Literature review Historical development
According to Rangaraj, Supply chain management (SCM) is management of all business processes involved in production of goods and services (87). It involves the management of all the activities from production of the raw materials, processing, packaging and delivery to the consumers.
The historical development in SCM involves four movements, which are the creation, the integration, the globalization and the specialization (Wang, Heng, and Chau 31).
The creation era is characterized by the requirement for large changes, the re-engineering, the downsizing as well as the extensive attention to UAE management practice. As a result, this era requires that organizations restructure their structures by recruiting and retaining skilled personnel who are able to produce quality products that can compete in the global market.
Moreover, the integration era involves reducing the cost of the products while increasing the value through amalgamation of technology and resource planning. This integration is in many oil industries like the Saudi Arabia Basic Corporation (SABIC) Company.
For example, this company associates with other organizations that involve themselves in research like the Saudi Arabian University to form processes like polymerization that will lead to production of quality plastics products at a low cost. Furthermore, integration ensures that the market is constantly demanding the organization products. This is because customers usually prefer products of low cost provided they are of high quality and they satisfy their needs.
Additionally, Globalization entail worldwide expansion of the supply chain via cost reduction so that businesses fit well in the competitive universal market (Gattorna 115). For instance, a local organization can team up with an international organization to enhance a smooth import and export process.
Additionally, teaming up facilitates funding and sharing of relevant information about the business environment. For example, people can learn from each other the different ways of distributing products to the market at a lower cost or a new way of manufacturing products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, according to Sundarakani, specialization deals with collaboration between the producers, the suppliers and the customers (26). This collaboration involves activities like manufacturing, designing, distributing and selling of the products and services that change depending on the region and its demand. For example, the market forces like the demand can interfere with distribution of products and services. Therefore, collaboration between the distributing industries and the selling industries can address this problem effectively.
The activities and the functions
The SCM function include the management of how the raw materials move into industries, the processing into refined goods as well as the movement of the refined goods within the industry and to the customers (Gattorna 100). As industries focus on competencies and flexibility, they decrease ownership of raw materials as well as the channels of distribution via assigning these activities to other organizations that can perform it effectively and efficiently.
Ackerman states that the purpose of this outsourcing is to reduce the management control of the logistic operations hence the creation of SCM concept (60). According to the SCM concept, the intention of SCM is to develop collaboration among its partners thus enhancing the visibility of the inventory as well as its velocity.
According to a recent research, several models that assist people to understand the activities involved in SCM exists. For instance, Wang, Heng and Chau explain that supply chain activities involve three levels that are the strategic levels, the tactical levels and the operational levels (33).
Strategic level is concerned with the number and the location of distribution centers like the warehouse, partnership with the suppliers and the customers, the management of services and products as well as the information technology. Besides, tactical level involves the decision that an organization makes about the purchases, the production, the inventory, the transportation and the market demand.
Lastly, the operational level entails all the planning activities that the organization undertake to facilitate increase in output and decrease in input with a core aim of delivering quality products to the customers. For instance, it involves the manufacturing and the distribution planning, the demand as well as the inventory planning.
The issues addressed by SCM
SCM address a variety of issues concerning distribution, logistic activities, information, inventory and the flow of cash (Sundarakani 27). To begin with, SCM ensure that there is smooth configuration of the distribution network via assessment and evaluation of the number and the location of the distribution and the production facilities.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Supply Chain Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, Rangaraj states that SCM solve the problem that can occur due to the distribution strategies like the shipment and the docking (88). This is because SCM helps the company to choose the best shipping or docking strategy via analysis and evaluation of these distribution methods.
Furthermore, SCM helps an organization to coordinate its logistic activities so that it incur the lowest cost possible (Gattorna 104). For instance, it coordinates trade-offs activities via system approach. This means that it help the organization to order products at a low transportation cost by the development of efficient logistics.
Moreover, SCM increase the organization awareness on the business environment through information sharing. This is because Ackerman argues that SCM make certain that an organization research and collect relevant information about the market demand, the supply cost, the value of products and services as well as the inventory (64).
Additionally, SCM address the issue of inventory management by analysis of the amount and the location of the inventory like the unfinished products, the processing process and the refined goods. Finally, cash flow management entails the terms and methods of cash exchange across the supply chain.
The SCM integration processes
SCM requires integration of activities into the chain process to facilitate advantage of information that supply partners share. Therefore, the integration process entails cooperation between the buyers, the suppliers, the systems as well as the shared information.
According to Wang, Heng and Chau, the supply chain integration processes are the customer management, the procurement, the development of products, the management of manufacturing process, the distribution, the outsourcing, the measurement of performance and the management of warehouse (52). These processes operate hand in hand to ensure that organizations deliver quality products to the right customers, at the right time and at an appropriate cost.
To begin with, the customer management involves the relationship that exists between the organization and the customers (Sundarakani 48). This relationship is important because the customers are the sources of information hence the organization should maintain a rapport with them via establishing goals that satisfy their needs and giving them positive feedbacks.
On the other hand, the customers should also receive information about the organization products and services. Moreover, the procurement process entails collaboration with the suppliers so that the company receives raw materials at a reduced cost (Rangaraj 94). As a result, the organization and the suppliers should work together on issues about scheduling, hedging, order placement, the storage and the transportation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Supply Chain Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, Gattorna states that the product development should combine the efforts of the organization, the suppliers and the customers so that the marketing time decreases (120).
Therefore, this process should identify the customers need, involve suppliers in the selection and procurement of materials as well as develop advanced manufacturing technologies that combine the supply and the distribution of the products to the organization and the market respectively.
Additionally, the management of manufacturing process ensures that the customers receive quality products (Ackerman 73). Consequently, the manufacturing process requires flexibility so that it caters for the changes that occur in the market as well as encompassing the mass customization.
In the latest research, Gattorna explains that the distribution is the movement of the refined product to the customers (118). In this distribution, the ultimate destination is the customer hence the availability of products and services is very vital. Therefore, the organization should integrate the customers’ time and the space so that products and services are available to the customers at the appropriate time.
Additionally, the outsourcing is the management of the logistic activities (Rangaraj 90). This ensures that the transport, the warehouse and the inventory are under monitoring and control. For instance, logistic activities ensure that the warehouse has enough stock so that the organization does not run out of supply.
Finally, the measurement of performance includes analysis of the cost, the services provided to the customers, the productivity, the assets and the quality of services and products. Sundarakani noted that organizations that engage in the measurement of performance usually improve its overall productivity (40).
Finally, the management of warehouse concerns monitoring of the distribution facilities and the storage of the products (Wang, Heng, and Chau 32). If this monitoring is perfect, the cost of labor, transport and storage will dramatically reduce and as a result, the organization will enjoy an increase in profit.
Components of SCM integration
According to Sundarakani, SCM has the following components: The planning and the control, the structure of the work, the structure of the organization, management and leadership (27). Planning involves determining what will take place in the future while control involves ensuring that the required resources are within reach.
This component facilitates smooth running of the supply chain activities and functions. For example, a well-planed logistic activity reduces the cost of production thus increasing the profit margin of the company. On the other hand, excellent control ensures that the organization has enough supply and that the customers always receive the products that they require at any specific time.
Additionally, the structure of the work deals with all the processes and procedures that take place in an organization while organizational structure is the hierarchical arrangement of the organization from top to bottom (Rangaraj 91). These components ensure that the SCM is under control.
For example, the organization structure determines the movement of products from the supply, to the processing unit as well as the distribution to the customers. On the contrary, the structure of work ensures that the customers receive products and services that are of high quality.
Finally, the management and leadership components are vital in the SCM because they enhance all the activities of the SCM (Gattorna 116). This means that if the management of an organization fails then the supply chain activities fail because SCM completely depend on the organization management without which it is bound to fail.
For instance, poor leadership style interferes with the organization collaboration with others organizations leading to disruption in the supply chain management, which solely depend on other industries like the supply, distribution and transport.
Supply chain management in UAE The SCM centroids
In the latest study about SCM Sundarakani states that centroids are imperative in the economic consideration (27). Centroid is a region with a high population and production companies are within approximately eight hundred kilometers. Although UAE does not have a centroid, it is on the road to acquiring one.
For instance, Dubai is capable of becoming a universal centroid of the cargo transportation (Rangaraj 89). This follows instigate of the air cargo operations based at Al Maktoum International Airport. This will create an opportunity for the Dubai as the airport amalgamates the supply chain into its economics.
The supply chain sustainability
This involves issue that affects logistic activities and it entails the impact of the organization supply activities on the environment (Gattorna 108). Many customers are aware of the impact of an organization and its products on the environment and this determine the sales of an organization. Therefore, majority of the organizations are attempting to produce environmental friendly services and products.
For instance, In Abu Dhabi, procurement team of Masdar introduced the supply chain sustainability. This led to the construction of an environmental friendly city resulting to consultancy commerce. Additionally, most of the companies in the UAE have adapted the principle of supply chain sustainability. Some of these companies are Saudi Arabia Basic Corporation (SABIC) and the Dow Chemical Company. For instance, SABIC has a cooling system that ensures that cold water gets into the gulf so that marine life is preserved.
The global logistics and the SCM
In the past few years, the discussions of logistics in many corporations in the UAE were rare (Ackerman 66). Recently, discussions about SCM have increased and its objective has shifted from cost reduction to sustainability in the competitive business environment. As a result, many learning institutions in UAE offer courses about logistics and SCM (Gattorna 118).
For instance, the course cover the following subjects: transportation, supply chain, warehousing as well as market demand management. Moreover, Singapore and Dubai are significant logistic hubs that connect many people both locally and worldwide thus serving as an ideal region for the specialization of the SCM.
Additionally, most of the UAE have realized the importance of sharing information about SCM in order to compete globally. As a result, annual businesses and conferences are usually organized and people from all walks of the world assemble to share relevant information concerning SCM.
For instance, in February 2010, A Global Supply Chain
Conflict Resolution Essay best essay help
Conflict resolution skills are invaluable source of establishing peace. However, conflict has for a long time been misconstrued to mean only the physical disagreements between two parties. This paper looks at conflict particularly in regards to personal mental conflict on a particular dilemma whereby an individual may be faced with difficult decision making options.
This kind of would require balancing between more important issues and those that are not of high priority. Such decisions include balancing relationships, loss of employment and the quest to settle for another job opportunity, what subjects to study at a college, careers to pursue, places to inhabit, business ventures options, health matters among others.
I chose to read this chapter of the book because it has immense information on what I actually needed to understand on improving my overall motivation towards my vision. Plans are important in the pursuit of our set goals in life. The book also provided me with the information I was looking for especially on the area of conflict resolution as an individual. These are discussed in details in the remaining section of the essay.
Research has shown that mental conflict and dilemma experienced by an individual may lead to stress. Additionally, distress may also manifest itself as an advance level of stress and depression. Finally, frustrations which may lead to an individual to be fixated, brain being rewired and even death in some cases through suicide Deutsch, Coleman
Self Evaluation and Management Essay best essay help: best essay help
Self evaluation and personal management have become some of the important components that assist to develop self esteem, identify performance abilities and establish better relationship with other people. Studies indicate that self evaluation goes beyond the view an individual has himself or herself to a continuous and constant determination of progress and personal growth.
Calás and Smircich (1999, p.650) argue that self evaluation can be lowered or enhanced by the behaviour of an individual who is psychologically close. Their argument advances the view that that happiness and self actualization are found in feeling being loved by others and by experiencing the sense of approval from the people around us.
As this paper analyses, self evaluation and personal management are vital for building personal relationship with others and for coexisting with others in the society. It is on this front that this paper succinctly analyses the concepts of self evaluation and management, and how they impact on relationships and the society.
This paper takes a critical analysis on self examination in order for an individual to best understand her/himself with regard to relating and managing other people around us. The paper thus outlines critical self reflexivity, its importance, and the held assumptions between an individual and those around. It also looks into the organizational values and the presumed values and personality traits that develop between an individual and an organization.
It asserts the importance of an organization and person fit as well as slightly looking at the relationship between and individual and the environment. The managers of organizations should demonstrate more ethical traits and humanity as they go about managing others since the interest of the led is equally very important.
This paper employs the approach of self reflexivity which makes it possible foe an individual to develop sensitivity and pay attention to the views of others. A self reflective person listens to an inner voice from the people who speak through his mind and he / she critically puts self into the shoes of others thus being able to feel for their needs and act appropriately.
Abraham Tesser advances in his self-evaluation maintenance theory that relationship with other people plays a pivotal role of influencing individual to carry out self-evaluation (Caproni
Importance of Sustainability Reports for Australian Firms Argumentative Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Adopting Sustainability Reporting
List of References
Introduction Value creation is one of the many objectives that any firm wants to achieve. Performance measurement should be used as a tool of sustainability assessment by firms. According to Figge, Hahn, Schaltegger and Wagner (2002, 270), sustainability reporting is a process of a company understanding its impact on the people, the planet and the profit.
They further suggest that when a company discloses its economic, environmental, and social performance, it can easily access its impact on the community. This report seeks to identify the importance of sustainability reporting for the firms in Australia. There are rules that require the firms whether they are in public or in private sector to give their reporting according to GRI guidelines.
Adopting Sustainability Reporting Figge et al. (2002, p. 271) point out that in Australia, the federal government through the treasury has given funds to St James Ethic center in order to expand responsible business practice (RBP). Companies in Australia to enhance their brand reputation among the users also do sustainability reporting. Lack of company’s sustainability report is a global problem.
Therefore, all businesses regardless of their sizes should be at the first line to solve these problems. In conjunction to this, Australian government has released GRI reporting framework that has a global applicable standard suitable to meet the needs of different stakeholders.
According to Dwyer and Owen (2005, p. 212), the reporting process for GRI makes organization understand its impact on the economy, environment, and social life of the stakeholders. Any type of the company can apply the processes across the globe. For a good sustainability report, an organization should consider its purpose and experience.
Cch (2009, p. 68) claims that it should also consider the interest and expectations of the stakeholders or the customers. Therefore, the reporting organization should include the measures that they have used to satisfy the needs of its stakeholders. This is known as the stakeholders’ inclusiveness. Figge et al. (2002, p. 274) agree that the report should also meet the completeness aspect that is the provision of sufficient material to help he stakeholders to assess the performance of the reporting organization.
As noted by Dwyer and Owen (2005, p. 215), there are steps that accompany must follow to implement sustainability reporting process. The first step is to prepare, which is aimed to promote internal discussion by the management persons to identify the impacts of the organization on the stakeholders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second step is connecting, which is how the stakeholder’s aspect should be included in the report. Definition is the third step; this is to identify what matters most in the report (Dwyer and Owen 2005, p. 215). Then the organization monitors and gathers the information that is to be included in the report. The GRI (Global Reporting Initiative guidelines) also developed reporting principles to enable the firms check their monitoring process and obtain the information that is of high quality.
To communicate is the final process that involves preparation, writing the final report and translating the result of the report. The number of organizations reporting there economic, environmental and social performance is increasing day by day in Australia. This is not because the government requires them to do so, but because they have seen the benefit of doing it like gaining popularity among the stakeholders (Figge, Hahn, Schaltegger and Wagner 2002, p. 270).
Perego (2009, p. 412) claims that for the sustainability report to be effective, the organization should present it first to the assurance providers to verify the report. An examination done on the sustainability report of 130 companies presented between 2002 and 2004 shown that characteristic of assurance providers differs with each type of the assurance providers. There are three major different types of assurors that are, accounting firms, and certification bodies and specialists consultancies (Perego 2009, p. 413).
The accounting firms are classified as the high quality assurance providers as compared to the other providers. This is because they offer internal mechanisms of control to ensure that the reports released by their members are good quality. Choi and Wong (2007, p. 20) posits the likely hood to chose a quality assurance provider in a country with a weaker legal regime is high than in a country with strong legal regime.
Oxfam Australia is one of the non-profit making organizations in Australia. Its vision is to make the world fair for every one to control his or her life without interference. This organization presented its environmental sustainability report for 2008 to 2013. They include the aim to use the resources that are People, finances and materials effectively and efficiently.
The organization also wants to be accountable to the communities, partners and allies that they work with and demonstrate the best practice in operational environmental management and reporting. Companies face pressures for them to disclose non-financial information. This drives are market, societal, stakeholder’s needs, to uphold the reputation of the organization among many others (Vormedal and Ruud, 2006, p. 208).
Oxfam organization aims at reducing the emitting of carbon to 0 % by the year 2015. The long-range plan involves generation of renewable source of energy for it to reduce the environmental pollution. In addition to using the drives mentioned above, the organization has used the internationalization degree to influence the level and quality of the reporting.
We will write a custom Essay on Importance of Sustainability Reports for Australian Firms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The organization is aiming at reducing energy consumption by 15% of 2007 levels. This will be achieved by monitoring and evaluating actions from the previous years to indentify the initiatives that contributed to successful reduction of energy consumption. The organization reports on its environmental measures every quarter of the year. This is to assess the progress of the company and assures the best practice by the suppliers.
Salvation Army is another NGO and non-profit making organization in Australia and its aim is to provide care for the poor and disadvantaged people. They also provide the emergency assistance for the people who have the financial pressures. The organizations sustainability reporting is driven by the need for the organization to legitimate its operations and to meet the needs of the stakeholders.
They involve the auditing companies in their financial reporting and have chosen the best audit firm to be there assures. The organization reports their performance generally without grouping. The reports are based on departments that is, general corporate responsibilities, and management systems, codes of conducts, managements systems and supply chains.
Perego (2009, p. 412) argues that for an organization to give a quality reporting they must involve more than one assurance providers to verify the report. This is because for a company to exist for a long period, it should be aware of the impact it has on the stakeholders (Tencati and Perrin 2006, p. 298).
Both the Salvation Army and Oxfam Australia are driven internally and externally to give their reporting. These are national and international policies and pressure from the wider society. This has made them survive in the country for a long period since they are able to meet the policies of Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) (Vormedal and Ruud, 2006, p. 213).
According to Tencati and Perrin (2006, p. 299), the organizations must apply appropriate systems to control and measure their behaviors in order to get the assessment of the extent to which they are meeting the needs of the stakeholders and the need of the government.
Finally, for the organization to meet all the rules and the regulations related to the sustainability reporting especially those for the SMEs there should be a system that should be applied to monitor all the qualitative and quantitative performance. This reporting system includes the annual financial reports, social reports and environmental reports (Unerman and Bebbington 2007, p. 112).
The advancement of technology in the 21st centaury has been a booster to the reporting system of the organizations. The technology has lead to the invention of integrated reporting systems which groups the reports together for an easy access.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Sustainability Reports for Australian Firms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A significant benefit realized from annual financial reporting is the use of notes, which substantially assists, in explaining diverse monetary data presented in financial reports this becomes helpful to a user who is not familiar with financial reports regarding to a specified company. It also becomes important when making comparison of different firms that employs different policies in their operations.
For instance, if a company collapse while the director had assured employees and shareholders of going concern then director is liable to compensate the latter parties. In areas that require compulsory information regarding the preservation and conservation of the environment, companies find it difficult to hide their mission regarding to maintaining status of the environment (Perrini and Tencat 2006, p. 299).
Perhaps the rules and regulations governing annual financial reporting is more liberal compelling companies to outside some pertinent information, which could help an investor, make useful decision. Again, some firms take advantage of providing unnecessary details. The firm may also tend to go against the principle of releasing true and fair information.
While providing annual report, it is quite difficult to identify whether is presenting true and fair information or not. According to Financial Reporting Council (34), there is high tendency of the annual financial reporting relies so much on the positive matters leaving negative information hidden. Information relating to the operation of any company is fundamental in making useful and informed decision.
In conclusion, Australian organization must adopt sustainability reporting. The sustainability of an organization is determined by the sustainability of its stake holder relationship. The relationship is build by the ability of the organization to involve all of them including the suppliers, public authorities and civil society in general.
The stakeholder’s view of the firm is what should guide the organization to prepare a report this can change dramatically the role of the firm in the society. Therefore the entire firm should be ready to install the systems that will enable them to adopt the sustainability reporting without being pushed by the government. Although the process seems difficult, it is for the benefit of the organizations.
List of References Cch, C 2009, Australian master environment guide, CCH Australia Limited, Melbourne.
Maintaining Individuality in a Relationship Essay college essay help: college essay help
Individuality is the state of being independent, where one individual is separate from the other because they have their own needs, desires, and goals. Although some people try to maintain their individuality in a romantic relationship, others compromise and loose their sense.
They forget to take care of their needs and concentrate on the relationship and tend to think that their partners will take care of their needs. This may create a break up in a relationship. People who are in love often struggle to impress each other and loose their individuality in the process. Some of them may feel good after the compromise while others feel suffocated by it. Carver and Scheier (2004) argue that there is a need to maintain individuality, especially when one feels suffocated after losing individuality.
According to Giles (2000), it is always good to remember that a good relationship is one which you are not supposed to change yourself, but where you will grow together. Therefore, a person who is ready to accept you just as you are is a true partner and so, instead of striving to change your individuality try to accept the relationship. It is even possible to lose the interest of the other person after losing your own individuality.
However, self-care and strong sense of self may make the relationship become strong and enhance sustainability and happiness. It is always good to enter into a relationship as a whole person with your preferences and boundaries because the other partner will always be attracted with your individuality and self of sense.
When one starts to lose the sense of self, it is likely that the partner will loose interest. Brad (2007) says that when you loose a sense of self in a relationship, you are likely to start blaming your partner and the relationship as well. A person should try to maintain individuality in order to avoid self-blame in both personal and other things in life. It is always good to think positively in order to maintain individuality and also avoid getting obsessed with others and care for self.
According to Solomon’s views, love lets lovers to redefine themselves in a relationship. He supports this point by arguing that romantic love is a concentration and an intense focus of shared definition on an individual. Solomon sees love as a plan for individual’s recreation for himself/herself and for the sake of the relationship.
In essence, lovers combine their interests, virtues, role, and share the same identity without forgetting that each individual has a role in recognizing their identity (Halwani, 2010). However, Nozick’s theory does not recognize autonomy and individuality and he argues that both individuals’ identities are destroyed and they are ‘reborn’ to the world with the same senses to their partners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People should always be involved in mature and stable love, instead of the symbiotic type. The difference between mature and symbiotic love is that mature love is stable and involves two people who respect each other. Symbiotic love on the other hand is needy and dependent and stipulates that one person should rule over another. As a result, both partners loose integrity (Fisher, 2004). LaFollete (2000) argues that mature love enhances individualism between partners as opposed to symbiotic love, where there is fear of separation.
Lewis, Amini, and Lennon (2000) conform that symbiotic relationship causes one person to give their major part to retain a successful relationship. However, the person who is driven by fear of being alone ends up sacrificing his or her identity to keep the relationship whole.
These individuals make sure that there are no conflicts in order to maintain the status quo, which leads to loss of independence. If one individual idolizes over the other, then he sacrifices himself for the sake of the other and ends up being under control of the partner.
When there is no balance in power, the relationship becomes unproductive for both and it is likely to end. Despite the fact that many people know the consequence of ending a relationship, they are still willing to give up their individuality in order to avoid being alone. They are ready to give up what they need and who they are just for the sake of love.
Moreover, individuals who lose their individualism when in a romantic love are unable to maintain a mature relationship. One should start with self-love to be able to love others because giving up individuality will bring anger, hatred and resentment at the end. When resentment comes in, the relationship starts deteriorating. Individuals need relationships that will bring in personal growth through achievement of their dreams together with their partners. Individuals should also understand that when one is in a relationship, their life does not stop just because they are with another person (Wood, Ellen, and Boyd, 2005).
In essence, a person has to maintain his/her own individuality and strive to achieve personal goals. This also means that you are is supposed to do the hobbies you used to have before you met as well as maintaining your self interests because if you give up on your interests you are likely to give up your life (Zimmer, 2008).
One should always keep in mind that when he/she met the partner, they were first attracted as individuals and thus there is need to retain your individuality because that the reason why your partner was attracted to you. Maintaining other’s individuality will build up a mature loving and healthy relationship (Halwani, 2010).
We will write a custom Essay on Maintaining Individuality in a Relationship specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Sterba (2001), there are many ways of making a relationship work; one is by speaking your truth. It is not advisable for lovers to keep quite and hence they should communicate their feelings to each other. Each individual should own his/her feeling – your partner needs to know when you are angry, disturbed or even when you are happy. Withholding your feelings to your partner will bring in more problems.
You should not let your partner speak for you or allow him/her to guess what is on your mind. Instead, you are supposed to share them and in case your partner takes liberty with them, you should be able to stop him/her and let him know what you are going through. Lastly, a person is supposed to reconnect with other friends for joy or fun rather than letting your partner dictate on what to do. This may involve going out with a group of friends whom you used to go out with to do some activities or hobbies.
Many relationships end because one person has surrendered to the other. Nevertheless, it is always good to love yourself first before loving another person. Giving up on all things that identify your individuality will make you lose your identity and you will not even be able to give into your relationship. Brad (2007) stresses that it is always good never to confuse flexibility with individuality when in a relationship: individuality is what makes people to be who they are.
Flexibility is all about compromise and is necessary in a relationship through honest communication of each other’s needs and feelings whenever you are together.
However, compromising too much will lead to anger and resentment, which is likely to end the relationship. Individuals should avoid giving up too much in their relationships because it will haunt them later. The get-togethers and friends bashes you decide not to attend just because you do not want to leave your boyfriend or girlfriend will make yourself left out since you have distanced yourself from your own friends.
In conclusion, honest communication is good because partners are able to solve their problems and build a mature loving relationship. Nobody should give up on anything that brings out uniqueness in each individual. Loving partners should find a balance that they both need to build a long lasting relationship. In addition, it is always good to determine what is needed in life and take actions accordingly.
This will help maintain individuality while also striving for personal happiness and contentment rather than trying hard to make a partner happy through sacrifice. Nevertheless, maintaining individuality right from the beginning of a relationship is healthy because it is one of the reasons for love.
However, if an individual takes away these traits through compromise, then they become a different person to their partner rather than the one he/she started dating. Nevertheless, this does not mean that one is not supposed to compromise in some circumstances in their relationship; things keep on changing as the relationship grows just like life itself, but one should never despair.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Maintaining Individuality in a Relationship by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Brad, H., 2007. Falling in love. Canada: Random Place.
Carver, C. and Scheier, M., 2004. Perspectives on personality. 5th ed. Boston: Pearson.
Fisher, H., 2004. Why we love. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company LLC.
Giles, L., 2000. A theory of love and sexual desire. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 24 (4), 339–357.
Halwani, R., 2010. Philosophy of love, sex, and marriage: An introduction. New York: Routledge.
LaFollete, H., 2000. Moral Psychology. In: The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Lewis, T., Amini, F., and Lannon, R., 2000. A general theory of love. New York: Random House.
Sterba, J.P., 2001. The moral self in the face of injustice. In: Social and Political Philosophy: Contemporary Perspectives, London: Routledge. pp. 45-67.
Wood, S.E., Ellen, W., and Boyd, D., 2005. The world of psychology. 5th ed. New York: Pearson Education.
Zimmer, C., 2008. Romance is an illusion. Time Magazine, [online] 17 Jan. Available at: .
The Adam Smith Problem is Not a Real Problem Critical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction In the Wealth of Nations (WN), Smith argues that the societys prosperity can only be achieved if the society guarantees individuals the freedom to pursue their goals within the confines of natural justice. In a book that he had written earlier, ‘The Theory of Moral Sentiments’, smith explains both the origin of rules of justice and the emergence of moral sentiments.
The Adam Smith problem refers to the supposed contradiction between Smith’s argument in favour of self-interest in WN on one hand and his defence of sympathy in TMS on the other. On the face value, it may seem that the two works contradict each other (Adam Smith problem).
However, a detailed analysis indicates that no contradiction exists but rather, the two works support each other. In TMS Smith argues that in the pursuit of individual self-interest, the individual satisfies the interest of society. For example, a baker bakes bread for him to earn some monetary profits (self interest), but in turn he meets the societys demand for bread (societys interest). Under the capitalist system (WN), individuals pursue their goals through trade and production.
As they trade and produce, they must take into account the values of other society members (TMS). Smith argues that an individual or a company will make greater profits if the society (other individuals) place greater value on its activities. It is therefore evident that self-interest contained in the WN and moral sentiments in TMS work towards the same goal.
The market forces of demand and supply cannot function if there is no society, for without society, it is impossible for division of labour and its resulting efficiency to occur. This points to the fact that the market forces of demand and supply to some extent rely on the individuals ability to sympathize (role of justice in free trade). Smiths notion of self interest is therefore in line with his idea of sympathy.
Discussion In 1776, Adam Smith published his popular book, ‘The Wealth of Nations’ (WN). This book marked the beginning of the concept of market and free trade. To date The Wealth of Nations, remains one of the largely significant books in political economy. However, even before the wealth of nations, smith had published another important work in 1759, titled the Theory of Moral Sentiments.
This book is little known outside the philosophical spheres. TMS provides significant ideas into Smiths perception of human knowledge and nature. This work was the foundation of Smiths economic theory. A number of authors have argued that these two books contradict each other (they call them the two Smiths). They assert that in TMS, smith focuses on having a feeling for fellow humans (sympathy), while in WN; he argues that societies and individuals accumulate wealth by pursuing individual selfish interests.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Connecting Sympathy in TMS to WN
Smiths concept of sympathy is central to the Adam Smith Problem. According to Griswold (260), Smith asserts that one of humanitys original obsession is sympathy or having a feeling for fellow humans. Smith argued that no matter how selfish an individual may be, in his nature, there are certain inherent principles in a mans nature that will attract him to the welfare of his fellow humans and therefore their happiness.
He gains nothing from this other than the satisfaction of seeing it (Smith 1751). The idea of sympathy has been widely misinterpreted to mean concern or pity. However, Smiths idea of ‘sympathy meant the tendency to identify with not only others miseries, but also their fortunes.
So fellow feeling is any similar passion or emotion that arises in the mind of an observer who observes another individuals outward expression of inner feelings. It is therefore clear that inner feeling is not only a function of pain and sorrow but also the joy and happiness of the others (Smith 3).
Smith argues that is much easier to identify with your joy than with your sorrow. As a result, a person who has no envy can easily identify with the good luck of another. On the other side, it is usually hard to identify with grief and we enter into it while dragging our feet (Smith 1751, Book 1 Ch 9).
Smith argues that this is the origin of ambition and class structure that serves to maintain order and stability in society. An individual who has the necessities of life is better placed to seek fame and fortune because he attracts positive sympathy from other individuals. As an inherent characteristic among individuals, they always want to better their lifestyles beyond what is considered a reasonably comfortable lifestyle.
This is partly attributed to the fact that they value sympathy in the form of admiring others who have already achieved that status. This point connects TMS to WN in the sense that individuals are never satisfied with their possessions. In deed if we had such a society where individuals are satisfied with bare necessaries of life, it would have been a very stable society but with no economic growth making it unable to fit in the changing world.
Nations create wealth because of the individuals never-ending pursuit to improve themselves materially. This happens under a conducive environment. According to Smith, countries that have allowed their citizens to pursue their self-interest have grown in wealth while those that failed in the same have fell into poverty.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Adam Smith Problem is Not a Real Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though, the liberty to pursue self-interest cannot be without limit. This is because excess liberty by one individual is only achieved at the expense of others liberty. Therefore, there has to be a framework for regulating individual liberty. This is achieved by the rules of justice. Smith argues that justice is threatened from two sources; corruption in the society arising from the worship of riches and authority and the ambitions of rulers.
Smiths Criticism on the Worship of Wealth and Power
Smith was conscious that the worship of wealth and despise of poverty though important in maintaining social stability and driving industry, equally posed serious threats. He condemned the corruption of the princes and the political elite who ascend to power through intrigue, deception and crime but nowhere does he condemn the wealth creation.
What Smith was against was the careless accumulation of wealth that could corrupt the society, through continuous worship of wealth in total disregard to how wealth is created. He asserts that greatness and wealth in the absence of virtue and merit deserve no respect. In Smiths theory, the attitudes of people shape moral sentiments and passions.
Therefore, the tendency to worship and admire the rich and powerful, while looking down upon and neglecting the poor, though important in maintaining the class structure and order in society, corrupts the moral sentiments (Smith 3). When individuals continuously admire and adore the wealthy and the great, they tend to either ignore or excuse their faults.
This goes against the rules of justice, which is the foundation of social order. Therefore, as much as social class is created and maintained through the creation of wealth, social order is more important and the wealthy should not look down upon the poor.
Humanity in general longs for respect and admiration among his fellows. According to Smith, he can achieve this through two avenues; by studying wisdom and practicing virtue or by acquiring wealth and greatness. To Smith, the latter attract majority of humanity because they admire and worship material prosperity.
This view is similar to the modern celebrity culture in our society that is characterized by the lives of rich and famous. A society that internally undermines justice through blind worship of wealth and greatness is likely to be externally destroyed by the rulers. Absolute power, allows the rulers to manipulate the law for their own economic gains (Smith 9).
Justice as a Moral Basis of Trade in TMS
The central theme WN is that trade is the avenue to national prosperity. Trade is the direct opposite of robbery either by state or by individuals. Trade can only thrive where the security of persons and property is guaranteed. Security as a whole can be secured only through rules of justice.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Adam Smith Problem is Not a Real Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More TMS hypothesizes how these rules are possible and how they are formulated. Our major focus on this part will be on how sympathy transform into rules of justice. Smith puts forward two types of moral judgement; judgement of decency or indecency of an individuals passions in responding to events.
For example, if B steals As wallet containing $ 10, A has a right to be upset and resentful. However, if A responds with excessive grief as if he has lost his entire fortune, those around him may judge his conduct as indecent. Equally, if B boasts of his achievement, his conduct will be judged by others to be improper.
The second category of moral judgements involves the merits and demerits of actions. Judgement based on proper reward or punishment for an act. As noted earlier, sympathy is an instinct that all humans possess. Individual A can have sympathy for individual B only if A can imagine how B is feeling (Griswold 339).
Individual A cannot get into individual Bs mind, the best he can do is to imagine Bs feelings by way he would feel if in his situation. Using the earlier example of a stolen wallet, assume that individual W sees B stealing As wallet. W can have fellow feeling for A, because if he were the victim he would feel the same way.
Similarly, W can sympathise with As anger. Worth noting however, is that W can never fully associate with the feelings of A. His bitterness of BS act is likely to be weaker than As own bitterness of the act. This implies that if A over reacts, then W is not likely to approve it. According to Smith, the aggrieved party (A) should therefore match his passion (the extent of resentment) to that of the impartial spectator (W), if he is to capture his sympathy (Smith 22).
Therefore, the moral judgement about the decency or indecency of an act is that of the neutral spectator who is neutral and has no positive or negative inclination to the parties directly involved. Similarly, the impartial spectator can only issue proper judgement about reward or punishment for the act of stealing. Individual A may feel that the thief (B) deserves a life imprisonment but he will not find much sympathy from (W) the impartial spectator.
The Rules of Justice
From smiths point of view, sympathy forms the basis of justice. The impartial spectator identifies with the grief of the victim of violence and recommends for punishment, though not to that which the victim desires. According to Smith, rules emerge when our sense of justice disappoints us at the time when we need it most.
When this happens, then we have to judge our own actions. Smith argues that it is practically impossible for us to make reasoned judgements before we take every action as humans. This is because we often act so fast that there is no time to make judgements and that our judgements are usually full of our own passions. If we reflect upon our actions afterwards and discover that we made mistakes, we will forgive ourselves.
This necessitates the need for an external instinct in our nature that allows us to identify the proper rule of conduct. By continuously observing the conduct of others, we formulate to ourselves certain general guidelines or rules regarding what are proper and therefore should be done and what are wrong that we should avoid. When these individual perceptions coincide or merge, then the rules of just conduct come into existence.
Generally, were not originally designed with forethought, but rather developed through the accumulation of experience (Smith 23). That notwithstanding, the continuous existence of general rules, involves another element. The primary reason why rules of justice exist is that majority of the people observe them of their free will most of the time.
This element of observance originates from the virtue of self-command that Smith considers the source of all virtues. Understanding and knowing the rules by itself cannot guarantee their observance. This is because self-interest motivates individuals to violate the rules they know and approve of. Through self-command, our urgent temptations are suppressed and it directs us to observe the rules of justice (Smith 4).
According to Smith, when individuals predict disapproval (retaliation strategy in game theory), they are forced to formulate the rules of proper conduct; the rules so formulated have no author (Ferguson 122). Worth noting is that not all the rules formulated turn out to be just. Customary practices and fashion may promote or negate justice (Smith 8).
The Reduced Role of Government in Relation to Moral Sentiments
According to Smith, between the two outward moralities of beneficence and justice, justice is of more importance to the society. He argues that the state has a specific role in the administration of justice. Moral rules of justice receive recognition as lawful obligations in the last resort and the state has the task to enforce.
However, in the determination of rules of justice, Smith does not see any major role for the state because they are formed on impulse through the adaptation of humanity. Smith believed in limited role of government. He was against the idea that a ruler knows best what is good for his people and that a centralised government can better take care of all aspects of social life.
He notes that harmony in society can only be successfully achieved when laws enacted by the peoples representatives are in line with the communitys expectation and that they do not lead to either despair or anarchy. To Smith, the society is so unstructured that is impossible for it to be micro-managed by a central system of government.he further notes that the society should not try to create the best system of laws but instead focus on the best that people can bear (Smith 14).
In his writing, warns against state efforts in promoting beneficence (actions that promote the well-being of others). He notes that even though the lack of beneficence stimulates condemnation, any move to force it can be even more inappropriate (Smith 6). While the well-being of others is desirable, it cannot be achieved without endangering the more elementary morality that is justice. Both justice and beneficence are critical components of societys moral capital.
However, the state is only effective in the enhancement of justice. Beneficence can only be enhanced through urging and recommendation (Smith 16). The secondary importance of beneficence relative to justice is important in understanding the synchrony of the TMS and the WN.
Though Smith was aware and rightly worried about greed and lack of concern towards the poor in his time, he was convinced that the growth of nations is better served by stable adherence to the rules of justice that provide conducive environment for trade and industry, the way to the wealth of nations.
Conclusion Smiths theory of moral sentiments argues that human beings by nature possess the instinct of fellow feeling. In the wealth of nations, he illustrates that self-interest is the engine of the wealth for countries and that through free trade; nations achieve the best path to prosperity. The Adam smith problem is not a real problem because of the following points;
In TMS Smith stays clear about the importance of self-interest over sympathy, secondly, self-interest and sympathy augment each other. During war, what sets each individual against every other individual is the instinct of sympathy. An individual can relate to another individuals joy as well as misery.
This capability actually enhances individual interests. In the absence of social harmony, the gains made will be short lived. As Paganelli points out, self-interest plays a positive role in the enhancement of virtues and the enforcement of moral rules (Paganelli 369). Third, it is impossible to carry out trade in the absence of steady rules that safeguard property, life and liberty. Without the rules of justice, trade cannot go on and the rules of justice cannot be achieved without sympathy (fellow feeling).
Lastly, sympathy drives self-interest as individuals extend and long for sympathy. To Smith, why we aspire for riches and fame over and above what is necessary is because we long for praise from other people. In the course of doing everything in order to earn praise from others, people end up meeting the society’s needs. It is this broader view of Smiths sympathy that nations are driven to greater prosperity.
Works Cited Griswold, Charles. Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Print.
Paganelli, Maria. The Adam Smith Problem in Reverse’ 40:2 history of political economy. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008.Print.
Smith, Adam. The Theory of moral sentiments. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.Print.
Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1981.Print.
Country Analysis and Foreign Market Entry Choice Report custom essay help
Abstract The purpose of this report is to analyze the foreign market and entry choices in relation marketing of pet care products in India. Various sources of theoretical framework have been used to gather secondary information. In addition, issues such as competition, culture and market have been researched.
This business report has analyzed foreign markets referred to as 5Cs by use of theoretical framework. These 5Cs are based on competition, culture, customers, constitution and company. This framework which is very broad has been used to analyze the real Indian market situation and pet care industry, though it can be used to analyze a variety of foreign markets.
The findings show the evidence of potential pets care firms to enter the Indian market, based on preferences of the consumers and the general market situation. In addition, it has been found that the future success of pets care firms in India will be determined by their strategic commitment.
The categories of pets food in India is increasingly becoming specialized along size, breed, and age of dogs, cats and other pets. Rising disposable income and humanization of pets are believed to be the key causes of rise in demand for these products. Royal Canin premium brand is one of the dog foods, which is highly specialized and cater for varied life stages, sizes and breeds.
In many urban centers, exclusively-packaged dog food is commonly fed on puppies less than six months. Flavors and life stages are the main categories of product specialization, though it is less profound in cats’ foods. This is attributable to the fact that cat owners are less interested in learning about a variety of breeds compared to dog owners.
The study recommends India as a potential international market for pets’ care products since the analysis of the facts shows that this environment has less risk factor and many opportunities as a result of increased benefits of pets’ foods, higher awareness of the dietary needs of pets and rising disposable income.
Introduction In future, pets care in India is expected to continue registering more popularity and growth. Several factors such as benefits of pets’ foods, higher awareness of the dietary needs of pets and rising disposable income are attributable to such growth and popularity. More consumers in India are increasingly finding the need to have pets for companionship and are spending more on their welfare.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The realization of the benefits of prepared foods is drawing a sharp shift from non-prepared foods. As the owners of the pets become more interested in improving their pets’ health and giving them comfort, strong popularity and growth within the pets’ products such as dietary and supplements and grooming products is expected take place (Ramesh, 2008).
Provision of pets’ care products in India is dominated by multinational companies. In year 2010, Mars International India Pvt Ltd was the leading player, followed by Royal Canin India Pvt Ltd and Provimi Animal Nutrition India Pvt. Strengthening of multinationals and Consolidation of pets’ care products resulted from a number of acquisitions that took place in 2009. Specifically, multinational Companies gained from loyalty and brand awareness.
In addition, availability of resources for education and marketing as well as provision of quality products also gave these companies a competitive edge. In 2010 and 2011, international brands like Hill’s Pet Nutrition Inc continued joining the pet food industry. The manufactures have seen a growing demand for pets’ products in urban areas and hence continues offering different wellness and health products for pets in India (Louis, Boone
Union or Not Proposal college essay help: college essay help
The workers’ union plays a great role in the workplace. Lack of union in the plant that SNCC is purchasing will automatically have disparities in the company. This is because of the nature of roles played by unions in companies. They ensure a positive function in addressing and preventing familial abuse via intervention and training.
In most work places, domestic abuse is one of the union agenda since it is majorly a public health issue, family issue, workplace issue, social justice issue and a community issue. This paper seeks to discuss the role of unions in workplace and their relationship with the human resources and management.
Lack of union in the SNCC plant will therefore have disastrous impact in the company as a whole. This is because unions are vital in helping its members stay healthy, employed and safe so that they may remain self sufficient economically and retain their dignity (Phanindra, 2009).
Various business issues are associated with unions. The absence of a union in a workplace may result into adverse effects in the company. Without the union, issues such as fear, embarrassment, and workplace gossip, abuse of rights, exploitation, demonization, workplace conflict and low self esteem among other issues may arise due to lack of protection by the union. In situations where there is a union, positive issues results.
Employers and employees would to thing such as: understand that embarrassment and fear can prevent a member from talking concerning job issues, respect the rights of the members and their decisions, daunt workplace gossip, enlighten the member about the role of the union on their confidentiality, assistance and their non judgmental support, consider reassignment of jobs, refer members to unions, recognize retirees, develop unions resolutions, make public statements against violence and safety, negotiate supportive contract language and sponsor workshops concerning domestic violence (Noe et al., 2010)..
In case the new plant had a union, the union would be subjected to play multiple roles in ensuring success of the company as far as the company employees and operations are concerned.
The union would perform functions such as: negotiating collective agreement, the union would bargain for the terms and conditions that would be considered in employment of the workers in the bargaining unit; consulting and informing, the union would be informed and consulted on the recruitment decisions made by the company concerning collective redundancies, transfers and pension schemes; representing employees at grievance hearing and disciplinary, where there is a situation concerning discipline, the union would accompany workers to the committee for hearings; and partly or non unionized workers, here the union is obliged to inform the company about those workers who have since withdrawn from membership. The company is also obliged to inform the union about those members who cannot be part of the union (Boeri, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The relationship that would exist between management, human resources, and the union if the new plant had a union would be a healthy and friendly one concerning the workers and the workplace. The management and the human resources both have roles and responsibilities towards the union.
The union representatives may be part of your employees and therefore considerable time off for their union duties should be awarded to allow them execute their administrative duties. The relationship between the union and the management should be consultative in that either of them informs and consults each other on matters concerning development of their interests and changes that are to be implemented in the company.
This enables the workers to adopt the stated changes without much opposition. The two could also enjoy a mutual relationship where the management allows the union to use the company facilities in their administrative functions (Noe et al., 2010).
In summary, the role of both the management and the union are directed towards a common goal. Achieving the objectives of the company and satisfying the needs of the workers. This paper has illustrated the role of unions at workplace and the relationship between the union, human resources and the management.
References Boeri, T. (2007). Role of Unions. London: Prentice Hall.
Noe, R. et al. (2010). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. London: McGraw-Hill.
Phanindra, V. (2009). The Role of Union in Workplace. New York: Cengage.
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Assess the view that Rousseau’s social contract is totalitarian Analytical Essay best college essay help
Introduction Many theorists suggest that a family forms the first model of political society. This is mainly because parents are relieved of their duties of caring for children once they reach adulthood. Similarly, children are relieved of complete obedience to their parents at adulthood. Moreover, family bonds and obligations are practically broken. In fact, whatever remains is voluntary. It signifies an opportunity for children to be masters of their own destiny.
This is the basic unit of political society, in which people are born free but everywhere they remain in chain. The expression is according to Rousseau who asserts that modern states have the habit of repressing freedom, which is everyone’s birthright. Moreover, he faults them for neglecting civil freedom, which is the main reason for joining civil society. He therefore believes that legitimate political power can only be achieved through social contract. This paper will assess the view that social contract is totalitarian (Rousseau, 1762 p. 1).
Rousseau’s social contract According to Rousseau, people are denied freedom, which is their birthright. He therefore believed that for considerable freedom to be exercised in any given society, it requires a legitimate government or political authority. Moreover, this authority must be attained through social contract. It is also quite important to note that the social contract must be accepted by all residents for mutual protection.
In this regard, he defines sovereign as a collective grouping of all individuals of a political society and maintains that it should be taken like an individual. In this sense, as far as an individual has a particular aim or goal in life for his or her best interest, a political society or sovereign have a general will that aims or fights for a common goal. Therefore, as much as the sovereign is absolute in its authority, it also has authority on issues of public interest or concern. In conclusion, Rousseau’s verdict to those who violate social contract is death.
According to Rousseau, an alien lawgiver is mandated with the responsibility of creating abstract as well as general laws. Moreover, it is in these laws that the general will is clearly expressed. In addition, he alludes to the fact that a government is required to perform executive duties along with sovereign in exercising legislative powers. The government is therefore mandated with the responsibility of running day-to-day activities in society. There are several forms of governments namely, monarchy, democracy and aristocracy, among others.
However, the form of government lies heavily on its size. For instance, monarchy is considered as the strongest of all forms of government. Moreover, according to Rousseau, it serves the largest population and is suited for hot climates. He also argues that aristocracies are the best form of government and usually more stable than the rest.
Rousseau also maintains those sovereigns is always distinct from government and therefore are always in constant friction. In this regard, this friction has the propensity of destroying a state. It is therefore important that the state remains healthy for stability and longer reign, which may last centuries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rousseau continues by pointing out that citizens implement their sovereignty through periodic and regular meetings. It is quite important to note that rarely does everyone attend these meetings; however, this is necessary for a healthy state. He also insists that use of representatives in these meetings endangers well being of a state especially since the general will cannot be heard.
In essence, he thinks that citizens should note vote for their personal needs, rather they should do so in the interest of general will. Furthermore, results attained from these votes ought to approach unanimity. This is where the rule of supermajority links as it ensures that the general will is heard. Rousseau uses an example of Roman republic to sink his view of social contract and the concept of general will.
Social Contract can thus be defines as an agreement that enables an individual to join a civil society. It therefore binds that individual into society or community that exists in the interest of communal protection. In this respect, such individuals loose the right to do whatever they want albeit they get civil freedom, which allows them to act and think morally and rationally. Therefore, Rousseau maintains that we can achieve human status by going into social contract (Schwartzberg, 2008, p. 403-423).
The general Will Rousseau uses the concept of general will to assert his argument on a legitimate political society. He believes that a general will can only be achieved through inclusion of all members of society. This is contradictory to the current practices where representatives are elected to vote on behalf of citizens. He believes that this form of law making is contradictory to the needs of a people and therefore acts to serve personal needs and not the general will.
In this regard, he defines general will, as that will of sovereign, which aims at achieving a common good even though each member of a society is known to have his/her will. This is not expressed in the general will. In fact, general will express the will of a state, which covers everyone.
No wonder, he insists that everyone should be involved in such decisions since representatives may at times forward their own personal interests as is witnessed all over the world’s democracies. The general will is thus described as will of all, which can refer to the sum total of individual will.
However, this is only possible in a healthy state. In a state experiencing friction between sovereign and government, the general will differs from will of all. This is mainly because what is known to be general will, may sometimes be infiltrated by personal interests at the highest levels. This causes jittery and animosity between sovereign and government and may lead to fall of a state. General will is therefore very important and must concur with will of all, in order to achieve a healthy state (Schwartzberg, 2008, p. 403-423).
We will write a custom Essay on Assess the view that Rousseau’s social contract is totalitarian specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Democracy There are several forms of governments in the contemporary world. These include democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy, among others. According to Rousseau, the form of government depends on its size. For example, monarchy is considered as strongest of all the various forms of government.
Furthermore, he maintains that Monarchy serves the largest population and is suitable for hot climates. In addition, Rousseau argues that aristocracies are the best form of government, which last for centuries. Rousseau faults modern democracies for demeaning their subjects and sovereign. For instance, modern democracies have representatives that are supposed to enact laws on behalf of citizens. However, this is not entirely true.
In fact, while some legislators go for their own interests, other push for ideologies over and above what their constituents want. This has caused jittery and acrimony in most countries with continual replacement of representatives during elections. Nonetheless, it continues to haunt them, as the trend of presenting personal thoughts continues.
Rousseau tries to determine the possibility of achieving freedom, as it should be and not in its present form where self interest takeover power and utilize it, as they want. In fact, it is for this reason that he goes for concurrence between the general will and will of all.
However, current democracies do not offer such provisions. In fact, they claim that Rousseau’s theories are impracticable in modern world and require an ideal world that can heed to most people’s wants. In essence, as much as democracy tries to achieve concurrence in issues and freedom, it fails to reach its minimum threshold in Rousseau’s view (Estlund, Waldron, Grofman