Virtually, all enterprise firms appear similar when it comes to the primary objective: to increase the output in order to maximize proceeds.
However, in order to increase production of output, the firm must incur additional expenses, which might trim down the profits realized. Thus, in any firm, the liaison between costs and profits is so much imperative, as it will determine the quantity of the output.
There are different types of costs namely: implicit costs, opportunity costs, fixed costs, variable costs, marginal costs and total costs. Nevertheless, in economics, we refer to all these types of costs as opportunity costs. There is a reason why this is so.
Take for example a company that manufactures steel metals. We do not expect the firm to produce steel of the same quantity as the resources. Some resources will remain unused and evidently, the returns from auxiliary production always appear predetermined. In overall, opportunity costs are either explicit or implicit (Petroff, 1989, p.1).
How do franchise firms benefit from economies of scale? Undeniably, many firms benefit from the economies of scale. To start with, economy of scale is a concept that mainly applies to the production of goods or services, or any other activities that a firm engages.
In other words, “economies of scale” is a phrase that refers to the fiscal competence resulting from production or sales in either small quantities or vast quantities. Normally, costs are the scales of reference. Thus, in order to determine the economies of scale of a firm, economic efficiencies in form of costs always apply.
For instance, Sony is a company that manufacturers PlayStations, color printers, free scanners, computer keyboards and mouse, and CD and DVD players. These commodities have one ordinary similarity, economies of scale. In order for Sony to maximize profits, it produces each of these commodities in vast quantities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, by 2005, Sony had managed to vend off over 100 million PlayStations realizing a turnover of US$67 billion. The other commodities produced by Sony will also generate certain amount of turnover. This means that firms benefit a lot from the economies of scale (Wiley Publishing Incorporation, 2011, p.1).
What might be some potential disadvantages of being a part of a large corporation? At times, being part of a large organization can pose some challenges to stakeholders. For instance, large organizations always pay higher taxes from their own income. This is a hike to production costs. It is quite evident that at one point, especially at the start-up phase, a business will make losses.
Now, consider an example of a person business through a corporation, that is, the person is part of a large organization. Unless the corporation realizes profits, it is hard for an individual to figure out their enterprise profits notwithstanding individual income from alternative sources.
However, this does not stop here. Immediately the organization realizes huge profits, another predicament jets in. The organization will have to pay “double tax” meaning every penny realized as profit, meets a double tax and hence reducing the profit margin further. Indeed, this situation can be a frustrating experience to those who are part of a large corporation.
Effect of very competitive market on long-run profits The increase or decrease of demand affect the firm’s production and hence, long-run profits. If the number of firms producing a certain commodity increases, it means that the supply will be more than the demand. This will force companies to produce less hence, a reduction in the profits realized.
In a competitive market, firms will earn a specific profit and if the status remains so, everything from marginal cost to average total cost to marginal revenue will reverse to equilibrium. At equilibrium, the greatest beneficiaries will be consumers who will buy commodities at lower price making companies to make normal profits (When the business is beautiful, 2003, p.1).
Reference List Petroff, J. (1989). Chapter 3: Production Costs. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Supply Cost Production and Profit specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When small is beautiful. (2003). The Economist. Web.
Wiley Publishing Incorporation. (2011). Production Costs and Firm Profits. Web.
Argumentative Essay About Sleep college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Most people will agree that in the modern lifestyle, social and economic demands require one to cut back on sleep to achieve more or have better financial benefits. Although the sleeping patterns are natural and most people follow a certain fashion of sleeping such as during night, the sleep periods are different depending on age or other factors.
Today’s human lifestyles have demands that forces people to alter/regulate the sleeping patterns for better social economic benefits. Majority of us consider that consequences of depriving ourselves some sleep are justifiable due to material gains.
Statement of intentions I often suffer from taut financially demands/situations, which forces a reaction of regulating or managing my sleep patterns. Time management is an integral part of life that promotes my social-economic development. This argumentative paper supports the act of using depressants during sleep time to ensure alertness, particularly during daytime in order to meet economic and other social demands.
The paper also holds up the notion that, today it is important to control the sleeping patterns, to conform to the lifestyle demands. Various depressants thus assist in boosting alertness in order to meet my diverse social demands. The drugs are mainly used generally to reduce the sleep delays, thus enabling one to utilize sleep-time to the maximum.
Arguable Position I often use powerful depressants to overcome sleep-time delays, and thus utilize the shortened sleeping time to meet the next daytime demands especially work demands that cause fatigue easily. The depressants also assist in avoiding insomnia and time taken to fall into sleep or other common sleep interruptions.
Taking the depressants ensures that I utilize the limited sleep-time maximally, for instance 4 or 5 hours is enough, in order to meet the next day’s work demands. I also utilize the weekend’s extra time and sleep more or compensate the weekdays’ accumulated sleep debts.
According to Dement and Vaughan in “Sleep Debt and the Mortgaged Mind” there are depressants meant for giving support to people who experience sleeping difficulties especially the elderly, since sleeping difficulties emerge with age or due to body disorders such as insomnia or delayed sleeping patterns (460).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The depressants may have various side effects such as changing the chemical state of one’s body, when used in excess. The drugs are also addictive when used over long period of time (Dement and Vaughan, 460).
There are a set of sleeping rhythms that determine body functions such as alertness or jet lags, which are often experienced due to change of sleep pattern.
In their writing named, “Sleep Debt and the Mortgaged Mind”, Dement and Vaughan indicate that understanding the effects of sleep indebtedness and processes of managing the problem can assist in improvement of the daily progress, and thus avoid injuries associable to insomnia such as diminished lifestyles (537).
However, our daily activities are dynamic and too demanding such that our sleep patterns keep experiencing the lapses.
Depressants ensure that time is not wasted before falling asleep thus guarantees that the body remains alert during daytime. Most people want to have more day activities because they need to work as much as possible, while sleep as little as they can, especially those on contract basis.
My personal work patterns I am compensated on contractual basis, meaning, “My input determines the output”. I always work a couple of extra hour whenever possible every night due to timed demands from clients.
I feel that compromising the extra hours enables me to meet the requirements particularly due to expectation for timely delivery, and this does not really affect my daily routines as long as I catch some good sleep preferably uninterrupted hours.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Argumentative Essay About Sleep specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I have never suffered from any notable relapse such as moodiness, poor performance logs, lower energy levels or poor alertness but from time to time, I use the depressants. I therefore strongly disagree with the concept that slight alterations of sleeping patterns can affect the ability to think and respond accordingly during the day.
The slight sleep deprivation is compensated by the quick body reaction to sleep during bedtime. There are thus no chances of suffering from cardiovascular difficulties, lowered energy levels or poor physical health.
It is possible to work with diverse sleep schedules but one requires various adjustments to accommodate the natural body reactions. It does not take long before fitting a chosen pattern, and the pattern only lasts a couple of days before further adjustments.
The most important fact about sleep lies on the quality. Depressants assists me to have an uninterrupted sleep, thus the reason why I need only a few hours as opposed to 8 or 9 hours sleep session that are full of sleep–related anguishes. Any extra sleeping hours do not count as a compensation but lost time.
Lastly, I always make up the lost time by clearing some of the accumulated sleep with long weekend sleep patterns. In line with Dement and Vaughan’s discoveries, this is good way of compensating piled up sleep (460). Contrary to findings, the depressants assist to accommodate any form of sleep change whenever I need to adjust for or from a weekend schedule.
Counterarguments Justification of Depressants
We compromise sleep in many ways, yet just like the exercises or nutrition, sleep is an essential quantity of life, which determines healthiness and happiness of a person.
According to Martin, the quality of work has direct relation to quality of sleep that one gets (462). Sleeping requires strict planning as opposed to following daily procedures as a measure of enhancing better productivity, creativity due to mental sharpness, emotional harmonization, and physical vitality.
In line with Epstein, sleep does not mean shutting down the functioning of the brain to rest, the brain remains busy and ready to oversee a variety of biological upholds such as refreshing the active cells in preparation for next day’s tasks (471). Lack of enough hours of sleep therefore means that we compromise the level of communication; therefore, it is not possible to work, learn or communicate effectively as required by one’s honest potentials.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Argumentative Essay About Sleep by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In proportion to Epstein conjecture, lack of sleep is the main cause of both mental and physical breakdown. Sleeplessness is the root cause of serious health conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, high blood sugars, high blood pressure, obesity and premature deaths (471).
People think that shortening the sleep time to archive better success is essential to the degree of enhancing better economic overturns. The acts eventually affect our social-economic lifestyles due to poor performance or failures associable to fatigue.
The current social and economic demands are causing people to choose between productivity requirements and health needs. The required amount of sleep determines quality and quantity of work eventually improves, therefore skimping the sleep or disarrays activities are highly discouraged (Epstein, 471).
Conclusion Although various research findings indicate that seven sleeping hours per night are the standardized specifications for adults, it is possible to have a four, five or six hour sleep session without any possible chronic effect associable to sleep deprivation Dement and Vaughan (471).
Depressants can assist in adjustments of the sleeping patterns. Every person has his/her unique pattern as well as requirements for sleeping.
The amount to sleep requirements does not necessarily translate to the optimal requirements, although it feels better when one spends an extra hour in bed. As long as I feel fine and energetic during my daily routines, then the sleeping pattern and time is in good health.
Works Cited Dement, William C. and Vaughan, Christopher. “Sleep Debt and the Mortgaged Mind.”
Writing and Reading across the Curriculum. Eds.
Epstein, Lawrence. “Improving Sleep.” Writing and Reading across the Curriculum. Eds.
Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. 10th Ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. 471-482
Martin, Paul. “A Third of Life.” Writing and Reading across the Curriculum. Eds.
Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. 10th Ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. 460-462
The Leaders, Their Characteristics and Traits Essay best essay help
It is believed that the end result of every activity is determined by the way of the leadership style. Leadership is a mere word which requires a lot grace to achieve it. Due to lack of leadership style, many activities have ended up to a fall.
It is said that leadership style manipulates the height of motivation. On the other hand, in lifetime, man’s inspiration is categorized by the leadership style he/she is under. This is why leadership and motivation go hand on hand.
Leadership style depends on the leader who is leading the organization. It is examined that if a leadership is poor, it affects both the organization as well as the members of staff. The research done adds to say “Command-and-control leadership drains off ambition while members of staff responsibility increases ambition”. Command and control leadership is the prime style in every culture.
This is accepted because of its efficiency that is created the cyclic actions hence coaching people on how to deal with change. In many organizations, the management is influenced a lot by the way of leadership styles. Many changes brought by leadership are causing both balance and imbalance in organizations hence causing instabilities and later a fall of the organization.
For this reason, you will find members of the staff are not all who with stand the leadership style brought by their leader. The reason behind this is that leadership style can either motivate some members or abusing others. It is for these reasons why a good leadership is required.
What makes a good leader is laid on the organizational perspective. Mounting leadership prospective involves corresponding personality aptitudes with organizational necessitate, and build talents that both improve appearance and play to traits power.
The organization perspective enables the strength of a good leadership like Quick Thinking, Responsibility, Teamwork, and Strength among others. In order to retain a good leadership, you must make sure you have adhered to these factors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In building up a good leadership, some characteristics should be adhered to. First you must be someone who can raise opinions which will favor every member of the organization.
Secondly you must be someone who can establish the moral structure within an organization. This builds up a cool environment in the organization hence generating trust and honesty to the members who in turn carry out your vision. It is also said that in order to be a good leader you must be a developer.
This brings about generating an exhilarating place of work and learning. Finally to be a good leader must be integrators. This helps in cooling down any alarming situation in the members hence improving the standard of the environment.
In 1954, Raymond Cattell, the leader in the field of traits evaluation, came up with the leadership potential equation. Although the equation was based on militaries leaders, is nowadays used to find out the traits which characterize a potential leader.
So far, a number of effective traits of a leader have already been indentified. To start with, a superior leader is required to be capable to stand frustration and stress.
In general, they are required to be stable and have the psychological maturity to handle anything that happens to face them. Second, a good leader must be aggressive and influential and generally enjoy every overcoming obstacle. It is also said that a good leader should not only be active but the activeness should be seen by everyone. In general, they must be quick and alert.
A good leader should also be conscientiousness, social boldness, tough-mindedness, self-assurance and finally compulsiveness. If all these traits are in the leader, definitely without any doubt he /she will be a perfect leader.
We will write a custom Essay on The Leaders, Their Characteristics and Traits specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Away from these traits, today’s leaders must also capture traits which will assist them in inspiring others and piloting them in innovative directions. Leaders of tomorrow must also be capable to envisage the future and induce others that their idea is worth successive.
This statement is supported by the strong work force of the personality traits like high energy, mellowness, sympathy, and magnetism. These personalities’ traits play a great role in shaping the capable and the incapables in leading others.
In doing all these, there should also be given the room of understanding that the world is changing with new technology and ideas especially leaders who are highly knowledgeable.
Conclusion It is believed that the end result of every activity is determined by the way of the leadership style. Leadership is determined by how the leader is trained. If the leader is not qualified then the organization in which he/she is supervising won’t grow. It is also said that the members of the organizations will as well not enjoy in their duties.
Good leadership is required in every organization for its growth. Both the good characteristics of the leaders and the traits help a lot to determine the growth of the organization. If a good leadership is adhered every organization will enjoy its fruits.
The Tang Dynasty Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The Tang dynasty started ruling China from 618 up to 907. Besides establishing stable government emperors, the Tang dynasty promoted religious beliefs among the Chinese people. Among the successful religion was Buddhism where different factors underscore the prosperity of this religion during the Tang Dynasty.
First, the Tang Empire established policies that encouraged religious people to assimilate non-religious ones. Secondly, the emperors exempted the Buddhist monks from taxation, which promoted the flourishing of the religion by more people joining the monasteries.
Additionally, Empress Wu fought other religions except Buddhism and as citizens moved towards national unity, the success of Buddhism soared. However, when the number of monks increased, emperor Tang Wu Zong destroyed their temples forcing the monks to start laboring and this phenomenon underlines the rapid lasting decline of Buddhism at that time.
The leaders of Yuan Dynasty used wars to conquer all the ethnic tribes in China by enforcing the dynasty’s governance; for instance, Emperor Shinzu used military services and possessed all the territories in China.
The Yuan leaders used force to combine both Chinese and Mongol ruling system to establish social caste system, which gave the ruling class powers. As a result, the Chinese people possessed the lowest classes.
The major strength of the combined system was the ability of the leaders to unite all the ethnic groups and acquisition of efficient military services. However, the rulers promoted corruption and social discrimination, which led to the fall of the Yuan dynasty.
M1 – Discussion Area: Piaget and Vygotsky custom essay help
Filmed in 1996, this program examines the work of Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget, illuminating the similarities of and differences between their contributions to a greater understanding of the cognitive development of young children.
In this discussion, we will start to focus on an academic dialog, grounded in research and the readings. If you are not familiar with this type of a discussion, start with a 150-word posting on the topic. Please bring something new/original to the discussion, share and describe one or more research articles, or share and describe one or more new scholarly resources for your classmates to consider. Over the course of the module, be sure to respond to at least 2 additional comments made by your peers; sometimes your professor will post a new thread as well. Come back and visit multiple times to see what everyone has posted. Just remember that the focus is on the quality, not the quantity of the posts. These discussions are a large percentage of your final grade, please take them seriously. You will be evaluated using the Discussion Rubric.
Please do not wait until the last minute to post discussions throughout the course. Instead post early, which allows plenty of time to go back and forth with your peers and with your professor. If you need assistance please use the Library Resources and Academic Integrity page located in the course information documents.
Reflect and Respond
In our reading and the Growing Minds video, we learned that Piaget and Vygotsky had opposing views on development and learning. Piaget suggested that development must precede learning while Vygotsky argued that learning must precede development. Please begin a discussion thread based on one of the following guiding questions in a well-developed 150-word posting.
CC BY-SA 4.0,
via Wikimedia Commons
Lev Vygotsky 1896-1934.jpg
“Lev Vygotsky 1896-1934”
by The Vygotsky Project –
Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
What does it mean to say that both Piaget and Vygotsky were “constructivists”?
Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky hold contradictory views on directional development. Which view do you agree with, and why?
Discuss one aspect of cognitive development that you find interesting; reasoning, vision or language.
Provide an example of how each of these theories could be applied in a classroom.
Do you agree that development precedes learning or does learning precede development? Explain.
respond thoroughly to tracy:
Constructivism is believed that learners construct their own learning from their experiences. Piaget and Vygotsky were seen as constructivists and believed that classrooms must be a constructivist environment, but both have different theories on how constructivism should be carried in classrooms. Vygotsky is well known for his social constructivism theory. He believes that learning and development is a collaborative activity, and children’s cognitive development in the context of socialization and education. Vygotsky classrooms attach a great importance to developing their own concepts and making knowledge their own; this requires school learning to be carried out in a meaningful environment while learning in the real world. Piaget’s theory of learning evolution and constructivism are based on discovery. His believes that children should be allowed to construct meaningful knowledge for them to create an ideal learning environment. Piaget believes that constructivist classrooms should provide a variety of activities to challenge children to accept individual differences, increase their willingness to learn, discover new ideas and build their own knowledge.
Ozer, Ozgur. “CONSTRUCTIVISM in Piaget and Vygotsky.” The Fountain, 1 Oct. 2004, fountainmagazine.com/2004/issue-48-october-december-2004/constructivism-in-piaget-and-vygotsky.
resond to caitlyn:
Discuss one aspect of cognitive development that you find interesting; reasoning, vision or language.
One aspect of cognitive development that I find interesting is reasoning. Prior to learning about psychology and human development, I never really thought much into reasoning. I never expected that it is something we develop overtime. Once reasoning is developed, we use deductive reasoning which allows us to extend our knowledge of the world far beyond what we can learn by personal experience (Growing Minds: Cognitive Development in Early Childhood, 1996). Young children haven’t developed this reasoning yet, so they use simpler reasoning. Transductive reasoning is a simpler form of reasoning that young children use. With transductive reasoning, young children fall back on personal experience and end up mentioning concrete differences rather than abstract similarities (Growing Minds: Cognitive Development in Early Childhood, 1996). Transductive reasoning relates facts and allows children to sort objects into categories, arrange them and understand their environment.
Growing minds: Cognitive development in early childhood [Video file]. (1996). In Films On Demand.
Daily life in the medieval Islamic world Compare and Contrast Essay best college essay help
The Islamic life during the medieval period was characterized by historical and cultural events explaining the role of various individuals in the families.
Islam refers to giving up and surrendering to God, it is a religion based on individual relationship with God (Allah) and is guarded by Sharia Law which is a comprehensive system covering relationship between human being and their creator or with other people in a society and a nation at large (Lindsay, 2005).
It is divided into two categories namely: Devotional Law dealing with issues that bring individuals close to God (Allah) while Transactional Law regulates human activities in world in regard to the relationships between individual in the society (Lindsay, 2005).
Thesis statement, “life in the Medieval Islamic world is characterized by several traditions that determine the role of an individual in the Islamic society”.
Medieval period is the time when the world noted heightened interest in arts and history which were passed through to the middle age (Cook, 2003).
The period noted the emergence of the Sufi tradition during the 4th century AD, which reflects the inner mystical practice emphasizes on specific spiritual guidelines to ensure closer relations between men and God and recognizes Mohammad as the chief prophet (Lindsay, 2005).
Sufis believe in God responsible for all creation in the world with most important rituals being zikr in which members appreciate God through mediation, chants and movement as a way of communicating their problems (Cook, 2003).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarities between Sharia Law and Sufism Both Sharia and Sufism recognize Mohammad as a prophet of God through whom all forms of communication to Allah are channeled according to the teachings derived from Holly Quran (Lindsay, 2005). Secondly, both traditions belief in one God the creator of man and the universe hence paying allegiance through fasting, praying and assisting the needy (Cook, 2003).
Similarly, in both cases, the wrath of God is felt for failure to abide by the rules in the Holly Quran which are the fabric holding the community together, failure to participate in activities directed by the traditions leads to punishment from God (Cook, 2003).
However, the two traditions conflicts on areas such as: the Sharia Law relies on two categories that deals with different situations in life as it involves, Transactional Law or Devotional Law regulating the relationship between man and God and with fellow humans in the society while Sufi relies on a single law that regulates the relationship between man and God(Lindsay, 2005).
In addition ,Sharia law is expressed through five necessities regulating, reason, property ownership and honor each of which is protected by legislative reference while Sufi relies majorly on strong self conviction with God(Cook, 2003).
Sunni and Shi i tradition Sunni tradition developed during the last quarter of the 4th century, it refers to statements, series of action or tactics that are approved as a reflection for peace and draws its origin from the prophetic era of the Islamic faith giving explanations to ambiguous clauses in the Islamic law (Cook, 2003).
It explains the issues not tackled in the Quran for example, the potion of a grandmother’s share on inheritance stating “the Prophet of peace ruled the grandmother to acquire one sixth of the estate as inheritance “a statement not included in the Sharia Law (Lindsay, 2005).
Sunni is a subsidiary for Quran and gives specific explanations into the relationship between man and his creator and with the society at large.
We will write a custom Essay on Daily life in the medieval Islamic world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the 5th century AD witnessed the development of Shi i tradition that accepted “Ali ibn Abi-Talib”, Mohammad’s son-in-law as the Prophet’s legitimate successor similarly, its believers believed in twelve lines of inheritance after the Prophet (Cook, 2003).The two traditions are similar in that both recognizes one superhuman creator, God (Allah).
Roles and status of men and women in the family and society The emergence of the various traditions during the medieval period introduced complete change in the Islamic life in regard to Islamic laws. The laws and penal codes give men the highest status in the society and consider women as subordinate in societal affairs.
According to the Islamic traditions, despite the teachings on equality of sexes before God, women enjoy lower status than men with fewer rights and responsibilities, for example, men are mandated to owning all the family financial and economic resources while women are required to consult their husbands or male guardians on administering these assets (Lindsay, 2005).
Similarly, women have no powers to choose their own place of residence and the husband while men have both moral and religious duty to punish their wives for disobedience (Cook, 2003).
Moreover, men enjoy the first priority on inheritance ,for example, a son inherits property equivalent to that of two daughters (Cook, 2003).
The roles and status of the dhimmi populations in the Islamic world During the 6th century AD, Islam was entrenched in the desert of Saudi Arabia when the prophet turned against the Jews at the oasis of Khaybar leading to the death of many Jews and Christians of Saudi Arabia who were force to submit to Muslim laws hence become dhimmi population in Saudi Arabia (Lindsay, 2005).
Dhimmi population are people of non-Muslim origin who accepts to be governed by Sharia Laws and enjoy the right of residence in exchange for taxes levied on them (Lindsay, 2005).
Under sharia law, the status was initially accorded to Jews, Christians and Sabians living in Islamic nations but latter extended to Hindus and Serbians, they are entitled to fewer legal right than indigenous Muslims in these areas (Cook, 2003).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Daily life in the medieval Islamic world by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They are granted rights such as consumption of pork and alcohol that is illegal to Muslims and are also allowed to get “blood money” the amount paid for the death caused by another in countries such as Saudi Arabia (Lindsay, 2005).
In conclusion, the developments which occurred during the medieval period improved the Islamic and religion by emphasizing on Sharia Law which gives high status to men in all activities in the society the religion has developed over along period of time resulting to strong system of laws able to withstand legal changes in the world (Lindsay, 2005). The laws control every aspect of life resulting unity of all citizens in different parts of the world.
Reference List Cook, M. (2003).Forbidding wrong in Islam: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lindsay, J. (2005). Daily life in the medieval Islamic world. New York: Oxford University Press.
Evaluating the debate between proponents of qualitative and quantitative inquiries Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Abstract Varying hypothetical and idealistic alignments to both qualitative and quantitative methods remind one that aspects of trustworthiness and excellence traverse with projected study objectives and audience.
This summary evaluates ways of promoting the credibility and quality of quantitative and qualitative inquiry by focusing on three discrete but closely linked inquiry concerns: rigorous techniques for doing fieldwork; credibility of both qualitative and quantitative researcher; and philosophical beliefs in the significance of qualitative inquiry.
While this outline evaluates some basic approaches to aspects of trustworthiness in qualitative and quantitative investigation, it is imperative to appreciate the fact that specific idealistic groundwork and particular paradigms for qualitative and quantitative inquiry will basically include an additional criteria for judging and assuring excellence, trustworthiness, and legality. In addition, the framework for these considerations has changed.
In previous literature on evaluation techniques the debate between quantitative and qualitative inquiries was in most cases strident. Recently the debate has diminished and a common ground has slowly emerged that the critical dispute is to match correctly the methodologies to empirical issues and questions, and not to generally advocate any one methodological approach for all situations.
Evaluating the debate between proponents of qualitative and quantitative inquiries Approaches to quantitative and qualitative inquiry have become exceedingly different, including work well-versed by phenomenology, ethnography, symbolic interaction, ethno-methodology, heuristics, hermeneutics, critical theory, feminist, and positivism inquiry, among others (Patton, 1990).
Research focused on an audience of sovereign feminist scholars, for instance, may be judged by criterion far from those of research meant for an audience of state policy researchers. Action inquiry or formative research for program enhancement entails various purposes and thus various criterion of quality compared to summative analysis focused on making basic continuation decisions concerning a policy or program (Patton, 1997).
New forms of individual ethnography have surfaced focused on general audiences (Patton, 1999). Therefore, this paper will evaluate some basic qualitative and quantitative approaches to issues of data validity and credibility. It will also look into specific philosophical underpinnings, special purposes, and particular paradigms for both qualitative and quantitative inquiry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Quantitative versus Qualitative Debate According to Denzin (2001), there is nothing like qualitative data. The researcher holds that everything is either 0 or 1 (p.40). On the same issue Katzer et al (2002) assert that all research ultimately bears a qualitative grounding (p. 40).
A key divide between proponents of the two is that quantitative methodology is deductive and qualitative methodology is inductive. In quantitative inquiry, a hypothesis is required to set rolling the research. However, all qualitative inquiry needs a hypothesis before research can commerce (Denzin, 2002).
Another considerable difference between quantitative and qualitative methodologies is the underlying postulations about the task of the researcher. In qualitative inquiry, the researcher can inquire the most about a given condition by participating.
In quantitative inquiry, however, the researcher is basically an objective spectator that is neither involved nor affects what is being researched. These typical underlying postulations of both inquiries guide and align the kinds of data collection techniques engaged (Lincoln and Guba, 2004).
The selection of the approach to employ may reflect the intentions of those benefiting from or conducting the research and the objectives for which the outcomes will be utilized.
Decisions about which type of methodology to apply may also be aligned to the individual’s own preference and experience, the sample being used, the suggested audience for outcomes, funds, time and other resources at the disposal of the researcher (Mills, 2003).
Some researchers agree that quantitative and qualitative methods cannot be used together because the postulations underlying each culture are different. Other researchers hold that the two can be utilized in combination only by switching between methodologies: quantitative method is appropriate to offer solution to certain types of questions in certain situations and qualitative research is appropriate for others.
We will write a custom Essay on Evaluating the debate between proponents of qualitative and quantitative inquiries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, some individuals hold that both quantitative and qualitative researches can be utilized simultaneously to offer solution to a research question (Lincoln and Guba, 2004).
The credibility issue The credibility aspect of quantitative and qualitative inquiry depends on three different but related methodology concerns: first is the rigorous methods for doing research that are keenly evaluated, with attention to aspects of triangulation, validity, and reliability; secondly is the credibility of the quantitative and qualitative researcher, which is based on experience, training, status, presentation, and track record; and lastly is the philosophical belief in the significance of quantitative and qualitative methods, that is, a well grounded understanding of quantitative inquiry, deductive evaluation, qualitative inquiry, inductive evaluation, holistic mind and purposeful sampling (Kuhn, 2006).
Rigorous techniques for doing fieldwork Although many rigorous methods exist for promoting the quality and validity of collected data, at the centre of much debate about quantitative and qualitative outcomes are doubts about the kind of evaluation.
Statistical evaluation follows guidelines and rules while, at the centre, quantitative and qualitative evaluation is a creative procedure, based on the insights and theoretical potential of the researcher. While innovative approaches may engage more routine types of statistical evaluation, quantitative and qualitative evaluation relies from the word go on pattern recognition, a procedure epitomized in health scientist (Kuhn, 2006).
It require not be negating to the innovative issues of quantitative and qualitative evaluation to address aspects of reliability and credibility. Qualitative and quantitative analyst has a duty to be systematic in reporting adequate details of collected data and the procedure of evaluation to allow others to judge the credibility of the outcome (Lang, 2001).
Testing Competing aspects
Once the analyst has evaluated the relationships, inclinations, and probable elaborations through deductive and inductive evaluation, it is critical to look for competing and or opposing themes.
This can be carried out through deductive, inductive, or logical methods. However, method to be engaged depends on whether the study is using quantitative or qualitative approach. Deductively involves considering other ways of grouping the data that might result to variety of outcomes.
Inductively is basically the opposite of deductively, specious data is grouped together with other normal data. Logically it involves thinking about other logical alternatives and then seeing whether those alternatives can be adequately supported by the data (House, 2000).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Evaluating the debate between proponents of qualitative and quantitative inquiries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Absence of firm supporting prove for possible methods of presenting the data or contrary schemes assists increase validity in the initial, primary explanation generated by the researcher (Patton, 1997).
These may be exemptions that prove the rule. For instance, in a health training program for teenagers where many of the participants successfully go through the program and indicate knowledge gains, a significant concern in the evaluation may also be determination of the reasons for not completing the programs, even if the sample for those who dropped out is small.
While conceivably not large to yield a statistical difference on the overall outcomes, these reasons my offer crucial information related to a particular subculture or niche group, and/or hints to program upgrading (Mills, 2003).
Reconciling Quantitative and Qualitative Data
Triangulation method often involves contrasting data gathered through some types of qualitative inquiries with data gathered through some types of quantitative inquiries.
This is rarely straightforward since certain types of questions warranty qualitative inquiries (e.g., developing a theory or hypothesis in the initial stages of a research, comprehending specific cases in detail and depth, understanding changes in a rigorous condition), while other types of questions warranty quantitative inquiry (e.g., testing hypothesis, generalizing from a small sample to a large population, or drawing systematic conclusions on standardized criterion).
Therefore, it is common that qualitative inquiry and quantitative inquiry are utilized in a balancing style to answer various questions that are difficult to combine in order to yield a single, statistically-integrated image of the condition.
What is more, few analysts are equally comfortable with the two kinds of data, and the process for combining quantitative and qualitative inquiry is still surfacing (Patton, 1999).
The tendency is to relegate one kind of inquiry or the other to assume minor role depending on the nature of the study and the preferences of the researchers. For instance, qualitative data are in most cases utilized for describing procedures or developing hypotheses, while quantitative data are utilized to verify and systematically compare hypotheses.
Although it is ordinary, such a distribution of labor is unnecessary limiting and rigid (Patton, 1990).
Given the various strengths and weaknesses of quantitative versus qualitative concepts, the analyst utilizing various inquiries to investigate similar condition should not anticipate that the outcomes developed by those various inquiries will automatically combine to yield some evenly-integrated outcome.
In fact, the evidence is that one must anticipate that initial misunderstandings will happen between outcomes from quantitative and qualitative data and that such outcome has to be received with varying levels of credibility.
It is significant, then to take into account keenly what each type of evaluation produces and to grant varying interpretations the opportunity to emerge and be considered as per their merits before impacting one outcome over another based on methodological preconceptions (Lincoln and Guba, 2004).
Credibility of the researcher Having reviewed techniques of evaluation that can promote the credibility and quality of qualitative and quantitative data: testing competing explanations and taking care of negative cases, technical rigor in evaluation is a main factor in the validity and credibility of research outcomes. This section now focuses on the issue of the impacts due to the credibility of the researcher on the way outcomes are perceived (Kuhn, 2006).
Since the researcher is the medium in quantitative and qualitative inquiry, a report must bear information about the researcher. These may include; experience, training, and view that the researcher contributes to the field. Also included is the individual connection of the researcher and the program, people, or subject researched. For instance it adds value to know that the researcher of an Alcoholic program is a recuperating alcoholic.
Who financed the research and under what plans with the researcher? What prior know-how did the researcher contribute to the study subject and the research site? How did the researcher gain access to the research site? There can be endless list of questions that ought to be addressed to determine researcher credibility.
The idea is to present any professional and individual information that may have influenced data gathering, evaluation, and analysis either positively or negatively in the mind-sets of the end users of the outcomes (Patton, 1990; Kuhn, 2006).
Philosophical beliefs in the significance of qualitative inquiry Having reviewed rigorous techniques for promoting the credibility of qualitative and quantitative evaluation and having presented methods of addressing the perceived credibility of the researcher, the third and last credibility aspect entails philosophical beliefs on the rationale for understanding of, and validity of the quantitative and qualitative inquiry, inductive and deductive evaluation, and holistic approach-all central paradigm topics.
Much of the debate about quantitative and qualitative methods roots from the long-lived controversy in science over how best to research and comprehend the universe (Fielding, 1986). This banter often takes the form of quantitative versus qualitative ways or logical phenomenology versus positivism.
The debate is stemmed in philosophical misunderstandings about the nature of reality. Various sources offer an elaborated explanation about what has come to be known as “the paradigm controversy,” a paradigm being a specific view of the universe (Patton, 1997). The idea is to remind health investigators about the heaviness of the controversy.
It is critical to be aware that both non-scientists and scientists in most cases embrace firm views about what makes up credible evidence. Given the debate, investigators utilizing both qualitative and quantitative inquiries need to be ready to discuss and defend the appropriateness and significance of approach used. Below is a brief explanation of the most popular concerns (Katzer et al., 2002).
As Cook, one of analyst’s luminaries, asserted in his opening remarks to the 2002 Global Analyst Conference,” quantitative investigators have won the quantitative-qualitative controversy” (Katzer et al., 2002, p. 112).
The credibility of qualitative methods and quantitative determination, as often utilized, was never in doubt. Quantitative inquiry is now ascending to a degree of equal respectability, especially among evaluation investigators.
A common ground is developing in the evaluation profession that investigators and analysts need to understand and apply a variety of methods so as to be responsive to all empirical questions and address fully the idiosyncrasies of individual stakeholder requirements (Katzer et al., 2002. p. 134).
A paradigm is a perspective founded on implicit postulates, accepted meanings, comfortable traditions, values presented as realities, and beliefs projected as truths.
However, it is this issue of paradigms that entails both the strength and weakness of researchers-strength in that it triggers an action, weakness in that the very rationale for action is concealed in the unquestioned postulates of the paradigm (Patton, 1997).
Conclusions This overview has evaluated means of promoting the credibility and quality of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies by dealing with three different but closely linked inquiry concerns: rigorous techniques for doing fieldwork; credibility of researcher; and philosophical beliefs or paradigm-base options.
In the past evaluation literature, the controversy between quantitative and qualitative methods was more strident. In recent times it has softened. A common ground has slowly developed that the significant setback is to match methodologies correctly to empirical issues, and not to generally employ any one methods approach to all research questions.
In a diverse universe, one issue of diversity is methodological. From time to time rules emerge in various state and federal agencies that advocate universal, standardized analytical indicators and methods for every program financed by those agencies.
Overall, I object such rules in the belief that indigenous program procedures are too diverse and findings too sophisticated to be evenly represented globally, or even nationwide, by some limited set of guidelines and procedures-regardless whether the directive be for qualitative or for quantitative concepts.
When concept decision is based on some general, political directive rather than on conditional merit, research presents no setback, needs no subtlety, offers no risk, and allows for no achievement.
References Denzin, N. (2002). The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Method. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Denzin, N. (2001). Interpretive Interaction, New Park: Sage.
Fielding, N. (1986). Linking Data, Qualitative Method Series No.4, New Park: Sage Publication.
House, E. (2000). The Logic of Evaluative Argument, Monograph Series in Evaluation, Los Angeles: University of California, Center for the Study of Evaluation.
Katzer, J., Cook, K.,
The Power of Time and the Magnificence of Music: From Ludford to Vecchi Compare and Contrast Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Pre-Reformation: Ludford’s Lady Masses
Post-Tridentine: Orazio Vecchi
Introduction The music of the Middle Ages is the church music, solemn and religious. However, that does not mean that the musical pieces before the Reformation and in the post-Tridentine period were completely the same. Due to the differences between the Catholic and the Lutheran branches of Christianity, the music changed greatly as well.
However, each piece depended on the personal background of composers. Despite the change, some of them still performed in the traditional pre-Reformation way, whereas some switched to another way of composing. A good example of pre-Reformation music was a composer named Nicholas Ludford. His Lady Masses were filled with the air of the Catholic ideas.
To contrast him to the new, post-Tridentine epoch, one can pick Orazio Vecchi as an example of post-Tridentine music. Each of the composers created the pieces that reprinted their epochs, with the specifics and the peculiarities of each period.
Pre-Reformation: Ludford’s Lady Masses Nicholas Ludford was known as the composer of the pre-Reformation period. Though he created music in 1550ies as well, Ludford belonged to good old Catholic composers. With his impressive talent, he made the pieces which struck people’s imagination. One of the most well-known pieces of his is the incredible Lady Masses.
It is curious that no one can date these pieces precisely. All what the contemporary musical experts can say is that these compositions belong to the pre-Reformation era.
Sunday Lady Mass is a good example of pre-Reformation music. In this piece, Ludford expressed the Catholic pre-Reformation ideas most brightly. Each chord is ringing with the truly Catholic delight and magnificence.
Perhaps, Ludford’s background influenced his manner of composing music. Together with his talent, the education that he got made him so great and his music so perfect. Knowing more about his early years, one can see the origins of his musical ideas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Like the history of his compositions, most of Nicholas’s life is a mystery. Despite his popularity in the Catholic Church and his great fame, his life is a closed book.
No one knows for sure why the great composer preferred to hide the details of his life, but the fact is that he never told much to biographers. Thus, there was a time when people believed that he belonged to the Royal Chapel. This could explain his brilliance and his music talents. Moreover, this signified his noble origins. Further explorations prove this fact wrong:
An examination of the Calendar, however, revealed the fact that although the accounts of the Dean of the Chapel are given for March 1520, Ludford’s name does not appear in them; yet his name does occur in the succeeding entry recording.
This means that Ludford was perhaps not of quote noble origin. However, this only emphasizes his great talent – his genius, to be precise. The very first chords of his compositions speak of his incredible genius.
There is no doubt that Ludford had great support from the local authorities until he grew old: “he was granted an exemption ‘from serving on juries and from being made escheator, coroner, collector of taxes, constable, or other officer”. However, as time passed, he lost this influence:
[…] it may be assumed that the exemption arose from Ludford’s connexion with the Court, and was probably due to some serious accident or illness, for it could scarcely be on the score of old age, as the composer was then on the sunny side of sixty.
This must have influenced Ludford greatly, and he stopped composing music. As he lost his privileges, eh lost the will to compose – his desire to create faded away. However, he would have many followers who would develop his music. Although the great composer enjoyed his fame for quite short time, the next generations appreciated his compositions and worshipped his genius.
We will write a custom Essay on The Power of Time and the Magnificence of Music: From Ludford to Vecchi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nicholas Ludford was the child of the pre-Reformation period, which means that his compositions were rich and powerful chords of organ music. Listening to Sunday Lady Mass, one can hear Catholicism itself in it. His creations were powerful cadence of sound, floating like a river. Music experts compare him to Fayrfax and his pre-Reformation music:
The counterpoint is at least as fluent and facile as that of Fayrfax, and is also of a rather more advanced character, the parts often entering one after another with points of imitation, showing a transition to a later style.
Sunday Lady Mass bore the features of the pre-Reformation period; it was filled with grandeur and power. The magnificent sounds created an impression of something great and almost incredible. Each emotion is exaggerated in Ludford’s compositions. His music evokes the loftiest feelings.
Ludford was heart and soul of the pre-Reformation music and the Catholic Church music. His pieces were spiritual and impressive. Like any pre-Reformation composer, he filled his music with real spirituality.
Post-Tridentine: Orazio Vecchi A genius of the post-Tridentine period, Orazio Vecchi deserves great attention. His manner reflects the religious and the political changes which happened to the church in the post-Tridentine period. As the Lutheran Church appeared, the religious music underwent great changes. Although the music rhythm remained the same, the character of the melody changed completely. As the post-Tridentine period began, the music became less ceremonious and solemn. Vecchi’s pieces reflect the epoch perfectly well.
Compared to Nicholas Ludford, Orazio Vecchi and his life are much more well-known. A post-Tridentine Italian composer, he was a genius himself.
Vecchi wrote the music much more emotional in his music. The author of madrigals and other uprising melodies, he suited the post-Tridentine epoch best. He featured the essence of the epoch in his works and contributed to the church music greatly.
One of the most incredible things about Vecchi was the influence of the South Italian music – Vecchi was the North Italian composer. Mixing the two styles, he found the golden mean and turned it into a triumph of Catholic music. He created a fusion of the styles, which was rather unexpected for a post-Tridentine composer.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Power of Time and the Magnificence of Music: From Ludford to Vecchi by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Comparing Orazio to Ludford, one can say that Vecchi’s music was less stiff. Mostrau’en Ciel was more vivacious compared to Sunday Lady Mass. While Nicholas Ludford preserved the traditional ceremonious tone, Vecchi stuck to the new, less conservative style. However, that does not make Orazios’ music less significant.
Orazio had a perfect, truly unstained reputation among the Catholics. Through all the years of writing music for the Catholic Church, he was considered the most brilliant musician, and the most respected person. Such attitudes can be explained by the great piety of the musician.
In addition, the chapel-master of Padua, Orazio wrote madrigals for solo voice and basso continuo. Writing his scripts in quasi-notation style, he stood at the beginning of the music devised for guitar.
Although this can sound strange, the excessive stiffness of the Catholic music led to the guitar-style melodies. Orazio Vecchi was also known as the first composer who wrote music in ballet style.
This was not considered as something unnatural and outrageous, though. Vecchi did not abandon the old manner of composing – he merely added new features to the old music. He did not break the old traditions, but simply added new ideas to the traditional music.
Thus, Orazio was another genius of the post-Tridentine epoch. A decent follower of the pre-Reformation music style, he opened a new page of church music. With his genius, the Italian music became well-known all over the world.
His education and lifestyle influenced his manner of composing greatly. Though he was not of noble origin, he climbed to the top of the then aristocracy.
As Pike says, his life was always connected with church and music somehow: “Vecchi, a poet and composer, was lowly born, took holy orders, and became a canon, then archdeacon, at Correggio Cathedral”. With such experience, he had all chances to become a prominent music composer.
His talent led him to the top and made him a famous composer of the post-Tridentine period: “Nevertheless he was highly enough thought of as musicians to be entrusted – along with Balbi and Giovanni Gabrielli”.
Works Cited Flood, William Henry Grattan. Early Tudor Composers: Biographical Sketches of Thirty-Two Musicians and Composers of the Period 1485-1555. Freeport, NY: Books for Library Press, 1968. Print.
Pike, Lionel. Pills to Purge Melancholy: The evolution of the English Ballet. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2004. Print.
Roden, Timothy, Crag Wright and Bryan Simms. Anthology for Music in Western Civilization. Vol. 1. Thousand Oaks, CA: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Tyler, James and Paul Sparks. The Guitar and Its Music: From the Renaissance to the Classical Era. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Footnotes Flood, William Henry Grattan. Early Tudor Composers: Biographical Sketches of Thirty-Two Musicians and Composers of the Period 1485-1555 (Freeport, NY: Books for Library Press, 1968), 73
Flood, William Henry Grattan. Early Tudor Composers: Biographical Sketches of Thirty-Two Musicians and Composers of the Period 1485-1555 (Freeport, NY: Books for Library Press, 1968), 74
Flood, William Henry Grattan. Early Tudor Composers: Biographical Sketches of Thirty-Two Musicians and Composers of the Period 1485-1555 (Freeport, NY: Books for Library Press, 1968), 74-75
Flood, William Henry Grattan. Early Tudor Composers: Biographical Sketches of Thirty-Two Musicians and Composers of the Period 1485-1555 (Freeport, NY: Books for Library Press, 1968), 75
Roden, Timothy, Crag Wright and Bryan Simms. Anthology for Music in Western Civilization. Vol. 1 (Thousand Oaks, CA: Cengage Learning, 2009), 194
Tyler, James and Paul Sparks. The Guitar and Its Music: From the Renaissance to the Classical Era (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007)
Tyler, James and Paul Sparks. The Guitar and Its Music: From the Renaissance to the Classical Era (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007) 39
Tyler, James and Paul Sparks. The Guitar and Its Music: From the Renaissance to the Classical Era (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007) 39
Pike, Lionel. Pills to Purge Melancholy: The evolution of the English Ballet (Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2004) 9
Pike, Lionel. Pills to Purge Melancholy: The evolution of the English Ballet (Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2004), 9
Pike, Lionel. Pills to Purge Melancholy: The evolution of the English Ballet (Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2004), 9
Striving for the Ultimate Knowledge: Eli’s Mission. Video Game Essay essay help online: essay help online
Due to the fact that the movie industry has shown great potential for the last several years, the plots of numerous films became the basis for a number of games which the fans of the movies accepted with flying colors.
Thus, the video game industry is prospering now, taking into account the abundance of cinematographic masterpieces worthy interpreting in a video game. Game creation might seem quite close to movie-making, yet it possesses certain unique features which become obvious only at the stage of game-making.
However, even the most complicated movie plots can be transformed into an enticing game with help of a bit of fantasy and the most general knowledge of video game making. Linking it to a certain movie will make it ever more popular and even become a major hit in the game industry; as King explains, this can be explained rather easily:
At the level of industry more generally, the linking of the cinema and games is far from being arbitrary in an environment in which some of the key producers and distributors of both forms of entertainment are located within the same media corporations and in which game spin-offs offer substantial additional revenues to the Hollywood studios. (7)
One of the films of 2010 worthy taken as a plot for a video game is the one called A Book of Eli. Owing to the peculiarities of the movie plot, the game can be shaped in a most intriguing way, with a lot of turns of the plot which lead to the most effective denouement. Thus, the game which is going to be created comprises the elements of a quest, an action game and a puzzle game – with such an intricate structure it is bound to be a success.
Speaking of the opening scene of the game, I would suggest that there should be a short intro which initiates the gamer into who the lead character is and what brought him to the place where he is at the moment. Taking some ten to fifteen seconds, this piece will be most helpful for the people who have never seen the movie and yet are willing to play the game. As Newman marked wisely,
Another major fact to consider when using the game theory is the idea that players begin all games ignorant of the rules of that game. A game’s concept must include the information regarding how a gamer is to learn these rules and guidelines, and how strategy, difficulty and opposition will be used. (14)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the wisest decision in this case would be to drop all the scenes narrating the story of the world which survived the nuclear war. Squeezing the information to fit the introductory lines, it would be possible both to help the “newbies” get acquainted with the plot and not to irritate more experienced people.
Therefore, beginning the game at the bar, the player starts his world rescue mission as Eli, the only man who possesses the Bible. The first piece of the game is supposed to possess the elements of quest – Eli has to charge his IPod, then he must find another bar to find the water to sustain his life. Realistic to the hilt, the game must look in the most convincing way, so that the gamer could feel that Eli is his/her reincarnation. Thus, the game graphics must be taken into account when creating the game.
To complicate the matter a bit and make the game both more enticing and closer to the movie plot, it would be a good idea to include changing water for the clothes. This piece would illustrate the poverty and despair which the lost world was trapped in after the devastating war and at the same time make the game more interesting to the players.
Constructing the close-up for this part of the game, it would be a nice decision to arrange Eli’s encounter with Solara. Making this the necessary piece of Eli’s journey without which it will be impossible to continue the game, one can insert an element of puzzle into Eli’s quest and make it ever closer to a refined brain-twister.
Another two-minute episode which the game would feature certain elements of action. To add more of dramatic elements to the game, it would be a good idea to bring some action into it.
Thus, the target group of the game players can be expanded from the quest-lovers to those addicted to action pieces and enjoying scenes of fighting in video games. Thus, Eli will spend the next two minutes in the house of the old couple known as the local cannibals.
On the one hand, it could be a good idea to make the situation as tense as possible and draw various sound and visual effects to enhance the blood0thirsty impression of the scene. Yet on the other hand it seems quite unreasonable since the age group would be restricted then to an older group.
We will write a custom Essay on Striving for the Ultimate Knowledge: Eli’s Mission. Video Game specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, it is doubtful that the person loving quests will eagerly take part in rough action games. Thus, it will be most reasonable to make the scene of the house fight less violent than the plot of the movie demands.
Although logically, it would be most reasonable to make the lead character of the game invisible for the game player so that the latter could associate Eli with him/herself, it seems that the scene featuring the fight in the house should be made in such a way so that the game player could see Eli and control all his moves. Considering Pedersen’s idea of action games, it becomes obvious that the player must see the character in the scene of fight:
Action games are those in which you move, attack, move, react, and move again. They revolve around the gamer who is always central to the play and in control. During an action game, action is the emphasis, not storytelling (Pedersen 34)
Thus, making the emphasis on the central character, not on the fight itself, it would be possible to balance between the tough action and the absence of excessive violence in the picture.
Since the age group which the game is designed for is supposed to be diverse and include all possible elements, there must be a line toed between the “fight for justice” which is a necessary element of all action stories and blockbusters, and violence.
In spite of the fact that action games do not presuppose a lot of dialogues between the characters, there must be the ones in this scene. Bearing crucial importance for the entire storyline of the movie and the game, the conversations between Eli and Carnegie must be inserted into the body of the action.
Making the situation in the game as tense as possible, these short pieces of conversation fill the game with the philosophy which lies in the basis of the movie. Thus, most of the key phrases of Carnegie and Eli must be inserted into the action.
Quite a risky trick, it will prove the most efficient way to enhance the intrigue of the game. Such approach will contrast with the typical “helmet-mounted display”, though this will deprive the game of certain reality elements; as Jones emphasizes, it is the very effect of the information being “at once outside and inside of the visor of your character” (Jones 75).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Striving for the Ultimate Knowledge: Eli’s Mission. Video Game by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since Eli is the lead character of the game which the player associates him/herself with, it would not be a good idea to follow the plot of the movie blindly and make Carnegie shoot Eli. Though this will add reality to the game, such turn of the plot might upset even those who know the movie well, not to mention the people unaware of the film.
Thus, instead of being shot, Eli encounters an obstacle which makes him lose the Bible – say, the book is stolen by a member of Carnegie’s gang. At this point, it would be the wisest decision to apply the scheme of “multiple exit roots” (235), as Young puts it.
Allowing the game player to choose the ending which fits him/her best, one can help the player contribute to the game as well and feel the pulse of the game action.
The third and the final act of the game should be converted into a puzzle. In accordance with the movie plot, Eli is supposed to read the Bible, yet the game player is yet to discover that the book is written in Braille code.
To unlock the mystery of the text, the player has to decipher the mysterious scriptures, which means that (s)he is supposed to solve a game puzzle. To find the key to the weird signs, Eli must use some brainwork.
As Eli opens the book, a table with certain letters deciphered appears, yet there are not enough letters to unlock the secret writings.
Designing the riddle, it is reasonable to use the most widespread letters of the English alphabet, such as e, t, h, and a, along with a number of the most specific letter combinations, like “ph” or “cs”. Designing the puzzle, one must keep in mind that the game player must not get bored by a riddle which is too complicated to solve in less than ten minutes.
However, as Eli continues solving the puzzle, it appears that he is under a considerable time pressure – such turn of the plot will add acuteness to the situation and evoke another adrenalin surge – isn’t this what an avid game player is waiting for? However, not to make people too overwhelmed with emotions and give them the opportunity to win the game, Eli gets time bonuses with each letter guessed correctly.
While Eli deciphers the scriptures, he realizes that what has been deciphered so far is not enough – most of the text is missing. It turns out that he is supposed to recollect the rest of the Bible text. At this turn of the plot, the game player will have to solve another puzzle and read the text concealed in Eli’s memory.
Thus, the game turns from harsh and rather tough action to quite complicated yet intriguing puzzle. It is clear that those who are keen on playing various games will love the way the game parts switch and interact with each other, and the turns of the plot will add to the overall excitement.
Trapped in his own memory, Eli becomes an integral part of the game player – it is the matter of life and death for the player now as well to make Eli recollect the forgotten Bible.
However, this puzzle turns out to be much easier than the previous one. Making Eli pick the Bible and look at the poster on the wall will lead to the solution – Eli will see the snatch of a phrase reading “lies ahead”, which triggers the recollection process: “No matter what lies ahead. Hold onto your faith”. At this point the book which Eli holds turns into the Bible written in English, and the game ends with the triumph of the mankind.
Lines up with the licensed music from the motion picture, this scene would look in the most impressive way; as Rogers emphasizes, music is of paramount importance for the game: “Emphasis shifted from the programmatic issues with music and sound to what to do with it creatively” (394).
Although this game might seem another attempt to advertise a movie brand, there is more than meets the eye in it. Suggesting a picture of the distant future of the mankind, it persuades people to hold fats to their knowledge and beliefs, and not to give up even when the world is collapsing down. Once playing this game, one will feel that there is always a way out, no matter how hard the journey might seem.
Works Cited Jones, Steven Edward. The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Studies. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis, 2008. Print.
King, Geoff, and Tanya Krzywinska. Screenplay: Cinema/Videogames/Interfaces. Brighton, UK: Wallflower Press, 2002. Print.
Newman, Rick. Cinematic Game Secrets for Creative Directors and Producers: Inspired Techniques from Industry Legends. Burlington, MA: Focal Press, 2008. Print.
Pedersen, Roger E. Game Design Foundations. Sudbury, MA: Jones
The Tell- Tale heart (1843) Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Internal versus external forces
Introduction The introductory part will present the The Tell- Tale heart (1843), by Alan Edgar Poe, introducing the main characters viz. the narrator and the old man. The story opens with the unknown narrator confessing he is restless but not harebrained or insane, as some would want to think.
He narrates his story by defending his sound mind although he has murdered an innocent old man. The narrator lives with the old man; however, he claims that his supposedly housemate has an evil blue eye that evokes fear in him (the narrator). At this point, the narrator is not trustworthy because he does not even understand himself; he does not know whether he is psychologically sick or he is just another murderer.
Character analysis This section tackles the main characters of the story and as aforementioned, the narrator and the old man are the only central characters in the story. The narrator is untrustworthy, self-righteous and a rigid person who leaves no space for learning.
He believes he is sane despite the fact that he kills the old man for no apparent reason. His sanctimonious overtones infringe is trustworthiness. On the other hand, the old man is just a victim of malice or covered insanity.
Plot summary The plot summary will outline the flow of the story where once more the narrator plays the central role. As the story opens, the narrator insinuates he is insane by declaring he has a story to tell; however, the story is a defense to guard his sanity. Therefore, the events of this section will focus on the narrator as he puts forward his claims of sanity.
However, to understand where all the sanity ‘noises’ are coming from, this section will flashback to the one event that seems to infringe the narrator’s insanity; the murder of the old man. Again, the narrator’s trustworthiness is compromised for by defending his actions, he unknowingly exposes his unreliability.
Themes The overriding theme in this story is the theme of paranoia. As the story opens, the narrator acknowledges that he is nervous for reasons he does not know. The thin, almost confusing, or blurred line between paranoia and madness comes out clearly. People think paranoia is synonymous to madness and perhaps this explains why the narrator is vehement in defending his sanity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Paranoia in this context also underscores the blurred line between hate and love according to Benfey (78). Ironically, many a time individuals hurt the closest people in their lives. In this section, the narrator is trustworthy; he loves and needs the old man, yet he kills him.
Internal versus external forces Ironically, the presence of police officers who come to investigate the murder of the old man does not evoke any uneasiness in the narrator. However, the deafening sounds of fear and guilt that haunt the narrator seem to take away his peace. The narrator does not confess the murder because the offices push him; no, he confesses because of guilt and self-conviction.
At this point, the story tries to emphasize that internal forces are stronger than external forces. One can defy and deny external forces like rule of law; however, defying self-conviction is tantamount to committing suicide and the narrator comes out as a trustworthy source of this scenario.
Conclusion The concluding part of the essay will try to piece together the ideas raised in the story. Running from introduction, though plot summary to themes; this section will give a concise recap of the whole story.
Works Cited Benfey, Christopher. “Poe and the Unreadable: ‘The Black Cat’ and ‘The Tell-Tale Heart.” New Essays on Poe’s Major Tales. United States: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Poe, Allan. “The Tell-Tale Heart.” Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library, 1992. Web.
McDonald’s: Planned Change Project Essay online essay help
Table of Contents The Problem
Intervention and Change Management
Organizational Implementation Plan
It would be impossible to describe the previous century without mentioning McDonald’s. Its golden arches sign is as ubiquitous as other symbols of modernity. Since its early beginnings many decades ago this company has now become a conglomerate that spans the globe. In fact, in 1992 McDonald’s sold its 90 billionth burger and the company did not bother to count ever since (Shamsie, 2009, p.25). But in 2002 the corporate leaders of this company came to realize that things can change so quickly.
In that same year, McDonald’s posted its first quarterly loss amounting to $343.8 million and that is not a small amount (Shamsie, 2009, p.25). One of the top managers explained the decline in just a few short words when he remarked “We were hip 15 years ago, but I think we lost that” (Shamsie, 2009, p.27).
In other words there was a time when McDonald’s was a dominant force in the fast-food industry but now a slowdown in the economy and a host of other problems worked in unison to help weaken its position. It is now time for the company to bounce back from defeat and be in the forefront of the fast-food industry once again.
This paper will attempt to outline an analysis of the various forces at work within and without. In order to develop a battle plan that will transform the organization from one that is behaving in a mediocre manner into a company that is on top of the world once again. It has to be pointed out that in recent years corporate leaders at this company tried their best to turn things around.
This study is just a small contribution to that endeavor. In this study, strategic management principles will be utilized and hopefully the final product can be added into the other strategic papers being compiled to solve McDonald’s woes.
The Problem It was discovered by researchers that the company began to lower its standards when it decided to expand globally in the 1990s (Shamsie, 2009, p.24). As a result the head office stopped evaluating its franchises in terms of cleanliness, speed, and service (Shamsie, 2009, p.24).
Aside from negligence ,the company’s strategy to diversify and provide different types of products such as those that are not related to their main burger business was seen to have a negative effect on the company. This is made more problematic by the fact that McDonald’s decided to acquire non-burger fast-food chains that did not make money for the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Diagnosis As mentioned earlier the problems lie in the lack of focus, spreading itself too thin and acquiring non-burger chains that are losing money. In order to take a better grasp of the challenges that the company faces it would be best to use Porter’s Five Forces. In Porter’s 5 forces there is a concept called entry barriers (Hax, 2001, p.43).
If one will use this theoretical framework to understand the nature of competition in the fast-food industry then it will be discovered that there is a high barrier for entry when it comes to the development of a fast-food chain.
A huge capital expenditure is needed to compete at the level of McDonald’s. The company is relatively safe in this area, meaning it is not realistic for a competitor to suddenly challenge a company as established as McDonald’s and create a fast-food chain that will ultimately lead to the demise of McDonald’s.
Going back to Porter’s Five Forces, one will come to understand that the more urgent issue to resolve is not the entry of giant-sized competition but the threat of substitutes.
It is a significantly fragmented market and the company faces competition from restaurants that offer better tasting and more nutritious foods as well as from other fast-food outlets such as quick meals that can be found in supermarkets, convenience stores, and even vending machines (Shamsie, 2009, p.23).
The company does not face any significant problem when it comes to their suppliers. Aside from the fact that the prices of goods are increasing, McDonald’s can get better terms from their suppliers because of its size (Kincheloe, 2002, p.73).
It can demand competitive pricing for the raw materials needed such as meat, fruits and vegetables and it can be assured of a good deal from them. The suppliers do not have the capability to pressure McDonald’s to abide by their terms. The size of the company allows it to have leverage against suppliers.
We will write a custom Essay on McDonald’s: Planned Change Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, even suppliers cannot control external forces. For example the rising prices of fuel will automatically increase the prices of the goods that they will deliver to McDonald’s and as a result the company will have to absorb these price increases.
While it is true that McDonald’s does not have to contend with major issues when it comes to their suppliers, it is the buyers that that they have to worry about because they have a wide range of competing products to choose from. There also quick meals being offered in supermarkets such as those that are made available through vending machines. The uniqueness of McDonald’s service is not that attractive anymore.
The fast, clean, and efficient service offered by the company can be easily matched by others. It does not even require a competitor to build a system similar to McDonald’s in order to succeed. Even small competitors can easily take a slice of their market share. If the buyers decide to patronize a medium-sized enterprise offering fast-food service then this can really hurt the company’s bottom-line.
Finally, McDonald’s has to worry about the competition. For instance, if rival firms will adopt the cost leadership strategy of McDonald’s then both firms will suffer significant losses. If a competitor is willing to go down this path then McDonald’s will have to find the competitive edge to stay profitable.
One way to do this is to improve their main product which is the hamburger. Therefore, the company does not have to continuously lower the price to match that of the competition. The company has to market their burgers as the best in terms of price and value.
Another way to analyze the company’s strengths, weaknesses and overall performance is to utilize internal analysis techniques such as the 7-S framework which stands for:
Shared Values – In the 7-S framework “shared values” is positioned in the centre, it is also known as core values or the central beliefs of the company;
Strategy – this is the plan that will guide the allocation of scarce resources to reach a particular goal;
Structure – this is how an organization is structured whether it is centralized, top-down, decentralized, a matrix, a network etc;
Systems – this talks about the procedures, processes and routines that must be observed in order to keep communications flowing and also to finish tasks that are of significance;
Staff – this is of course the number and type of personnel within the company;
Style – this is more about the culture of the organization and has a lot to do with management styles; and
Skills – the capabilities of the personnel and what it can achieve if taken together as a whole unit (McKinsey, 2009, p.1).
The use of the 7-S framework will reveal what the company stands for and why it was so successful for many decades. By utilizing this tool researchers will be able to know the history of the company and what was done in the past that was proven to be effective. In times of crisis it would be of great help to remember the old adage that if something is not broken then there is no need to fix it.
Data Collection There is a need to collate data from thee fiscal years, from 2008 to 2010. This will include total revenue for the past three fiscal years. There is also the need to determine the gross profit, operating income or loss, net profit, total assets, total liabilities, and finally net tangible assets.
Not sure if you can write a paper on McDonald’s: Planned Change Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Aside from the financial side, researchers must also look into the type of products being offered and how did the customers responded to new and old products that were offered in the past three years. This information will provide an overview concerning the economic health of the company and what can be done in terms of developing a turnaround strategy.
After sending out researchers and coordinating with corporate leaders handling the company’s management information systems it was discovered that the company is in trouble if one will compare its performance in the 1990s. Yet, there is hope for this company. Nevertheless, the encouraging news about positive development in recent months is not enough to assuage the fears of the investors and shareholders.
It is true that the company is not yet near bankruptcy. Based on net income between fiscal year 2008 and 2010 it is not a surprise to find that the company is profitable by at least 4.3 billion but since 2008 the growth is minimal.
In fact in fiscal year 2008 the company reported that its earning was significantly lower compared to what it earned a year earlier. However, this is not the most disturbing sign for McDonald’s. The real source of concern can be found if one examines the assets of the company. In 2008 the net tangible assets was valued at an estimated $13.25 billion but in 2010 the value is only $11.15 billion.
Aside from that the company added more long-term debts. Thus, in 2010 total liabilities amounted to at least $15 billion. It is clear that the value of the company is declining. This is reflected by the price of the stock which in 2008 dropped very significantly.
Intervention and Change Management The turnaround strategy that the company must use can be understood if one will study the generic strategies formulated by Porter. The first strategy that McDonald’s should utilize is the cost leadership strategy (Porter, p.35). For example, the company should focus more on their Dollar Menu, selling food products that are affordable and yet great tasting and promotes customer loyalty.
Going back to Porter’s generic strategies, the company it was discovered that the company attempted to use a differentiation strategy by creating diverse types of products. It must be made clear that this is not one of the best solutions to the company’s woes.
It seems that the company is not keen in applying a focus strategy because of the diversified product offerings as born out of previous decisions to push the company to different directions in response to the idea that mass marketing no longer works.
But is clear that a differentiation strategy is weakening the position of the company and that there is a need to refocus on what McDonald’s does best and it is none other than selling burgers.
Using principles gleaned from Porter’s Five Forces, Porter’s generic strategies and McKinsey’s 7-S Framework, researchers were able to have a big picture view of the company.
Its problems were traced to a misguided differentiation strategy, the lack of focus, negligence when it comes to customer service and overexpansion without the necessary corporate structure and team development needed to support such tremendous growth. When McDonald’s decided to expand globally in the 1990s the company headquarters found it difficult to monitor every single franchisee.
There is no way to grade these outlets in terms of service, speed and cleanliness. This explains the decline. The best way to solve this problem is to re-emphasize the fact that McDonald’s is not just offering food it is also offering a type of service. It is a fast-food chain and therefore there is a need to teach the value of cleanliness, speed and efficient service.
With regards to diversification, it may seem to be a good idea at first because it provides more choices for the customers. However, the quality of these products is suspect.
This simply means that McDonald’s is an expert in serving burgers and therefore find it difficult to immediately improve the quality of their new product offerings. It takes time to increase the company’s proficiency when it comes to dealing with the requirements necessary to serve non-burger products.
Aside from increasing the variety of their product offerings, McDonald’s also did something that forced the leaders to deal with so many things at the same time.
The company decided to acquire companies that are not related to the core expertise of the company. For example Chipotle Mexican Grill is very different from a McDonald’s store. It is time for the company to stop all these acquisitions and instead focus on improving the system and quality of service for each franchise registered under the golden arches brand.
Furthermore, McDonald’s cannot afford to launch any new product without going through a thorough and effective development process. Everything must be studied not only in the quality of the food but also on the packaging. The company must renew its commitment in terms of product development.
McDonald’s has to provide resources so that the company can focus on improving the way new products are studied and tested before releasing it to the market. The company cannot afford to offer anything that is half-baked. This lack of attention to detail will backfire on McDonald’s. The customers must not have any excuse to look for substitutes.
Organizational Implementation Plan There is a need to implement a focus strategy. There is a need for the company to focus on its strength and that is their capability to sell burgers that are still in hot demand. It is time to sell the companies that they have acquired and focus only on the efficiency and quality of service provided by its restaurants all over the world.
There will be resistance to change. It must be expected to come from those who proposed that it is best for McDonald’s to buy non-burger fast-food chains. Resistance can also come from those who believed in diversification to the point of losing the company’s true identity and forgetting its vision to serve good tasting burgers at an affordable price.
Resistance can also come from franchise holders that are no longer interested in giving the best customer service possible and find it counterproductive to raise the standards of service and cleanliness to a very high level. The CEO as well as top corporate leaders of McDonald’s must invest in developing a monitoring system and a continuous training program especially when it comes to country managers responsible for maintaining strict quality standards for franchisees outside the United States.
Country managers must be targeted if the company is intending to change the image of the company on a global scale. This means that the company must invest in programs that will help understand the importance of culture.
The members of the board must lead the way when it comes to understanding differences in culture and the need to effectively managed multicultural teams. There must be a program that teaches top managers on how to deal with diversity within the organization.
The struggle in coping with the challenges of diversity is especially true for the expatriates that McDonald’s sent to handle their Asian and European business operations. The said training program should be instilled into the hearts and minds of the top-level managers who will be sent as expatriates to foreign countries. They must learn to respect, appreciate and manage diversity.
The company must emphasize the fact that marketing and other technical expertise is just part of the learning process; they must also learn the significance of understanding cultural differences. A brilliant leader will not go far if he or she does not have the necessary training to handle the shock that comes from dealing with a different culture.
The training program must teach top-level managers, middle-management and key leaders in the company to understand the meaning and importance of culture by being able to reflect on their own cultural bias and then use that to observe the cultural differences that exist around them. By doing so, they have achieved a level of awareness that will enable them to communicate effectively to team members in a multicultural team. As a result they are able to resolve conflict and enhance teamwork.
Evaluation The success of the organizational implementation plan can only be seen if the company begins to increase revenue. This also means that the company’s assets are growing and not shrinking. This can be done if the company learns how to sell more burgers as opposed to other non-burger products.
This means that the company has understood the value of focusing on its strengths and not spread itself too thin. The keys to success would be an organization that prides itself on speed, cleanliness, efficiency and quality.
Progress can be monitored by constantly monitoring the value of the company not only by looking at the price of the company’s stock but also by having continuous access to financial information such as revenue, liabilities, and assets. The evaluation can only be completed if researchers are employed to determine the perspective of the buying public. There is a need to gauge customer loyalty and find out if they are happy with the company’s recent performance.
Finally, the planned change project can only be judged successful if the company has made an investment when it comes to developing multi-cultural teams that will help deal with cultural differences when it comes to franchisees located outside the United States.
The ability to manage cultural diversity will create an organization that is flexible to adapt to changes. More importantly it will allow the company to respond to customer needs.
It would be best for the current CEO to take a closer look at the proposed changes for the company. The gradual decline in company value for the past years is indicative of a deep-rooted problem that has to be dealt with as soon as possible. It has been revealed that the company spent a great deal of money acquiring non-performing assets.
It was also discovered that McDonald’s attempted to veer from its core business without great success. There is a need to revisit what it has done successfully in the past and try to learn from the time-tested strategies that made McDonald’s so successful that it continues to sell tens of millions of burgers on an annual basis.
References Hax, A. (2001). The Delta Project: Discovering New Sources of Profitability in a Networked Economy. New York: Palgrave.
Kincheloe, J. (2002). The Sign of the Burger: McDonald’s and the Culture of Power. PA: Temple University Press.
McKinsey. (2011). 7-S Framework. 12Manage the Executive Fast Track. Web.
Porter, M. (1980). Competitive Strategy. New York: The Free Press.
Shamsie, J. (2009). Competitive Strategy. MI: Michigan State University Press.
Team performance management Analytical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
For a long time now, managers have measured employee performance by use of very general and vague descriptions like excellent, above average, good, fair, satisfactory, and many more. In the US at around 1964, rights activists movements started pushing for the adoption of more objective methods of employee performance evaluation (De Koning, 2004).
This then led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act 1966 and formation of the Equal Employment opportunity Commission (1970) which amounted demands that workers evaluations be based on objective, systematic and defensible measurements.
The afore-mentioned developments led to adoption of several performance evaluation methods some of which are still in use in modern organizations. Having been appointed a team leader in a health division and have been requested to carry out performance evaluations, I will choose the management by objectives (MBO) method, as the most suitable tool for this task.
Besides MBO method, several other methods can be used to evaluate data. First, you can evaluate performance through trait rating, which rates employees based on specific traits. To evaluate by trait rating you need to make a list of the desired abilities and qualities such as, ability to solve problems, mutual respect, level of participation in a team and many more.
These traits can then be rated on a 1-10 scale, which will give more standardized, and objective results. This method is advantageous because its results can easily be compared throughout the entire organization. However, its critics posit that it is too vague since it is based on personality rather than behavior.
Secondly, you can rate employees based on how well they perform compared to each other. This method is referred to as peer ranking. This method helps in the identification of good or poor performers. This on the other hand could a rouse jealousy and cause rivalry among team members greatly affecting teamwork.
Thirdly, evaluation can be carried out by use of multisource feedback criteria, which is also called 360 feedback criteria. This method relies on a group of workers to evaluate each other and the group as a whole. This method is advantageous as it includes attributes, which are fairy long and therefore can give a more detailed result. However, it is complex as it presents several parameters for analysis and evaluation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally yet importantly, is management by objectives method which, I had indicated, would be the most appropriated approach for performance evaluation in a s the head of my local health organization division. I prefer this method because it is based on measurable goals and standards.
Since this is a health organization, the one of the major concern would to evaluate the skills and specializations of each of the team members. Then these skills would form a basis for reward and duty allocations. In an instance where some members do not posses the required skills then it will be set that, they endeavor to acquire them by undergoing training.
In addition, I will enlist the organization’s top goals and policies to set standards against which performance evaluations shall be based. The set and agreed objectives shall then be communicated to the group and shall be the bench for individual performance analysis. This method according to Erven (2006) can be very effective if the standards and goals set are accurate, realistic, and achievable.
References De Koning, G. (2004). Evaluating Employee Performance: The limitations of subjective Manager evaluation and multisource feedback. Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved from:
Erven, B. (2006). Evaluating Performance and providing feedback to employees. Web.
Team Performance Measurement Essay college essay help online
A team performance measurement is the review of workers’ job performance. This is done to meet the company’s’ goals and objectives. There has to be employees’ assessment so as achieve these goals. Much of work done in companies or industries is as a result of teams. There are various team measurement methods which have been applied for the success of organizations.
Functional requirement of a group includes simultaneity or sequencing. Simultaneity is when team members do a task at the same time, whereas sequencing means that the output of one member is the input to another’s task.
According to William (2003), team performance is measured when different levels of analysis are put into consideration. This includes individual, team, and organizations.
Team functioning is categorized into input and output. In input, team processes are put into consideration. Output is the outcome of the task. A measure of team performance in training helps to diagnose problems and skill development.
Experts are able to point out areas that need to be in team function. Sample surveys help the experts to give details of team members’ function. Teams’ assessment is useful in selection of team members in a given task.
As a manager of a health care team, there are factors that would be considered when measuring team’s performance in a health care organization.
These include the reason for measurement, the method of assessment, the behaviors to be assessed, time expense and response qualification. The reason for problem identification is to get the attributes, which are behavioral skills such as assertiveness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This can be measured by looking at members who highlight others’ mistakes. Stimulus is another reason for identification, which is to elicit behaviors of team members. Quantification is also measured in form of questionnaires where team members write down their thought and they can also use tapes.
The challenges faced in such scenario include resistance, errors in evaluation, and coming up with evaluation criteria. Employees may resist because of fear of low rating. For their performance to be effective it should be planned early, and telling the employees what is expected of them. Errors in evaluation are challenges because one characters’ rating may influence the evaluator’s rating for others.
Determining the evaluation criteria is the biggest challenge faced because if the data for evaluation is not carefully selected, it may have many errors. This may lower the esteem of team members, and thus lead to poor performance.
LePine (2003) argues that team evaluation is done in a sequence. The first step is determining the time schedule of the company to gather information and prepare for performance measurements.
Employees should be evaluated after they have stayed for 3- 6 months. This should be done after every 3 months a year. Second, is determining the company’s appraisal policy and outlining the procedures of the company to complete the employees form.
Attributes such as job responsibilities, tasks, likes, dislikes and comments from the supervisors must be reviewed. The forms should have the supervisors’ and employee’s sign and comments. Going through the employee’s job description and gathering information, for example strength and weaknesses, attributes and accomplishments is important in measuring performance.
Likewise, addressing the employees’ weakness and taking actions that may help and filling the evaluation form properly increases the chances of accurate measurements. The employee should be informed about the performance appraisal and then a meeting with the employees should be scheduled to read through the performance appraisal.
We will write a custom Essay on Team Performance Measurement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The employees should have a copy and discussions of the observations, where issues concerning the employee are highlighted. The report is then submitted to the managers. However, the whole process seems extensive in case of a big team within the health care organization.
In conclusion, the evaluation of team performance in the health care is meant to give feedback on employee’s performance, identify his/her training needs, improve performance through counseling, coaching and performance, and facilitate communication between employee and the administration.
The major challenges of measuring team performance include resistance, errors in evaluation, determining the evaluation criteria, and following the correct procedure of measurement.
In today’s competitive market, companies want more from their workers; they want workers who can develop teams to help them achieve greater success. Leaders know that when the team is evaluated, they offer many merits, which can provide richer, more diverse solutions to problems. Team evaluation leads to success in many organizations.
References LePine, J.A. (2003). Team Adaptation and Post Change Performance: Effects of Team Composition in Terms of Members’ Cognitive Abilities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88: 27-39.
William, S. D. (2003). Evaluating Experiential Training for Leadership and Team Building”. The Journal Management Development, 22 (1): 45-59.
Communication and Problem Solving – Part One Essay college essay help online
Communication is the process of conveying information from one person to another. It is a two way process because it involves listening and reflecting the responsibility of speaker or listener, its clear, and uses proper feedback, whereas problem solving is a mental process and involves finding the problem and solving it.
All these concepts are important in health care teams. When issues are analyzed and people reach to a mutual understanding, problems will not arise. In this case, we perceive and solve a problem of the present situation and the desired goal.
In this light, problems in the health care team were caused by conflicts which involved the following: competition that occurred when a person was trying to achieve what another person was trying to accomplish, when team members were treated differently especially by leaders, incompatibility of aims and objectives in a group, ethnic differences, and a clash on peoples’ beliefs.
In essence, conflicts arise when people feel threatened regardless of whether the threat is real or not (Cornell, 2010).
Communication in problem solving was important in solving the conflicts because solutions depend on how team members relate. With reference to group management, the steps of problem solving are discussed here. The first step is problem orientation, which involves accepting that a problem is within the team.
Each problem is tackled with confidence and willingness to take the best action and devote time to arrive at a solution. The communication should be started in a positive way; this can only be achieved by avoiding finger pointing.
Pawar (2007) expounds that good listening skills are applied in conversations and time should be given for discussion if there is much pressure to arrive to a solution and if the matter is too emotional it can be discussed later when people have cooled down. People should treat one another with respect especially if the issue being discussed is critical hence kindness must be maintained all through.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next step is problem definition, which entails understanding the problem and knowing the cause of the current situation. This involves thinking about the problem, understanding it, and determining why the situation is distressing.
This is vital and this is done by writing down the problem, discussing the problem with the idea of a positive outcome, and listing down the facts leading to the problem. Each idea is evaluated carefully and problems should be discussed one at a time because when many issues are raised they might cause confusion. In doing so, a feasible solution can be realized.
Generation of alternative solutions is another step which involves taking measures of what can be done to work better. Possible options are written down and implausible ideas discarded. The next step is decision making which entails thinking about the discussed option and how to implement it and considering the likelihood that each option has in achieving goals.
Solution implementation comes in when all the options are discussed, while examining the chosen solution, and how it is solving the problem. If a solution is not easy to implement, other options are considered, thus making the team to solve the conflicts.
In conclusion, solving problems is not an easy task, and may take several solutions before it works. Listening is the best skill applied in communication and problem solving involving health care teams. This is because it demands that we set aside our agendas and thoughts and put ourselves in other people’s situation and see the world through their eyes.
This requires that we suspend conclusion and approval to understand another person’s point of view. We should understand each others attitude, behaviours and motivation; in this case we will have an inner understanding of the problem and the solution to reaching into an agreement.
When we listen and communicate effectively, we have a deeper understanding of another person’s perception and thus we are able to work with people who have different opinions, values, beliefs and needs than our own.
We will write a custom Essay on Communication and Problem Solving – Part One specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Cornell, K. (2010). Webkaizen, Faster Cheaper Problem Solving for Business. Omaha NE: Prevail Digital Publishing.
Pawar, M. (2007, May). Getting Beyond Blame in Your Practice. Family Practice Management, 14(5), 30-34. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/fpm/2007/0500/p30.html
Control and Change in Home Deport Company Analytical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Controlling aspects in an organization
Steps taken by Nardelli in renovating Home Depot
Applying Nardelli’s approach in health care setting
The Home Deport was founded in 1978 as a self service shop to ease shopping activities for consumers who were forced to travel for longer time to find retail shops to acquire goods for consumption (Hitt, 2010).
The first shop consisting of a warehouse was established in Atlanta, Georgia thus reducing transportation cost and availing goods to customers whenever there ware in need (Roush, 2009). The associates achieved this through rigorous product knowledge training and clinics for their customers.
Controlling aspects in an organization Controlling is an act of verifying whether the organizational activities are conducted in relation to the plans developed and according to supervisor’s instructions (Roush,2009).It enhances effectiveness and efficiency in utilization of resources in order to achieve the organization goals by measuring the deviation of actual performance from the standard performance and suggesting the corrective measures (Hitt,2010).
Controlling function is achieved through the following aspects. To start with, it is achieved through delegation, which entails assigning responsibility to the employees and granting them the authority to utilize available resources to accomplish the jobs (Hitt,2010).
The supervisor shares accountability by ensuring the task is accomplished, he assists the worker in establishing goals ,granting him the authority and responsibility to work and achieve set goals(Hitt,2010).In addition, the supervisor avails resources to the worker as well as recommending him for reward to the top management(Roush,2009).
Secondly, controlling involves evaluation. This is a careful collection and analysis of information in order to make and amends decisions within various departments in an organization focusing on goals, production processes and the final goods or services (Hitt, 2010).
The management evaluates the previous goals set and introduce new measures for improving quality of production of the company products (Hitt, 2010).Similarly, controlling entails leading roles that require the management give direction the junior workers on how the duties are carried out in terms of job requirements in order to increase the profit level of the company (Davenport, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Steps taken by Nardelli in renovating Home Depot The arrival of Chief Executive Robert Nardelli noted series of developmental programs to business that for a long time had been a decentralized business enterprise by recruiting military personnel to participate in the management of various departments(Davenport, 2007) He believed in the kind of discipline and maturity soldiers get during military training and claimed the background is instrumental in the management of a business organization (Roush,2009).
The importation of military ideas gave the competitors such as Wal-Mart Company an opportunity to improve sales promotion techniques in order to convince Home Deport customers to change to their products(Roush,2009). Nardelli concentrated in building a disciplined corps capable of operating under high-pressure environment and producing high quality goods and services (Davenport,2007).
Secondly, he ensured cultural overhaul in promoting sales of the goods and services from Home Depot by safeguarding autonomy of the workers in all departments thereby creating a sense of belonging in all workers of the company (Roush,2009).This led to the rise in profit made by the company from $46 billion in the year 2000 to $81.5 billion in the year 2005 when annual growth was announced(Davenport,2007).
Similarly, Nardelli launched a move to expand the company and provide goods and services to consumers out side the United States (Davenport, 2007).
The company achieved this by reducing the growth of new stores in the United States leading to excess resources within the Home Depot Supply which is a sales unit hawking pipes and building materials for the company hence constructed a branch in China (Davenport, 2007).
In order to raise the company’s profit, Nardelli made both Saturday and Sunday normal working day and ensured all workers were available. He introduced the program immediately after taking over from his predecessor William Conaty giving him an uphill against the workers (Roush, 2009).
Moreover, the deport introduced a ranking system where workers were grouped according to the financial gain to the company, area of operation and skill possessed in for handling customers, he claimed that the value addition of an employee is equivalent to the quality of service offered to the customers (Davenport, 2007).
We will write a custom Essay on Control and Change in Home Deport Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, Nandelli emphasizes on the recruitment of senior citizens into the company hence making the local people in an area in which company is located feel appreciated and purchase goods from the Home Depot (Davenport, 2007).
Applying Nardelli’s approach in health care setting Nardelli’s approach is capable of improving service delivery in an organization; its application into health sector would reflect tremendous improvements in health institutions (Davenport, 2007).
To start with, trained military personnel should be recruited among the service providers in the hospitals and other health departments since they acquire high level discipline during their training and posses skills in disaster management relevant to health sector (Hitt,2010).
Similarly, the provision of medical services should be done through out the week since it involves the provision of essential services required every time by the citizens thus all health workers should attend to serve the sick and emergency cases (Davenport,2007 ).
Similarly, the approach applies on locating hospitals in areas closer to the citizens where they can easily acquire the health services at the right time (Hitt, 2010). For example the Home Depot Company established its branches in China, Mexico and Canada to avail the goods and services to consumers outside the United States (Davenport, 2007).
Lastly, the health sector should apply the Nardelli’s approach by recognizing and appreciating industrious workers within the sector and motivating them for the excellent performance as well as employing individuals who are acquainted to the climatic and environmental conditions of the area in which the business is located (Davenport, 2007)
In conclusion, Home Deport Company though started as a small retail shop by Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank has grown into a multinational company that serves a larger market within and outside United States.
Its high level management introduced by Don Ray and latter adopted and improved by Nardelli promoted the company into world class level with unique system of management (Hitt, 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Control and Change in Home Deport Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Currently, Home Depot is the largest retail shop in the world with its branches in Canada, China, Mexico and United Kingdom hence able to supply its products to many consumers all over the world (Hitt, 2010).
References Davenport, T. (2007).Strategic management in the innovation economy: strategy approaches and management. Maryland: Johns Hopkins University.
Hitt, M. (2010).Strategic management: competitiveness and globalization: concepts
The Role of Leadership Strategy in Hospital Cooperation of America Essay best college essay help
The Hospital Cooperation of America does not employ an authoritarian approach to its leadership. The organization believes in empowering its employees as a key leadership strategy.
In one instance, the management plans to choose a suitable system that the organization can adopt. The management of the organization assigns the responsibility of choosing the most suitable system to a group of employees with an equal representation from all the departments (Frist
King Drew Medical Center Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
In 1980s and 1990s, the King Drew Medical Center was famous for offering teaching and cheap medical services to the residents of Loss Angles. After gaining its fame, the King Drew Medical Center then experienced leadership crisis where top management neglected their responsibilities and mismanaged the hospital.
The hospital earned a bad reputation following series of complains from patients that the healthcare professionals disregarded their roles leading to many preventable deaths.
Inspection carried out on the King Drew Medical Center gave shocking revelation that the hospital was operating under mismanagement that upheld provision of poor health care services. According to Beltran, “after five deaths blamed on negligence in the last year, the hospital is known to some as ‘Killer King’” (2011).
Due to the mismanagement, King Drew Medical Center earned a name ‘Killer King’ that scared away not only patients, but also medical students. Leadership failure at King Drew Medical Center has demonstrated that negligence, mismanagement, and political issues effectively destroy quality health care services.
Negligence of responsibility by the leadership was the cause of healthcare inefficiencies in the King Drew Medical Center. The top leadership ignored their responsibility of ensuring that health professionals adhered to professionals’ ethics. At many instances, nurses did not bother to attend to patients who needed emergency aid, doctors were reluctant to respond to emergencies, and prescription and administration of drugs were haphazardly.
“A March 3 federal report, prompted by a state complaint about the hospital pharmacy, found extensive problems with drug administration — failure to give the prescribed medicine, or giving the right medicine at the wrong times or dosage” (Beltran, 2011).
From the experience of King Drew Medical Center, it has become evident that negligence by the leadership to ensure that medical professionals in a health institution adhere to the code of ethics would lead into ignorance in provision of health care services. There was ignorance in the prescription, administration, and attention to special needs of the patients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The leadership of King Drew Medical Center in conjunction with the Los Angeles County mismanaged the hospital. Bruni confesses that the need to weed out bad leaders “…degenerated into a witch-hunt, where you are guilty indefinitely, without due process, and yours is the onus of proof … drastically foreign outsiders were placed in positions of leadership…” (2006).
Placement of foreigners into leadership resulted into mismanagement of the available meager resources and recruitment of unqualified professionals.
Moreover, the hospital lacked enough funding and moral support because its leadership had poor relationship with the county. The county had the capacity to support the hospital if only there was a healthy relationship that provides for consultation in times of need.
Racial politics significantly marred effective leadership of the King Drew Medical Center as issues of leadership had race political overtones. According to Bruni, “the administrations of both hospital and university are predominantly black …there appears to have been a tendency to dance around the substantive issues at King/Drew because of racial politics.” (2006).
Since racial politics dominated the management of the hospital, the hospital had some difficulties in establishing corporate relationship with other hospitals thus remained isolated amidst tough challenges of poor leadership. Effective corporate relationship would have aided the management to come up with real time policies and solutions.
References Beltran, R. (2011). Crisis Threatens Landmark Medical Center in Los Angeles. The Associated Press. Web.
Bruni, R. (2006). King Drew Medical Center: The Crisis, Challenge, and Response. National Society for Hispanic Professionals. Retrieved from
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Apple Inc. Managing Strategy Analysis Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Steven Wozniak and Steven Jobs founded Apple Inc in 1976; currently the company has its headquarters at Santa Clara Valley, California, it is the world largest electronic industry in volume and sales revenue (Apple Inc, 2010).
The company started from a humble setting where the entrepreneurs were designing personal computer to Silicon Valley computer enthusiasts. In 1979, the company made its first mass production of personal computers a product they named Apple II.
In 1984, the company invented Macintosh model; they were silicon technology computers targeting learners and business customers. Since then, the company has been successful in the electronic industry. In 2001, the company introduced Ipads and Ipods, which have created the largest revenue source under the leadership of Steve Jobs.
In 2008, the company made an operating profit of $4,834M, which was an increase from $ 3,496M made in 2007 (Apple Inc, 2010). The company aims at revolutionizing personal computer industry, through its innovations of consumer-focused products. This paper undertakes a full strategic appraisal of Apple in the context of the recent case study.
External Threats and opportunities confronting Apple Inc. Pestel Analysis
The world is experiencing growth in globalization, international trade has created an opportunity to Apple sell its products internationally, the increased market has been favored by advancement in technology, on the other the internal cooperation has necessitated for relaxation of legislations that could have offered a challenge to the company venture in international market (Chong, Keng-Boon, Binshan and Pei-Lee, 2010) .
Modern population have adopted the use of computers and electronics for their various functions, they are offering an increased market for the company’s products.
In 2008, the company recorded the highest sales volume of computers, iPods, iPhones, and iTunes, resulting from an increased demand of the products. People have been enlighten and are adopting to modern means of communication and business application an areas that the company has invested in heavily.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From a technological angle, the company is a pioneer in a number of electronic gadgets, this has enhanced the growth of a strong brand that that offers and opportunity to the company as people are willing to associate with a company that aims at meeting their current needs.
Despite the numerous opportunities that the company is experiencing, there are some danger posed by the external environment, the most recent threat is the world economic performance; the economic situation in the world is deteriorating thus the company is posed with the danger of reduced sales because of the situation.
In second quarter of 2009, the global demand for personal computers reduced by 5%, such trends are threatening the success of the company in the future (DE WIT and MEYER, 2010).
The computers and phone industry has a number of players each implementing the approach it thinks fit for the market. According to 2009, personal computer sales research, Dell emerged as the highest seller of personal computers, the company adopted a low-cost provider approach; the success of the company has been attributed to low cost computers; the approach by the company is offering Apple a threat since it adopts a premium pricing strategy.
In the PC section, Apple has to face competition from other player like HEWLETT-PACKARD and Acer, the advantage that the competitors have is the narrow focus on personal computers only, unlike Apple Inc that diversified its products to other sections.
Despite the increased population, the company is benefiting from Business-2-Business marketing strategy as other players open the market through enlightenments and campaigns for the support of computers. When the world is enlightened, the selling of the company’s products is facilitated.
In the sector of personal media player Industry, there have been an increased number of companies in the industry in 2009, there were above 100 companies manufacturing personal media player creative such companies include SanDisk, creative and Microsoft.
We will write a custom Essay on Apple Inc. Managing Strategy Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The increased number of personal media player providers has opened the world to realize the benefits that has been offered by technological development, they are offering marketing platforms to apple Inc as its sells its products (Fred, 2008).
Markets and Segments
The world population is increasingly becoming enlightened and the use of computers is on an upwards trend, the company is likely to benefits from the increased enlightened. Other that the young and literate market segments, competitiveness in the world are forcing companies to incorporate the old guards in the technology world, a move that has widened the market further.
Internal analysis Strengths and Weaknesses
The computer world is undergoing an increased innovation with new products being introduced in the market. Apple Inc is well known of its innovativeness; for three consecutive years, 2006-2008, Fortune 500 has voted the company as the world’s most innovative company. Computers, Software, consumer electronics like I-pod and I-phones, MP3 player, and mobile phone, which are the company’s products are being produced by other international bodies and thus for the company’s products to stand out in the market, then innovativeness should be adopted.
The innovativeness of the company has created a strong brand name and some levels of customer loyalty.
The company has set pace in a culture of innovationists, the success and the diversion of business to IPads and Ipods, which has continued to head the company’s sales volume was from high innovation of the team of human resources maintained by the company.
The company marketing and product development team is credited as one of the strongest in the world and aims at creating close connection with customers. The company have a strong financial base resulting from past revenue operations, the company has the funds and resources to diversify its process internationally. With the international trade growing, the company has the chance of tapping international market.
The company has well experienced information technology team: information technology changing fast: Apple needs to undertake massive research and developments of its products. The success of the company can be attributed to research and development programs. The management team of the company has a wide knowledge and experience in the industry; the management has the skills to make informed decisions and assist in product development.
In the past, the company has had bad experiences and the managers that have rejuvenated the company remain, more specifically, the company has benefits from the intellectualism of Steve Jobs. The company’s business processes, supply chain and waste management strategies, the company processes are responsive to the needs in the industry (Meinolf, Ariane, John, and Ikujiro, 2003).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Apple Inc. Managing Strategy Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One internal weakness facing the company is its business approach; called, proprietary operating system, the approach is not working well with previous PCs holders who feel that learning the operating system of the new improved MACs is difficult.
Another weakness facing the company is its pricing model, Apple uses premium-pricing model that places its commodities at a cost slightly higher than that of its competitor, although it is riding effectively on its strong brand name in the pricing mechanism, and the company is likely to loss to its competitors on basis of price.
Steve Jobs has been credited as the manager who have turned table for Apple to the good; however, the future of his innovativeness and success is threatened by his health conditions. He has just returned from a liver transplant, the condition of his heath offer a challenged to the company, as they are not sure of his continued performance (Haberbeg
Understanding and Management Diversity Essay cheap essay help
Introduction Cultural diversity refers to the range of different people we have in this universe. Some scientists argue that just as biodiversity is important to the survival of all animals in the food chain, so is biodiversity. It invokes all areas of our social activities, from employment, entertainment, educational policy, reaching into the health policies we partake of (Bledsoe, 2010 23).
Western countries are not devoid of racial profiling, in fact, most western civilizations are often seen in light of subjective criticism for not recognizing diversity of its people in its true sense as evident in crusades for diversity (Harvey, 2008 49).
Certainly looking at history, we can appreciate the importance of cultural diversity. The inventions of the early times from various social settings located in different places all over the world, give a general view of the good of several cultures brought together to form today’s great nations.
China’s invention of the compass put the western civilization in touch with other continents via navigation. We cannot fail to appreciate the invention of numbering system as discovered by the Arabs, in Arabic numerals. Spanish civilization also contributed their Mediterranean knowledge and astronomy, medical, optics and geometrical knowledge to the western world, Europe to be precise (Harvey, 2008 48).
Managing diversity We can define diversity management as organizational management procedures that help organizations respond to increasing diversity in the economic field (Brownwyn, 2009 62).
We can also define it as the intentional actions of an organization to try and create an inclusion of personnel from various backgrounds into the various organizational structures, through policies and programs that are purposeful in harmonizing the organization.
The US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (E. E. O. C.) The EEOC is an agency that concerns itself with the task of correcting wrongful discrimination from employers who seek to undermine the rights of individuals in the employment position. EEOC operates under the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It also works under the Age Discrimination mandate. A few other Acts are covered by the agency. The EEOC files suits against employees for discrimination in place of an employee. It also adjudicates federal agencies’ discrimination claims.
A broadcasting company called KOHK, with its parent company, Sinclair Broadcasting Group, was recently involved in a sex and race discrimination claim against a female staff employee, Phyllis Williams. Phyllis had worked for the company since 1996, and until August 2007, she had been subjected to unequal terms and employment conditions.
The company had paid her less than her other equally qualified male counterparts. She signed an employee contract for higher pay in August 2007, but the company had offered the same contracts to other reporters for the same channel, Fox 25.
The suit was filled by EEOC after the company’s councilors had tried to reach a pre-litigation settlement. Miss Williams went on to pursue a retaliation claim under the civil rights order. This would protect her from retaliation and discrimination from KOKH.
The broadcasting company conceded to a settlement as consideration for the latter, and a $45,000 payment for discrimination. The managers from this company have since taken all measures to prevent other suits from being filled against them. It taught them to mind the employees’ right to work in an environment that is free of race and sex discrimination (EEOC, 2011).
Different opinions held by the press release in comparison to the EEOC There is little difference in the press release as compared to the version released in the news script. Notable difference is only present in the EEOC definitions of sex discrimination and race discrimination. The definitions from the EEOC delve deeper into the sense of the word discrimination, and broadly classifies the different modes of discrimination at the workplace (EEOC, 2011).
The lawsuit between Phyllis Williams and KOKH promotes social change when it comes to work-related areas. Most other companies must have reviewed their employee privileges when the suit was aired about a week or two ago. No company would delay such a move knowing fully well how much credibility and money it stands to loose in a lawsuit.
We will write a custom Essay on Understanding and Management Diversity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The American population is comprised of a great number of whites than most other races, and looking at the history of the discrimination policy, we can see that strategies have been built to prevent such prejudicial situations from cropping up in the work environment. Being a manager involves implementing these steps and policies proposed by research institutions.
Understanding and management diversity Research shows that in the US, 38% of the African-American population felt that they were still being discriminated for their race, while 76% of the White population felt that the numbers were not reflecting the truth of the situation; they thought that racial discrimination had dropped in the last half of the last century.
Research also indicates that 46% of the African-American population thought the relationship between the two groups was improving. This can compare to a 59% White population that seems to agree with the opinion. 80% of the African-American populations believe that interracial relationships were good and acceptable to them, as did 70 % of the White population.
Other figures in the report suggested that 57% of the White population wanted to be in interracial relationships with a higher figure of 78% of the African-American population having the same views.
In this sense, it is ironical why the African-American population felt that discrimination was still prevalent in society, but according to Harvey (2008 49), it’s not the utterances and derogatory remarks, as Whites think, but according to African-Americans, the institutional policies and practices/privileges at question. That is to say, they feel it is the prejudice they feel directed to them based on their race (Harvey, 2008 46-47).
Racial disparities at the work place The Harvey (2008 50-51) suggests that 61% of whites surveyed felt they had equal job opportunities with the African-Americans while only a contrasting 12% of African Americans felt they had equal chances as the Whites. The researchers concluded that while the African Americans could hardly get a chance to be interviewed, the white applicants had a batter chance at being hired in favor of their race.
In health care Research indicates that Whites get higher quality service at the medical centers in the US for the same insurance policy as compared to the African-Americans. It also shows that doctors tend to have the opinion that African-American patients are not as intelligent and are likely to neglect medical advice.
Looking at law enforcement, we realize that the criminal justice system also applies racial profiling as a pre-judicial strategy in determining the capacity of suspects to fit the criminal profile. Statistics indicate that every year, at least 90% of African Americans who get their vehicles stopped by police are not arrested, meaning that the probability that an African-American driver whose car has been stopped is actually guilty of committing a crime lies at 10% (Harvey, 2008 52).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding and Management Diversity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The American government has embarked on an anti-discriminatory multiracial design whose essence leaves considerable room for choice regarding which country one prefers to have an allegiance to, or whom the person worships so long as they remain loyal to America.
References Bledsoe, M. T. (2010). Journal of Diversity Management. Diversity Management: Seeking Validation , 5, 23. Print
Brownwyn W., P. S. (2009). Managing Diversity: A Twenty-First Century Agenda. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations , 61-76. Print
EEOC. (2011). Sex-Based Discrimination. Retrieved from US. Equal Employment Oportunity Commission: https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sex.cfm
EEOC. (2011, March 3). Channel 25 Settles EEOC Race And Sex Bias Suit. Retrieved from US. Equal Employment Oprotunity Commission: https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/newsroom/release/3-3-11a.cfm
Harvey P., J. Allard. (2008). Understanding and Managemet Diversity (4 ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Print
Woody Allen’s “A Midsummer Night’s Sex Comedy” Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Woody Allen’s “A Midsummer Night’s Sex Comedy“ is a light comedy film about love, fate and sexual complexities that are shown in a captivating way. It is a clear representation of how love and lust entangle relationships, even friendship cannot hinder. The movie depicts the importance of time, the realization of the love that was lost and how one yearns to regain that love and hopes to have a victory over it.
The film embodies the art of comedy, which portrays how humans manage to laugh and accept the diversities of life and on how to cope with the painful experiences that somehow contribute to the character of the person. The desires to win back a girl and to delve into the love triangle because of the romantic mix-up all the way to the silly human weaknesses make the movie entertaining.
The story is rooted in the early 1900’s. It is set at the Victorian country house, home of Andrew, played by Woody Allen, where he and his wife Adrian invited two pairs of guest for their weekend getaway. The flying bicycle where Andrew is inviting Mia to meet up with him adds to the comical scene of the movie.
The atmosphere greatly blends with the romance that sparks up among the characters in the movie. The twist in the plot illustrates how the characters yearn and eye after everyone else’s partner. These explore the themes of wanting, betrayal and the sexual desires that the movie entitles the viewer to see.
The rural location, the lush scenery of the forest, the blithering brooks and clouded moons contribute to the beautiful effect of the film. These remarkable sceneries add to the modernity of the classic comedy flick.
Regardless of the American setting, the characters slightly embody the European style. The location of the movie complements with the personality of the characters and their manner of dressing which coordinates with the turn of the century apparel where women wear a long flowing Broderie Anglaise dress.
The men, on the other hand, wear white suits, suspenders and boaters that accentuate well with the women dresses. All these contribute to the artistic quality of the film.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The delivery of every dialogue in the film is clearly enunciated and express in a natural, carefree way with a mix of humor and wit. This is the reason that the comic skits have been welcome by the viewers.
The wisecrack express by the characters coordinate well with the film’s statement of a love story outreaching to the simple romance that will adequately sweep the mood of the audience and will surely consider it a timeless piece of the century.
The post world war gives birth to the suburbanization around America on the twentieth century. This is where the countryside shows significant historic resources where suburb development emerged and become an important trend. The movie showcases the best of the countryside and depicts how such historical context influences the setting and story of the movie.
Existentialism is a 20th century philosophy (Existentialism-A Philosophy. Retrieved from www.allaboutphilosophy.org / existentialism.htm) where it reasserts human individuality and to achieve a fulfilling life, which plays a great impact in the movie and gain popularity in the artistic community.
A Midsummer Night’s Sex Comedy is a classical comedy of innocence, love and lust, a clear influence of Ingmar Bergman’s to the Woody Allen’s style and gives a humorous and modern touch to Shakespeare’s “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”. Although the movie is set at the early 20th century, Woody Allen does not aim to produce a historical movie, but instead find its way to create a subtle comedy film.
Parenting’s Skills, Values and Styles Essay online essay help
Subtopic 1: Parenting Skills and Their Development
Description of Concrete Experience: I have found parenting to be a very tasking job yet important responsibility that one has in a lifetime. Unfortunately there is no formal education to guide me in parenting; all I have is a handful of literature materials on the subject. I mostly rely on the experience I received from my parents. I usually do either what they did to me or do what I felt was supposed to be done based on my personal opinion
Reflection: As a parent, rather a mother of two children it has not been an easy task trying to bring them up in the most appropriate way. There is no parenting class offered in school and the guidance given in the hospital before birth mainly focuses on the birth process. No one gives a very comprehensive guideline on how to bring up children until they become responsible adults. Most people muddle along until they make it.
As a single parent my main concern has been to try the much I can to understand my children’s behavior and give them the most appropriate guidance. Knowing that they will at one point become adolescent, I have made efforts to try and get any relevant form of training that will assist me in guiding them when the right time comes. Under the training, I learnt the different reactions of my children to people as well as different events.
Generalization/Principles/Theories: Psychologists have made efforts to research and come up with recommendation on the best parenting tactics. Parents might therefore acquire the parenting skills by going for the appropriate training.
Since the death for my husband on April 2003, it has been very challenging to parent my children singlehandedly. My children lack a father figure and this has affected them in a way.
Psychologists have recommended the best way to ensure that your children are brought up to become responsible adults. It is quite common for children raised by single parents to be seriously affected and if not well guided they might start indulging in unacceptable acts like substance abuse.
Testing and Application: I have sought help from psychologists under the family therapy program as well as the psychotherapy and this has had a great impact in helping me develop better parenting skills.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I can now understand my two children and avoid practices that are unhealthy. I have been able to adapt the best practices when it comes to matters like administering disciplinary measures to them as well as helping them avoid bad habits.
Some of the tactics I use include taking some of their privileges away, for instance, I do this through denying my son the chance to watch television, having fun at the play station, hanging out with his friends, going for skating as well as doing some spanking among other forms of instilling discipline.
For my daughter on the other hand, I do it by basically making sure that she does not get her privileges for instance, by taking away her cell phone as well as denying her the chance to watch television.
Subtopic 2: Parental Values and Attitudes That Accompany Stages in the Development of the Child
Description of Concrete Experience: I learnt that in the early stages of development, the child is in most cases preoccupied with acquisition of knowledge and values and this mainly comes from the environment from which the child brought up. This means my children behave according to the attitude that me as the parent portrays towards them.
If I have a negative attitude towards my children, they tend to behave badly because of the notion that I do not show love to them. Name calling is also a problem. When a parent constantly refers to disobedient child as naughty, there are high chances that the children will grow perceiving themselves as naughty.
This is widely known as the self fulfilling prophesies. In the same way, I have learnt to always have a positive perception towards my children. I believe that they are growing up with a better perception of themselves which is that they are good people expected to behave well.
Reflection: This tactic has worked for me. I always want my children to have a positive outlook towards life and have a high self esteem.
We will write a custom Essay on Parenting’s Skills, Values and Styles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I therefore for focus on their positive aspects and encourage them to develop positive traits instead of focusing on their shortfalls or how bad they are. I correct them by showing them the right values that I want them to acquire. I do my best to act as a role model to them hence showing them the right path to follow.
One cannot for instance expect the child to be hard working if he/she is not providing the best example for being hard working. Children basically acquire their values from the parents whether consciously or unconsciously. If the parent is a drunkard, the child is most likely to become one as that is the value that the child will have acquired.
Generalization/Principles/Theories: the Information Processing Theory of Cognitive Development explains that a child’s brain can be compared to the computer. This translates to mean that the brain accepts input and uses the same information to process the output.
The child will therefore perceive and understand issues according to the input acquired particularly from those parenting them. Whatever occurs in the physical or the social environment of the child greatly influence their expectations or understanding about life issues.
Their social, cultural or even cultural environment greatly influences their development and this is basically acquired from the adults around them. As a mother, I have a very significant role in my children’s cognitive development because they depend on what I teach them or what they learn from my conduct to develop they behavior.
Testing and Application: my children usually prefer to emulate me and other adults as they develop their own personality. In some cases, my children may play the roles of parents in their games and this allows them take responsibilities in a simulated setting making decisions and acting like responsible grown-ups.
This just shows the role that parenting plays in the cognitive development of a child. Children may for instance play games that mimic proper behavioral conduct or routine activities of those values instilled in them in the earlier years.
Children acquire logical reasoning at an early age; they are able to use deductive methods of reasoning to come up with conclusions. Such deductions are in most cases acquired from their environments. Children born in conservative families, cultures or believe systems tend to be conservative. In most cases they stick to the principles and beliefs installed in them and they are very reluctant to act or go against those beliefs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Parenting’s Skills, Values and Styles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Subtopic 3: Methods of Effective Guidance
Description of Concrete Experience: as a parent I strife to give effective guidance to my children. I feel that am obliged to use techniques that will minimize conflict between me and them children. In this endeavor punishment and discipline are two different things.
My method of guidance is developmentally appropriate because I now understand what my children want what I expect from them. A consider my children as very important members of my family. As such they need to be loved and I take up this duty to ensure better development. Just like any other child I understand that children need my love and need to know they are loved. I give them unconditional love.
As a single parent, I try to see to it that the children feel my love as they have no one else to look to when it comes to parental love. Even while implementing the disciplinary measures, I make them understand that it is for their own good as I want them to become responsible people.
Reflection: As a parent of a teenage son, it is never easy to give the appropriate guidance whenever the child has made a mistake. Most adolescents become rowdy and they may be unwilling to cooperate in different ways.
Punishing my son sometimes draws him away and he distances himself and hence making it even more difficult for me to give the needed guidance. In such cases, disciplining the child might be of greater significance than administering punishment.
The best way of fostering discipline for me has been to ensure effective communication and openness with the child and talking to him/her about the issue at hand. The method is effective and it can works for children of different ages. In most cases the results are usually positive. In fact, the child is able to contribute to the solution to his/her own problem.
Generalization/Principles/Theories: It is always good to understand the development stage a child is going through. It could be more harmful when I view my child as a failure or a letdown when it comes to the behavior. I understand that my children are still in the age bracket of learning behavior that can be termed as acceptable. As far as I see, the best guidance approach is preventive rather than curative.
This makes me to be sensitive about the feeling of my children and I respect their feelings and address bad behavioral aspects. I always seek establish the reason behind certain behaviors of my children must be established. As a parent I have developed a relationship that is supportive with my children so as to foster the guidance.
Testing and Application: there are some standard guidance approaches that are very beneficial in ensuring that children attain better self control and respect for other people.
As a parent, I have acted as a role model to my children and my zeal to learn better parenting skills has also paid off well as I have managed to keep my children obedient. They always feel loved and accepted as they are and this has helped be foster their self-concept.
I have always given them option that I know I can be able to abide by myself. I also give realistic options and sensible repercussions for defiance. Considering that some behavior come because of the environment in which people grow, I have adopted an approach that constantly changes the environment to avoid certain bad behaviors that may develop.
Subtopic 4: The Role of Discipline: Compare and Contrast Discipline with Punishment
Description of Concrete Experience: Discipline helps children to adopt acceptable ways or habits and it entails teaching good behavior and rebuking bad behavior. Punishment on the other hand is reprimanding bad behavior with aim of preventing such behavior in future or deterrence of unacceptable conduct.
It’s often a parent’s way of reacting to anger. It is a hurtful act that helps to prevent the child from committing the mistake although this is short lived. I know that punishment does not give any guidance to the children but could precipitate into unhealthy relationship between the parent and the child. Punishment is not the best option for in trying to correct my children.
My children need to learn appropriate behavior in a positive way and punishment is just a short-lived remedy to the problem of wrongdoing. Children who are punished may in the long run become very different people as compared to those disciplined.
Reflection: Discipline plays a very significant role in a child’s development. It is meaningful to a child as it enables him/her to rectify the mistake and points to the right thing to do. The child feels appreciated and he/she becomes part of the solution to the problem at hand.
Punishment on the other hand does not show the child what to do. The child is left to feel that he/she is bad. It might in fact have nothing to do with the mistake. It does not make sense to the child.
Generalization/Principles/Theories: In disciplining, I take the position of a role model hence a guide to my children by being a good example to them. In punishment however, I am the judge over the misconduct and I pass the judgment to them by inflicting pain like grounding them, denying them television, taking away their computer games, telephone and for my son sometimes spanking. After one is disciplined, the person feels motivated while punishment results in the demoralization of the subject.
Testing and Application: Punishment might be administered by inflicting pain to the offender or denying them something and this is usually effective because children attach so much value to things like TV and computer games.
However, the only problem is that it may leave negative feeling that as a parent I do not love them 100%, its therefore a great challenge trying to let them know that I punish them because I love them.
In my case for instance, I use both denying of privileges as well as spanking while trying to correct my children’s behavior and they change their behavior and even ask for forgiveness. Whenever the children fail to comply by the discipline I offer, then they become liable for some punishment.
I use both discipline and punishment to ensure that my children will grow to become responsible members of the society. My discipline approach encompasses training and imparting proper knowledge while punishment is mainly inflicting pain, emotional and physical.
Subtopic 5: Constructive and Destructive Elements in Parenting Styles
Description of Concrete Experience: Parenting can be both constructive as well as destructive. Those elements of parenting that are constructive should be encouraged while the destructive ones should be discouraged.
Some of the constructive ones might include; building a good rapport between the children and the parent, reinforcing the desired behavior and letting the children understand the consequences of bad behavior. Punishment is just one of the destructive parenting elements. Here pain or agony is inflicted to the child so as to force them to stop a negative behavior. It might be in form or corporal punishment or verbal reprimand.
Reflection: Discipline coupled with guidance tends to be very beneficial when reinforcing good behavior and this is precisely much of what I use.
Many people know that parents must act as role models so as to instill the desired values into their children. Reprimands if not well used or targeted at a given character might just result in reinforcing the negative character as it gives the child the attention.
In some cases the child might feel slandered and develop a negative attitude. This is the reason why I show a lot of affection to KA and ZA and make use positive reinforcements so as to encourage positive behavior rather than punitive measures. A good relationship makes my children feel more secure and therefore are always willing to comply with my parenting manipulation of their behavior.
Generalization/Principles/Theories: Authoritarian Parenting style is based strict rules and being in charge. The parents using this strategy seek to take total control of all the aspects of their children’s lives. Parent hence institute stringent rules, they are inflexible, unbending and strict. Such parent can be said to use ‘iron rod’ in ruling their children.
Defiance of the rules leads to punishment and the relationship between the parents and the children lacks warmth and affection. Children cannot develop ability to think well as parents do not explain reason behind the rules and they have problems of expressing themselves.
The permissive parenting style is the approach where parents are more loving and the parents do not strive to take control but allow their children to be in charge of their behavior. Parents do not usually institute a lot of rules and even the few that ate set are often lenient.
Parents require their children to develop critical thinking skills to know that bad behavior is harmful to self and others. Children are not often punished because parents fear that they may cause harm or the children would be offended and develop negative attitudes towards them. These parents are kind and loving but problem could escalate when children’s behavior becomes more rebellious requiring strong reprimand.
The democratic parenting styles employ a model that seems to be having permissive and authoritarian attributes. Democratic parents only enforce rules they deem very necessary and are also liberal in dealing with situations. These parents are loving and firm in their stance and are able to strike a good balance between high and low expectations.
This style allows parents and children to work together towards common goals and consequently, the children will grow to love their parents and revere their guidance. Children will grow to become more responsible and this is why I have adopted this parenting style.
Testing and Application: as a parent I have been more consistent as this reduces resistance on the side of my children. My parenting style has developed a harmonious relationship between me as a parent and my two children.
Consequently I often get positive results at the end. The parent needs to be flexible and be willing to listen and negotiate with the child especially if he/she is an adolescent. This reduces resistance and the child feels appreciated hence developing positive judgment. The parent needs to set behavior limits.
The parent must be ready to reward positive or desirable behavior and help the child in developing self discipline. Eliminating negative behavior without reinforcing positive ones might not be that effective. The parent might also deny the child some privileges like taking the phone from the child, denying the child driving privileges, not allowing them to go out with their friends among other strategies.
Subtopic 6: The Challenges to Responsible and Effective Parenting Presented By Contemporary Society
Description of Concrete Experience: The situation in which the society is in today has brought a lot of challenges to parenting. These challenges are increasing becoming more prevalent because of the characteristics of the society as being sophistication. As long as parenting is in the realm of the society, its implication can hence be overlooked. Accordingly, the societal challenges of parenting greatly vary based on individual. Having the knowledge of these challenges have made me better prepared to seek for means or reacting adequately as to be a good parent.
Parenting effectively in the contemporary society is a very challenging task. Most people have drifted away from the ancient ways of parenting. Today’s children are exposed to all forms of media which tends to influence their moral perceptions. They are also prone to the peer pressure and drug abuse. It is therefore not an easy task to instill discipline or good morals to these children.
Reflection: Today’s parents are expected to work so as to carter for their families. They therefore spend most of their time at the workplace and have very little time with the children. It seems as though most of the children today interact more with technology than with their parents.
Children therefore lack role models and they tend to emulate the celebrities. The children today mature faster and become sexually active at a very early age and they are likely to indulge in sexual activities even before their right time comes.
The influence of the society is the main challenge in that as a parent I have been forced to put into considerations the developing norms of the society like allowing my children access to internet and their privacy. Basically I seek to ensure that as much as I try to uphold social and moral rules, I do not end up exposing my children to negative social influence. As such I encourage religious and moral uprightness.
Generalization/Principles/Theories: a major challenge that parents face is having difficult children. These are the type of children who seem to be very hard to control or offer guidance to. This can spark violence as parents seek to take drastic actions to correct their children. As a parent, I seek to do this job with love and temperament and natural understanding.
In the contemporary world, teenage parenting is very taxing because the teenagers are ambitious and exposed to too much information because of the societal sophistication in information technology.
This involves a lot of maturity and I strive to warn my teenage son to be careful on what he watches, reads, and the friends he keep. I have made my children know that my role is to shape their future and not jeopardize their wellbeing.
Because of job demands, I have sometimes failed to attend to what my children do during the day when am not around but I am confident that they would not misbehave on such grounds. I work hard do all the things I deem necessary for my children and I strife to spend much time with them as possible.
Testing and Application: as a single parent, the contemporary society puts much pressure on an individual because naturally a child needs to have a mother and a father. This is the most prevalent challenge in parenting today because the number of signal parent is increasing and is caused by various reasons.
Children brought up by signal parent are thought to be spoilt and irresponsible because of the imbalance of parenting during their upbringing. I understand the impact of teenage behaviors including peer influence, risk of early sexual behavior and risk of drug abuse.
As a parent I learn to stay with my children to help unlearn whatever bad habits they picked from friends or other bad influencers. I use the knowledge of the contemporary challenges to help me finds the best ways of responding properly to these challenges.
Professional Learning Conversation in the Chinese Educational Setting Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction The field of education is the subject of continuous improvement and advancement in any country of the world; every state realizes that education of the growing generation at all levels assists in building the competitive advantage of the future labor force of the state.
Therefore, there has always been agile interest and attention in the ways that can help the state education system develop and improve, providing both teachers and students with increased opportunities and resources for studying. There are multiple approaches to advancement in education, but the need for it is always evident at any stage of its progress.
Educational research offers numerous ways of improvement and introduction of change and reformation into the very educational process. Various researchers have varying approaches to the roles given to teachers and students in this process, as well as much controversy exists about the roles of policy-makers and administrators of educational establishments in the provision of reforms.
However, the role of data and research evidence seeks unified agreement on its exceptional importance; there is no ability to generate a change in any field in case no benchmark data are available, and the directions, objectives, and priorities of the change are not stipulated.
Therefore, the evidence-based research and improvement introduced by Day, Sachs, Earl, and Timperly (2008) may serve as a wonderful contribution to the educational process’ improvement in the Chinese settings.
The need for a change is dictated by the low achievement levels, low competitiveness of students, and the prevailing conservative culture of learning characterized by conformity and collectivism typical for the Chinese settings.
Therefore, the change should be comprehensive and over-grasping, provided the deep nature of the Chinese culture of learning that will be very hard to change in case some stakeholders do not get involved. The professional evidence-based conversations are likely to introduce the improvement of perception by teachers and administrators; however, they have a much wider potential for application.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As one can see, the professional conversations may lead teachers to realizing the ways for their self-improvement, and may show how they can interact with students in a much better and more efficient way. Thus, teachers will first address their internal imperfections, dealing with the change in the classroom afterwards.
The present approach is quite revolutionary since it makes the teachers have a deeper, critical look at what they do and how they do it, understanding whether they do everything right. The peer support and collective analysis of tasks as well as its result seen in the finished works of students are likely to provide the comprehensive analytical viewpoint into the current work done for students.
Sometimes one can realize that it is not the standard of teaching that needs reforming, but the understanding of this standard by teachers, and consequently by students, is wrong and non-compliant with the objectives.
Therefore, the professional conversation approach promises to become a viable alternative for improvement in the Chinese educational settings. Some potentially beneficial traits of the present approach will be discussed in more detail in the present argumentative paper.
The Role of Professional Learning Conversations in the Chinese Educational Setting The pieces of advice provided by Day et al. (2008) are highly persuasive as to the role of professional evidence-based conversations in the improvement of the learning process. However, upon a thorough investigation of the offered text, one can arrive at a conclusion that all research findings pertain to the schools of the USA, Canada, and Europe, thus requiring some allowances and alterations once applied in China.
One can note that the Chinese educational system is centralized and highly unified, but at the same time there are many differences between the northern and southern, rural and urban school settings that have to be considered when planning a change. More than that, the authors themselves emphasize the need not to accept the external change recommendations slavishly, but to assess them critically, and tailor them to every unique educational setting (Day et al., 2008).
Patterns of the Chinese learning process. There is much useful material that can be taken from my personal experiences, interactions between teachers and students, and the culturally specific gaps cause discrepancies between the stipulated educational goals and the real-life outcomes.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Professional Learning Conversation in the Chinese Educational Setting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More First of all, one has to remember that the Chinese classroom feels the deep influence of the socio-economic situation in the country. The urban families are allowed to have only one child due to the critical demographic situation and overpopulation in the country.
Therefore, children mostly grow alienated as they have no brothers or sisters; parents want the best for their only child, making Chinese children spoiled and whimsical. For this reason the Chinese schools place so much emphasis on discipline, conformity, attention, and respect.
Collective work is also of central importance in the Chinese educational system, making a deep influence on the consecutive life and work of all Chinese, making them a deeply collective nation without any roots of encouraging individualism. These trends have to be taken seriously when discussing the potential of professional conversations’ implementation in the Chinese classrooms.
In addition, the high competition of Chinese employees in their own labor market calls for extreme obedience and hard work in the educational period. Only the best will find good, respectable workplaces, which means that the children should receive the best education and should take the most of it in order to succeed in further life.
Thus, the teacher takes a central position in the classroom, instructing from his/her careful and clear models, showing how to learn and what to learn, and attracting uniform attention and concentration – these are the basic requirements to students during the instruction process.
The conclusion can be made that the difference in progress may be caused by the individual characteristics of students, and not the approach to studies.
The present observations and reflections about the Chinese system of education may reveal some issues in which additional attention towards professional conversations can be brought. It is obvious that discipline is appreciated above all in the classroom, and the students rarely engage in conversations or ask questions as there is lack of interactivity in the Chinese learning environment.
The main demand from a teacher is to respect, obey, and pay attention, while students are mostly concerned with having a teacher knowledgeable in the subject and representing a good moral example.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Professional Learning Conversation in the Chinese Educational Setting by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The present overview of the specificity the Chinese classroom has in contrast to American and European educational settings, one can make several conclusions as to implementation of Day et al’s (2008) suggestions regarding the professional conversations and their effect on the educational process.
One cannot disregard the fact that usage of relevant accurate data for making decisions on the educational change, and the critical insight into the evidence collected are indispensible in any settings. However, the emphasis on individual help for students experiencing challenges in education is quite irrelevant for the Chinese system of collective approach (Day et al., 2008).
More than that, it is highly improbable for the students of China to adopt a critical, communicative approach to studies. The reasons for pitfalls in education have to be searched for primarily in the teachers’ field since the change derives from them, and never from the students who mainly act as passive consumers of the educational process.
The elements of professional learning conversations applicable for Chinese teachers. The first major advantage offered by Day et l. (2008) is the opportunity to generate innovative solutions from the combination of explicit and implicit knowledge in response to authentic problems in education.
The evidence-based conversations represent a continuous mental inquiry process that examines evidence and its meaning in the definite context (in this case – the educational situation). Hence, the educators in China can follow the path proposed by the authors – to collect data, to interpret evidence, and to generate conclusions in the peer discussion thereof (Day et al., 2008).
More than that, the critical evaluation and discussion may help understand what is wrong about the teacher’s style of instruction, perception of materials etc. These reviews may help initiate an internal change that may be more effective than attracting any external change standards and recommendations.
The main constructive proposition that Day et al. (2008) have for educators engaging in improvement is to use relevant data. This piece of advice seems highly helpful for any educational setting, since the data-based change is much more effective. It is possible to collect data on a continuous basis (for several years, as it has been shown on a practical example in Chapter 4) (Day et al., 2008).
Identification of the problem and purposes connected with its solution that is sought in the process of improvement, determination of the data needed for the generation of solution, and the detailed analytical discussion of alternatives with the consideration of the target audience – this is a potentially effective tool for the improvement and advancement effort for any student group, any audience, in any socio-cultural context (Day et al., 2008).
It is not the audience, but the very improvement process that becomes the subject of concern under these circumstances.
The professional conversation arranged in a systematic basis (i.e. a protocol-based conversation) for educators in a particular school has a practically unlimited potential for Chinese policy-makers and administrators.
As one can see from Chapter 3, the protocol-based conversations instigate educators for the critical appraisal of each other’s work, for the collective discussion of certain criteria, explanations, guidelines, and models that teachers utilize in their instruction process. As it comes from the idea of day et al. (2008), the teacher’s requirements, in case they are insufficient, lead to the insufficient level of task completion by the students.
Therefore, the core problem in the current teaching process is the level of competence, clarity of materials, and explicit instruction that teachers provide for students (even if it is not the main problem current education faces nowadays, it is still one of the dominant causes thereof).
More than that, the protocol-based conversation is practically the only way to receive data about the connection between low student progress and the quality of instruction.
As it has already been mentioned, one of the aching problems for Chinese education is that students did not ask questions, and were non-responsive, obeying and respecting the teacher but not getting involved in the communication process.
Therefore, teachers can assess their instructional materials, correlate them with the students’ works, and clarify whether they have provided students with maximum clarity and transparency of requirements, or they have to improve their tasks first, and then put reduced marks for non-understanding or non-compliance with them.
The essence of leadership in establishing the professional communication flow in the Chinese settings. Establishing leadership in the introduction of professional communication models such as the professional conversations discussed by Day et al. (2008) is also highly important for China.
The reason for this is that Chinese schools have to comply with the tough standards imposed on the nationwide scale, and any non-compliance is regarded as inability to meet the national standards.
Therefore, the engagement of administrators and policy-makers in the process of organizing and conducting the professional conversation meetings is likely to have a much higher effect on the productivity of this method’s implementation.
Proper Usage of Data in the Chinese Settings to Introduce the Evidence-Based Change and Improvement As Day et al. (2008) indicate, education of the 21st century is full of uncertainty, surprises, and rapid changes that determine the need for improvement and alignment of educational goals with the cultural, social, economic, and individual needs of students as well as other stakeholders of the educational process.
To effectively meet the challenge of uncertainty, educators engaged in the educational change should indeed collect relevant data and statistics. It is true that there is always a danger of misinterpretation, but special attention should be paid to this research-related issue, as only statistics and pure data can enable researchers to make correct decisions.
There is much data on the Chinese students’ progress, their scores at schools and the entry scores for colleges and universities; therefore, there is a great body of evidence to implement the relevant data analysis for the consequent analysis will peers during the professional conversations.
Surely, the presence of a leader, an outside expert or an administrator is essential in this case, as outside data may well be outside the scope of a regular educator’s understanding. Here assistance in correct interpretation may be necessary and helpful.
Conclusion As one can see from the present paper, the approach to change and improvement in education is quite accomplishable for the Chinese urban educational settings.
Teachers and students correlate and communicate with each other on a different level in China than in American and European countries, as here much more emphasis is made on subordination, respect, and obedience, while Western countries cultivate the communicative approach and multi-faceted collaboration between educators and students.
However, the findings of Day et al. (2008) about the usefulness of professional conversations, the application of protocols for peer staff meetings, and the involvement of leaders from the administrative staff seem highly valuable for China as well as for any other country.
The revolutionary content of the professional conversation approach to change is that educators are encourages to assess their own success critically, and interact for the sole aim – to give the best to their students, to achieve the highest level of competence in teaching, and to exercise instruction as clearly ad transparently as they can for their students to achieve educational goals.
Speaking about these contributing powers the professional conversations bring to the peer communication of educators, one may state that the approach is truly innovative and potentially beneficial.
There is obviously a risk that teachers will not be as eager to confess in their imperfection as to accuse students of non-compliance with their standards. Nonetheless, the approach seems to bring effective changes for both teachers and students, which should be tried on a comprehensive, continuous basis for the sake of overall advancement.
References Day, C., Sachs, J., Earl, L.M.,
Symbolism in play The Minister’s Black Veil by Nathaniel Hawthorne Explicatory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Nathaniel Hawthorne has primarily used symbolism in his work as a style of narrative maneuver. A symbol like the black color has been used to denote the veil itself. It is a symbol of evil and secret sin of humanity. The veil representation has been commonly used to illustrate fear of the unknown and the rigidity in the puritan society. Besides, the typical nuance veil has rested in the somatic and conceptual disadvantage that it establishes, amid the minister and his brethren and the shame that it articulates.
Hawthorne (89) describes that the congregation trust that the exterior exhibits offers evidence in regard to a person’s essential features, thus his or her incredible comportment. Hence by embracing the veil, the minister diminishes the authority on which the faithful can accurately envisage his conduct.
This causes isolation of the minister with his congregation, although he is made reckless already by simple action of wearing the veil. Fragment of the terrifying effect of veil descends from consciousness (Meyer, 65).
The consciousness alludes that the other person is capable of seeing without being identified or seen himself. This is illustrated by members of the congregation when they say “the most blameless girl and the man of cynical breast sensed as if the minister had crept on them. Behind this dreadful veil, revealed their amassed unfairness of deed (Hawthorne, 113)
As the congregation cannot aptly predict where the minister is gazing, they trust and assume that they are being watched diligently than normal. This hypothesis is reinforced by the theme of the discourse, which “had typified furtive evil and the miserable secrecies which people skin from the rest of society”.
Hence, the ministers exemplify the responsibility of “God”, whose probing examination can decode secret mystery of an individual of the soul. Equally, the wearing of the veil is a signal of being guilty. As a classic illustration for the society, the minister accordingly infers that individuals have to accept the same.
The minister criticizes the people by being chauvinistic and fallen from the philosophy of ethics. They are extremely concerned, with the growing power drilled over them in embracing shared uniqueness of Puritan America. This is apparent in fundamental battle amid the people and society (Hawthorne, 79).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Minister’s black veil symbol can also be illustrated clearly on the universal variance between puritanism and sensitivity, which is the attitude that hominid are dualistic; they have inherent, evil side and an internalized, moralistic side.
Rendering to this set of conjecture, the “Evil or darkness” as described by Hawthorne, we can infer that darkness is a natural part of an individual (Hawthorne, 97).
The Minister recognizes the evil in him and formulates alternatives to curb obstacles that can preserve his sentient character from intolerable and suppressed self. This obstacle is embodied in the veil (Meyer, 104).
It is subsequently transferred as a reflection of clandestine sin. The congregation epitomizes the cognizant of the persona, which entails the ethics and tenets verbalized by humanity. To evade frightening acuities from inflowing cognizance, they embrace multiple instruments. The multiplicity of these shield instruments is illustrated by the antiphons of minister’s homily (Hawthorne, 3).
Various people search for means of appraising the situation, as in case, the existence of others. Others find a way to befuddle themselves from their feelings, by talking and laughing loudly. Other people dismiss or refute their feeling of the situation.
Conclusion Symbols in Hawthorne’s play, The Minister’s Black Veil illustrate the impenetrable obstacle existing in all human souls. The point illustrated by the symbols alludes that every individual should accept his or her “black veil” (Meyer, 123). However, if we humans are contented in accepting the evil in them, there is a concern to come when individuals will be compelled to put aside their veils.
Works Cited Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Minister’s Black Veil, Iowa: Perfection Learning, 2007
We will write a custom Essay on Symbolism in play The Minister’s Black Veil by Nathaniel Hawthorne specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Meyer, Michael. The Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing, London: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007
Demand: Utility and Marginality Essay argumentative essay help
In the context of your firm, discuss two factors that would increase your demand for labor It is undeniable that most firms require labor to produce output. In this case, they can not produce any output without using labor. As a matter of fact, the number of workers that an organization will hire is an important decision that needs to be critically evaluated and looked at for long term sustainability.
The number of workers is important because it affects the costs and profits that a given organization will get (Head, 2005, p. 12). Therefore, it should be known that there are important factors that will affect and increase the demand for labor. In this case, the firm can not increase its labor force unless these underlying factors are existent.
The demand for labor will be increased by a high market demand for the company’s output and products. When a company’s output and products are on high demand, it means that production has to be increased. A firm can not increase its production with its current number of employees and this means that more workers will be hired to correspond with the increase in demand for its products.
Another factor that can lead to an increase in the demand for labor is the firms’ expansion (Budd, 2004, p. 19). If the company is expanding, it will need to hire more workers who will be in charge of its new ventures. This is quite obvious because every company must expand as time goes by and this means that it will have to increase its labor force.
If the market price of the good or service that your firm produces increases, what would happen to your demand of labor? If the market price of the good or service that a firm produces increases, there will be a notable impact on the demand for labor. In this case, the company’s products will be fetching good money in the market and this means that revenues will increase.
When a company’s products are attracting a good market price, it will always want to increase sales through an intensified production of goods and services (Head, 2005, p. 23). In this case, the market price can increase because there is a large demand for the goods and services.
Every firm would want to get the best price for its products and this is the only opportunity to get as much sales as they can. The only way that the company can achieve this is to hire more workers that will enable it to satisfy and meet this increase in demand.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it can not occur that should the market price of the goods or services increase, the company will embark on reducing its work force. It only arguments well that if the market price increases, a firm should respond by hiring more workers (Budd, 2004, p. 29). In this case, the demand for labor will increase and go up.
What specific skills do you think your workers should have? Why is this important? Workers should have specific skills that will enable them to accomplish their tasks without any problem. This is necessary for them to go about their activities. Workers should have communication skills because they are critical in any business (Budd, 2004, p. 45). In this case, they should be able to listen and communicate well with others.
It is good for workers to have leadership and management skills in any organization. These skills will enable them to take charge of themselves and other co-workers and thereby discharge their duties well. Teamwork is an important skill that every worker needs.
This is because there might be areas where workers are needed to work together as a group in the accomplishment of various tasks (Budd, 2004, p. 71). In this case, a worker should be in a position to work with others in a professional way and manner. This will enable them to accomplish their tasks and goals without any problem.
Reference List Budd, J, W. (2004). Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice. New York: Cornell University Press.
Head, S. (2005). The New Ruthless Economy: Work and Power in the Digital Age. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Utility and Marginality Compare and Contrast Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Wage Determination in Labor Markets
The Diamond-Water Paradox and athletes’ salaries
Athletes’ Salaries and Pricing of sporting events
Introduction The classical economist, Adam Smith, presented the diamond-water paradox theory in academic circles. Concisely, the diamond-water paradox theory refers to the outright contradiction that, despite water being more useful for human survival than diamonds, the latter is highly priced in the market.
Blaug (1962) observes that, Adam Smith had presented this theory based on value, which in this context had two meanings: value in use and value in exchange. Water has a higher value in use since it is more essential for human survival than diamonds (p.17). However, since water is readily available in almost all human habitats, it has lower/little value in exchange.
On the other hand, diamond is very scarce; therefore, most people would be willing to give more money in its exchange than water, making it a very expensive commodity. Adam Smith’s presentation of the theory later came under criticism because the comparison being between heterogeneous commodities could have been explained better by the concept of marginal utility, which he had ignored.
Wage Determination in Labor Markets Marginality is a term used for reference to a commodity pricing process that is neither based on the usefulness (total Utility) nor the amount of labor expended for production, but rather on its marginal utility.
Marginal utility can be explained by assuming a rational consumer will consume commodities A and B in such a combination as to derive maximum utility. Further, consumption of any additional unit by the consumer marginal utility derived would be smaller. This phenomenon (reducing marginal utility) is known as diminishing marginal utility.
Since water is readily available, its average consumption per person is relatively high, hence results in low marginal utility. Diamond, on the other hand, is scarce; therefore, the average consumption of diamond per person is very low and resulting to a high marginal utility. Due to its high marginality, many people are willing to pay a higher price for diamonds than for water.
A further scenario that has greatly drawn attention is the paradox of value in the fields of sport and that of noble professions such as teaching. Teachers, in any part of the world, receive very low salaries for their highly esteemed service to the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the contrary, sportsmen draw fat paychecks for mere entertainment, a service that society would comfortably live in its absence. The question, however that arises is as to whether this pricing gaps between the two commodities is justifiable. Ensuing is a discussion on the two professions and the factors that lead to such a lift in the market pricing.
Several factors determine the wage levels in the labor market. Atchison, Belcher, and Thomsen classified the factors that influence wages in the market into four categories: “economic, institutional, behavioral, and equity considerations” (2000, p.50). Economic factors refer to the general market forces of supply and demand.
Economic factors would perhaps offer a quick explanation as to why a teacher would get a much lower pay than a professional athlete; the teaching industry has more labor supply than the athletics industry therefore the athlete can easily bargain a higher salary than that a teacher.
In addition, when one considers the institutional ability and willingness to pay, again it becomes evident that the athletics profession would pay highly since it brings in high revenues as compared to the teaching profession. For instance, the typical sources of revenue for the athletics sport would include ticket sales, commission from food sales, advertisements, sale of broadcasting rights, and sale of branded merchandise.
The overall revenue collected is usually a huge amount and given the low numbers of athletes then the paycheck is a huge sum of money. On the other hand, the number of teachers is very big and the source of revenues is usually limited to payments from students as well as the budgetary allocations by the government.
Given the limited revenues, the teacher has no option but to accept a lower pay than an athlete does. Behavioral factors for wage determination that include competition in the industry play a key role in wage determination. Whereas competition is not a key consideration for a teacher, competition is a key determinant for an athlete, which then means that the teaching discipline would be more congested than the athletics’.
Lastly, the principles of equity as a factor of wage determination, dictates that the revenues available be disseminated equitably among the players, which leaves the teacher with a lower average pay than the athlete because of low revenues.
We will write a custom Essay on Utility and Marginality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Diamond-Water Paradox and athletes’ salaries Paradox of value theory as stated above refers to a scenario where a commodity that is seen to as essential to human life is lowly priced, whereas a commodity of little value to human life is highly priced. Teaching is a service that is very important to society as a teacher is the porter who molds the pupil’s future.
On the other hand, a sportsman at best would offer just entertainment to society. Despite the great role a teacher plays in shaping the society’s future, the teacher earns significantly lower pay than a sportsperson.
As elucidated above, the major explanation for the huge gap in pricing of the two commodities is neither the labor input nor total utility but marginal utility. Whereas a teacher would reach to a very few students (low marginality) sportsman on the other hand, would reach an enormous number of his fans (high Marginality).
Athletes’ Salaries and Pricing of sporting events Questions arise as to the connection between the huge salaries for athletics and the pricing of sporting events. Landsburg (2000) stated that “it’s not his salary that raises the ticket but his ability to raise ticket prices.”
An athlete commands a large base of fans that in most cases is willing to reward his/her rare abilities and skills by buying the ticket. In addition, the purchase of the highly priced ticket for a sporting event is purely the consumer’s choice and no one can take away such discretion (Murray, 2002, p.26).
Another reason that influences the pricing is market supply and demand forces; given the high demand and limited supply of the sporting event, naturally the prices adjust to bring market operations to a state of equilibrium. The sporting profession has continued to reward its players attractively over the years.
In baseball, for example, currently the highly paid player is Alex Rodriguez of New York who earns an average pay of $33 million per year. Therefore, the high salaries of athletes do not raise prices of the sporting events; fans are willing to pay the high prices to enjoy what athletes have to offer and this has in effect increased players’ salaries.
The Conclusion The Diamond-water Paradox theory puts forth the generalization and a solid pricing strategy based on marginality and utility. It posits that it is not the total utility (usefulness of diamonds or water) that matters, but the marginal utility (usefulness of each unit of Diamond or Water).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Utility and Marginality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In my personal view, the hiring practice of sportsmen should not be regulated since the field has natural regulatory forces that precipitate the best sports teams of the time. Therefore, regulations are not necessary.
References Atchison, T., Belcher, D.,
Importance of Involving Employees in the Decision Making Process Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Benefits of Participative Decision Making
Introduction As Miller (2001, p.1) argues, involving employees in the decision making process is one of the primary methods of motivating employees as it will encourage active participation and dedication to duties.
In any organization setting, the level of motivation in employees is one of the primarily determinants of an organization’s level of success, because the business and financial position of a business is primarily dependent on the amount of work output from employees.
In addition, encouraging active participation of employees in the decision making process is a show of how much an organization is committed to the welfare of its employees.
On the other hand, because in a cohort of workers each employee has different talents, involving them in the decision making process will encourage formulation of better and innovative ideas that may help to improve an organization’s level of work output.
Although this can be a daunting task to manage, because of differences that may exist between employees; hence, each may want something else for an organization; collaborative decision making is something that is possible if it is well planned and implemented.
Therefore, involving employees in the decision making process is not only management philosophy, but also it is a leadership principle that is meant to help an organization to achieve its strategic goals and maximize its employees’ potentials.
Benefits of Participative Decision Making One primary benefit of encouraging employees to participate in the decision making process is that, this management orientation can help to expand the level of success of an entity. Since in an organization every employee is talented differently, active involvement of employees will help to shape a team’s decisions and encourage the formulation and implementation of more innovative ideas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, because collaborative participation encourages the sharing of ideas, collective bargaining, and collaborative problem solving, most employees will always be passionate about implementing any agreed upon idea. This in turn will promote the level of success of any agreed upon idea, as every employee will be motivated towards achieving it.
Although it is very hard to have a consensus in most working scenarios, because of the numerous differences that may exist between employees, adoption of good managerial policies is the only solution needed for these like cases (Mir, 2010, p.1).
Another advantage of involving employees in the decision making process is that, not only does this management orientation create a positive energy in an organization, but it also motivates employees. The level of motivation in employees is one of the primary determinants of an organization’s level of success.
Encouraging collaborative decision making is a way of showing that an organization is concerned with its employees’ affairs, as they are the primary assets of an organization. In addition, this management philosophy is very important for an organization in scenarios where problems arise in the implementation process, as it will limit conflicts between employers and employees or between employees and management teams.
This like a scenario results primarily because; no employees can revolt against ideas they helped to formulate and implement (Dolatabadi
Safety in the military workplace Essay college essay help near me
Military bases are perhaps the most unsafe areas, in terms of accidents, both accidental and planned. This is mainly due to the kind of equipment that is found in such bases. Accidents and incidences may also arise due to the fact that the military is used to violence.
In some military bases, officers have reportedly engaged themselves in reckless shooting sprees, shooting everyone on sight as a result of their personal problems. Other incidents like weapons accidents like bomb detonations have also occurred in several military bases. The bases are also not an exception when it comes to vehicle accidents, fire accidents, contagious diseases, equipment losses etcetera.
Despite this, measures can be carried out to ensure that the military workplace is safe, and that incidences are substantially reduced. This paper is an exploration of the safety measures that can be taken to reduce incidences and accidents in the military workplace.
One of the measures that can be taken to improve military workplace safety is the implementation of strict guidelines for investigation and reporting of accidents. This will ensure that disgruntled officers do not perpetrate acts of violence on their fellow officers.
It is also of essence for the army to have a safety program that outlines policies, procedures and responsibilities that have been developed for preserving the resources of the army. This is aimed at ensuring that resources do not get lost, and also providing a platform for conflict resolution in the case of theft of resources.
There should also be strict guidelines on the contracting processes used in acquiring army equipment. This will ensure that the materials procured for the army are in good condition, and thus they will not cause accidents. Also of essence is the implementation of strict control measures to reduce the likelihood of spread of diseases among army officers. Emergency treatment measures should also be planned in order to respond swiftly to any outbreak.
Of, arguably, more importance is the efficient management of explosive equipment. This will ensure that explosive equipment do not cause accidents, planned or unplanned, within the military bases.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is also a need to have fire fighting materials in the military bases. This will be very instrumental in mitigating losses incurred in case of a fire.
Officers should also be appropriately trained on response measures in times of accidents to make them able to mitigate losses incurred in case an accident occurs. Examples of such skills include fire fighting skills, first aid skills, or even vehicle accident response strategies.
Despite the aforementioned need for military base safety measures, many military bases still operate under very risky conditions. On main safety fault military bases commit is the fact that they base most of their operations on trust among the officers.
This is very dangerous since sometimes some disgruntled officers may decide to go on suicide or revenge missions that may leave a number of their colleagues dead.
Additionally, a military base in which explosives can be accessed by a number of officers will be unsafe for the military officers, because the officers who can access the explosives may misbehave, or even handle them carelessly.
As evidenced in the discussion above, safety is a very important element of the military workplace. Policy makers and planners of military activities should ensure that they take sufficient measures to ensure the protection of officers involved in military activities.
Otherwise, it will be very unfortunate if officers become casualties of mediocre safety planning. All in all, the military workplace is very sensitive as far as safety is concerned, and thus every military base should be protected from potential risks to safety.
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Social and Ethnic Diversity in the Movies Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Nature of multicultural societies
The application of sociological concepts to the movie Crash
The representation of multicultural issues in media and society
Introduction Disregarding the proclaimed principles of constitutional multiculturalism, racial discrimination still exists on various levels in modern American society. Winning Oscars, the 2004 film Crash directed by Paul Haggis sheds light upon the problems of racial profiling in media and society of present day Los Angeles, pursuing the goal of showing the inappropriateness of racial prejudices.
Nature of multicultural societies The strains of multiculturalism presuppose certain challenges to legal and social dimensions of life in any community. The instances of racial discrimination in multicultural Los Angeles are revealed in the movie Crash which demonstrates the controversy between the legislative proclamations of democratic societies and their practical implications in everyday situations.
Regardless of the constitutional multiculturalism of modern democratic societies proclaiming equal rights for all citizens, the discriminating of the minorities still occurs at various levels. In fact, discrimination is built so deep into the institutional system, that the discriminating not always are aware of the wrongness of their actions (Henslin 2010). The differences in racial origin and religious beliefs frequently predetermine the superior attitude towards the representatives of the minor ethnic groups.
The belief in biological inferiority of certain racial groups is frequently used for justifying their exploitation and discrimination which can have various forms. For example, there are a wide range of racism forms in present day societies, including institutional, systemic, societal, interpersonal and everyday forms of racism.
The first three forms are rooted deep into the community paradigm and predetermine the accustomed patterns of the racialized order established on a state level, while the last two forms, namely the interpersonal and everyday forms reflect the human factor as the underlying cause and the consequence of institutionalized racism in modern multicultural societies. The plot of the movie Crash is based upon explicit examples of everyday and interpersonal racism.
The application of sociological concepts to the movie Crash Narrating the interconnected lives of 15 American within the frames of 36 hours, the film sheds light upon the politics and dominating mood of racial representations in present day America.
The title of the movie cannot be perceived literally, and implies not only the car accident in one of the opening episodes of the film, but also the confrontation of interests and life views among the representatives of various racial groups.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, at the very beginning of the movie, the Los Angeles detectives Graham Waters and Ria discuss the philosophical issues of the decay of community feeling in the urbanized society but this lyrical mood disappears after they arrive at the site of the car accident and hear two women screaming racial offenses to each other.
The ethnocentric views of the participants of the accident broaden the context of the situation, shifting the emphasis towards their racial stereotypes, while the situation itself reveals the racial inequality in the community.
The racial profiling, the corresponding racial stereotypes in the representatives of both majority and minority ethnic groups had a significant impact upon the formation of life views and social perspectives of the characters of the movie.
The situations depicted in the movie demonstrate the inappropriateness of the widely spread racial prejudices based on beliefs in inferiority of biological race.
It is significant that for the purpose of unveiling the existing stereotypes, Haggis as the director of the movie decides not to depict all blacks as positive characters but proves that they as well as whites can have various personal qualities as opposed to generally accepted racial profiling.
Depicting the events in a realistic key, the author does not deprive them of certain human weaknesses. Thus, in one situation a Los Angeles detective Tom Hansen acts as a racist, sexually molests Christine who is a woman of color. However, at the end of the film, he saves life of this woman.
Showing Cameron who is unjustly suspected of carjacking and then a black guy who is really trying to hijack Thayer’s car, the author tries to communicate his main moral message to the audience which implies that disregarding all the racial profiling used as justification for discrimination, there is no link between the biological race and the characters’ behavior.
We will write a custom Essay on Social and Ethnic Diversity in the Movies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taking into account the fact that the film Crash was awarded an Oscar in the age of visible racism, it can be stated that the examples from it are valuable for discussing the issues of racial clashes in modern America. Sutherland and Feltey (2010) noted that “Crash misrecognizes the politics of racism and refashions it as a new age bromide, a matter of inner angst and prejudices that simply need to be recognized and transcended” (p. 97).
The representation of multicultural issues in media and society The issue of representing racial profiling and stereotypes in media as an instrument of affecting the public consciousness and deepening the racial gap in a multicultural society is one of the plot lines of the movie Crash. Cameron as a black producer is induced to represent black characters according to existing racial profiling.
On the other hand, the main idea of the film itself and its central message is overcoming racial prejudices in media. Littleton (1996) noted that “There remains a gap between the way our laws treat minorities – as full-fledged, equal citizens – and how our media treat them” (p. 118).
Raising the problem of racial stereotyping in the movie Crash and selecting a realistic key for showing the impact of racial profiling upon the lives and views of the main characters, Haggis contributed to establishing the multicultural values and serving democracy in modern America.
Conclusion The recognition and popularity of the film Crash which is focused on the problems of racial stereotyping proves that the actuality of this problem and the relative readiness of the community to reconsider their values.
Reference List Cheadle, D., Yari, D., and Schulman, C. (Producers)
Is Psychological Debriefing Harmful to Trauma Survivors? Essay (Article) best college essay help
Table of Contents Facts about Psychological Debriefing
Opinions Regarding PD
PD is Harmful to Survivors of Trauma
PD is not Harmful to Survivors of Trauma
How Credible Were the Authors?
Devilly and Cotton are Right
Disasters and undesirable happenings such as accidents are associated with short-term and long term effects (Bisson, 2002). Most survivors of accidents, floods and terrorist attacks may suffer from trauma.
Most organizations have been instrumental in bringing forth social supportive services to avert development of serious issues. One of such interventions is Psychological Debriefing (PD). It is however important to appreciate that not all have supported the intervention. Grant Devilly and Peter Cotton share the view that PD is harmful in the recovery process of trauma survivors.
Mitchell is of the contrary opinion. This paper gives a critical analysis of the authors’ stands. The paper also compares these views with those of the contemporary research.
Facts about Psychological Debriefing Psychological debriefing is usually carried out by organizations for good reasons. Devilly and Cotton regard it as emotional first-aid administered to trauma survivors. PD is part of the interventions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Devilly and Cotton are of the view that no organization would turn a blind eye towards trauma survivors. This intervention has made PD one of the most widely used procedures (Bisson, 2002).
They consider the use of the intervention a routine practice for organizations especially in situations that trigger psychological distress. Bank robberies, fire outbreaks and natural disasters are good examples (Bryant, 2002). Mitchell, on the other hand, suggests that the use of PD may indeed be widespread. However, he emphasizes that only trained persons should handle it.
The handling of PD by untrained persons makes it difficult to address issues of trauma. The fact that PD only supplements psychotherapy is supported well supported. Accordingly, PD should not be viewed as an alternative to psychotherapy. Rather, it is a crisis intervention measure that offers social support to trauma survivors (Mayou, 2000).
Opinions Regarding PD Devilly and Cotton are of the opinion that Critical incident Stress Management (CISM) and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) are one. They purport that most studies involving CISD have been explained in the CISM scope. It is important to note that this proposition is not supported conclusively.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, they consider research and practices in PD to be very young. Widespread use of an intervention that is not fully backed by research is critical. Most organizations adopt PD techniques after traumatic experiences (Bryant, 2002). These techniques are regarded to go beyond ‘emotional first-aid’. Mitchell however has different opinions regarding PD. CISD and CISM are two words that are used exclusively.
Mitchell affirms that CISD is a process within CISM. Whereas CISM refers to the field, CISD refers to the group process in the intervention of traumatic experiences. IN ADDITION, Mitchell asserts that much research has been carried out to validate the use of PD in handling trauma cases.
PD is Harmful to Survivors of Trauma Most psychologists are of the view that CISM and CISD mitigate the impacts of long term poor functioning (Mayou, 2000). Studies indicate that Post Trauma Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a possible likelihood especially for those exposed to stressful event (Bryant, 2002). Devilly and Cotton concur that history of stress is a prime risk factor for depression.
PD increased the probability of developing PTSD. Studies indicate that PD interventions were worse than no-interventions as far as PTSD is concerned. The conditions of people who received CISD deteriorated in regards to other PTSD symptoms AND recovery.
Devilly and Cotton agree that a healthy workforce translates to a productive workforce. However, organizational clinical interventions have shown little or no effects on the performance outcomes. The greatest problem has and is still on developing interventions that avert sick workforce after trauma. PD is regarded as tool that ensures that organizations are protected from litigation.
Howell’s case is an indication that CISD are usually conducted on grounds of assisting the traumatized. Devilly and Cotton failed to address some issues in their study. Devilly and Cotton failed to conclude on the CISM/CISD debate. A person who depends on their analysis to distinguish between the two will be more confused.
PD is not Harmful to Survivors of Trauma Mitchell insists that PD is not a harmful intervention for trauma survivors. He insists that PD is not traumatic terrorism as Devilly and Cotton purport. The WTO bombing in 2001 was a global issue that called for rapid intervention. The use of trained police officers to offer debriefing sessions to the victims of the terrorism attack was commendable (Deahl, 2000). This confirms the fact that properly trained persons produce positive outcomes.
We will write a custom Article on Is Psychological Debriefing Harmful to Trauma Survivors? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Single session debriefings are critically opposed by many organizations like The American Red Cross, Salvation Army and American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress. CISD has been confused with single session debriefings. The confusion that exists between CISM and CISD has been addressed. It is considered wrong to equate the two. CISM is a vast field that incorporates among many some processes such as CISD.
The definition of CISM in at least eight peer reviewed journals is a clear attestation that indeed the field is advanced and backed by enough literature. Despite the fact that Mitchell insists that PD is not harmful, he fails to give some instances in which the intervention has proved fruitful. In addition, he fails to give the most appropriate time when psychotherapy should be given.
How Credible Were the Authors? The credibility of the authors supporting and opposing the intervention of PD varies. Devilly and Cotton argue on grounds of insufficient information. Their discussion opens doors for more debate.
They show an open view towards issues of CISD, CISM and early interventions. It is however sad to note that their analysis is premised on personal grounds. They insinuate that Mitchell and Everly are ICISF (International Critical Incident Stress Foundation) directors.
This claim is confirmed false. The objectivity of their study is jeopardized by personal differences. Mitchell is fast to counter the views of his opponents. However, he fails to really convince his audience on why PG should be encouraged. Devilly and Cotton give a critical analysis within their argument.
They propose other alternative intervention principles that can be used in place of PD. This approach gives an indication that future research regarding alternative interventions is well grounded. On the contrary, Mitchell fails to give us future improvements on PG interventions which he claims require special handling. Proper cases to support the efficiency and success of PD are lacking.
Devilly and Cotton are Right It is true that traumatic interventions are special and require specialized persons. It is absurd to apply PD in situations where the victims are unaware of the implications associated with the procedure (Bisson, 2002). Devilly and Cotton may be ignorant of the differences that exist between CISM and CISD. However, the fact that they give a detailed insight to the two is encouraging.
This opens the door for more understanding of the underlying principles. The extensive research carried out before as Mitchell purports is not captured anywhere. Mitchell only summarizes the literature by insisting that CISM incorporates CISD.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Psychological Debriefing Harmful to Trauma Survivors? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The gains associated with PD are not captured at all. Use of terms such as multi-million dollar industry and trauma tourism is exaggerated and misplaced. It is important to note that the use of PD has only persisted since no other interventions have been practiced. Devilly and Cotton insist that the use of PD has been widespread for several reasons.
The fact that organizations fear litigation procedures and feel socially responsible for traumatic occurrences is clear. Devilly and Cotton are therefore correct in their assertion that PD interventions are harmful .The harm is not only psychological for PTSD victims, but also financial for the organizations that seek psychological support for their employees.
Contemporary Research Most research findings indicate that PD is harmful to trauma survivors. The procedure is associated with several issues that limit its importance (Deahl, 2000). Studies indicate that most people suffering from PTSD get worse after being subjected to PD. Randomized Clinical Trials have failed to give any substantial benefits associated with the procedure (Mayou, 2000).
The understanding of the cultural behavior is a prerequisite towards conducting a successful PD. PD conducted in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Tsunami produced important revelations (Deahl, 2000). It was difficult for ‘traumatologists’ to conduct PDs effectively.
Cultural ignorance was the greatest impediment towards the success. Sri Lankans were therefore rendered to be in a state of denial. A trial verifying the efficiency of PD in accident victims proved futile in Oxford (Hobbs, 2006). The fact that PD is considered an act of professionalizing stress is evident.
Most people become worse after experiencing traumatic experiences. PD intervention is associated with negative ramification (Hobbs, 2006). Most victims are uncomfortable with the psychologists that conduct such briefings. Most victims become more traumatized when true facts regarding their state are shared.
It is important that information regarding the possible impacts of the experience is shared. The psychological preparation of trauma survivors is difficult. The fact that unknown persons conduct these briefings on a one-time basis leads to undesirable results (Mayou, 2000).
Conclusion It is vitally important to note that traumatic experiences may have long term effects to the survivors. However, organizational interventions should not be compulsory.
PD should be offered on voluntary basis to avert serious issues concerned with trauma. Other intervention principles that aim at updating critical management policy and offering immediate practical social support should also be enforced.
References Bisson, J. (2002). Randomised controlled trial of psychological debriefing for victims of acute burn trauma. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 78–81
Bryant, R. (2002). Treating acute stress disorder: an evaluation of cognitive behavior therapy and supportive counselling technques. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1780–1786.
Deahl, M. (2000). Preventing psychological trauma in soldiers. The role of operational stress training and psychological debriefing. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 73, 77–85.
Hobbs, M. (2006). A randomised controlled trial of psychological debriefing for victims of road traffic accidents. British Medical Journal, 313, 1438–1439
Mayou, R. (2000). Psychological debriefing for road traffic accident victims: three year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 589–593
Supply and Demand Analytical Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
What are some things that would affect changes in supply?
How to change the quantity demand
Effects of raised minimum wage
Introduction For people to succeed in their businesses, careers or professional lives, action is an imperative ingredient. However, it matters where people base their action. For instance, if individuals base their action on self-interest, they will automatically act in response to inducements.
In other words, they will start monitoring costs and benefits closely. The two, costs and benefits, can affect the activities that people do. Take for example when the costs of doing something increases or better still, when the benefits decline. Automatically, people will perform much less of that activity.
Economists have come up with a model – the model of supply and demand – that explains how action on costs and benefits can affect our markets (Schenk, 2008, p.1).
My firm specializes in the business of milk production and dairy farming. Of lately, dairy farmers in United States, Australia and New Zealand have received high prices from the sale of milk, thanks to the ever-changing climate and trade policies.
Additionally, the stiff competition for animal feeds has caused the doubling of the prices as farmers also incur additional expenses. Thus, the increase of income, limited supply of milk, external economic changes and social economic changes are some of the factors that change the demand of milk (Birkinshaw, 2007, p.1).
What are some things that would affect changes in supply? A number of factors affect the changes in supply of products or services. For example, the rate of production is paramount to the supply of products such as milk. Less production of commodities strains the supply chain, while abundant production means, goods will be available in the market in plenty.
Demand is also another factor that affects the supply of commodities. In case of high demands, manufacturers have to produce more. On the same note, cost is also another factor that affects changes in supply is cost. Whenever the cost of commodities reduces, the demand becomes high thus, calling for more supply.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A good transport network can enhance the supply of commodities, as goods will reach the market in time. Additionally, government regulations and trade policies can also affect the supply of commodities. For instance, government can enact legislation aimed at restricting certain commodities from reaching the market.
Finally yet importantly, unscrupulous business practices can affect changes in supply, where a few dishonest individuals plot bureaucratic means of controlling the supply chain of any product or service (Buchot, 2011, p.1).
How to change the quantity demand One factor that can change the quantity demanded is price. In fact, it is the demand price that is enables the movement of commodities along the demand curve. The phrase “a change in quantity demanded” simply implies the amount of commodities that the consumers are keen and able to buy.
Once the demanded price changes, it will definitely affect the amount of commodities that people will buy. For instance, if the demanded price increases, people will buy less goods and vice versa.
Undoubtedly, the change in demand price will also affect the movement along the demand curve although the five determinants stay unaffected. Mathematically, the quantity demanded of a particular commodity is a strapping function of the demanded price (Regan, 2007, p.1).
Effects of raised minimum wage Whenever the government increases the minimum wage by even a slight percentage, it affects businesses negatively. For example, in my dairy farm, I will definitely cut jobs in order to sustain my business.
Additionally, there will be no more hiring of people to work in my firm, as I do not wish to incur more expenses than revenue. Additionally, the price of milk per is likely to increase due to increased expenses. This means that consumers will have to buy milk at an increased price – something that will affect the quantity demanded (Bernstein, 2004, p.1).
We will write a custom Essay on Supply and Demand specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Bernstein, J. (2004). Minimum Wage and Its Effects on Small Business. Web.
Birkinshaw, V. (2007). A Thirst for Milk Bred by New Wealth Sends Prices Soaring. New York Times. Web.
Buchot, E. (2011). USA market: Changes in supply. Web.
Regan, E. (2007). Milk demand stays strong despite high prices. Web.
Schenk, R. (2008). The Model of Supply and Demand. Web.
Supply and demand; Market for Milk Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Demand can be defined as the amount of goods or services that the buyers are willing and able to buy in a specific duration of time (Rittenberg, 2008, p. 58). The quantity demanded can be determined by various factors. In most cases, consumer’s choice to consume a particular product is determined by their preferences and tastes for particular products as well as the prices. On the other hand, the quantity supplied is the amount of goods or services that buyers are willing and able to supply in the market in a specific time. In this study, we are considering the market for milk.
Impact on price and quantity of milk of an advertising campaign which highlights scientific studies that finds that drinking milk can help reduce weight gain
The main aim for an organization to conduct an advertisement is to increase the level of sales. An advert plays a role of enticing consumers to buy a certain good or service. Advertisement also has a purpose of creating top of mind awareness. This offers a form of branding which attracts customers.
An advert informing potential buyers on its significance in weight loss will entice new customers who may not have been consuming milk to switch into milk consumption. This will lead to an increase in the quantity of milk demanded.
An advert informing customers on scientific discovery indicating the importance of milk in weight loss may also encourage the existing buyers to increase their levels of consumption. This will also lead to an increase in the level of milk sales.
As already seen, an advertisement increases the level of the quantity demanded. With time, the level of demand may exceed the quantity supplied. This will lead to an increase in prices. This is based on the assumption that all other factors are held constant. There are other factors which affects the quantity demanded for milk. For instance, an increase in the level of households’ income increases the quantity of milk demanded. For instance, an increase in the level of the household’s income in China and the surrounding regions has significantly led to an increase in milk prices (Arnold, not dated, par 4). Prices increases as a result of high demand for milk which is as a result of high household incomes.
Impact on price and quantity of milk of a mad cow disease epidemic
A mad cow disease has various effects on the milk market. It can lead to a decrease in the level of quantity supplied in the market. The affected animals reduce the level of production. If the disease persists, the level of quantity demanded will exceed the level of quantity supplied. This will lead to rising in milk prices. This is under the assumption that other factors are held constant.
Impacts of milk price decrease
According to the law of demand, the prices and the quantity of product demanded are moves in opposite direction. That is, when the prices increase, the quantity demanded decreases. This conclusion is based on the assumption that other factors which affect milk market are held constant. Therefore, a decrease in the prices of milk leads to an increase in the quantity of milk demanded.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Impact on price and quantity of milk by the government decides to implement a price ceiling.
A price ceiling is a form of government intervention to protect consumers. Through a price ceiling, a government sets price limits over which the prices of a particular commodity should not exceed. In order for a price ceiling to have any effect to the consumers, it must be set below the market equilibrium. Otherwise it will be ineffective.
A price ceiling on the prices of milk will lead to a lower milk price below the market equilibrium price. This will lead to an increase in the quantity of milk demanded.
Impact of an increase in the prices of a compliment good; cookies
Compliment goods are goods which are used in conjunction with each other. Therefore, we expect an increase in level of demand in one of these to induce an increase in the level of demand for the other good.
For instance, it is assumed that cookies are used in conjunction with milk. Therefore, a change in demand in one of these will lead to changes in the quantity of milk demanded. Therefore, an increase in prices of cookies leads to an increase in the quantity of milk demanded.
Price controls Price control is the attempt by the government to control the prices of goods and services in the market. This is usually aimed at maintaining availability of basic needs to the customers.
Advantage Of To Price Controls
One of the main advantages is that it maintains the affordability of basic goods and services. For instance, a price ceiling lowers the prices of milk below the market levels. At lower prices, more people can afford milk and this will maintain a healthy nation.
Disadvantage of price controls
There are several drawbacks associated with price controls. Price control leads to shortages. When the government puts demands the producer to provide prices below the market prices, the amount of the product demanded will exceed the quantity supplied in the market. The level of demand increases to the point where supply cannot be kept up. These shortages can lead to black markets as people try to find a solution for shortages (Anonymous, 2008, par 2).
We will write a custom Essay on Supply and demand; Market for Milk specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Price Elasticity of Demand Elasticity of demand can be defined as the percentage change in the level of quantity demanded of a particular good or service divided by the percentage change in the prices of that particular good or services all other things held constant (Rittenberg, 2008, p. 115).
In the case of inelastic goods, consumers are less responsive to changes in prices. In this case, the elasticity of demand is less than one. That is, e<1.
In the milk market, consumers are less responsive to changes in prices. This is because milk is a basic good. Also, there are no close substitutes for milk. Therefore, the demand for milk is inelastic. Consequently, people may continue to consume milk despite of increase in prices. However, there may be slight changes in quantity demanded.
There are several determinants of elasticity of demand. These include the availability of substitutes, time or availability of households’ budget. In the case of milk, there are no close substitutes; therefore the demand is likely to be inelastic.
Impact of Milk Prices Increase on the Total Revenue Total revenue is the amount of money received from the sale of goods and services. That is, TR=QP. In the case of elastic demand, any change in price has a significant impact on the quantity demanded. Since the demand for milk is inelastic, changes in price will lead to a small change in the level of revenue. Therefore, the total revenue will change with a small percentage.
Reference List Anonymous (2008). Price Controls – Advantages and Disadvantages. Web.
Arnold, A. (n.d.). Thirst for Milk Bred by New Wealth Sends Prices Soaring. Web.
Rittenberg, L. (2008). Principles of Microeconomics. New York: Flat World Knowledge.
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Skimming and Cramming Expository Essay college essay help online
There are many study methods that are used by students while revising for examinations. Some methods are effective while others are ineffective. Effective methods are helpful since they help students to understand and retain a lot of information. Ineffective methods are not only tiresome but also lead to burn out.
Therefore, it becomes increasingly hard for students using such methods to retain reliable and important information. With that background in mind, this paper shall describe cramming and skimming which are ineffective study methods.
Cramming can be described as a study technique which involves trying to absorb a lot of information within a short time. It is mostly used by students who prefer to study when the examination is almost or during the last few days. Due to the pressure involved, it results in poor retention of information for a long duration of time.
It then serves the purpose of the examination after which the student forgets a lot of information. In many cases, a teacher gives a long deadline before the date of the test. Due to procrastination, the deadline almost comes to end without the notice of the student.
A student may remember about the test may be a day or two before the due date. As a matter of fact, one day cannot be enough to go through all the work the student may have covered. At that particular time, the student tries to go through all the work and to retain a lot of information as much as possible (Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo pp. 216).
The brain can be likened to a sponge such that there is need for it to absorb the information slowly. It can also be likened to a water way where water passes through while getting into a dam.
A steady flow of water usually has no problem but when a lot of water tries to get through the same entry, damages usually occur due to over flooding and some water also gets lost. The same case happens to brain during cramming. Some information is usually lost and the habit can also be detrimental to one’s health.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Skimming is yet another ineffective study method especially while preparing for an exam. It is a method which involves reading a whole passage, a paragraph or any form of writing with an aim of knowing just the main idea.
Therefore, the reader using the method does not read carefully but only searches for the main idea. The reader only focuses on the topic sentence and does not read other sentences that explain or support the main idea.
In most cases, skimming is used by a person who is already familiar with the information being read because if material happens to be unfamiliar, the person can miss on important details. For instance, a person skimming through this essay will probably read the first paragraph which is supposed to contain the thesis or the main idea.
By so doing, the person will be able to establish that the essay focuses on ineffective methods of study which include cramming and skimming. The next step would involve searching for paragraphs which explain the meaning of each method.
In such a case, the reader won’t waste time on reading the explanation part. For that reason, the method is ineffective because there is a lot that is left out. In addition, it is done fast such that there is no time to synthesize a lot of information (Reading Styles – Skimming).
The essay does not only focus on the description of skimming and cramming but also on why the two are ineffective study methods. Cramming involves trying to read and retain a lot of information within a short duration of time. On the other hand, skimming involves reading quickly through the reading material in order to search for the main idea. In that case, it is clear that skimming and cramming cannot be recommended to students reading for examination purposes.
Works Cited Pastorino, Ellen E. and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo. What Is Psychology? Essentials. Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2008. Reading Styles – Skimming. 2011. Web.
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Sex Education Class Compared to Science Class Descriptive Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Different subjects are taught in different courses at different levels. Some of the subjects are definitely better than others depending on personal interests or the method and mode of presentation of the subject. Sometimes someone may be faced with a chance of choosing between two or more options of subjects or class. Sex and science are some of the most widely taught subjects in all levels of study. Given a week of study in either sex education class or science class, would you prefer the sex education class as opposed to the science one? This paper justifies why sex education class is far much worthwhile as compared to science class.
Sex education class are better
Have you ever imagined a world without moral integrity, where everyone does what he or she wants in terms of sexual immorality? The whole world would be full of sick people and everyone would be suffering from either one or another sexually transmitted diseases. The population would increase at an alarming rate, young girls will drop out of school before they even become scientists, and the worst of them all how many people do you think will die of HIV and AIDS? Would there be any importance of science in a totally rotten society? You will definitely agree with me that a minute spend in a sex education class is by far more valuable than years spend in a science class.
Given one week I would prefer the sex education class due to all the benefits that are to be gained within such a short time. Sex education classes are rare as compared to science classes that are common in all levels of study starting from elementary level all the way to university level. This makes the sex education class very important and therefore it is very advisable for someone to take the golden opportunity and attend the sex education class. It is also possible to argue that science is always present in our day to day learning with most of the subjects taught in schools having some percentage of science in them and as such it would be a total waste of precious time attending such classes only to be taught things that we already know or are currently learning in other subjects. You agree with me that sex education class is most preferred (Jones 1).
Sex education is absolutely important in that it empowers people with information about sexuality, relationships puberty, adolescence, and intimacy. It also gives lifetime skills that enable the young to make wise decisions and choices in regard to life issues. As they say information is power and as such this education will enable one to deal with issues to do with sex abuse and harassment, exploitation, early marriages and unplanned pregnancies. Everyone definitely needs this kind of information if he/she is to achieve their dreams and aspirations in life. It is hard and very difficult to attend a science class when suffering from sexually transmitted infection (Avert 1).
It is evident that most of the issues affecting the society today arise from lack of sex education and empowerment of the community. A report by UNESCO claims that “at least 111 million new cases of curable STIs occur each year among young people aged 10 to24” (UNESCO 13).The same report also claims that “2.5 million girls aged 15 to 19 years old in developing countries have abortions and Eleven per cent of births worldwide are adolescent mothers” (UNESCO 13). All these staggering and worrying figures are more than enough to convince anyone on the importance of timely sexual education class.
Our parents have a duty and obligation to raise well modeled and morally upright successful individuals who will take the society to the next level. It is amazing that there is such a high number of people in the society that totally believe that sexual education classes should be a requirement in schools due to their importance. A recent study focusing on the issue of sexual education classes in the state of California claims that “89 percent of Californians believe their local school districts should require sex education in both middle and high schools” (PCF 7) the same report also claims that “86 percent of evangelicals in California prefer sex education programs that also teach children about obtaining and using contraceptives” (PCF 7). These statistics only represent a fraction of the whole global community that has seen the importance of sexual education class and which you and I support.
The modern society has proved beyond any reasonable doubts that the world cannot survive without sex education classes. This follows from the recent occurrences of shameful sex scandals and related offences from some of the most influential personalities such as Tiger Woods, the late Michael Jackson among others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These cases could otherwise have been prevented by attending the important sex education classes. It may be true that science class would be good but what use will they be if the society is full of learned but immoral people. Sex education class would be far much better.
Opposition Come to think of it. How much is one likely to gain from a science class given such a short time? The truth of the matter is, very little. Science is such a wide subject covering almost all aspects of life. Offering science class for a week is like dropping a coin in the ocean.
There would be no any meaningful impact in the lives of the attending students. Compare this with a week in the sex education class. Student will learn so much about different issues concerning sexuality in the short given time. A single lesson learned in a sex education class will remain relevant for a life time. I am definitely sure that you would prefer the sex education class (McKeon 1).
Science class might be important but only for the few students that may have future interests in pursuing careers in science based disciplines. The class would be totally useless to other students who have or may decide to take other social and humanity related disciplines.
However, it is important to note that sex education class will benefit all the students that will attend and will equip them with knowledge and important information that will help them now and in the days to come. Sex education class is thus like a building block of life by which one cannot live without.
Conclusion Sometimes in life we have to make choices. It has been discussed and proved beyond any reasonable doubts that a week in sex education class is by far much better than a week in a science class. Student are likely to gain valuable life time skills in sex education class as compared to a science class where one is not likely to gain any meaningful knowledge within such a short time. You will therefore agree with me that a moment in a sex education class is far much worthwhile than a week in a science class.
Works Cited Avert. Sex Education That Works. Avert, 2011. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Sex Education Class Compared to Science Class specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jones, Jan. The Importance of Sex Education. Helium, 2009. Web.
McKeon, Ben. Effective sex education. Advocates, 2006. Web.
PCF. Sex Education in Schools Organizing Kit. Prochoice, 2006. Web.
UNESCO. International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education. UNESCO, n.d. Web.
Ethical Dilemma in Healthcare Administration Essay (Article) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Health Care Ethics
Solution to Ethical Dilemma
Introduction Healthcare administration faces ethical dilemma in providing prime health services and maintaining the economic status of the healthcare system concurrently. The administration must stringently balance health services and economic issues that are intrinsic to the healthcare system.
Hornbeak explains that, health care administrators have critical role “…in overseeing the moral conduct and missions of their institutions while at the same time maintaining the economic viability of those institutions, but these two major functions can clash and create dilemmas that complicate the practice of health administration” (2011, p. 1).
The ethical issue regarding economic viability of health care institutions elicits ethical dilemma where two views arise. The first view questions how health care institutions can ethically concentrate the administrative functions on the issues of health only and remain economically viable and sustainable at the same time.
The second view ethically doubts the administrative capacity to juggle both health care and economic issues, without compromising the primary role of offering quality health care in the society. Therefore, how does the health care administration resolve the ethical dilemma amidst demands of quality health care and economic constraints?
Ethical dilemma Health care systems have a noble responsibility of ensuring that they provide quality health care services that are affordable and accessible to all people. Other responsibilities such as integration of business practices into the system seem to have encumbrance effect that would lead to compromised health care services.
The integration of business practices into the health care system has elicited ethical concerns that have resulted into ethical dilemma in the administrative responsibilities. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) “expanded its patient rights standards to include requirements for assuring that hospital business practices would be ethical in 1995” (Laura, Cherry,
BP Oil Spill and Its Effects Cause and Effect Essay essay help online
The BP oil spill, also referred to as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the worst oil spill in history that took place in the Gulf of Mexico for about ninety days in 2010 and its effects are still being felt even after the release of oil into the environment was stopped.
Whereas there are other purportedly extensive oil leaks to the environment that have taken place in the past, such as the 1979-1980 Ixtoc I oil spill in Mexico that released about thirty thousand barrels of oil per day and lasted for nine months, the BP oil spill remains the most catastrophic in the history of the petroleum industry (National Research Council,567).
The gushing out of oil started on April 20, 2010 following an explosion and subsequent fire of the Deepwater Horizon and after trying several options, the seep out was at last ended on July 15, 2010 by capping the gushing wellhead (Corn and Copeland, 1).
The disaster led to the death of eleven workers of the oil company and injured seventeen others. Scientists approximated that over 50, 0000 barrels of oil per day were being released into the environment before the leak was successfully stopped (Robertson and Krauss, para. 6). The environment problem caused extensive damages.
The cause of the BP oil disaster has been attributed to many reasons, but chief among them is negligence. Surely, the company was not trying to blow up its own well; however, the actions it took before the disaster reveal that it was courting imminent problems (Romm, para. 4).
Since BP was trying to finish the project as per the initial plans, the company engineers opted for a series of shortcuts that went contrary to the standard practices of effectively drilling oil wells. For example, the company engineers used an inefficient casing material design and avoided intermittent testing for backpressure among other malfunctions in standard safety procedures.
These conscious judgments to undermine safety procedures and practices indicate that the negligence of the company was the prime cause of the disaster. Conversely, prior to the incident, BP had spent many dollars on improving its public image. Thus, the incident meant that the company was trying to improve its brand while neglecting to address its own intricate issues, such as fake workers policy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, the report of the staff of the presidential commission investigating the BP oil spill incident released on December 2, 2010, revealed that the federal inspectors failed to act professionally in inspecting oil rig operations, the inspectors are poorly trained in effectively performing their duties, and there is inadequate availability of resources for handling such catastrophes (Mintz, para.1).
The BP oil spill had devastating effects to the environment. The incident was the worst environment catastrophe that the United States has encountered in history, nearly twenty times greater than the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (Wells, 4).
The disaster led to widespread damage to marine and wildlife habitats in the area. In addition, the fishing and tourism industries in the area also recorded a decrease in earnings. Similar to the Exxon Valdez oil spill, some effects of the BP oil spill will be felt in years to come.
The consequences of the disaster are threatening the normal operations at eight national parks in the United States and more than four hundred animal species that habit the Gulf islands and marshlands, including some species in danger of extinction, are at risk. By November 2, 2010, over seven thousand dead animals had been collected.
Most of the animals died after ingesting the oil, which poisoned their systems. Other immediate consequences of the disaster were oil-coated birds’ feathers that hindered their ability to regulate body temperature, sea turtles were covered with oil, and dead and dying deep-sea corals were found seven miles from the deepwater horizon well.
Further, dangerous chemicals from the oil and dispersant have been reported to lead to health problems of the individuals staying near where the disaster took place. Scientists have suggested that in the long term, the disaster will lead to unbalanced food web, decreased fish and wildlife populations, and decline in recreation activities (National Wildlife Federation, para. 1-3).
To avoid such a catastrophe in the future, a number of proposals should be adopted. First, regular inspection should be done for wear and tear and leaks in equipment for the production of oil.
We will write a custom Essay on BP Oil Spill and Its Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More And, this inspection should be done by accredited individuals who will not shy away from doing a thorough inspection. Second, employees ought to be given adequate training and re-training to enable them cope well with everyday challenges in oil production and how to manage them.
Next, a well laid down plan should be established to ensure that oil leaks are handled immediately in a professional manner in case of an accident. Lastly, the government should institute effective legislations and regulations to prevent and respond to such a catastrophe instead of relying on the same-old response of looking for scapegoats.
Works Cited Corn, Lynn, and Copeland, Claudia. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Coastal Wetland and Wildlife Impacts and Response. Washington: Congressional Research Service, 2011. Print.
Mintz, Steven. “Horizon Deep Water Oil Spill.” Ethics Sage. 6 Dec. 2010. Web.
National Research Council. Oil in the sea: inputs, fates, and effects. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1985. Print.
National Wildlife Association. “How Does the BP Oil Spill Impact Wildlife and Habitat?” Nwf.org. 2011. Web.
Robertson, Campbell, and Krauss, Clifford. “Gulf Spill Is the Largest of Its Kind, Scientists Say”. Nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 2010. Web.
Romm, Joseph. “Gulf oil spill”. Salon.com. Salon Media Group, 2010. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on BP Oil Spill and Its Effects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Wells, Peter G. Exxon Valdez oil spill: fate and effects in Alaskan waters. Philadelphia, Pa.: ASTM publication, 1996. Print.
Diversity and Multiculturalism in Team Settings Exploratory Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Diversity is the state of being composed in different elements and variety, and also different people from different cultural setting, different counties, race, and gender.
It can be uncomplicated or difficult depending on how it is viewed. Multiculturalism on the other hand, means acceptance, appreciation and consideration of multiple cultures and differences. This paper seeks to assess the tradeoffs of diversity and multiculturalism in team settings with regards to health care management.
In health care management, it is very important to have diverse and multicultural employees. We cannot set aside multiculturalism because we all need health care. Unfairness while selecting the workforce is not good because it leads to discrimination. Multiculturalism is important because work teams from difference cultures might have a unique outlook to the problem which will be of much help to the health care system.
According to Griffin (2010), patients will feel much appreciated when their treatment is viewed from their cultural and traditional settings. This attracts the target market because they will view the company as non-discriminative. When diversity is involved, it is much cheaper compared to others because costs go down as the target market becomes bigger and it becomes affordable to the poor. The more the health care becomes multicultural, the more they are able to reach a large number of people in different states.
In order to provide better health services to patients outside the dominant culture, health practitioners must focus on these three approaches: awareness, knowledge, and skills (Parvis, 2003). Awareness can be achieved by putting into place staff training that gives a chance for self- reflection, which necessarily includes looking at one’s own culture, biases and reactions to diverse health values and cultures.
Understanding of the outlook, value, beliefs, and behaviors of different cultural groups, with the huge group of cultural, ethnic, national and religious groups such as the Unites States is relevant in health care management.
With pressures such as socioeconomic status and groups differences, it is difficult to learn a set of uniting facts or cultural norms. Thus, educational information is extremely useful in directing the health care provider to ask relevant questions within each personal cultural background.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third approach is skills which are put into place in order to cater for customers’ needs. These approaches help the patient’s knowledge of their illness or state and allow health care providers to change their style and meet patient’s particular needs.
Each health care provider should take into consideration these three approaches in order to meet each patient’s demand. Failure to meet these demands might lead to misunderstanding and reduced quality of health care because of miscommunication.
However, there are several reasons as to why it might be irrelevant to have diverse work team in the health care management. The health care givers may develop cultural bias and hence discriminate others thus leading to poor services. Communication barrier is another factor which is mainly due to the difference in native language of the health care givers.
This hinders communication especially in decision making process and thus less productivity. Furthermore, it might be difficult for team members to understand each other and thus leading to slow implementation of health care plans.
In conclusion, having a multinational team is about increasing awareness, tolerance, skills, knowledge, and hence reducing conflict. Santana (2003) expounds that team building roles like supporting, summarizing, participation, communication and problem solving should be put into place in order to have a strong diverse team who will meet customer’s needs irrespective of cultural differences.
This will benefit the team, the customer and the entire organization because having a work team that reflects company values and customer needs is a good in business, hence hiring and supporting diverse and multicultural workforce is good for the health care organization.
References Griffin, W.R. (2010). Management. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
We will write a custom Essay on Diversity and Multiculturalism in Team Settings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Parvis, L. (2003). Diversity and Effective Leadership in Multicultural Work Places”. Journal of Environmental Health, 65: 37-38.
Santana J. (2003, August 18). Learn to Harness the Full Potential of Diverse Work Force. TechRepublic. Retrieved from https://www.techrepublic.com/
Team Building and Team Development Expository Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
First and Second Stage
Justification of the Opinion
Introduction The stages of team development are formation state, storming, normalizing, performing and transforming stages. Each of these stages has a special challenge especially for a group of people who are struggling to function as a unit. Some unique or special features/actions particularly from the individual entities strengthen the cohesive forces that ought to guide team members towards a team mission.
First and Second Stage According to Guttman (2008), the first stage of formation involves coming together to form a group that has a shared vision or mission. The group aims at mainly accomplishing a certain purpose.
The second stage of storming emerges because the team members get to know each other, but may have some conflicting views that can stain the relationship. For instance, they may fail to agree on the procedures to follow towards attaining the set goals or disagree against the set vision /mission of a firm. The case sample of members of a medical facility has passed these two stages.
Norm Stage The norm stage is progressive since members are able to share ideas and form working relationships that cater for the team’s objectives and progress. The current team has harmonized its prior strained or competitive relationships. It is thus able to work harmoniously towards development goals. However, some cohesiveness of the team still lacks some collaboration, thus the reason it is still in the norm stage.
The team has to attain the next stage of the development life cycle, which is the performing stage. The team lacks strong collaboration and team unity thus affecting harmonization. Lack of synchronization in the team is thus the reason why members or team leaders fails to bring out a successful functioning team.
Justification of the Opinion A new colleague joining the team at this stage must expect to meet members who can either cause team conflicts or enforce work harmony. The members may also feel secure and express their opinions freely due to existing spirit of responsiveness, kindness and affirmation.
Openness and members cooperation also promotes members’ listening skill. By listening to one another, they are able to understand the importance of maintaining an effective form of communication. They have various measures of enhancing communication as an effective tool of combating conflicts or disagreements.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The working techniques and strategies are well established. The reason for easy establishment is due to collaboration and as a result, members are in a position to choose a leader amongst them and establish the role of each affiliate. However, effective performance often fails to take place due to lack of enough trust or honesty among members. The team is thus not yet reasonable, since there are no evident justifiable procedures to quantify the team.
Expectations In line with Boone and Kurtz (2010), a real team in the performing stage is very effective and productive. The members act honestly with each other, thus strengthening their interaction and ability to have synchronized objectives for success.
The members of this team at a medical facility also lack confidence and members may fail to believe that the group is strong enough for anticipated success.
Member’s collaboration still fails to trigger personal impressions that their team is the best and the most successful experience. At the initial stages of development, a team is expected to engage members to pursue goals or projects.
Conclusions The new member should also understand that his/her presence might cause either progression to the next stage or regression to previous stage. The progress therefore depends on experience and skills of the team members. At this stage, the team cannot analyze their current performance level and have a basis for future projections.
The team always disbands after accomplishing goals, but it is a difficult process due to the already formed strong links between members. Perhaps one question that can assist in analysis of the stage would be how fast or easy the team can break up.
E-Business, Telecom online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
E-business in Brazil
Implication of E-business environments
Introduction E-business is the use of the internet to create and implement business transactions. The internet provides many opportunities that enable businesses to create markets and serve their customers in extraordinary ways. It is a new area in global trade that involves trading of goods and services across borders electronically. It is the use of telecommunication networks to produce, advertise, or sell goods and services.
With the advancement in technology, electronic business has been growing drastically calling for the attention of the government and technology industry to ensure that it does not go out of hand. This paper looks at the internet as a medium for business transactions, highlights the e-business environment in Brazil, and gives the implication of e-business to the telecoms and technology industry in Brazil.
The Internet The internet is a worldwide system of computer networks. Information posted on the internet can be accessed by anyone who knows how to use it. It is worth noting that when businesses decide to sell their products online, they are attracting some risks which may come about as a result of exposing some of the crucial information.
This information can be used by fraudsters to imitate the company’s products or to destroy the reputation of a business. To prevent this, every e-business has to install software known as 3-D secure protocol (Conway, Ward, Lewis and Bernhardt 2).
This ensures that unauthorized people are prevented from accessing the critical systems. This is done by the use of a merchant plug-in (MPI) which is connected to the centralized directory for authentication of enrollment of a card holder. With MPI, a cardholder browses through merchant shop to select goods or services for purchase. After identifying the products, the merchant shop initiates a new payment transaction.
The merchant shop then receives card details through an encrypted SSL and it passes them to the MPI. If enrolled, the issuer is located by the MPI and he is requested to authentify the card holder and the resulted are transmitted to the merchant for purchases. If the card is not enrolled, the merchant has a right to continue or stop the transaction.
E-business in Brazil Modern E-business started in the year 1990 when the World Wide Web. (WWW) was discovered. However, commercial trade was prohibited until five years later when security protocols were discovered. These protocols allowed companies to trade using the internet and by early 21st century, many companies in Brazil were offering services and products over the internet.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Today, over one thousand businesses in Brazil are trading over the internet and this is owned to the development of information technology. Customers have a wide variety of goods and services to choose from and purchases and payment transactions have become easy over the internet. Brazil is the 7th largest software producer in the world.
It is already leading in e-business. In 2005, services worth more than US$2 billion were traded electronically in the country. Brazil’s software exports increased drastically from US$ 10 million in 1997 to over US$ 200 million in 2005. This increase was a result of the growth in soft companies which generate almost 200, 000 jobs (Torquato 9).
The most important thing in E-business is obviously the use of a website. This is where products are advertised and marketed. It contains all the information related to a product, including their design, how they work, what they cost, and their importance, among other things. The website needs to be properly designed and promoted to ensure that it is up to standard. To do this, one requires hiring an expertise who can design and maintain it regularly.
This creates business opportunities for the telecom and technology industries. With the current technology, there are many programs available for the technology industry that can be used in designing websites for different companies. The future looks more promising because we now have a new protocol called the Hot Java which makes use of video clips thus enhancing marketing (Andal-Ancion 2).
Implication of E-business environments With the advancement in technology, millions of people are now relying on the internet for their day to day activities. This means that there are millions of customers who are likely to get exposed to the services offered by telecoms and technology industry.
This increases the chances of this industry succeeding in the current economic hardships. Recent research shows that, there are approximately 10 million people who are using the internet today, and this is expected to increase to 100 million in the next five years.
With the high number of potential customers, Brazil is assured of success in the global world which may not be so if the products were sold locally.
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Trip in Taiwan Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Taiwan Taiwan is one of the most natural and fascinating destinations in Far East. Taiwan is mainly a mountainous Island with one of the best natural scenic features in the world.
Taipei, the capital, has one of the best scenery all over Asia. It is located in the West Pacific Ocean and has close links with the Mainland China. In fact, China considers it to be one of its territories. The countries closest to Taiwan are China, Japan and Philippines.
For a seven-day visit, Taipei the capital city should the best place to visit especially on a luxury trip like this one. The most convenient and efficient airline to Taiwan has to be China Airline which accounts for the highest number of passengers to Taiwan with world class services, and flies daily to the Island.
Taoyun airport is the most convenient landing site being only under an hour drive from Taipei. On arrival, the fleets of buses that operate daily are the best to take one to the hotels although taxis are also available. For a seven-day trip, summer is the best time for a visit as out door activities are more during this time of the year.
The main languages in Taiwan are Taiwanese and Mandarin. As for the main culture, multiculturalism has been endorsed as the age of globalization sets in.
In the past, the culture of Taiwan had been mainly influenced and formed by the process of imperialism. The main religions, these are: the traditional Buddhism, Taoism and Chinese folk religion which have greatly influenced the culture of the island. European and American cultures have also become very popular in Taiwan because of the global cooperation and collaborations (Ryan
Rice: Thailand Native Foods Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
The Country’s food item
Its role, image and use
History of rice in Thailand
Social and cultural roles of the Rice in Thailand
Introduction Despite the fact that food is a commodity consumed by all people in the world, different countries and people are associated with a specific type of food which is native to them. The native food types of any country or ethnic group make the larger part of their cuisine as part of cultural representations.
The specific food types therefore contribute to their culture and values in the society. However, there are regions that hold more to their cultures as compared to others. For example, most of the Asian nations still hold their cultural roots unlike their counterparts in Europe and America. This paper is therefore about the representative food(s) of an Asian nation known as Thailand.
The Country’s food item Thailand is a country located in the south east of Asia. The common language spoken in Thailand is Thai hence making the Thai people. The country is endowed with many natural resources as well as agricultural products such as rice in which Thailand is the largest world exporter of rice (Cummings, 2000, p.211).
Thus, rice is the staple food of the Thai people and especially the jasmine variety of rice which makes up the largest portion of the Thai cuisine. The Thai cuisine is known internationally because of the seasoning combination used.
As a matter of fact, it is a blend of all the five key tastes namely spicy, sour, bitter, salty and sweet. The Thai cuisine is made up rice (Known as Khao in Thailand) that is served with other accompanying dishes made of sauces, salads and curries among others (Kahrs, 2000, p. 76).
Its role, image and use Social occasions in Thailand are not complete without the Thai cuisine. As a matter of fact, food in Thailand can be a reason to hold celebrations, something that is very unusual in other nations. Apart from rice forming part of every meal in Thailand, it plays a great role in earning foreign income to the country.
This is because, it exports rice to the world market and because of its high quality it has high demand in the market thus fetching much income (Schmidt, 2005, p.1). Rice has on the other hand created an image of Thailand globally. Thailand is among the first nations that people think of when you mention rice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More History of rice in Thailand For a long period of time rice has formed the heart of every meal in Thailand. Rice is said to have its origin in the Asian arc, from where it spread to other continents. However, the Thailand people have their own history with regard to the origin of rice.
They claim that Lord Vishnu is the one who gave birth to rice thereafter the people were taught how to raise the rice by a God called Indra (Huke and Huke, 1990, p.1). It is because of this that the growth of rice in Thailand is considered as a holistic activity despite its economic and health benefits.
Social and cultural roles of the Rice in Thailand Rice plays a big role in terms of social and cultural functions among the Thai people. It is the main food consumed during their social occasions and gatherings. As mentioned above, the practice of growing rice in Thailand is not only for health and economic benefits but it is also a cultural practice. It is the food that is used in shrines to give to the Thai gods.
Studies done have also indicated that the spirit of rice is usually attached to the rice fields hence making rice a holistic commodity in Thailand. It is because of this that throwing away rice in Thailand is a taboo, which if gone against may lead to bad omen to the land.
Religious uses The native food of Thailand has religious uses in that there is the ‘god of rice’ who gets very annoyed whenever rice is thrown away. The god of rice may cause bad luck or even phenomena such as famine whenever he is angry. It is therefore a taboo to throw away food and especially rice in Thailand.
Because of this, most of the restaurants in Thailand have employed a deity who keeps watch as people eat to ensure that no food with rice is thrown away. In addition to this, since most people in Thai are Buddhists, they make food offerings in the temple which comprises of rice to feed the spirits.
Conclusion From the above discussion it can be clearly seen that rice plays a great role among the people of Thailand as their staple or native food. This importance ranges from economic, food, social and cultural benefits. It has also been seen that rice is the forms the heart of the Thai cuisine (Schmidt, 2005, p.1).
We will write a custom Essay on Rice: Thailand Native Foods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, due to relations with their neighbouring countries, the Thailand cuisine has had variations as compared to the traditional cuisine. This is because of the cultural influences from those countries. Nevertheless, the influences have not had much effect because the Thai cuisine is still internationally famous for its unique taste.
Reference List Cummings, J. (2000). World Food Thailand. Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications
Huke, R. and Huke, H. (1990). A Brief History of Rice. Web.
Kahrs, K. (2003). Thai Cooking. Dallas: Hackberry Press.
Schmidt, D. (2005). Thai Food and Culture. Retrieved from https://www.thespruceeats.com/thai-food-and-culture-3217393
Hospital Corporation of America Mission Essay essay help: essay help
The name of the organization is ‘Hospital Corporation of America’, which is abbreviated as HCA. This name comes from the organization’s vast investments. It is apparent that the corporation owns and operates numerous hospitals. Thus, it covers a large national market share.
Evidently, the name of the organization is straightforward; thus, individuals can easily understand it. This quality determines an organization’s popularity in the industry. Incase an organization uses identities that are hard to understand, only a few individuals will associate with it.
It is appropriate for an organization to adapt a name that portrays the services it offers. For example, ‘National Hospital Corporation’ of America reveals that this organization deals with Medicare. HCA’s mission is the caring and improving of people’s lives through the provision of high eminence and cost effectual Medicare. This mission helps in motivating both employees and clients who seek the services of the corporation.
It is evident that this mission statement is the reason behind the excellent services provided by different hospitals operated by this corporation. It is noteworthy that for an organization to succeed, it must have a mission statement. This acts as the guideline to the management and employees of that organization. The organizations vision is making Medicare easily accessible in communities (HCA, 2011).
HCA is a privately owned company that operates medical facilities. Moreover, it is a profit making entity because it charges for the medical services it offers.
The company has no one owner because a group of physicians founded it in 1960’s. A Chairman and C.E.O manages this institution. In addition, the company administration comprises of a president who is also the chief financial officer. The corporation has a huge market share evident by the large number of medical facilities that it operates.
It is apparent that it has more than 170 facilities, which makes it one of the largest corporations in America. This means that it has employed many workers who foresee its daily operations. Thus, the institution has employed approximately 183,000 workers in its 170 facilities and in the community as community workers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is evident that HCA hires qualified professionals in accordance to the job specification. Furthermore, it also trains medical students under the internship programs. Most importantly, the corporation employs a significant proportion of workers in the private sector (Casenotes
Gender and Race Discrimination Expository Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Victims of racial and gender discrimination suffer from such injustices as segregation and prevalent poverty. In many societies, women are often discriminated against when it comes to equal pay and access to health. Such inequalities may come about due to the issue of race. The combination of race and gender compounds discrimination.
Statistics on the status of women worldwide shows that women have to struggle before attaining equality with men (Frye, 1996). The problem of racial and gender discrimination becomes obvious when a woman’s race is considered instead of her experience. This leads to race-based violence against women.
Morris Glegle-Ahanhanzo, an investigator on racism, visited Brazil in 1995 to study the situation of minority women in the labor market. He made the conclusion that “black women receive the lowest salaries (four times lower of than that of a white man), are employed in the most unhealthy locations, work a triple working day and face threefold discrimination” (Frye, 1996).
It is always important that social demographic variables such as gender and race be viewed dynamically instead of statically. This reduces the possibility of oversimplification and overgeneralization in what they mean and where they are to be applied.
The variables should also be considered within societal contexts that are specific since they simultaneously operate in all the social situations. Equal treatment should be given to everyone regardless of the gender or race. Indeed, there are many distinctions between people, but it should not be of much concern in today’s society.
It becomes a big problem when the barriers of inequality are tried to be broken because it is hard to abolish the things that people have been adapted to. The most dominant of all is gender related issues, especially in determining who is more superior between a man and a woman (May, 2008).
Gender and race issues should be well tackled, for instance, in some of the societies men are believed to be superior to women and hold all the important positions in the society. To overcome all this, an interaction-theory concept can be designed because it relates one’s race and gender to his or her personal awareness to reality. New research strategies can also be formulated to effectively integrate race and gender.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Practitioners who work in educational institutions especially where the population consists of different people are faced with the challenge of cross-cultural exchanges between them and the students.
In such schools, race and gender awareness programs should be introduced as well as issues concerning diversity. The curriculum should also incorporate important issues that concern gender and race. Lessons and programs focusing on these topics require clear understanding among the students as well as active listening.
Race and gender issues can result to residential segregation for the marginalized populations living in the public houses. Poor women are also forced to stay in rental houses that do not have enough facilities (May, 2008).
To avoid this, a planner should increase opportunities for all types of individuals by recognizing the needs for the disadvantaged people. Social inequality determines how a child will fit in the society and the future as well. Therefore, in every society, a child should have a right to education regardless of the age, gender or race.
Race and gender are both social categories but the methods they take can be avoided or changed. The systems that maintain the hierarchy of both gender and race are liable. Race and gender ideologies are different from hierarchical structures they maintain but they are interconnected.
Reference List Frye, M. (1996). The necessity of differences: Constructing a positive category of women. Signs, 21(4), 991-1010
May, A. M. (2008). Gender Balance in the Economics Profession. Econ Watch, 5 (2),193.
We will write a custom Essay on Gender and Race Discrimination specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Leadership Traits Essay college essay help near me
Leadership is a role which many associate with one person being the leader. It involves an individual taking up the responsibility of being the head of certain activities in various areas. For example, in an organization, a leader is perceived as one who is in charge of setting directions and ensuring the directions are followed in an effort of influencing majority of the people in accomplishing some common objective.
A leaders traits are the distinctive quality a person posses that constitute effective leadership.
The description given to a personality trait according to a research conducted by Stogil (1948) and Mann (1959) states that an individual personal characteristic can be used to distinguish a leader from any particular context and the people considered as his/her followers as there are evidences that one is able to point out in leaders.
Many organizations have a problem when it comes to implementing corporate social responsibility (CSR) and leaders should ensure that the implementation of CSR is among their set objective to sort the problem.
One way to ensure its implementation is successful is being able to understand the major responsibilities that affect both the organization and the surrounding society. The advantage of this trait is as a leader, one will be able to engage all the employees in the organization in order to be aware and understand what impact corporate social responsibility has on the business and the community.
An ethical leader is also regarded as an effective leader. The benefits of having ethics is that, the corporate priorities in the work concept are realized and they extend to just aiming at the traditional business goals of acquiring profits and improving the leaders business positions as they all aim at going up the business ladder in terms of going up the corporate ladder.
A leadership role entails having to make ethical decisions especially during a compromising situation. An ethical leader when faced with big ethical decisions to make, considers wisdom and objectivity as characteristic that would be used as the mechanism to use for the right decision making.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An advantage of possessing leadership ethics is that there is an increase in market in terms of service and product demand offered by organizations that uphold ethical practices thereby creating room for competition among the organization in the ‘field’. Staff members who work for high integrity, socially responsible and ethical employers are seen as more productive hence reciprocating to a successful organization.
A person in the leadership position should have a vision for the future. With this trait, a leader can use their vision to their advantage since people need to know that their leader has a strong vision for the future because these leaders are seen as people who have clear vision of how things can be done better.
It is important for organizations to have visionary objectives since an organizational vision or goal would be an influential way to strengthen the leadership of its directors.
Leaders should focus on the important matters that could affect that the organizations future goals through the help of the employees who are the key factors in realizing the accomplishment of the organizational vision.
The major task an effective leader with a vision has is to have the ability to find new ideas that an organization can implement in order to accomplish the organizational goal.
Fortunately today, leadership traits are keenly becoming a factor to consider when choosing effective leaders, for this reason, students who are aspiring to be leaders should understand that as an individual one has to develop the leadership qualities within ourselves and others.
A point to note is that the attributes or traits that seem important in the development of an effective leader should not be termed as the only guarantee to a being a successful leader instead, more factors will constitute to one possessing effective leadership skills.
We will write a custom Essay on Leadership Traits specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The society at large should be committed and participate in electing leaders who have good leadership qualities at every level as these are the leaders who can invigorate, motivate and inspire the people rather than a person who is debilitated, dejected and controlling by being obsessed over very detail and instead look for great and trustworthy people who would contribute to the execution of your vision.
Advantage of a degree in business Today, students studying business from an accredited school can be regarded to have done an advantageous course because these students are sure to get a balanced and broad based education that focuses on various business- related courses that are very helpful in the business field.
With a business degree in terms of career choice, one is guaranteed to find working positions in various settings that includes government sector, the non profitable organizations and the business sector among many other sectors.
Once an individual has completed a course in business, especially those who have majored in accounting, as an advantage, these people enjoy the best job positions and conditions in terms of high compensations and fast career appointment.
Accounting is described as a system that is used in the economic sector where information is identified, recorded, summarized and then reported for the use of decision. Another advantage of having a degree in business is that an individual does not limit oneself to one specific field of business study. When it comes to personal advancement and opportunities the road of life can present itself with many opportunities.
Once you get a job in business related field, the future of your career would not solely remain stagnant since a business degree can make you get on a wide variety of roles given that today almost every organizations goal is to excel in their business aspect in addition, there are complex corporations that are in demand of a wide range of specialists to help in their operations management.
Women Studies and Its Impact on the Perception of Women Cause and Effect Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Women have always been instrumental in various development activities in our societies yet very little is known about them. Until the second half of the 20th century, many scholars never bothered to talk about women in their writings. The few scholars that wrote about women simply mentioned them in passing, but they never gave them a critical analysis.
“Women’s studies were first conceived in the late 1970s, as the second wave of feminism gained political influence in the academic circles, through students and faculty activism” (Austen and Pearce 12).
Women studies became part of ethnic studies in the United States. The scholars who became interested in studying women had to endure myriad challenges. This paper therefore seeks to discuss women studies and its effect on our perception of women.
Lack of evidence on women activities was a serious challenge in women scholarship. This is because many people who wrote the ancient history of their societies never mentioned anything to do with women. For example, many scholars only gravitated on men’s superiority and their writings mostly portrayed women as house helps.
Therefore it was not easy to get information especially on women’s engagement in economic and political activities, which were predominantly men’s domain. Oral tradition and interviews were therefore used at large by the scholars that studied women. These sources failed to give a complete analysis of women.
Many Europeans were really affected by the problem of racism and this was manifested in their historical writings about other races. For example, African history was mainly reconstructed by scholars from Europe and other countries, who had a negative feeling on African women.
They therefore gave a biased account of women. Scholars who started women studies had to rely on European documents to study women in different places. This was met by many challenges since they could not distinguish between genuine and biased information from those sources.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scholars who studied the activities of women always received much criticism from gender biased people who never so the importance of those studies. They saw women studies as a competition against their history. Scholarship requires a lot of resources especially when one gets involved in a new academic field which is unpopular. It was therefore difficult for the women scholars to get funding because of lack of interest by some people.
Women scholarship has really changed our understanding of the past in many ways. First, we have been able to get a better understanding of the political activities that happened in the past. Before women studies began, it was generally believed that men were the only people that engaged in politics.
This perception was changed. Women indeed participated in politics at various levels. In some communities they had a complete control of their territories, while in some societies women took leadership positions in the government.
Economic history has been reconstructed by the help of women studies which also reveals that economic activities in the past were partly developed by women. Such studies have indicated that women were part off trading and agricultural activities. Even during the colonial America, women went a head and engaged in black smith trade that was believed to be a men’s activity.
Women studies have generally revolutionized our perception and attitude toward women. Through these studies we have been able to engage more women in politics (Kerber 189). This has enabled us to improve our governments since the decisions made by women politicians have proved to be equally important as those of men.
Democracy has therefore been enhanced through women studies. Gender equality has been promoted by women studies which have reveled that women still remain largely marginalized in many ways. This has led to formation of interest groups that now fight for women empowerment and gender equality.
Gender equality has enhanced efficiency in our societies because decision making and distribution of resources has become better due to women participation in politics. “Susan Antony ones said that women bring a new perspective in politics”. This statement has been adopted by many leaders and they have changed their attitudes toward leadership roles.
We will write a custom Essay on Women Studies and Its Impact on the Perception of Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Information about women remained obscure for a long duration, but it has now changed since the introduction of women studies in the academic circles. Today many scholars acknowledge the fact that women were important in the developments that took place in our communities. “John Edward Philips, in his book ‘Writing African History,’ mentioned that his ignorance of women in his writing of African history gave him an incomplete picture of the African situation” (Philips 120).
Women studies has also brought paradigm shift from male dominated politics to equal political representation in many countries today. For example, “Ellen Joseph Sir leaf who was appointed as the first female president in Africa greatly changed our perception of women” (Austen and Pearce 204).
With this change in perception about women, we therefore envisage a better future free from gender discrimination. We also hope that women will be empowered even more in all spheres of life.
Works Cited Austen, Jane and Joseph Pearce. Pride and prejudice. Berkley: Ignatius Press, 2008 .
Kerber, Linda. Women’s America: refocusing the past. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Philips, John. Writing African history. New York: University of Rochester Press, 2005.
Smoking cigarette should be banned Essay custom essay help
Introduction Smoking cigarette has proved to be a fatal practice not only for active smokers but most importantly, for the passive ones. Passive smokers inhale the smoke that is exhaled by others as they smoke or through tobacco ignition.
Smoking bans are guidelines and regulations which limit smoking in public areas. May public places are therefore marked as ‘Smoke-free Zone’ which emphasize on environmental and health hazards that smoking poses even with limited exposure.
However, individuals have a right to either choose whether or not to smoke cigarette but it is not fair if they do it at the expense of others, who become passive smokers and are at a similar risk as a direct smoker. It is the role of governments and health institutions to safeguard public’s health by regulating drug use and abuse cases such as tobacco smoking. Safety measures are considered to enhance public heath of passive and active smokers.
For instance, some nations have taken to consideration the aspect of personal freedom and have chosen to segregate specific ventilated areas designated for smokers while others have gone to the extreme of being abolitionists by imposing a total ban on cigarette smoking.
Cigarette smoking is not only implicated with public health due to their carcinogenic nature and chemical additives but also, has proven to be costly and degrading to societal values hence, should be banned.
Smoking cigarette proves to cause many deaths in the world as a result of health related issues such as e.g. coronary impairment, obesity, emphysema infant defects, lung cancer and respiratory illnesses. In the United States alone, the Environmental Protection Agency assert that secondhand smoking leads to over three thousand fatalities from lung cancer and thirty seven thousand deaths as a result of heart ailments (Koop, 2004).
Cigarettes smoking as a cause of illnesses and premature deaths become the first preventable cause to be controlled through imposing bans (Congress, 2005). Cigarettes have nicotine which is responsible for addiction and is attributed to coronary illnesses and nerve impairment hence, declining people’s life expectancy. Cigarettes contain various chemical substances that are toxic and carcinogenic.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Regular smoking predisposes an individual to twenty times chances of acquiring lung cancer. In addition, it triggers production of stomach acid which causes and individual to acquire ulcers and other stomach illnesses such as cancer. It is notable that smoking destroys blood vessels and vital organs such as the hearth which predisposes smokers to stroke and cardiac illnesses (Booth et al, 1999).
Besides, the World Health Organization points out that use of tobacco cause health problems, addiction ,deaths and most importantly, accelerates impoverishment particularly in African countries where great expenses are incurred in the management and treatment of these health issues. W.H.O therefore, ensures that the availability of tobacco is restricted through reducing its demand and supply.
In addition cigarette smoking has proven to be to be expensive to individuals who have to pay high taxes to acquire them. This affects their income as they strain to get more to cater for cigarettes as pointed out that “in Kenya it an average of two hours and 40 minutes to earn enough to buy a packet for imported cigarettes, while in the United Kingdom it takes just 40 minutes” (BBC, 2004).
Various western nations have banned tobacco smoking and advertising and now many manufacturers have drifted attention to African nations. However African nations have also become aware of these issues and therefore, the previous year saw Tanzania banning tobacco smoking in its public settings (BBC, 2004).
In other instances, smoking may cause accidental fires which results to great losses that need to be catered for hence; a lot of money is spent on cigarettes related claims. Cigarettes hurt the economy through financial costs, declined life expectancy and therefore, reduction of the pool of available labor force.
The tobacco industry use eleven billion dollars per annum to market cigarettes through advertisement strategies. The FDA aims to curb deceptive advertisements and requires explicit labeling on packages alerting on hazards arising from smoking cigarettes such as addiction of nicotine which is even reinforced with additives to enhance its addiction (Congress, 2005).
The social use of cigarettes can be implicated to marketing strategies employed by various tobacco firms. The American Tobacco Company for instance, previously engaged in aggressive advertising that saw increasing number of smokers.
We will write a custom Essay on Smoking cigarette should be banned specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These stylish displays in shops and the media adverts, which associate smoking with sophistication, the elite and with loyalty, cause the rise in use of cigarettes. Cigarette smoking therefore, has become socially acceptable due to misleading advertisements targeted especially to the youths (Cunningham, 1996).
As a result, a ban is essential in drifting social norms of being tolerant to smoking in day to day lifestyle. Ban is imposed through tax measures, establishing awareness programs, creation of policies and termination initiatives geared at guiding human behaviour through controlled smoking hence, facilitate public health.
Lawyers in the United States are aware of the health implications achieved from cigarettes smoking although they emphasize that the smoker should bear the burden and not the tobacco industry. It has therefore required that the manufacturer label a warning on risks of smoking, avoid deceptive advertisement and create public awareness of statistical facts emanating from smoking.
However, lawyers insist that the tobacco companies bear no liabilities for the risks of smoking since it is a personal choice. Some point out that there should be a ban while others assert that imposing a ban is unconstitutional and alternative measures should be considered (ABA, 1986).
However, when deaths arise from smoking cigarettes, families are left to suffer and become overburdened and poverty strikes them. Tobacco related fatalities and medical realities are however instigating fears in a society that has embraced the consumption of tobacco as a social norm. Smoking is done for social a motive of trying to fit with the peers or other social groups
Conclusion The rationale for imposing tobacco bans are based on the concept that smoking is elective while breathing is a must for all humans. Bans imposed by governmental bodies are meant to safeguard passive smokers from health risks although they might not be legitimate since they infringe people’s privacy.
Legislations have been set by many nations based on scientist medical facts, which asserts that tobacco smoking is dangerous to users and second-hand smokers. Ban on tobacco smoking has resulted to a decline in the number of smokers as the world is sensitized on the consequences incurred on 31st May (BBC, 2004).
The World Health Organization has facilitated on creating public awareness on risks of cigarette smoking including its contribution to poverty as nations pursue healthcare. Other suggestions to smoking cigarettes includes use of Smoke-free Tobacco (SFT) which involves snuffing or chewing and use of low tar products, which are they are equally harmful as smoking (Koop, 2004 ).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Smoking cigarette should be banned by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Self-interest is the main determinant in dictating the approach towards smoking bans and often the main cause of controversies. Although it has been noted that many people depends on tobacco industries for exports and employment opportunities to earn then a living while governments use taxes levied on cigarettes for infrastructural development, the risks that arise from cigarettes smoking outweighs the advantages and therefore should be banned.
References ABA. (1986). The ABA Journal: The Lawyer’s Magazine. Washington DC. American Bar Association.
BBC. (2004). Should Smoking be Banned?. United Kingdom. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3757225.stm
Booth, G., McDuell, G. R. and Sears J. (1999). World of Science, Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Congress. (2005). USA Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 109th Congress First Session, 151, Pt. 4. Washington: Government Printing Office.
Cunningham, R. (1996). Smoke
Risks in online marketing Report (Assessment) college essay help near me
In the modern world, there is rise in charity organizations which deal with donated product such as books, toys, ornaments and small household goods. Unfortunately, these charity organizations often encounter financial problems due to low prices on commodities of high value. The potential customers of these charity organizations are mainly low wage earners and the old age pensioners.
Due to these challenges, charity organizations have opted to use online marketing to increase their markets. With their resolution to online marketing come several challenges. Consequently, this paper seeks to analyze the possible risks to the charity organizations going online and also provide solutions to minimize the risks that will be encountered.
There are several risks that are related to the organization that opt to work online (Ottessen and Gronhaug, 2006). One of the major risk that is likely to be encountered is payment fraud (Li, 2003). With the use of credit, debit or personal cheque there is possibility of the charity getting defrauded through fake documents. Personal cheques are not reliable source since they might be bouncing therefore the business faces the risk in payment of commodity.
The server providing the charity organization with the internet also known as the internet service provider may break down bringing the activities of the business to a halt. The organization is therefore exposed to threat of making losses due to ineffective performance. The software of the computer may encounter some fault resulting in error or omissions. This permits unauthorized individuals to use the services of the charity organization without the notice of the owner and can result in loss of property due to online theft.
Another risk posed to the charity is the possibility of hacking (Shih and Wen, 2005). The computer system of the organization is likely to be infected by the viruses, botnets, Trojan or worms since it is exposed to insecure usage by potential customers. Therefore, the computer system is likely to break down which in turn will affect the activities of the charity i.e. the organization is likely to make losses.
To make matters worse, data stored in the computer system faces threat from the infection of the virus. The databases, software’s and files are likely to be affected by the viruses, Trojan or worms.
Besides, there is a risk of spoofing. Illegal sites purporting to have a relationship with the genuine charity organization are likely to sprout. There is great likelihood because of the low costs of website creation and the ability to imitate the original pages. Therefore, customers of the business have a greater risk of being conned from by scammers. As a result, customer loyalty is likely to be lost hence the charity will perform poorly.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Given that website development is much easier and cheaper, the copyright, patent and trademark names are likely to be infringed since the hackers can use the information about the business without authority from the owner (McKay and Marshall, 2004).
There is also the issue of libel about the information published on the web page (Smith, 2004). The information that is contained in the web page concerning the charity may be damaged or destroyed leading to decrease of fame of the organization.
Shipment costs are likely to be high since the organization has a responsibility of delivering the products to the doorstep of the consumer (Schienker and Crocker, 2003). This makes it to be an expensive business resulting to losses or minimum profit. To add on, the consumer can claim that the goods were not received or were of poor quality which may lead to compensation.
The link between the organization and the supply channel will be poor or not sufficient since the customer does not have physical and free interaction with the business. Consequently the commodities will not sell as required therefore the stock might be scrapped in order to pave way for the new stock.
Encryption is one of the ways that can secure the transaction between the consumer and the organization. The technology of encryption denies the unauthorized persons the information on the payment documents. This allows the information to be private and confidential therefore it can not be used without the knowledge of the owner.
Authentication is another way to minimize risks in the charity organization. This is the satisfaction of the customer security after obtaining trust in the authority of the organization. This encourages the customer to access the internet business without fear since security is guaranteed upon the use of the commodities in the online business (Li, 2003).
Digital certificates should be issued in order to secure communication of the organization from possible hackers (Reisnich, 2005). This involves the use of electronic files that distinguishes the genuine storefronts of the organization which are on line. Therefore the consumer is protected against the scammers.
We will write a custom Assessment on Risks in online marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Training the staff about the risks encountered is a way of managing the risks that are encountered in the organization (Pathak, 2005). This enables the staff to be aware of the risks involved in the online transaction and this will help to curb down the uncertainties that may be encountered.
The charity should be able to choose the right bank and proper payment methods in order to avoid defrauding and loss of property. It follows that the potential bank should be conversant with the risks associated with online transactions.
The website content about the charity organization should be sufficient and reliable in order to minimize the risks involved in the business. For instance, the web page should consist of shipping, refund and privacy policies. To add on, the page should be easy to use for their consumer.
Making of internal structures that prevent fraud and implementing them is another way to minimize the risks related to the charity organization. This includes the strategies that the business plans in order to counter fraud cases.
Tools that are meant to prevent fraud should be used in order to avoid fraud cases. For example, the use of secured codes in the master and visa cards can greatly reduce chances of being scammed. The charity organization should be vigilant in the use of the credit cards in order to avoid the fraud cases. This involves carefully screening the cards that are used in the online transaction to minimize the risks related to fraud cases.
Possible intruders to the account of the charity organization should be prevented (Shih and Wen, 2005). This is enhanced by protecting the account from unauthorized persons.
In conclusion, it is clear that the charity organization will be at risks when it goes online as compared to when it operates through the physical location. Both the charity organization and its potential customer are exposed to greater risk when the business decides to go online.
However, if the charity organization takes extra caution in order to minimize the risks, the performance of the charity is likely to be boosted up. This is because the sales are likely to increase due to the large number of customers purchasing from the charity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Risks in online marketing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Li, S., 2003. Future trends and challenges of financial risk management in the digital economy. Managerial Finance, 29(5/6), pp.111-125.
Mckay, J. and Marshall, P., 2004. Strategic management of e-business. Singapore: John Willey
Law in Business – The case of Johnson v Unisys Ltd Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The UK lacks explicit legislation on bullying, however, victims of bullying can utilise other statutes, laws and regulations. Also, issues of unfair dismissal need to be addressed in Alan’s case.
Workplace bullying Whenever an employee gets into a contract with an employer, they normally state what they expect from one another. The contract possesses an implied term of acting in a trustworthy manner. Both parties expect that their relationship will be characterised by confidence and mutual trust between one another.
In this regard, any form of bullying compromises that implied term in the contract. Although Alan’s employer was not responsible for actual bullying, he still had the responsibility to ensure that he provided his employee with a stress free environment for optimum productivity. He therefore breached his part of the employment contract (Riley, 2009).
Alan can also approach the issue in terms of breaching the employer’s ‘duty of care’. The Health and Safety At Work Act (1974) specifically states that employers need to make sure that employees’ psychological and physical well being are in order. This means that employers should look at the stress levels inherent in a workplace and deal with them accordingly. When Alan went and told Mr. Philip about the bullying, he tried to downplay it.
He even started blaming Alan for over reacting. Instead of dealing with the source of stress, Philip was drawing attention from the real problem causing the stress; which was the unruly behaviour of verbally abusive workmates. This employer was thus illustrating that he had failed in carrying out his duty of care as defined in this Act (Freedland, 2009).
The protection from harassment Act (1997) would also be applicable in this case. This Act was initially designed to protect workmates from employers who would stalk their workers. However, authorities on workplace bullying recommend the use of this very Act for protecting oneself against workplace bullying. Alan can claim harassment by his colleagues especially since they made the situation so unbearable for him at the shop floor.
As stated in the case study, Alan’s employers are liaising with the Health and Safety Executive in order to find out how the accident had occurred. Alan can possibly wait for their report to come out. If it is found that he did not intentionally cause the accident or that it was pure misfortune then he can sue his employed colleagues for defamation of character.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, the employees who were bullying him made the assumption that he was a bad person and called him those horrible names in accordance. These individuals did actually bully Alan out of work. They stigmatised him and ruined his career prospects as well.
The case of Johnson v Unisys Ltd  UKHL 13 is a good illustration of this point. In the case, Mr. Johnson was able to sue for an injury to his feelings and the House of Lords ruled in his favour. It is possible for Alan to get some monetary compensation from those bullies owing to the fact that they had tarnished his name (Deakin
Resource Allocation Report college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of Resource Allocation
Resource Allocation Techniques
Introduction The rapid globalisation rate facing the world has led to increased competition in most of the resources used in the running of business organisations.
It is because of this that the subject of resource allocation is of great importance to all business enterprises. The limitation in the supply of most resources while their demand is tremendously increasing also calls for effective allocation of the scarce resources.
Resource allocation therefore entails the apportionment of the available resources to effectively run the enterprise or project to its completion without failure. Allocation of resources could also mean sharing the available resources among various projects the organizations could be undertaking simultaneously.
Some of the main resources that ought to be effectively allocated include; human resources, financial resources, economic resources among others (Meredith and Mantel, 2002, p.104). This paper is therefore an analysis of various allocation techniques and the importance of allocating resources in the organizations.
Importance of Resource Allocation Allocating resources in a company is very essential as the company is usually obliged to make the most out of the least resources it is endowed with. The duty of allocating resources is usually left to the management of the organization or rather the project managers in the case of a project. There are therefore many benefits that arise as a result of effective resource allocation in organization.
Achievement of objectives– When the resources of an organization are effectively allocated, it ensures that the organizational objectives and goals are achieved. This is majorly because the key factors will be considered during the allocation hence making sure that the required projects are done in the right way thus achieving the goals set by the organisation. This can also be attributed to the role of budgeting in the organisation.
Cost effectiveness– Through resource allocation the organization tries to be cost effective in that the least resources are used to achieve maximum output. This has the benefit of making the organization save so much on the available resources. For example, the organization could opt to use high percentage of machinery labour as opposed to human labour to save on the cost of labour as well as time.
Completion of projects- Some of the projects of an organisation are long-term taking up to 20 years for completion. If resources are not efficiently allocated in such projects, they could end up not being complete due to insufficient resources during progress (Meredith and Mantel, 2002, p.108). Thus, the project managers have to allocate the resources at hand to make sure that the available ones will be adequate to complete the project within the stipulated time.
Best combination- Through resource the best combination is achieved. This is because the management will try out to use the allocation methods to match up the best combination of resources that can be used in the project or organization. This will therefore ensure that the best output is achieved.
Ranking of resources- It can be agreed that not all resources of an organization will be required in all instances. At times, specific resources will be of need as compared to others. This therefore leads to the ranking of these resources in the order of their importance. Ranking will therefore be achieved during allocation whereby those that are of urgent need or higher priority are made top of the list down to the less important. This becomes essential especially in the long-term projects which may have different requirements depending on the stage of completion of the project.
Resource Allocation Techniques Due to the fact that resource allocation is an important subject in the running of organisations it calls for effective methods to efficiently allocate the resources (Norton and Kelly, 1997, p.124). Some of these techniques include the following:
Centralized resource allocation entails the allocation being done by a single department or individual. Therefore the other departments request for the resources they require which are then allocated to them. This method is very simple to undertake although it becomes difficult with increasing size of the organizations.
In Hierarchical resource allocation the process takes two phases whereby the first allocator collects the requests and assesses them before giving the second allocator to have his or her opinion then the allocations are made. The process takes some time although the decisions are shared hence coming up with the best alternative.
Random access is another method of allocating resources where the resources are allocated randomly to the different sectors of the organization or project. This method comes about when the entities cannot be synchronized yet there are multiple resources to be shared across.
Bi- Directional Resource Allocation involves two allocators who independently allocate the resources to the project or organizational sectors. This method is meant to avoid allocating similar resources to different entities. However, the difference is in the long-run resolved through fixed arbitration algorithm of the resources which is a mathematical technique of allocating resources.
Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be seen that resource allocation plays a major role in the success of any project or organization (Norton and Kelly, 1997, p.124).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is therefore important that business enterprises practice effective resources allocation if at all they want to match the global competition. Given the different allocation techniques it is upon the organization to select the best alternative depending on its size and available resources.
Reference List Meredith, J. and Mantel, S. (2002). Project Management: A Managerial Approach, 17th edition.
Norton, S and Kelly, L. (1997). Resource Allocation: Managing money and people. Eye on Education. Print.
The Role of Media’s Influence Reflective Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The Role of Media’s Influence on Language and Culture Description of Concrete Experience
I was born and raised in Mullins South Carolina in the United States. At the age of 19 years old, I moved out to Atlanta Georgia where I met my husband, Olayinka Akinsowon, then 20 years old. Akinsowon is from West Africa and a native Nigerian.
It is from him that I experienced the African language and culture. Essentially, the South Carolina’s people are very slow though very hospitable. The people freely communicate with each other regardless of whether they are familiar with each other or not.
If you don’t speak to others freely, then you are considered rude and this hospitality makes other people feel comfortable. The southern people commonly use food to welcome another person into their home or place of work. They may use the media to announce a family dinner to everyone so that even the customers can visit and patronage their businesses.
I became interested in the spread of English as a language used by many cultures across the world. The media-bound varieties of language are increasingly coming up and a result I deduce that media are both vehicles of culture spread and diversification and also contribute to the changing use of language. I think that media are more than a neutral channel by which American culture spreads since it has been very dominant.
English paramountcy as language has been cemented by the dealers in media properties like computers, television, and music etc. the media is not limited to spread of language but the new varieties of English like slung and culture in general. I consider the media as a tool and infrastructure of passing information among people as a result also passes their character and beliefs which naturally have an effect on language.
The effect of media on language and culture play a crucial role in the distinction of the American society and also affects it in national terms by comparing the American English and other varieties of use of English in different cultures.
For example, my husband comes from the Yoruba people of Nigeria and he is from the tribe of Ibo. As part of their business strategy to win the trust of clients and business partners, they usually offer food of gifts of good monetary value to create friendships. Language is a kind of capital that is used differently by different kinds of people to address cultural and social issues.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is why I think that linguistic prowess influences beliefs. for instance if an individual in Nigeria just like my husband is able to switch between the standard English and local dialect depending on the situation, then this individual can attain a higher social status or identity or power in the community.
Testing and Application
The many improvements in the media are greatly influencing the way we live and behave. I strongly believe that the media and entertainment in general has already influenced our thinking and feelings as the American society.
The southerners consider media as a learning opportunity in that they can easily believe facts that are passed through the media. The media has improved from paper texts, to voice in radio, to pictures and voice on TV to broadband on internet, hence making this a media rich society.
With media taking almost every aspect if our lives, I think it is a great influence on values and beliefs. Extensive use of English in media for instance has served to reinforce foreign culture to societies that are originally non-English speakers. This demonstrates that there is cultural distinction between those fluent in English and those who are not. People are therefore seen adopting sedentary lifestyles and materialistic norms part of their normal way of life.
The Influence of Science and Technology in Language and Culture Description of Concrete Experience
Before we observed great advances in media technology, all the children could do was to read, play with educational toys and non-advertising content. This made all the change in the society and as far as see it was not detrimental to culture. However the great developments of today have sparked a new wave of living our daily lives.
We spent the day playing video games, watching television or listening to music on our iPods, as such, technology is more important than ever hence making the society a materialist one. The level of technology development sometimes can affect communicative interaction with users. In the US, telecommunication has developed to its best potential and signal for call is strong and always available.
However I realized that I always took that for granted until when I experienced communication problems when talking to my husband when visits his relative back in his village in Nigeria. He explained to me that even in the smaller villages of Ondo, several families share one phone line! Someone may have to go to another family member to inform them that they have a call to receive.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Media’s Influence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reflection
The communicative affordances play a crucial role in facilitating or limiting interaction. The medial type is very significant in this case. In some parts of the world like in the villages of Nigeria where my husband comes from, telephone signal is interrupted or very week hence this can affect the use of language.
Besides, advance technology like chat room on the internet is not available to them. Otherwise in the American society I have seen the way such technologies have affected our language. Chat rooms have steered a certain language that is attached to it for effective communication. This language has certain terms that denote certain actions or meanings.
Slang is the most advanced language influence from technology. It is usually seen when we use contractions of phrases and abbreviations or modification of words from Standard English. New media brings with it new forms of communication and ensures a great deal of linguistic creativity and innovativeness. I find myself using words like … ‘LOl!’ meaning laughing out loud, and ‘am cul’ meaning that I am doing fine… among other expressions when chatting with friends on the internet.
I realize that the use of language is generated by a different media hence it is not possible to speak a single new language on the internet and over the phone or other media. Rather language has different usages depending on what we are talking about, for example a chat or an email.
This essentially means that the features offered by the technology being used and the cultural contest where it is being applied have decisive influence on the kind of language that will be used. Despite the great differences that exist among the media technologies, there have been some common uses and the most salient have been mixing of the oral and written expressions.
It is amazing how these media types have influenced our vocabulary and how words that begun as company names are used as verbs by most people to mean the same thing. I of tell people to “google it” when am asking or telling them to search of find something from the internet. ‘Tweeting’, ‘googling’, ‘friending’, ‘facebooking’ and so on are the new words being used commonly in the new internet world.
Testing and Application
Based on the level of technological development, communication is often interrupted or facilitated and this posses a question of reliability of some communication media. In the Ondo village of Nigeria, calls drop on continuous bases due to the distance from cell towers as well as cell towers being scarce. Therefore, the strength of the signal is weak. In larger areas such as Lagos, Nigeria, there are Calling Centers that have great telecommunication.
In the wake of new media under the influence globalization, there has been standardization of English and several other varieties and creativity. However, the media has played a big role in the spreading of English at the expense of other languages. Media industry in terms of software manufacturers, designers and other domains is dominated by English usage hence making it a language of globalization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Media’s Influence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Slang Is Influenced By Culture Description of Concrete Experience
In South Carolina, there is unique dialect that is common to people of all classes (low, middle, and upper class). People from different areas of the United States will not understand the broken English “slang” the South Carolinian’s are speaking. Here are some of the common phrases:
Way day go? ~ meaning, where did they go?
Day car gone down yonder ~ meaning, their car is over there.
I reckon so ~ meaning I guess so.
They finna go home ~ they are going home.
Slang language can be used by Nigerian from different tribes and have similar meanings. Therefore, when Nigerians of different tribes comes together for conversation, they use broken English “Slang” to communicate. Such as:
Kalo happen ~ means what’s up, man?
Ke sele ~ what’s happening?
Ekale ~ means Good Evening
O fumble ~ He messed up
The origin of the word slung is obscure and in most cases I has been associated with a language of being obscene, indecorous and irreverent. However, slang has come to be accepted are a unique language characteristic of particular area, groups of people like a social class and culture in general.
Slang that emerges from a certain culture of a problem f multiplicity hence it is destined to be a subculture aspect. This therefore means that slang is not just mere use of words, rather a particular way of using these words. It’s this subcultures that demonstrate characteristic phenomenal linguistic usage – slang that varies greatly in form and content from standard language and in relation to a dominant culture.
Analyzing the human society, it is evident that the human civilization is very diverse with all sorts of subcultures and these subcultures have their own behavior and thinking patterns. It’s these behavior and thinking liens that develop cultures.
When some of the subcultures feel threatened, they revolt violently. And it’s in such a manner that slang is developed. It is a social phenomenon rather than individual composition hence it is very hard to determine how certain words that we use came about. However, it is important to note that in most cases, slang comes from conflict of social values which could be fundamental or superficial.
Testing and Application
I have seen the American society which is a civilized culture and dominant get divided into subcultures with specific language phenomenon. These subcultures are very common among the young people who use that specific language to show that they belong to a certain group and well informed. Looking at the hip hop culture, food, drugs, sex and drink has wide-ranging slang vocabulary – wack, cool, fresh, dope, nerd are example of such slang.
The changing culture among the youth has caused characteristic linguistic change common to media and the formal and informal expressions are now mixed up. This is because the media has less formality and the development of slang brings about ne informal expressions and these affect formal expressions of language.
Vocabulary Can Be both Expanded and Limited Through Cultural Influences Description of Concrete Experience
I believe that the vocabulary of any language especially slang is expanded by culture. This is because as identified already, culture is all about the way a certain group is people behave and their line of thinking. Language is a consequence of thinking because it’s the most expressive way individuals can articulate their thoughts, attitude and feelings.
The southerners’ culture for instance, we use words that the rest of Americans cannot understand easily. The same goes for even the English speakers outside America like in the Ondo village of Nigeria, where my husband comes from. I can say that because, one way of language development is by creating words that are a form of secret code for a certain social group like thieves, secret gatherings and even businessmen.
I have noticed that job-related groups and groups with secret or discrete beliefs are the legions of slang creation though they tend to identify with dominant culture. As such, there is little social and linguistic hostility that helps the groups to continue cohesive connection.
These groups have a lot of new words that introduce new vocabulary to slang as such it is common to find that words are used for quiet sometime by a subculture and as it gains more popularity they are adopted into the popular culture. These groups that develop slang wards include ghetto groups, drug addicts, the army, criminal gangs, and institutional populations among other groups.
Currently, new words in any language are emerging basically in slang and they are used for various purposes but the most general is the expression of emotional attitude towards something. For instance, in southern Carolina, we use the word doll sometimes to refer to a beautiful girl but when it is used as Barbie doll, it is an insult to describe a person as stupid.
Sometimes the new words are used to euphemize insightful thoughts though evident euphemism cold break the norm efficiently than a less modest expression. New words come to be used by people sometimes based on their place in the society and at times they even fail to notice that these are not formal words as the choice of expressions naturally flows in unconscious manner.
Testing and Application
When a language develops new vocabulary, is very difficult to keep the rules of grammar. For instance, “lemme see, ama love it” to mean let me see, I will love it. When I use such words, I will only be expressing myself in pronunciation and in intonation and other specific means of forming new words and eventually a language.
In the study of the new word formation or vocabulary, it is important to understand how they are used or how they might have been formed. For slang vocabulary, the suffixes are very important. New phrases often include proverbs, invectives, comic threats and satire slogans among others.
There are non-standard pronunciations like lemme, gonna and gimme; Sometimes the suffix make all the difference, eatin’, drivin, rockin, reduced assimilation like yo! ya’, wanna, and use of ‘z’ ending sound like beatz, stunnaz, rimz, galz. The new vocabulary formation tends to follow more simplified rhythmic design with iambic, trochaic model and truncation.
Changes in Meaning of Language and Idiomatic Expressions In Everyday Language Description of Concrete Experience
In the past linguistic studies, researcher thought that every language was well structured with distinct formation. However, there has been great change in the way idiomatic expressions are used. As new words are incorporated in the dominant culture language use, so is the emergence of new idioms.
In south Carolina, we use expressions like Ain’t Mary is used to mean Aunt Mary, the word ain’t basically means ‘No’ and the expression push the door translates to mean ‘close the door’. Slang is a language that presents informal expressions and words that are commonly found in speech rather than in writing. Every culture has its own type of idiomatic expression like in Nigeria, Bimbo means short for girls while in the US the same word means dingy woman. Nigerians use Abimbola to mean a girl born to be wealthy.
The change in idiomatic expressions has come about because of same beliefs that come from common interests. These words are usually string emotional expressions and at times they can be offensive. Some of the idioms emerging include the following;
It was ‘big bucks’ for me, but ‘chickenfeed’ to her
The idiom big buck is drawn from the word bucks which informally mean dollars therefore big bucks means a large sum of money and chickenfeed is contrasted to mean small cash.
‘Her ex’ is ‘absolutely bonkers’
Her ex may refer to her former boyfriend or husband while absolutely bonkers translates to mean being unpredictable.
The idiomatic expressions that we use in our daily conversations are very important because they provide sense of belonging and expression of culture. An idiom is a word or a phrase which is used figuratively to provide a meaning different from the literal meaning of the words used.
Sometimes the idioms can be mistakenly interpreted especially when the listener is not familiar with the expressions. The idiomatic expressions have become popular in language use because they provide a very easy and convenient way of portraying a message in a succinct manner rather than using explicit world to explain a meaning. For instance;
His grandfather had ‘deep pockets’ – deep pockets is used to mean wealthy or rich
His wife was ‘decked’ in a scuffle – decked mean that she was knocked down
I feel it is too early for me to ‘cut out’ – this idiom cut out means to Leave
Testing and Application
There has been gradual change in the use of words in language and we often try to meet the daily needs of our expression of feelings by temporarily deviating words from the ordinary sense. Many of these deviations usually attain permanence and the primary sense slowly fades away. The major ways that I feel idioms have changes include euphemism, generalizations and elevation. These are some of the important expressions being adopted;
This students is a ‘couch potato’ to mean that this students is very lazy
To handle this problem, I had to ‘have it all together’ used to mean that I have to be mentally all there
Our politician have often filled our minds with idea and thought that are ‘all wet’ – this mean their idea are all wrong
The Impact Advertising Has On Language Description of Concrete Experience
I believe that advertisements are very influential in changing the behavior and the way people express themselves. This has been very evident in the advertisement sector. I believe that the choice of the language to use in advertisement to convey the message so as to influence the beliefs and actions of people and this is vitally pertinent.
The design and visual content usually have immense influence on the consumers but it is the language used that assists people to identify products. In South Carolina, doing business can be tricky for people coming from other parts of the US. This is because communication can be hampered as the outsiders could have some difficulties in understanding the way the business owners converse. The southerners are slower in pronunciation of some words when they talk.
English contain extensive vocabulary where many other languages would have one or no word for certain meanings. Therefore while it would be difficult to choose words to use in another language to communicate, English would offer about six words to choose from.
Furthermore, these meanings could somehow differ in very subtle manner. The connotation of the wording is more important than the actual meaning. Usually the targeted audience is the one to put a meaning to the word depending on their interpretation.
The word ‘armchair’ tells of a very comfortable seat while ‘chair’ does not cause any emotional feeling towards it. Marketing and advertising seeks to cause emotive reaction on the clients based on the choice of words. This is probably why Nigerians sometimes advertise in their native language of Yoruba but most advertising is in English. Therefore, everyone in regardless of the tribal area that he/she comes from is able to understand and identify with the product being sold.
Advertisers often take a language and then modify words to use them for their own benefits as adjectives. These compound words eventually become part of that language hence developing new vocabulary. For example words commonly used in advertising are top-quality, longer-lasting and economy-size among others.
When a language is used in advertisements, it is usually expressed positively with emphasis on why a certain product is better than the rest. Language used in advertising may not always be formal or used correctly in a normal sense but it is seen as superior to other languages.
Testing and Application
The language of advertising has grown to become very pertinent in development of new vocabularies since we find that the commonly used words and phrases are adopted in daily language use. These words are very crucial in culture and social make-up.
I realize that the advertisement language is inherently associated with throw-away culture where new expressions find their way into the language being used with great velocity. Sometimes, these words disappear and may never be heard again, that is why I usually recall with nostalgia the advertisement slogan from the days when I was a child. However, they are not having the same impact they had in the past.
The Importance of Ethics in Business in Light of the Recent Global Financial Crisis Argumentative Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Ethics and the Global Financial Crises
Personal contribution to the ethical problem
Introduction Ethical behavior has always been assumed to be the foundation of a productive and well functional society. Despite this, business ethics have not been given much consideration and businesses have been subjected to little criticism for their ethical behaviour so long as they did not break the law.
Ethics can loosely be defined as a system of moral principles by which social conduct is judged as either “right” or “wrong”. In business terms, ethics are moral principles which dictate what legitimate behavior is in varied business dealings (Chryssides
Materials for Wood Interiors: Hardwood and Bamboo Research Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Hardwood
Comparison of Hardwood and Bamboo Flooring
Hardwood Wood is the oldest construction material known to humanity. Before man had made advances enabling him to use brick and mortar, wood presented the viable stating place because of its relative abundance and ease of working.
Almost all cultures have a history of working with wood for various applications. In ancient times, the Chinese stand out as experts on wood technology. However, all civilizations claim equal stake in developing wood applications in their localities.
Hardwood grows naturally in different parts of the world. It is the main raw material for hardwood flooring. Woodcutters obtain the wood from forests and saw it into planks for use as a flooring material. Natural properties of wood limit the size of each plank because wood naturally expands and contracts when there are variations in temperature and humidity.
Wood grows naturally in most parts of the world. Different climatic conditions favor different species of wood. Therefore, each continent has certain species unique to it, classified as either hardwood or softwood.
In general, hardwood provides a more durable material because of its density and best fits as a material for wooden floors. It take longer to mature thereby making its sustainable management more difficult compared to softwood.
Wood is a renewable resource. Hardwood trees take much longer than softwood trees to mature. This makes their sustainability more difficult to establish compared softwood trees. Nevertheless, with good management, hardwood stocks are a sustainable resource that can last for many generations.
In the world, America has the best sustainability practices for its hardwood stocks (American Hardwood Export Council). Wood is sustainable because it is possible to grow them afresh after harvesting. “The U.S. hardwood sawmilling and processing industry, the largest in the world, depends upon the hardwood forests of the United States for the widest range of temperate hardwood species in the world” (American Hardwood Export Council).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hardwood forests constitute forty percent of all forest cover in the United States. The forests provide raw materials for different applications including flooring. The species used for making hardwood-flooring boards include, oak, walnut, pine, cherry, teak, and maple.
The possible applications for any type of wood depend on its density and its physical appearance. Denser woods provide an ideal material for heavy uses such as flooring on high traffic areas, construction of external doors and durable furniture among others. Softwood trees on the other hand lend themselves for use as materials for lighter uses. While softwood timber is useable for flooring, it wears out faster making it is less attractive as a flooring material.
The installation of a wooden floor is a skilled job. They key pre-installation advice is, “store flooring where it will be installed” (Peterson
Character Analysis of Connie in “Where are you going, Where have you been?” essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Historical Period and Geographical Setting
Connie’s Age and Home Life
Why Does Connie Go with Arnold Friend?
Introduction The story under consideration “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” by Joyce Carol Oates shows an average teenager in the 60s. He/she wishes for independence, which comes real via undesired and unexpected consequences. Connie is a fifteen-year-old girl who is searching for freedom from her parents via a thirty-year-old Arnold Friend who offers her what she wants even though she refuses to get it from the first time.
Connie’s desire to be free is reflected in her behavior, attitude to parents, and her relation to personal sexuality, but when she is offered this independence, she understands that all she was searching for is a fantasy, and the real world is more cruel and unfair. This essay aims at providing a character analysis of Connie in “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?”
Historical Period and Geographical Setting The story was written in the 60s when the youth felt the smell of independence and tried to reach it. Connie’s behavior, as well as the behavior of other teenagers of that time, may be called revolutionary. The conflicts at home and the desire to be those who they are not are explained by the cultural and geographical settings. 60’s in the USA are known as the sexual revolution.
The youth felt freedom concerning their sexuality and did not want to hide it. Vice versa, they tried to show everybody that they were free and ready for sexual relations, Connie “knew she was pretty, and that was everything” (Oates n.p.). But, in reality, most teens were not ready for this. Connie was not as well.
Connie’s Age and Home Life How old is Connie in “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” Connie is a teenager, and being fifteen years old, she feels that she is old enough to become independent, but she still has to be under parental control. This situation with the two sides of her identity makes her crazy.
She continually repeats that the hates her mother and her sister, who is elder and also try to teach her. Once Connie “wished her mother was dead, and she herself was dead, and it was all over” (Oates n.p.), that appears to be the crucial point in their relations.
Connie’s desire to meet with boys to have their appraisal of her appearance is one more expression of her desire for independence. Connie and her friend really appreciate the father of Connie’s best girlfriend, who usually gives a lift for girls and “never bothered to ask what they had done” (Oates n.p.). Communicating with boys, Connie is always sure that after driving somewhere, she will be delivered home, safe, and uninjured.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She knows that she attracts boys, and her childish innocence and inability to think like adults do, with the whole responsibility, make her free from fear. But this feeling does not last long. Arnold Friend, the antagonist, attracted by her innocence and beauty, ruins Connie’s world when he comes to her house, being afraid to make an extra move “She was hollow with what had been fear but what was now just an emptiness” (Oates n.p.).
As the summary evidences, the whole situation with Arnold makes Connie doubt her vision of independence. Arnold shows her that freedom is not as sweet as she thought and that she has to answer for the consequences. “I’m your lover. You don’t know what that is but you will” (Oates n.p.) Arnold says as if warning Connie.
Why Does Connie Go with Arnold Friend? Connie has always been sure that, staying at home, she is safe. Searching for independence, she still believes that she can be home, and no one will be able to get there, and she is sure she is under protection in her house.
Arnold Friend character analysis sets him as a person who ruins Connie’s ideas about independence and shows her that it is not the world where she can do whatever she wants. Arnold explains to Connie that independence is equal to becoming an adult, and this world may be cruel and unfair.
The author does not say directly whether Arnold raped Connie, but the words “she felt her breath start jerking back and forth in her lungs as if it were something Arnold Friend was stabbing her with again and again with no tenderness” (Oates n.p.) may be understood right in this way. This is the end of Connie’s fantasy, and she has to decide whether she wants to accept her independence or not.
At the same time, Arnold, evidently symbolizing the devil in disguise, states that Connie has no other variants but to accept the independence he offers her and go with him and Ellie, his sidekick. He says that the place Connie came from does not exist anymore, and where she planned to go is canceled out (Oates n.p.). These words show that Connie’s ideas about independence are wrong. What she is offered is what she did not want to, but it does not mean she would never reach the desired goal to be free.
Conclusion In conclusion, it should be mentioned that we never know whether Connie accepts Arnold’s invitation for sure, but the final words of the story give us food for thinking. It seems that everything is real, but the author states that Connie “watched herself” (Oates n.p.) as if everything happened in her imagination.
We will write a custom Essay on Character Analysis of Connie in “Where are you going, Where have you been?” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As the character analysis of Connie in “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” proves, even if Connie does not leave her house and does not go out with Arnold, she understands that independence is not what she has believed to be. This realization of some facts makes her a dynamic character. Connie’s wish comes true, but she has dreamt about a different reality, not so cruel and unfair.
Works Cited Oates, Joyce Carol. Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Web.
Web Communication and Advertising Problem Solution Essay college essay help
The development of online technologies has transformed marketing strategies of many companies; in fact, nowadays it is difficult to find a product that is not advertised via Internet.
However, many organizations still underestimate the benefits offered by the World Wide Web. This paper aims to develop an Internet marketing strategy for such a product as mineral water. It is normally advertised through television, radio, and billboards but online channels are seldom used.
There are several objectives which have to be attained: 1) to raise the customers’ awareness about the product; 2) to allow the customers make online purchase; 3) to increase the customer base of the company. This internet advertisement will target two types of clients:
Individual customers who may be willing to learn more about different companies selling mineral water.
Private companies: restaurants, hotels, snack bars, fast food chains that will make wholesale purchase.
At this point we can discuss several aspects of online advertising and their importance. One of them is direct e-mail. We are going to use in order to inform our returned customers, most likely, they will be wholesalers, restaurants, hotels about new products, benefits and discounts. It is also necessary to compile a list of prospective companies that may require this kind of product and send them newsletters.
One should note that customers should be contacted via e-mail no more than two times per month; otherwise these mails can be regarded as spam. The major benefit of this approach is that it enables the company to raise awareness about the products and about other offerings. Additionally, direct e-mail enables companies to maintain long-term relations with returned customers.
Cross-media advertising is another aspect of Internet advertisement that one should utilize. Overall, this approach can be regarded as combined use of television, radio, print and video (Chaffey et al, 2009). The distributers of mineral water can successfully adopt this strategy with the help of Internet since nowadays there are many online radio stations or online newspapers; furthermore, one should not forget about online television.
Additionally, there are also many video-sharing websites where companies can post their commercials. The producers of mineral water can promote their products through each of these media. Cross-media advertisement is important for the attraction of new customers. By adopting this approach, the companies can reach a wide target audience (Chaffey et al, 2009, p 180).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The companies, which produce and sell mineral water, can also rely on banner advertising. These banners should be placed at the websites of online newspapers and Internet forums. The banners should emphasize some distinguishing properties of the product such as the benefits for health of the consumers, its taste and certainly the price.
In this case, the main objective of this strategy is to attract the customer’s attention to the product (Belch
Writing and Editing a Reflective Essay essay help online
Introduction The main problem facing most people when it comes to writing is procrastination. Doing the assignments at the last-minute causes people to rush things, and therefore making many mistakes. As a result, one believes that he is not a good writer.
Like most people, I believe that there are people who were born good at something, and in this case, there were born writers. This mentality may keep other people from learning to be good writers, but I believe that the struggle to achieve good results is not much of a burden.
In writing my research paper, i had to come up with strategies to make sure that I completed it in time, and that it was satisfactory, according to the instructions provided. I believe that my success was attributed to great planning and organization skills.
In addition to this, I took my time to research and obtain the most appropriate resources, before writing my paper. After completion, I proof read the paper, making the necessary grammatical and spelling mistakes (Hyland, 2000).
Writing and editing strategies Planning
Every assignment issued requires a certain amount of time, which is determined by the lecturer. The most important thing after viewing an assignment and looking at the time frame to complete it is planning. One aspect of planning involves the development of an outline that helps to organize the research paper.
The outline was very important as it helped me to stay focused on the objectives of the paper, without deviating from the main topic. The outline was also helpful in obtaining meaningful resources that reflected on the various sections of the paper (Lester
Main Problems for Working Poor Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Barbara Ehrenreich, the author of the book Nickel and Dimed, focuses on the lifestyle of low-income earners in America coupled with the many problems they contend with daily. Ironically, America is among the world’s highly developed countries of all the times. Additionally, during independence, it declared equal working and living conditions on top of happiness for all its citizens as outlined in the famous ‘American Dream.’
However, the treatment of the American poor workers negate its robust economical growth over the years; actually, for low-income earners, the ‘American Dream’ is just that; a dream and as things appear, it will remain an ever-elusive dream that only existed in the dreaming of the likes of Martin Luther et al.
Ehrenreich personally encounters the evil treatment as an American worker. She realizes that whether one is a low-income earner African-American or purely an American citizen he/she faces homelessness, squalid working conditions, and poor payment.
The Main Problems Encountered by Ehrenreich Ehrenreich encountered difficulties in securing a job, poor working conditions, mistreatment from managements, poor and expensive housing rates among other pertinent issues affect every other low-income earner in the might America. In Florida Ehrenreich is unable to get a good job forcing her to secure a low-wage paying job.
The first place she secures a job is in a restaurant called ‘Hearthside’ where she is to work as a waiter for two weeks. Her working hours are from 2.00 to 10.00 pm at only $2.43 per hour.
Hearthside managers do not allow her to rest or even sit while at work. On the contrary, they sit down from morning to evening. Due to their selfish nature, they do not care about the plight of their employees nor customers rather all they want is money.
Additionally the supervisors disrespect and do not pay attention to the employees on top of delaying their payments without apparent reason. This shows the poor treatment of the American worker and exposes the pipe dream that is the ‘American dream’ has degenerated into; equal opportunities to all, liberty and pursuit of happiness exists but only on paper if not in dreamland.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From her earnings, Ehrenreich is unable to afford basic needs like housing, food, and health services. This is an irony because America’s economy is one of the best in the world with a growth domestic product of about $14.7 trillion.
Luckily, Jerry’s restaurant employs her as a waiter again. Unfortunately, there is oppression and poor working conditions. The kitchen is in poor condition while the bathroom is unequipped not to mention long working hours. Although she has a job, she lives in a trailer, which is tiny and not comfortable.
All employees are mistreated yet they work selflessly and this underscores the treatment and life of a low-income American worker. Interestingly, two of the Americans dreams are the dream of abundance and that of democracy of goods, yet its citizens are unable to live in good houses. Ehrenreich lives in a trailer park because of low wages that she earns. After a short time, she decides to quit the job.
This aspect ridicules the American economy as among the most successful economy in the world. The third job Ehrenreich picks up is house keeping in a hotel. She is to earn $6.10 a day; unfortunately, the job lasts only for a day for it turns out to be too demanding for her to cope.
There are many customers to serve hence she is deprived of sleep. When Joy, one of the supervisor’s screams at her, she feels intimidated and quits the job. Again, the plight of a poor American worker surfaces; they work as slaves hence the American dream of liberty and pursuit of happiness violated.
Ehrenreich relocates to Maine because most of the residents there are whites hence she expects a better life. On the contrary, she is unable to get a good and cheap house and therefore lives in a cottage. There are many jobs in Maine but the payments are much far lower compared to that of Key West, Florida.
Talk of going for the greener grass across the fence only to realize it grows on sewage. Here she luckily manages to secure a cleaning serve job where she works on weekdays, and supplements it by working in a hospital over the weekends to supplements her meager wages.
We will write a custom Essay on Main Problems for Working Poor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ironically, she is unable to meet her basic needs due to high living conditions yet she has two jobs at a go. This is an irony because economically, America ranks first in the world’s economies meaning it is highly developed but its citizens’ living conditions do not measure up to the economic vibrancy experienced here.
The virtue of good neighborliness is absent in Maine as Ehrenreich encounters rude and unfriendly people. America dreams of pursuit for happiness, liberty, abundance, and novelty are outstandingly absent. Unfortunately, this is the day-to-day life experiences of the poor American worker.
Finally, Ehrenreich moves to Minnesota but she is unable to get a house hence she lives in a hotel, which is extremely expensive. All the jobs she applies for have a bureaucratic application process; however, she finally secures a job at Wal-Mart. She forms a welfare union, which does not hold because she again leaves the job.
In Minnesota there is mistreatment and lack of trust from employers; another plight of the poor American worker. Despite America being developed, most of its citizens are languishing in abject poverty.
Conclusion Ehrenreich describes the difficulties experienced by Americans citizens especially those employed on temporary basis. This is out of expectation because America is the most developed nation in the world hence has a powerful economy.
Poor treatment and poor working conditions are the orders of the day. In addition, there are no available jobs, houses, and health insurance for Americans citizens. In a recap, American workers who depend on wages face, homelessness, poor pay, and working conditions. What more can define poverty?
How does cognitive function influence spatial perception during pregnancy of the human species? Research Paper online essay help
The recent researches have detailed the multifaceted alterations in maternal brains affecting the female cognitive function in general and spatial perception in particular. Showing the structural changes during the first few months of pregnancy, these studies make attempts to explain the underlying reasons of these modifications and major influential factors having impact upon these processes.
The results of most studies have demonstrated the direct relationship between the female reproductive status, hormonal changes and improvement of spatial perception in mothers regarding both offspring-directed and non-offspring directed components of the maternal behavior.
There is a link between hormonal fluctuations and alterations in structure of hippocampal neurons and corresponding improvement of cognitive function (Kinsley et al., 2006; Lemaire et al., 2006; Kinsley and Lambert, 2008).
However, evaluating the results of their research, Christensen and Leach (2010) concluded that there is no relationship between pregnancy and changes in women’s spatial perception, explaining the results of other studies supporting the opposite hypothesis with the limitations of research design and biased sampling.
After investigation of the alterations in maternal brains and corresponding improvement of spatial perception, it has been concluded that these neural changes are preserved long after the last pregnancy (Macbeth and Luine, 2006; Pawluskiet al. 2009). It means that motherhood experience has a positive impact upon women’s cognitive function in general.
Taking into account the fact that the neuronal alterations affect both offspring-directed and non-offspring directed activities and are preserved throughout the woman’s lifespan, it can be concluded that the improvement of spatial perception is important for ensuring offspring survival but is predetermined with the motherhood-induced processes in the female organism as opposed to theories linking these shifts with instinctual state (Kim et al., 2010).
Pawluski, Walker and Galea (2008) concluded that the maternal behavior which is necessary for achieving reproductive success and taking care of offspring is a significant influential factor affecting the female cognition function and spatial perception. Bodensteiner et al. (2006) in their turn have proven that reproductive status has more impact upon working spatial memory. In general, the neural changes, improvement of spatial perception and the behavior necessary for successful fulfillment of maternal functions are interrelated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analyzing the mechanisms of neuronal alterations in major sectors of pregnant women’s brains, the researcher determined major influential factors affecting the intensity of changes. Thus, in the first place, the reproductive status and age have been identified as the main parameters having impact upon the changes in mothers’ spatial perception (Pawluski et al., 2009).
The diet peculiarities in general and the zinc substance in particular are recognized as another significant factor having effect upon the mechanisms of neuronal changes. Stoecker et al. (2009) concluded that zinc deficiency is an important parameter which needs to be taken into consideration for investigating the cognition in pregnant women.
The foetal sex is recognized as one more influential factor affecting the spatial perception in pregnant women. Vanston and Watson (2005) concluded that women pregnant with boys demonstrated better results in spatial perception tests that those pregnant with girls, explaining these findings with the level of foetal testosterone affecting the mother’s cognition.
Taking into account the human sex differences in spatial perception, it can be hypothesized that testosterone can be regarded as an important influential factor having impact upon the choice of cues for spatial orientation (Herman and Wallen 2007).
Reference List Bodensteiner, K., Cain, P., Ray, A., and Hamula, L. (2006). Effects of pregnancy on spatial cognition in female Hooded Long-Evans rats. Hormones and Behavior, 49(3): 303-314.
Christensen, H. and Leach, L. (2010). Cognition in pregnancy and motherhood: prospective cohort study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 196: 126-132.
Herman, R. and Wallen, K. (2007). Cognitive performance in rhesus monkeys varies by sex and prenatal androgen exposure. Hormones and Behaviour, 51 (4): 496-507.
We will write a custom Research Paper on How does cognitive function influence spatial perception during pregnancy of the human species? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kim, P., Leckman, J. F., Mayes, L. C., Feldman, R., Wang, X.,
Ecological Integrity and Impact of Human Activities on Nature Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Ecological Integrity
Ecological Integrity The ecological integrity is one of the concepts currently discussed. In fact, the term ‘ecological integrity’ means biodiversity typical of the location and ability of nature to sustain this diversity.
In other words, human activity can damage the health of ecological system by destroying the diversity which includes different species of fauna and flora that contribute to the development of the ecosystem and its maintenance in the way it was done for a long period of time. Health of nature is the main concept that should be protected in order to sustain natural biodiversity and preserve biological balance on the planet.
Human System The diversity of natural resources varies depending on the location and resources typical for this or that region. In this respect, natural resources are developed and distributed to different countries all over the world to make sure that needs of all people in natural resources are met.
Natural gas and oil are the most important and widely applied resources used in different fields such as manufacturing, pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics, and other areas. Wood is used for making paper, furniture, building houses, and a great variety of other fields. So, I use water, air, gas, oil, wood, and other resources in my everyday life.
Environmental Degradation The impact of human activity on the environment is mostly negative whereas many people and corporations try to reduce the gas emissions and pollution of water, soil, and air. In other words, the degradation of natural environment is the expected outcome of the use of natural resources without thinking about the results of it and its impact on ecosystems that become less and less sustainable.
Social Issues The use of resources should be discussed on the local, regional, national, and international levels instead of criticizing every individual separately. However, the changes that can be introduced to reduce the negative impact of human activities on ecosystem and biodiversity should start with a personal donation of every individual. In this respect, I can say that buying devices that can be easily recycled and reducing the use of energy inefficient technologies would be my first steps in changing my impact on society from using resources. Moreover, encouraging others to reduce the negative impact on ecosystem could be a good contribution as well.
Sustainability Goals The difference can be made with the help of environmentally safe products, resources, and technologies. Moreover, it is important to remember that people can improve the ecological sustainability by stopping destruction of forests and impact on ocean floor. In other words, every part of the ecosystem consists of the species that are native to the location and the resources such as water sources or forests that are natural setting for these species. So, the main sustainability goal concerns maintaining the ecosystem so that it was not damaged and could remain biologically diverse during a long period of time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Timeline The timeline necessary to sustain the biodiversity includes more than a decade because the impact of human activity should be neutralized and certain improvement should be made in the economic and industrial fields to ensure that people would not pollute the ecosystem over and over. However, some changes such as distribution of energy efficient devices that can be recycled is one of the effective steps to sustainable ecological health.
Autobiography of Malcolm X Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Personal opinion and recommendation
Introduction Written by Alex Haley, a journalist by profession, The Autobiography of Malcolm X is a description of Malcolm’s life in a country dominated with racial discrimination, poverty, abuse of drugs, and crime. Haley uses Malcolm as the persona to bring out the themes of racial discrimination, poverty, and crime in the story.
When Malcolm turns eight years old, his father, a reverend, dies in cold blood murder. Therefore, in his entire life Malcolm is looking for a person befitting his father’s character for a role model. Unfortunately, Malcolm is black in a country where most of its population is white and therefore he faces the wrath of racism courtesy of his skin color.
Biography Malcolm was born in 1925 as a son to a reverend father. He was an activist of human rights especially in criticizing the harassment and merciless killing of black people living in America. While in Michigan, he went to high school but due to frequent discrimination and harassments from teachers who favored the white students, he quit.
At fifteen, he ventured into doing menial jobs although he dreamt of becoming a middle class lawyer. After sometime, Malcolm moved to Boston, where he worked in a drugstore; however, he experienced discrimination from well-off black men, which forced him out of the job. In the ghetto, Malcolm adapted a new life becoming a drug addict hence using hard drugs like marijuana and cocaine.
Unluckily, after a short while, the long arm of law caught up with him and incarcerated him for ten years. His experience in prison and as a criminal motivated him to become a Muslim as a way of salvation. Unfortunately, in February 1965 just like his father, Malcolm became a victim to assassination at Audubon ballroom in New York.
Summary Malcolm is a black young man from a humble background. After the murder of his father, he struggles to fit in a society full of racial discrimination from the whites on top of grappling with poverty, and crime. Malcolm attends school but due to mockery and humiliation from the school fraternity, he quits.
He then decides to search for greener pastures, which influences him to relocate to Boston in search of employment. However, his involvement in drugs lands him in prison. He later changes to Muslim and becomes a political critique, an achievement that leads to his assassination.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis Critical analysis of the book fails to classify it as an autobiography but rather a biography. In the epilogue, the author clearly describes his partnership with Malcolm X in writing of the story. Although Haley’s aim is for the reader to hear Malcolm’s voice, his voice is also evident hence disapproving Malcolm as the persona or the speaker.
For instance, Haley writes “I said, Mr. Malcolm could you tell me something about your mother?”(15).Therefore, the story comes out more of a narration than an autobiography hence its genre qualifies as a biography.
The author vividly highlights the theme of oppression through description of Malcolm’s character and life experience. For instance, when in Mason Junior High School Mr. Ostrowski kills his dream of ever becoming a lawyer by sarcastically telling him the best thing he could realistically become, as a nigger was a carpenter.
Mr. Ostrowski is a symbol of racial discrimination that the black citizens of America were going through. This is also an irony because Mr. Ostrowski, who is an elite of the community advocates for racial discrimination in public places like the school.
Personal opinion and recommendation The book describes racial discrimination as a key factor in America through personal experiences of Malcolm. The author painting an image description of Malcolm as a criminal, drug addict, and discrimination of fellow black people disqualifies him as a human right activist.
In addition, he is in jail not because of advocating for human rights but rather for his involvement in criminal activities. After finishing his prison term, he converts to Islam as a way of salvation; he becomes a mu-dar-ris, an Islamic teacher, and a critique of the political system. The book describes American politics as dirty, corrupt, and selfish. The American government does not protect the rights of its black citizens.
When unknown people murder Malcolm, police arrest three innocent Muslim men convicting them of the murder. However, before his death, Malcolm comments show that a senior and powerful member of the country was after his life. The American politics are not transparent because Malcolm’s death is due to him being a political critique.
We will write a custom Report on Autobiography of Malcolm X specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This book befits students in all levels of learning because the author clearly highlights the themes of oppression and struggle. Therefore, this is a form of encouragement to students who dream of being political figures in future. Additionally, Malcolm’s life experience is also a lesson to students’ fraternity especially on which life route to take.
Conclusion The Autobiography of Malcolm X describes Malcolm as an anti-racist and a political critique during his life. Although the author paints him as a human rights activist, earlier in his life he is a drug addict and criminal disqualifying his profession. The book also paints the politics of America as unfair and dirty because Malcolm’s death is due to his position as a political critique. It is a book worth reading for all students at any level of education.
Work Cited Haley, Alex. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Grove Press, 1965.
Consequences of a College Student Cheating In Exams Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Consequences of a College Student Cheating In Exams
Introduction The education system is usually faced with a lot of challenges one of them being cheating in exams. The main reason behind cheating in colleges is usually to pass the examination and reach the expected grades. Many students suffer from transition from high school to colleges and the belief that college education is tougher than that in high school makes them panic hence the temptation to cheat in exams.
The learning atmosphere in colleges, for instance, lack of strict rules with much freedom also may make the students relax and forget their studies hence cheating due to lack of adequate time to revise for exams.
All in all the factors that lead to cheating do not in any way justify the wrong act and the students usually face a lot of consequences. This paper gives an insight into some of the consequences faced by a college student because of cheating in exams.
Consequences of a College Student Cheating In Exams There are various consequences that are linked to cheating in exams in the college level. The student face some punishment which in most cases is determined by the seriousness of the cheating, the institution’s stipulated rules and regulations in regard to examinations, the particular lecturer’s or professor’s view of the circumstance among other factors.
One of the consequences involves failure in the specific course which leads to the overall failure. This is because cheating may result in getting a zero mark.
Apart from the failure, the student may also face the academic examination and disciplinary body which may make severe judgment for instance suspension or probation in case of first attempt or discontinuation or expulsion of the students in case of repeated attempt which affects not only his or her academic life but also the general life for instance in terms of securing employment opportunities.
Another consequence of cheating in examination among the college students is that the habit of copying or relying on others as opposed to working hard in their studies creates a negative attribute on them where they lack creativity and originality in their academic work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They also lose the sense of responsibility as they depend on others for their educational success reducing their chances of gaining new knowledge which adds to their pool of existing knowledge hence putting them in better places in various aspects of life.
The ethical and moral grounds of the college students who engage in cheating habits is also undermined which may affect all other aspects of their lives as they do not value accountability and ethics for example in family or work place settings (Hinrichsen 1).
In the event that the student who engage in cheating exam successfully finishes the college education, he or she may create a false character to the outside world as the certificates and other documents shows that the student is capable or fit for a particular position in the work place whereas he or she has little or no knowledge on the field.
The lack of independence and responsibility could also be carried on to the work place where the individual becomes inefficient and highly non-resourceful reducing the possibilities of securing and retaining a good job.
The students who are caught in cheating also face a lot of embarrassment and shame such as facing the disciplinary body which could be ruthless thus affecting their self esteem negatively.
The reputation of the particular student is also damaged as he or she is viewed as being incompetent and wrong by the other students, the lecturers and professors and even the administration. This reputation may have negative impact to the student even long after the cheating incident. A student who engages in cheating exams without being caught may also consider him or herself as a winner forgetting that it may affect them sometimes in future.
The students may find themselves being involved in other unethical acts in their adulthood which could lead to more severe consequences than those faced in an educational setting. Another effect of cheating in exams is that the honest present and even the future students in the system also suffer from the cheating behaviour.
We will write a custom Essay on Consequences of a College Student Cheating In Exams specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is because the cheating is deemed to affect the education system in a given manner as the rules tend to be inclined to both the honest and the cheating students. The grades of the honest students are also affected as they tend to be positioned lower than the cheating ones because the cheating students perform better in most cases although their means are not justified (Smith 1).
Conclusion Cheating in exams among college students is in the rise as the school systems become more lenient in terms of the examination rules and regulation, the guidelines given to the students and also the consequences accrued to the cheating act. Students usually find themselves taking advantage of cheating at the expense of working hard.
It is thereby advisable that the education systems in colleges should be revised where the importance of ethics should be impacted to the students to ensure that the students are able to be resourceful and responsible even in their professional careers and other general life matters.
Works Cited Hinrichsen, Erik. “Consequences of Cheating on Exams in College’. Bright Hub, 2010. Mar. 10, 2011.
Smith, Andrew. “Consequences for Cheating in School”. Ehow, 2011. Web.
Balancing Studies, Work and Family Life Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
How to balance studies, work and family demands
Introduction With the ever-increasing cost of studies and family demands, nowadays it is very normal to find a student who is struggling with the three aspects of life, as these are responsibilities that an individual cannot run away from. Although most individuals usually manage to study while working and attending to family needs, many learners usually find it a very daunting task, as each of these three important aspects of life has its own demands that must be met.
In most cases, failure to find a balance between these aspects of life can be very stressing; hence, unless an individual finds an amicable solution to this, likelihoods of one suffering from a burnout are high.
Although most individuals try to solve this by taking courses that are less demanding or require no formal class attendance, likelihoods of most of them becoming victims of failure are high, because of the increased risk of taking time to do one activity while neglecting others.
Therefore, because meeting all college, work, and family demands depends on how well learners mange their time, it is important for individuals to plan well their time by drawing a well balanced working schedule, which should include all the demands of each task, without forgetting to include some resting and recreation time.
How to balance studies, work and family demands The primary factor that will determine whether learners will be able to manage the numerous full-time multiple responsibilities that they face every day is their ability to draw a good time management plan. The plan should be able to divide all the time at a learner’s disposal in proportions that will depend on the time required attend to each responsibility.
In addition, because in normal life scenarios, numerous responsibilities that individuals may not have planned for are likely to arise, it is important for individuals to set some free time aside on their schedules to cater for any emergencies.
Further, one should set some play and resting time in their timetables, as this will help to relieve one from any form of tension, tiredness, and any work or study or family related stress.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, although some individuals may understate the significance of some responsibilities; hence, the tendency of them not catering for such responsibilities in their work schedules, it is advisable for a one to give each demand an equal amount of consideration, because failure in one responsibility can be an obstacle towards succeeding in another responsibility (Bradley 1).
A second strategy that individuals can use to ensure that they balance their studies with work and family responsibilities is involving their families and bosses in their studies.
Although not every family member or boss may appreciate this, at least it will make them feel less threatened by one’s interests in other activities, other than the responsibilities that they are supposed to perform at specific locations. To ensure that they appreciate what one is doing, it is good to have good study and work habits.
This will not only motivate others, but also it will create in them the desire to give an individual space, more so when they are engrossed in attending to other responsibilities, which an individual’s family or boss may not consider primary. Going hand in hand with having good study and work habits is setting of realistic targets.
As result of the numerous responsibilities that may come with these three aspects of life, it is advisable for an individual to set small, realistic, and attainable targets, be it in their work, studies, or families. Any target set should enable individuals to stick to their plans, manage expectations and ensure individuals set some time for themselves (University of South Africa 1).
Finally, because of the overwhelming nature of the demands that are associated with these aspects of life, it is important for one to seek help whenever they are overwhelmed with responsibilities.
In cases where the responsibilities are not overwhelming, it is advisable for an individual to take advantage of any shared activities to bond with family members or workmates. Individuals can achieve this by ensuring that they build meaningful relationships friends, workmates, and family members.
We will write a custom Essay on Balancing Studies, Work and Family Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These relationships are very important for any undertaking that learners may involve themselves in, as they are one of the most important tools that can help learners to boost their self esteem and motivation level towards anything they are doing.
On the other hand, learners should inform their families, tutors or supervisors of any arising matters or change of events, as this is the only way ensuring that any commanding authority will understand the need to give them permission to attend to any emergencies that may arise.
Conclusion In conclusion, although balancing between studies, work and family responsibilities concurrently can be a very tiring undertaking, with proper planning and time scheduling, one can alleviate any form of stress associated with the numerous demands associated with this different aspects of life. Going hand in hand with proper time budgeting, one should seek help whenever need arises to limit chances of one becoming a burnout victim.
Works Cited Bradley, Bob. Too ten tips of balancing work, study, and family life. Sydney University. 2008. Web.
University of South Africa. Balancing work and studies. UNISA. 2010. Web.
Management Strategic Operations Report (Assessment) essay help
According to Kaplan and Norton (2006), the best method which can be used to align operational structures with strategy is through a management system based on a balanced scorecard framework (p.103).
In this method managers from all the levels of the organization, from regional settings to the CEOs can utilize the tools of this framework to derive their unit performance. This method has proved to be a powerful tool in the management and monitoring of the unit`s strategy.
Managers can therefore communicate the cause-effect relationship which delivers the preposition of the values of their units. This method thus develops both a template and a form of communication which can be used for decimating information involving the creation of value.
According to Kaplan and Norton (2006), it is through a mix of operational perspectives that a company can succeed in its operations currently in the world. Financial, customer, process, learning and growing perspectives do affect corporate strategy.
In the financial perspective, companies can bring about an enterprise value through the allocation of resources while using an effective method (Kaplan and Norton 2006, p. 103). The aims of resource allocation can range from corporate governance, merging and acquisition of new businesses and negotiation with external stakeholders such as governments, other businesses, shareholders and suppliers.
If this activity is done in the best way possible then a company will have created strong financial strategies. By doing so a company will have a strong financial base that will enable it to grow and expand the size of its business (Fitzsimmons, 2000 p. 14).
In the consumer perspective companies which produce the same goods or offer the same services can integrate their services so as to lower the prices of their products (Kaplan and Norton 2006, p. 104). This moves aim at making their services or products to be affordable by consumers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This move creates corporate synergies across multiple businesses in the market. In doing so the businesses and consumers will have goods and services at better prices and at a greater convenience than what an individual competitor would have offered (Wheelwright 2001, p. 122).
Hilton Hotel and McDonalds for example have entered in this form of agreement to offer the same form of proposition in their chains of hotels and restaurants all over the world where they are found (Kaplan and Norton 2006, p. 104).
The third method in the balanced scorecard perspective is called the process perspective. In this method, corporate synergies can save a lot of money by reducing their costs through the sharing of costs such as manufacturing, transportation, research, storage, advertisement and purchases (Kaplan and Norton 2006, p. 104). This can only be possible if and only if these processes are common for the companies involved.
In the past, businesses had a competitive advantage by owning relevant resources which other companies in the industry did not have. However, in the present times most companies are consolidating together to share costs of conducting common processes even though they are competitors (Swamidass and Newell, 1997 p. 515).
The learning and growing perspective enable corporations to partner up and develop methods to recruit personnel in the industry and come up with refreshed knowledge and skills which will enable the industry to grow and develop in the right direction.
These activities include recruiting and training of personnel, coming up with ideas and innovation and the use of IT in the operation of businesses. Currently, intangible assets account for around 80% of a company’s value therefore companies should develop synergies that will enhance the development of the human capital (Kaplan and Norton 2006, p. 104).
References Fitzsimmons, J.A. (2000) Service Management: Operations, Strategy, and Information Technology. Boston. McGraw-Hill
We will write a custom Assessment on Management Strategic Operations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kaplan, R.S. and Norton D.P. (2006) How to Implement a New Strategy without Disrupting Your Organization. Harvard Business Review 84 (3), 100-109.
Swamidass, P.M. and Newell, W.T. (1997) Manufacturing Strategy, Environmental Uncertainty and Performance. Management Science 33 (4), 509–524.
Wheelwright, S.C. (2001) Restoring Our Competitive Edge: Competing Through Manufacturing. New York.Wiley,
Critical Thinking in Problem Solving Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me
Table of Contents Description of the first problem
Description of the second problem
Using persuasive thinking to solve the first problem
Using scientific thinking to solve the first problem
Description of the first problem The first problem situation is about the use of cell phone while driving. The use of cell phone while behind the wheel has proved to very catastrophic to road users.
The habit has led to the death of many people. The common practice disorients the attention of the driver and endangers the lives of other individuals using the road (Cain
Leadership in Organisations Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Findings and Evaluation
Introduction Leadership in an organization has become a prerequisite for the success of the organization. Therefore leadership is a major determinant for the performance of the organization; either to succeed in the administration or fail in doing so. As a result, several works have emerged to address the issue of leadership in the organization setting.
However, this paper attempts to analyze and evaluate leadership aspects such as the theory, strategies and roles in the article “Development and Application of the Leadership Archetype Questionnaire” by Kets De Vries, Vrignaud, Agrawal and Florent-Treacy (2010).
Findings and Evaluation The article is about a survey instrument known as Leadership Archetype Questionnaire (LAQ) that is designed to help the leader improve on their leadership and also formulate strategies that will lead to the development of the organization. LAQ as an instrument, is designed to mould leaders upon eight principles which are, “strategist, change-catalyst, builder, innovator, processor, coach, communicator and transactor” (Kets De Vries, 2010: 2850).
The article suggests that LAQ as instrument helps the leaders to interact with their followers since the former can not operate in isolation (Gronn, 2002). This is especially true because in designing the LAQ, an interview must be conducted in order to establish the behavior of the leaders (executive).
Leaders have been known to have common roles therefore they can assist each other in the performance of their duties in order to achieve the goal of their organization (Mintzberg, 1973). According to Mintzberg, the ten roles of a leader are, “figurehead, liaison, monitor, disseminator, leader, spokesman, entrepreneur, disturbance handler, negotiator and resource allocator, interpersonal, informational and decisional roles” (p. 34).
The article describes LAQ as a tool which enhances effectiveness in the roles of leaders in an organization. Effectiveness of the leaders is determined by the composition of the team of leaders in terms of individual differences, role and contribution (Belbin, 1996; 2003).
Belbin (2003) observed this fact about the LAQ and he distinguished nine team roles of the leaders which make them to be effective in their functioning. The roles included; shaper, implementer, resource investigator, plant, monitor, evaluator, coordinator, completer and team worker. He further suggested that balanced team of leader were effective in the performance of their function while the reverse is true about unbalanced team leaders (executives).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article suggests that LAQ can be used to assess the behavior pattern of the leaders. This is particularly important because it helps in identifying the character of the leaders and the areas that they are effective in the given archetypes.
It is absolutely true that leadership positions or people with intentions of becoming leaders belong to a self selected group and hence not all people can become leaders.
For instance, Ket de Vries (2006) notes that there are few people with self-defeating, dependent, depressive or detached personalities. However the article suggests there is possibility of a particular individual to fit in various leadership archetypes due to the many characteristics and behavior that he possess.
The article notes that the LAQ is intended for use in training and coaching. The behavior of the leaders towards the colleagues, subordinates, bosses and other stakeholders’ matters most since it determines the success of the organization (Ket de Vries, 2001).
He notes that some leaders fail in their administration of duties due to their behaviors. This is especially true because the leaders act as an example to rest of the members and his character will greatly influence others.
The author(s) of the article argue that in order for an effective team to be created, each individual needs to reflect his preferred leadership behavior. The article notes that one has to know himself before understanding the behaviors of others and the authors have given a perfect example concerning emergent definition of leadership. The article cites the approach that is used to interpret various permutations of leadership including the behavior other than the essentials and notions of leadership (Bresnen, 1995).
The article is essential for the leaders of organization because it provides the leaders with strategies to overcome challenges in their organization.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Leadership in Organisations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the author cites that no leader can stand in isolation and therefore each member requires the support of one another. An individual who has strengths in certain function may be left to perform the duties while his weaknesses may be compensated by other individuals in the organization.
The article has done well in the provision of reliable statistics about the eight leadership archetypes. This is because the design of LAQ was in 360 degree format and it was multidimensional. As a result, the model of LAQ has breadth and comprehensiveness and allows for a rich representation of individuality rather than compelling people into specific categories.
To add on, the authors of the article have given sufficient statistic about the leadership archetypes and various sources have been cited as evidence. It follows that the information that it is in the article is reliable to be used by the leaders of the organization and for education purposes.
Practical implications The writers of the article are justified to conclude that leadership behavior is highly complex transformation in which many factors contribute to it. This is because the leadership behavior can not be studied in isolation from other factor such as genetic predisposition and social influences.
For instance, preferential behavior will be created as a character trait through the combination of genetic predisposition and socializing influences. It is also worthy to note that leadership archetypes form an interactive process between the individual and the surrounding and it is never independent.
It is obvious that the LAQ will assist the leaders in assessing the roles of the executive in order to meet the challenges that may be encountered in the organization. This is because it identifies the weaknesses of the leaders and therefore design strategies to overcome the weaknesses.
After reading the article about LAQ, leaders are likely to optimize their interaction with their followers after understanding their behavioral preference and behavior in leadership. This technical know how will help leaders in making of their decision and also will assist them in communication skills.
This article is also important to leaders since it may help them in shaping and designing of effective organizational teams. This is because the article highlights LAQ as an effective tool in understanding character, competence and roles of the leaders in an organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership in Organisations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By designing functional teams, coordination will be enhanced allowing for a more efficient organization. Teams working together will also help in maximum productivity from employees as they try to develop healthy competition. Finally, coordinating teams will allow the organization to consolidate the different team objectives and goals into a single goal for the organization.
Reference List Belbin, R.M., 1996. Team Roles at Work. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Belbin, R.M.,2003. Management Teams: Why they Succeed or Fail. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Bresnen, M., 1995. All Things to All People? Perceptions, Attributions, and Constructions of Leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(4), pp. 495–513.
Gronn, P., 2002. Distributed Leadership as a Unit of Analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(4), pp. 423–451.
Kets de Vries, M.F.R., 2001. The Leadership Mystique. London: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
Kets de Vries, M.F.R., 2006. The Leader on the Couch. London: Wiley.
Kets De Vries, M.F.R., Vrignaud, P., Agrawal, A. and Florent-Treacy, E., 2010. Development and application of the Leadership Archetype Questionnaire. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(15), 2848 — 2863.
Mintzberg, H., 1973. The Nature of Managerial Work. New York: Harper
Social Cultural Causes Of Crime Analytical Essay best essay help
Crime is one of the most commonly occurring phenomena in any given society in the world. Crime has been termed as any behavior that violates established law and norms and is contrary to societal expectations (Lectric Law Library Para 2). Criminologists have done research studies to try and establish the causes of crime and the reasons why people commit crimes.
Some of the proposed factors for the occurrence of crime and why people violate the law include economic factors such as economic inequalities that lead to poverty. Social and cultural factors (social and family laws) have also been proposed as possible causes of crime.
Other than the level of education, criminologists argue that crime can be learned and that the environment may expose one to crime. Psychologists have also argued that there are some psychological deficiencies that may lead people to engage in deviant behavior (Melkonyan 2011). Although there are commonly occurring factors for the causation of crime, debate is still ranging on the real reasons for the trends and rates of crime in different parts of the world.
There has also been efforts to describe measure required to eradicate crime through managing its causes and crime (deviant behavior) itself, to punishing lawbreakers. Some of these methods have been successful while others have not. There is need to highlight the social cultural factors of crime and describe the necessary positive measures to prevent the occurrences of crime.
The leading causes of crime in the society are a combination of social cultural factors in the society. Society can thus be blamed for leading people to commit crime as it exposes individuals to environments that make it necessary to commit crime.
Certain norms in the society have to be adhered to and as such this makes people to remain depended on them for pleasure. Such dependency can therefore lead to an addiction on these behaviors and as such, the behaviors become part of everyday life. Such routinely harmless activities as taking a cold shower for temporary relief and relaxation may soon turn to dependency on the action.
When the activity is skipped the body craves for it or any of its alternatives (Shannonhouse 1). Extended exposure to these cultural practices however leads to stimulus satiation and as such, the body demands for a stronger alternative for reprieve. Should the body be denied this reprieve then a severe medical condition could ensue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At this point, an individual may turn to drugs or alcohol as a means of reprieve and thus become dependent on them (Shannonhouse 1). Dependency on such drug ands alcohol leads to addition. Such drugs lead to acute pleasure and may also cause intoxication to a person. Such intoxication is dangerous as it can impair judgment and make the person’s overrate their abilities.
This false self-concept may lead one to commit crime (Shannonhouse 2).Therefore some harmless societal behaviors are the unseen factors that lead to a person to addiction and dependency on abused substances for temporary pleasure. What may appear as the search of pleasure could in fact end up as the cause for suffering.
Criminals can also be victims of the social environments in which they live in and as such, remain exposed or even forced to become criminals to survive in those environments. Personal relationships and the people around a person may lead one to commit crime.
This is true according to the convictions of Lord Longford, a Christian reformer and a prisoners’ rights activist who fought for the reformation of the British prison laws. Lord Longford in his defense of Myra Hindley, argues that she was a victim of her lovers criminal nature and manipulative tendencies as such was not as guilty as her lover and serial killer Mr. Brady (Stanley 1).
The argument in this and many other quarters are that Miss Hindley criminal nature was influenced by her association with Mr. Brady. According to Longford, this is how many criminals are made and thus they deserve a second chance (Stanley 2).
From the above arguments, it can be deduced that these factors exist by the mere occurrence of the vulnerability of the human beings. Human beings are vulnerable to their social and physical environments as well as their biological make up. Myra Hindley was vulnerable towards the influence of her lover and partner in crime.
These factors that lead to crime can be altered positively thereby helping to reduce crime rates in the society. According to Longford the separation of the victim of crime from the agent of crime is enough to delineate learned crime. This is because the factors that lead to a person committing crime have been severed and a person naturally reforms back to their usual selves. As such, criminals should be released upon sufficient proof that the relationships that lead to their committing crime have been severed completely.
We will write a custom Essay on Social Cultural Causes Of Crime specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Accompanying this is the spiritual principle of forgiveness, a conviction the staunch Catholic Lord Longford held. As s such Myra Hindley ought to have been forgiven and released on parole: her lover did not qualify for parole, meaning that there was no chance of reunion. This is a way of reforming a convicted criminal who deserve a second chance (Stanley 1).
Dependency and addiction to drugs is not always a bad thing as it can be used for other purposes other than the search for short-lived pleasure. Addiction to such substances as tea or steak soup may be use for medical reasons and as such not an entirely occurrences.
As such a person may only crave for such things only when in medical condition that demands their intake Shannonhouse 4). Shannonhouse (3) further contends that not all of intoxicating substances lead to a negative addiction. Dependency on alcohol may lead one to alter behavior negatively ad engage in criminal activities as alcohol “robs a man his self possession” (4).
However, there are other substances such as opium that invigorates in a man the essence of order civility and harmony. As such intake of certain substances such as opium, when done in the right manner thus is a sense of reducing the chances of occurrence of crime.
Crime is a product of the society and the environment created by the society. Some of the daily societal beliefs and practices are done so repetitively that the individual becomes dependent on them and it may lead to addiction. Addiction may in effect be nudging a person towards deviant behavior.
However not all addiction is negative; it all depends on the motive and the type of substance in use. While addiction is a cause of criminal behavior, some criminal may be victims of crime as they were vulnerable to the environment or forced to commit the crime. In such case, they can be redeemed by alienating them form the influencer and thus crime is combated.
Works Cited Lect Law Review. Crime. Lect Law Library. Web.
Melkonyan, Amalia. Causes of Crime. Scribd, 2011. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Cultural Causes Of Crime by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Shannonhouse, Rebecca. Under the Influence: The Literature of Addiction. Web.
Stanley, Alessandra . The Faithful Aristocrat, Seduced by a Killer. New York Times 2007. Web.
Defamiliarization Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Defamiliarization- Definition Defamiliarization refers to the artistic practice of compelling the audience to view the familiar in an unfamiliar or rather strange way so as to improve the perception of what is already familiar. Also known as ostranenie, the term defamiliarization was first used by Shklovsky in 1917 in the study, interpretation, discussion as well as evaluation of literature (Stacey, 1977)
The reason of applying this art is to pass on the sensation of items as they are viewed rather than what they are known to be. This approach is a means of forcing people to experience the day to day happenings that are ordinary in new-fangled fashion through the application of art language. The artist by doing that creates a swing from the anticipated, ordinary in addition to normal form of perception into a new world exposure.
According to Shklovsky (1990), this method of art is intended to challenge the mind of the reader that she or he is compelled to perceive the ordinary differently and thus be glad about the text form and not just the meaning and the content. Defamiliarization boosts the pall of repetition that is unproductive including the modus operandi and political arguments that are often jammed by tendentiousness or even corruption. This ensures a renewed deliberation a probable result of art.
Another role played by defamiliarisation is the adjustment of the mind in a manner of sweeping unpreparedness; to ensure the suspension of doubt. The mind of a person is forced to rethink the position in the world through spending of effort.
The chief aim of applying this approach is to defamiliarize the usual or prosaic perceiptions. This is usually attained by application of such big collection of “deviant” linguistic tools such as metonymy, symbolism, metaphor, rhyme, rhythm as well as sophisticated patterning of sounds plus sense.
How to do things with words by Austin
This is probably one of the highly applauded works by Austin. In this book Austin tries to apply the art of defamiliarization where he tries to make the reader of this piece of literature to view what they know in a different perspective. The creation of imaginary worlds as well as objects is what Austin applies as a means of defamiliarization (Theo, 1986).
He tries to move from the predominant believe that the main objective of sentences is to stipulate facts, being “true” on instances when they manage and “false” on instances when they fail on that objective.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Austin (1976) explores how some cases of language appear by their mere utterance, lead to performance of a certain act- saying leads to something being done. For instance, if someone promises to perform a task, it is the definite utterance that is promising.
In defamiliarization, Austin (1976) argues that sentences that contain truth values form a miniature part of the variety of statements. He tries to categorize statements into either performatives or constatives where the former is construed to mean statements that perform certain acts while the latter means those statements that describes the states of affairs.
He introduces the performative utterance where he argues that as such do not carry truth values. For instance Austin (1976) proposes that, once something goes off beam as pertaining to such a performative statement, it can be said to be “unhappy”, maybe “infelicitous” instead of being false as is ordinarily viewed.
In further usage of defamiliarization, Austin refers to these false statements as “misfires” where for example the said act is purported and rather does not take place. The distinction according to Austin between performatives and constatives is but illusionary.
He classifies acts pertaining utterances as: lucutionary-the face value of the statement itself, Illocutionary- the act’s contextual purpose and perlucutionary- the outcome of the act on the listener (Stokes, 2007). The 3 speech act could be illustrated by an example where a person states, “its cold”, which is a locutionary act portraying how one is feeling. It can as well be taken in the situation of a house with an open window, as an act (illocutionary) a demand to have the window closed.
As the one who hears the utterance responds by closing the window, the very words have performed an action. The title of this book can be said to be locutionary, implying that every time one applies words, he/she does an act. The book has a perlocutionary act of trying to convince the reader to believe in the accuracy of the supposition.
Conclusion Looking at this entire framework that Austin is trying to put fourth, it is evident that he is trying to convince the reader that each utterance (with few exceptions) constitutes an act. This therefore constitutes defamiliarization in that he is forcing the reader to perceive what is familiar (utterances) in unfamiliar way (utterances are indeed actions).
We will write a custom Essay on Defamiliarization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Austin, John. How To Do Things With Words; 2nd Ed, Oxford University Press, 1976
Shklovsky, Viktor. “Art as Device”, in Theory of Prose, translated by, Benjamin Sher, Dalkey: Archive Press, 1990.
Stacey Robert. Defamiliarization in language and literature: Michigan, Syracuse University Press, 1977
Stokes, Philip. Philosophy, the Great Thinkers, Capella, 2007.
Theo, Henry. Linguistics and the study of literature, Rodopi, 1986.
Making the Incompatible Come Together: On Language, Power and Identity Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Because of the versatility of human culture, the issues seemingly different may have a lot in common. Thus, the issue of language can be closely interconnected with the idea of power, while the latter can be intertwined with the concept of identity.
Tracing the way people build their relationships and become a part of the society, one will find the explanation of such interrelation between the concepts which could seem so distanced from each other.
Language, Power and Identity: The Links That Make a Man According to Lakoff’s ideas, there is a certain connection between the concepts of language, identity and power. Explaining it with the examples of how a human nature works, Lakoff demonstrates that the three notions make the core of human’s existence and its essence.
It is quite obvious that language is closely connected with a man’s identity. Possessing the knowledge of a language means belonging to a particular ethnic group, which, in its turn, means that a man belongs to a certain nationality. Thus, the links between the language and the culture cannot be doubted.
It is worth noticing that the links between the language and the power are much more entangled than one could have thought. Making the explorers of the phenomenon plunge into the depth of human’s psychology and people’s instincts inherited from ancestors, people use their language as the power tool for them to control the situation. As Lakoff notices, this is the phenomenon of the so-called “political use of language”.
Driving the example, of lawyers’ dependence on the language which (s)he uses, Lakoff comes to the sudden yet logical conclusion which says that power is physical, and language is power; thus, it can be suggested that language is quite a physical tool.
Applying the Theory to the Reality To demonstrate the efficiency of Lakoff’s theory in practice, it could be a good idea to take certain institution as an example. One of the most obvious cases is the example of mass-media institution. Enjoying rather great influence, they make an efficient use of language. Tracing the way the mass-media impacts the people, it becomes obvious that the theory of Lakoff is completely true.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With such influential tools as the famous “magical thinking” at hand, the modern mass-media shapes people’s ideas of a certain event, situation or phenomenon. Thus, it can be suggested that the mass media as an institution possesses certain power over people’s minds, making them think in certain way.
Because of its hierarchy which allows to influence all ranks of society, mass media possesses great power over people. Gripping the television, magazines and even pictures (photojournalism), it confirms the idea of Lakoff completely.
It could be argued though that people are not always subjected to the outer influence, since they can produce a judgement of their own; however, in this case the authority of the source of information must be taken into account. It is quite doubtful that one would try to make his/her own vision of the situation if the plausible explanation has already been suggested to him/her.
Not to follow the blazed trail of the commonplace opinion, one has to consider the other possibilities, which is rather tiresome. In addition, mass media forms people’s idea of identity; this is especially topical for the political editions.
Thus, Lakoff’s theories can be easily proved taking any institution as an example. Because of the peculiarities of human’s nature, the language-politics-power sequence cannot be changed. Whatever happens, it will always work as the most efficient tool of gaining power and authority.
American Government, Its Functions and Branches Research Paper writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances and Federalism
Introduction In a constitutional form of government, the government is structured in a way that the constitution is the principal guiding document. A constitution generally comprises a set of fundamental guiding principles and laws established to be the overall principals based on which a state is governed, and no institution or individual should be above them. America is governed by a written constitution.
The American Government follows the federal system and is referred to as The Federal Government of the United States made up of the fifty states with the government seat located in Washington D.C, which is neutral as it is not located in any state (Woll 98).
Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances and Federalism The separation of powers in the American Government means that power is not concentrated in one area but divided into different branches. In this format, the US government is divided into three branches of which each has separate and independent mandates and responsibilities and none is more important than the other is, rather they compliment one another.
Namely, they are the executive, judiciary and legislature. The powers of these branches is clearly stipulated in the U.S. Constitution but the fine specifications are in the laws enacted by Congress
These branches represent the federal government. The executive powers are mainly vested in the president, the judiciary mainly represented by the Supreme Court and congress for the legislature.
Though these branches are sub autonomous they have been given powers to check each other to ensure none misuses its powers. The Legislature is mainly represented by Congress (senate and house of representative), and has the powers to make and amend laws.
It also has the powers to check the Executive in the following ways: with a two third majority they can overrule the presidential vetoes, presidential appointments and treaties made are approved by senate, legislature has the power in regarding funding of executive actions and through impeachment, the legislature can remove a sitting president. The Congress has the mandate to declare war and designing major policies especially foreign policies. It also approves various budget proposals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In checking the Judiciary, the Legislature is the one responsible for making lower courts, approves appointment of judges and may remove judges through impeachment (Quirk
The Difficulties Children Face in a Foreign Linguistic Environment Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction One of foremost characteristics of today’s post-industrial living is the dramatically increased degree of populations’ mobility, reflected by exponentially mounting rates of inbound immigration in just about every Western country.
As it was pointed out by Neumayer (2005): “Total [immigration] applications in Europe increased tremendously from the early 1980s to the early 1990s, from a total of 592,000 to 2.65 million, falling somewhat during the latter half of the 1990s but staying at a fairly high level of 1.93 million” (45).
And, given the fact that, as of today, Western societies’ demographic fabric undergoes a rapid transformation, this poses an additional challenge to maintaining these societies’ inner integrity.
The reason for this is simple – as practice shows, newly arrived immigrants (especially those from Third World countries) often experience severe hardships, while trying to acclimatize, which in its turn, lessens their chances to become productive citizens.
After all, as Katz and Lowenstein (1999) had rightly noted: “Immigration involves a permanent change not only in place of residence but, even more significantly, in lifestyle, values, norms, and language” (43). Nevertheless, it is namely immigrants’ children who appear especially vulnerable to being exposed to drastic changes in culturally linguistic environment, because unlike adults, they often lack the full spectrum of cognitive and analytical capacities, which would have smoothed up the process of their acclimatization.
Given the fact that in children’s lives, the factor of emotional attachment plays rather important role, it comes as not a particular surprise that, after having immigrated to a new country, along with their parents, children often end up indulging in socially withdrawn mode of existence. According to Aronowitz (1984): “Children who moved [due to immigration of their parents] were generally found to be more withdrawn and less well accepted by their peers.
They were also rated by their teachers as being more emotionally maladjusted” (240). At the same time, it would be wrong to assume that, due to earlier mentioned adjustment-related considerations, immigrant youth should be thought of as being necessarily disadvantaged, in social sense of this word.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After all, according to recent statistical surveys, the foreign-born children of Asian immigrants to America, often account for as much 40% of country’s student population, majoring in math, physics, chemistry and software designing.
According to Brandon (2002): “Research suggests that many of the concerns about the well-being of children in immigrant families are unwarranted. The evidence suggests that children in immigrant families do as well as or better than U.S.-born children” (417).
Therefore, it will only be logical, on our part, to assume that along with factors that hamper immigrant children’s chances to attain social prominence in newly acquired home countries, there are also factors that provide these children with certain advantage, during the course of them trying to get a good education and to establish themselves socially.
In this paper, we will aim to explore what accounts for these factors at length and to come up with the set of recommendations as to what we believe should represent research-priorities, regarding the discussed subject matter, in the future.
Analytical review of literature Cultural factors
Ever since late sixties, when immigration policies in most Western countries have been conceptually revised, in order for them to be correlative with governmentally endorsed policy of multiculturalism, the immigration pattern to these countries have undergone a substantial transformation.
In his article, Zhou (1997) provides us with the insight onto the qualitative essence of such a pattern, as applied to U.S: “According to the Immigration and Nationalization Service, of the 7.3 million immigrants admitted to the United States during the 1980s (not counting undocumented immigrants), 87% came from Asia and the Americas, compared to the 8.8 million admitted during the 1910s who were predominantly from Europe” (65).
The implications of such an apparent demographic shift in recent immigration patterns are quite obvious – unlike what it is usually being the case with European immigrants to America and other Western countries, the growing number of immigrants from Third World now face an acute challenge of adjusting to the cultural matrix of Western living.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Difficulties Children Face in a Foreign Linguistic Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reason for this simple – given the fact that the bulk of newly arrived immigrants come from essentially traditional societies, they experience a particularly hard time, while trying to adjust to clearly defined secular (post-industrial) realities of today’s Western living. And, it is needless to mention, of course, that these people’s children experience similar problems, as well.
According to Hernandez (1999): “Research suggests that immigrant children experience acculturative stress as they adjust to a foreign culture, learn a new language, and try to fit into mainstream youth society” (303). The validity of this statement is best illustrated in regards to children from families of Pakistani immigrants.
Whereas; in Pakistan, these children have been taught to respect parental authority as their foremost priority in life, after having found themselves in a new country, Pakistani adolescents ended up being taught something entirely different – namely, the fact that, according to Western secular law, parents are being simply in no position to forcibly expose their children to different forms of religious or culturally religious dogmatism.
In their article, where they discuss adjustment-related challenges, faced by children from families of Pakistani immigrants in Canada, Wakil and Wakil (1981) state: “[In Canadian schools] Pakistani children were allowed considerable freedom, while choosing in favor of a professional career…
Compared with the practices in the ‘old country’, where the older male wields the final authority in deciding the amount of education and the type of occupation for the youngsters, this change indicates a rather remarkable departure from the traditional pattern” (933).
In other words, regarding the children of Pakistani immigrants, there can be very little doubt as to the fact that the manner in which they are being brought up in Western countries’ public schools differs rather dramatically from the manner of their domestic upbringing. It goes without saying, of course, that this exposes these children to a certain cognitive dichotomy, which in its turn, slows down the process of their assimilation.
The same suggestion applies to children from families of Latin-American immigrants. Apparently, while being exposed to the realities of Western living, these children also get to experience the sensation of emotional uncomfortableness with the fact that the lifestyles of their newly acquired peers do not correlate with the ‘traditional values’, which are being usually professed by their parents.
In his book, Artico (2003) was able to define the actual root of an earlier mentioned inconsistency with perfect clarity: “The traditional Western culture gives much value to personality traits associated with individualism, such as self-confidence and independence, whereas Latino culture is sociocentric, placing great importance in interpersonal obligation, respect for others, and personal dignity, usually expressed through proper demeanor” (34).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Difficulties Children Face in a Foreign Linguistic Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, without denying the fact that there is a number of cultural obstacles, on the way of immigrant children integrating into a host society, it appears that very often, the foremost obstacle represent these children’s parents, due to the sheer extent of their intellectual inflexibility.
Nevertheless, as today’s Western socio-political realities indicate, the cultural aspect of immigrant children’s assimilation continue to become less acutely defined, which can be explained by the essence of demographic dynamics with Western societies.
In the article, from which we have already quoted, Zhou states: “Many immigrant children attend public schools in their neighborhood with a clear numerical majority of minority students.
In Los Angeles County, for example, 57 unified school districts out of a total of 83 contain over half of foreign-born nonwhite students” (59). Thus, there are good reasons to believe that in very near future, immigrant children will experience less and less difficulties, while trying to adjust to the cultural workings of a host society.
What also appears to affect the qualitative specifics of immigrant children’s ability to adjust to socio-political realities of a newly acquired homeland, is their parents’ social status. As practice shows, after having immigrated to a particular Western country, these people often realize themselves being unable to find adequately paid jobs.
And, as it was pointed out by Hernadez in the book from which we have already quoted: “Because paid work by parents is the primary source of family income for most children, the number of parents who work for pay and whether they work part time or full time are key determinants of whether children live in poverty, in middle-class comfort, or in luxury” (24).
In other words, what contributes rather significantly to the fact that, comparing to their peers, immigrant children often find themselves in disadvantaged position, is their parents’ continuous struggle, aimed at attainment of social prominence.
And, it is important to understand that, despite what it is being commonly assumed, immigrant parents’ lack of education or their lessened ability to socialize with native-born citizens, does not necessarily explain hardships that they face, while looking for good jobs.
For example, it became a well-established practice in such countries as U.S. and Canada, for newly arrived immigrants from countries of former Soviet Union, who used to be top-surgeons, to be offered employment as nurses, at best.
The fact that these people possess an extensive experience in performing complex surgeries, is not being taken into consideration, which is why, upon having arrived to U.S. or Canada, health care professionals from former Soviet Union often come to realize that their university diplomas are being essentially useless.
It is needless to mention, of course, that such situation results in the children of these immigrants being deprived of a number of educational and consequently educational opportunities.
Nevertheless, it is namely in immigrant families from Third World countries, where children appear being especially disadvantaged, in social context of this word. The reason for this is quite apparent – given the fact that in these families, the average number of children often goes to as high as 5-10; it represents an acute challenge for the parents to be able to take care of their children’s even basic needs.
The statistical data, regarding the discussed subject matter, contained in Hernandez’s book, is being perfectly illustrative, in this respect: “Overall, the relative poverty rate for children in immigrant families [in U.S.] was 33 percent, compared to 24 percent for children in native-born families in the 1990 census… Poverty rates for children in immigrant families exceeded those for children in native-born families by 5 and 9 percentage points” (32).
What worsens the situation even further is that, as time goes on, the percentage of immigrant children who are being denied eligibility for just about any form of social assistance, due to the illegal status of their parents, increases rather exponentially.
The validity of this suggestion appears especially self-evident in regards to continuously increasing rate of illegal immigrants within the overall population of Hispanics in America.
According to Hanson (2006): “The distinguishing feature of Mexican immigration is that most new arrivals enter the United States illegally. In 2004, there were an estimated 5.9 million unauthorized Mexican immigrants in U.S… Thus, 56 percent of Mexican immigrants appear to lack permission to be in the country” (870).
And, as it was pointed out by Hernandez: “Children who are illegal immigrants are ineligible for most public benefits and services and, under welfare reform, those who are legal immigrants but not citizens may also be ineligible for important medical and social services” (56).
It goes without saying that, apart from having been spared of a number of social and educational opportunities, which native-born adolescents take for granted, children from families of illegal immigrants are being subjected to a continuous stress, originating in their fear of being deported.
And, as practice shows, the severity of these children’s psychological stress even doubles, as the consequence of their continuous exposal to emanations of subtle racism, even if such racism assumes legally legitimate forms.
As was noted by De Genova (2006): “The elusiveness of immigration law, and its relative invisibility in producing ‘illegality,’ requires the spectacle of ‘enforcement’, which renders a racialized migrant’s ‘illegality’ visible” (436). While being aware of their actual ‘otherness’, immigrant children have a particularly hard time trying to be comfortable with the fact that at schools, they get to be taught of their ‘sameness’.
Given the fact that the native language of most immigrant children is being different from the official language of a country where they came to live with their parents, it comes as not a particular surprise that, while striving to integrate into a new environment, they often face the issue of linguistic adaptation.
In its turn, this often causes them to experience what Igoa (1995) refers to as the sensation of ‘uprooting’: “If there is one characteristic of the uprooting experience that appears to be shared by all immigrant children irrespective of nationality, economic status, family stability, or any other factor, it is the silent stage when the children experience the school culture as different from their own and when their inability to communicate with peers is caused by a language or cultural difference” (38).
The problems with communication are more likely to be experienced by children, whose native language is being sintaxically different from any of Indo-European languages.
In its turn, this partially explains why in English speaking countries, the representatives of second and even third generation of Chinese immigrants, speak with a noticeable accent. According to Sung (1985): “The language barrier was the problem most commonly mentioned by the immigrant children of Chinese origin. Frequently, language looms largest because it is the conduit through which we interact with other people” (256).
Nevertheless, even though immigrant children of Asian (specifically Chinese) background do initially experience many problems, related to the process of their linguistic adjustment, they usually prove themselves quite capable of overcoming their ‘linguistic shyness’ with ease. Their possession of a high IQ helps them rather drastically, in this respect.
As Booth (1997) had put it: “These immigrants (from India, Taiwan, Iran, Japan, Korea, and China), are perhaps the most skilled ever to come to the United States. Their class origins help explain the popularization of Asians as a ‘model minority’” (23). This explains earlier mentioned phenomenon that, as of today, students of Asian origin are being overrepresented in Western universities’ technical departments, which subjects them to subtle forms of discrimination.
For example, regarding the adolescents from Chinese immigrant families who want to study in universities, there are much stricter entrance requirements. The official explanation for this is that these youngsters often lack linguistic skills, to be admitted to the places of higher learning.
However, the real reason for this is much simpler – in American universities, there is almost a complete absence of native-born Blacks and Hispanics, majoring in highly technical disciplines, such as chemistry, architecture, physics, math, engineering and software designing.
In its turn, this undermines the fundamental premise of multiculturalism, based upon the assumption that all people are equal, regardless of their ethnic background. This is exactly the reason why Asian immigrant youth is now facing poorly masked racism in a number of Western countries that take pride in the strength of their adherence to the ideals of multicultural living – whatever the ironic it might sound.
From what has been said earlier, it appears that, even though that the problem of immigrant children and adolescents’ linguistic acclimatization can indeed be defined as rather pressing, it should not be thought of as ‘thing in itself’.
After all, comparing to what it is usually the case with adult immigrants, children are being much more capable of picking up foreign language, especially when forced to practice this language in their everyday lives. Therefore, it is namely immigrant parents’ insistence in endowing their young ones with respect towards ‘traditional values’, which slows down the process of children’s linguistic adjustment.
Moreover, it also contributes to the rise of domestic tensions between parents and children in immigrant families. In their article, Tseng and Fuligni (2000) came up with perfectly legitimate suggestion that immigrant children’s often strongly defined linguistic uncomfortableness derives out of their parents’ lack of intellectual flexibility: “Because English lacks honorifics or terms of respect present in some languages, adolescents’ use of the English language with native-speaking parents may be associated with distancing between them” (467).
In other words, even though that many immigrant children do not think of speaking a foreign language as particularly challenging, they nevertheless try not to over abuse their newly acquired linguistic skills, especially in the presence of their traditionally minded parents. As a result, their linguistic proficiency suffers a great deal of damage.
What also represents a major obstacle, on the way of immigrant children attaining finesse in the language of a host country, is the fact that, upon having immigrated to Western countries, immigrants from Third World tend to choose in favor of a ‘communal living’ – that is, they settle in the areas known for the abundance of their previously arrived compatriots. In his article, Zubrinsky (2003) states:
“Chain migration patterns common among both Hispanic and Asian immigrants concentrate rapidly growing groups in a small number of metropolitan areas – and within a small number of neighborhoods within an area – increasing their isolation and decreasing exposure to out-groups” (172).
Therefore, the factor of immigrant children’s linguistic adaptability should be discussed within the context of objectively existing socio-political preconditions, which affect the extent of these children’s ability to adjust to a new language and to the set of socio-cultural values, associated with it.
Nowadays, many anthropologists and political scientists discuss the issue of what defines immigrant children’s psychological well-being, in regards to their varying ability to adopt a so-called ‘hybrid identity’. Given the fact that, ever since 20th century’s sixties, world’s immigration flows had adopted an undeniable West-bounded direction, it comes as not a surprise that the bulk of today’s immigrants come from countries that used to be subjected to Europe’s colonial domination.
What it means is that, after having lived in Western society for a while, their inborn identity of former colonial subjects comes into conflict with their newly adopted identity of Westerners, at least in formal sense of this word. In its turn, this causes the workings of immigrant children’s psyche to construct an entirely new ‘ambivalent’ identity, the specifics of which are being emphasized by the extent of these children’s ‘visible ethnicity’.
One of the most prominent theoreticians of ‘hybrid identity’, Homi Bhabha (1985) defines the essence of such an identity in the following manner: “Hybridity is not a problem of genealogy or identity between two different cultures which can then be resolved as an issue of cultural relativism.
Hybridity is a problematic of colonial representation and individuation that reverses the effects of the colonialist disavowal, so that other ‘denied’ knowledges enter upon the dominant discourse and estrange the basis of its authority – its rules of recognition” (156).
According to the author, ‘hybrid identity’, which he believes immigrant children and adolescents to be endowed with, often extrapolates itself in these youngsters’ tendency to choose in favor of socially inappropriate behavior.
As of today, there are a number of illustrative examples, which confirm the validity of Bhabha’s suggestion. The most recent one is the forced deportation of 500 Chechen refugees from Norway that had taken place in February of 2011. Even though that many of these people have lived in Norway for as long seven years, Norwegian authorities simply declared that Chechens are not being welcomed in Norway any longer.
One of the factors that contributed to Norwegian authorities’ decision to deport all Chechens back to Russia was the manner in which Chechen children and adolescents behaved themselves socially, while going as far as committing the acts of gang-rape, looting stores and beating native-born Norwegians to death.
Nevertheless, it would be wrong to think of this as the confirmation of young Chechens’ inborn ‘viciousness’ but rather as yet additional proof to the fact that these youngsters indeed posses of a post-colonial ‘ambivalent identity’, which they happened to explore with little too much enthusiasm.
After all, in Britain, immigrant children and adolescents of Jamaican and Trinidadian ethnic backgrounds are also being known for their rather violent attitudes. Yet, nobody would dare to suggest that they would have to be deported, as they happened to hold British passports.
Therefore, it is important to understand that, the seeming inconsistency in how immigrant children are expected to behave and how they behave in reality, derives out of the very process of these individuals’ continuous integration into a host society, which in its turn, causes immigrant children to profess the values of a ‘hybrid identity’.
As Dummett (2001) had suggested: “The children of immigrants — given an acceptance of them by the surrounding society… will retain some of the customs of their parents, but will regard themselves as full members of the national community into which they were brought: in their eyes, that national community now embraces their customs and their culture as well as those traditional to that country” (18).
Thus, the fact that, after having moved to Western countries, immigrant children and adolescents do often experience an identity crisis, sublimated in their tendency to violently oppose these countries’ customs, represents another important challenge on the way of their assimilation.
Nevertheless, there are good reasons to think that, as time goes on, this challenge will be losing its present acuteness, simply because Western societies continue to grow increasingly multicultural.
In the previous part of this paper, we have elaborated on factors that are assumed counter-productive, within the context of immigrant children trying to adjust to the new environment. Nevertheless, there are also certain psychological traits, the endowment with which, seem to provide immigrant children with a certain advantage, while proceeding with studies and while making the best of their lives in a new country. These traits can be generally outlined as follows:
Given the fact that, prior to immigrating to a new country with their parents, children and adolescents have experienced the realities of their actual homeland, it makes them naturally predisposed towards adopting an analytical stance, when it comes to assessing socio-political realities of a country where they came to live. And, one’s ability to adopt such a stance early in life is the key to his or her educational and consequently professional successfulness.
The reason for this is simple – due to the qualitative essence of their former life’s experiences, immigrant children’s ability to compare and contrast appears undeniably higher, when evaluated against that of their native-born peers, which in its turn, creates objective preconditions for these children to be endowed with rationalistic mindset, by the time they grow up.
Such our suggestion fully correlates with the results of Levels, Dronkers and Kraaykamp’s (2008) study: “We found that, ceteris paribus, immigrant children and the children of immigrants from countries with a lower level of economic development perform particularly well in school” (848). Apparently, unlike what it is being usually the case with their native-born peers, most immigrant children know perfectly well how to make a distinction between relevant and irrelevant types of knowledge.
For example, children that came from war-torn countries, will never believe in the objectiveness of a variety of moralistically sounding but essentially meaningless notions, such as ‘sanctity of life’, which native-born Westerners naively consider to represent an undeniable truth-value.
And, given the fact that the empirical sciences have nothing to do with people’s wishful thinking but solely with scientifically proven facts, it does not come as a big surprise that the percentage of former ‘immigrant children’, among today’s Western scientists, increases rather dramatically.
For example, it has been estimated that, as of 2008, 60% of Microsoft’s most prominent software engineers consisted of naturalized citizens from Russia, China and India, many of which came to U.S. as children, without knowing even few words in English.
As practice shows, comparing to their peers, immigrant children appear much more goal-oriented and cynical. They are fully aware that in this life, nothing is ‘given’ but rather ‘taken’. And, unlike many of their native-born counterparts, they are more capable of addressing life’s challenges as stoics, as opposed to be preoccupied with whining about ‘world’s injustices’.
It is often being the case that, after having arrived to a new country, the parents of immigrant children realize that they would have to indulge in heavy physical labor, in order to be able to meet ends. This naturally exposes their children to the prospect of not only having to rely upon themselves, while striving to attain social prominence, but also to the prospect of being required to assist parents in their daily routine.
The manner, in which many families of Chinese immigrants to America go about ensuring their well-being, is being particularly illustrative, in this respect.
In her article, Gorman (1998) provides us with the clue as to what accounts for the specifics of parenting in the families of Chinese immigrants to America: “Chinese mothers emphasize their children’s relationships with others rather than their children’s psychological attributes… Authoritarian parenting has not been found to be associated with poor academic achievement among Chinese families” (73).
Even today, it is not an utterly uncommon sight to see Chinese youth working at the restaurant by night and studying at university by day. And, we do not only refer to what it is being the case in U.S., but also to what it is being the case in other Western countries.
As we had mentioned earlier, immigrant children’s possession of a ‘hybrid mentality’, often causes them to think of utilization of violence as the ultimate tool for solving conflicts with their peers and with adults, who in their view, represent an ‘oppressive authority’.
This, however, should not be thought of as necessarily a bad thing. On the contrary – it is namely those who, during the early stages of their lives, have learned how to stand their ground that will have a better chance of growing up into productive and responsible citizens.
Nowadays, even a brief glance at bullying-related statistical data, reveals an undeniable fact that in Western countries, 90% of those who have been victimized by bullies are native-born Whites.
According to Sugden (2008): “White children are much more likely to be bullied than any other ethnic group – reversing racial stereotypes surrounding playground abuse, Government research indicates. Two thirds of children from white families say they had been bullied in the last three years but less than half of children of Indian origin make the same assertion” (Times Online).
As time goes by, more and more White children and adolescents in Western countries choose in favor of social absenteeism, as the form of their existential mode. They lock themselves up in their rooms and play computer games all day long, while being utterly terrified of a prospect of venturing out on the street – hence, deserving to referred to as ‘nerds’ to the full extent of this word.
The children of newly arrived ethnic immigrants, on the other hand, do not seem to have any psychological anxieties, on the account of their ‘smartness’, simply because unlike what it is the case with many of their native-born White counterparts, while in the ‘old country’, they had never been subjected to any form of ideological brainwashing.
Therefore, we would like to reinstate once again that the possession of a fighting spirit, is immigrant children’s another psychological trait, which makes them more than capable to adjust to the social and cultural realities of just about any Western country.
Interviews with four foreign-born residents of Ukraine The following are the interviews, conducted with two representatives of Armenian Diaspora in Ukraine and also with two other individuals that fall into the category of ‘immigrant children’, who since their arrival to this country, had found themselves being surrounded by an unfamiliar cultural and linguistic environment, and who had undergone the process of culturally linguistic adjustment.
Emma Petrosyan (17 years old). Student at British International School in Kiev.
Emma, as far as I understand, you have not been born in Ukraine. Would you be please so kind to tell me how did you end up living in Ukraine?
I came to Ukraine four years ago with my father and mother. Around that time, my dad set up a construction company in Kiev and offered me to relocate to this city, as well.
In other words, before coming here, you did not know much about Ukraine, its language and its customs?
Oh no. Even before I have relocated here for good, I had a very good idea as to what Ukraine is all about. You see, our family have many relatives in Ukraine, who have resided here for a long time. For example, my father’s aunty has been living in Dnepropetrovsk since 1979.
You speak English very well, indeed. Is it solely the consequence of you attending British International School or maybe there is more to it?
I would have to say that, without having attended this school, I would not be able to learn much English at all. In Ukrainian regular schools, students are not being given a good opportunity to study English. One of my friends, who studies in one of such schools, has been telling me that they only have two English classes per week, during the course of which they get to learn grammar mostly, without being given much of a chance to practice their skills in that language.
While at the school, are you being required to speak English all the time?
Yes. All of the subjects in our school are being taught exclusively in English. Most school’s the teachers are actually British citizens and they do not tolerate students conversing to each other in any other language but English, even during the breaks.
But, don’t you think that, while being required to speak English all the time, when at school, you might lose a grip of your native language and also of Ukrainian language, in which I assume you are being proficient?
Actually, ever since my early years in Armenia, I have learned Russian to the extent that I consider it being nothing short of my native language. In Kiev, everybody speak Russian, which is why I never needed to learn much of Ukrainian – only uneducated peasants from country’s Western parts, who come to Kiev looking for low paid jobs, speak that kind of a language.
But, isn’t Ukrainian the only country’s official language?
Officially, it is. But in reality, most of well educated people in this country do not even consider it language per se – it is more of a peasant dialect, which is why it lacks words of technological significance. For example, the term ‘wheel bearing’ can be translated to Russian as ‘podshypnik’, whereas there is simply no equivalent to this word in Ukrainian.
While Yuschenko (former Ukrainian President) was in the office, he hired a bunch of ‘language experts’ from Galicia, so that they would simply invent Ukrainian words, which never existed in reality.
I’ve heard from a friend of mine, who studies in one of Kiev’s Ukrainian schools, that once she had gotten a bad grade, simply because she referred to a car as ‘avtomobil’, instead of referring to it as ‘avtivka’ – as Yushenko’s ‘experts’ used to be insisting.
One time, I was invited to take part in filming of a local TV show – people who were talking on camera, tried to speak Ukrainian, but as soon as cameras were turned off, all of them would switch back to speaking Russian (laughs).
So, in other words, you did not experience much of a problem, while adjusting to Ukraine’s linguistic environment?
I guess you could say so. I speak English and Russian fluently – all that it is being required from just about anybody, in order to feel comfortable in this country, unless you want to have a career in taking care of livestock in some of Ukraine’s remote villages. Then, you would have to learn Ukrainian.
Apart from having to undergo a linguistic adjustment, did you experience any other assimilation-related challenges?
Well… every once in a while, I get to encounter racists. Most of them utterly unintelligent people from country’s Western regions, who for some strange reason believe that Ukraine belongs solely to them. Good thing most of these individuals are really not in position to impose their racist views upon others. Still, my dad has to periodically deal with this type of people, while conducting his business. It does not bother him much though – one cannot be getting offended at those who were born genetically and intellectually deficient.
Thank you very much Emma. Your replies to my questions were indeed rather enlightening.
Armen Hachaturyan (17 years old). Student at Meridian International School in Kiev.
Armen, could you please me a little about yourself?
I was born in Armenia and I lived most of my life there. My family immigrated to Ukraine two years ago, so I live here now.
I am interested to hear whether you consider yourself being fully comfortable living in this country. And, if so, how did you manage to get adjusted to the local realities?
Actually, I like living here very much. Of course, you cannot refer to Ukraine as a Western country, in full sense of this word, but I still like it better then Armenia – comparing to what it used to be the case in Erevan (Armenian capital), there is a multitude of culturally and ethnically different people in Kiev, which is why I find residing in this city intellectually stimulating. In fact, I consider myself having similar mentality with Ukrainians – after all, just as it is being the case with Ukraine, Armenia used to be the part of Soviet Union. So, my naturalization occurred very much on its own.
Did you find it any hard adjusting to the new linguistic environment, while here?
I do not think it was particularly hard for me to get adjusted. I studied Russian language since I went to elementary school in Erevan, so I consider this language being almost as native as Armenian. And, in Kiev, most people speak Russian. Yet, my parents insisted that I attend English-speaking school, so that I would have a better career prospects.
Are you being required to speak English all the time, while at school?
Most of the subjects are being taught to us in English, but we do have Russian and Ukrainian classes. To be honest, I cannot say that I’ve been excelling in Ukrainian a whole lot, which kind of troubles me, as I am planning to enter Shevchenko’s University, I after I graduate from school. You see, in that university, all of the entrance examinations are exclusively in Ukrainian.
Why wouldn’t you apply an extra effort, while gaining proficiency in that language?
I would not mind doing it, but I find it little hard. In order for just about anyone to get a good grip of a particular language, he or she would have to be provided with an opportunity to practice it. But, who am I going to practice it with, apart from practicing it with the teacher, during Ukrainian classes? All the people that I know here speak Russian. I mean, I do speak Ukrainian, but not to the extent of being able to pass exams in it. To make things worse, our teacher of Ukrainian language always talk to me in a way as if she never ceases to be angry with my mere presence in this country. I think she hates me, simply because I happened to have a darker skin.
Is it really so? What are her attitudes towards other school’s students?
She definitely treats Ukrainian students better. I guess she belongs to this Ukrainian nationalist party ‘Svoboda’, which is why, while talking to me, she always stresses out that I am being nothing but a guest. But, in Kiev, she is being just as much of a guest as me – people always spoke Russian here, and it is only after Stalin occupied Eastern part of Poland in 1939, that Ukrainian nationalists started to move to Kiev by trainloads. If she continues giving me troubles, I will file a complaint against her. My parents pay good money so that I would be able to get a good education. And, I don’t think that hearing about how great were Ukrainian Nazi collaborators, during the course of WW2, should be the part of getting such an education.
It is quite strange to hear this from you. I thought teachers’ task has always been helping students to attain self-confidence, especially when foreign-born students that study in international schools are being concerned.
That is what I thought too. Unfortunately, there are still many nationalistically minded educators in this country, who seem to derive a sick pleasure out of degrading immigrant youth. Still, I think that the things will get better – Ukrainian new President Yanukovich appears being open-minded individual, which is why he recalled former President’s decree that proclaimed Ukrainian main Nazi collaborator Bandera a ‘hero’.
What do you think of your experiences in socializing with ordinary Ukrainians? Do you find them open-minded as well?
Most of them are absolutely normal people, who are being simply concerned with trying to make living. And, once people start enjoying better standards of living, due to their hard work, they effectively cease regarding nationalistic nonsense seriously. I believe that citizens’ value should be assessed in regards to their ability to function as productive members of society, and not in regards to whether they can be defined as representatives of a ‘native folk’ or not.
Do you think that your Ukrainian classmates are sharing such your opinion?
Yes I do. Most of them come from well-off families, which mean they had a chance to travel the world. And, those who had visited foreign countries, are being naturally predisposed towards becoming tolerant individuals. Nevertheless, there are still a few students, who while being perfectly aware of the fact that I do not speak Ukrainian very well, would never cease referring to me in this language, even though they could have done it in Russian with ease. I think, it makes them feel special.
Armen, do you and your parents spend much time socializing with other Armenians in Kiev?
In fact, we do. My father owes Armenian restaurant in Kiev, so we always get too meet compatriots. Most of these people have managed to become well-established citizens in Ukraine. And, I guess what had helped them in this respect, is the fact that the members of Armenian Diaspora in Ukraine always try to help each other in time of need.
Thank you for your willingness to talk to me Armen. I make sure I will be checking your dad’s restaurant as soon as possible.
You are very welcome.
Alisha Evert (16 years old). Student at Kiev International School.
Alisha, thank you for agreeing to be interviewed. Could you please introduce yourself, before we proceed?
I’m the daughter of a diplomat from South Africa. I have been living in Ukraine for one year now. My father is going to be promoted at the embassy, so I guess I’ll be living here for at least another few years.
I understand you study in an English speaking school. Does it leave you with much of a chance to learn about local language, culture and customs?
To be honest, I am not a very fast learner of foreign cultures. But, the more I stay in Ukraine, the more I grow comfortable with the way of life here. It’s just I can help missing South African food.
I don’t know if you have heard, but many people in Ukraine like eating ‘salo’ (raw pork back), would you ever consider trying that?
My dad told me about this. I actually still find it hard to believe that he was not joking. I mean, how can you eat that?
Well, that is something many Ukrainians are being proud of. By the way, have you made any friends with local children yet?
I have, there are many Ukrainian students in the school where I study, but they don’t act like most of ordinary Ukrainian children do.
Why is that?
This is because they consider themselves being so much better than the rest. It costs their parents about $2000 per month to have them studying here; whereas, I heard that many ordinary Ukrainians make as little as $300 per month.
Are they being any racist towards you?
Some of them. But most of them are Ok.
I’ve heard there are classes in Ukrainian and Russian at your school, are you being required to attend them.
Not really but I still do. I’d like to learn Russian language. There is that girl Natasha, with whom I’ve made really good friends. She helps me with learning Russian. I now can understand a lot of what is being said on TV.
I’m sure you have met many Ukrainian people. In which way, do you think they are being different from South Africans?
Well, they like to drink a lot. They don’t like to say hello to each other. There is much anger in the air. However, this is not because these people are bad, but because most of them are poor by even African standards.
What do you like about Kiev?
I like the fact that this is a very safe city. Even though many Ukrainians are rather angry, they are not violent. In Johannesburg, where I grew up, there are whole areas, where normal people try not to go to, because they can be easily killed or raped right out on the street. In Kiev, you can go just about anywhere and you’ll still be Ok.
Do you think you might ever consider settling in Ukraine for good?
If local winters weren’t quite as cold, I would.
Thank you Alisha.
Nguen Lmao (16 years old). An illegal immigrant from Vietnam. [The original interview was conducted in Russian].
Nguen, please tell me about yourself and about what had prompted you to come to Ukraine.
I grew up in Vietnam in a very poor family of ten, where I was the youngest kid. About three years ago, two of my older brothers decided to try to come to France and they offered me to join them. Of course, we could not immigrate to this country legally, so we decided to make our way there onboard of a commercial ship.
So, I guess Ukraine is not the final point of your destination?
Originally, it wasn’t and it still isn’t. We’ve managed to come to Odessa, while hiding in one of those containers onboard of a sea-freighter. Then, we tried crossing Ukrainian border with Poland, but we failed and my two brothers ended up being caught by Ukrainian border patrol. As far as I’m being aware of, they have been deported back to Vietnam, but I’ve never heard from them since. I was more lucky, because I managed to escape from Ukrainian authorities. Now, I live in Kiev.
What do you do for living?
There is a large Vietnamese community in Kiev. These people provided me with the place to stay and also gave the gob of a salesperson at one of city’s open markets.
You speak Russian very well. How long did it take you to learn this language?
Maybe like two of three months. I had no option but to learn Russian quickly, otherwise I wouldn’t be able to get a job. This is like when they throw you into the river so that you learn how to swim – it’s whether you start swimming or die.
Do you find living as an illegal immigrant pleasurable?
Well, I don’t starve here at least; whereas, back in Vietnam, I used to starve constantly. I don’t really care for the fact that I don’t have a passport. Every time police comes to the market with an inspection, I simply bribe them with a few cartons of cigarettes and they leave me alone.
So, I guess you’ve proven yourself more than capable adjusting to the realities of living in Ukraine.
Yes, in fact, while selling stuff at the market, I make more money than many native-born Ukrainians do, especially those who work for the state, such as teachers, for example. I owe this country nothing, just as it owes me nothing. All I want is to be left in peace.
What are your plans for the future? Are you going to stay in Ukraine forever?
Do I look like a crazy person? Of course, I’m not going to stay here forever. Right now, I’m just trying to save enough money, so that I’d be able to afford a trip to France.
We talk of an illegal trip here, right?
Please, spare me of your moralistic overtones. Is it illegal to be trying to get a better life? I have a dream – I want to live in France, and I’m willing to do just about all that it takes for my dream to come true. We only live once, you know.
Do you think you’ll be able to adjust to living in France, if you manage to get there?
Well, I’ve managed to adjust to living in Ukraine, and this is not the best country in the world, believe me. I guess you’re forgetting that Vietnam used to be French colony – my grandfather taught me French language. All I need is to get there.
Do you think maybe, at some point in your life, you would have to look into getting an education?
Yes, eventually I will look into that. In fact, I’ve always dreamt of becoming a doctor. But, as of today, I’m simply in no position to be giving it much of a thought.
Have you ever indulged in violent behavior, while in Ukraine?
Forgive me, but I don’t have all day long to talk to you. I have some business to take care of.
Thank you anyways.
Discussion We believe that the data, related to immigrant children’s varying ability to adjust to the socio-cultural environment of a new country, which we had obtained while conducting earlier provided interviews, largely supports paper’s initial suggestions. For example, all four interviewees pointed out to the fact that learning new language did not represent much of a challenge to them.
Partially, this can be explained by the fact that, as it appears from interviews’ contexts, Emma, Armen, Alisha and Nguen, are not being particularly preoccupied with celebrating their ‘ethnic uniqueness’.
In its turn, this correlates with paper’s earlier expressed suggestion that children’s ability to adjust to a new linguistic environment corresponds to the extent of their keenness to spent time with parents in counter-geometrical progression. In other words – the more time immigrant children spend socializing with their peers, the quicker they master new country’s language.
Nevertheless, these interviews brought to light something that has not been theorized upon in paper’s earlier parts – namely the fact that, in Ukraine, immigrant children’s chances to get a grip of the language that serves as universally recognized communicational medium (Russian), are being undermined by the governmental authorities’ insistence that, along with Russian, they must also learn Ukrainian.
And yet, neither of interviewees indicated that they really did need to learn this language, in order for them to be able to feel socially and culturally comfortable in Ukraine. Apparently, Ukrainian language had long ago ceased serving as communicational medium of any practical value, due to its lack of semiotic adequateness, and instead, became nothing less of a cultural fetish.
In its turn, this allows us to draw certain parallels between linguistic challenges, faced by immigrant children in Ukraine and the challenges, faced by immigrant children in Ireland. After all, just as Ukrainian language being considered native to Ukraine, Gaelic language is being considered native to Ireland.
Moreover, just as most Ukrainians prefer to communicate in Russian, most Irish prefer to communicate in English. As it was rightly pointed out by Suarez (2005): “The value of Gaelic is low. Globally, it is a marginal language.
Although there is some economic value for those who speak it, the economic costs of not speaking English are much higher than the costs of not speaking Gaelic” (464). Nevertheless, unlike what it is the case in Ukraine, newly arrived immigrants to Ireland are not being forced to learn essentially ‘dead’ language, simply because governmental bureaucrats want them to.
Therefore, whatever the paradoxically it might sound; it is namely Nguen’s illegal status, which had caused the process of his linguistic acclimatization to proceed in particularly smooth manner.
The reason for this is simple – unlike what it is being the case with the rest of interviewees, Nguen never aimed at establishing himself socially in Ukraine, which is why he only needed to learn Russian, as the language of trade (and also the language of science and high culture, we might add).
Recommendations The earlier conducted analytical review of literature, interviews with Ukraine’s four foreign-born residents, and the concluding discussion, allows us to come up with the set of recommendations as to what researchers, who explore subjects similar to that of this paper, should consider focusing their attention upon in the future:
Studying the qualitative aspects of a correlation between immigrant children’s progress in adjusting to socio-political, cultural and linguistic environment of a new country and the particulars of their ethnic affiliation.
Exploring what accounts for artificially created obstacles on the way of immigrant children’s linguistic integration into a host society, on the part of governmental authorities.
Assessing how the specifics of children’s immigration status reflect on their ability to assimilate.
Defining societal subtleties of how immigrant children go about constructing their self-identity and how they expect others to perceive such their newly acquired identity.
Investigating the effects of immigrant children’s behavioral attitudes on their assimilation-related capacities.
References Aronowitz, Michael “The Social and Emotional Adjustment of Immigrant Children: A Review of the Literature.” International Migration Review 18.2 (1984): 237-257.
Artico, Ceres. Latino Families Broken by Immigration: The Adolescent’s Perceptions. New York: LFB Scholarly, 2003.
Beissinger, Mark “Identity in Formation: The Russian‐Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad Source.” The American Journal of Sociology 105.1 (1999): 294-296.
Bhabha, Homi “Signs Taken for Wonders: Questions of Ambivalence and Authority under a Tree Outside Delhi, May 1817.” Critical Inquiry 12 (1985): 150-165.
Booth, Alan., Crouter, Ann
History of the Networking Technology Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents As compared to what is happening today
Physical Aspect of Networking
The telegraph was perfected in the 1850s. Decades later, the telephone became a household fixture in the early 20th century. But even with the radio and the telephone becoming household fixtures in most modern homes, the whole world and particularly the United Kingdom was not exactly moving at a frenetic pace. Phones made it easier but there is a significant delay when it comes to accessing information.
A person has to be on both ends of the line to communicate. This system is far outmoded when compared to Information Technology that has swept the globe. A person can access information 24 hours a day, all year round. This enhances the decision-making process. It radicalised the way people do business. However, these things could not have been possible without networking technology.
As compared to what is happening today It has to be pointed out that even as late as the middle part of the e 20th century, it was still very expensive to communicate across continents. Calling overseas is not a practical proposition unless the call is extremely urgent. During those days, many households in Europe did not even own a telephone.
But after the invention of the Internet in the latter part of the twentieth century, the world began to enter the Digital Age. As a result the way people communicate to each other went into overdrive. It can be argued that people are now living in a networked society.
Information Systems Before going any further it is important to have a clear understanding of what a network is all about. A basic definition of a network is to have two or more computers that are linked together so that information can be exchanged between them. The development of computer networks is the answer to the urgent need of the modern day workplace to have the ability to receive and send information quickly and efficiently.
Robert Thierauf explains it this way, “Today’s worldwide marketplace provides not only more customers, suppliers, and competitors but also increased complexity for the decision-making process.
The speed of communication simultaneously makes the environment less stable and predictable and reduces the available time for examining business information, knowledge, and intelligence” (p. 65). There is therefore a need for a more sophisticated IT infrastructure that can help managers make the right decisions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Shifting needs, rapid changes in technology and the increasing sophistication of the hackers are the major reasons why developers and creators of a company’s IT infrastructure are focused in creating systems that both efficient and secure. The number one challenge for modern management information systems is the creation of a seamless IT architecture that can ensure an error free e-business.
This is extremely difficult to do for an organisation that relies on internet and telecommunication networks in order to conduct businesses in multiple locations all over the world (Stevens, p.20). The solution is the creation of a highly-reliable, easy-to-use and secure Intranet as well as Extranet technology.
Intranet The Intranet is basically a network that is limited to internal usage within the company. This is its limitation because the system can only be used by the employees and all the staff that works in the said organization. However, the upside to this arrangement is the significant savings that it can bring when it comes to their communication needs. Aside from that the flow of information is significantly enhanced.
An Intranet will allow for the creation of a system that can handle large volumes of information and yet the company need not hire a hundreds of employees to maintain it. An airline company for instance can have an Intranet that is managed by a staff of just 16 IT professionals (Times Online, p.1). In the case of one airline company the use of the Intranet allows for the creation of cost-saving methods that enhanced the profitability of the said organisation. One study revealed the following:
cabin crew and check-in staff carry out a range of activities from booking annual leave to obtaining the weather reports needed for each flight. Engineering staff can get the details needed to maintain the aircraft … The crews come in , use the self-service terminals to print off everything they require, such as fuel reports, go to the aircraft and fly (Times Onine, p.1).
This is an efficient system indeed. However, it is severely limited when it comes to coverage because it has no use to their customers. Most of the time an Intranet is comprised of computer terminals and computer networks within the company headquarters. It can be accessed from a satellite office, from a remote location, however, it is still a closed system because only employees and staff can use it. This is the reason why the Extranet was developed.
Extranet If a company decides to use an Extranet then it has to be protected from hackers and corporate spies (Flouris
Vision statement Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Vision statement is one of the most important concepts of any company or organization aiming to realize its dreams in the current volatile market situation. The effectiveness, applicability and realization of any vision of a company depend on how well the vision statement is developed. This paper discusses the effective elements, merits and shortcomings of the vision of Microsoft Company.
Vision Statement Microsoft Company is one of the most successful companies in the world. The success may be attributed to their vision statement: “To be led by a globally diverse workforce that consistently delivers outstanding business results, understands the various cultural demands of a global marketplace, is passionate about technology and the promise it holds to tap human potential, and thrives in a corporate culture where inclusive behaviors are valued” (Microsoft 1).
Effective Elements A good vision must be realistic in terms of what the organization wants to achieve. A vision must make sense to all the organization fraternity since it is the inspiration tool for the organization employees and thus must be credible.
The vision must be attractive to an extent that the whole organization fraternity wants to be part of the organizations’ future dream. A vision looks into the future and thus it should clearly capture the future and bridges it with the present (Cowings, 1991).
The effective elements of a vision statement are clear in Microsoft vision statement. Globally diverse workforce covers the global coverage dream; a workforce that delivers outstanding business results may be what everyone in the organization likes to be part of, workforce that is sensitive to culture diversity of their customers will ensure company’s relevance to all the global cultures.
The vision statement has also considered the changes in technology with time and thus passionate about it, realizes the importance of human potential in realizing its dreams. Most importantly the vision appreciates the importance of working as a unit in its corporate culture where inclusive behavior is valued.
Merits It can be argued that Microsoft has realized its vision with time due to the effectiveness of its vision statement. Microsoft is currently led by global workforce that continues to grow even more, they have been able to achieve outstanding business results with ever increasing profits every year and may continue in this trend in future.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They have been able to accommodate all cultures of the world and their products are appreciated all over the world. They have been at the forefront of advancement in information and technology with their up to date products. By tapping into human potential they have been able to develop genius products which represent work of competent workforce.
Shortcomings Microsoft may claim to envision a globally diverse workforce but most of its operations are more or less centralized. It may be hard to realize this vision in places such as developing countries where they may have not invested enough. Meeting cultural demands of the global market may be unrealistic due to the wide diversity.
It can also be argued that the vision statement is not unique and may apply to any other related company a contrast to what Maurer claims “Each vision is unique. If you create a good vision statement, it will apply only to your organization; it cannot be transferred to another industry” (Maurer, 2000, p. 5).
Conclusion Microsoft vision was discussed and found to be effective in terms of being credible, realistic, attractive and sensitive to the future. However some elements of the vision may not be realistic and their vision may not be unique to the company alone but all in all it has brought the corporation to its present success state.
References Cowings, A. (1991). Strategic Leadership and Decision Making. AUF. Web.
Maure, B. (2000). How to Create a Vision (or Compelling Goal) Statement. Rick Maurer. Web.
Microsoft. (2011). A Vision and Strategy for the Future. Microsoft Corporation. Web.
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The Final Solution Expository Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction Toward the end of the eighteenth century the Jews in German were well established. The Jews knew much about the German culture and had made it part of their lives. The Jews and Germans coexisted peacefully until Adolf Hitler became the German leader. In early nineteenth century a very bad incident took place in Germany which will forever be remembered by all the Germans and Jews.
The Germans led by Adolf Hitler were bent on killing all the Jews in what was termed as the final solution. Hatred was turned to the Jews by the Germans who believed that their misery (the Germans) was due to the presence of the Jews in Germany. This paper seeks to explain how the “The Final Solution” evolved, how it was organized, by whom it was carried out, when it was authorized and implemented and its effects.
The Final Solution Background Information
Adolf Hittler was appointed as a German leader in the presidential election held in 1932 and was named the president then. The First World War emerged to be a big blow to the German security. They then had to look for new ways to strengthen their country. With time some magazine started to spread out propaganda concerning the Jews.
Elections were conducted to increase political strength of Hittler. The laws governing the country were modified. It was argued that the Jewish were responsible for the alteration in the German culture. Hittler was against the Jewish two years after the election. The Jewish were viewed as outcasts and some laws were made to get rid of them (Bendersky 1).
It is believed that the killing of the Jewish was planned towards the end of 1941(Holocaust history 1). Based on some prophesy that the future was to be worse, the Jewish started fleeing out of the country but were restricted by the strict immigration rule from neighboring countries.
Some of the countries tried to solve the immigration process but were unsuccessful. On being pushed too much, the Jewish refused to take commands given to them and assassinated one the top German official. This provoked the government to arrest the Jews and many of them lost their lives and most of their property (Jewish virtual library 1; Bendersky 2).
The worst period for the Jews dawned at the start of the Second World War. The German security was determined to get rid of the Jews. They were divided into different troops. Jews were shot dead and buried. At the start of 1942, a meeting to enforce the operation was conducted.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This meant that the process was to be carried out on a large scale. There were so many death camps which were used to get rid of the Jews (United States 1). Some countries attacked Germany to force it surrender killing the Jews. Some of these countries included: America, Britain and the Soviet Union. This led to the end of the Second World War.
Statistics of those who died
It is worth noting that the number of Jews who were killed was just too huge. It was a display of hatred at the highest level. A simple analysis of the number of Jews who fell shows the following facts:
Aurischwitz II was declared a killing center by Himmler. Approximately 1,000,000 Jews from many parts of Europe were killed here.
Approximately 2,700,000 Jews were murdered in death camps and killing centers by the police and the German SS. In total about 6,000,000 Jews, were murdered. This number accounts for two thirds of the Jews in Europe and one third of Jews in the world. (Aurischwitz 1)
It recorded that the Germans systematically collected all the Jews from various parts of Germany and subjected them to some sort of sorting out whereby those who were declared fit were sent to work in various industries and the others who formed the majority were sent to the gas chambers for their death.
It is worth noting that only a small fraction of the Jews were declared fit thus most of them faced the gas chambers in the various killing centers which had been set up for the purposes of eliminating the Jews (Aurischwitz 1). The final solution has inspired the shooting of many movies based on these massacres with a good examples being escape from Sobibor.
Conclusion The final solution is one of the worst actions in history that happened to the Jews. The massive killing was inhuman and should not be allowed to happen again. This left many injured physically and psychologically. Were it not for the intervention of other countries probably the Jews would have been eliminated. Killing in such a large scale order is being witnessed even in the present day.
We will write a custom Essay on The Final Solution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taking examples of third world countries like Rwanda, it can be argued that still massacres take place though to a small extent.
New policies should therefore be instituted across the world to avoid harassment of any group of people irrespective of their race, religion or numbers. As a matter of fact such kinds of massacres often lead to lifelong grudges which can easily lead to a nation attacking another one.
Works Cited Aurischwitz. Holocaust History. Holocaust Encyclopedia, n.d. Web.
Bendersky, James. A concise history of Nazi Germany. New York: Rowman
Theory of modern art: Rationalization Analytical Essay a level english language essay help
Buchloh observes the cyclical appearance of action and reaction in art since the advent of Cubism, and infers from this that art reflects somehow the state of society.
In the associated readings, the authors make some similar points about the tidal movement between realism and abstraction, although they are not uniformly as focused on the socio-political content or significance of the current art trends.
In all cases, the authors make a distinction between visually reproducing reality, on the one hand, and ignoring it to some degree, on the other hand. These observations accurately describe the changes that occurred in art over the first decades of the 20th century.
However, it is not always convincing, from the perspective of 2011, to read these often-inflexible assertions about the directional progression of art, and its potential connection to politics.
Buchloh asserts that art responds to the oppression of the regimes then current in the country where the artist lives and/or works. He asks,
“Is there a simple causal connection, a mechanical reaction, by which growing political oppression necessarily and irreversibly generates traditional representation? Does the brutal increase of restrictions in socio-economic and political life unavoidably result in the bleak anonymity and passivity of the compulsively mimetic modes that we witness, for example, in European painting of the mid- 1920s and early I 930s?”
He is contending that artists react to the limiting atmosphere around them by hearkening back to representational styles. He is damning of all figurative content as a throwback, a return to outdated and played-out concepts and goals, formed by the political environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While he does not come right out and declare his political affiliation, his attitude towards capitalism is very hostile. He speaks of the “bankruptcy of capitalist economics” and, for example, accuses capitalism of using war as its final economic solution to the persistent problems of utilizing every person’s skills and keeping them fed.
He also seems not to be friendly to fascism. What seems to bother him about all political systems is the way that people are managed and controlled, for example via “managed unemployment.” 
The authors in the readings all have grasped that something quite significant has changed in art. They all have seen, as Apollinaire notes, that there is occurring either a return to earlier forms of painting, or adoption of a variety of elements from earlier times (Classicism and Romanticism), or from disparate cultures, technologies, or genres.
Buchloh regards this sort of re-definition of self as a desperate clinging to a lost role of centrality and importance. He calls the painters of Cubism and its immediate neighbors in time and development, “senile old rulers.”
However all these protestations might also have been simply an effort on the part of artists in the early decades of the 20th century to make sense of the transforming world around them. This was especially a challenge given the demoralizing upset of World War I.
These authors, many of them artists themselves, focus more than Buchloh does on the appearance and content of the art itself. They seem more interested in what comes next in art. This, itself, was a novel question to be asking, after so many centuries of slow, almost indistinguishable change.
Jeanneret and Ozenfant, in particular, appear to be trying to lay out a path for art to follow so that their work can result in, “an objectification of the entire world.” This involves, for them, creating order by selecting from among many elements. They aim to present the viewer with something that is, “free of conventions” and, “universal.”
We will write a custom Essay on Theory of modern art: Rationalization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the reference to conventions may evoke the hated and reviled bourgeoisie, the main thrust of this article seems to be anti-political. This seems to be a perhaps deliberate attempt to move art distinctly outside the whole mess of politics and social movements.
This does not actually contradict Buchloh’s insistence on a connection between the system of governance and the forms of art. Buchloh would probably contend that wanting to be outside current politics is actually a commentary on the impact of current politics!
Carra focuses on the artist’s treatment of line and color and light. He claims for artists a goal of, “creation, not the imitation of phenomena”. He sees artists as in dialogue only with other artists, “listening to ourselves”. This is another expression of the artist as separate, outside, standing apart from politics and social movements.
Gleizes is the exception to this apparent willful obliviousness of the socio-political universe that surrounds them. He notes in his 1920 essay on the Dadaist movement that the social and political and class situation has been changing rapidly, and that people have being thrown about by the violence of events. His is the most explicit expression, among these readings, of an awareness of art as a marker of class distinctions.
He points out that the upper and lower classes are being deliberately separated and set at odds. This is perhaps not surprising, since the Dadaists were specifically interested in a democratization of art and the de-professionalization of the creation of art.
Buchloh is heavy-handed in suggesting that all figurative or representational art is a symptom of oppression. The other authors are looking at art less through the prism of political science than as artists themselves. Both are probably seeing a truth in the situation, but from different perspectives.
Buchloh lays his ideas out at the end of his essay, as follows:
“The aesthetic attraction of these eclectic painting practices originates in a nostalgia of the moment in the past when the painting modes to which they refer had historical authenticity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Theory of modern art: Rationalization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More But the spectre of derivativeness hovers over every contemporary attempt to resurrect figuration, representation, and traditional modes of production, This is not so much because they actually derive from particular precedents, but because their attempt to re-establish forlorn aesthetic positions immediately situates them in historical secondariness.
That is the price of instant acclaim achieved by affirming the status quo under the guise of innovation. The primary function of such cultural re-presentations is the confirmation of the hieratics of ideological domination.”
Bibliography Apollinaire, Guillaume. “The New Spirit .” In Art in Theory: 1900 to 2000, by C. Harrison and P. Wood, 228-230. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Buchloh, Benjamin D. “Figures of Authority, Ciphers of Regression: Notes on the Return of Representation in European Painting.” First appeared in the periodical October, volume 16, Spring, 1981, 39-68. Republished in Art in Modern Culture: an Anthology of Critical Texts, by Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris, edited by Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris, 222-238. London: Phaedon Press, 1992.
Carra, Carlo. “Our Antiquity.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by C Harrison and P. Wood. Carra- Our Antiquity p232-p236. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Gleize, Albert. “The Dada Case.” In Art in Theory, by C. Harrison and P. Wood, 242- 245. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Jeanneret, Charles Edouard (Le Corbusier), and Amedee Ozenfant. “Purism.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by C. Harrison and P. Wood, 239- 242. OXfprd: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Footnotes Buchloh, Benjamin. “Figures of Authority, Ciphers of Regression: Notes on the Return of Representation in European Painting’”. October. 1981, Volume 16, Spring. Published in Frascina, Francis and Jonathan Harris, eds. Art in Modern Culture: an Anthology of Critical Texts. (London: Phaidon Press, 1992). Page 222.
Buchloh, p. 223
Buchloh, p. 223
Buchloh, p. 223
Apollinaire, Guillaume. “The New Spirit and the Poets”. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. Wiley-Blackwell. Page 229. For example, artists incorporated pieces of newspaper text, collage-fashion, into paintings.
Buchloh, Page 233.
Jeanneret, Charles Edouard, and Ozenfant, Amedee. ‘Purism”. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. Wiley-Blackwell. Page 242.
Carra, Carlo. “Our Antiquity”. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. 2002. Wiley-Blackwell. Page 244
Carra, page 232.
Gleizes, Albert. “The Dada Case”. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. 2002. Wiley-Blackwell. Page 242.
Gleizes, page 244
Buchloh, page 237
Fashion and Identity Analytical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Fashion reinforces personal identity
Fashion erodes individual identity
Introduction The relationship between man, fashion and identity has always been intriguing. Man is in a constant search of identify, something that will make him unique and identifiable. A unique tool to enhance a person’s identity is fashion. Fashion industry is driven by creativity and as such results in many designs.
The debate in this issue is which of the two has a bigger influence on the other. There are differing opinions on this subject each with sufficient proof on the power and the influences that each has on the other. Werner (n.d.) argues that the search for personal identity is the primary preoccupation of the contemporary generation.
The drive towards identifying who a person is comes about due to fear and uncertainty of the person’s purpose in life. Thus identifying a specific persona becomes the key to personal development and growth in life. Werner continues to argue that the contemporary generation is deceived to think that personal identity is determined by the physical attributes in a person.
Many people take too much care of their physical looks and would go to great lengths to enhance their outward appearance in the effort to enhance their identity. In this regard, people are concerned with their levels of education and would proceed to acquire educational qualifications.
This is intended to improve a person knowledge and intelligence, therefore helping to form their persona identity. Other than education, people take great care how they dress. Dressing is taken as a mode of identifying who a person is. People who see themselves as official tend to dress officially all the times. People dressing style is also a way of trying to enhance ones identity.
A man may dress sharply to stand out in a crowd. Women, perceive themselves as beautiful put on make up several and adornment to enhance this perceived identify. Adornments and beautification are a means of enhancing a persons unique attributes and make them look different in a crowd. Werner (n.d.) questions this method of forming and identifying a person and says that it is quit deceptive.
A person identity cannot be formed by physical attributes and out wards appearance. Other important factors help to form a person identity. Such things are concerned with a person inner attributes such as the soul and are spiritual. Werner (n.d.) concludes that a person spiritual belief influences person’s attitudes towards life and generally, who a person eventually becomes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More MAS (2006) infer that it is impossible to hide a person identity as people are constantly giving out signs of who they are. These arguments purports that a person identity is somewhat inherent.
A person’s identity can be identified from the simple things that people do. Such things as email addresses reveal a lot about a person’s identify. Studying such physical attributes as fingerprints, facial expression, names and DNA configuration can reveal a lot about a person.
These things have in them cues that can be used to unravel a person identity. Thus, it becomes impossible to hide the real person. Any attempt to do so is deceptive. A person’s identity is associated with a good reputation. This means that identity is the foundation of reputation. A good reputation enhances a personal success in life (Werner, n.d.; MAS, 2006).
It guarantees a person better jobs, ease in career advancement, improved social status and allows the individual other privileges. MAS (2006) explains that attempt to hide a persons true self are disastrous and results in a person gaining a bad reputation the society and the disadvantages that comes with it.
From the arguments above it is important to note the formation of a personal identity is crucial. People general direction is driven by their personal identity.
The out ward look is just a reflection of an individuals identity, but not what forms it. How people look on the outwards is a reflection of their beliefs and customs. The spiritual faculties form a person’s beliefs and customs. These beliefs are unique to each person and thus help to form involuntarily the main character traits that make a unique identity in a person.
These characteristics are expressed in more physical ways such as dressing code and general mannerisms. These characteristics are what make people identifiable in a society and give us a persona different from other individuals. This is [personal identity.
We will write a custom Essay on Fashion and Identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The relationship between fashion and personal identity is peculiar. In this debate, the biggest question is which of the two has the greatest influence over the other or whether the two are mutually dependent. Fashion and human personality theorist all agree that each cannot exist without the other.
This is because fashion is way of dressing only expressible through people and the same is true for people: it is difficult to see people without looking at fashion. Thus, it becomes an interesting debate as to whether it is fashion that reinforces a person identity or vice versa. Fashion theorists are also aware that both fashion and personal identity are subject to evolution and thus keep changing with time.
As such, there is always a great confusion as to which of the two is the agent of the said change. The confusion arises from the fact that each fashion as well as personal identity seem to have an inherent ability to stand o its own. However, debaters of this motion do not realize that the debate always focuses on the mutual dependency between these two phenomena.
Fashion reinforces personal identity Ffion (2011) explains that the post second world war heralded liberalization and democratization of societies all over the world. One of the biggest marks of liberalization is the rise of a consumerism culture. Contemporary societies have acquired an insatiable habit of indiscriminately consuming and as such, producers have resulted to mass production.
The same is true for the fashion industry. People have acquired a taste for fashionable clothing and are consuming fashion products at an alarming rate. A look through fashion malls will reveal an existing insatiable appetite for fashion clothing as well accessories by people of all works of life.
Clothing since time immemorial has been the key towards unraveling a person identity (Ffion, 2011). Other than the obvious reason to cover nakedness and protects a person from extreme wearer conditions, Clothes are a means through which man communicates a powerful message about himself.
People use clothes as a means to enhance the message they want to portray to the society and hope that wearing these elicit the right response from others (Essay.org, 2011).
As such, people have to dress in the right way according to the character they want to enhance. Clothes emphasize the positions and roles that people play in the society. (Essay.org, 2011) compares fashion to art, which “sculptures and gives to its architect any form of creation the architects desires.”
Not sure if you can write a paper on Fashion and Identity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As such, fashion reacts to the desires of the architects and thus gives back creative designs that are relevant to person’s character and roles in the society. Further more, fashion enhances the different gender roles that different gender plays in the society.
It gives clothes that define a woman as feminine, in response to the feminine character of a woman and masculine clothes that a man demands. As such clothes becomes a clear distinction between men and women. Thus, fashion is responding to gender identities.
Ffion (2011) argues that people use clothes “to celebrate personal identities.” People wear cloths that express a strong personal beliefs and character. Ffion (2011) gives an example where women celebrate their personal identity through clothes and explains they may wear floral and brightly colored cloths to appreciate their love for nature and their cultural backgrounds.
This illustrates that the reason why Marie-Ange Guilleminot made clothing items with remains of the material from the Hiroshima bombsite to express “her grief and sorrow and show solidarity with the family of the victims.”
Different communities have different dressing style unique to them. The Hindu community has their sarongs, while the Scot male proudly wears the kilt as a way of identifying one self as a scot.
The Muslim woman will wear the Hijab to portray a religious identity while a Nigerian will were a brightly colored outfit that portrays the African identity. These dressing style are a strong reflection of a person’s cultural identity and are deliberately worn by people to express their personal identity through cultural norms
Other than communicating whom we are, clothes have a very big influence on our personality. (Essay.org, 2011) explains that Business executive’s wears suit to while musicians and sports people will be more casual.
They want to enhance their personal traits that is concurrent with their profession. Grant (2007) agrees with this argues and adds that an “individual negotiates through the dress.” Fashion thus forms part of an individuals language. Clothing is a language that a person uses to relay to the outside world desirable message about who they are.
Ffion (2011) explains that Marina Abramovic tried to controversially prove that clothe cannot be removed from a person identity. Mariah stood naked in a street and watched people’s reaction to her nudity. Of course, people were astonished that a person could dare remove her identity and stand in public naked.
This portrays that cloths are part of us and they help strengthen a person positive reputation. Lack of clothes is thus taken as lack of positive dignity. As explained earlier persons identity is associated with a positive reputation that puts the person at an advantaged position in the society.
Removing cloths from oneself is thus assumed to be removing a person positive identity, which leaves one without an identity that results to a negative reputation (MAS, 2006). It thus can be conclude that removing of clothe is stripping oneself of personal identity as such leaving one naked (without an identity).
Winter (2004) also supports that clothes portrays who we are by highlight the works of Van Dyke Lewis, a fashion God father and scholar who has spent a significant part of his life studying fashion.
Winter explains that despite the fact that clothes identify which ethnic group people come from they also identify from which part of the world a person comes from as well as the people’s individual roles in the society.
Lewis, Winter (2004) explains, has spent his entire life studying the black African fashion. This race has a particular way of clothing themselves that enhances their racial background.
During one of his fashion research in London, Lewis has paid particular attention to all the black people in the crowd and was rightly able to identify from which part of the world each came from simply by observing their dress code. This is because each of these person carried with them a certain trait about them that betrayed from which city, town or neighborhood each came from.
Essay (2011) support this further and argues that a clothing is a reflection of unique personal attributes and that personal identity can be interchangeably used with cultural identity. Clothes are part of peoples culture. By choosing to wear certain cloths people have voluntarily chosen to portray their cultural identify and their cultural roots of a person.
Still pertaining to culture, there has evolved a material cultures, a liberal group of individuals who want to dress in ways that do not conform to traditional dressing codes.
These people want freedom to dress the way they want without being restricted to the conventional dressing norms. Clothes are a sense of freedom and a spirit of adventure. They were wear clothes that are outside their cultural boundaries to adventure.
Clothes become a way of breaking cultural norms and experiencing the world beyond (Essay.org, 2011). As such, the fashion industry is evolving and responding to this new class of individuals and gives them creative designs that are suited their free spirited selves. Other clothing adornments are other items of fashion that enhance a persons identity.
People are nowadays adornments to express their dissatisfaction with traditional cultural norms. Tattoos are a way of expressing a distaste with conventional rules and thus a way of seeking freedom. It is a way of bode modification that seek to celebrate a free spirited individual who has managed to break cultural rules (Sanders, 1998).
Suffice to say that fashion is the tool that reinforces who a person is. People use clothes not only to express their personal traits but also to identify themselves with different cultures.
Clothes are not just mere tools for covering nakedness but also protect the persona in the wearer. People deliberately choose clothes that suit their personal characteristics. They are therefore a branding tool, a tool that helps the individuals to appreciate, celebrate and reinforce personal identity.
Fashion erodes individual identity As much as the power of the individual identify I emphases the power of fashion on the person cannot be ignored. Fashion still has its influence on the individual and to a great extent influences that a person becomes. This means that people respond to the latest fashion trends and thus try to align their identify to the dictates of these trends.
Human psychologist argues that human beings have tendency to change behaviors to fit in a certain context (Simply Psychology 2011). People thus change their behavior, attitudes, norms and beliefs fit in certain contexts. Such conformity is driven by the fear of rejection by a social group or the entire society. Conformity may be voluntary or involuntary.
Where it is voluntary, a person makes conscious choice out of fear and thus eventually changes behavior to be accommodated in a given setup. People thus experience an overwhelming sense of the group dynamics over individual identity and are attracted to the group. However, their personal identity is a hindrance towards finding a comfortable place in the group.
As such, they have to drop it and adapt what the social group ascribes to. When conformity occurs involuntarily, a person is either forced to adapt certain behavior as dictated by their roles in the society. In this case, people are forced to behave in certain manner that fits the group dynamic or risk rejection.
A student in a religiously affiliated school may be forced to change dress code to fit in that a particular school. A company may enforce strict dress and general behavior code for all employees to fit into the company policy. In such a company, formal dressing becomes the norm. Suit and ties are the every day apparel.
Therefore, all employees are forced to change their individual identikit in dressing. Involuntary conformity can also happen when a person lacks knowledge and thus seeks it from external (group) sources. In such a case a person is unknowingly influenced by social dynamics and eventually changes behavior as society dictates.
Conformity is prevalent in the world of fashion. This can be attributed to mass production of fashion labels that target mass sales. Marketing of these mass labels are enforcing a fashion sense to the unsuspecting public. Many fashion designs such as Versace, Christian Dior and others open fashion stores in many parts of the world to with the mass market as the target.
Because of the prestige that is associated with these brands people wear them not out of personal identity built because of the strong sense of fashion that comes with wearing them.
Bollier and Racine (2003) explains that “fashion permeates so many aspects of our lives that we fail to appreciate the social ecology that supports it” and as such has an enormous influence not only on the society built on the individual.
The industry it has an inherent power of creativity and thus produces fashionable garment with lightning speed and enforces the new fashion on people. As such, fashion industry thrives, on competition churning out creative design to protect its markets share and its brand.
As a result, several fashion labels have dominated the fashion industry. Many people in efforts to feel fashionable buy and wear these brands not in respect to their personal identity but in respect to fashion.
They want to feel that they belong to a social class that is conscious to fashion trends. Therefore, they will just move in any direction that fashion takes them. If the new trend demands wearing of faded jeans that id the trend they adapt. The same can be said of adornments.
Such kind of conformity has permeated into the American society. A look at the society will reveal that the individually is slowly but significantly loosing personal touch.
The individual in this society is slowly succumbs to the dictates of fashion so much that even the moral and cultural fabric of the society if affected. Americans are slowly adapting to wearing casual wear especially jeans and T-shirts. This conformity is so powerful, that it is slowly finding its way in the corporate sector.
Modern American professional world is adapting to the notion of dress down Friday, an idea that allows workers to tone down their official attire. In response to the notion, the American worker including some of the top CEO’s do wear jeans and T-shirts every Friday to work. (Rasband , 2010).
Rasband (2010) continues to explain that a study reveals that the average American owns more jeans and T-shirt s today than they did several years ago. A casual look at the ordinary American in shopping malls, hospitals airports, churches, sport stadiums, streets, cafes or any other place will revel that there are more people wearing jean and T-shirts than another type of clothing.
This jeans and T-shirts dressing code almost becomes a movement a phenomena Levi Straus has termed as “the most significant apparel trend of the century” (Rasband , 2010). Such conformity has eroded the American sense of personal touch as more American are falling prey to the jeans and T-shirts movement and thus limits the choices that American have on fashion.
Pittman and Townsend (n.d.) explains that such lack of choice in proposal apparel is the result of consumerism and mass production in the fashion industry, and results in loss of personal identity.
Consumerism in fashion is focused on quantity (and unfashionable clothing) rather than quality. It thus leads to a shortage of fashion wear that can enhance people’s individual identity. Rather it leads to e enhancement of social identity.
(Rasband , 2010) explain that the erosion of personal identify by fashion has not been without consequences. The jeans and T-shits movement puts every one o the same level at the work place and in effect, productivity of employees has notably declined.
Casual wears hinders a person productivity in the workplace as the person has retreated into the confront zone and thus lucks the necessary motivation to work. The teaching profession has been greatly affected by such erosions of culture.
American teachers have adopted casual wear and have ended looking more like the students they teach. The effect is a decline in discipline in American schools. (Rasband , 2010) concludes that dressing and in similar fashion makes Americans “look alike and thus begin to feel and act alike.”
The variety that is necessary to make a well-formed society is thus lost. The lack of variety in personal identity means that there is also a limitation in personal beliefs customs and norms. The average American has thus lost the ability to be different and to rise above the societal norms.
Conclusion It can be sufficiently concluded that fashion and man cannot be separated. They have a mutually dependent relationship. Man has had a significant influence in fashion industry. People have used fashion designs as away of communicating personal identities. They wear clothes that enhance their personal characteristics.
A person will wear dreadlocks to communicate ac message about personal beliefs and attitudes. There is also the evolvement of the free material culture, a group of people that believe I moving beyond conventional dressing codes in emphasis of their free spirit self.
Any attempts thus to remove dress is seen as an attempt to strip a person of their persons al identity. As such personal identity is embedded in a persons dressing style. Removing a dress is tantamount to removing your dress. However, fashion cannot be ignored in the way it influences a person’s character. There have been instances that a fashion erodes a personal identity leaving the person exposed to adhere to group dynamics.
This has been the effect of consumerism culture prevalent in the contemporary society. Consumerism culture leads to mass production. Fashion designers have thus responded to this phenomenon by creating massive designs and adapted exploitative marketing technique to force people to buy predetermined designs. Thus, people drop their unique dressing styles in favor of the mass culture.
This in effect affects the person identity as people star to behave in the same way. As such fashion becomes wastefully and unethical because it erodes not only the identify of a person but also of the entire society. This has lead to an emergence of a class of l fashion theorist with ethical views about sustainable fashion models.
Ethical fashionistas say that there is need to reverse the mass consumerism not only to protect the erosion of person identities but also to protect the environment. This will be done through recycling fashion design and material (Pittman and Townsend, 2003). Rasband (2010) explains that there is a way out the current wasting of personal identity in the society.
People can be very deliberate in their dressing style but not dress in response to mass fashion demands but to what the are personally comfortable with in respect to the situation they are in. the jeans and t-shirts are not entirely wrong but should be only worn at the right time and for the right purpose.
Reference List Bollier, D.,
The Use of Internet/Digital Technology to Motivate Learners Essay college essay help: college essay help
This paper aims at reaching curriculum developers and educators to bring into focus the need to integrate ICT in the contemporary education system.
Introduction Following the currently advancing technology across the world, various strategies have been established to reduce the gaps between Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and education, especially in science education. With the current highly interconnected world, there has been a global need to motivate and involve learners in science-related studies for better future of the current generation (Baer 43).
After critical review of various literature materials on science education, the use of ICT in classroom teaching has been found to impacts a lot on the overall motivation of students towards learning. Considering the revealed importance of the use of ICT and digital technology in classroom teaching, there arises great need on integrating classroom experiences with the new technology.
Significance of ICT in Education Information and Communications Technology is the strategy of using the current technological means to facilitate effective passage of information from one identity to another. According to Prensky (27), a blend of technology and traditional means of teaching is not only effective but necessary if we are considering the current generation of students.
As it has been observed, students in the contemporary society are technologically tuned. Being products of online world, these students are keen to explore new innovations. On this basis, the reflection of these generational changes in classroom pedagogy would enhance more learning, since students would be more interested and motivated.
As reported by Robson (33) there has been great need to incorporate into our classrooms the same combination of desirable goals, interesting choices, immediate and useful feedback and opportunities to level up that engage students in their favorite computer applications. By so doing, we will be cultivating and cherishing deeper learning among the students, as they would have high interests in learning using the technological appliances.
Involvement of students in discussions in various topics including class activities, curriculum development, teaching method, school organization has been found to be quite important (Prensky 35). This will make the teachers to understand how the students of 21st century i.e. the Digital Natives think. Certainly, this will help the teachers to change in the pedagogy for their students for better learning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kress (15) considers the use of podcasts, discussion boards and MSN to study and communicate in classroom teaching as an effective strategy, since this will engage students far better than in the previous days.
The suggestion made by Stoll et al (20) is very enticing in the sense that, use of ICT in classroom instruction helps to show a new dimension of teaching students with technology and how they impact on the students’ learning outcome would be, if we use technology in different way rather than in the normal manner.
As a result, such strategy will help in engaging and motivating students towards science and math. Considering the contemporary society dominated by scientific innovations and inventions, the ICT strategy makes learning relevant, as learners would concentrate on new technologies.
If teachers realize the vast capabilities of Digital Learning Objects (DLO) they will find out how to help students to actively participate and motivated in learning and thus increase their level of confidence (Robson 46).
Through the use of DLO, learners would be exposed to real life application of the knowledge gained, which would make them more confident in learning through actual applications. This forms a basis for making learning more learner-oriented since the main focus is to make learners more efficient in the outside world activities.
Engagement and self assessment can be improved by a change in classroom philosophy and change in pedagogy by thinking about the change in students’ emotional change and their involvement with ICT and internet. With digital support and change in classroom pedagogy, it will help to think the way Poole (56) recommended (thinking about achievement, looking for evidence, working with other people, overcoming barriers, and reframing the task).
Hence this will connect the students in cognitive, affective and operative way. In this case, the result should be more student engagement and self assessment and deeper learning.
We will write a custom Essay on The Use of Internet/Digital Technology to Motivate Learners specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Strategy to Enhance Successful Implementation of ICT in Education Teachers need to be trained to use ICT and e-learning applications in the classroom. To establish an e-learning environment in the school system, teachers and software and hardware companies need to operate together. Kress (63) considers this as a very important strategy, since it is through efficient teaching with the technology, where deeper learning among learners would be realized.
Through good trained teachers on the contemporary technology, students will find it efficient to capture the basic concepts required in a specific teaching. As depicted by Robson (39), for efficiency and accuracy in teaching using DLO, teachers ought to be apparently oriented to these teaching resources in their training programs. This will prepare them to be efficient in their classroom pedagogy using ICT.
To move educational technology to the next level, good collaboration is important between educators and designers of technological applications. It is important to note that, talking about games is not just about playing cards; it is about far advanced gaming that includes strategy, experiment, information, involvement of proper knowledge (Huizinga 107). It is through game strategy that learners will be able to develop psychomotor skills, capable of enhancing efficiency in real life application of the knowledge gained.
The compatibility of the games should be taken under consideration. The initial cost involvement is very important (Dave 74). In this case, educators should select the games and DLO that are compatible with the available technological appliances, so as to avoid extra costs of purchasing other expensive machines. More specifically, it is very crucial for educators to evaluate the technological applications, with respect to the already available appliances to avoid high initial costs.
Educational technology should be frequently tested, and removal of any unnecessary content done, for the meaningful implication in the classroom (Gee 41).With games used in the curriculum with definite content, designers must be very careful whether the information is correct or not. More precisely, educational technology like games should be frequently reviewed, tested and updated accordingly so as to make them more accurate in teaching.
Importantly, the consideration of gender issues is very crucial before the actual implementation of games in curriculum. This is on the basis that, males think and reason differently from females due to the difference in the nature.
On this consideration therefore, gender issue should not be overlooked while designing games for specific subjects in the curriculum. For instance, suppose we use ICT as a tool for classroom instructional pedagogy, trained teachers from this sector are required, who will efficiently incorporate the pedagogy with the technology.
Consequently, it would be possible for learners to conceptualize the required learning from the digital games used. According to Prensky (27), “…efficiency and accuracy in learning would only be realized if learners are involved in a more interactive learning environment, facilitated by a competitive teaching team…” Generally, due to the popularity nature of the digital games among teenagers, it is highly recommendable that curriculums be modified to integrate games education learning.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Use of Internet/Digital Technology to Motivate Learners by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion It can therefore be concluded that, with the use of online games in classroom pedagogy, more learning among learners would be realized. Through the use of games in classroom pedagogy, the knowledge gained in the classroom would be more relevant to learners. As a result, learners would end up being oriented to real life application of the knowledge gained in classroom.
On this basis therefore, it is highly recommendable for the curriculum developers to incorporate games as learning activities, both to the students’ learning institutions and teacher training programs.
Works Cited Arch, Gregory. Information and Communications Technology in Education: Theory, Methods Practice. New York: Woodside Publishers, 2010.
Baer, Richard. The Ultimate Mystery of Computer Games. Washington: New Technology Publishers, 2008.
Dave, Michael. The art of Digital Learning Objects and their Impacts. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2007.
Gee, Johnston. What Information Technology has to Teach us about Learning and Literacy. Palgrave: Macmillan Publishers, 2005.
Huizinga, Jackson. The Role of ICT in Culture Transformation. London: Routledge Publishers, 2006.
Kress, Georgia. Literacy in the New Media Age (Literacies). New York: Routledge Publishers, 2007.
Poole, Seth. Psychological Role of Computed Games and Other Automated Teaching Appliances. San Francisco: Arcade Publishing, 2006.
Prensky, Marshall. Digital Game-Based Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2007.
Robson, Charlotte. (2007). Learning in the New Era: a Guide for Curriculum Developers. London: Routledge Publishers, 2009.
Stoll, D. et al. High Technology Heretic: The Need of Computers in the Classroom and Other Reflections. Sydney: Computer Contrarian, Doubleday
Joy Harjo’s “She Had Some Horses”: Analysis and Meaning Essay argumentative essay help
This essay is an analysis of “She Had Some Horses” by Joy Harjo. It also demonstrates what common themes are used by the poet in her other lyrics. Harjo is currently on faculty in the English Department at the University of Arizona (Velie 287). A creative powerhouse, Harjo has published 12 books of poetry and two children’s books (Velie 287).
She is also an accomplished musician, saxophone player, dancer, painter,screenwriter and feminist (Scarry 1). Of Cherokee descent, Harjo graduated from the Iowa Writer’s Workshop at the University of Iowa and is a member of the Muscogee Creek Nation of Oklahoma (Scarry 1).
Harjo’s early influences include time spent at an all Indian boarding school in 1967, during which the environment devoted to Native American creativity directly inspired her poetic leanings. Harjo also cites a Galway Kinnell poetry reading, the first poetry reading she ever attended, as an event that made literature appear viable and correct as a vocation when she was a fledgeling poet (Scarry 1).
Best known as a poet, Harjo’s thematic use of animals appears regularly in her poetic works, particularly the horse. Harjo’s most well-received book of poetry to date, She Had Some Horses, was published in 1983 by Thunder’s Mouth Press. This paper details Harjo’s use of animal imagery and its thematic resonance in her most powerful poems.
For Harjo, the horse represents Harjo’s dualistic view of the human condition, at once urban and simultaneously of nature. The classic example of this “psychic dualism” occurs in the title poems of Harjo’s She Had Some Horses (Scarry 1).
In his analysis of “She Had Some Horses”, critic Dan Bellm characterized the poem as “a long litany of the `horses’ inside a woman who is trying to become whole” (Scarry 1). However, the poem transcends the physical manifestation of a woman and encompasses a broader view of humanity.
In this poem, J.Harjo’s perspective on the fundamental dualism of human nature shines as she personifies a slew of horses engaged in decidedly urban and social pursuits. That’s the principal meaning of “She Had Some Horses”. The lyrics speak of “horses who cried in their beer,” a haunting image of addiction, as well as “horses who were much too shy, and kept quiet in stalls of their own making” (Harjo 6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lines like these show the reader Harjo’s dualistic themes of freedom and captivity; both imposed and self-generated. In the same poem the reader witnesses “horses who spit at male queens who made them afraid of themselves” and “horses who called themselves, “spirit” and kept their voices secret and to themselves” (Harjo 6).
Herein the reader feels the urban experience of hate, racism and homophobia, juxtaposed with the spiritual element, the propensity of humans to simultaneously aspire to higher realms while mired in hatred, conformity and separation. Harjo’s brilliant use of metaphor explodes in such passages as “She had horses who got down on their knees for any saviour. She had horses who thought their high price had saved them. She had horses who tried to save her, who climbed in her bed at night and prayed as they raped her” (Harjo 6). The quote from the poem is as disturbing as it is beautiful, which speaks to Harjo’s overall point – no human being is perfect, and we are all a work in progress.
Harjo’s horses also appear regularly in lyrical studies of addiction, such as in the poem Night Out. “I have seen you in the palms of my hands, late nights in the bar, just before the lights are about to be turned on. You are powerful horses by then, not the wrinkled sacks of thin, mewing spirit that lay about the bar early in the day, waiting for minds and bellies” (Velie 287).
Let’s turn to the analysis of another poem by Joy Harjo. In Night Out, we see Harjo’s dualism once again, this time through the freeing effect of intoxication. The men and women of the bar begin as “wrinkled sacks of thin, mewing spirit,” but regain their natural state – like horses – via alcohol, wherein they transform into “powerful horses” (Velie 287). The metaphor of an animal as the natural state that people easily regain is probably Harjo’s favourite poetic convention.
Harjo paints a dark portrait of addiction in Night Out, as a means to regain lost power, albeit ephemerally – “Your voice screamed out from somewhere in the darkness, another shot, anything to celebrate this deadly thing called living” (Velie 287).
However, Harjo’s poem remains an honest appraisal of the appeal of alcohol and other addictive substances to those of living in the urban environment, simply because these inebriants offer a way back to self-esteem and freedom.
The thematic use of horse imagery in the poem What I Should Have Said also illustrates Harjo’s theme of escape – escape back to the halcyon days of Native American freedom, as well as escape to the internal “safe” fantasies of the mind designed to make urban life bearable.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Joy Harjo’s “She Had Some Horses”: Analysis and Meaning Essay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The lines in What I Should Have Said that best illustrate this idea include “We are horses knocked out with tranquillizers, sucked into a deep, deep sleeping for the comfort and anaesthesia death. We are caught between clouds and wet earth, and there is no motion either way” (Velie 288). The analysis of Harjo’s poem called What I Should Have Said demonstrates that the horse there is the creature that exists between two worlds.
Joy Harjo’s poetry also employs the horse as a metaphor for the creative process. We witness this usage of the horse most clearly in Harjo’s poem Explosion from her 1983 collection She Had Some Horses. “But maybe the explosion was horses, bursting out of the crazy earth near Okemah.
They were a violent birth, flew from the ground into trees, to wait for evening nightmares to come after them: then into the dank, wet fields of Oklahoma, then their birth cords tied into the molten heart (Harjo 26). In Explosion, the horse comes to symbolize the act of creation itself.
In summary, Joy Harjo employs poetic images of the horse and effectively uses the theme of the horse as a live conduit between the urban world and the natural world.
Harjo’s poems traverse rich interior landscapes that echo the visible world while simultaneously showing its flaws and ugliness. Joy Harjo’s poetic prowess has ranked her firmly in the upper echelon of Native American writers. Her poems divulge a “very personal vision of reality, with images from her own culture illuminating the wider American landscape” (Scarry 1).
Harjo’s work does not shy away from the controversial settings of addiction, pain, loss and its impact on Native American culture. However, her poems are of such high quality that they transcend social justice poetry and become instead a means to communicate the universal human condition.
Harjo’s extensive use of the horse to “deal fluidly with the themes of past and present—in historic and even prehistoric terms” as well as the personification of urban strife through the dualistic nature of the horse, deepens her work and speaks to a broader audience (Scarry 1).
Works Cited Harjo, Joy. She Had Some Horses. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1983. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Joy Harjo’s “She Had Some Horses”: Analysis and Meaning Essay by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Scarry, John. “Joy Harjo: Overview.” Reference Guide to American Literature. Ed. Jim Kamp. 3rd ed. Detroit: St. James Press, 1994. Web.
Velie, Alan R. American Indian literature: An Anthology. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. Print.
Professionalism and Ethics Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Professionalism and ethics are key factors in a job setting. These two aspects work hand in hand. Engineering is no different case. Ethics seeks to evaluate deeply on moral aspects. It entails the practices that the staff carries out in an establishment. It incorporates; good value, code of conduct, moral value, principles and virtues. The ethics enable one to outlay professionalism in undertaking his engineering career.
Professional ethics helps a lot in proficiency and comprehending problems encountered in this field. Ethics assists one to know the good and bad sides of a person in a work setting. Engineering ethics are the codes of standard applied in the field of engineering. These ethics portray good conducts in professional engineers.
In accordance with the innovation in science and technology one needs to uphold high moral standard in terms of principle and practices. It concentrates on doing the right action with out inconveniencing other parties. In engineering one needs guidelines that propel him or her to success in this field. The guidelines are set values that give the ability to make correct choices, decisions and action. Not all values are equal.
It all depends with the perception of a person and his/her experience. One can modify and create beliefs that define his identity. Thus he may hold characters such as social skills, peace among co-workers, truth and honesty. Perseverance, discernment and accuracy are also values that one needs to have in order to relay services professionally. This boosts his moral behavior and upholds professional skills.
In addition to values and morals a professional needs work ethics. These ethics ought to be principled and easy to interpret. Employing attitudes of work value will need a lot of motivation in order to succeed. This goes along way to increase the productivity and overall performance in engineering.
In the work place the relationship among co-workers and employees in the organization, depends heavily on the ethics. The engineers tactfully apply the code of ethics to tackle problems encountered in the field. The engineer should offer high standard of service to the client. He should work towards achieving set objectives as part of strengthening his skills in the profession (Naagarazan 41).
Moral issues may arise at certain times in an organization. This will require one to apply professionalism to tackle such issues. Issues such as resource crouch may lead one to be manipulated and unethical termination of projects. Another issue is applying double standards in making decisions and selection of projects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management may seek to fulfill their interest more than the employees. The employees may develop poor attitude to providing services to the consumers.
These issues can be sorted through normative inquiry where norms are used to guide the employees and the management to run the organization. The management should come in strongly to offer a neutral field for implementation of these norms.
Another way of curbing moral issues is by conceptual inquiry where all the employees are directed and informed of the concepts and principles. Factual or descriptive inquiry is another way to solve the moral issues arising in an organization. This inquiry provides information about practices and effectiveness of the system.
When one upholds professionalism he or she expects to be loyal to the organization, have high level of integrity, be knowledgeable and applies tact in undertaking tasks of the organization. He should be a social catalyst and serve the management and other employees without biasness.
The professional conduct helps to gain trust in the public and improve professional development (Naagarazan 39). Professionalism in the public domain determines how resources and other activities are carried out. A professional will bear responsibility of his work in the sense that he becomes liable and accountable for action he takes in the organization. By carrying out his duty well, he gets appraisal from the management due to his success.
A competent professional will strive to meet the requirement of the client. It is highly recommended that clients confidentiality to be observed. This is also part of professionalism since the client builds trust in the employee.
Other attributes of a competent professional is to respect the management and other employees as well as the client. Courtesy when communicating to client will boost confidence in the engineer from the client perspective. They should also be ready to offer services to a diverse population.
We will write a custom Essay on Professionalism and Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The employee should avoid fraud and misuse of resources at all times. Above all discipline is very important. In a sum up professionalism is the equality of being honest and faithful to the profession. Always honor the law and observe rules and regulation of the State.
Professionalism may be hindered by a number of factors such as poverty levels and high level for illiteracy in the society. Most engineers may take advantage of these situations in the society and offer substantial services to them. To curb this situation the engineers should be given adequate remuneration to refrain them from exploiting the less fortunate (Philip 74). Professionalism and ethics work hand in hand.
For one to be a successful professional he or she needs to have all the ethics values and virtues. Successful engineers are as a result of the moral behaviors and work ethics they endorse in their day to day undertaking. If these ethics are advocated world wide then the world will absolutely have more engineers who are professionally fit.
Work Cited Naagarazan, Ramayan. Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values. New Delhi: New Age International, 2006. Print.
Philip, Sadler. Management consultancy: a handbook for best practice. London: Kogan Page Publishers, 2002. Print.
Use Cvp Analysis for business decision making Analytical Essay essay help free
CVP is the cost-volume-profit analysis that deals specifically with how profits plus costs changes with the change in volumes. It determines how those changes in the volume and the costs influences organizations income for operations and the net income. There are several assumptions made in doing the cost-volume –profit analysis.
Some of the assumptions are; that everything produced must be sold, the costs changes only when activity changes, the fixed costs and variable costs for each unit are constant, the selling price is also constant and that the business unit sells different products. In the restaurant with 90 seats, total revenue for the sales annually is $975000. Further, the restaurant is usually open for 52 weeks in a year where by, it serves lunch and breakfast for 6 days in a week and dinner for 7 days in a week.
The seats turnover in a day is 1.2 times for the breakfast, 1.25 times for the lunch and 1.20 times for the dinner. The above revenues on sales per year are then broken down between the meals served in the following percentage; dinner takes 50% of the revenue, breakfast 20% and lunch takes 30 %( Mudida, 2003, pg.45)
To calculate the average check by meal period in the restaurant there is need to know the sales revenue estimate in the next year. Breakfast accounts for 20% of the sales revenue, which is $975000 translating to $195000 of the sales revenue for the next year. Revenue from lunches takes 30% of the year’s sales revenue, which translates to $292500. Dinner takes the rest of the remaining percentage for sales revenue, which is 50%, and the amount is $487500.
The average revenue per week for the breakfast is $195000 divided by the 52 weeks, which gives an average of $3750. For lunch, the average per week is $292500 divided by 52 weeks, which is $5625 and lastly, is the sales revenue per week for serving dinner, which is $487500, divided by 52 weeks, which is $9375(Powell, 1993, pg.118).
Moreover, breakfast service is 6 times in a week, which will give an average per day of $3750 divided by 6, which is $625 per day. Lunch service is for six times in a week giving an average per day on sales as $937.5. For dinner, the average sales revenue per week is $9375 divided by seven since dinner service is seven times per week.
This gives an average of $1339 per day. Therefore, to get the exact average checks per meal we need to check the seats turnover. The seats are 90 and so the turnover being 1.2 times for breakfast, then the average check per meal for the breakfast is $625 divided 90*1.2, which gives an average of $5.78, which is approximately $6.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Same procedure applies for lunch, which is $937.5, divided by 90*1.25 translating to an average check per meal of $8.33, which is approximately $8. For the dinner, the average check per meal is $1339 divided by 90*1.2 giving $12.398, which is approximately $12 per meal (Hardwick, Khan, Langmead, 1994, pg.8).
To increase sales revenue going by the above calculations, adjust meal prices upwards to the available customer base. The price per meal for the breakfast can be reviewed to $7, that for lunch to $10 and for dinner to $15 per meal.
To achieve this, improve the service quality and ease to which customers get services from the restaurant. The second method is by increasing the customer base through making sure that more people know the services in the restaurant.
To achieve this, use advertisements and other business promotion techniques. It is also possible to increase revenue through the introduction of other services that accompany the meals such as soft drinks. This will also go along way to increase the sales revenue and the customer turnover (Cafferky, worth, 2010, pg.15).
References Cafferky, M