lingual Theory
The media is an avenue through which occurrences taking place in a society are communicated to the audience. Such communication is usually guided by specific frameworks meant to deliver information in a certain manner. Colombo (2004) points out that film and other forms of mass communication ascribe to particular theoretical frameworks to deliver their message to the target audience.
However, some of the theories used in this field have been overtaken by events, rendering them irrelevant in contemporary society. As such, it is incumbent upon the stakeholders to come up with new theoretical frameworks that respond to the evolving needs in these changing times.
In the current paper, the author seeks to develop a new theory of communication with regards to film. Colombo (2004) points out that generation of new theories is made possible by building upon existing models. To this end, the author of this paper relies on the semiotics and standpoint theories to come up with a new structure of communication.
The utilization of these two theories in the field of film generation and distribution is critically examined in this essay. Such assessment helps the author to come up with a hybrid theory whose concepts build on the weaknesses of the other two. The applicability of the new theoretical model, dubbed the lingual theory, will be tested against a real life scenario in contemporary media.
The Semiotics Theory of Communication The theoretical structure is developed from the study of signs and their related processes and applications in communication. According to Friedman and Thellefsen (2011), the theory is closely related to the linguistic model of analyzing the structure of a particular language. The model helps to determine the meaning of the various languages used in communication. Friedman and Thellefsen (2011) add that the theory of semiotics builds on linguistic studies. To this effect, it makes use of sign systems that are not themselves linguistic in nature.
In a bid to illustrate the components of the semiotics model of communication, Friedman and Thellefsen (2011) point out that signs form the backbone of the theory. Friedman and Thellefsen argue that the theoretical framework is applied in a wide array of platforms in the communication and media arena.
For example, Friedman and Thellefsen (2011) are of the opinion that the theory is used in the fashion and the science fiction movie industries. The developers of this framework suggest that human beings are naturally animals. Friedman and Thellefsen (2011) add that, due to their animalistic nature, humans have the ability to develop and interpret signs. It is this development and interpretation of symbols that forms the basis of the semiotics theory.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In analyzing this theory, Li (2011) posits that there are three main branches that give it its meanings. The first is the branch that focuses on the semantics of the language. Here, the meaning of the signs used in communication is deciphered. In addition, the theory looks at the structural relations between the given signs.
It is these relations that Li (2011) refers to as the semantics. Finally, the model has a pragmatic component to it. The element helps to determine the relationship between the sign using agents and the signs developed. In other words, it identifies the language in relation to the user.
The theory is widely used in communication given that language and linguistics are major components of this phenomenon. In such cases, the signs are developed to form some kind of code. Such codes represent a particular element of the society (Alsina
The Ideas of Freedom and Slavery in Relation to the American Revolution Essay college essay help near me
The American Revolution of 1765-1783 was developed as the demonstration of the Americans’ desire to become free from the British Empire’s influence and free to choose the path of the country’s democratic development. The Declaration of Independence of 1776 became the proclamation of the Americans’ rights to become independent regarding every aspect of their life.
However, the problem is in the point that in spite of the fact that during the American Revolution the idea of freedom was declared widely, the concept of freedom developed side by side with the principles of slavery. Thus, it is essential to answer the question about the possibilities of developing these concepts during the American Revolution.
Although many Founders discussed the phenomenon of slavery as violating the appeals for freedom and liberty for the Americans, the concepts of slavery and freedom could develop side by side because the Founders did not discuss slaves as equal to ‘whites’, the ideas of freedom and equality stated in the Declaration were interpreted only with the focus on white people, and slavery played an essential role in the states’ economic progress.
The idea of freedom or liberty stated in the Declaration of Independence can be considered as the founding principle to build the American society as it was proclaimed by the Founders. From this point, the American Revolution was the organized struggle for the freedom and liberty which were achieved as a result of many losses.
Although freedom was the desired condition, to achieve freedom and liberty did not mean to provide that freedom for black slaves. Focusing on pursuing freedom, the Founders hoped to win the liberty only for white people, without concentrating on the needs of blacks.
Thus, black slaves could not be discussed as equal to white people to become free after the end of the American Revolution because they were not even discussed as humans. From this perspective, the white Americans focused on fighting for freedom from the British rule, and their efforts were not associated with providing any freedom for black slaves. The achievement of the political freedom and social stability was not associated with the achievement of freedom for lowest social categories.
The Declaration of Independence is the main result of the American Revolution, but this document cannot be discussed as granting the equality and liberty for blacks along with the white population of the United States. The Founders’ vision of equality and its relation to slavery as the social phenomenon was far from modern opinions on these concepts because black people were not discussed as humans to have the rights equal with the white people’s rights, but slaves were described only as creatures to rely on God’s will.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Developing the revolution, the Founders focused only on the equality of white people in the American society and on their freedom. In spite of the fact that the Founders criticized the fact of the obvious ‘color dominion’ in the American society, they do not combine the ideas of equality and freedom for whites and blacks.
However, there were many Founders and activists who discussed the idea of slavery as violating the norms of free American society. In spite of the fact that they were persistent to promote the ideas on slavery abolition, the representatives of the upper classes from the Southern states focused much on the necessities to develop the institution of slavery because of its economic advantages for the South.
Although the American Revolution did not bring freedom for slaves, it is essential to focus on the role of blacks in the war for independence. Thus, slaves contributed significantly to achieving the desired liberty and to developing the ideals of the democratic society for whites. Slaves were actively used in military activities to attack the enemy and to protect the lands. Many blacks served in the Continental army to contribute to the further victory of the Americans.
The participation in the military activities guaranteed the desired freedom for many slaves because of their contribution to the progress of the American Revolution. However, the process had the negative consequences. The example of those slaves who were manumitted because of participating in the revolutionary activities inspired thousands of the other blacks who used the opportunity to escape from plantations. Nevertheless, in many cases, the revolution did not bring any sign of freedom for the majority of slaves.
The ideas of freedom and slavery were developed side by side because slavery was the important condition to contribute to the economic progress of the Southern states. Plantation owners used the work of slaves widely, and it was almost impossible for them to refuse using the free work of blacks.
In spite of the fact that slavery was discussed as the unhealthy element observed in the American society, few reforms and changes were proposed to change the situation because the economic advantages were obvious, and the Southern plantation owners did not want to risk under the impact of the problematic situation within the society.
On the one hand, slavery was considered as the necessary condition to improve the American economy and to influence the development of the Southern states’ politics and society. Many economists agreed that the abolition of slavery could lead to irreversible consequences for the economic development of the South because of its weak economic structure based mainly on the work of slaves.
We will write a custom Essay on The Ideas of Freedom and Slavery in Relation to the American Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, the institution of slavery was discussed as the controversial phenomenon which can become threatening to the white people because of many difficulties associated with controlling the constantly increasing number of blacks in the Southern states.
Those black persons who received freedom after participating in the war and those who tried to run away from their plantation owners were discussed as the significant force which was ready to oppose the whites’ authority. However, these problems were not discussed by the Founders in their connection with the necessity to abolish slavery because the concept of freedom was interpreted only in the context of the white people’s rights.
The ideals of freedom and slavery were developed during the American Revolution without affecting each other because the Founders refused accepting the idea of the necessary slavery abolition. The institution of slavery was the fundament for the economic development of the Southern states.
Moreover, the Founders were not ready to accept the idea of the blacks’ equality to whites. All the statements associated with the equality and freedom found in the Declaration of Independence discussed Americans as God’s creatures, but not as equal white and black persons. That is why the idea of freedom proclaimed by the Founders did not contradict with the institution of slavery supported in the American society.
Gasland Reflection Essay essay help online: essay help online
The USA experiences the enormous growth in natural gas extraction occurring in the country today. Natural gas was very complicated to extract in the past. Now it is possible via the process recognized as hydraulic fracturing or “fracking”.
The film Gasland is the story of Josh Fox, who lives in a beautiful green forest, close to a river, in the house, which his parents constructed in Pennsylvania. One day he got a letter from a gas company with an offer of purchasing the rights for extraction of natural gas from his earth.
Surprised, he started his journey to discover other places where the extraction was occurring. Gasland is, in fact, the story of this trip. Fox learned that hydraulic fracturing is taking place across the entire country and that it is having a catastrophic influence on groundwater and on people and animals depending on the water.
People and animals suffer from all types of diseases because of the dark, smelling of benzine or methane water. In one of the film’s most stunning moments the viewers can see that the water may be set on fire by holding a simple match or lighter next to it. Being capable to set kitchen water on fire is definitely an indication that something is wrong.
Basically, natural gas extraction is a three-step process: gas organizations drill an extremely profound hole; next, they pump millions of gallons of water, hazardous chemicals and sand in the hole to break the shale that frees natural gas. Next, workers extract the gas during several years.
Fox reveals that during the hydraulic fracturing, tons of water combined with hazardous chemicals are pumped in the ground to crack the earth and free the natural gas. This water with chemicals is drained back up and left in pools, though the huge part of the water remains in the earth and finally enters groundwater. People and their animals are forced to use this water for drinking and everyday use. However, the water is in such bad condition that it causes numerous illnesses and may be set on fire due to the chemicals.
Fox also exposes the result of emissions of compounds from tanks with gas and chemicals applied in hydraulic fracturing. The most terrible truth behind the film is the fact that gas companies that cause the problems reject to fix the issue or offer an unproductive resolution.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The loophole in the 2005 Energy Bill frees natural gas drillers from any ruling under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Thus, nobody has forced the companies to reveal the chemical composition of hydraulic fracturing fluid as the mixtures have been defended as their trade secrets. The film is a persuasive case telling the public why the USA has to consider more severe control over the natural gas extraction.
Unfortunately, in the case of hydraulic fracturing, it is expected that people will not have entire control over the reactions of the natural systems beneath the ground. There will always be unanticipated outcomes, and there will be unintentional damage to the planet. Yet, people require natural sources to enjoy daily comfort.
Hydraulic fracturing appears to be particularly unwelcome due to its closeness to people. However, each type of extraction poses an obvious risk of changing natural surroundings. The single way to avoid the danger is to avoid people’s need for natural resources. Right now humans have no chance to entirely control the natural gas extraction.
Generally, Gasland does a great job of reminding viewers how significant and delicate water actually is. The film tells an extremely good story. It may be rather one-sided, but it is certainly worth watching.
Racial Profiling: Discrimination the People of Color Exemplification Essay best essay help
Racial profiling is a disproportionate law enforcement exercises targeting a given racial group for investigation (Parker par. 1). The entire process involves discriminating the people of color using private security practices in various sectors, such as government departments, police, and airline. Racial profiling occurs due to unconscious perceptions that the perpetrators hold towards the blacks.
An example of a racial profiling case in the US involves Kendrick Johnson’s family who lost their 17-year-old son through bizarre circumstances at the Lowndes High School gym. In this case, three stories came into fore.
The police, on their part, held that the junior fell unnoticed when he tried to take back a shoe out of a rolled-up mat (Crockett Jr. par. 2), and the body was found the following day. The second argument was of the first autopsy that believed that positional asphyxia had caused the death. When the authorities exhumed the body some months later, most organs were missing.
This revelation led to a second autopsy, which held that the junior suffered a fatal blow. Surprisingly, from photographic analysis, it that emerged the teenager’s face was swollen and seemed beaten, and left him barely recognizable. However, the parents believe that the death of their child was not an accident. This is the story lawyers, the media, investigators, and the nation gets from the parents. With different stories on the death of the black teenager, the parents find it difficult to accept and move on with their daily lives.
The manner in which the security system handled the demise of the African-American high school student indicates how the system devalues black lives. To the family, the loss of their child resulted in both psychological torture and sociological problems, as evident in this article. For example, a year after the death, the parents are yet to report to work, and this has negatively impacted on their earnings. Kendrick’s father, Kenneth, was a truck-driver, while the mother, Jacquelyn, was a school-van driver (Crockett Jr. par. 8).
Kendrick’s parents have been championing for the elusive truth on the death of their child and crusading for reminiscences. Clearly, the parents cannot consent into the police findings and the autopsies that key government agencies held. So rooted is racial profiling among the US citizens, as evident in the manner in which some bus drivers could shout at them to “Give it a rest” or “Go home” when they were camping out with cardboard signs next to county courthouse.
The way in which the justice system handled the circumstances behind the death of the black teenager represents a society that is less concerned with the plight of the black minority in the nation. Several instances of racial profiling dominate the American history; this has made the black community feel as second-class citizens in the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With numerous cases on racial profiling, many people in America believe that this act is a serious and continuous problem, even in the 21st century with a black President, Barack Obama, in charge. Dating back to the times of Martin Luther King Jr. and the Montgomery Bus Incident, the justice system still works disproportionately on the people of color.
In another case, city prosecutors and the police railroaded one Hispanic and four black kids in 1989 in a rape case (Smith par. 5). Even after analyzing the DNA results, the prosecutor insisted that the accused were guilty. With the high-level skewness in the justice system, racial profiling remains a course for concern in the American society. Eradicating racial discrimination in this line requires overhaul of the country’s legislations, as well as inculcating the expected changes in the education system.
Works Cited Crockett Jr., Stephen. Black Parents Forced to Fight for Justice For Their Sons. The Root. N.p., 11 Jan. 2014. Web.
Parker, Dennis. Racial Profiling. American Civil Liberties Union. American Civil Liberties Union, 21 Nov. 2013. Web.
Smith, Ann. But We Have a BLACK President!. BK Nation. N.p., 19 Jan. 2014. Web.
Microcredit for Women Entrepreneurship Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Education and other factors influencing microcredit
Women and microcredit
Challenges facing microcredit
Introduction The paper discusses the role of women in micro-finance emphasising on the importance of education as well as effects of gender gaps in accessibility of microcredit. In addition, the paper examines various challenges women face in accessing microcredit. About 70% of poor women globally are accessible to microcredit.
Essentially, women play a critical role in the upbringing and sustenance of families as well as improving the social welfare of the society. As such, enhancing the economic status of women will translate into improving the social and economic welfare of both the family and society.
Education and other factors influencing microcredit Saiz-Álvarez and Gutiérrez 2012 argued that microcredit opens new economic frontiers when properly utilised by women particularly in rural poor and isolated regions. However, the impact of microcredit is not the same in all regions. In other words, many factors influence how microcredit affects women.
Factors such as marital status, education, government policies, societal values, availability and accessibility of micro-finance institutions as well as information communication technologies have greater influence on how microcredit affects the women livelihood. Further, Saiz-Álvarez and Gutiérrez 2012 noted that access to microcredit increases the bargaining power of women particularly where the capital is invested in profitable ventures as well as inexistence of cultural influences.
Education is one of the major factors that determine the success of microcredit in improving economic status of women. Education increases the capability of managing risks. In addition, education enhances the understanding of market transactions while increasing productivity.
As such, educational programs need to be established in order to enable women exploit the available opportunities. Saiz-Álvarez and Gutiérrez 2012 noted that education and Information Communication Technology (ICT) have a direct link to reduced poverty levels through accessibility to micro-finance.
In order to be successful, women borrowers must attain minimum education level. Minimum education level is critical in understanding the contractual terms and accessibility to transparent information for appropriate decisions. From the perspective of micro-financiers, the development of ICT has boosted access as well as possibility of offering loans to the poor women all over the globe. In fact, the development of ICT has enabled lenders to offer credit to people at extremely low-cost.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, women’s access to internet continue to decrease globally particularly in developing countries. As such, effective educational policies, technology use, economic resilience and change of social norm remain critical for the success of microcredit in poverty reduction and enhancement of women’s economic status (Saiz-Álvarez
Asthma’s Diagnosis and Treatment Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Pathophysiology of Asthma
Nursing Management of Asthma
Special Treatment for Particular Asthma Patients
Introduction Asthma is one of the ailments that cause persistent morbidity and deaths across the globe. Studies show that its dominance has augmented in the past two decades. This chronic disease affects the lungs and causes reversible airway barriers due to swellings along the lung airways as well as contraction of the muscles surrounding the lungs.
The airway obstruction is present in most asthma patients, but a number of triggers exacerbate this condition depending on the patient’s environment. Some of these triggers include smoke, pollen grains, dust, industrial chemicals, fur, and cold air. Asthma can be managed successfully; however, most of its morbidity is due to bad management and particularly when taking preventive medication.
Pathophysiology of Asthma The pathology observed in the lungs of asthmatic patients who succumb to the disease indicates that a high degree of lung inflation. A closer view of this over-inflation shows a striking alveoli distention. The smooth muscles located in the bronchi undergo substantial hyperplasia whilst the submucosal layers become dangerously thick.
Furthermore, mucosa is present in the lungs with a bogged mucosal epithelium due to the inadequate quantity of ciliated epithelium cells. The submucosa undergoes an upsurge in mucus gland hypertrophy. The upsurge in quantity of muscle, mucous glands, and tissue edema causes the airway wall to congeal while the caliber minimizes (Harver
American Psycho Essay scholarship essay help
There can be only a few doubts the 2000 film American Psycho does serve as a metaphor to the clearly defined parasitic essence of the so-called ‘American dream’, concerned with people’s unconscious desire to impose their dominance upon others.
After all, as the movie illustrates, in America, one’s ability to lead a socially prominent/luxurious lifestyle, has very little to do with the concerned person’s actual value, as an individual that contributes to the society’s well-being. Therefore, there is nothing incidental about the fact that, throughout the film, the main character of Patrick Bateman (Christian Bale) is shown being primarily preoccupied with bellyful idling – even in the scenes where he sits at the desk in his office.
Apparently, the director wanted the character of Bateman to be perceived, as such, that allegorizes the very source of the America’s prosperity, concerned with the fact that American richest bankers (the country’s actual rulers) are being in the position to continue printing out the countless tons of a valueless green paper, which in turn is being traded for the world’s most valuable natural resources.
In order to have this nothing short of a robbery more or less concealed, the country’s top-officials come up with the well-meaning but essentially meaningless rhetoric about protecting the values of democracy and combating the ‘world’s hunger’. In the similar manner, the talented demagogue Bateman also never ceases to position himself, as an utterly progressive individual – despite the fact that in the reality, he is a psychotic serial killer.
It is needless to mention, of course, that the above-stated suggestion is rather speculative. However, I believe that it does not make it less legitimate – especially given what we know about the actual causes of the financial crisis of 2008-2009, triggered by the bankers’ irrational sense of greed and by their willingness to lead a luxurious lifestyle, at the expense of depriving the rest of their co-citizens of a chance to advance in life.
It will not be much of an exaggeration to suggest that the film American Psycho is indeed strongly violent. The validity of this suggestion can be well illustrated, in regards to the scenes where Bateman murders people just for the sake of doing.
The latter characteristic of his killing spree is discursively revealing, as it shows that Bateman’s obsession with violence was nothing but the subliminal extrapolation of his endowment with the strongly defined domination-seeking instinct. Being an utterly rich and handsome 27-year-old man, with the particularly bright life-prospects ahead of him, Batemen is shown in the film as a person who had achieved just about anything that one can dream about.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yet, this did not have even a slight effect on the earlier mentioned Bateman’s instinct – despite having achieved a socially dominant status, the film’s main character continued to aspire to seek dominance. In its turn, this created certain preconditions for the character’s transformation into a serial killer to be only the matter of time.
Hence, the actual significance of the manner, in which Bateman is depicted experiencing the sensation of guilt – the reason why he felt, as he wanted to be arrested, is that on an unconscious level, the film’s main character expected his ‘feats’ to be acknowledged by the society. In other words, the sensation of guilt, on Bateman’s part, did not have anything to do with his actual remorse for having killed a number of people, but rather with his narcissistic desire to remain the focus of the society’s attention.
SOAP Note Case Study essay help: essay help
Subjective section R.A is a 16-year-old female with type 1diabetes first diagnosed 5 years ago. She is also obese and has hypothyroidism. She was binge drinking, but quit 2 years ago upon being advised that alcohol could worsen her health condition.
Unless when she has an emergency, she usually comes to the hospital for follow-up every month. Today, she has come for routine follow-up. Although she is asymptomatic, her blood pressure is 170/99 mmHg. She does not report any episodes or symptoms of hypoglycemia. She was using insulin, but stopped 8 months ago after she improved her condition.
Objective analysis R.A has a healthy appearance and she is not characterized by signs of acute distress. Upon being physically examined, it is shown that she has a height of 165cm, weight of 90kg and a pulse rate of 86 beats per minute. The physical examination also reveals that she has a blood pressure of 170/99 mmHg. She does not present with retinopathy or thyromegaly (the retina is healthy and the thyroid glands are not inflamed). Also, she does not have diabetic foot ulcers that are common in diabetic patients.
Laboratory tests show that she has proteinuria, a cholesterol level of 230mg/dL, normal TSH levels, Hb level of 9.5%, creatinine level of 1.7mg/dL, glucose level of 190mg/dL, HDL and LDL of 134 and 35mg/dL respectively. Also, laboratory results reveal that she has normal electrolytes.
Assessment analysis Related complications
These are complications with which the patient presents. They are the following:
Nephropathy that is confirmed by proteins in the blood. It is an indication that kidney nephrons are not functioning well to ultra-filter blood. Thus, excreted urine has traces of proteins (Ludvigsson et al., 2008).
Risk factors could worsen type 1 diabetes in the patient. They are the following factors:
Obesity, which is indicated by a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 25.
Kidney malfunction (indicated by a high creatinine value of 1.7mg/dL).
Hypertension (readings are greater than 140/90 mmHg).
Clinical efforts should focus on controlling glycemia to A1C level less than 7%. (However, caution should be taken so that hypoglycemia cannot be caused in the process of controlling blood sugar).
It should be a goal to prevent cardiovascular disease from occurring in the patient (This could be a serious complication).
Reduce blood pressure to values lower than 130/80 mmHg. This is the recommended upper limit of blood pressure for diabetic patients (Ludvigsson et al., 2008).
Cardiovascular disease risks should be reduced by encouraging the patient to feed on food that helps to maintain healthy cholesterol levels. For healthy persons, the low density lipoprotein (LDL) should not exceed 100 (Ludvigsson et al., 2008).
R.A says that she is not on medications. A treatment should be initiated to lower A1C and help to control symptoms associated with type 1diabetes and other conditions. Other therapies may also be started to help to prevent complications that are foreseeable in the near future (Bergenstal et al., 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Plan Further laboratory tests and work-up
Tests to assess liver functions. Biochemical liver tests determine levels of biochemical compounds crucial in regulating normal physiological functions. Elevated levels of biochemical in the liver would indicate that liver functions are altered.
In order to confirm that the patient has hypertension, blood pressure test would be repeated. If found to be normal, then the test will have to be conducted by many laboratories to determine the true values (Ludvigsson et al., 2008, Bergenstal et al., 2010).
CBC should be conducted so that infections can be ruled out or monitored. It is important to rule out infections in the patient because they could lead to worsening of her condition. Also, it is important to manage the infections with the right medications.
More history is needed that will capture the following details: List of effective and failed medications.
A detailed family history to establish whether there are any relatives who have suffered from the same condition (type 1 diabetes) and the time of onset.
Immunizations received in the past and their clinical implications. A review would be done to assess whether previous immunizations could have interfered with the normal immune system of the patient.
Trends of adhering to medications offered in the past and barriers that hindered the patient from adhering to the medications. The medical history will help to select the best therapies to provide and ways of addressing barriers that could make the patient not take medications as prescribed (Ludvigsson et al., 2008).
The diabetic patient will be put on insulin. In addition, she needs to adopt a healthy lifestyle that will involve feeding on a balanced diet characterized by significant amounts of carbohydrates. Also, body exercises will greatly help the patient to live a healthy life (Chase et al., 2008). Her blood pressure problem could be addressed by taking lisinopril 10mg daily.
Insulin use requires routine monitoring of blood glucose levels (Bergenstal et al., 2010).
Carbohydrate and fat dietary intake should be monitored. Total fat dietary intake should not be greater than 7% of the total number of sources of calories (Bergenstal et al., 2010).
Educational approaches should aim to inform the patient about ways of using medications so that they could improve her condition. Also, she will be taught how to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Healthy lifestyle changes will involve a healthy diet and aerobic exercises like walking and running (Chase et al., 2008; Bergenstal et al., 2010).
Follow-up and referrals
A1C should be routinely monitored for a period of 3 months.
Hypertension should be assessed at every routine visit.
LDL follow-up assessments could be done every 1-2 years.
Referrals will be recommended when her conditions worsen. They would involve being referred to physicians or healthcare facilities dealing with specific health conditions.
No cultural interventions are recommended for this patient.
Nursing theorist The care, core and cure nursing theory would be used to offer care to the diabetic patient. The nursing theory was formulated by Lydia E. Hall and it asserts that a patient should set his or her goals (George, 2010). If the patient in the case study sets her goals, then she would work toward achieving them, and she would be influenced by her feelings and value system. The nursing theory would greatly impact the patient to improve her condition.
We will write a custom Case Study on SOAP Note specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Bergenstal, R. M., Tamborlane, W. V., Ahmann, A., Buse, J. B., Dailey, G., Davis, S. N….
New Opioid Dosage Forms and Treatments for Dependence Research Paper essay help
Introduction Opioids fall in a class of drugs that have been used for centuries to manage pain and records show that their usage started in times of ancient Egypt. Research has led to the discovery of special receptors that these drugs work on in the brain and initial studies use morphine to demonstrate a ‘morphine receptor’ (Trescot et al., 2008). A variety of receptors for this class of drugs has since been discovered and new opioids have been discovered and synthetically manufactured.
The pharmacokinetic properties of these newer drugs have generated interest in a number of studies and recently the metabolism of most opioids has been clearly understood. A characteristic of most opioids that has led to their misuse and development of legislation to control their use is the potential addictive properties that they are associated with during their usage. Specific opioids in special dosage forms are also used for the treatment of opioid dependence.
New opioid dosage forms and treatment for opioid dependency have increasingly become part of medical treatments in the recent history with buprenorphine being an important drug for this function (Trescot et al., 2008). This research paper examines the pharmacology of opioids and their use in the treatment of opioid dependency, and specifically it looks at buprenorphine while comparing it with methadone.
Factors affecting oral bioavailability of buprenorphine The bioavailability of a drug determines the dosage forms and how much of the unchanged form of the drug reaches the systemic circulation (Griessinger et al., 2005). Each route of administration has factors affecting the bioavailability, which are dependent on the body and drug characteristics.
The intravenous route of drug administration provides the highest bioavailability, which is set at 100%. On the other hand, oral administration and bioavailability are affected by the drug characteristics such as solubility, hydrophilic or lipophilic nature, and the receptors that a drug uses to get into the bloodstream (Griessinger et al., 2005).
Incomplete absorption of a drug while in the gastrointestinal system causes low bioavailability. Very hydrophilic drugs are unable to cross the lipid cell membrane, while highly lipophilic drugs are unable to cross the water layer that covers and surrounds the cells involved in absorption (Griessinger et al., 2005).
These elements are some of the factors affecting the oral bioavailability of buprenorphine. The receptor at the absorption site that the drug interacts with is also a significant determinant of the availability of the drug. Some receptors are involved in pumping the drug back to the gut lumen and when these are inhibited, the bioavailability increases (Griessinger et al., 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The oral availability of buprenorphine is poor and it is affected by all the factors described above. However, the most important factor affecting the oral bioavailability of buprenorphine is the high metabolism by the liver and the intestines (Murphy et al., 2013). When buprenorphine is administered orally, the drug is metabolized in the liver and the gut by special enzymes, which leads to the reduction in the proportion of the drug that is available in the bloodstream.
The breakdown of a drug by gut enzymes and processes in the liver has conveniently been referred to as the first pass effect (Griessinger et al., 2005). The main enzyme system responsible for the degradation of the drugs in the liver is the cytochrome P450 (CYP), which is also responsible for the breakdown of buprenorphine. Murphy et al., (2013) posit, “Buprenorphine is converted in the liver primarily by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 to an active metabolite (nor-buprenorphine with weak intrinsic activity” (p. 316).
The breakdown of buprenorphine by the hepatic enzymes causes a reduction in the bioavailability, hence the efficacy of the drug. One way that can be used to increase the concentration of the drug that reaches the systemic circulation is increasing the dosage that is administered via the oral route. However, an increase in the dosage will mean more side effects as the metabolites affect other receptors.
Therefore, the increase in dosage is not a desirable way of overcoming the first pass effect. Another way in which the first pass effect affects buprenorphine in the liver is the process of glucuronidation that takes place here. According to Murphy et al., (2013), buprenorphine and its metabolite -norbuprenorphine, undergo glucuronidation in the liver and the process reduces its availability.
Various methods have been used to overcome the first pass effect that the drug undergoes when administered through the oral route. Buprenorphine is currently unavailable in oral formulations and the current formulations include the sublingual route and transdermal patches (Murphy et al., 2013).
According to Murphy et al., (2013), methods that can be used to reduce the drug first pass effect include the use of sublingual route, the transdermal routes, and the rectal suppositories. When drugs are administered through the oral route, the absorbed drug and its metabolites are absorbed to the portal system where the drug is taken to the liver and further transformation takes place.
The use of the sublingual route of administration avoids the portal system that takes blood to the liver, and the CYP enzymes break down less of the drug. Once the sublingual formulation is administered, it goes directly to the systemic circulation, hence avoiding the first pass effect (Murphy et al., 2013). According to Trescot et al. (2008), buprenorphine has high lipid solubility and due to this characteristic, the sublingual bioavailability is high.
We will write a custom Research Paper on New Opioid Dosage Forms and Treatments for Dependence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This method is one of the ways in which researchers and pharmacists have been in a position to avoid the first pass effect. The use of transdermal patches is also common outside the US (Murphy et al., 2013). Transdermal patches are also effective in avoiding the portal system, hence reducing the first pass effect associated with liver metabolism by the Cytochrome P450 system (Murphy et al., 2013).
Drug-receptor relationships Drug receptors are specific to a certain class of drugs and they are located in areas where the drug will have the desired effect. Opioid receptors have been located in the brain tissue and in other tissues in the body, and specific opioids have specific receptors that they bind.
The main opioid receptors are the “Mu (μ) receptor, the Kappa (κ) receptor (agonist ketocyclazocine), the Delta (δ) receptor (agonist delta-alanine-delta-leucine-enkephalin), and the Sigma (σ) receptors (agonist N-allylnormetazocine) (Trescot et al. 2008, p. 135). Different types of opioids exhibit the several drug-receptor relationships with different receptors being involved.
Opioids can be classified based on their drug-receptor relationships and this classification consists “agonists, antagonists, and partial agonists or antagonists” (Trescot et al., 2008, p. 134).
The affinity of these drugs at their respective receptors can be described as being the “strength of interaction between the drug and its receptor” (Trescot et al., 2008, p. 133). The efficacy of a drug is also considered when discussing the drug affinity and affinity can be described as “the strength of activity of a drug due to its drug-receptor interaction” (Trescot et al., 2008, p. 133).
According to Trescot et al. (2008), an agonist at a receptor is a drug that processes both affinity for the receptor and as a result, it has efficacy. On the other hand, an antagonist has affinity, but its efficacy is absent (Trescot et al., 2008). Drugs with affinity and partial efficacy can be described as being partial agonists at the particular receptor (Trescot et al., 2008).
Partial agonist: – Buprenorphine Buprenorphine is classified as one of the opioids with low efficacy despite its high affinity, and thus it is a partial agonist (Trescot et al., 2008). This particular drug exhibits affinity at the Mu receptor where it binds by exhibiting its partial effect. It also possesses kappa receptor antagonism, which forms the basis of its use as an analgesic (Trescot et al., 2008).
The drug-receptor activity for this drug has also allowed its use in the management of opioid intoxication, as an abuse deterrent and a maintenance therapy for the detoxification and management of pain (Trescot et al., 2008). Its partial antagonistic effect at the kappa receptor is restricted to a certain level. This ceiling effect means that the drug is only useful up to a certain level and beyond this point, there is limited effect, but just the side effects that can be attributed to any other opioid (Trescot et al., 2008).
Not sure if you can write a paper on New Opioid Dosage Forms and Treatments for Dependence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Partial agonist: – Oxycodone Oxycodone is a partial kappa opioid receptor agonist (Murphy et al., 2013). This drug acts on the kappa receptor in different parts of the body to exert its effect and cause the desired effects.
Oxycodone is partial kappa opioid receptor and this aspect means that the drug is not as efficacious as other agonists, and thus it is available in combination form with other related drugs and classes of drugs to provide better efficacy (Murphy et al., 2013). The drugs that are combined with oxycodone to provide a better effect include acetaminophen and aspirin, which act in concert to produce pain relief (Murphy et al., 2013).
Opioid Antagonists: – Naloxone Naloxone is “an opioid receptor antagonist and it acts at different opioid receptors, thus causing competitive antagonism” (Trescot et al., 2008, p. 139). Naloxone has a competitive antagonism at the delta, Mu, and kappa receptors and according to Trescot et al. (2008), this opioid antagonist has a “high affinity for the mu receptor, but it lacks any mu receptor efficacy” (p. 140).
The drug exerts its effects on both the central nervous system and any other peripheral tissue in the body and the pharmacologic uses are dependent on these actions on the receptors.
Naloxone is mainly used to reverse adverse opioid effects and it is useful in the maintenance of other treatments, deterrence to the use of opioids, and detoxification (Trescot et al., 2008). However, its main use is in the management of opioid toxicity due to its antagonistic nature at the opioid receptors.
Combination of the drug with other drugs such as buprenorphine is also used to prevent users from abusing the second drug when given intravenously (Trescot et al., 2008). Studies are also being conducted to establish whether the drug can be used to suppress tolerance to other drugs such as oxycodone (Trescot et al., 2008).
Opioid Antagonists: – Naltrexone Naltrexone is also an opioid receptor antagonist and like naloxone, it acts at different opioid receptors by causing competitive antagonism (Trescot et al., 2008). Naltrexone also exhibits competitive antagonism at the delta, Mu, and kappa receptors and Trescot et al. (2008) state that like Naloxone, this opioid antagonist has a “high affinity for the mu receptor, it lacks any mu receptor efficacy” (p. 140).
The drug also exerts its effects on both the peripheral and central nervous system and many other tissues in the body with the receptors. The pharmacologic uses are similar to those of Naloxone and they are dependent on these actions on the receptors.
Naltrexone is mainly used to reverse adverse opioid effects and it is useful in the maintenance of other treatments, deterrence to the use of opioids and in detoxification (Trescot et al., 2008). Like Naloxone, the main use of Naltrexone is in the management of opioid toxicity due to its antagonistic nature at the opioid receptors.
Combination of the drug with other drugs such as buprenorphine is also done to prevent users from abusing the second drug when given through the intravenous route (Trescot et al., 2008). Studies are also being conducted on Naltrexone as with Naloxone to establish whether the drug can be used to suppress tolerance to other drugs such as oxycodone (Trescot et al., 2008).
Opioid Agonists-Antagonists: – Pentazocine Opioid agonist-antagonists have poor efficacy at the mu receptor, but they have agonistic properties at the kappa receptors (Trescot et al., 2008). Pentazocine is a good example of partial agonist-antagonists and it exhibits all the characteristics that the group processes.
Partial agonist-antagonism means that the affinity of Pentazocine at the mu receptors is high with a corresponding low efficacy at the same receptor (Trescot et al., 2008). The drug is used as an analgesic like many opioids, but it also has a ceiling effect where increase in dosage will not lead to increase in analgesic properties, but only the toxicity of the drug (Trescot et al., 2008).
Respiratory depression Reparatory depression is a major side effect property of opioids and it is exhibited by the reduction in the respiratory rate leading to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood stream. Opioid activity on the mu receptors is the main known cause of respiratory depression in individuals using opioid drugs.
This side effect is potentially fatal and it varies with the tee of opioid that is used. It is also dependent on the personal characteristics of individuals and it is more pronounced in children as compared to adults. Buprenorphine and morphine are some of the opioids that exhibit this property of respiratory depression. However, these two opioids have different characteristics in their respiratory depression as discussed later in this paper.
Difference between buprenorphine and morphine Morphine causes direct respiratory depression by acting on the mu receptors in the brain (Trescot et al., 2008). The drug binds to the receptor in the nucleus accumbens in the brain and the result of this activity is a decrease in response to carbon dioxide concentration rise in the bloodstream (Trescot et al., 2008).
When the reaction to high levels of carbon dioxide in blood is inhibited, the respiratory level decreases, which lead to the retention of more carbon dioxide in the blood. The result of accumulation of carbon dioxide in blood is a drop in the pH, thus resulting in respiratory acidosis. According to Trescot et al. (2008), the response curve shifts towards the right.
One known characteristic of morphine is that acidosis leads to increased delivery of the drug to the brain tissues (Trescot et al., 2008). As the blood carbon dioxide increases due to the depression of the nucleus accumbens and respiratory acidosis occurs, the amount of morphine that is delivered to the brain increases and this aspect further acts to cause profound respiratory depression that may be fatal (Trescot et al., 2008). Therefore, increase in morphine causes an increase in the respiratory depression and it can be said to be dose dependent.
Respiratory depression occurring from buprenorphine is not central, as it is evident with morphine. On the contrary, buprenorphine induces respiratory depression by acting on the mu receptors located in the lungs and not in the brain (Ohtani et al., 1997). As stated earlier, buprenorphine is a partial agonist, and thus the respiratory depression that it exhibits has a ceiling effect (Murphy et al., 2013).
The binding of this drug to the mu receptors is also stronger as compared to the binding by morphine, and thus the effects take longer and they may be prolonged (Murphy et al., 2013). The tight binding means that reversal using the opioid antagonists like naltrexone is harder as compared to other opioids.
Importance of the difference The differences between the two drugs are significant in the application and daily use of the drugs in the management of pain and opioid toxicity. By exerting respiratory depression centrally, morphine can be used in limited doses, which must be monitored.
The toxicity that can come from this drug is also profound and it may be fatal. Higher doses of buprenorphine can be used as compared to the safest doses of morphine. Another implication is that the management of respiratory depression for buprenorphine may be hard using opioid antagonists such as naloxone as compared to the respiratory depression that is caused by morphine.
Dose-response curves The dose response curves for the respiratory depression caused by morphine and buprenorphine are different. The respiratory depression in the curves can be represented by the decrease in ventilation rated after administration of the two drugs.
Graph showing the ventilation rate against the concentration of buprenorphine (source: Ohtani et al., 1997).
Transdermal dosage form of buprenorphine Buprenorphine is available in the oral and transdermal route and a patch is applied to deliver constant drug doses for a period. The transdermal application of buprenorphine has several differences in the dosage, bioavailability, and efficacy to the use of the oral route.
The transdermal route is better tolerated compared to the oral route with fewer side effects being experienced due to the use of this path of drug administration (Pergolizzi et al., 2010). The common side effects at the area of application are the development of erythema and pruritus (Pergolizzi et al., 2010).
The transdermal route of application of methadone also lasts longer as compared to the use of the oral preparation. According to Pergolizzi et al., (2010), the patch acts as a depot for the drug, thus ensuring a constant supply of the same on the body’s demand.
The oral route requires frequent administration of the drug when used to manage pain and in the management of opioid toxicity. On the other hand, a transdermal patch has been used for over three days with researchers showing that it is still efficacious after the third day (Pergolizzi et al., 2010).
As earlier described, the first pass effect of a drug is important in the determination of its bioavailability. Through the application of buprenorphine orally, there is a considerable chance of the drug going through the first pass effect, which results in the reduction of the drug’s bioavailability.
The use of the transdermal patch allows the bypass of the liver and the gastrointestinal system, thus reducing the first pass effect (Pergolizzi et al., 2010). However, the transdermal route is a slower method of delivery of buprenorphine and it cannot be used to deliver the drug when it is needed more urgently. On the other hand, the sublingual and oral route, according to Pergolizzi et al. (2010), is a faster way of delivery of the drug.
Buprenorphine vs. methadone Methadone is a synthetic diphenylheptane and it acts on the mu opioid receptor as an agonist (Trescot et al., 2008). This drug is unique with properties different from those exhibited by other opioids. The difference with other opioids will be compared in this section by using buprenorphine. The half-life of the two drugs, time of onset, and duration of effect and the dosing regimens will be used in the comparison.
Half-life Trescot et al. (2008) posits that the half-life of a drug “is the time that it takes for its blood concentration to reduce by half” (p. 144). The plasma half-life of buprenorphine is 3-5 hours, which means that the drug plasma concentration reduces by half after 3 to 5 hours of administration.
The faster reduction in concentration of the drug when given through the sublingual route means frequent administration and this aspect underscores a setback in the management of intoxication since a more frequent dosage is required (Trescot et al., 2008). The transdermal patch also has the same half-life, but the availability is high and it provides a depot for the drug.
Methadone has a long half-life as compared to buprenorphine and this aspect can be attributed to the high lipid solubility (Trescot et al., 2008). High lipid solubility means that the drug is widely distributed in tissues, especially in fat tissue, which provides methadone with a very long elimination phase (Trescot et al., 2008).
Due to this aspect, the half-life is stated to be between 12 and 150 hours, and hence methadone may be administered once daily or longer than buprenorphine. A comparison of the two drugs shows that methadone has a longer half-life as compared to buprenorphine.
Time of onset/duration of effect The time of onset of effects of a drug is the time that passes between the administration of a drug and the patient to experience its effects. In the case of buprenorphine, the onset of effects is three to four hours after administration through the sublingual route (Murphy et al., 2013).
This onset of action is slower as compared to other opioids and it is desired where the treatment of toxicity of opioids is to be treated (Murphy et al., 2013). The onset of action for buprenorphine, while using the transdermal route, is also slower as compared to the sublingual route. The duration of action of this drug is also long and it lasts for 12-150 hours
Methadone is similar to buprenorphine in the onset of action, and the process is even slower when given orally. However, the take taken for methadone to act is longer than that of buprenorphine and this case has been reported in some literature to be 4-5 days. This observation means that methadone can be administered in longer doses duration such as once daily and its effects can last longer (Murphy et al., 2013).
Dosing regimens used The dosing regimen can be described as the formulation, route of administration, the dosage, and interval of administration of a drug (Murphy et al., 2013). Buprenorphine is available as a sublingual tablet, while methadone is available in most places as an oral liquid formulation (Murphy et al., 2013).
The onset of action for buprenorphine, as stated earlier, is slow and this characteristic is compatible with the slow onset of action that methadone has in its functioning. The buprenorphine tablets are dissolved under the tongue, while the liquid formulation of methadone is swallowed. Alternate day dosing for buprenorphine is also possible, while it is impossible for methadone.
Conclusion Opioids have been used in the management of pain for a long time and a number of factors have contributed to their preference over other classes of drugs. This paper has described some of the receptors that opioids bind to exert their effects and the receptor-drug interaction has been described by giving examples. A number of opioids are also used in the management of opioid toxicity based on the receptor interactions that they display.
The paper focused on buprenorphine to examine some of the pharmacokinetic properties of opioids. Respiratory depression was stated as a major side effect of the opioids and there are established differences between respiratory depression provided by buprenorphine and that produced by morphine. A comparison between methadone and buprenorphine was also provided in the paper.
References Griessinger, N., Sittl, R.,
The Concept of Multiculturalism in the Modern Society Essay college application essay help
Multiculturalism is a concept discussed by Siapera as regards media, but it can be used in many situations (48). Multiculturalism is the mindset which makes all people understand and respect traditions and values of other nations. All films and stories (including the texts by Fadiman or Tan), where people are not judged or presented in a biased way, but where people are ready to live in peace, are based on the concept of multiculturalism.
Identity is a very important concept for the modern society as people often have to live in another country and adopt new traditions, but they need to know who they are. Siapera stresses that identity is what construct’s people’s behavior and mindset (48). Identity helps people find their way in a new society as they can know for sure what is acceptable for them and what is not, and how to behave in different situations.
The concept of individuality is also very important as it plays an important role in the societies (Siapera 49). This concept can be used to make people (who are the majority in the society) understand that people who are seen as minority have their right to be slightly different. All people want to have their right for individuality (for example, teenagers try to express their individuality through wearing different clothes or listening to certain type of music), so having a bit different traditions is also a type of individuality.
Tan (50) considered the concept of limitation concerning language, but it can also be used to discuss cultures, traditions, etc. For example, many people do not want to make an effort and try to understand people coming from a different place and they often think that newcomers have limited knowledge of language and limited understanding of what to do in the new country.
However, these newcomers are not limited as they are simply different since they have to mix different values and different languages, and their language (mindset, etc.) is not limited but more complete.
Language of intimacy is another concept considered by Tan (47). Language of intimacy is the language which is spoken by people who are close to each other (relatives, close friends, spouses, etc.). This language can be a bit different from the language spoken in the country as this is a kind of code for those who are close and this is another proof of their close ties.
Cultural adaptation is a concepts mentioned by Fadiman who provides different examples of people’s adaptation to new ways of life (9). Of course, people coming from a different country have to adapt to be accepted in the new society. In the case of Hmong people this adaptation is giving American names to their children, but there are lots of examples in the real life where people start wearing the same clothes, speaking the same language, sharing similar values.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The concept of connectedness is mentioned by Fadiman as the author stresses that it is important to look into lots of details to understand something (13). Cultures can be understood if numerous historical events are discussed and analyzed. Some people say that this or that nation is a group of lunatics, but they simply do not know historical events that led to the tradition which they think strange, even though they tradition may have deep routed and is quite logical and necessary for some reasons.
Works Cited Fadiman, Anne. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collisions of Two Cultures, New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012. Print.
Siapera, Eugenia. Cultural Diversity and Global Media: The Mediation of Difference, Malden, MA: John Wiley
Wind Energy as Forms of Sustainable Energy Sources Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction The development of any economy heavily depends on energy supply. However, it creates problems due to the impact of energy production on climate change (Lucian, n.d.). Wind is an essential source of sustainable energy and it does not emit pollutants.
Most governments are aware of the impact of global climate changes on humans, animals, vegetation and the environment. Thus, they have opted to support renewable energy. In fact, frameworks to support the initiative have been developed in different locations. These frameworks require commitment by governments and all other stakeholders.
Wind energy is one of the various forms of sustainable energy sources. It affords security and sustainability at the local, national and regional consumer energy market. When a country taps wind energy, the dependency on foreign fossil fuels including coal and natural gases is significantly reduced.
Increase in fuel prices and other unforeseen sources of disruptions in supply of fossil fuel minimally impact on national economy (Gipe, 1993). This essay explores wind energy to identify various aspects of this energy source. These aspects include the advantages, disadvantages and the general view of energy from academic and professional perspectives.
Main Body The power of wind can be converted into electrical and mechanical energy. It can be used to pump water when the correct combination of equipment is used, propel ships or generate electricity for use in homes and industries. Big wind farms comprise of many wind turbines. The turbines are then linked to the transmission network. The energy produced here is sufficient to run a big manufacturing plant. However, smaller turbines can produce sufficient electricity for domestic use (Archer
Battle of King Saul Essay college essay help
According to the Old Testament, the people of Israel desperately needed a king during the time of Samuel. In the book of Samuel, the Israelites presented several reasons to Samuel justifying their demands for an earthly king. In fact, this was in contrast to God’s preferred model of leadership that was primarily through judges.
First, it is evident that the people were contented with the reign of Samuel as their Judge. Nevertheless, Samuel’s advancing age caused fear that he was almost dying. It was apparent that the nation’s future was unpredictable under judges, especially after Samuel appointed his sons Abijah and Joel to preside over his duties.
The people disliked the two sons for “…they did not walk in the ways of the lord…” (Halpern 209). For instance, Joel and Abijah took bribes when delivering justice, which made it difficult for people to trust them. Like the sons of Eli, Joel and Abijah perverted justice, making it evident that Israel’s sociopolitical system was no longer safe and effective.
Secondly, the people admired the political and social systems used in other nations. Most of Israel’s neighboring nations were under the rule of kings rather than judges (Halpern 209). In fact, the people believed that the king would be effective in leading them for war against other tribes and nations.
For instance, other kingdoms had kings with the ability to form strong militaries based on forced or paid labor. In addition, the people believed that a king would be effective in uniting the twelve tribes of Israel. They thought that other nations around them were militarily and socially strong because their kings were able to demand respect and cooperation from their subjects. This proved to be a difficult task for judges.
Thirdly, the Israelites were experiencing constant invasion by the Philistine army, which was relatively stronger and well organized than the Israeli militias. The philistines constantly invaded Israel, overrunning its militias (Halpern 209). In fact, the people thought that their weakness was caused by lack of a military.
To them, their judges were only using militias rather than forming career military systems. To resist the Philistines, the Israelites needed a strong leader and a strong military. Therefore, the threat posed by the Philistines increased the people’s demand for a king.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite Samuel’s warning to his subjects that a king had several negative impacts, the demand for a king was profound. Samuel was forced to seek guidance from God. On his part, God asked Samuel to anoint Saul as the first king of Israel. The choice of Saul as the first king of a united Israel was influenced by a number of factors, most of which were based on his physical appearance. For instance, he was relatively young (just 30 years), tall, noble and handsome.
He was seen as the only solution to avert the threats of invasion by neighboring states. The Philistines, Moabites, Amalekites and Ammonites were the main enemies around Israel. As a militia soldier, Saul was royal, brave and courageous. He was respected throughout Israel for his strength, physical appearance and abilities. Although the people did not choose Saul as their choice, God instructed Samuel to anoint him whenever he appeared in pursuit of his father’s donkeys.
However, Saul’s reign was rejected after a few years. Several reasons contributed to Saul’s rejection. For instance, he ignored the national traditions by offering sacrifices before going to war, a duty that was performed by God’s prophets. God, through Samuel, reprimanded Samuel for this action. Secondly, Saul disobeyed God after failing to kill the Amalekite King Agag and some of the best livestock, despite God’s instruction to kill every person and animal in the kingdom.
David was seen a better king than Saul. David displayed several factors that made him a better king than his predecessor. For instance, David was obedient to God, such that any decision he made was based on God’s advice through Samuel. Unlike Saul, David did not take the role of the prophets, but rather chose to seek for Samuel’s guidance.
David was a hero, having killed Goliath and a lion in his days as a young boy. He was also a strong king, which is shown by his ability to organize a strong army that successfully defeated most of his enemies. He was willing to listen to the will of God and his prophets. In addition, David was loyal to both God and King Saul. For instance, despite Saul’s wish to eliminate him, David spared Saul’s life, despite God presenting two opportunities to eliminate him.
Despite his wisdom and strength, Solomon made one sin that displeased God and caused the division of his kingdom after his death. Solomon’s desire for women brought foreign wives and concubines in his palace and kingdom. To satisfy these women, Solomon allowed them to keep some of their traditions, including erecting physical gods and other religious figures in the kingdom.
This contradicted God’s will and commandment “…do not worship other gods or objects …other than me…” (Hindson and Yates 56). This displeased God and caused a rebellion led by Absalom and eventually led to the division of the kingdom into two –Judah and Israel.
We will write a custom Essay on Battle of King Saul specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Halpern, Baruch. David’s Secret Demons: Messiah, Murderer, Traitor, King. Mason,OH: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Hindson, E and Yates, Gary. The Essence of the Old Testament: A Survey. New York, NY: B
Preparing a computer forensics investigation plan Essay online essay help: online essay help
How to prepare a windows-based computer for a forensic investigation Forensic investigators use specific hardware and software to examine computer systems. The increased adoption of Windows operating systems has made computer forensic investigators use Windows-based platforms as sources of digital evidence. The first step involves taking the image of the computer suspected to have crucial digital data.
If crucial evidence is suspected to be held in volatile storage, then a live analysis is conducted, but a dead analysis is performed when the evidence is thought to be contained in permanent storage disk locations. A Windows-based computer would require retrieval of information before shutting down the computer. However, if the information is thought to be contained in the permanent storage, then a computer has to be shut down before transporting it to a laboratory for forensic analysis.
A computer forensics expert should be careful not to change data held in non-volatile storage when powering down the computer. When using a Microsoft Windows system, the information stored in non-volatile storage could be prevented from interference by removing the power cord from the socket (Nelson, Phillips
Biblical basis of Jesus’ Humanity and Deity Essay essay help online: essay help online
The doctrine of ‘The Two Natures of Jesus’ suggest that Jesus possessed two forms- divine and human. The ‘Hypostatic Union’ suggests that Jesus was born as a human. In the bible, there are several evidences that supporting the idea that Jesus was a human and a God. For instance, the humanity of Jesus was displayed when he was born from a human womb.
In addition, the bible states that Jesus assumed and portrayed various characteristics of humans such as anger, hunger and thirst. For instance, Jesus became tired and weary, hungry and thirsty (KJV 1234). In addition, Jesus portrayed human emotions such as sorrow and grief. Moreover, it is worth noting that upon his death, Jesus shed blood and other body fluids that are common biological aspects of humans.
On the other hand, the bible provides evidence that Jesus was a deity. Unlike humans, Jesus portrayed several aspects of a supernatural being. For instance, Jesus is considered as the ‘Most High’. Although he was born from a human womb, he surpassed the biological process of sexual reproduction because no male genes were involved during his conception.
In addition, Jesus displayed extraordinary knowledge as a small child, which was not common in other people. Most writers in the Bible claim that Jesus was God. For instance, Titus says that the followers of Jesus were looking for the appearance of the great God and Savior, Jesus Christ.
In the bible, Jesus existed as God and Human at the same time. According to the doctrine of Hypostatic Union, Jesus’ existence in two forms is necessary for ensuring a close relationship between man and God. God wanted to provide humans with an example of how he wants humans to live and behave.
He used his son Jesus as a lamb by turning him into a human form in order to allow humans interact with him through his son. This was the rationale behind Jesus’ existence as a man and deity. Therefore, by being both human and deity, Jesus’ life means that every person has the right and opportunity for salvation through the blood that he shed on the cross.
The necessity of Jesus’ reincarnation after his death is evident in religion. First, Jesus had to experience the kind of suffering and death that humans undergo in order to show God’s dedication to save his people. Secondly, Jesus resurrected after three days because God wanted to show his power over humanity and death.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More God wanted to show that he reigns over humanity and nature. He has the power over death. In addition, God wanted to show that Jesus was his son whom he had sent to the world to suffer in order to save humanity from sins perpetrated by Satan. The reincarnation of Jesus proves to humans that there is another life after death. It was supposed to show God’s people that their actions determine the kind of life an individual will lead after death.
For those who keep the word of God and believe in Jesus and his teachings, they will be forgiven for their sins through the blood of Christ, which means that they will get eternal life after death. Since Jesus died and resurrected, it is a lesson to humans that their sins are only forgiven through the blood of Jesus, who died but resurrected because he was the son of God.
Although the doctrine of the two forms of Jesus is questionable, there are some dangers associated with overemphasizing or denying that Jesus was a man and a deity. For instance, by denying that Jesus was a man, a person seems to be denying the fact that Jesus came to the world to save humans from sin.
On the other hand, doubting that Jesus was God shows that one is denying the fact that Jesus was sent by God and is God himself. It is considered a sin because it is equal to doubting the existence of Jesus, which means that a person will be denying the existence of God. Nevertheless, the traditional understanding of Christology is under constant objections. For instance, it is thought that Jesus was part of the trinity rather than God himself. In other words, Jesus cannot be God but is a part of the Holy trinity (KJV 3456).
In his human form, Jesus provides a good example of how humanity should exist. For instance, he cares for the welfare of other people and emphasizes on the law of love and forgiveness.
In this way, he provides an example of how peace and justice can be achieved in the modern world. In the modern times, most of the social problems in social systems result from lack of concern for the other person. Individualism and greed for power and/or wealth have created a society in which people compete for earthly things while ignoring the fact that God wanted us to care for each other.
Works Cited The King James Version (KJV). Ed. Susan Jones. New York: Doubleday, 1985. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Biblical basis of Jesus’ Humanity and Deity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Merger, Acquisition, and International Strategies Report argumentative essay help
The company Kraft Foods Group is one of the leading packaged food and beverage companies worldwide. The company’s net revenues are $18.3 billion and it has assets of more than $23 billion (Kraft Foods Inc., 2012). The company operates mainly in the USA and Canada, but it also collaborates with distributors who sale their products in other countries. The company sells its products to retail chains. Notably, Wal-Mart accounted for “approximately 25%” of the company’s “combined net revenues” (Kraft Foods Inc., 2012, p. 3).
The company, named J.L. Kraft
Sears’ Mission and Vision Paper Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help
Currently, vision and mission statements have been diluted in the business world to the extent that they have become less significant (Whiteley, 2007). As such, visions and missions have been mainly identified with unenthusiastic connotations. Nonetheless, when utilized appropriately vision and mission statements have proved to be very helpful.
Poorly structured vision and mission statements are misplaced opportunities for drawing and enhancing organizational culture, enhancing productivity, and drawing and preserving new talent. Researchers have shown that corporations that have distinct vision and mission statements that are supported with tactical strategies do better than those who do not (Whiteley, 2007).
Therefore, vision and mission statements offer organizations with bearing. Through this, corporations can be able to implement actions that guide their businesses forward and keep away from allocating capital to actions that do not (Whiteley, 2007). In their absence, the organizations will find it very difficult to come up with a unified plan. In this article, mission and vision statement of Sears Holdings is analyzed.
Sears Holdings’ mission statement assert that the corporation is focused on expanding their businesses by means of offering excellent goods and services at a huge value when and where their clients require them, and by creating optimistic, permanent relations with their clients (Shop internationally at Sears, 2014).
On the other hand, the corporation’s vision is to be the favored and be the most reliant store for goods and services that improve home and family lives. Based on the above mission and vision statements, the organization aims are augmenting their clients’ trust, acting with honesty in all they do, treating all persons fairly, being answerable for their acts, and winning as a group.
Currently, there are over 4000 Sears’s stores in North America. Despite its growth, the company is currently fighting to gain profits. At the present, the company’s production is worsening on all levels amid a cutthroat environment. In the recent past, the company recorded murky Q1 incomes resulting in a huge net loss of $2.62 per share (Shop internationally at Sears, 2014).
The precipitous slide was way below what the analysts had anticipated at a loss of $0.60 per share. In the same report, the company’s revenues had decreased by nine percent to $8.74 billion. The slide was below what financial forecasters had predicted at $8.74 billion. The company’s management team blamed the adverse weather for the losses. However, their claims fail to validate for the deterioration in the struggling Kmart sections.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s financial records indicate that the corporation sales have been declining for the past six years. The only optimistic performance was that the company recorded a growth of 20% in its online sales (Shop internationally at Sears, 2014). Nonetheless, an increase in online sales does not imply that the company is in a turnaround process. Without immediate interventions, the company is expected to perform poorly through to the year 2016.
To reduce on the losses and to stage a comeback, the corporation has put in place measure that will ensure that it gets lean, focus on men’s clothing, and concentrate more on their core services.
Notably, for the last few years the organization has been able to operate majorly owing to trades of its real estate section. The shutdown of a number of its Kmart stores has helped the corporation reduce its operation costs. However, the shutdown of a number of its store is not enough for the company to get lean. The company should invest hugely in the remaining stores.
Equally, strict inventory management has helped the company from increasing its losses. Despite this, it is apparent that Sears is short of the one vital thing that will enable it to turnaround. As such, the company should come up with an appropriate plan that will enable it to reverse the declining losses and return to their prestigious position in the market. Through this, the corporations can be able to implement actions that guide their businesses forward and keep away from allocating capital to actions that do not.
A good vision statement should indicate what the business is all about, where the business wants to be in the future, the clients the organizations wants to engage relate to, and connect with the mission and be different from it (Carpenter, Bauer,
Obama’s Administration Seeking Peace with Iran Essay argumentative essay help
Last year, the United States and other major world powers arrived at a deal with the Islamic Republic of Iran over its contentious nuclear plan (Global issues 205). The deal is referred to as The Interim Iranian Nuclear Pact.
The deal allows the Islamic Republic of Iran to enhance uranium to a maximum of 5%, discontinue increasing its enrichment ability, and to permit more IAEA checkups. During the signing of the deal, Obama asserted that through the agreement the world began a journey on a new trail to a safer future where everyone will be certain that Iran’s nuclear plan is nonviolent.
The Iranian leaders were pleased with the deal. The country’s president Hassan Rouhani asserted that the agreement confirmed his country’s right to enrichment (Global issues 205). During the talks, Rouhani acknowledged that his country in the past had never made any intentions to acquire nuclear weapons.
He asserted that those who had been spreading the allegations were historical jokers. Through this, he praised the negotiators for the deal. Ever since Obama’s administrations began seeking peace with the Iranian government in the year 2009, critics have always termed the move a step towards the wrong direction. This article seeks to confirm on the critics’ assertion that indeed the US administration is committing an error by seeking peace with Iran.
Obama’s administration and the other governments who participated in the deal believe that the Iranian President Hasan Rouhani has offered appropriate evidence to prove that he is a modest leader aiming at advancing his country’s relationship with the West. I believe that those who participated in the agreement assume that the deal would address global anxiety about the Iranian nuclear plan. In contrast, I believe that the initiative was ill advised.
Based on Rouhani’s statements and acts after the signing of the deal, I believe that Obama’s administration should have been more vigilant with the Iranian government before seeking their friendship. In my opinion, Rouhani’s administration is not different from his predecessor’s administration. Equally, I believe that the Iranian government does not intend to stop its plans to acquire nuclear weapons. In this regard, I believe that Obama’s administration has made crucial mistakes.
When compared to the past Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Rouhani is definitely very unusual. Unlike Ahmadinejad, the new president identifies himself with the West and is well acquainted with social media. His records indicate that he undertook his undergraduate course in Scotland and talks in fluent English.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His speech to the U.N. General Assembly was concise and appealing. The speech appealed for lenience, promised that his country will in no way try to acquire nuclear weapons, and assured everyone that his country posed no threat to the world peace (Sofaer
Managers and Leaders Role in an Organization Essay best essay help
Managers and leaders fall under leadership and management categories within an organization; therefore, the two must go hand in hand. However, leadership and management are not the same. Therefore, a manager and a leader have different roles within an organization.
As a leader involves people in the running of a firm through empowering and directing them to do activities in the right way, managers, on the other hand, are concerned with doing things right irrespective of other key aspects like the dreams, vision, and future of both employees and the company. Managers act as supervisors. According to Warren Bennis, “Managers do things right but leaders do the right things” (Leadership is not the same as Management, 2011).
A further illustration of the differences shows that a leader acts as a guider while managers manage tasks. In this aspect, leaders can inspire employees, thus motivating them to work towards achieving the strategic goals and objectives of the company, as well as assisting them overcome their weaknesses. Managers control people and systems, with less one-on-one engagement with workers.
Again, leaders never accept situations the way they are; they are risk-takers and have innovative minds to meet challenges in order to get the best out of any strategy (What is the Difference Between Management and Leadership?, n.d.). With little time to challenges the way things are in an organization, managers often accept the way a system operates.
In HRM, managers are involved in planning, organizing, staffing, monitoring, developing, and assessing business operations (Hickman, 1990). As the overall in management, managers have to be problem solvers, decision makers, and cheerleaders. The mentioned roles and responsibilities require that a manager have to possess varied skills, from technical, human to conceptual skills, in order to handle different situations within the management.
A leader has the responsibility to direct, coach, support, and delegate tasks to employees. In delegating tasks, leaders give employees opportunities to increase their skill base, as well as carry out fairness in rating of employees in order to win their commitments unconditionally.
Leaders believe in collective responsibility as away of accomplishing goals and objectives of an organization (Gilley, 2005). Since leaders have to be accountable to almost all final decisions and their impacts, they have to ensure that everyone comprehends clearly their duties. Clearly, it is the role of a leader to inform and educate his/her followers on what they should do.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Given that the entire concepts involved in leadership entail negotiation and guidance, a good leader have to be non-political in assigning and explaining the roles and responsibilities of the subordinates, as the move makes the process objective.
After delegating activities and coaching employees, leaders should be confident that the staff would be capable of meeting their targets, and even be ready to give advice to those who come back during the process.
In role clarification, leaders have to ensure that job descriptions do not have overlap of responsibilities (Leadership
The Performance Appraisal System at Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online: essay help online
Performance appraisal systems are necessary to provide employees with the opportunity to develop their professional potential and to be assessed and rewarded according to the efforts. That is why, to meet the managers’ needs to assess the employees’ performance, the performance appraisal systems should respond to such criteria as relevance, sensitivity, reliability, and acceptability (York 157).
These criteria are important to be taken into account while discussing the effectiveness of the performance appraisal system used at Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation. Sikorsky Aircraft chooses to use the general performance appraisal system appropriate for all the company’s departments, and it is necessary to assess the system’s effectiveness along with proposing the variants for the system’s improvement.
The managers at Sikorsky Aircraft focus on the aspects of the employees’ performance as the prompts to plan compensation and rewards. Providing competitive salaries as a result of analyzing the employees’ experience and performance, the company’s managers need the effective performance appraisal system.
The existing system depends on the overall performance rating, formal review of the annual performance, and on the analysis of the achievement of the individual goals with references to the Individual Development Plan. Having analyzed the results of the performance appraisal activities, the company’s managers conclude about the necessity for employees to improve the performance with the help of training and development programs (“Sikorsky: Performance Culture”).
In spite of the fact that the described performance appraisal system is used at Sikorsky Aircraft during a long period of time, it cannot be discussed as sensitive and reliable, and the system can be improved to contribute to the employees’ productivity and motivation. The three specific ways to improve the company’s performance appraisal system are the shift to using graphic rating scales, the use of the “My Dream Job” approach to the assessment of the employees’ performance, and the focus on the special training needs assessments.
The use of graphic rating scales can help managers discuss the employees’ performance with references to their individual skills, talents, abilities, and experiences which respond to the company’s goals. The effective graphic rating scales should assess employees with references to the set job tasks, expected levels of performance, and performance dimensions or anchors (York 177). As a result, the manager can compare the employees’ performance according to the scale and conclude about feedbacks, rewards, and bonuses.
The “My Dream Job” approach to the assessment of the employees’ performance is the focus on the employee’s vision of his or her career development and professional growth within the company (York 197).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although the managers of Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation assist employees to develop the individual plans, the information presented in the plans is not enough to decide about the employees’ priorities and goals. The assessment of the employees’ skills and experiences with references to the idea of the dream job can be more effective to focus on the employees’ individual potential.
The next necessary improvement is the development of the training needs assessments because they are important to determine the employees’ skills which should be developed as a result of training (York 202). Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation proposes a range of training and development programs, but the more sensitive approach to determine the employees for participation in programs should be used with references to the improved training needs assessments which can present the data on the employees’ strong and weak features.
Although Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation operates the developed performance appraisal system, some improvements should be added to the system in order to respond to such criteria as relevance, sensitivity, reliability, and acceptability.
Works Cited Sikorsky: Performance Culture. 2014. Web. .
York, Kenneth. Applied Human Resource Management. USA: SAGE Publications, 2009. Print.
Across Cultures, English is the Word Essay essay help
Across Cultures, English is the Word is an article written by Seth Mydans and published in The New York Times on April 9, 2007. The article argues that English has conquered the world in a manner that no other language has done (Mydans, 2007). The author speculates that in the near future English will become a global language.
A number of critics have come up to criticize his view. The critics argue that prominence of the English language will reduce in the future in the same way the Latin language did in the 16th century. The above critics believe that for a specific language to be determined as the global language of the future it must meet certain conditions.
Mydans wrote the article to inform his audience about the universality of English and the possibility of its continuation. In fact, most students are aware that English is a global language. However, through the article the author instills pride among them. On the other hand, Mydans’ article informs non-English speaking students that there is a need for them to learn the language.
As such, English will enable them to associate with more people than any other language would do. Based on the above arguments, it is apparent that the article’s main audience comprises of students and scholars of rhetoric who speak English as their first or second language. These are the native and non-native English speakers.
The author’s secondary audience is comprised of scholars who do not speak English. The writer wanted to enhance a sense of pride among the English speakers, whereas for the non-English speakers the writer wanted to motivate them to learn the language so that they can fit into the tomorrow’s global society.
The article makes use of ethos to emphasize the topic of discussion. Using statistics as substantiation, Mydans supplied an impetus for action. To substantiate on his claims, he uses findings from professional linguists. For instance, he mentions a renowned linguist from the Institute of Manhattan, John McWhorter.
McWhorter believes that there is no known language, which can replace English as a global one. The author refers to some English experts in parts of his article. In the article, David Crystal, a professional in English language, is mentioned. The author states that Crystal believes that humanity has transformed so significantly in the recent past that history should not be used as a lead to future anymore.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another expert mentioned in the article is Mark Warschauer. Warschauer is a lecturer at the University of California. He teaches languages and informatics (Mydans, 2007). With regard to Warschauer’s findings, the author asserts that to be educated globally one has to be acquainted with English. All through the article, the author substantiates the facts by acknowledging their sources.
In the article, the major argument is about whether English evolution will survive for the next centuries. Critics have argued that several common languages have been spoken in the past centuries. They assert that every language has been spoken at its own time (Mydans, 2007). Therefore, there is the rise and the fall of every common language. Equally, the critics believe that this era is the time for English to thrive as a common language.
In the future, the language may die like some other languages such as Phoenician and Sogdian. The author argues against this idea by suggesting that English is here to stay. As such, he argues that English has conquered the world in a manner that no other language has done. He speculates that in the near future English will become a global language. As indicated above, he refers to some linguists’ findings as his support to prove that what happened in the past does not dictate what will happen in the future.
Other arguments represented in the article focus on whether the language belongs to the native English speakers and whether the future of the language will retain its rules of grammar and pronunciation. Unlike some individuals, the author believes that English will no longer belong to the native English speakers in the future. He speculates that all English speakers will be the owners of the language irrespective of their cultures or geographical regions.
The writer’s attitude toward the subject matter is positive. Throughout the article, his choice of words indicates that he is certain that English will become a common language spoken across all the nations in the future. He mentions his critics, but he does not provide the readers with the detailed information or the effects of the criticisms on the subject matter.
Newspapers and other publications can be categorized into different genres. Across Cultures, English is the Word is a feature article (Mydans, 2007). Notably, the writing style employed in the article is different from the styles used in the news articles. Unlike the news reports, this article is longer and more detailed. In the article, the writer referred to several existing works implying that several hours were spent on researches before the article’s facts were written.
Equally, more time was spent on finding a way to articulate the facts in a manner that would please and attract attention of the readers. After reading through the article, I noted that the article embodies all the characteristics of feature article genre. As such, the article is well researched, attracts the attention of the readers, and pleases the audience.
We will write a custom Essay on Across Cultures, English is the Word specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the heading of the article to the way the paragraphs have been organized, it is apparent that the article is effective in passing its main points to the audience. The introductory paragraph sets the tone of the writing captivating the reader to read more of the article. Even non-native English students would be tempted to read the article.
The author’s goals are clearly stated in the article. His main goals were to inform his audience that English is spreading at an alarming rate. In the article, all the supporting arguments are relevant to the main topic. Through this, the readers would not be distracted. Equally, the author uses simple words in the article to communicate his messages to the audience. Throughout the article, neither jargons nor clichés have been used. In addition, the writer uses short sentences and short paragraphs.
I believe that the intended readers of this article have shared values and assumptions. Most of the English-speaking students and scholars unlike other languages’ scholars do have much interest in learning non-English languages compared to the interest the non-English speaking students have in learning the language. The lack of enthusiasm comes from the assumption that everyone will be conversant with English in the future.
Reference Mydans, S. (2007, April 9). Across cultures, English is the word -The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/09/world/asia/09iht-englede.1.5198685.html?pagewanted=all
Treatment Factors that Affect Adolescent Substance Treatment Placement Term Paper best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Adolescence is an important period of individual growth and development in which people go through remarkable physical, psychological, social, and biological changes as they near adulthood. These changes take place concurrently without the knowledge of the individuals undergoing the changes.
The changes as well as the psychosocial factors revolving around the adolescents make them a unique group, especially regarding substance abuse and treatment of substance abuse problems. This paper is a critical analysis of the factors affecting the treatment of adolescents with substance abuse problems.
Developmental Stages Counselors and health care providers who work with adolescents with substance abuse problems ought to have a good comprehension of the biological and sociopsychological processes that adolescents go through (Susman
The Civil Rights Act as a Milestone Element of American Legislation Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Civil Rights Act The Civil Rights Act is a milestone element of American civil rights legislation that seeks to prohibit discrimination based on a number of aspects such as gender, religion, nationality, ethnicity, and race.
Although the Civil Rights Act has undergone several amendments, the Civil Right Act amendment of 1964 was the main amendment that addressed the above types of discrimination (Lawson 22). Moreover, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 removed discrimination in learning institutions, at work and other facilities termed as “public accommodations.”
These institutions are entities, whether public or private, that are for public use in the US. President Kennedy proposed these changes in response to some experiences of racial based violence in the southern region (Bowron 20). According to the Act, all public accommodations must be accessible to every person regardless of his or her color, race, national origin or religion.
Improving on the Civil Rights Act of 1875, the 1964 amendment introduced clauses seeking to prohibit discrimination in all state facilities. It also gave the Attorney General the power to support court cases against state agents that support or perpetrate segregation in schools.
However, the proposal did not accommodate some provisions considered important by civil rights activists. For instance, it did not consider giving the department of Justice the authority to start court cases on job discrimination or desegregation, stopping discrimination in private sectors, and public protection against law enforcement cruelty.
The Civil Right Act of 1968 aimed at introducing housing rights as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act 1964. It discriminated any act that tends to discriminate individuals based on color, race, creed, ethnicity or origin when providing housing opportunities (Branch 73). The Act allowed the federal government to make it an offense to intimidate, injure, force, threaten using force, or restrict someone based on nationality, color, ethnicity, or race.
Moreover Civil Right Act of 1968 (Title VIII) is known the “Fair Housing Act” and was intended to enhance the Civil Right Act of 1866,which had banned different forms of discrimination in housing, federal crime was not included in the proposal. The Fair Housing Act banned any discrimination regarding finance, leasing, and sale of housing based on nationality, religious grounds, and race (Conroy 621).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, although it did not have much impact during its early years, the Civil Rights Act of 1968 had a significant influence on succeeding legislation processes. For example, it supported the American with Disabilities Act of 1990, which removed discrimination against people with disabilities. This issue had not been addressed in America before the enactment of the Civil Rights of 1964 (“Lyndon Johnson Signs Civil Rights Act of 1964”).
Voting Rights Act Voting Rights Act of 1965 is an important element of federal legislation that banned any form of discrimination during voter registration and voting. President Johnson signed the Act into law in response to various civil right movements.
To improve voter protection, the Congress made five changes in the original proposal. In order to impose the voting rights assured by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 had criminalized discrimination against racial minorities. This Act is one of the most valuable elements of civil rights legislations in the country (“African-Americans Vote in South Carolina”).
The Voting Rights Act allowed the federal government to oversee elections. Supporting the statement in the Fifteenth Amendment, the Voting Rights Act forbids all states or agents from enforcing any voting requirement, process, practice, or standards that may cause rejection or violation of voting rights based on minority status or race. Along with this general ban, the proposal explicitly bars literacy tests and other tools that were traditionally used to discriminate minorities during voting (Branch 91).
The Voting Rights Act is made up of two main provisions- special provisions and general provisions. While General provisions address national issues, the special provisions address particular local government or states. These two provisions are intended to provide protection of voting rights based on language and racial minorities. The special provisions support “persons who are American Indian, Asian American, Alaskan Natives or of Spanish heritage” (Conroy 664).
Section 5 of the Act addresses special provisions by prohibiting authorities from enforcing any law that may influence voting process without initially passing through the “preclearance” process. Preclearance process permits changes after confirmation from the judge panel or the Attorney General (Lawson 36). The changes in voting process are only allowed if they do not have any influence on race or language status.
The Congress has made some changes in 2006, 1992, 1982, 1975, and 1970 on the Voting Rights Act. In all these changes (except 1992), the Congress improved the preclearance standards. For instance, the coverage formula was improved in 1970 and 1975. In addition, section 2 was updated in 1982 and bans any discriminative voting law (Conroy 664).
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Civil Rights Act as a Milestone Element of American Legislation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These are laws that have a discriminatory effect or purpose, which was banned regardless of whether they were passed or sustained for a discriminatory purpose. Moreover, the latest amendment of 2006 has updated various protections that offered the Department of Justice the ability to approve any voting changes, monitoring during Election Day and allowing language assistance.
Noteworthy, the voting Rights Act has allowed a free and equal voting process. The voting rights have been protected because the Act provides the minority groups with various privileges to vote during all elections.
Works Cited “African-Americans Vote in South Carolina.” Prime News., BBC, New York, 23 Mar. 1965. Television.
“Lyndon Johnson Signs Civil Rights Act of 1964.” Prime News., BBC., New York, 27 Mar. 1964. Television.
Bowron, Aaron. “Celebrating the Progress of Michigan’s Civil Rights Laws.” Michigan Bar Journal 2.3 (2012): 20-21. Print.
Branch, Taylor. Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years 1963–65, New York: Simon
Mrázová and Celec Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Reasons behind the use of Sound Therapy
Different Levels of Appreciation
Introduction The analysis of Mrázová and Celec explained that music/sound therapy can create a positive effect on an individual since it helps to calm their nerves and induce feelings of relaxation, peace and security. This is one of the reasons why music/sound therapy has become an increasingly popular method of addressing the problem of stress caused by environmental sounds.
However, it must be questioned what aspect of music/sound therapy actually contributes the most towards a better mental state. In certain cases it has been shown that the higher the decibel level of the ambient noise produced (applied through music/sound therapy or even through the general environment), the greater the adverse impact on the human body.
This means that just because a person plays loud music to counter the ambient environmental noise does not mean that this constitutes proper music/sound therapy. It is based on this that this study will examine two characteristics of music/sound therapy, namely sound and rhythm. This study assumes that sound, while an important component of musical therapy is supplanted in its level of importance by rhythm due to the ability of the latter to induce positive psychological reactions.
Reasons behind the use of Sound Therapy From the point of view of Maguire, daily sounds associated with human activity (i.e. ranging from the sounds of ship engines, the noise heard during the construction of a nearby building or the general environmental noise brought about by cars) can cause an adverse reaction in the human body (Maguire 947-961).
This is one of the reasons why the term “noise pollution” came into being within the past 40 years or so due to the effect that loud environmental sounds had on the human psyche and body. As a result, prolonged exposure resulted in a continued deterioration of an individual’s mental and physical health to the point that it can cause significant health problems in the future.
The O’Callaghan study which attempted to examine the problems associated with noise pollution stated that some of the common symptoms of sound induced psychological stress come in the form of higher levels of stress hormones as well as an increase in the amount of headaches a person gets (O’Callaghan 779-788).
It can also have an impact on the body creating issues with a person’s blood pressure, heart rate and has even been shown in the most extreme cases to cause strokes in the individuals that have been exposed to adverse environmental sounds (O’Callaghan 779-788).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Psychological symptoms often come in the form of anger management issues, high stress as well as being agitated easily (O’Callaghan 779-788). This was evidenced by the study of Mrázová and Celec which noted similar symptoms in animals that were in areas with high concentrations of predators and had to be constantly on guard against threats. (Mrázová and Celec 1089-1095)
Through such an analysis it can be assumed that if loud annoying environmental sounds can cause an adverse physiological and psychological reaction, then the reverse could also be true wherein soft, soothing sounds can create a positive physiological and psychological reaction (Mrázová and Celec 1089-1095).
Sound Sound, within the context of music/sound therapy, is the backbone of the process wherein through the use of soft and melodious music; a person is invited to enter into a state of complete and utter peace. Depending on the type of sound utilized, ranging from sound waves, singing, violin playing and an assortment of other types of sources, sound can induce different kinds of internal psychological reactions in a person.
The study of Mrázová and Celec, which examined the effect of sound waves on children, showed that when exposed to different types of sound, children were more likely to express different emotional states. It was determined that loud sounds often annoyed children while on the other hand soft and melodious sounds usually calmed them down. Not all sounds though are created equal in terms of their positive impact on a person’s psychological state.
The music of Beethoven, Chopin, Mandel and other such composers supposedly help to calm the mind, however, the Abrams study stated that patients preferred the sound of gentle ocean waves, the soft strumming of a guitar or the sound of rain as a better method of relaxation (Abrams 114-119). The apparent basis behind these responses was explained by Abrams as being connected to the general rhythm and repetitiveness found in the sound of rain, ocean waves and the soft strumming of a guitar.
Rhythm Rhythm, within the context of music/sound therapy, refers to the regulated movement of sound/music based on a series of successive strong and weak elements. In essence, rhythm refers to the way in which sound goes through a cycle of different beats, tempos and patterns to create a coordinated output.
When applied to music therapy, various researchers such as Cutshall explain that proper rhythm applied in sound therapy induces a more therapeutic reaction as compared to merely exposing a person to an assortment of sounds (Cutshall 16-23).
We will write a custom Essay on Mrázová and Celec specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What Cutshall is attempting to say is that the different types of rhythm evident in various types of sounds can create differing levels of psychological reactions. This is one of the reasons why in the Abrams study the participants explained that they preferred the sound of rain, ocean waves and the soft strumming of a guitar as compared to the work of Beethoven, Chopin, Mandel and other such composers.
It is the general repetitiveness of the rhythm evident in the aforementioned “nature sounds” that is more appealing to an individual as compared to the overly complex sounds evidently found in the music of Beethoven (Sekiya 1). This is not to say that any type of sound would work, rather, when it comes to music therapy soft sounds combined with an equally soft and steady repetitive rhythm seems to work better than overly complex music (Sekiya1).
For example, the unique aspect of the song “Drifting” by Andy McKee is that even though he is merely using a simple string guitar he is able to derive a variety of different tones from a single instrument. There is no singing, no overly elaborate background music, no wailing, shouting, or cursing rather the entire song is the embodiment of simplicity with just one person plucking away at a single instrument.
Yet, despite the utter lack of accompaniment the very texture of the song is vibrant, at times overwhelming yet calming. It distinguishes itself from other songs in that the melody is a combination of short plucking combined with idle strumming. It could be considered slightly repetitive due to the rhythmic quality of the plucking involved however this is accompanied by several incorporations of slight strumming which helps to break the repetitive quality of the plucking.
It is this very repetitiveness that makes the song easy to remember and identifiable with a conjunctive motion that helps to develop its melodic quality and likeability. Doing a brief YouTube search of the song and merely listening to it is evidence enough of how simplicity in sound and repetitiveness in rhythm help to immediately calm a person down.
Different Levels of Appreciation Before proceeding, it was determined that a brief overview should be done regarding the different types of musical appreciation out there and how this impacts the ability of a person to actually be affected by certain types of music therapy.
First and foremost, different genres of music appeal to different listeners and different time periods in music appeal to fans from different time periods. Rock music was adopted by teenagers due to its apparent “shock value” to older generations due to the overtly sexual, anti-establishment and aggressive quality of the songs.
Rock music was used as a means of distinction, a manner in which teenagers at the time defined themselves as being separate from the distinctions associated with older generations. As such, rock music composers followed this trend by composing songs in such a way so as to incorporate aggressiveness, anti-establishment and sexuality in the way the songs were sung or played.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mrázová and Celec by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The reason rock music is mentioned is due to the fact that music created by Beethoven, Chopin and Mandel may not be as appreciated or liked by members of the current generation as compared to the previous generation (Rapoport, Eliezer and Blass 37-60). Thus, if such music is used in their music therapy sessions, it is unlikely that it would be as effective due to the lack of general appreciation the current generation would have towards the music (Rapoport, Eliezer and Blass 37-60).
This particular piece of information helps to support the argument that focusing on rhythm instead of sound in music therapy is more important since sounds related to falling rain, ocean beaches and the light strumming of a guitar helps to cross the generational barrier resulting in more or less equal levels of appreciation.
Conclusion The issue with high pitched, loud or otherwise annoying environmental sound has been determined by Maguire to be a form of stressor. This can be defined as an outside factor that impacts the ability of normal individuals to continue on with their daily tasks due to increased mental stress which can cause an adverse psychological and physiological reaction over the long term.
The inherent problem with the modern day environment is that in most cases you cannot simply turn off the ambient environmental sounds off with a switch. The perceived physical and psychological reactions brought about by high levels of ambient environmental sound has been theorized as a holdover phenomenon from humanity’s evolution wherein perceived loud noises acted as an external trigger reaction towards a predatory presence.
This is where sound therapy enters into the equation. Based on the findings of this study, it was shown that sound, while an important component of musical therapy is supplanted in its level of importance by rhythm due to the ability of the latter to induce positive psychological reactions.
This shows that merely exposing a person to loud sound would be the same as noise pollution and, as such, music/sound therapy needs an appropriate rhythm to the music/sound that is being played to be effective. The reason why this examination was done was so that better processes in music/sound therapy can be created so as to improve the rate by which patients are helped.
Works Cited Abrams, Brian. “Understanding music as a temporal-aesthetic way of being: implications for a general theory of music therapy.” Arts in Psychotherapy 38.2 (2011): 114-119. Print
Cutshall, Susanne. “Effect of the combination of music and nature sounds on pain and anxiety in cardiac surgical Patients.” Alternative Therapies in Health
Effect of Oil Spills on Seafood Report college application essay help: college application essay help
Purpose Statement The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of oil spills on seafood. It will also identify and discuss various solutions to the effects. Moreover, it will recommend measures that can be taken to prevent future oil spills in the sea.
Introduction This paper will shed light on the extent to which seafood has been adversely affected by oil spills. Although the effects of oil spills on seafood are numerous, this paper will focus only on three major effects. Empirical studies indicate that oil can adversely affect the health of sea plants and animals that come into contact with it. In this regard, it can contaminate seafood, thereby affecting the health of coastal populations negatively. Thus, oil spills are major problems that have to be addressed in order to prevent contamination of seafood.
Background An oil spill refers to “an accidental release of liquid petroleum (crude or refined) into the environment, especially, large water bodies such as oceans” (Kaushik, 2006, p. 96). Seas provide seafood such as fish, crabs, shrimps, lobsters, seaweeds, and microalgae. Thus, discussing the effects of oil spills is important because it can provide insights that may help in maintaining a reliable supply of safe and high quality seafood.
History of Oil Spills In the last four decades, increased exploration and transportation of oil through seas has led to several incidents of oil spills. In 1979, 140 million gallons of crude oil spilt into the Gulf of Mexico due to an accidental explosion in an oil well. In the same year, two oil tankers collided near the coast of Tobago, thereby spilling 88 million gallons of oil in the Caribbean Sea. In 2010, an explosion at the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig led to discharge of over 5 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (Trevors
Introduction To Cross-Cultural Psychology Paper Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Cultural psychology
Cultural psychology Cultural psychology is defined by involving culture as a significant factor in determining psychological and behavioral elements in an individual. From this perspective, individuals derive behaviors from close association with the immediate cultural environment. Alternatively, culture is also established from a set of commonly held behaviors among people living under the same environmental conditions.
Cultural psychology involves studying how cultural practices evolve and affect human behavior and vice versa. In this regard, understanding how cultural psychology regulates an individual’s psychology is necessary to psychologists. In addition, learning behavioral tendencies acknowledged by another individual from similar cultural background is critical in cultural psychology. However, cultural psychology does not involve psychological processes as compared to cross-cultural psychology.
Cross-cultural psychology Cross-cultural psychology involves learning how different elements of a culture influence an individual’s behavior. From this perspective, this branch of psychology acknowledges that a culture is made up of various elements such as customs, values, stereotypes and attitudes. Moreover, cross-cultural psychology unearths the similarities and differences among world cultures, and how they are expressed by different groups of people.
This justifies the commonality of behaviors replicated among diverse cultures. In this regard, cross-cultural psychology tries to define universal behaviors and how they impact individual behaviors, as well as family life and social experiences. Unlike cultural psychology, cross-cultural psychology involves the study of emotions, child development personalities, social behaviors and language acquisition.
In cross-cultural psychology, individuals’ behaviors are best understood from an ideological perspective. Therefore, understanding indigenous ideologies shared among people of the same culture is vital in this branch of psychology. Cross-cultural psychology evaluates the applicability of cultural diversity under several environmental situations. For example, understanding cultural diversity is essential in solving life challenges by applying same cultural behaviors among diverse groups of people.
The relationship The relationship between cultural and cross-cultural psychology is from a definition point of view. In this regard, both definitions suggest that the relationship between cultures has an impact on human behavior and vice versa. However, cultural psychology examines cultural influences on individuals living within a predetermined region.
On the other hand, cross-cultural psychology compares similarities and differences across diverse cultures from different regions. An in-depth analysis on cultural psychology reveals that cross-cultural psychology studies are based on data collected from cultural psychology.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that data collected from cultural psychology provides a framework and a background to conduct a cross-cultural psychology study. Another relationship between cultural and cross-cultural psychology is evidenced by psychological processes. For example, cultural psychology depends on processes such as individual goals and cognitive ability at the individual level.
Cross-cultural psychology is influenced by processes experienced at individual and interpersonal levels. Some of the processes evidenced at the interpersonal level include interpersonal communication skills, family and social influence. Cultural psychology focuses its study on the systematic link between a predetermined culture and a set of psychological variables. On the other hand, a cross-cultural psychology study is only meaningful when a comparison of at least two cultures from different socio-cultural contexts is conducted.
Critical thinking Critical thinking is crucial in providing the right approach and perspective towards problem solving. Cross-cultural psychology studies involve problem-solving procedures that are systematic and scientific in nature. In this regard, critical thinking is important in analyzing statistics and presenting findings as facts. In addition, critical thinking is used to assess formulated hypotheses as a matter of differentiating speculations from facts.
Cross-cultural psychology involves using individual intellect when observing opinions and analyzing data. Consequently, this requires an intellectual perspective that understands the uniqueness of the underlying social phenomenon. Critical thinking is considered to be a meta-thought necessary in reducing biases evidenced in scientific studies. Critical thinking has the capacity of achieving accurate information and preventing general assumptions from affecting the research process.
Methodology Research in a cross-cultural psychology study must achieve the predetermined objectives. In most cases, the objectives include description, interpretation, prediction and management. Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies are the most effective in cross-cultural psychology studies.
Quantitative research methodology must constitute a measure of central tendency to establish variations and statistic relationships among variables. From this perspective, quantitative methodology provides the cross-cultural psychology study with a comparative perspective. However, qualitative methodologies are immeasurable and are effective when dealing with psychological phenomenon such as dreams.
Quantitative research methodologies are effective when used to achieve a relationship or correlation between variables associated with human activity. This is in consistency with the fact that cross-cultural psychology studies are based on correlation approaches. Other research methodologies suitable for cross-cultural psychology research include surveys, focus groups, interviews, questionnaires and experiments. However, each methodology is effective when used under the right conditions.
We will write a custom Essay on Introduction To Cross-Cultural Psychology Paper specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As indicated earlier, valuable data is critical in achieving the main research goals. From this perspective, statistical measurement of collected data must be conducted from a comparative approach using a quantitative methodology. Finally, qualitative research methodologies are most effective for experiments and when subjected to natural settings.
AICPA Code of Professional Conduct Essay essay help site:edu
Why is it considered as the foundation of ethical reasoning in accounting? The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) has outlined the expected Code of Conduct for accounting professionals. It is indeed considered to be the backbone of ethical reasoning in the field of accounting. Needless to say, there are several reasons why AICPA is the foundation of ethics for all accountants.
For example, rules and principles of operations are contained in the professional code of conduct. The frameworks that are used to administer the rules are provided by the AICPA’s principles. Hence, the professional services offered by accountants are governed by the set rules. In addition, technical standards for professional code of conduct can be promulgated by designated agencies that have been authorized by AICPA.
These rules and principles are the cornerstone of ethical standards applied by accountants. Besides, ethical reasoning in accounting has only been made possible by strict adherence to rules and principles. This implies that AICPA has played a significant role in maintaining sanity among accounting professionals.
What are the three most important purposes of AICPA? Why are they most important? AICPA plays several roles in the field of professional accounting. In particular, it offers clear guidelines in regards to the anticipated Code of Professional Conduct. There is always the desire to boost the confidence of the public in this profession. In addition, members of the public who are served by accountants in various disciplines are supposed to be protected.
For instance, there are specific rules and regulations that accountants must adhere to in order to safeguard the privacy of clients. In addition, the confidentiality of employers should be protected. As a matter of fact, the information shared by members of AICPA should be in strict adherence to the stated Professional Codes of Conduct.
To begin with, AICPA plays the role of protecting members of the public who are served by accountants. As the institute safeguards the interest of the public, it also serves the purpose of improving the confidence level of the public in the field of accounting. The first section of the professional code of conduct expounds that members of AICPA are supposed to act in the most honorable manner.
Professional accountants are expected to give priority to the needs of clients even if they may not gain anything in the process (AICPA, 2014). Raising the trust level of the public towards the profession is a core ethical requirement under the Rules and Articles described in the AICPA’s Professional Code of Conduct.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, client protection is the second most important purpose of AICPA. In other words, professional accountants are supposed to bridge the gap between client’s rules of confidentiality and protection of the public. All the guidelines on how to achieve the latter have been provided by AICPA. In order to achieve this purpose, the responsibilities of Certified Public Accountants have been clearly specified in the document containing the professional code of conduct (Jakubowski, Chao, Huh
Evans, Walter. “The Fall of the House of Usher” and Poe’s Theory of the Tale. Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
In this article, Walter Evans discusses the narrative style of Edgar Allan Poe and speaks about the peculiarities of such a short story as The Fall of the House of Usher. This novella occupies a distinctive place in the creative legacy of this writer, and it is included in many collections or anthologies. This literary work has always attracted a close attention of many literary critics who intend to study the literary elements and techniques used by Poe.
On the whole, Walter Evans believes that this literary work does not comply with narrative principles advocated by Poe in many of his critical articles (Evans 137). Moreover, in the author’s opinion, Poe adopts a dramatically different narrative approach which was virtually unprecedented in the nineteenth century. Thus, the readers should consider this issue in order to assess this short story.
These are the main arguments that this scholar tries to elaborate in his discussion. In his critical works, this writer lays stress on the necessity to create the “preconceived effect” by inventing or combining the so-called “incidents” that enable the author to grasp the attention of a reader and produce a specific impression on the audience (Evans 138). In this case, the word incident is used to describe various elements of the narrative that help the writer to achieve his/her goals.
This writer believed that every literary element had to be subordinated to the main effect that the author tried to produce. This method was advocated by many writers in the nineteenth century. Poe applied this approach to many of his short stories. Yet, Walter Evans believes that Poe does not use this principle while writing The Fall of the House of Usher. The scholar describes this short story as “a series of vivid and superficially disjointed images” (Evans 140).
Apart from that, in Evans Walter’s view, the narrative elements do not play an important role in this short story. There are some important events that are critical for the development of the narrative, but Edgar Poe does not pay much attention to them. For instance, one can mention the alleged death of Lady Madeline (Evans 140). Furthermore, the readers know very little about the factors that contributed to the downfall of Roderick Usher. This is the major distinctions that the scholar identifies.
Overall, in this short story, Edgar Poe uses literary elements that help him create vivid imagery. In particular, one can speak about the use of metaphors that are necessary to create striking descriptions of the house in which the main character lives (Evans 143). These descriptions produce a strong impression on the readers who want to know why this house is depicted in this way. This is why this detail should be taken into account. Additionally, these literary devices are importa
This description help readers place themselves in the position of the story-teller. Overall, Walter Evans argues that The Fall of the House of Usher can be viewed as the example of a lyric short story in which the sensations of the protagonist are more important than different elements of the plot (Evans 144).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This issue should not be disregarded because it is vital for the evaluation of this short story. This approach was later adopted by many writers in the twentieth century. In particular, it is possible to mention such authors as Sherwood Anderson and James Joyce.
The author’s discussion shows that Edgar Poe could depart from the aesthetic principles which he discussed in his critical reviews. However, in this way, he was able to create innovative works of literature. These are the major points that the scholar makes in this article. One can argue that this article can be of great use to people who are interested in the works of Edgar Poe.
His literary legacy is still closely examined by many critics, and his narratives are still open to various interpretations. Furthermore, this source can help a reader understand different approaches to writing short stories. So, this information can be useful for analyzing various narratives created by other writers. More importantly, the source can help readers better appreciate fiction. These are some of the main benefits that can be distinguished.
This is why this article can be of great interest to students or even teachers. Certainly, the reading of this source may require some background knowledge. For example, one should learn more about the works of Edgar Poe and his views on literature and story-telling. Additionally, students may read various short stories written by this author. In this way, one can better understand the arguments that Walter Evans makes.
This is one of the limitations that should be considered. However, this article contains an in-depth and thought-provoking analysis of Poe’s short story, and it can show how one can examine a work of literature, especially the techniques used by the authors. This is why it should not be overlooked by the readers.
Works Cited Evans, Walter. “The Fall of the House of Usher” and Poe’s Theory of the Tale.” Studies in Short Fiction 14.2 (1977): 137-144. ProQuest. Web.
Recycling Of Wastewater for Agricultural Use in Arid Areas Report college admission essay help
Introduction The arid and semi-arid areas have been experiencing serious food problems because of the poor performance of agricultural practices. However, the land is increasingly becoming scarce. Irrigation has been found to be the most appropriate way of reclaiming land in arid areas for agriculture.
Given that in these arid areas water is a rare commodity, recycling of wastewaters has been considered as one of the ways that can be used to increase the amount of water for irrigation for such regions. According to Nasr, Doma, and Nassar (2009), wastewater that has been used domestically can be recycled for the purpose of being used in irrigation.
This scholar says that although some harmful substances can be found in such water, it is becoming evident that some parts of these arid areas will be forced to use wastewater for agriculture. It is necessary to treat such water before it can be used for irrigation. When used responsibly, the problem of food insecurity in such regions can be eliminated. The paper is focused on recycling wastewater for agricultural use in arid and semi-arid areas.
According to Vasanthavigar, Srinivasamoorthy and Prasanna (2012), waste water refers to water that has been used domestically or in the industrial sector, and therefore, is released as waste.
In major cities, the volume of wastewater can be considerably high because of the number of companies, and the population staying in such cities. It is important to note that industrial waste water may not be recycled easily because of the heavy presence of chemicals they have. This means that it is the domestic wastewater that is always recycled for the purpose of irrigation in arid and semi arid lands.
Recycling refers to the process of reusing waste water for various purposes instead of disposing it. Recycling of wastewater is a comprehensive process that entails obtaining the wastewater and subjecting it to some treatment before releasing it for irrigation purposes. The chart below is a representation of the process that takes place when recycling wastewater.
Chart 1: Recycling of Wastewater
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Argentina’s Financial Crisis: A Critical Review of Causes and Effects Term Paper essay help online: essay help online
Introduction Argentina’s severe financial crisis in December 2001 gave rise to the largest sovereign debt default in history. The financial crisis stemmed from many factors, but predominantly due to overvalued currency. The move was made by the currency board. The crisis was also attributed to inapt fiscal measures undertaken by the government.
According to Knoop, “…the policies attempted sent the country spiraling from a one-year recession into a four-year depression” (p. 216). At the peak of the crisis, Argentina’s debt amounted to more than 50 percent of GDP. The peso was also devalued to nearly 4 per dollar in January 2002.
The objective of this paper is to critically review the financial crisis that emerged under the currency board system. To this end, the causes of the crisis and its effects on Argentina’s economy will be analyzed. In addition, the paper will discuss the aftermath of the economic meltdown and examine whether the crisis could be averted at the time or not.
Argentina’s Economic Crisis Argentina’s Economy: Background
In the period preceding the 1930s, Argentina enjoyed a rapid economic growth. The unprecedented expansion in the country’s markets and economy at large was attributed to the rise in agricultural exports. The exemplary performance on the international trade front and promising growth attracted foreign investment into Argentina.
Soon, the country became one of the world’s richest economies (Daseking 33). GDP grew at a rate of 2.5 percent per annum from 1870 to 1913. It was a considerable rate for the period. Argentina’s economy was greatly affected by the disruption in the world’s financial market during the World War I. It was forced to abandon the gold standard in 1929.
However, in spite of the aforementioned rapid expansion, the country’s economic success was short-lived. Other nations started to discriminate against the country’s products. The pattern was seen in the 1930s. The new development saw revenues from trade reduce drastically as a result of a decrease in foreign trade.
Argentina formulated a number of policies to address the issue. One of them was the introduction of “import substitution” legislations. It became a largely self-sufficient economy. Between 1964 and 1974, the country experienced 11 successive years of positive GDP growth (Baer and Fleischer 414). However, it emerged that these strict measures (of import substitution) were not enough to sustain economic growth. The economy could not survive on local trade alone. Eventually, the rate of growth slowed down.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The political instability in Argentina, coupled with poor economic policies, resulted in high inflation in the 1970s. By 1975, the country recorded a 3-digit inflation rate and real GDP per capita declined. Amidst the political unrest, fiscal deficit had risen to 10 percent of the country’s gross domestic product by 1983. Soon, the inflation rate reached 4,934 percent in 1989.
The Convertibility Law
President Menem came into office in 1989. His administration introduced a raft of measures to check the deteriorating economic situation. His free-market reforms allowed for the privatization of public enterprises. He also supported deregulation and liberalization of the goods and financial markets.
He appointed Domingo Cavallo as minister of economy and implemented major monetary reforms in April 1991. The new currency, peso, replaced the austral. It was fixed to the dollar at 1:1 parity under the Convertibility Law. The move was locally known as “convertibility” (Dvoskin and Feldman 148). Convertibility was a currency-board-like system. However, as discussed later in this paper, it did not behave like an orthodox currency board.
The system required Central Bank to provide full backing for the monetary base with dollar reserves. The situation implied that central bank was strictly limited to act as a lender of last resort. The system restricted the financing of public sector’s budget deficits. Under convertibility, the central bank could sterilize inflows and outflows of foreign currency.
The case was different under orthodox currency board (Salvatore, Dean and Willett 387). Finally, under the new law, domestic transactions were conducted using the dollar. Argentina, in a sense, formed a “bimonetary” system. Domestic financial transactions, especially with regards to deposits and loans, were carried out using the dollar (Saxton par. 4). With time, the dollar dominated financial transactions, which intensified the cost of devaluation.
Initially, the currency board worked remarkably well. It ended the rampant hyperinflation and promoted healthy economic growth. The rate of inflation plummeted from 1,344 percent to 4 percent between 1990 and 1994. Real GDP per capita grew at a rate of 3.4 percent per annum in 1991 and 1992, before slowing down and stabilizing at 4 percent in 1993 and 1994 (Saxton par. 4).
As a result, Argentina attracted foreign investments that helped modernize her utilities. The public sector was growing at a considerably high rate. Transportation also improved. Modern railways and roads were constructed, further encouraging investors to come into the county. The banking sector was also modernized (Saxton par. 4).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Argentina’s Financial Crisis: A Critical Review of Causes and Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Factors Leading to the Crisis
As already indicated, pegging the peso to the dollar was beneficial to the economy as it combated the high inflation rates. However, the system was prone to a number of internal problems. It was also vulnerable to external shocks.
The system predisposed the country to a currency crisis. Internal factors that led to the crisis constituted a number of unfavorable economic policies by the government. Teunissen and Akkerman claim that under convertibility, “the peso came to be radically overvalued, which gradually threatened the whole system” (p. 29).
The country’s economy was heading in the right direction following the introduction of the convertibility system. However, the problem of unemployment arose. At the time, the country’s population was growing at a very high rate. It is a fact that the economy was growing at a considerably fast rate during this period. However, the growth was not strong enough to meet the employment needs of Argentinean citizens (Daseking 605). The government had formulated rigid labor laws that discouraged private investors from hiring new employees.
High taxes imposed on formal employment also discouraged people from seeking jobs as a result of the resulting low returns. As a result of the high taxes imposed on the workers, many started seeking jobs in underground economies that were more flexible at the time. The underground economy was, however, not beneficial to Argentina’s government. It was difficult to monitor and tax workers in this sector. A lot of government revenue was lost in terms of uncollected taxes.
President Menem’s economic reforms were implemented as a matter of emergency decree. They were unlike the normal and slow legislations made by the congress. The hasty manner in which decisions were made further hurt the country’s economy. The government took little or no time to deliberate on the implications that the reforms would have on the country’s economy.
Menem’s style of leadership attracted a lot of opposition from other members of Peronist party. Teunissen and Akkerman claim that some of the reforms that were greatly opposed “included the privatization of key government owned corporations” (p. 23). The privatization process lacked transparency. It was seen to promote some element of monopoly aimed at benefiting some of the officials in the government.
Menem and other key government officials were later to be investigated for corruption. As a result of rampant corruption, the country’s economy was doomed. Despite the allegations leveled against the government, some form of efficiency was observed in the privatization of the then publicly owned Telephone Company. The process of installing new phone lines was fast and took only a few days.
A number of external factors also contributed to the overvaluation of peso. The appreciation of the dollar, which was prompted by the dot-com boom in the mid-1990s, pulled the peso along with it. Mexico’s decision to devalue her currency in December 1994 (following the tequila crisis) made investors lose faith in Argentina (Saxton par. 4).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Argentina’s Financial Crisis: A Critical Review of Causes and Effects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They expressed fear that the country could also devalue. In the event that the government took such a decision, the investors believed they would incur huge losses. The situation discouraged potential foreign investors from channeling their money into the country.
However, the fears by the investors were misplaced. The convertibility currency system adopted by Argentina was very different from that of Mexico. Argentina experienced a sharp increase in interest rates in 1995 (Saxton par. 8). At this point, investors feared that the government would devalue their currency. Business owners also feared that with increased interest rates on borrowing, the government would default on its debts.
In the same year, the country suffered a sharp recession, which was attributed to capital flight by investors. The government reacted to the situation by securing a financial package from both local private investors and international financial institutions, particularly the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The move helped to restore investor’s confidence. The government strengthened the economy further by taking over poorly run banks that were under the control of the provincial administrations.
Growth in the country’s economy returned to normal in the years 1996 and 1997. However, the change was short-lived. The Asian crisis in 1997 and Russian currency crisis in 1998 disrupted the capital flow into emerging markets and Argentina began to show signs of recession.
The Asian disaster made foreign investors to desist from investing in developing countries. Most of these investors were from the developed countries. Recession is a global problem that can easily spread from one country to another. The reason is that the economies of different countries are dependent on each other (Schopf and Zimmer 34). As a result, a crisis in the economy of a trade partner may spread to other countries that are tied to it economically.
As a result of this inter-dependence, investors are cautious when investing their resources in a given country. Many international business operators conduct a market study prior to investing in a new country. The survey is meant to ensure that they do not incur losses after channeling their money into the new frontier (Eichengreen 76).
Based on the developing Asian and Russian crises, multinationals regarded investing in Argentina as an unwise move. The reason is that the Argentinean economy shared some characteristics with that of the other two countries.
Secondly, the Brazilian currency crisis from August to October 1998, in which the government floated the Brazilian real to address the crisis, further exacerbated peso’s position. The value of real dropped from 1.21 to 2.18 to the U.S. dollar. With peso pegged to the appreciating U.S. dollar, there was no way to make up for the competitive depreciations (Saxton par. 6).
Consequently, as Brazil’s largest trading partner, Argentina’s exports lost their competitive edge in the world market. With the value of exports having fallen, Argentina’s current account deficits increased. The budget deficits as percentage of GDP rose from 1.3 percent in 1998 to 2.5 percent in 1999 and growth fell 7 percent between 1998 and1999 (figure 1).
Furthermore, Argentina’s large budget deficits due to the expanded public sector drove up the interest rate and caused substantial appreciation in peso. The ratio of public debt to GDP rose from 29 percent to 43 percent between 1993 and 1998 (Knoop 217).
The overvalued peso relative to other countries in Latin America caused a substantial increase in its budget deficits. Consequently, Argentina began to incur more debt, much of which was denominated in U.S dollars. The growth of debt was also partially attributed to low private saving rates and substantial budget deficits of the central and provincial government.
With its debt to GDP ratio surging to more than 40 percent, the interest rates for payment also rose, further increasing the deficits and the growth of debt (Saxton par. 8). The stagnant growth and overvalued currency made the debt hard to service. It was therefore not surprising for investors to expect a currency crisis in Argentina and a possible devaluation of peso. Capital account plunged from $15 billion in 1999 to $8.6 billion in 2000, reflecting lack of investors’ confidence in the government and fear of devaluation.
Argentina’s considerable budget deficits coupled with its increasing foreign debt required a substantial devaluation or deflation in order for the balance of payment to return to equilibrium. The government opted to force deflation to cut costs.
The fall in prices of commodities increased the burden of debt and as both price of goods and services and growth declined, government revenues shrunk (Eichengreen 207). To increase its revenue, the government resorted to cuts on spending by setting high tax rates. Unfitting fiscal measures undertaken by the government, as discussed below, further exacerbated the situation and proved to be counterproductive.
On December 1999, President Carlos Menem was succeeded by Fernando De La Rúa. Concerning that large budget deficits would lead to disastrous debt accumulation, the latter’s government promptly introduced three tax increment packages effective January 2000, April 2001, and August 2001.
The first of the three increases took effect in January 2000. The move by the government was termed by many analysts as uncalled for. Joseph Stiglitz asserted that “any economist would have predicted that contractionary policies would incite slowdown and that budget targets would not be met” (Saxton par. 5).
The tax increase was uncalled for since the country had already high tax rates. Saxton claims that the “personal income tax reached 35 percent; value-added tax was 21 percent; and the social security and medical care taxes are 31.9 percent in 2000” (par. 9). The taxing policy was counterproductive as high tax burden prompted tax evasion and dampened growth in the private sector. Altogether, tax revenue fell considerably and the economy continued to shrink in 2000 although at a slower rate.
Despite the worsening of the deficits and growth rate, De la Rua’s government refused to devalue the peso because of the economic and political risks involved. The decision to devalue the peso and abandon convertibility would damage confidence and trigger massive capital flight and bank run, as investors and depositors raced to avoid losses (Saxton par. 11).
In an attempt to turn the situation round, the government increased tax rates again and proposed spending cuts. The move triggered public protests in March 2001 and marked the start of the crisis.
Following the public protests, President De la Rua appointed Domingo Cavallo, the original architect of the Convertibility Law, as minister of economy again in 2001. On April 17, the minister introduced a radical fiscal policy. Under the new arrangement, the local currency was pegged to the euro and the dollar on a 50:50 ratio. The move by Domingo Cavallo was in an attempt to boost the economy’s competitiveness. The government, however, did not stop at that.
On June 15, Cavallo introduced new economic policies that saw the introduction of preferential export exchange rates – a dual exchange rate. The move was considered by many investors as a step towards devaluation and possible default. Furthermore, President De la Rua replaced the president of the central Bank Pedro Pou, who was regarded by the investors as the strict “hard money” official (Saxton 14).
The growing uncertainty was reflected in the forward rates of the peso, and interest rates in peso skyrocketed to 40-60%. Interest rates on ten-year U.S dollar denominated bonds leaped to 35 percent in November 2001.Deposits in peso fell as bank deposit owners shifted to dollar deposits and some moved their money to offshore banks (Eichengreen 208).The rise in the share of the dollar deposits in 2001 is shown in figure.
By June 2001, the country had already entered into a debt trap (Dvoskin and Feldman 162). Confidence in government borrowing dropped considerably. Amidst the intensifying risk of default, international bond rating agencies downgraded the Argentina government’s credit ratings in July 2001. The country’s premium for borrowing increased from 3 percent to 13 percent in April 2001.
The increase was blamed on the fact that lenders were uncertain about the country’s ability to pay the debts. The increase in premiums further hurt Argentina’s economy. The country’s loan burden rose by about 16 percent on July 2001 (Daseking 78). By August of that year, the loan burden had exceeded twenty percent. The government lost the ability to pay its debts. Many investors were concerned that the government was likely to default on loans (Macedo, Cohen and Reisen p. 56).
Reacting to the Crisis
On November 2001, the crisis entered its final phases. During the month of November, the government implemented debt swaps. The swaps were aimed at reducing debt repayments with the promise of higher payments later. Local financial institutions were further burdened with government debts.
The worrying debt burden in the country was viewed to be caused by poor monetary policies by the government (Hanke and Schuler 25). For instance, the country had borrowed twice from the IMF that year. The first debt was approved in the month of January and the other on September.
However, September’s loan by the government was the highest amount that the IMF had ever approved for any country at the time. The loan amounted to 22 billion US dollars. The IMF’s decision was unpopular among many world economists. They were of the opinion that the country should have put in place sound policies to stimulate economic growth rather than increasing on borrowing. The country was only plugging deeper into the dept trap that they had entered years ago.
Argentina’s Economic Crisis: The End?
A number of government policies transferred the economic problems facing the country to the private sector. IMF approved loan to the Argentina further confirmed the investors’ worries that the government would not be in a position to honor its debts. Many private investors feared that the administration would move to freeze their deposits as it had done in 1982 and 1989 (Dvoskin and Feldman 162).
During these two periods (1982 and 1989), the government had taken drastic measures to generate income. For example, it froze all bank savings in a move to fund public spending. Consequently, on 30th November, 2001, there was a massive withdrawal of bank deposits. The fact that the new government had continued to adopt the currency board system brought fears that the peso would devalue. As expected, the finance minister reacted to the capital flight harshly.
He declared a freeze of bank deposits the following day. The aim was to prevent further withdrawals. Investors were unable to finance their operations (Daseking 33). As a result, many businesses had no option but to close down operations. The confidence that investors had in government was weakened further. Businesses came to a halt and investors were unwilling to venture into the market. As a result, the rate of economic growth continued to slow down.
The problems faced by Argentina were made worse by the new rules introduced by the IMF. The organization informed that it was going to cancel the loan that had been earlier approved for the country. The decision by the IMF was based on the fact that the country was not achieving the targets that had been set in the loan agreement.
With the IMF’s move, the country would not be in a position to secure any more foreign loans. Soon, the situation got out of hand. The country’s population started engaging in deadly riots in protest of De la Rúa’s poor governance. On 20th December, 2001, the president and his finance minister resigned from office.
After three days in office, the country’s interim president, Adolfo Rodríguez, declared a default on government loans. The default amounted to 50 billion pesos. However, it was limited only to government creditors in the private sector (Jochen 21). The move by the government was viewed by many as an act of defiance (Jochen 20).
The creditworthiness of the country was put to question. As if this was not enough, Rodríguez instituted a series of unfavorable economic reforms. One of them was the introduction of a new currency. However, the president lacked the capacity to implement these reforms since he left office a week later following widespread demonstrations in the whole country.
Eduardo Duhalde became the country’s new president in the first day of 2002 (1st January 2002). The country had had three presidents in a span of less than two weeks. On his part, he introduced a number of policies in an attempt to improve the country’s economic condition. He began by devaluing the local currency. All bank loans and deposits were then converted into pesos. The process came to be popularly referred to as ‘pesofication’ (Dvoskin and Feldman 162).
In spite of these efforts, the economic situation continued to deteriorate. In 2002, the country recorded a 12 percent decline in economic growth (Dvoskin and Feldman 162). In addition, levels of unemployment increased. Export volumes fell by 4.5 percent in the same year. The crisis appeared like a permanent narrative in the country’s economic history. Eduardo Duhalde leadership also marked the end of Argentina’s convertibility monetary system.
Conclusion Under normal circumstances, it takes some time for a country to recover from a depression. However, the declining economic growth in Argentina was worrying. The economy was shrinking at a very fast pace. Poverty became widespread and quality of life deteriorated. Today, over 40 percent of the country’s population lives on less than a dollar a day. The situation was attributed to heavy borrowing and a huge recurrent budget (Jochen 23).
Today, the Argentinean government spends most of its income to service debts and pay wages. The heavy fines imposed on investors for offloading employees also discourages the hiring of more workers. As a result, the private sector lacks the capacity to resize its workforce at will (Dvoskin and Feldman 162).
The government has a history of failing to pay its debts and engaging in forceful confiscation of deposits. The scenario discourages private investors, who fear losing their money (Daseking 24). To avert future crises, the government should engage in lobbying to boost investors’ confidence. The local economy will improve at a gradual rate. However, with the right policies in place, the situation is bound to improve with time.
Figure 1: Argentina and US government finances
Source: Saxton (par. 6)
Figure 2: Argentina’s external debt
Source: Daseking (99)
Figure 3: Argentine deposits in dollars
Figure 4: Argentina real GDP per capita
Figure 5: Imports and exports
Works Cited Baer, Werner, and David Fleischer. The Economies of Argentina and Brazil: A Comparative Perspective, Cheltenham UK: Edward Elgar, 2011. Print.
Macedo, Jorge, Daniel Cohen, and Helmut Reisen. Don’t Fix, don’t Float: The Exchange Rate in Emerging Markets, Transition Economies, and Developing Countries, Paris: Development Centre of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001. Print.
Daseking, Christina. Lessons from the Crisis in Argentina, Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2004. Print.
Dvoskin, Ariel and German Feldman. “The Exchange Rate and Inflation in Argentina: A Classical Critique of Orthodox and Heterodox Policy Prescriptions.” Forum for Social Economics 39.2 (2010): 145-169. Print.
Eichengreen, Barry. Globalizing Capital, California: Princeton University Press, 1996. Print.
Hanke, Steve, and Kurt Schuler 2002, What Went wrong in Argentina?. Web.
Knoop, Todd. Recessions and Depressions: Understanding Business Cycles, Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004. Print.
Salvatore, Dominick, James Dean, and Thomas Willett. “A Dollarization/Free-Banking Blueprint for Argentina.” The Dollarization Debate. 1st ed. Eds. Dominick Salvatore, James Dean and Thomas Willett. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2003. 387-98. Print.
Saxton, Jim 2003, Argentina’s Economic Crisis: Causes and Cures. PDF file. Web.
Schopf, Mark, and Daniel Zimmer. Sovereign Debt Default and Financial Crisis in Argentina 2001, London: GRIN Verlag, 2013. Print.
Teunissen, Joost, and Age Akkerman. The Crisis That Was Not Prevented: Lessons for Argentina, the IMF, and Globalisation, The Hague: FONDAD, 2003. Print.
Jochen, Andritzky. Sovereign Default Risk Valuation Implications of Debt Crises and Bond Restructurings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. Print
Sociological Mainstream Theories Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
The author gives a detailed account of the main theories of sociology whereby he discusses the ideas of some of the known scholars in the field, such as Emile Durkheim, as well as others who came later with either divergent or supportive views. In the chapter, the author explains the occurrence of crime using the main theories of sociology, even though he also offers a critique of the methods.
He manages to explain how antisocial criminal behaviors are transmitted from one person to the other and from one generation to another using the theories. The ideas of Merton that crime traces its roots in the American Dream, which teaches people to work extremely hard to fulfill their potentials in society, are valid even though he underscores the fact that other causes of crime exist in the community.
It is unfortunate that, while the American dream encourages people to be industrious in whatever they do, a majority in society does not have the means to achieve these treasured values, something that increases the cases of delinquency where individuals would want to engage in crimes, such as money laundry, terrorism, cybercrime, and drug trafficking to been as industrious.
The idea that criminal behavior is something that can perhaps be learned through the socialization process is fantastic since it implies that the environment has a role to play in shaping the human behavior in any given society. In the entire chapter, understanding anomie is fascinating because the two major theorists, including Durkheim and Merton, talk about it in detail.
For Durkheim, suicide is mainly caused by the failure of the social institutions, such as the family, the polity, and the school while Merton links anomie to personality adaptations. Durkheim further observes that anomie is a state of formlessness, meaning that an individual decides to commit suicide when he or she lacks sufficient guidelines and values that would help in coping with the difficulties in life.
For Merton, anomie simply occurs when a person fails to meet societal needs through the socially accepted means, something that forces people to develop new mechanisms to adopt well in society, including confirming to the new rules, engaging in constant innovation, retreating to the established values, such as those of the family, and finally resorting to ritualism.
In the chapter, the author discusses the social process tradition, which concentrates mainly on the learning process, socialization, and transmission of subculture behaviors that might be criminal, making the chapter attractive. Through the concept, the relationship between people and their social milieus is understood better. It is evident through the social process tradition theory that the residence in which a person is brought up influences his or her criminal behavior.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, individuals raised in slums are likely to engage in crime in the future while those brought up in better environments are likely to follow the law when they grow up. Based on this, Cohen conducted a study, which revealed that children brought up in single families are expected to engage in crime as compared to those raised by both parents. Similarly, the media has the role to play in predisposing the youths to crime because people try to live as per the media adverts that insist on consumerism.
Van Gogh’s Use of Color Essay college essay help online
The works of Van Gogh and his use of color have often been studied chronologically demonstrating the shift in his usage of colors from his early paintings, which were dark and pessimistic, to the paintings of his mature career, where he has used lighter tones and brighter colors.
In the later stage, Van Gogh made a distinct use of complementary color scheme, which was a definite shift from the classical treatment of colors. This paper will compare and contrast two paintings, The Sower and The Night Café, and demonstrate the distinct style Van Gogh followed to use color for his paintings.
Expressive use of colors in distinctive complementary schemes has dominated many of the masterpieces created by Van Gogh. His correspondences to his brother during the 1882-85 demonstrate his obsession with the use of color in his work.
They demonstrate that Van Gogh’s concern and distinction between shades, tones, hue, and brightness of color, which formed the psychological basis of colors and themes of his paintings. The use of complementary colors, which became the signature of Van Gogh’s style, helped to intensify the mutual effect of the color scheme in the paintings. Van Gogh used basic colors and contrasting hues to increase firmness and depth of his paintings:
These things that are relevant to complementary colors, to the simultaneous contrasting and the mutual devaluation of complementary colors, are the first and most important issue: the second is the mutual influence of two similar colors, such as carmine and vermilion, or a pink-lilac and a blue-lilac. (Van Gogh Letter # 428, dated Oct. 1885. (Bekker and Bekker)
The use of primary colors and the use of their complementary colors, also known as secondary colors, is a basic technique used for impressionistic painting. When a primary color is put against a complementary color, it creates a contrasting color scheme, creating a powerful effect.
Van Gogh exploited this technique of creating a strong effect in his painting through juxtaposition of primary and complementary colors. Van Gogh’s fascination for complementary colors intensified as he shifted his focus from Dutch style to paintings that are more impressionistic.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gayford (179) demonstrates Van Gogh’s heightened interest in colors, which created a symbolic language for the maestro. In another correspondence to his brother Theo, Van Gogh expressed his increasing obsession with colors: “Yesterday evening an extraordinary beautiful sunset of a mysterious, sickly citron color – Prussian blue cypresses against trees with dead leaves in all sorts of broken tones without any speckling with bright greens.” (Gayford 179)
Thus, colors create a symbolic language for Van Gogh, which helped his to determine the effect that wanted to create in his paintings. Given this understanding of Van Gogh’s philosophy of color, the essay then moves on to analyze two of his paintings and the treatment of colors in them.
The Sower demonstrates a man striding across a wheat field, with outstretched arms, appear in many of Van Gogh’s paintings and sketches. Philosophically, it has often been interpreted as the renewal of life; however, in this essay we will discuss the use of complementary color scheme of the paintings.
The particular picture that is discussed in this essay was painted in 1888, which stands out from all other paintings of sowers and creates a unique impressionistic creation of the cycle life in full summer (The Sower is shown in figure 1 below).
Figure 1: The Sower, 1888
The Sower, painted predominately in yellow and violet demonstrates the use of complementary colors by Van Gogh. Yellow is a primary color that is positioned against violet, one of its complements, and a mix of the other two primary colors, red and blue. Even though artists had knowledge of the effect two complementary colors could create, no one before Van Gogh experimented with it.
Primary colors, when juxtaposed with complementary colors, create a vibration and magnificence that is otherwise unattainable. Hence, when yellow is used against violet, it creates greater brightness and pureness of color than when painted with any other colors. Similarly, violet seems more lively and vigorous when put against yellow.
We will write a custom Essay on Van Gogh’s Use of Color specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Sower was painted when Van Gogh was living in Arles, in June 1888. The original Sower by Millet from which Van Gogh drew inspiration or his Sower believed that Millet created a painting in “colorless gray” and wanted to create a painting of the sower with colors (Bekker and Bekker).
In order to understand color contrast, consider putting orange against blue and orange against green. Orange is blue’s complement where blue is a primary color and orange is a secondary color created through mixing of the other two primary, red and yellow. Hence, the effect of brightness when orange and blue are used together is greater than when orange and green are used, wherein both are secondary colors. Moreover, the orange when put with green seem darker, almost a different color.
Hence, it can be observed that colors can change their hue and brightness depending on the colors with which they are used. Moreover, colors cannot be used singularly, without considering the other colors that are used. Colors cannot be judged in isolation. Hence, it is important to understand what colors are used along with the others and what affect it creates in the paintings. Knowledge of colors becomes the most important factor while studying Van Gogh’s form so impressionistic painting.
The painting of the yellow and violet together as an expression of light and darkness in the field is an extreme example of use of complementary colors in paintings. This helped in intensifying the brightness, saturation, and depth of the painting.
Van Gogh described his 1888 creation inspired from Millet’s painting, in one of his letters, as “painting from Millet’s drawings is more like translating them into another language than copying them” (Metzger and Walther 272). The colors used in the painting became reminiscent of his emotions and feelings. The colors demonstrated the dominant mood of the painter.
The Night Café is a poetic expression through colors, which demonstrates the harsher realities of modern life. Van Gogh’s obsession with colors intensified from 1885 until his death in 1890, resonant in his letters to his brother Theo. Each of the letters is evocative of the saturation, hue, and intensity of the colors from his palette. In describing the Night Café (figure 2) in his letter to Theo, Van Gogh associates passion with the use of two complementary colors – red and green:
I’ve tried to express the terrible passions of humanity with red and green. The room is blood red and dull yellow, with a green billiard table in the middle; there are four lemon yellow lamps casting an orange and green glow… In my picture of the night café, I’ve tried to convey the sense that the café is a place where one goes to ruin goes mad, commits crimes.
I’ve tried to express the powers of darkness, in a way, in this dive of a bar, through contrasts of delicate pink, blood red, wine red, and soft Louis XV green and Veronese green, in contrast with hard green-yellows and blue-greens – all this amid an infernal furnace of pale sulphur. (Letter#533, Bekker and Bekker)
Not sure if you can write a paper on Van Gogh’s Use of Color by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The above description of the painting as expressed through Van Gogh’s words demonstrate the use of complementary colors in the painting, and the reason for the sue of the colors in their complementary best. Life’s juxtaposition is expressed through the oppositions of color that makes life as well as his paintings so pulsating.
In the Night Café Van Gogh has expressed the struggle of life through the juxtaposition of the two complementary colors – red and green. The violet and blue used in the painting depicts sadness and dreariness of modern nightlife, and
Figure 2: The Night Café
The painting shows maximum saturation of colors, where colors like red and green has been used without any hint of tint or shade. In the Night Café, Van Gogh used color in its purest form against its equally pure complementary. This is not seen in The Sower, where the colors were used symbolically, but not its purest hue.
The use of original hue in the Night Café sets is apart from other paintings, even though the technique used in both the pictures are similar. Nevertheless, both the picture reverberates with the infernal furnace of life though the use of yellow, which has been used to depict the sun in The Sower and the lamps in The Night Café. The difference between the two paintings is that the first is a depiction of continuity of life while that of the café describes a hellish existence.
Works Cited Bekker, K.G. and A.Y. Bekker. 2009. “Color and Emotion — a Psychophysical Analysis of Van Gogh’s Work.” 2009. PsyArt. Web.
Gayford, Martin. The Yellow House.:Van Gogh, Gauguin and Nine Turbulent Weeks Provence. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006. Print.
Metzger, Rainer and Ingo F. Walther. Van Gogh. Berlin: Taschen, 2008. Print.
Buddhism as a Sacred Tradition Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Buddhism is a sacred tradition that centers on personal religious growth and the realization of an in-depth understanding into the exact nature of humanity (Gerner 5). Around the world, the religion has attracted 76 million followers (Religions 1). As the followers, we always aspire to attain a state of Nirvana.
The teachings require us to live in accordance with the traditions of Buddha Siddhartha. Siddhartha is a famous religious leader who championed for enlightenment during the 6th century BC (The life of Buddha). The religion does not mandate its followers to have faith in an individual deity. As such, Buddhists suppose that nothing endures forever and that transformation is always likely.
To achieve enlightenment, all followers are required to uphold lives that enhance the growth of morals, meditation, and understanding. Being a follower, I am required to acknowledge that life is a never-ending course prone to impermanence, pain, and vagueness. According to the religion, life is a never-ending course because people are brought back to life repeatedly through reincarnation.
Buddhism is attributed to Buddha Siddhartha. Siddhartha was born as a noble prince at around the 6th century BC (Kozak 16). The prince home place was situated at Lumbini, Nepal. His noble family was referred to as Shakya. The prince’s parents named him Siddhartha. Based on his name, a number of magnificent forecasts were postulated about his future.
Throughout his childhood, the prince resided in his father’s palace. However, when he attained the age of 29 he moved out of the palace to the community. According to the Buddhist tradition, the young prince experienced tremendous suffering outside the palace (Kozak 20).
He saw individuals suffering from extreme poverty and acute diseases. The experiences transformed his life. From then on, he dedicated his life to seek meditation and the true understanding of enlightenment. After spending more than 7 years outside the palace, the prince achieved the state of enlightenment beneath a sacred tree in Bodh Gaya, India (Kozak 24).
Later, Siddhartha taught his followers for approximately forty years (Kozak 27). During the time, the influence of his teachings attracted multitudes of supporters in the region. His teachings about how to tackle human sufferings were received with enthusiasms in Northern India. The teachings were attractive because they offered a substitute to the firm communal and custom principles widespread in Northern India in the period.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ever since then, the religion has spread around the world due to its ability to accept all people from all lifestyles. In general, Siddhartha offered his followers with more than 84, 000 teachings (Kozak 39). He did this with the aim of establishing Buddhism. He hoped that through this he would liberate humans from anguish. He acknowledged that short-termed emancipation from pain and problems is not adequate. Inspired by care for humanity and empathy, his plan was to assist people discover lifelong peace.
Our Buddhism belief is based on the four noble truths taught by Siddhartha. The four elements are the truth with respect to anguish, the truth about the basis of anguish, the truth about the end of anguish, and the truth about the means of ending anguish. Based on the illustration, it can be deduced that suffering is real, has a cause, has an end, and a means to end it. The concept about pain is not aimed at putting across a pessimistic worldview.
In contrast, the concept aims at putting across a realistic viewpoint that acknowledges humanity as it is and challenges to fix it challenges. As such, the notion of happiness is not denied, but recognized as a transitory (Schumann 80). Thus, the quest for happiness can carry on with what is ultimately an unappeasable longing. The concept disproves an understanding of pleasure. The teachings assert that ultimately old age, illness, and death are definite and inescapable.
Another important element in the Buddhism faith is the wheel of life referred to as Bhavachakra, Bhavachakra is a multifaceted image depicting the Buddhists’ vision of the universe (The life of Buddha). As Buddhists, we believe that survival is made up of life, death, reincarnation, and pain. Throughout our existence, we aspire to break out of these series of events. Bhavachakra is subdivided into six areas. In each of these areas, a soul can be reincarnated.
According to my Buddhism teachings, I believe that desires and lack of knowledge are the main causes of human suffering. Based on my understanding, desires refer to the craving to have material wealth, immortality, and other worldly needs. Notably, these desires cannot be satisfied.
Therefore, I believe that the longing for such pleasures leads to human suffering. I believe that ignorance allows an individual to perceive the world in its original form. In the absence of enlightenment, an individual’s brain is left untrained and incapable to seize the true character of the surroundings. In this regard, I believe that vices such as gluttony, jealousy, extreme dislike, and annoyance are caused by ignorance.
Since its inception, Buddhism has extended eastwards and has perpetually changed a number of countries. The countries include China, Vietnam, Korea, and Japan (The life of Buddha). Unlike other religions, Buddhism explored the issues affecting humanity in a manner that other religions did not. Similarly, the religion has spread the traditions of empathy into areas where the continued existence relied on social class and areas where abject poverty was widespread.
We will write a custom Essay on Buddhism as a Sacred Tradition specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Buddhism has not only changed the society but also the political constellations. In the countries where the religion became predominant, the religion has had an impact on their political constellations. Although Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and other major religions competed for political influence in most East Asian countries, it should be noted that most of the countries became Buddhist kingdoms (The life of Buddha).
As such, the whole South East Asia cultures portray the influence of the religion’s values and aesthetics. Simple cultures were established in the region leading to new social organizations and principles. The religion’s ethics infused into the communities that accepted the religion.
Over the last century, Buddhism has attracted many followers, especially in the western countries. Through this, the religion has had an impact on the entire world. Similar to other religious convictions, Buddhism has been utilized as a way out of common problems facing humanity.
People faced with racial, financial, and domestic issues usually turn to Buddhism for consolation and answers. Given that the westerners face a number of the issues due to their capitalistic nature of their economies, a number of them are now turning to Buddhism for consolation. In the future, Buddhism will attract more followers because it does not mandate its followers to have faith in an individual deity unlike other religions.
Works Cited Gerner, Katy. Buddhism. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2008. Print.
Kozak, Arnold. The everything Buddhism book a complete introduction to the history, traditions, and beliefs of Buddhism, past and present. 2nd ed. Avon, Mass.: Adams Media, 2011. Print.
Religions: Buddhism. 24 Nov. 2009. Web. .
Schumann, Hans Wolfgang. The historical Buddha: the times, life, and teachings of the founder of Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2004. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Buddhism as a Sacred Tradition by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The life of Buddha. Dir. Kritsaman Wattananarong. Perf. Sarut Wijittranon, Supattra Thiwanon,. BBC Worldwide, 20034. DVD.
Email Communication from The CEO of Cerner Corporation Essay (Article) college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of Case Study
Best Email Practices
Introduction Communication is important in all organizations because it enables employers and employees to understand each other. It is necessary for people to know communication channels that will enable recipients to understand and respond to their messages. This paper examines the best email practices using a case study.
Summary of Case Study Mr. Neal Patterson (the CEO of Cerner Corporation) was not happy the way his employees were performing their duties. He observed that the parking space was usually almost empty in the mornings and evenings. He decided to write emails to about 400 company managers to remind them that they were not doing their duties as expected by the organization. Mr. Patterson was annoyed and suspected that managers did not know what their employees were doing, or did not care about what happened in the company.
The CEO believed that managers had allowed their subordinates to introduce a culture of working for 40 hours in a week. He outlined punishments for managers who tolerated laziness and reminded them that he would replace them if they did not fix that problem. The email elicited reactions from his subordinates and the public, and this prompted the devaluation of the company’s shares in the stock market.
Best Email Practices Lynne Curry believes that email communication should not be treated like a speech because it can be stored and accessed for future references. She argues that even though people write what they think email messages should be evaluated before the writer clicks the send button. It is necessary to explain that speeches can be altered when their messages are passed from one person to another, and there is no possibility of knowing that the information has been distorted.
Therefore, she argues that people should check their messages properly, proofread and wait for at least four hours before sending them. This will enable senders to be sure that their messages are professional; therefore, recipients will interpret them correctly. Mr. Patterson rushed to send his email to company managers without thinking about its impacts, and that is why it evoked negative reactions from various stakeholders. In addition, the email was posted on Yahoo and this exposed it to the public for scrutiny.
Secondly, emails speak a lot about their senders; therefore, people should ensure that the messages they send reflect their personalities. Curry claims that politeness is a key aspect in email communication since it shapes the public’s opinion about an individual or company.
The CEO did not know that his email would have negative effects on the company and his reputation. He thought that expressing his anger to company managers through his email would compel them to act responsibly. However, he was mistaken because most people thought he was arrogant.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, people should avoid shouting through their email messages. It is necessary to explain that email communication gives senders the confidence of sending messages they cannot express when they meet their audiences face to face. For instance, a person can find it easy to demand promotion and salary increase through emails, but when he is given an opportunity to speak to his employers the individual will not talk.
Curry argues that people should not hide their fears in emails and write shouting messages because this is not a professional practice. Mr. Patterson thought that his threats of sacking irresponsible company managers would make them realize their mistakes and compel their subordinates to respect and follow the policies of Cerner Corporation.
Conclusion Email communication is an efficient way of sending and sharing messages between friends and colleagues. However, people should check their messages before sending them to ensure they are accurate and addressed to the right recipients.
In addition, an employee’s communication skills portray the character of the individual or company, and this means that senders must evaluate the impacts of their messages before sending them. Lastly, people should avoid shouting at their recipients even if they have been offended by their messages or actions.
The Role of Compassion Essay cheap essay help
In her book, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, Anne Fadiman explores the experience of a Hmong family struggling through the healthcare system of California. This book can throw light on the challenges faced by these people who have to confront a different socio-cultural environment. This source can be better analyzed with the help of the essay Mother Tongue written by Amy Tan.
This author also discusses the interactions between people who have different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. It is possible to apply such a concept as compassion in order to examine the themes which Anne Fadiman explores in her work. This notion can be defined as the ability of an individual to understand and fill pity for the suffering of another person. To a great extent, this ability is critical for interactions between people who can have different cultural or linguistic backgrounds.
While Anne Fadiman’s this book seems to be primarily related to the impact of linguistic and cultural barriers on the experiences of immigrants, Amy Tan’s essay suggests that their difficulties can be explained primarily by lack of compassion which is essential for the emotional well-being of individuals. This is the main thesis that should be elaborated more closely.
Anne Fadiman’s book is a valuable source that can illustrate the problems which emerge when immigrants have to interact with healthcare professionals. It should be kept in mind that the representatives of foreign cultures often question “the efficiency of Western medical techniques” (Fadiman 23). As a rule, these people “require more time and attention” since the services of an interpreter are needed (Fadiman 25). These are some of the details that should be considered.
This text’s text can be analyzed with help of Ami Tan’s essay Mother Tongue, and this reading indicates that language barriers can significantly impair the experiences of immigrants. This source demonstrates that a person may find it extremely difficult to express his/her thoughts very clearly.
It is usually argued that they speak in “broken or fractured English” (Tan 48). Moreover, it is often assumed that these people think in a primitive way. The author speaks about her mother who also struggled with the language barrier. Many people assumed that “her English reflected the quality of what she had to say” (Tan 48). Thus, one can speak the discrimination against these individuals.
Admittedly, Anne Fadiman also provides numerous examples indicating that linguistic and cultural differences can prevent people from integrating into the society. For instance, the author mentions that medical professionals often have to communicate with teenaged children of patients and discuss such issues as surgery or resuscitation of “a dying family member” (Fadiman 25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In most cases, such experiences are extremely stressful for family members. Moreover, Anne Fadiman’s book shows that physicians often had “no way of taking a patient’s medical history”; as a result, their choices of treatment could often be questioned (Fadiman 25). Therefore, the emphasis on linguistic barriers is quite justified.
Nevertheless, it is important to remember that this problem is not the only reason why many immigrants can face significant difficulties. In many cases, their hardships can be explained by the inability or unwillingness of many individuals to feel compassion for the problems of others.
In order to illustrate this argument, one should look at the situation described by Amy Tan. In particular, this author mentions that her mother was suspected to have a benign brain tumor (Tan 48). The physicians lost her CAT scan and did not apologize for this mistake.
These people did not consider that she had been very “anxious to know the exact diagnosis” (Tan 49). Nevertheless, they only said that “she had come for nothing” (Tan 49). As a rule, individuals, who are treated in this way, often feel helpless or even desperate. This is why lack of compassion is one of the factors that profoundly affect the experiences of immigrants who are often left to their own devices. This is one of the main arguments that can be put forward.
It is possible to examine Anne Fadiman’s work from this specific perspective. For instance, when Lia was brought to the hospital, she was immediately diagnosed with “early bronchiopneumonia” (Fadiman 26). Yet, the physician did not consider the possibility that her symptoms could be explained by epilepsy (Fadiman 26).
A single conversation with parents could have helped him make the correct diagnosis. However, he did not try to do it. Later, Lia’s parents were asked by to give her certain drugs, and she was almost immediately discharged from hospital (Fadiman 26). Lia’s father was asked to sign the following statement, “I hereby acknowledge receipt of the instructions indicated above” (Fadiman 26).
The physician did not even make sure that parents could fully understand his instructions. This medical worker did not want to make extra effort. So, his indifference is one of the aspects that should be considered. Later, Lia was hospitalized once again, and the physicians made the same misdiagnosis. This is one of the most striking examples that should be considered. Provided that physicians had some compassion for this family, they would have used the services of an interpreter who could speak the Hmong language.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Compassion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this way, they could have eliminated the risk of misdiagnosis. Moreover, they might have considered that Lia’s parents felt virtually helpless when they had to deal with healthcare professionals. The main issue is that the physicians were not willing to discuss Lia’s condition with her parents. This is why this child did not receive appropriate medical assistance on time. This is the main problem should not be overlooked by the readers. Admittedly, there were some people who were genuinely willing to help Lia’s parents.
For example, one can mention Dan Murphy who immediately realized how frightened these people had been because they did not know how to help their daughter. Due to his effort, Lia’s parents received at least some support. This example is important for showing how the attitudes of physicians could differ from one another.
To a great extent, these examples suggest that immigrants may face a great number of challenges while trying to integrate into a new community. Certainly, their limited knowledge of English can be the cause of their hardships. However, more attention should be paid to the lack of compassion since this attitude makes their hardships virtually unbearable.
Admittedly, the role of cultural barriers should not be disregarded, but their impact can be mitigated provided that people try to put themselves in the position of one another. One can say that Anne Fadiman is useful for understanding the peculiarities of cross-cultural interactions. In turn, Amy Tan’s essay can throw a new light on the ideas that Anne Fadiman tries to express. These are the main details that should be taken into consideration.
Works Cited Fadiman, Anne. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012. Print.
Tan, Amy. “Mother Tongue”. Across Cultures: A Reader for Writers. Ed. Sheena Gillespie and Robert Becker. New York: Longman, 2010. 46-52. Print.
Harold Washington with Civil Rights Movement Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Harold Washington was a Black American born in 1922 in Chicago State, where he lived and schooled. During his lifetime, Harold served as a lawyer fighting for the rights of the Blacks, and in many political positions, including the mayoral position.
During his tenure in the political arena, Harold championed for the rights of blacks in aspects like employment, gender discrimination, and fairness. Hence, this study examines the main achievements of Harold Washington in the fields of employment, racism, equality in provision of social amenities, gender equality, freedom of expression, and the creation of the ethics commission in the United States.
Main Achievements of Harold Washington Employment opportunities
During his time in office, Harold advocated for equal employment opportunities for all citizens in the United States. Harold supported the implementation of the United States Fair Employment Practices Act and the civil rights act, which promised to enhance employment opportunities for Black Americans.
According to Newman (2004), Harold Washington was very instrumental in the fight for equal employment opportunities for all United States citizens. Harold’s fight for increased employment was not only restricted to the white-collar employment, but was also inclusive of job opportunities in the military. In addition, Harold was on the forefront in the implementation and practice of the provisions outlined by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that banned racial discrimination.
Another main objective that Harold fought for was racial discrimination against Black Americans, Latin Americans, and Asians termed as minorities by the Native Americans. During the time of Harold’s political reign, racial discrimination was very prevalent to the extent that some schools, hospitals, and even churches performed their operations in accordance to specific races.
While working in the Illinois senate, Harold used this opportunity to enact and promote the Human Rights Act. The provisions in the Human Rights Act promoted fair and equal treatment of all people living in the United States, regardless of color, nationality, or place of origin (Newman, 2004). The Act was very important as it enabled the Black Americans to receive fair treatment and respect from the Native Americans, who initially discriminated them in terms of race and place of origin.
Equality in Provisions of Social Amenities
During his political reign, Harold witnessed various challenges that were faced by the Blacks and other minorities. The state focused on Native Americans, who were the majority, in the provision of basic services like education, treatment, and accommodation. Harold used his political position to champion for equality in the provision of basic services and ensured that the Blacks and other minorities received fair treatment from state authorities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Newman (2004) explains that the Human Rights Act promoted increased access to public facilities especially by the Blacks. Additionally, another Act, which campaigned for equality in service provision from the state, was the Civil Rights Act, which campaigned for better housing and accommodation for the Black Americans. Thus, equality in service provision from the state is Harold’s main achievement that greatly benefited the Blacks.
Harold’s fight against gender discrimination became apparent when he worked on the Human Rights Act that promoted equal treatment of all individuals, irrespective of their race, sexual orientation or religious beliefs. Harold argues that all humans are equal and can perform similar tasks if given the opportunity to perform them.
At the time of Harold’s reign, women in the United States were experiencing pronounced discrimination because of their gender. Access to employment, treatment, education, and other services was limited since people viewed women as lesser beings (Newman, 2004). Harold promoted various rights for women such as voting rights, right to use credit cards, employment, and equality.
Freedom of Expression
Freedom of expression was another main achievement attributed to Harold Washington. Through the Human Rights bill, Harold ensured that all individuals in the United States enjoyed freedom of expression on matters regarding marriage, religion, and social issues affecting them.
Newman (2004) states that the Human Rights and Civil Rights Acts were very objective in advocating for freedom of expression in the United States. Remarkably, the beneficiaries of freedom of expression that Harold fought for comprised of both the majority and minority groups living in the United States.
Creation of the Ethics Commission
Harold also promoted the creation of a commission that deals with aspects governing ethics in the United States. The ethics commission advocates for equal treatment and promotion of good relationships among all people regardless of their gender or race (Newman, 2004). The drive to initiate the ethics commission had its basis on good relationship and fair treatment of all citizens.
Harold held frequent gatherings and meetings in the state of Chicago and addressed diverse races and ethnicities in the United States. The meetings were very practical in enhancing the move to implement good ethics among individuals. Therefore, the Black Americans and other minority groups underscore the essence of the ethics commission and the role played by Harold in its creation as part of their long struggle against discrimination.
We will write a custom Case Study on Harold Washington with Civil Rights Movement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The role of Harold Washington in the civil rights movement is important in the history of the United States. Minority groups such as Black Americans will always remember Harold for the numerous Acts that he advocated for during his time in politics. Some of the main points that the minorities remember include his fight for equal employment opportunities, racial non-discrimination, equal provision of social services, gender equality, freedom of expression, and creation of the ethics commission.
Reference Newman, M. (2004). The Civil Rights Movement. New York: Edinburgh University Press.
Total Ownership Cost Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Life-Cycle Costing Approach
Design-to-cost (DTC) Changes
Role of Cost
Problematic Elements of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts
Introduction Cost estimating relationship (CER) is a common term in business. As the name suggests, the concept uses an established independent variable to estimate prices or costs of items. The other general term is the life cycle cost (LCC), which is the cost of a product, asset, or part of the two as it is undergoing its cycle life while still serving the desired functions.
Total ownership cost is a concept used in management accounting and manufacturing industries. This assay uses an example of a large business with strong capabilities to take an idea from the concept phase to its full production within a very short window due to the use of robotics in the machinery department. The business is ready to expand by competing for government contracts for unique products.
The essay uses the organization to analyze the differences between the Cost Estimating Relationship (CER) method and the Engineered Cost Estimate method in the effort to determine, which approach to Life-Cycle Costing (LCC) approach will be the best for the business. It also evaluates the design-to-cost (DTC) changes while analyzing the role of cost as a key independent variable in the production of unique products. The aspects of cost-refund treaties that create the largest predicament for particular businesses are also analyzed.
Life-Cycle Costing Approach Engineering cost estimate is one of the ways of estimating the cost of a project. It is very crucial to have an approximate budget of the resources that the project will need in the effort to curb any unnecessary inconveniences such as delays because of lack of money, equipment, or workforce. This cost is calculated through the estimation of all the activity costs, adding all of them, and including the overheads to produce detailed cost estimation.
The method is also frequently referred to as the bottom-up cost estimation method (Hofmann, 2007). Although this method is detailed and useful in the engineering industry, there are disadvantages that exist to make it unreliable in cost estimation. The use of this method has been described as useful where the design of a project has reached technical maturity (Ramachandra, 2006).
Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) and parametric cost estimation methods that exist between the bottom-up and the top-down methods are useful in cost estimation (Ramachandra, 2006). The method uses mathematical formulae and expressions to calculate the cost and variables in a production process.
According to Hofmann (2007), CER links price as a dependent element to the price-running elements that are selected based on their autonomy. The vulnerability of costs in a project to past forces is assumed to be the same for the future costs, and hence the use of the method to evaluate the relevant total cost of a project (Ramachandra, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two methods of cost estimation are relevant in the described project. Both have advantages for the application. A bottom-up approach may lead to the overestimation of costs in the project. It would thus make it difficult to acquire government contracts because the organizations’ costs will be higher than for the other bidders. The CER method is the best suited for the organization. The result will be a competitive pricing to enable contract wins.
Design-to-cost (DTC) Changes Design to Cost (DTC) management technique is one of the techniques used by organizations and their interactions with the government (Chris, 1987). In this technique, the cost is controlled using a specific goal in the design in hardware development (Ramachandra, 2006).
The elements of a design-to-cost approach include the understanding of the costumers’ ability to afford the products and the pricing required by the key participants. The allocation target costs must also be established to a level where the costs can be effectively managed in the process.
The main changes in the government DTC policies include the pricing of the different commodities and services that are required. The government has put a minimum price for the various commodities and the tendering process that should be followed. Therefore, the business is required to demonstrate the ability to cover the costs of the whole project before it can undertake the production of the required hardware for the government.
The changes in the DTC in government approach will affect the business in a number of ways. The business will be required to have the exact amount to cover the costs of any project that it intends to carry out for the government. The other effect is that the company will be required to improve in terms of competence by ensuring that it is able to produce the required machinery at a lower cost than most of the other organizations that are in direct competition with the company.
The DTC change also affects the duration of contracts, with the government introducing segmentation of contracts at different stages to ensure competition in the process. This strategy will affect the company since there will be a constant need to update the production process to ensure consistent efficiency.
Role of Cost Cost is a significant part of any project in an organization. It determines the exact competitiveness of any organizational processes. This section analyses the role of cost as a key independent variable in the production of unique products. Cost can be described as a unique factor in the production process. It can be an independent and dependent factor in the process (Ramachandra, 2006). However, cost is an independent factor in most production process because it influences many of the other factors.
We will write a custom Essay on Total Ownership Cost specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The costs incurred in the production process determine the values of the final product. In the production of new and unique products, the costs of production are usually dynamic (Hofmann, 2007). Production of unique products allows organizations to stay ahead of the competition.
However, the whole process of designing the production line, making the unique product, and marketing it usually consumes financial resources from the organization. The cost in the design process is mainly in the hiring of designers and setting up the automated processes of production for the mechanized production companies such as the one in focus. The design costs are also consumed by the acquisition of the appropriate tools for the production process (Hofmann, 2007).
In the marketing of the new unique products, the costs are also consumed in bulk by the large marketing input. The finance that is available in the production of the unique products determines the level of marketing to be undertaken, with the result being the final cost of the complete products.
The unique products that companies develop are harder to market because they are new to customers (Hofmann, 2007). Therefore, the costs are greater compared to the ones incurred in marketing other products. There are often difficulties associated with the setting up of the costs of the unique products. This means that companies can underestimate the costs or overestimate them based on the initial cost assumptions.
For the company under focus, the intention is to act as a formidable organization that can win contracts from the government and begin the production of any unique products as spelt out in the contract terms. Cost is a major independent factor in this process. It affects all other factors within this organization if it is to engage in the contract.
The cost that the organization is likely to incur includes setting up of the appropriate mechanical production line, the acquisition of the robotics, setting up of a team to oversee the production process, and the acquisition of space for the production line. The costs of all these factors will be crucial in establishing the required production costs.
The cost in this company will be independent in that it will influence all other production processes and the eventual product cost. This means that the efficient use of cost estimation methods ensures that the company can control the costs incurred throughout the production process. The company can reduce the eventual costs of the unique products that it intends to produce through the introduction of efficiency in its production process.
Problematic Elements of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts Cost repayment agreements are types of treaties where suppliers are given all the permissible operating expenses of the agreement to a certain acceptable maximum, including imbursement of additional overheads to allow the supplier to make an income (Ramachandra, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Total Ownership Cost by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the problematic elements of this type of contract is the estimation of the final cost of the project and the contract that may be difficult to establish. In this type of contract, the contractor is allowed a cost that is predicted by the government by using the prevailing economic conditions and costs of the appliances at that point in time.
Despite the government allowing for the provision of extra funds towards the projects being undertaken by the contractor, the final costs may surpass these costs (Hofmann, 2007). If these are not considered and/or more funds are availed, the contractor may end up making little if any profit in the contract. The government may also have to increase the funds available for the project.
The problem of cost estimation in cost-reimbursement contract also has an effect on the overall quality of the contract and the output of the company (Chris, 1987).
The measures that can be taken to reduce the effects of the changes in the duration of the contract to prevent large disparities between the stated cost and the final cost include the thorough estimation of the production costs. Companies can achieve this goal through the contracting of economic experts who can quantify the various inputs to be used and the likely changes in their value.
Another problematic element of a cost-reimbursement contract is the additional oversight that is required to design incentive of award fees (Chris, 1987). The extra oversight or administration required to oversee the design of the incentive fees is often a liability for the two sides involved in the contract (Chris, 1987).
The contractor has the responsibility of ensuring that he or she adequately controls the overhead costs of the production process and that the payments he or she receives are only for the permissible costs of the contract (Hofmann, 2007). On the government side of the contract, the administration has to ensure that the right company with the appropriate market cost is considered for the contract. It also has to exercise oversight over the contractor to ensure that it does not add extra costs in the contract.
It is the role of the government to protect the contractor from the unforeseen costs of the contract (Hofmann, 2007). However, in some instances, the contractor may engage in covering the extra costs incurred in the contract because of poor statement of the costs of the contract.
The result of this act is that the company may incur losses occasioned by the inability to cover the unforeseen costs. For the company on focus, the right procedures should be followed to ensure that any contract that it undertakes with the government has all the costs being accurately calculated, with an overestimation made for some of the most dynamic costs.
As opposed to fixed-price contracts, a cost-reimbursement presents little incentive to the contractor to be efficient in the production process because of the assurances in costs that they have. Efficiency in this type of contract may be increased through the introduction of a strict oversight in the respective organs and/or the introduction of an oversight authority for the side that awards the contract (Hofmann, 2007).
The other way that the problem may be solved is through the setting of limits for contractors in various projects. A contract should be shared by several contractors, with each of the parties being compared against the other. This strategy will lead to direct competition within the contracts since the companies seek to win future contracts or get contract renewals.
Reference List Chris, K. (1987). An Empirical Validation of Software Cost Estimation Models. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, 30(5), 416-429.
Hofmann, P. (2007). Psychology of decision making in economics, business and finance. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Ramachandra, K. (2006). Business economics. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers.
The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Essay best essay help: best essay help
The Congress largely known as the European Concert was the initial sequence of the worldwide conference to be held for the diplomatic European power balance. The 1945 United Nations alongside the 1919 League of Nations are some of the mockup groups that later resulted from the Vienna Congress.
In fact, as emphasized by Schroeder Paul, the congress shunned the ancient methods of power application that seemed destructive and threatening. The congress embraced formulas which produced an equilibrium that was very compassionate and steady.
The Vienna Congress came in the year 1814 (May) immediately after the downfall and admission of defeat by Bonaparte. The unremitting war had lasted for approximately 25 years by the time this conference was inaugurated (King 334). Ironically, the theatrical resumption of French control as well as the resurfacing from exile by Napoleon activated the outburst of that warfare. Nevertheless, the conferences carried on for a hundred days in the year 1815 (between March and July).
A number of historians proclaim that the Congress at Vienna never resembled an appropriate Congress. It never met the threshold of a Congress owing to the lack of or restricted contribution by the existing representatives. Similarly, the Congress sittings included the great powers namely Prussia, Russia, France, Britain, and Austria while the meeting dialogues accrued informally and personal rather than on a plenary session.
The Congress was the first one ever in history (Schroeder 683). With regard to the inter-capital dispatch riders, the nationwide and intercontinental delegates assembled in a forum to formulate concords. Hence, while in anticipation of World War 1 in the year 1914, the Vienna Congress designed a background for the European intercontinental political affairs notwithstanding the advanced modifications.
The Congress approved the 1814 Chaumont Treaty that contained various re-affirmed verdicts. The decisions contained in the treaty comprised of the expansion of Netherlands and it took account of what later developed into the contemporary Belgium in the year 1830.
The treaty also included the decisions to restore Spanish monarchs (Bourbons), the splitting of Italy into sovereign states, and the institution of a united Germany. Indeed, the power balance that lasted for years resulted from the Chaumont Treaty which also designed the Alliances in European countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conversely, matters concerning Scandinavia and other additional operations had earlier been included in the Kiel and Paris treaties amid the 6th Coalition and France. Besides, before the preceding inauguration of the Congress in the year 1814, the Paris treaty had previously fixed that Vienna could host the general congress. Thus, the Paris treaty had in the same way organized for an invitation of all the betrothed powers in the warfare (Zawadzki 20).
The Vienna Congress participants The Vienna Congress had four great powers that had earlier made up the Sixth Coalition members. The great powers had delineated their collective stand in regard to the Chaumont treaty just before the downfall of Bonaparte. In the year 1814 (March), which was the duration for re-establishment, the alliance had deliberated on the 1814 Paris treaty together with the Bourbons (King 334).
The French Bourbon and other supremacies
The key accomplices in the Vienna Congress incorporated the French speakers, Prussian, Russians, British, and Australians. France as one of the powerful nations was represented by Duke of Dahlberg and Talleyrand. The two French delegates were the Plenipotentiary and Foreign ministers respectively.
The Foreign minister (Talleyrand) on behalf of Louis XVIII, who was the King of French territory, had previously discussed the year 1814 Paris treaty. Yet, King Louis XVIII of France held secret negotiations with Metternich given the suspicion he had on Talleyrand (Zamoyski 297).
Prussian nation was also regarded among the great powers. Its presentation at the Vienna Congress was done by Wilhelm who was both a scholar and ambassador. Other delegates who presented Prussia included Chancellor and August Karl who was a Prince. Interestingly, the Prussian King (William Frederick III) was engaged in the recreation of some significant issues. The King carried on with this duty in public places though he was present in Vienna (Zawadzki 24).
The European nation rulers pursued the same ground and timepiece to the year 1789 in order to re-establish the ancient administration. In Russia, King Alexander I was one of the influential and greatest sovereign rulers in Europe. Alexander I who was the Russian King during the Congress organized a delegation in Russia following the footsteps of Robert Karl who had earlier headed such an entrustment as a foreign minister.
The King had merely two outstanding goal lines in the delegation he led. Initially, Alexander I wished to encourage and endorse a nonviolent cohabitation among inhabitants living in the continent. The King wanted to embrace the powers to have control over Poland. However, in the year 1815 he thrived and started the Holy Alliance which was established based on love for Christianity. The Holy Alliance could fight whichever intimidation or jeopardy from antimonarchism and rebellion (Schroeder 687).
We will write a custom Essay on The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other great power among the four was Great Britain. Castlereagh Viscount who was the Foreign Secretary became the principal envoy to represent Britain in the Congress held at Vienna. Subsequently, the departure of Viscount back to Britain in early 1815 paved way for Wellington to represent Britain at the conference.
The Congress produced a limelight for the restoration of peace and stability in Europe. In the period of Hundred Days (March-July 1815), Wellington who was the leader of the Congress retreated to meet Bonaparte. Thus, Duke of Wellington endorsed Earl to lead the conference during the final days of the Congress (Zamoyski 297).
On the other hand, Austria as a state got representation through the Foreign Minister besides his assistants Metternich Prince and Johann Baro. Back in Austria, Francis the Emperor was fed with the information on the subject and the whereabouts of the conferences taking place at the Vienna Congress.
The other signatories to the Paris Treaty (1814) included Genoa Republic, the States of Papal, Switzerland, Denmark, Norway-Sweden, Algarve, Spain, and the Kingdom of Portugal. In general, almost all the European nations were presented in the Congress with a delegation and agents of special factions, sacred groups, firms, and metropolises (Zawadzki 28).
The Role of Talleyrand and Polish-Saxon crisis
The delegates from the influential powers never wanted an inclusion of Talleyrand into the intense intercession at the Congress. However, in the initial stages of negotiation Talleyrand managed to get into the innermost spheres of the Congress. Talleyrand used that opportunity to be part of the core and control negotiations after clinching into the minor authorities like Portugal and Spain working group.
After deserting his associates upon leaving the Committee, Talleyrand was present at the preliminary conference on protocol by the major Allies. Equally, the Polish-Saxon crisis proved to be the hazardous and greatest matter that took center-stage during the Congress. While Russia coveted a good part of Poland, Prussia preferred all of Saxony whose ruler was associated to Bonaparte (Zamoyski 297).
In this regard, Poland would have a King as their ruler. This forced Britain to back Austria with the hope that Russia would develop into a more powerful nation. Talleyrand anticipated that France would be divulged into the innermost circle in order to back Britain and Austria. The 1815 clandestine accord by Austria, Britain, and France campaigned against the execution of the Russo-Prussian idea by fighting against Prussia and Russia (King 334).
The Ultimate Bylaw
Prior to the Waterloo struggle, the Ultimate Bylaw that exemplified all other distinct pacts was signed by various mediators. They included the British, Norwegians, Swedish, Russians, Prussians, Portuguese, French speakers, and Australians. This Bylaw became sanctioned in the fiscal nineteen-seventeen by Spain who hardly appeared to be a stakeholder. The signing of the Final Act terminated the conference at Vienna with a renovated Europe having a plan for properly balanced power (Zamoyski 297).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The results of Vienna Congress
The Congress saw the espousal of rational policy with little penalties and plunders besides providing a stable European re-settlement. The Congress ensured no experience of any major conflict until the commencement of the Crimean and First World Wars. The conference provided for humanity in the whitewashed French nation with the aim of eradicating sentiments that would present vengeance.
Besides, the Vienna Congress assumed a strategy to revive and restore peace, stability, and earlier conditions prior to the war in Europe (Schroeder 684). The European kingdoms’ restoration as well as the avoidance of superior nationalism and equality transpired from the Congress. However, ignoring the demands for greater nationalism and democracy later gave rise to conflicts that occurred in the 19th Century. Finally, nationalist campaigners yearning for democracy distressed the reinstated territories.
The criticism of Vienna Congress
The Vienna Congress often faced denunciation by historians of the 19th Century. In the contemporary days, historians however disregard the liberal and nationwide instincts for striking the close continental rejoinder. Nevertheless, historians in the Twentieth and Twenty First Century appreciate the statesmen who ascended to the Vienna Congress. These historians embrace the work of the Congress that prohibited further prevalence of conflicts for almost 100 years (1815 onwards) in Europe (King 334).
Bibliography King, David. Vienna 1814: How the Conquerors of Napoleon Made Love, War, and Peace at the Congress of Vienna, New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group, 2008. Print.
The book is a page-turner containing many life aspects including sex, intelligence, comedy and explorations. It is an important read for me as it is a well-researched political intrigue that illuminates how Napoleon and his clique changed the course of European continental history and modern politics.
Schroeder, Paul. “Did the Vienna Settlement Rest on a Balance of Power?” American Historical Journal, 97.3 (1992): 683-706. Print.
This article articulates how the players in Vienna Congress were sensitive to balancing the power that was distributed after the downfall of Napoleon. It is an essential article as it addresses Vienna settlement and the 19th century implication on international system.
Zamoyski, Adam. Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna, New York City, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007. Print.
The book contains the European history of Napoleon defeat plus details of the Congress of Vienna that succeeded the downfall. The book reveals how politics was played in ensuring the curtailing of the French influence and the actors who sought piece of the action and how the same may recur in the contemporary world.
Zawadzki, Herbert. “Russia and the Re-Opening of the Polish Question, 1801-1814.” International History Review, 7.1 (1985): 19-44. Print.
This article addresses the politics that played in establishing a detached Polish kingdom in 1815 in collaboration with Russia. The essay reveals the acrimony and disruptive negotiations at the Congress of Vienna.
Industrial Revolution in Big Industries Across the US Report essay help online free: essay help online free
The drastic change in the industrial sector across the United States led to the spanning of mechanization, specialization, and division of labor between 1820 and 1870 (Backer, n.d.). With the shift from manual operations to use of machines, the Americans turned their objectives to mass production and reduction of work to simple labor; this made them undisputed leader in global manufacturing.
Factories and machines replaced home and hand production. Industrial Revolution went on to change the Americans’ views from small craft workers and independent farmers to workers in factories (Effects of the Industrial Revolution, n.d.). They were able to work successfully in big industries across the US.
Expansions in the manufacturing process made the Americans to view themselves as having the ability to be autonomous in production. There emerged the middle class from the large factories that absorbed many Americans. The industries absorbed accountants, insurance agents, teachers, lawyers, and doctors (Brinkley, 2012). These categories of workers were entitled to monthly salaries, and not hourly wages. From this dimension, Americans changed their earlier views on living as working class.
Before the Industrial Revolution, most Americans had their places of work within or close to their homes. Most women started working outside their homes. Those who could not send their children to schools due to inadequate funds rose to high earning levels, and, as a result, were able to do so. In addition, Industrial Revolution altered the tasks of families, as had been common in pre-industrial society.
According to Brinkley (2012), the entire aspect made Americans to change the family economy since women could also secure light jobs in the industries. With the onset of mechanization, specialization, and division of labor, Americans viewed themselves as capable people who can drive their economy independently. The paid labor as opposed to family or home employment made families view themselves as independent units, which can take care of themselves.
The Industrial Revolution led to the development of infrastructure; this opened the once inaccessible regions in America. Americans began to move beyond their boundaries to look for market and raw materials for use in their factories. Other inventions during this period include automobile, telephone, and light bulb.
These inventions coupled with assembly line made manufacturing more efficient, thus modernizing the industrialized nation. Americans believed in themselves and their capability to make life easier than before. The need for specific skills in factories made Americans to recognize the role of women at the workplaces, with gender roles becoming increasingly defined (Hillstrom, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Having understood well the effects of Industrial Revolution from England, Americans instituted necessary measures to avert negative perceptions. Industrial Revolution, from this aspect, changed Americans’ views and perceptions on the role of women in the society. In expanding the transportation systems and enhancing the motor assembling processes, Americans believed that they could control other activities in the whole world.
Industrial Revolution drove Americans to the brink of controlling the entire globe, as the progress led to invention of key machines for increasing production (Effects of the Industrial Revolution, n.d.). The Americans had remained self-centered on their way of life, and engaged in home activities to manage their families. However, Industrial Revolution altered their perceptions on the possibility to develop their territory, engage in productive activities, and develop the nation in order to be the leading producer of all products.
References Backer, P. R. (n.d.). Industrialization of American Society. Charles W. Davidson College of Engineering San JosÃ© State University. Web.
Brinkley, A. (2012). American history: connecting with the past (14th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Effects of the Industrial Revolution. (n.d.). Modern World History. Web.
Hillstrom, K. (2007). Industrial revolution in America. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.
Excessive force by the police Qualitative Research Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Police use of force in the US
Cases to support police brutality against minorities
Police brutality in other countries
Introduction Police are charged with the responsibility of safeguarding citizens and dealing with crime. In performing these duties, they are authorized to use the acceptable force within certain limits. The amount of force that a police officer is entitled to use depends on the situation and it varies greatly from one situation another.
However, law enforcers have abused this privilege due to lack of clear laws on the amount of force that an officer is entitled to use in a given situation.
Some officers have resorted to using excessive force even under unnecessary circumstances. Excessive force may take the form of physical assault, sexual assault, verbal abuse, or use of lethal force when dealing with suspects or the public at large. Police brutality is a contemporary worldwide issue as cases of savagery continue to arise despite the numerous laws governing the conduct of police officers.
Police use of force in the US The laws governing the conduct of police officers in the United States are very clear. They give a police officer the right to use reasonable force when dealing with law aggressors, but at the same time they set limits in which such right is applicable. However, police officers tend to abuse this privilege by assaulting innocent citizens in the pretext of maintaining law and order.
A police officer who violates the rights of a citizen in any way is liable to pay for damages and injuries suffered. The local media in the US reports on many cases of public assault; however, most of these cases do not reach the international media and the perpetrators go unpunished (Ritchie
The Life Span Perspective of Development Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents The Aspects of the Life Span Perspective of Development
Freud and Erickson’s Theories of Life Span Development
Interaction of the Heredity and Environment
During the life, people change significantly with references to their physical appearance and characteristics and with references to their mental and emotional progress. The life span perspective of the human development is based on the idea that a person moves through several stages of development during the whole life (Berger, 2011, p. 7).
Thus, certain changes are typical for the definite stages of life, but it is also important to pay attention to the individual character of experienced changes because all the people are different. From this point, the life span perspective aims to explain the human development with the focus on separate phases completed during the whole life; and all the stages of the human development are taken into consideration in spite of the fact that the followers of this perspective are inclined to determine phases according to different criteria.
The Aspects of the Life Span Perspective of Development The life span perspective of the human development is characterized by the complex approach to analyzing all the aspects of the people’s changes observed during different life stages. As a result, it is possible to speak about the multidimensional character of the approach because all the aspects are discussed in their connection.
According to Berger, the human development presented as the life span is multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plastic (Berger, 2011, p. 10-18). This statement means that it is irrelevant to discuss the human development as started at one point and moving to another one; or as dependent only on one context, including only the family or social status; or as dependent only on one culture.
The people’s development is the complex process because a person is influenced by a lot of environments, cultures, and situations during the life span. This person interacts with many people belonging to different cultures and ethnic groups and develops the specific personal traits during the whole life (Berger, 2011, p. 10). Each detail associated with the person’s life, such as the family, socioeconomic status, and character, matters to explain the aspects of the person’s life span development.
Freud and Erickson’s Theories of Life Span Development There are many theories of the life span development which differ in criteria according to which psychologists determine different stages of the people’s life. Freud and Erickson’s theories are similar in focusing on the age-related steps, but they are different in criteria to state the fundaments for the stages’ progress. Thus, Freud’s theory depends on a range of psychosexual phases because the theorist is inclined to associate the man’s sexual nature with the psychological development.
Freud concentrates on the childhood as the period when a child experiences some crises which determine the oral, anal, phallic phases, and the period of latency. These periods lead to the genital stage lasting during the adolescence and adulthood. According to Freud, the stages depend on the centers of pleasures important during different stages (Berger, 2011, p. 43-47). As a result, the human sexual nature is chosen as the criterion to propose the life span stages.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Erickson’s theory is based on the social aspect. If Freud’s theory depends on psychological crises associated with the sexual development, Erickson’s theory depends on psychological crises associated with the people’s social interactions. Erickson states that people move through a range of stages during which they are impacted by the peculiarities of the environments and interactions with people.
People’s activities and behaviors during different stages are explained with references to their attitude to their society and personal interactions. As a result, at different stages, people are influenced by the conflicts between their identity or independent life and society which can be represented as the family, relatives, friends, and other people (Berger, 2011, p. 51).
Interaction of the Heredity and Environment A person can be discussed as an individual only with references to the unique combination of the heredity and environment’s impact on his or her development. Today, scientists cannot provide the single opinion on the role of nature and nurture in the person’s development because it is impossible to state what factors affect the personal development drastically. Heredity makes people different in their appearance and physical qualities when nurture makes people different in their vision of the world, education, and lifestyle.
It is important to note that nature and nurture are in ongoing interaction to affect the person’s individual development. The unique complex of the genetic material and environment produces a unique person who should be discussed only with references to combination of heredity and environment (Berger, 2011, p. 9). Inherited qualities should be combined with the environment’s impact to influence the individual’s development.
Conclusion The life span perspective of the human development depends on the idea that people move through many stages during their life, but this movement should be discussed as the multidimensional process rather than as the linear movement. Such aspects as the interaction of nurture and nature can influence the person’s development significantly because various inherited qualities or life situations can affect the people’s life differently.
Reference Berger, K. S. (2011). The developing person through the life span. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
Security dilemma in the Middle East Essay essay help online
Introduction Since 2008, Arab nations in the Middle East have been facing a dilemma of how to resolve and prevent insecurity within their borders and across the entire region. The possibility of uprisings in the region remains high, but mitigation measures are few.
One of the major concerns for the region is the Muslim Brotherhood’s capability of igniting violent protests, thus resulting in insecurity, especially after the Egyptian uprising in 2008 and 2012. This paper explores some of the pertinent issues surrounding the matter, like the reluctance of some governments to change their model of governance coupled with some of the options available to the governments, including acquisition of foreign aid and quashing the Muslim Brotherhood.
Systems of government The form of governance that a country’s leadership adopts has serious implications on the state of its security. Many responsibilities rest on the leaders’ ability to prioritize and make objective decisions on behalf of their citizens. In most cases, people prefer to choose their leaders through elections.
However, sometimes people feel content with alternative forms of leadership choices. Most Arab nations, especially those bordering the Persian Gulf, which form the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC), have been under absolute monarchies since the abolition of colonization. This paper reveals some of the benefits that the country has experienced from this type of leadership.
One of the most influential and memorable leaders that Saudi Arabia has had to date is Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan. His father, Sheikh Sultan bin Khalifa Al Nahyan, was the ruler of Abu Dhabi when Sheikh Zayed was born. However, Abu Dhabi did not have much in terms of development at the time. There were no schools and most of the inhabitants survived on subsistence fishing and farming despite the region’s wealth in oil.
The state of the economy was poor owing to lack of formal education and healthcare facilities. However, this scenario changed thanks to Sheikh Zayed’s revolutionary leadership. The Sheikh came out as a selfless leader by putting the needs of his people before his own (Killgore 2005). Some of the significant changes that he made in the region include harnessing the benefits of oil and applying the revenue to the development of hospitals and schools.
Others include advocating for female empowerment through the provision of equal rights in the labor market and fostering unity between Abu Dhabi and other members of the United Arab Emirates. The leadership council reappointed him for the position three more times in 1981, 1986, and 1991. He was also famous for his insistence on preservation of Islamic values as evidenced in his move to make Islam the national religion for the UAE (Killgore 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although Qatar and Saudi Arabia experienced some land disputes during Sheikh Zayed’s reign due to disagreements based on the Treaty of Jeddah, he ensured that the two states kept the matter civil and carried out trade with each other peacefully. Issues on the dispute did not arise until a year after his death in 2004.
During his reign, Sheikh Zayed formulated policies that allowed the entry of expatriates into Abu Dhabi as a solution to the labor force problem. This aspect created goodwill between the state and Western nations, thus increasing trade opportunities for the entire region in addition to expansion of oil markets for the UAE into the United States, Russia, and other western nations. This case is an example of how contentment in the leadership style that leaders adopt can generate lasting peace.
A lot has changed since Sheikh Zayed’s leadership, with citizens of Arab states accusing leaders of using their positions to commit social and political injustices such as human rights violations and unequal distribution of wealth. Other accusations against governments in Arab states include the denial of leadership opportunities to citizens with great potential despite calls of dissatisfaction on current leadership.
Such views have created concerns over potential uprisings and security issues for governments all over the Middle East. For instance, there is a possibility of a security crisis in Iraq if the government fails to make radical changes to policies regarding its Sunni minority. The Sunni community has been retaliating to ill treatment by the Iraqi government comprising human rights violations such as mass arrests, lengthy detention periods, and absence of procedures present in most fair trials.
Such retaliation has been worsening since 2008, resulting in approximately five thousand deaths to date (“Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood declared “terrorist group”” 2013). The situation has created a dilemma on how to improve the security situation in the county without attracting an uprising from the minority Sunni community resulting in a sectarian war.
According to “Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood declared “terrorist group”” (2013), experts and human rights groups blame the Iraqi prime minister, Nuria al-Maliki, for not reaching out to the minority groups and not starting work on anti-terror laws on time. The state also lacks rules barring members of Sadam Hussein’s political party from participating in public politics.
Although the government has made some changes in policy concerning the issue, analysts describe them as minor fixes that fail to address the severity of the situation. The matter remains pertinent as the nation prepares for parliamentary elections scheduled for April 30, 2014. The major concern for the government is that the minority group may seek aid from the Muslim Brotherhood, which is a supposedly terror group and political activism faction with links in most Arab countries.
We will write a custom Essay on Security dilemma in the Middle East specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The group’s influence and ability to attract attention through political activism makes it a potential option through which the Sunni minority can destabilize the government. The group played a huge role in the ousting of former Egyptian President, Hosni Mubarak (Rutherford 2008). The group’s application of violence in furtherance of its agenda in the past is a threat to the Iraqi national security measures.
The Muslim Brotherhood
The organization, which most Arab nations consider as a terrorist group, is an Islamic political activist group and social movement founded in Egypt in 1928 by Scholar Hassan al-Banna during the persistence of the Second World War. It mainly comprises Sunni Muslims who feature a minority population in most Islamic nations.
The group’s original main objectives included conducting charity work in addition to political activism while instilling values from the Quran and Sunna to the Muslim community. In the initial stages of its development, the group received massive support from Arab countries of the Middle East, which was understandable considering that most nations were undergoing colonization from Western nations.
Some of the activities that the group conducted during the early years of its inception included teaching illiterate members of the community, preaching Islam, and establishing health care centers among others. Fisk (2007, p.67) notes that in 1936, ‘after substantial growth in its influence, the group started to oppose the British rule in Egypt and substantially contributed in the country’s struggle for independence’.
However, Lia (2006, p.101) posits that the Islamic community in Egypt ‘credits a series of violent killings during this period to the movement and the Egyptian government banned the group in 1952 after rumors of its plans to assassinate the president after the Egyptian Revolution’.
Over the years, the group has attracted many members from different countries around the world, most of which are Arab-speaking nations. It receives financial backing as a requirement from all its members often obliging them to give a part of their financial gains to the movement regularly.
Some of its members originate from oil-rich Arab countries, thus creating concern over its activities in countries such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Iran. The violent history of the group and current significant political influence have caused great concern from Middle Eastern nations as fear of the group’s activities in the Arab Spring looms. A key example is the election of Mohamed Morsi – a member of the group, as the president of Egypt in 2012 after the ousting of the former president, Hosni Mubarak, and his oppressive regime.
The election was an important milestone for the group and a cause of concern for other Arab nations considering that the group was only one year-old after its legalization in Egypt in 2011. Morsi was a product of a democratic election, which proves the view that the group has been dormant for several years and its social influence persists in the country and possibly in other countries within the Arab Peninsula.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Security dilemma in the Middle East by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the “Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood declared “terrorist group” (2013), the military overthrew of ‘’Morsi’s government in July 2013 and the interim government declared it a terrorist group in December of the same year after members of the group attacked a police station in Mansoura’’ (par. 13).
One of the goals that the group has made clear over the years is that it strives to liberate Arab nations from Western rule as part of the unification process that it hopes to implement for all Arab nations.
Although the move sounds noble, it creates a problem for most governments in Arab nations due to the view that the countries see Western nations as valuable trade partners and lucrative markets for their products. For instance, Saudi Arabia and Iran produce 12% and 5.2% of the world’s oil respectively and they consider the United States and Russia as their main markets.
Any activities by the group that interfere with the trade relations between western nations and Arab nations in the Middle East threaten the economic stability of these countries (Rabi 2006). The most obvious reaction to such a threat would be to curtail the group’s activities. However, the view that most members of the group originate from these very countries creates a security dilemma for governments in the Middle East, as the resultant effect would most likely be an uprising or protests.
Such an occurrence will subsequently create an environment that hinders overall trade activities with Western, as well as Eastern trade partners. In addition, governments’ efforts to quell such uprisings would most likely result in political instability, as citizens question the actions of their governments leading to full- blown civil unrests, thus leading to a social, political, and economic disasters.
The Arab Spring According to “Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood declared “terrorist group” (2013), the term “Arab Spring” describes ‘a series of political demonstrations that have taken place in most Arab nations, mostly in Africa and the Middle East, since December 2010’ (par. 8). Some of the countries affected so far include Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Yemen, Syria, Bahrain, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia.
One of the main causes for such political protests is the authoritarian manner in which governments in these countries run their affairs. Citizens in these nations desire changes that these governments were not willing to incorporate in their style of governance, thus resulting in backlash from the civilian populations. Human rights violations is the second reason for such protests while others include unfair distribution of resources, corruption, unemployment, and in some nations, opposition against Western influences.
During the initial stages of this wave of protests, the intensity of its impact was unforeseeable for most nations. For instance, the occurrence of a major uprising on the grounds of bad governance in Tunisia in 2008 contributed to the intensity of the uprising in Egypt to oust President Hosni Mubarak’s dictatorial leadership and replace it with a democratic system (Rutherford 2008).
Analysts consider the success of the Egyptian uprising as a major contributor to the Libyan uprising in 2011 that resulted in the ousting and death of a dictatorial leader Muammar al-Gaddafi in October of the same year. Other causes for the Libyan demonstrations were accusations of the government of human rights violations, poor distribution of the country’s resources, including earnings from oil reserves and lack of democratic rights to choose leaders that best serve the interests of people.
Between 1800s and the 1900s, the focus of such protests was colonial rule and the attainment of self-governance. In recent years, such focus has changed to concerns over internal problems the Arab community is facing, especially with regard to governance.
For instance, most people express their dissatisfaction with the anarchist mode of leadership that Arab countries, especially those along the Persian Gulf, practice whereby power is hereditary, which limits the chances that other citizens in these countries can take leadership positions (Rabi 2006).
Analysts point out the use of media as one of the main catalysts to the unrest and eventual uprising in most Middle Eastern countries. For instance, they mention the fact that technology savvy youth in universities and colleges with access to information on current events from other countries played a great role in influencing protests, particularly those in Egypt, which resulting in the intense nature of protests.
Initially, protests in Egypt were about rights of workers, but gradually escalated to protests against the entire political administration, as it was word spread in social media sites.
Another catalyst that analysts highlight is globalization. Globalization has made concepts such as international trade and communication prominent in the development of these countries, thus resulting in intercultural interactions whereby citizens in Arab nations learn about the benefits of other forms of governance and rights that other countries grant their citizens. Such interactions foster a form of enlightenment and sense of empowerment that leads to revolutionary action in cases where governments take a hard stance to change.
The outcome of such uprisings has resulted in security concerns in countries where governments opt for their traditional forms of rule without sparking violence from their indigenous populations.
For instance, the Saudi Arabian government experienced pressure from its population following the September 11 attacks on the United States in 2001. Some Saudi Arabian citizens and those from the UAE considered trade and policy relations with the American government as traitorous and demanded the government to cut ties with the West (Dilanian 2011).
Although the governments have made slight policy changes regarding the freedoms that citizens from western countries enjoy on their territories, most oil rich Arab nations along the Persian Gulf continue to conduct trade with the west. However, the possibility of looming public uprising in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Oman, Lebanon, and Kuwait is still a nightmare for governments with regard to a peaceful resolution and prevention.
Mitigation of the security dilemma The Cooperative Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) measures
The Cooperative Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, which also goes by its original name, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), is a union comprised of nations along the Persian Gulf that deal with the political, social, and economic development in the region.
The council presently comprises states of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE with its headquarters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. However, there have been talks about including Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen since Saudi Arabia proposed the formation of a confederation in December 2011.
Since the council’s formation in 1981 in Abu Dhabi, the region has experienced great economic integration and political stability. Some of the measures that the council leaders have put in place to ensure continued prosperity include formulation of similar regulations regarding finance, trade, practice of religion and legislation, establishment of scientific research centers, cultural integration, and encouragement of cooperation of private sector institutions (Deutsch Federal Foreign Office 2012).
The council has also proposed the creation of a monetary union and the project is under careful consideration by the nations. The fact that the economies in question are some of the fastest growing in the world due to the presence of oil and natural gas reserves and adequate development plans proves a testament to the success of the council.
The occurrence of the Arab Spring in 2008 created security concerns for the GCC in addition to raising questions on the extent of involvement that the council should exercise in solving security problems of its members. Although the council has a unitary military force, the Peninsula Shield Force, member nations have to deploy service men to operate as part of the force when the need arises.
For instance, the Bahrain Uprising that has been persistent since 2011 saw Saudi Arabia and the UAE sent ground troops to ensure maintenance of peace. Although Kuwait did not send ground troops, it sent a naval unit. On the other hand, Oman chose not to get involved in the matter in terms of military actions.
The differences in agreement on the type of aid to offer member states during security situations created a dilemma for the members as they formulated policies to mitigate the effects that the looming uprisings might cause. The GCC troops involved in the current security situation in Syria began going back to their nations through Kuwait due to injuries and threats from the resident government over illegal involvement in internal relations (“Kuwait set to receive GCC fighters back from Syria” 2014).
During the 52nd UN’s social development committee, Kuwait gave a briefing of the GCC’s plan for social development (“Kuwait highlights GCC social development plan at UN” 2014). The plan includes programs such as provision of justice to the minority and majority groups in member states, enlarging the job market, providing social security and technological developments for the government to mitigate issues leading to uprisings adequately.
The plan is compliant with the UN’s Millennium Development goals for 2015. According to the Diplomatic Attache Aliya Al-Mzaini, social justice and development form the core concepts surrounding strategies that the GCC hopes to adopt (“Kuwait highlights GCC social development plan at UN” 2014).
The American government is one of the few governments in the West that have openly declared non-tolerance for terrorist activities, regardless of the origin of such groups. The United States’ anti-terror campaign began in 2001 after the 9/11 twin bombings in New York and Washington by Al Qaeda, which left dozens of people dead, scores injured, and properties worth millions of dollars destroyed.
Apart from following up on the perpetrators of the attacks, the government developed a preemptive strategy that resulted in its declaration of a global war against terror (Wright 2007).
During its investigations into the Al Qaeda terror group, the American government founds links between the group and the Muslim Brotherhood, and thus it considers the latter as a terrorist sect in its own right. The resolution that the Muslim Brotherhood is a terror institution in Egypt following the political atmosphere in 2011 after a coup that ousted President Mohamed Morsi from power further strengthened the American government’s resolve to quash the faction.
The group has had links with the Saudi Arabian government in the past owing to similarities in principles regarding the application of Islam in governance. However, the Saudi Arabian government has recently indicated concerns of the possibility of the group sparking chaos in the country. The government explains one of the reasons behind such fear as the group’s preference for a democratic style of governance in place of the present monarchial system.
The government also expresses concerns over the lack of satisfaction that its minority population has shown, thus leading to fears that the said population may reach out to the group for help (Lewis 2002). The most likely result in this case would be an uprising similar to that experienced in Egypt in 2008 that culminated in the election of former President Morsi -an influential member of the group.
Although Saudi Arabia has its own military force, it relies largely on alliances to ensure that such force is sufficient for adequate protection. A common interest between the United States government and the government of Saudi Arabia makes it easier for the Saudi Arabian government to reach out for help from the US.
However, the American government is largely infamous to most citizens in Arab nations due to history with executions of Islamic personalities including Sadam Hussein, Osama bin Laden and involvement in events leading to the death of Muammar Gaddafi.
The situation creates a dilemma for the Arabian government for fear of backlash from its citizens likely to resort in protests leading to insecurity. Middle Eastern nations thus need to develop strategies that appeal to both the resident populations and the interests of the government without resorting to violent situations likely to achieve insecurity in the region.
Conclusion Although the governments in the Middle Eastern region have various choices open to them in the resolution of the insecurity issue, most options carry the likelihood of backlash from resident populations. Therefore, it is up to the involved governments to formulate lasting solutions regionally in order to prevent future dilemmas of a similar nature.
Reference List “Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood declared “terrorist group”, BBC NEWS. Web.
“Kuwait highlights GCC social development plan at UN”, The Peninsula. Web.
“Kuwait set to receive GCC fighters back from Syria 2014”, Arab Times. Web.
Deutsch Federal Foreign Office: Gulf Cooperation Council 2012. Web.
Dilanian, K 2011, ‘’CIA led U.S Special Forces mission against Osama bin Laden‘’, Los Angeles Times. Web.
Fisk, R 2007, The Great War of Civilization: The conquest of the Middle East, Vintage Books, New York.
Killgore, A 2005, ‘Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan AL Nahyan (1918-2004)’, The Washington Report, vol. 24 no. 2, p.41.
Lewis, B 2002, What Went Wrong: Western impact and Middle Eastern Response, Oxford University Press, New York.
Lia, B 2006, The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement 1928-1942, Ithaca Press, New York.
Rabi, U 2006, ‘Oil Politics and Tribal Rulers in Eastern Arabia: The Reign of Shakhbut (1928-1966)’, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 33 no.1, pp.37-50.
Rutherford, B 2008, Egypt after Mubarak, Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Wright, L 2007, The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11, Vintage Books, New York.
“Eat Drink Man Woman”: Confucian Ethics and Traditional Chinese Family Life Essay (Movie Review) writing essay help
Introduction Confucianism is a philosophical attribute used in China and which is based on the ethical values upheld by the Chinese community. The philosophy originated from the teachings of the K’ungu-fu-tzu also known as Confucius, a philosopher who has influenced the ethical system in Chinese society. It was first designed and centered on sociopolitical teachings but since then, it has shifted and it is now based on humanism (Sinaiko 12).
The concept which is a humanistic approach recognizes that human values are not stagnant and can be changed from one form to another. Three aspects are borne form this belief that people are teachable, improvable and perfectible as well. The ideology is focused on preserving the humane aspect of members of the society by employing different teachings based on different foundations.
There are three foundations that govern the act of Confucianism in the Chinese republic. These are ren, yi and li (Sinaiko 15). The three foundations touch on different aspects of the Chinese culture. For instance, the ren is the act of being humane to other people in the community and it is collectively known as altruism. (Xinzhong 24)
Yi on the other hand is the act of behaving in a morally upright manner. In this case, people are expected to do good things. The last aspect which is li requires that one be humble for the sake of the other person. In Chinese society, one opts to give up his or her life either passively or actively for ren and yi to be effectively achieved in the community (Xinzhong 25).
From this philosophical context, it is obvious why the movie “Eat Drink Man and Woman” was created in such a manner. The idea was to point out the ethical context of the Chinese people specifically those in Taiwan. This paper is a philosophical review of this movie. In the review, the author provides their reflections on the main ideas of the movie as well as on Confucian ethics in traditional Chinese family life. The connection between Confucian ideas on one hand and Chinese family life on the other hand in the movie will be addressed.
“Eat Drink Man and Woman” Movie Review: Plot Summary The movie was released in 1994 by the Taiwan Film Records under the directorship of Ang Lee. He puts into context Confucianism by dramatizing the manners of the Taiwan community based on facts about life, love, and modernity. He uses food to explain the ideology of modern people in the community (Vick 3).
Synopsis There are three daughters in the family who are not married. They live with their father who is a widower. It is noted that food is the main aspect in the film whereby the father cooks traditional foods and none of the daughter likes his dishes. They perceive it as too outdated but their father loves them so much such that he encourages them to eat the food. During Sunday dinners, he prepares for them traditional food and the relationship in the family seems to grow deeper and deeper (Vick 5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The daughters are always afraid of him but in the film, the father can tell stories in different circumstances and this makes the daughters to have the urge to eat and have a deeper relationship with the father. Secretly, the middle sister loves the traditional food and aspires to be a cook in future even though the women are not encouraged to cook in the community (Vick 7).
“Eat Drink Man and Woman” reveals the sexual and love scenarios in the society as the unattached daughters try to get engaged to other men in the surroundings who come to upset the calm at home. The middle daughter, Jia Chien, works with the airline services and gets a boyfriend from the office where she works. This changes the family relationship especially with the father (Vick 5).
The first born daughter, Jia Jen, falls in love with a volleyball player and coach and she hunts for the man hysterically after realizing that she can be in love again on the basis of human desires. Initially, the older sister was so cynical about men. The youngest daughter, Jia Ning, is always in a constant sexual relationship and she eventually becomes pregnant while in college (Vick 9).
The director of the movie introduces different characters in the film to highlight the family relationship. He especially highlights the characters of those men who are attracted to the ladies. For example, Li Kai in the office is attracted to the second born daughter. The climax of the film is when Mr. Chu begins dating Jia –Ning. The gentleman tells her that he wants to end his addiction to love. He confesses that he is too weak to do so as he does not know how to approach the act of love (Vick 9).
The different characters change the family especially in the way they relate to one another. The family had a happy ending as each member clings to what they feel suits them better. The father marries a beautiful wife as all his daughters also get married elsewhere (Vick 13).
Philosophical Context of the Movie and Confucianism Ethical Issues
The movie is a reflection of Chinese ethical values. For example, the generation gap is a vital reflection in this movie as portrayed by the three daughters refusing to eat the traditional food. But the second born daughter secretly likes the traditionally made food from his father’s house and aspires to be a chef even though the Chinese society does not allow women to be chefs (Xinzhong 8). From a philosophical perspective, it is the opinion of this author that this is a very backward trend in the society as portrayed in the movie.
Food takes center stage in this movie as portrayed by the effects it has on the relationship between the father and his daughters. Love follows second as reflected in the other characters that become an obstacle in the normal family relationship. From the three foundations discussed by the writer earlier in this paper, these two themes clearly reflect modernity as far as generation gap is concerned. This is in regard to how people from different generations relate to one another.
We will write a custom Essay on “Eat Drink Man Woman”: Confucian Ethics and Traditional Chinese Family Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Traditions seem to frighten the daughters away but the father seems to understand it. He convinces the daughters and succeeds in making one of them like the traditional meals (Vick 23). Confucianism is reflected here as the father shows humanity and patience when dealing with the daughters.
The three foundations the writer explained earlier and which includes li demands that each individual sacrifice his or her life to accommodate other individuals. This is clearly seen in the second born daughter who secretly loves the traditional food. Here, loyalty is paramount to adhere to the cultural values which lack in the other daughters.
As far as Confucian philosophy is concerned, the movie also reflects the kind of relationships that revolves around Chinese families. Relationship mounts to different levels which finally crescendos to the unexpected ending in the film.
The Chinese culture provides that relationship is the centre of the Confucius ideology. In this case, it requires duties to be carried out in certain manners by certain individuals. This includes different relationships from different individuals. For instance, the relationship between parents and children as well as relationship among the children, juniors, and seniors as well (Xinzhong 24).
The relationship in the film is reflected in the three daughters and the father. Some of the daughters are not aware of the place they occupy in the social order. This is clearly seen as the last born daughter behaves contrary to the Chinese norms. The Confucius requires young people to love their parents, when married to love the partner and so forth. All these are seen to recede in the background as modernism has taken root in the Chinese culture with fathers becoming cooks and daughters aspiring to become cooks too (Sinaiko 31).
Women in Confucian Thought
The film is revolves around the three daughters of a father who is widowed. The Confucian philosophy requires women to adhere to moral integrity. According to the philosophy, women are supposed to posses three qualities as far as a virtuous woman is concerned. First, they should be subordinate to the father before they get a husband. The woman is also supposed to be subordinate to the man she gets married to. Finally, the Chinese culture requires that the woman be subordinate to the son after the husband passes on. All these makes up the Chinese woman as far as chastity is concerned (Xinzhong 26).
Men on the other hand are supposed to remarry whenever they want and this is clearly evident in the movie as all of the daughters get married and the father also gets himself a beautiful wife hence the happy ending. However, the generation gap denies the characters in the film the opportunity to be virtuous women. This is seen as two of the daughters disregard the idea of the traditional food and start engaging in promiscuity (Xinzhong 29).
Promiscuity is seen in the younger daughter who gets pregnant while in college. The first born daughter has also tested love which led to a painful experience for her and that is why she is cynical about men. But at the end of it all she resolves to get engaged to a coach (Vick 19).
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Eat Drink Man Woman”: Confucian Ethics and Traditional Chinese Family Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Parting Shot
The movie has portrays different cultural aspects of the Chinese society specifically in Taiwan. The director’s idea in the movie was to point out the moral loss in the current Chinese cultural practices. The traditional foods seem ridiculous to the current generation but it is the only way to make sure that the traditional norms are passed from one generation to the other by a father. Love and life norms are also some of the director’s view in the film where Confucianism clearly illustrates the importance of adhering to the cultural values.
Works Cited Sinaiko, Herman. Reclaiming the Canon: Essays on Philosophy, Poetry, and History. New York: Yale University Press, 2010. Print.
Vick, Tom. Asian Cinema: A Field Guide. New York: Harper Perennial, 2008. Print.
Xinzhong, Yao. An Introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
The Difference between a Leader and a Manager Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Executive Summary
The Role of Managers in Corporate Organizations
Leadership and Its Growing Demand
Leaders and Managers: Their Differences and Similarities
Building Your Leadership Skills
Executive Summary The management within corporate organizations has very critical roles. The managers remain central in enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness within most corporations. Business management principles identify the management roles to be very vital. Particularly, this applies to the present global competitiveness.
There are notable disparities between leadership and management. However, a critical examination into the roles indicates that these two categories are complementary. Having the appropriate management skills and forming a component of the team that propagate operations are common elements within leadership and management. The different leadership and management roles must be defined. It is also critical to analyze the concept of leadership in relation to increasingly transforming global organizational demands.
The Role of Managers in Corporate Organizations The term manager draws its basic definition from the kind or nature of the roles that the specific person undertakes. Generally, a manager may be termed as an individual charged with the obligation of planning, organizing as well motivating and controlling. Most managers usually assume the superior within distinct teams and have the authority to exercise certain definite powers.
Within corporate settings, the managers have the obligation to enhance the apprehension of the basic management process. In undertaking such roles, the corporate managers formulate plans and decisions. Apart from these, these managers bear the obligation of supervising, controlling and organizing various factors within the corporate organization. Some of these f actors may include human resource or other personnel, finances as well as the critical information resources.
The managers within corporate organizations have to design the formulae and art of attaining the objective organizational goals. It is imperative to note that such a role may only be attained under specified conditions. The conditions that these managers must fulfill to attain their goals are diverse.
Some of these include proper engagement of the available resources, such as the personnel and finances. Therefore, it can be deduced that corporate managers without appropriate and strategic resource management skills are likely to fail. The managers execute their roles within the corporate organization’s administrative position. The managers are specialists. They help in finding out solutions during intricate conjunctures. They have the capacity to take critical risks on behalf of the corporate organization.
Imperatively, they also operate to draw and outline the basic visions and mission for their organizations. They have the obligation to initiate and conduct basic research to innovate the basic methodologies to keep the organization competitive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, these managers are responsible for implementing and supervising the various strategic approaches to the running of the organization. They have a crucial role in the development and formulation of the appropriate strategy for the corporate organizations. Additionally, they also stimulate and stir transformations within the organizations.
Supervisory roles are inherent within any management position. The managers within corporate organizations also have the obligation to motivate their followers. The managers motivate and encourage most workers to excel in their duties. Ensuring proper work distribution is a key management role within the corporate organizations. Managers are usually the heads of various departments and exercise defined responsibility over their subordinates.
Managers within corporate organizations have the responsibility to stir, initiate, and support innovation as well as novelty amongst the employees or other subordinate staff. The top management has the obligation to plan for the organization’s strategic goals or decisions. The middle-level management includes those who head various departments. They support the operating resolutions, supervise the first level managers and control the execution of critical decisions.
The first-line management has very significant roles. They also have a direct control of the corporate organization’s implementation procedures that basically occurs within the low levels. There are also functional managers that bear the responsibility for overseeing basic processes including production, marketing as well as finance. Indeed, it can be recognized that the managers within the corporate organizations have critical roles in enhancing efficiency and effectiveness within such organizations.
Leadership and Its Growing Demand Leadership has increasingly become a pertinent concern within the general business and organizational management. The increasing competitiveness and growing demands for more globalized management approaches have motivated the advanced demands for leadership. Particular kinds and theories for or generational leadership have been widely discussed by most scholars.
However, the basic fact remains in the application of strategic leadership approaches that have the capacity to enable firms develop competitively. Due to the highly flexible leadership demands, most organizations have emphasized on the need to engage more qualified and competent human resource. The leadership aspect has considerably been recognized during recruitment process. This enables most organizations to nurture critical leadership competencies and personalities.
Organizations globally seem to be possessed by a fresh motivation and passion for innovation, novelty as well as growth. This trend has particularly been noted following the duration of massive retrenchment as well as downsizings within such organizations.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Difference between a Leader and a Manager specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rapidly growing technology, high rates of global expansion and flexible business models have resulted in the demand for more strategic and focused leadership approaches within organizations. The notable mergers as well as takeovers within most multinationals and domestic corporations are indicated to have significant impacts on the types of leadership required within various organizations.
Evidently, the present corporate leaders are seemingly confronted by a severe requirement for novel types of talent as well as leadership approaches. Various types of leadership approaches and theoretical models have been indicated to have significant and varied effects on the present organizational performance or efficiency. For instance, the capacity of transformational leadership approach to stir and motivate change and innovation amongst diverse groups has been noted.
As the leadership demands grow, many organizations and their managements are gradually realizing the need to integrate participatory approaches within the management. Employees are presently identified as the first and important stakeholders within most organizations. Therefore, the need to integrate them and apply a comprehensive leadership approach that includes all the stakeholders is eminent within most organizations.
The human resource departments within various organizations have had the challenge of recruiting personnel with promising and vibrant leadership competencies. Moreover, they have the challenge to assist such personnel with budding leadership skills to fully realize ad exercise their notable competencies. Due to flexible and ever-transforming business demands and competitive environments, there must be a clear methodology of defining the future leadership requirements within organizations.
Participatory leadership includes one of the most preferred and practiced leadership approaches within most organizations. Its continued application is premised on the fact that it allows room for collective bargaining and indulgence of all relevant personalities. It may also be applied in taking care of the employees’ demands and general welfare.
Generally, it can be noted that an appropriate leadership approach leads to high levels of efficiency as well as effectiveness within present organizations. Present leadership approaches within organizations must focus on a diversity of strategic issues. For instance, the leadership must be concerned on how the organization must quickly be prepared for transformation within the entire organization. Critical leadership skills needed for the future must be taken into consideration.
Technological, emotional as well as intellectual aspects of effective leadership have distinct influences on the organizations’ performance. Much demand is increasing for leaders who can foster development and growth. They must be highly innovative and intuitive in order to comprehensively deal with complexities within the highly competitive global business and organizational arena.
Leadership skills that enhance a person’s capacity to excel in a multicultural global environment are appropriate for efficiency to be realized within organizations. Leaders with in profit making organizations must also think like their clientele. Complete leadership competencies are also pertinent in enhancing success and effective organizational performance.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Difference between a Leader and a Manager by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Interpersonal associations, character, individuality and critical attributes are some of the vital elements required of effective leadership within present organizations. There is also a growing demand for those leaders with the capacity to work within the outlined processes. Generally, it is evident that present organizations need more strategic leadership approaches in order to remain more competitive and successful.
Leaders and Managers: Their Differences and Similarities Generally, a leader refers to an individual present or occupying the topmost designation or cadre within any institution or organization. The leader occupies this top most position in the organization with a basic defined objective. Basically, leaders endeavor to motivate or inspire certain personalities or followers to endeavor and attain distinct and outlined collective goals as well as objectives.
Leadership is basically the process of inculcating values and principles into the lives of individuals or followers. Effective leadership within any team or organization may be realized by ensuring the presence of maneuverability. This should evidently prevail even in the instances of adversity. An appropriate leadership approach should thus focus on providing outstanding quality client service, conquering novel grounds or avenues and collecting the needed resources.
Evidently, management and leadership are critical undertakings that usually go hand in hand and complement each other. Leadership in practice involves inculcating multiplicity, injecting motivation, enthusiasm as well as commitment and optimism. By initiating hard work, dedication and desire to succeed, leaders become role models.
They prepare others for the tiring road to success. Leaders conduct organizational reorientation, and systems downsizing. They also help in goals and deadlines accomplishment. The ability to influence others requires leaders to have full inherent energy. Weak leadership leads to poor organizational performance and inefficiencies. Leaders apply their power to influence the character of other people. Leaders are also endowed with the skill as well as information power.
Management generally refers to the art that involves planning, organizing as well as controlling any business process. In other terms, management has been seen to vary from leadership.
This is because it involves the exercise of executive, administrative or supervisory roles upon a specific group by a manager within an organization. Unlike leadership, management involves the supervision of the homogeneous and heterogeneous teams within an organization. Management assumes a substandard position of authority and remains obligated to a leader.
Through the observation of collective convictions, traditions, principles and cultures, the management roles ensure work processes are complete. Unlike leadership, management requires familiarity with individual traits such as the mastering of theoretical skills, practical skills, as well as human skills. The capacity to articulate ideas as well as other concepts allows the management to conquer barriers that obstruct concentrating on the wider picture.
With a superior comprehension of practical skills, management remains better-off rectifying practical and mechanical faulty systems. Unlike leadership, vital management paraphernalia is a person’s experience. The similarities between management and leadership are obvious. For instance, they both involve working with teams and diverse individuals. In order for both roles to be effective, there must be people skills.
Through working with different people, both the leader and manager must be alert and attentive. This is because both roles entail the addressing of worker’s needs as well as opinions. The followers’ welfare must, therefore, be considered in both leadership and management roles. Although there are significant disparities between leadership and management, there exist other shared core values that predominate as similarities between the two concepts.
Building Your Leadership Skills The art of leadership may not be easily mastered and practiced. Good and appropriate leadership is developed with the preferred character as well as relationship practices.
The skills also form a consequent rating scale for good leadership. Effectively performing leaders are widely respected. This is due to their integrity, constructive attitude, wisdom and their dedication or determination to success. Good managers are able to develop their leadership competencies. Due to this, they are able to become leaders with outstanding management skills.
Effective management calls for more than simply delegating roles to the team members. There is an evident need for the leader with the capacity to motivate group members in order to attain their maximum potential. In building leadership, one has to discover whatever individuals think about their management approaches. Such initiatives might be applied to enable a potential leader to make positive transformations.
An open-minded approach is critical in enhancing a person’s leadership competencies. Listening hard enables one to build their leadership skills. This is because through listening, one is able to offer appropriate problem solution approaches. This enhances an individual’s problem solution capabilities.
Practicing effective communication and feedback mechanism is important in developing a person’s leadership skills. This is because communication refers to an important leadership role that must be practiced. The capacity to respect the followers’ capabilities and lead through example also includes some of the important observations that are necessary for developing leadership skills.
Sharing tasks and other leadership responsibilities enables several individuals to enhance their leadership capacities. Furthermore, evaluation and monitoring of the team and individual success is a periodical undertaking that helps to note the weak and potential areas within leadership path. These are some of the important considerations for individual enhancement of leadership skills.
Conclusion As observed, leadership as well as well management form powerful structures. They exert remarkable manipulation within different workplaces or organizations.
Whilst management is obligated with creating order and stability, leadership is essentially meant for introducing transformation and movement. A leader enjoys diverse responsibilities, has several qualities and exercises upon many individuals for the purpose of the urge of achievement. Leaders appear to be more personal. On the other hand, managers are impersonal concerning goals.
Product Innovation and Pricing Report a level english language essay help
The product that will be introduced in the market is mobile money transfer. This is an intangible product, which involves the process of sending and receiving money via the mobile phone. There will be partnerships with the top eight wireless telecommunication service providers in the United States such as Verizon wireless, AT
Children Development Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Short Description of the Stages
Comparative and Contrast Analysis
Introduction Children development is a very complicated process. Trying to unite different ages in groups with he purpose to give some particular characteristics, scientists used the range of ages as children development may differ and some children at 4 years may possess skills and knowledge which others will acquire only at 6. There are particular norms which deviate in the issues of children development. Speaking, listening and comprehension, reading and writing are the main aspects according to which children development is accessed.
Early childhood (2-6) and middle childhood (6-10) are two age groups which stand close, however, children development at each of these stages is absolutely different. Giving the general characteristics of each of the stages mentioned above (early childhood and middle childhood) this paper aims to consider the differences in language development, reading and writing. Comparative and contrast analysis is going to help in the future choice of reading and writing tasks for children of different age groups.
Short Description of the Stages Early childhood stage (2-6 years) leads children through many physical, cognitive and social changes. Children at this age form stable reasoning aspects which help them develop their cognitive and mental thinking processes. Children at this age develop intuitive reasoning, their reason and consequence connections become more logical.
At middle childhood stage (6-10 years) children are able to complete more complicated thinking processes. The reasoning becomes more refined and detailed. Here is a detailed comparative and contrast analysis of the language skills, reading and writing development of children at two different stages, early childhood and middle childhood.
Comparative and Contrast Analysis Early childhood (2-6) Middle childhood (6-10) Language skills Children of this age rapidly increase and advance their vocabulary
Lack of understanding of some simple words and desire to know their meaning
Understanding of the “good listening”
Difficulty in pronunciation
Temporal words and comparatives become more understandable
Lack of knowledge of the irregular words
Literal understanding of information
Interpretation of the heard information
Ability to dwell upon a specific topic
The ability to create a story with the cause-and-effect reasoning
Reading Reading while playing
Children of this age are able to relate sounds to letters
Identification of some words in the context which is familiar for children
Use of the distinctive features of the world
The ability to hear phonemes is separately taken words
Word decoding skills are improved
Learning the skills of silent reading
Drawing inferences out of the read information
Writing Muscular control is increased in drawing
Writing of the elements of the letters and the abilities to connect them
Writing of the personal name and the simplest words, e. g. mom, dad, etc.
Writing of all the letters in the alphabet (after 4)
Smoothness of handwriting is increased
Size of the letters is decreased
Writing of the sentences and stories is dominating over the writing of the simple words
Appearance of the difficulties connected with identifying problems in personal wiring (problems connected with clarity are the most common ones
Table 1. Comparative and contrast characteristics of the age groups, early childhood and middle childhood (McDevitt,
Why is recess being eliminated from some of our public schools? Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help: writing essay help
Most states are currently in the process of eliminating recess from their normal school programs. Different educational boards have cited a number of reasons for this action. These range from the fact that recess exposes children to unregulated play to the lack of enough time to learn.
There are also issues pertaining to the freedom of children during recess, which gives them the opportunity to bully each other and engage in negative social activities such as teasing. Some of the stakeholders have identified that children have to be molded through learning where a teacher provides structured guidance in all aspects of their lives (Johnson, Christie and Wardle 367).
This means that the freedom to participate in their own play activities freely may be discouraging a child’s wholesome growth. The fact that teachers are aware of what is best for each child under their care means that they are in an elaborate position to provide helpful guidance during play. There have also been a number of legal liabilities that have seen school boards incurring huge losses as a result of legal suits where parents sue the school for injuries sustained during play.
This debate seems to have overshadowed the benefits of free play as they are identified in the personal development of the child. Children are in a position to establish their own perceptions in as far as their environment and the people around them are concerned (Johnson, Christie and Wardle 383). This should be subject to some level of guidance to eliminate negative influences, but at the same time, it should not be dominated by adult preferences.
The fact that recesses as well as other activities that a child engages in while at school are supposed to prepare him or her for the eventual adult life means that normal social settings should be encouraged. The elimination of recess defeats the purpose of a random learning environment as the guidance provided to children remains unpractical in their adult life because of the random challenges they face (Johnson, Christie and Wardle 378).
Recess helps build an adaptive character where a child is able to cognitively perceive positive aspects out of every scenario without having to be forced by the teacher or guardian. The child has to learn to engage his or her creative abilities without having to rely on the teacher or guardian. The fact that children are at the top of the developmental ladder means that they are more likely to achieve mental, emotional and physical growth in the process of play.
There are a number of aspects of growth especially in as far as physical and emotional growth is concerned, which occur naturally. The solving of social dilemmas is often advised by inherent knowledge developed through voluntary growth. This is often encouraged through the engagement in free play where there is no adult influence that imparts regenerated solutions, which can be easily forgotten.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The elimination of recess can be greatly attributed to the changing social structure as well as the changing perceptions among parents. The fact that parents perceive their children as being in a position to avoid all the negative influences that they had to deal with as children such as injuries and bullies means that they are the main proponents of guided play (Johnson, Christie and Wardle 385).
Teachers are also more concerned over the opinions of parents rather than the general well-being of the children that entrusted unto them.
Works Cited Johnson, James, Christie James, and Wardle Francis. Play, Development, and Early Education. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. 2005. Print.
The Feelgud Company and Its Philosophy of Human Health Essay online essay help
Feelgud, a Maryland based company, is withdrawing all of its Headache Gone products following the reported cases of illnesses in Illinois and other parts. This follows the company’s philosophy as regards to human health.
In a statement, the company CEO reiterated the organization was determined to safeguard its image by putting the interests of the public first. Consequently, the organization is going to work with American Center for Disease Control to destroy the product.
The company decided to withdraw the product from the market following the reported cases of serious illnesses such as voting, diarrhea and general body weakness. It should be made clear to the public that the product underwent extensive testing and scientific research before being allowed to enter the market.
Furthermore, the product was allowed to trade in the American market after receiving approval from the governmental agency in charge of drug licensing. This is why the agency is willing to help the company monitor the withdrawal of the product from the market. Customer interests always guide the company meaning that the health of the public is a valued issue in the company.
Even though serious cases have not yet been reported, the company decided to pull back the product to investigate the possible problem. It is possible that the quality of the product could have been compromised either at the production site in Bangladesh or at the departmental stores within the country. The company urges the public to destroy any product that might have been purchased already before this announcement.
It is in the country’s health records that the product was effective before its quality was compromised. This information is supported by the fact that over 95% of citizens, approximated at 170,000 used the product successfully meaning that their needs were met. Due to developments in technology and the issue of globalization, many companies cannot trace the movement of their products.
Some fraudsters could have acquired the technology used in producing the drug. Furthermore, the contents of the product could have been tempered with hence, we urge the company to remain patient as the company, together with law enforcers, embark on a serious investigation. The findings of the investigations will be made public.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company wishes to notify the public to be cautious of any new changes in the product, including its effects, labeling, packaging, and distribution channels. Before using a product, ensure that the label is that of the company registered legally to distribute or to trade in a certain product.
Moreover, the public should be aware of any new adjustments as regards to packaging. Finally, ensure that the product meets the intended purpose. Should any customer experience any effect, either negative or positive, ensure that you report to the relevant authorities. Nonetheless, never hold back your suggestions. Try as much as possible to contact the manufacture. For any clarifications, the public is urged to contact 1 800 555-2233 for further clarifications.
The company wishes to assure the public that the product will be back in the market but after thorough investigations. Any inconvenience caused to the public is highly regretted. We urge the public to check continuously the press for further information regarding the product. We know that the product has been satisfying your need but your health is of great importance. You can as well check the company’s website to acquaint yourself with relevant information.
Globalisation, Immigration, Race and Ethnicity in Vancouver Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Globalisation, immigration, race and ethnicity are of much importance to sociologists and non-sociologists in similar methods, however, the past geographical perspective for the play out of economic development has long been of concern to sociological researchers.
Though, Vancouver B.C. has developed as the typical or quintessential example of the social process through which cities develop. It is an extended social group of a unique cultural and economic organisation in urban North America. Presently, through the progression of locally developed strategies, Vancouver has, with broad awareness presented itself as a form of modern city-making.
Like the most realistic of dreams, the city is creating itself as a district beyond and different from the usual expected transformation of a modern society. Perhaps, constant phenomenal is in accordance with the current social theories of globalisation, immigration, as well as ethnic and gender development in the city.
Vancouver B.C has propagated a number of myths about itself. These well established myths are accepted in the public mind. Nevertheless, it is a city of paradoxes.
Critical analysis beyond the understandable and the reasons for Vancouver’s success seem more often to do with historical occurrence that might have been arranged even though it was an unplanned formulated realism.
Contrary to plan and expectation, Vancouver’s precise state of separation in addition to the relative deficiency in political and economic authority has meant that it was avoided by the worst of North America urban renewal. However, freeways system of transportation using trains to move passengers or freight and underground pedestrian systems, large shopping centers, big-box retail, and super curved dead-end boulevards represent the traditional street network.
Certainly, metropolitan Vancouver does have many of the symptoms of modern North American town planning, predominantly in its remote suburbs and bedroom communities where, in fact, the majority of its inhabitants live. On the other hand, there is a virtuous chain of sanitary around the large and densely populated urban area of Vancouver itself: almost no freeways break the rules of its municipal boundaries or violate the regular street grid and a sum of just two main shopping centers besmirches its environs (Millar 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a convinced irony in America cities looking upon Canada to consider what the United States taught the public about city building. In the case of Vancouver, both Shaughnessy Heights and the British Properties were urbanised through the giants of American town planning. Vancouver has been what newcomers want it to be, the perennial immigrants’ city of the migration. Yet it is the dream city that has seduced the imagination of emigrants and visitors alike.
Objectives This research paper will discuss the role of one aspect of the phenomenon (Globalisation, immigration, race and ethnicity) in Vancouver, B. C. The paper will further explain the impact of geographical-regional inequality in addition to class polarisation, and function of the metropolitan city of Vancouver B.C. in the new global society.
Lastly, this research paper will assess how globalising forces impacts migration and social identities in Vancouver B.C.
Research question What are the sociological theories that best explains the local case of globalisation in Vancouver B.C?
What are the fundamental characteristics of the world-system view of globalisation?
What is Vancouver’s elemental DNA?
Methodology This research paper attempts to capture the fundamental nature of globalisation in the development and transformation of Vancouver as well as the sociological theory that best explains the local case. On the other hand, this research paper is not a clearly defined or formulated detailed and documented treatise of Vancouver’s urban geography and history of settlement (migration of people). Nor is it a wide-ranging review of the architectural tradition of the city.
Such theoretical accounts have already been well provided. The most important investigation of this paper is on an effort to understand the unique setting and urban forms that have shaped this young city and continue to influence its emerging development through globalisation. It is the selective focus on those evidences and characteristics that contribute towards deciphering the aspect of the phenomenon (Globalisation, immigration, race and ethnicity) that is present-day Vancouver.
Statistics of Vancouver B.C Some vital statistics (Census Community Profiles 2006) to keep in mind in the beginning of this research are:
Vancouver B.C has two million residents (Census Community Profiles 2006).
Greater Vancouver is made up of twenty-one separate municipalities, and one electoral district, which together form the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD).
The city of Vancouver B.C has around six hundred thousand inhabitants-approximately 30 percent of the total city populace.
The land base of Greater Vancouver is 6571 km2 (2,537 square miles).
The size of land fit for urban development is much less, only about 1441 km2 (556 square miles) because of protected ridge of land that splits two adjacent river systems; local, regional, provincial and national parks; agricultural land; forests and land that is too steep to develop.
History and Background of the City of Vancouver B.C Vancouver is little more than a century old. Until about 1885, the only intimations of the future city were a factory, a church and some wooden houses in a clearing of the southern shore of an otherwise largely limited Burrard Inlet existed, though parts of the forest around the inlet had already been cut down.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Globalisation, Immigration, Race and Ethnicity in Vancouver specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though, the traditional and historical chronology approach seems ill-natured, if not absolute irrelevant to understanding the forces that have developed and continue to develop it. This timely urbanism, is match up to almost any other city in the urbanised world. Vancouver is also inseparable from its natural surroundings, and the chronicle of its urban form is about its setting and context as well as about the built content.
Elemental City of Vancouver There is something truly elemental about Vancouver, a defining characteristic of place that only a few cities have and the principal geology from which Vancouver establishes its elemental essence can be put in this formula:
Latitude coastal longitude mountains = precipitation
To put it another way:
Temperature prevailing ocean winds vertical barrier = Pacific Northwest rain forest.
Almost everything about Vancouver springs from this detailed theory of environmental information: the freshness of the air, the flavor of the water, the light, the smells, the colors of the landscape, the food it cultivates and eats, the pure atmosphere and consequential lifestyle. This is Vancouver’s distinctive atmosphere, and, the city’s urban form is responding to these elements.
Vancouver as a terminus city There is an edge quality that has described the development in Vancouver from its beginnings. In a statistically significant process, apart from the early maritime voyagers who alerted Europe to these shores, Vancouver was not colonised from the ocean but through the solid part of the earth’s surface, unlike superficially similar places such as Sydney. It is the last stop, not the beginning, of the current Canadian story.
Its birth as a city was as the western terminus of the transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway. It is the final continental stop on a route beginning, metaphorically, in the British Isles, and, geographically, in the southern Patagonia, where the Pan-American Highway starts a route that finally runs out of maritime contact at Vancouver. Vancouver has always been the metropolis at the last part of the line terminal city.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalisation, Immigration, Race and Ethnicity in Vancouver by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ethno-cultural portrait of Canada This paper presents the ethno-cultural analysis representing the extent to which Canada at the beginning of the 21st Century presents a nation that has become progressively more multiethnic and multicultural. This description is diverse and differs from territory to territory, city to city, and community to community.
The movements of people to Canada over the precedent 100 years have formed Canada, with each new movement of immigrants adding to the nation’s ethnic and cultural composition. Half a century ago, most migrates came from Europe. Now most recent arrivals are from Asia.
As a result, the number of noticeable minorities in Canada is increasing. Moreover, Canadians registered more than 200 ethnic groups in puzzling out the 2001 Census question on ethnic lineage, reflecting a diverse, rich cultural pattern as the nation began the new millennium.
Globalisation in Vancouver Social action these days are increasingly impervious to geographical national borders. As a result of this globalisation is not any one thing but is comprised of several interrelated economic, political, social, and cultural processes (Sklair 100).
By the same indication, globalisation processes are not driven by any universal or predetermined way. Further, as its name underscores, globalisation involves processes that span the whole world, the globe, and as such it is qualitatively different to the international relationships, migration patterns, and political communication that have long existed between countries.
Globalisation, as a result, necessitates a shift in sociological side from the tendency to think of society as simultaneous with, or happening within and between, definite geographical national territories. Even though, there is no sociological theory of globalisation in Vancouver B.C., different theoretical filaments help us to make analytical sense of what globalisation means for social change and societal processes in Vancouver.
Globalisation as the procedure of incorporating nations and people-politically, economically, and culturally- into better communities have shaped Vancouver B.C and this procedure are one which is not linear or incremental but “dynamic, transformational, and synergistic”.
Consequently just as Durkheim emphasised that society is greater than the sum of the individuals who are in it, globalisation should be perceived as being more than the cumulative sum of the Vancouver B.C. and the inhabitants comprising the city. It has its own certainty, and as such builds social processes and moral forces that cannot be reduced to the economic, political, or cultural actions in Vancouver B.C.
In Durkheimian terminology, globalisation represents an objective social fact with its own external and limiting force in society (though, evidently, this should translate globalisation as an independent of society or motivated by some unseen, non-societal force; rather it is formed by society and impacts other processes in society). As well as, further globalisation extends and impacts both macro and micro processes (Robertson 84).
What might be said to be synergistically new about globalisation in Vancouver B.C is the concurrent circulation and flow of people (migration); gender equality; and of information about all sorts of people.
Globalisation in Vancouver B.C. has changed the dynamics of social life across all societal globes. As briefly defined by Leslie Sklair, globalisation is “a system of organising social life across open state borders,” and as such gives rise to characteristically global practices and global cultural practices (8).
Immigration, race and ethnicity in Vancouver Vancouver has been the scene of a different class of settlement by an ever-extending range of inhabitants and cultures, particularly Asians, because of its position on the Pacific Rim. It is a city of migrants. With respect to its inherent nature, it is becoming the social development of Canada, contributing to a new cultural anxiety, one that is much less focused on Europe and the Europeans.
Evidence of this cultural change is easy to discover in the metropolis’s pan-Asian union landscape and Asian festivals, in its contributing place as an area for the teaching of English as a second language and in its attractive ethnic marginal political strategy of taking undeviating action to achieve a political or social goal (Frary 2009).
The union of these two advance states, the physical and the cultural, offers the first evidence to clarify Vancouver’s developing urban structure.
Immigration and the Changing Culture of Vancouver Throughout narrative description of past events, cities have been the dynamic midpoint of political, economic, and social transformation. Globalisation processes and the changes they create once again draws interest on the position of the city in society.
The “sharing of knowledge” via migration of people from a different culture is one of the major causes of cultural globalisation (Giddens 76). One way of thinking about the effect of the global sharing of race and ethnicity and of the culture it displaces, is the theory of global unification, introduced by Roland Robertson (1992).
He offered reasons and arguments: “Globalisation has to do with the act of changing location from one place to another as a whole in the direction of unification- meaning unity of the world as a single social and cultural place” (348).
In line with this, the region that would in due course become Vancouver was formerly populated by local people. These occupants were replaced by immigrants. The immense number of early colonial migrants came from Britain and Europe, but the Gold Rush of the middle of the nineteenth century and the building of the transcontinental railways in the 1860s and 1870s drew migrants from other parts of the globe, together with those from Indian and, most remarkably, Chinese ancestry.
The 1901 periodic count of the population announced that about 10 percent of Vancouver’s inhabitants were from Asia. The possibility, as a result of a favorable amalgamation of circumstances for immigration to Canada from Asian countries, was strictly reduced in the end of the nineteenth century and the mid-twentieth century. In the 1880s, an individual tax was forced on migrants from China, and the cost was gradually increased to decrease immigration.
This first effort to limit the ethnicity of migrants was succeeded by decrees that made it impossible to migrate from India to Vancouver B.C, and restrained the number of migrants from Japan.
In the 1920s, the Chinese individual tax was withdrawn in support of an absolute ban on this form of migration. However, the impact of this plan of action in Vancouver B.C. is worth mentioning. Early Chinese, Indian, and Japanese people of the same race and ethnicity began to increase in the years signifying the primary function that follows the main developmental change of the century in the city of Vancouver B.C.
Though, this natural disposition was limited by a new plan of action. At the same time as, the decrees restricting the capacity or freedom of action, as well as the ban of Asian migration were taking place, the federal government implemented strategies to draw migrants from Europe. As a result, the proportion of Asian group of people who differ ethnically or politically from the bigger populace to the Vancouver population dropped, plummeting from approximately 10 percent in 1901 to below 3 percent in 1941 (Hiebert 1999).
Undersized Chinese and Japanese enclosed territory that is culturally different from the unfamiliar territory that surrounds it continued to exist close to the city center, but the number of immigrants has drastically reduced in number, especially in considering the fast expanding European populace.
All through most of the twentieth century, Vancouver’s unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes the development of globalisation, immigration, race and ethnicity were directly linked with the resource of British Columbia. Furthermore, the city’s cultural masterpiece was distinctly European, Controlled or ruled by a British receptivity.
The changing context of the core-periphery world A fairly large distinguishing quality of the worlds’ system perception is that it distinguishes and, in reality, requires transformation within a system. Although the world system is an autonomous and consistent system (Wallerstein 347), it also has its own internally created pressures and challenges.
The passing of time, population change of location and demographic movements, and (following Marx) the ever-present challenge that belongs in capitalist production diversely result in recurring shifts as to which internal structures and groups have more power than others (347).
The structure of the capitalist world system, therefore, Wallerstein argues, is not set once and for all time by some watershed events in history. Geographical boundaries can develop such that areas external to the system can be included into it, typically into new outside edge or semi-periphery areas (mostly, historically, as a result of colonisation of peripheral areas).
By the same token, some regions may change their role in the system. Wallerstein Immanuel stated that such core territories can become semi-peripheral and semi-peripheral ones marginal (Wallerstein 350).
Although core states have an advantage over others, their status is not assured across a long period, and they necessarily encounter challenges.
In conclusion, it will be observed that this is a process which is neither seamless nor apolitical, and which is characterised by considerable economic disparities between and within countries and regions. Sociologists underscore that economic globalisation proceeds in tandem with the expansion of the power of transnational corporations and create new forms of class stratification, characterised by substantial inter-class social and economic inequalities.
Clearly, globalisation is of much substantive interest to sociologist, because on the surface, at least, globalisation is transforming the process of change in the society and the assumption made about the changes.
Works Cited Census 2006 Community Profiles. Vancouver, City and CMA”. Government of Canada. 2006. Print.
Frary, Mark. “Liveable Vancouver”. The Economist. 2009. Print.
Giddens, Anthony. The Consequences of Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990. Print.
Hiebert, Dorothy. “Immigration and the Changing Social Geography of Greater Vancouver.” BC Studies 121 1999: 35-82.
Millar, Royce. “No freeways puts Vancouver on top”. The Age Melbourne. 2006. Print.
Robertson, Roland. Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 1992. Print.
Sklair, Leslie. Globalization: capitalism and its alternatives. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. Print.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century, With a New Prologue. London, England: University of California Press, 2011. Print.
Health Care Reform Report a level english language essay help
Introduction Health care reform has remained to be an issue in the United States for the first time since 1994, when President Clinton proposed major reforms, there is provable consideration in reforming health care in America.
Research reported some constant challenges where unions of all influences are providing their own positions on the issue. Political activists and leaders are presenting concerns and solutions about these issues surrounding health care system. Some states have implemented different health care reforms and other states are on their way doing the same.
Interest in health care reforms is determined by three major issues, such as medical cover, cost, spending, and quality of health care services. With reference to coverage, it is estimated that above 50 million people were uninsured in 2007 and this makes up above one-seventh of the total population (Garber