Superfund As A Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation And Liability Act Research Paper College Admissions Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Analytical part

Conclusion

References

Introduction It now became a commonplace assumption among many social scientists that the issue of environmental protection does not only relate to sociological discourses’ subject matter, but that this issue is being embedded into the very matrix of sociology’s theoretical framework.

This simply could not be otherwise, especially given the fact the realities of modern living create objective preconditions for the ‘green’ issues to contribute to the sheer acuteness of a number of purely sociological dilemmas.

Therefore, there is nothing particularly odd about the emergence of Environmental Sociology, as we know it. As it was noted by White (2004): “Sociology is about understanding and dealing with social problems… Sociology is about… three important tasks: see, judge, act. Environmental sociology is about translating these tasks into analysis and action around environmental issues” (p. 3).

In its turn, the theoretical framework of Environmental Sociology makes it possible to assess the environmental significance of a number of seemingly unrelated sociological and legal concepts. In this paper, I will aim to do just that, while exposing how the enactment of 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Supefund) is being consistent with the process of Western societies becoming increasingly secularized.

Analytical part One of the reasons why the concept of industrialization, closely associated with Western civilization, has traditionally been perceived as being essentially synonymous to the notion of environmental pollution is that, up until comparatively recent times, Western industrial activities were emanating a strong spirit of anthropocentrism.

That is, these activities used to be based upon an irrational premise that the representatives of Homo Sapiens specie are being in position to treat the nature in just about any way they consider it appropriate. After all, according to the advocates of anthropocentrism, people enjoy a natural right to explore their superiority over the representatives of other species, simply because people happened to be on the leading edge of biological evolution, which is being often perceived as the sign of humans being in favor with God.

Such point of view, however, cannot be referred to as ‘thing in itself’, because people’s tendency to go about exploiting nature, without considering the whole scope of possible consequences, is nothing but a byproduct of their affiliation with the dogmas of monotheistic morality, even if such an affiliation realizes itself on subconscious level.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To put it plainly – the more a particular individual shares the moral values of one of world’s major monotheistic religions (Christianity, Islam, Judaism), the more she or he would be tempted to adopt an arrogant attitude towards the nature.

As it was pointed out by Ezzy (2004): “It is the Christian tradition and its secularized descendant ‘consumerist capitalism’ that are the religious traditions that have typically devalued the natural world by ignoring it. This world is of little significance if salvation is primarily in the next world” (p. 8). Such Ezzy’s idea correlates with that of McFague (2000): “For the past several hundred years, Christians have not had a practice of loving nature; we have not practiced justice toward nature, nor cared for it” (p. 18).

Therefore, the fact that the ‘green movement’ started to gain a momentum during the course of 20th century’s sixties and seventies, makes a perfectly good sense, as it was specifically during the course of this historical period that Christianity’s ideological grip of people’s minds has weakened rather drastically.

The earlier suggestion helps us to gain a better understanding of Superfund enactment’s metaphysical significance, as a legislature that could only be adopted in a rationale-driven secular society.

Superfund’s foremost purpose was to impose legal obligations upon America’s major industrial contributors to environmental pollution to be put in charge of cleaning hazardous waste-sites: “The Superfund Act of 1980, was intended to clean up some of the nation’s worst uncontrolled hazardous waste sites…The logic of the Superfund Act suggests that an aggressive application of enforcement powers is essential if the program is to achieve a level of funding commensurate with cleanup goals” (Barnett 1993, p.121).

According to Superfund’s provisions, America’s corporate contributors to natural environment’s pollution are being legally bounded to invest into proper handling of hazardous wastes. In its turn, this exposes the Superfund’s enactment as having been dialectically predetermined by the process of American society growing progressively less anthropocentric.

Moreover, Superfund’s enactment established a qualitatively new approach towards ensuring environment’s preservation. This approach is being observant of the fact that the very exponential course of a technological progress in Western countries makes it possible for the continuation of a number of industrial activities to be fully consistent with the provisions of a ‘green’ discourse.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Superfund as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As it was noted by Eckersley (2004): “Economic competition and constant technological innovation produce economic growth that uses less energy and resources and produces less waste per unit of gross domestic product” (p. 254). Apparently, the less a particular society appears being anthropocentric – the more it is being technologically advanced. And, the more such a society is being technologically advanced – the more it is being environmentally friendly.

The validity of this statement can be explored in regards to such European countries as Sweden, Norway and Denmark. As recent sociological studies indicate, the overwhelming majority of these countries’ citizens are non-religious.

Moreover, according to these studies, there is a positive correlation between the extent of people’s non-religiousness and the quality of their living standards: “Examining the impact of CNP per capita, as a context variable, on church commitment for the eleven European countries… we found a significant and negative relationship: the higher the country’s GUP per capita the lower individual church commitment was” (Dobbelaere 2004, p.167).

Why is it that secularized societies feature world’s highest standards of living? This is because; in these societies, there are no obstacles on the way of people expanding their intellectual horizons, which in turn provide a propelling momentum to the pace of technological progress. In its turn, the incorporation of technology into the very matrix of a particular society’s functioning, dramatically increases such functioning’s efficiency.

This is also the reason why it is specifically highly secularized Western countries that have traditionally been considered the most environmentally friendly – the incorporation of technology into economy naturally causes the latter to be less depended on the exploitation of natural resources. And, the less a particular economy is being depended on the exploitation of natural resources, the more there are objective reasons to consider it environmentally friendly – pure and simple.

For example, as of today, the environmental sector of Denmark’s economy alone is fully capable of providing enough fresh fruits and vegetables to the whole population of Europe, throughout the year round. Therefore, it is utterly inappropriate to suggest that the concept of technological progress, on the one hand, and the concept of environment’s preservation, on the other, are incompatible – both of them stem out of the notion of people’s intellectual liberation.

Therefore, the foremost significance of Superfund’s enactment should not be discussed in strictly utilitarian terms. Apparently, this enactment symbolizes the process of American society becoming ever-more secularized, which naturally prompts America’s policy-makers to think of preservation of the natural environment as an essentially ‘civil’ subject matter.

This is exactly the reason why a number of currently enacted environmental initiatives in Western countries are now being discussed within the context of: “(Secular) states’ increased capacity to address a myriad of policy problems, including those embodied in environmental policy” (Cline 2003, p. 66).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Superfund as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In its turn, this exposes the inconsistency of an idea that it was Western civilization’s innate ‘euro-centrism’ that, up until comparatively recent times, was causing Westerners to think of the surrounding environment from a strongly defined anthropocentric perspective.

The reason for this is simple – given the fact that the notion of ‘euro-centrism’ is being inseparably fused with the notion of ‘technological progress’, it cannot possibly be referred to as such that has necessarily negative connotations, in regards to the natural environment.

Therefore, it is quite impossible to agree with suggestions that imply the sheer ‘evilness’ of technology, in general, and of technology-driven industrialization, in particular: “The traditional scientific project of technological control is justified by continuing to think of humans as a special superior species, set apart and entitled to manipulate and commodity the earth for their own benefit” (Plumwood 2004, p. 44).

After all, Superfund’s enactment would have been deemed impossible, if America’s largest industrial manufactures were not in position of utilizing the latest technology, while addressing the problem of waste’s accumulation.

The common logic suggests that the process of secularization, concerned with people ceasing to perceive world through the lenses of anthropocentrism (which in turn causes them to adopt a friendly stance towards the nature), should also be affecting Muslim societies.

After all, the difference between Christianity and Islam is merely superficial – both religions imply that there are ‘chosen people’, who are being favored by God, and ‘unbelievers’, who will end up being cast into the ‘lake of fire’; both religions treat non-human life forms as ‘inferior’; both religions encourage its affiliates to regard nature as merely the subject of exploitation. This, however, is far from being the case.

In fact, the available sociological data indicate that, contrary to what it is being the case with Western societies, non-Western societies in general, and Muslim societies in particular, are growing increasingly religious – hence, the phenomenon of Islamic fundamentalism. As it was noted by Philpott (2007): “Defying the erstwhile dominance of the secularization thesis among Westerners, religion has waxed in its political influence over the past generation in every region of the globe except perhaps Western Europe” (p. 505).

In its turn, this naturally predisposes the countries where Muslims enjoy an undisputable social and political dominance, such as Pakistan or Bangladesh, to be continually referred to as the most environmentally unsustainable (D’Monte 2000, p. 2960).

This simply could not be otherwise – as it was shown earlier, people’s endowment with a strong sense of anthropocentric religiosity creates a number of objective prerequisites for these people to proceed with strongly defined environmentally unfriendly existential modes. After all, it does not represent much of a secret, after having spent some time in ‘culturally rich’ Muslim countries of the

Third World; Western tourists get an impression that these countries being nothing short of huge garbage-dumps. One of the reasons for this is that, contrary to what it is being the case in America, due to Superfund’s enactment, the industrial manufactures in these countries are not being held responsible for cleaning up hazardous waste-sites.

Given the fact that, as it was mentioned earlier, the notion of religion is being conceptually incompatible with the notion of environment-benefiting technological progress, this poses us with a peculiar question. Why is it that; whereas, Westerners continue to grow ever more secularized, the majority of people in non-Western (particularly Muslim) countries seem to become ever more religious, which in turn causes (although indirectly) the citizens of these countries to never cease suffering from an environmental pollution?

In order to be able to answer this question, we will need to resort to the methodology of a sociological research. Before we do it, however, we would have to expose what accounts for the dialectically predetermined link between the varying strength of people’s sense of religiosity and the rate of their Intellectual Quotidian (IQ).

As of today, just about all sociological studies, conducted for the purpose of defining the qualitative aspects of an interrelationship between religion and intelligence, point out to an undeniable fact that people’s strong sense of religiosity necessarily correlate with low intelligence, and vice versa.

According to Barber (2001): “Scientific views are most appealing to bright and educated people – a view that is empirically supported by strong correlations between IQ scores and disbelief in God both across individuals and across countries” (p. 320).

This could not be otherwise, simply because; whereas the extent of one’s intelligence if being reflective of his or her ability to proceed with expanding its intellectual horizons, the measure of one’s religiosity is being reflective of his or her tendency to refrain from expanding its intellectual horizons – hence, proving the strength of its faith.

In its turn, this explains the phenomenon of ‘desecularization’ in most non-Western countries. After all, the available sociological data, in regards to the average rates of people’s IQ in ‘traditional/religious’ countries, suggests that these people are being genetically predetermined to preoccupy themselves with exploring the full potential of their sense of religiosity.

For example, according to Lynn and Vanhanen (2002), the average rate of citizens’ IQ in such Islamic countries as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, is estimated within a range of 70-80; whereas, citizens’ average rate of IQ in Western countries, Japan and China, is estimated within a range of 100-115. (p. 64).

In its turn, this suggests that; whereas, it is fully appropriate to think of anthropocentric religions (Christianity and Islam) as such that do contribute towards endowing its affiliates with environmentally unfriendly attitudes, it would be inappropriate to imply these religions’ etiological sameness.

The reason for this is simple – whereas; contemporary Westerners’ affiliation with Christianity appears merely superficial (the phenomenon of secularization), contemporary Muslims’ affiliation with Islam appears utterly organic/real (the phenomenon of desecularization) – the very subtleties of these people’s ‘mental wiring’ cause them to address life’s challenges from a strongly religious perspective.

Therefore, there is nothing particularly odd about the fact that the countries with ‘spiritually rich’ populations have long ago ceased contributing to the pace of technological progress. This, however, does not prevent these countries from contributing to the process of Earth becoming overpopulated. After all, it represents another well-established sociological notion that, besides being correlative with their strong sense of religiosity, people’s low intelligence is also being correlative with their talent in ‘making babies’ (high fertility).

And, as sociologists are being well aware of – people’s high fertility, on the one hand, and their technological backwardness, on the other, are the foremost contributing factors to the process of natural environment’s destruction (Caldwell, J.

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California State Assembly district Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help

Introduction Elections in the California State Assembly district are guided by the California law. According to this law, any candidate aspiring for any office in the California State Assembly district must gather a certain amount of signatures from the registered voters in the district in the case of a recall.

In most cases, the number of signatures required from the aspirant by the California law must equal 12 percent of the total number of votes cast during the previous election for the seat. It is worth noting that the signatures must be certified by the election panel before a person is declared a candidate for a particular seat (Baldassare, 2002).

After certification of the signatures, the candidates are free to launch their campaign for the specific office. The schedule for the election under the Californian law is supposed to be determined by the governor. However, there exist regular schedules for elections in the California State Assembly.

If a recall to the assembly falls in less than 180 days prior to the regular election schedules, the California law requires such a recall to be part of the regular election schedule. In case of a recall against a governor occurs, the responsibility of determining the special election is given to the lieutenant governor (Mona, 2011).

Research indicates that the California state assembly has had the highest number of recalls compared to other states in America. According to Field (201, p.20), a recall gives citizens an opportunity to replace a public official before the end of their term in office. This happens in the event that the citizens loose confidence in the leadership of a given leader. Traditionally, recalls have been common to leaders holding junior offices. The most recalled seats in the California State Assembly district according to Baldassare (2002) are include that of the city council and members to the boards of schools.

The passing of the Open Primary System on the 14th of June 2010 and the New Legislation Boundaries on 20th of November 2010 changed California’s Congressional and State Legislative delegations. These changes, which are to be effected during the 2012 general election, will make California the state the largest number of delegates and legislators in America.

For instance, these legislations will increase California’s congressional delegates to 53 and the state legislators to 120. The interpretation of these according to Mona (2011) is that new faces will see their way into the California’s congressional and legislative assembly. In addition, this is expected to bring significant changes to the public policy priorities in the state of California (Field 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Proposition 14 in the California state election legislations require only the top two vote-getters to proceed to the general election, irrespective of their political parties. The aim of this legislation according to Baldassare (2002) is to eliminate the traditional party nominations forces.

It also allows the congress and state legislature to contact comprehensive campaigns that would attract support from the whole district. Aspirants in thee California state assembly district should therefore be more ambitious in their campaigns by committing both their resources and time to the campaigns.

The results of this type of campaigns in California are that only the candidate who has a district appeal has the highest chance of being elected. It makes elections in the California state assembly district individual based by divorcing it from party politics. With these changes in place, the 2012 general election is expected to be characterized by more fiercely campaigns than ever before in the history of California state assembly district politics.

The state of California deserves a change in terms of the representatives. This is based on the fact that the above mentioned changes aim at bringing new faces in the state’s leadership. In this case, the newly elected members and the incumbents, in case of any former representatives will be elected, may be presenting totally different constituents.

The newly elected officeholders are expected to bring significant changes in the running of the political politics of California State. In addition to the above mentioned changes, the California for a fresh Start (CFS) initiative is expected to bring into the election laws further changes concerning elections in the state. For instance, this initiative aims at reducing the term of holding a public office from 14 years to 12 years (Baldassare 2002)

Conclusion Despite the argument by political analysts that the service of officeholders improves with their increasing time in office, I am of the opinion that the current State Assemblyman in California should be voted out. For me, new leaders should be elected into office because they bring with them new opinions and ideas.

Research has indicated that the more a leader remains in office, the more he or she becomes reluctant in his or her work. The much the current State Assemblyman in California would have done has already done and according to me, voting him back will deny the state new changes in terms of development and leadership strategies.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on California State Assembly district specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Baldassare, M. (2002). A Californian state of mind: The Conflicted Voter in a Changing World. New York: Oxford University press.

Field, G. P. (2011). Struggle for Democracy with California Government and Politics today. London: Pearson Education.

Mona, F. (2011). California Government and Politics Today: London: Longman Publishers.

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A Doll’s House by Norway’s Henrik Ibsen Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction: Summary The main theme in a Doll’s House play is feminist of the time. Nora and Helmer is a model husband and wife, living in peace and harmony in their family until Mrs. Linde, an older friend to Nora made a visit in their home in search of a job. Nora manages to secure a job for Mrs. Linde, but unfortunately pushes Mr. Krogstad an accused forger out of his job. Generally, in this play Henrik Ibsen pointedly captures the inferior role of women in Victorian society through his doll motif.

The play ‘A Doll’s House’ is one of the controversial plays, where Nora’s decision actions to dump her kids is contradictory to her thoughts as she thinks that her kids need her more than she needs her own freedom. The author of the play believed that women were made to be mothers and wives.

Moreover, he brings some idea of having an eye for the injustice on the female characters. Although, feminists would later hold him, Ibsen was not an activist of women’s rights; he only handled the problem of women’s right as an aspect of realism within the play.

The key theme of this play is Nora’s insurgence against society and everything that was really expected of her (Ibsen 140). During her era, women were not expected to be self-reliant but were to remain supportive to their husbands, take care of the kids, cook, clean, and make everything perfect around the house.

When Nora took a loan to pay for her husband’s medical bill, this raised a lot of questions and problems in the minds of many individuals from the community, as it was taken as act against the community norms for women to take up a loan without their husbands’ knowledge.

She proved that she was not submissive and helpless as her husband Torvalds thought she was. Thus the author referred her as “poor helpless little creature.” A good example of Torvald thought control and Nora’s submissiveness was when she got him to remind her tarantella, she knew the dance style but she acted as if she needed him to re-teach her everything.

When he said to her “watching you swing and dance the tarantella makes my blood rush” (Ibsen 125), this clearly shows that he is more interested in her physically than emotionally. Then when asked him to stop he said to her, “am I not your husband?” once more this is another example of Torvald’s control over Nora, and how he thinks that Nora is there to fulfill his every desire on command.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marriage

Marriage is another aspect that the play addresses; the main message seems to be that, a true working marriage is a joining of equals. In the beginning, Helmers looks happy but as the play progress, the imbalance between them becomes apparent. At the end, their marriage breaks because of lack of misunderstanding among them. They fail to realize themselves and to act as equals. (Johnston 671)

Women and Feminist

Throughout the play, Nora breaks away from the control of her arrogant husband, Torvald. The playwright, Ibsen denies that he wrote a feminist play. Still, throughout the play there is steady talk of women, their traditional roles, and price for them of defying with the traditions. (Johnston 570)

Men and masculinity

Men in this play are trapped by general traditional gender responsibilities. They are seen as the chief providers of the family and they should be in charge of supporting the entire household. Men must be the perfect kings of their respective palace. We see these traditional ideas put across at the end of the play.

Respect and Reputation

The men in this play are occupied with their reputation. Some men have the integrity in their society and do anything to protect it. Even if the play setup is in a living room, the public eye is portrayed through the curtains.

Money

In within the play, ‘A Doll’s House’, the characters spend a lot of time discussing their wealth. Some characters are financially stable and promise for a free flowing money in the future while others struggle to make the end meet. (Ibsen 132)

Love

Love has been given a priority in the play where good time has been used on the topic but in the end, Helmers realize that there was their no true love between them. Romantic love is seen for two of the other characters, but for the main character, true love is pathetic (Ibsen 200).

Dramatic irony

There are some examples in the play where this aspect is used, in Act 1 where Torvald condemns Krogstad for forgery and not coming forward. He also mentions that this action corrupts children’s mind. As a reader, you should know that this is very important to Nora because we know that she had committed forgery in the play and kept it a secret from Torvald. (Johnston 603)

We will write a custom Essay on A Doll’s House by Norway’s Henrik Ibsen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It’s ironic when Torvald says that he pretends Nora is in some kind of trouble, and he waits the time he can rescue her. When the truth is known and Torvald has been given a chance to save Nora, he is all concerned with his reputation (Ibsen 128).

He abused her by calling her names such as featherbrain; he is not interested with rescuing Nora is interested on how he escapes out of this mess without affecting his reputation negatively. Then, when krogstad brings back the IOU document, Torvald shouts that he is rescued and he has forgiven Nora. Ironically, he did not even consider that she had borrowed the money earlier to save him.

Christmas and New Year

The play is set during the holiday period. Its Christmas period for the Helmers and New Year celebration is approaching. Both Christmas and New Year are associated with rebirth and renewal (Johnston 589).

Several characters in the play go through a rebirth process both Nora and Torvald go through a spiritual awakening, which can be taken as a rebirth. When things fail to happen, she realizes that it will not be possible for her to be a fully realized person until she divorces her husband. Finally, at the end of the play Helmer and Nora have been reborn.

Works Cited Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. London: Methuen Drama, 2000. Print.

Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. London: Faber and Faber, 1997. Print.

Johnston, Brian. Ibsen has Selected Plays: A Norton Critical Edition. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004. Print.

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Garbage Pollution Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Land Pollution

Air Pollution

Water Pollution

Solutions and Recommendations

References

Introduction Human activities are largely attributed to the loss of the planet’s biodiversity. The impact of man on the environment is so enormous since he has facilitated the rate of species extinction a thousand to ten thousand times the normal rate (Derraik, 2002). The extinction of marine life for instance, has been accelerated by waste debris and the global climatic variations.

The twenty first century has been marked by a dramatic technological advancement that has uplifted the standard of living. However, this has also come with a great cost since the materials produced are difficult to dispose without affecting the environment. Plastic bags, household garbage and electronic waste are such products, which have posed a great risk to the environment since the means of disposing them is difficult (Derraik, 2002).

Thesis: Garbage remains are a burning problem that we have to face today. It is close to everyone who lives in the world because we product trash every day. In most of the world, we do one of two things with our ordinary garbage: burn it or bury it. Neither one is good for us or for the environment. Burning garbage in incinerators releases dangerous gases and dust which contribute to global warming and pollute lakes, forests. How to reduce the garbage remains become a big issue for everyone.

Land Pollution Typical house hold waste contains papers, cardboards, chlorine-bleached plastics, foils, food scraps and batteries (EPA, 2011). Averagely, in the U.S, a single person can produce 3.72 pounds garbage daily, where 40% of 50 million people living in the non-metropolitan region of the nation are estimated to burn their waste (backyard burning), while 63% of the total daily garbage is incinerated in burn barrels. As a result, more than 1.8 billion pounds of garbage from household is incinerated in burn barrels annually (MDEQ, 2005).

According to Hill (2010 p.345), more than ‘500 billion one-time-use plastic bags’ are used annually in the world and end up being littered ubiquitously to comprise waste/misuse. At the same time, plastics are non-biodegradable and burying them only destroys the ecosystem, posing a hazard to marine ecosystems. Plastics are polymeric, highly non-biodegradable and persist for a long time in the natural environments (Hill, 2010).

Electronic wastes/e-waste comprises of discarded electronic appliances such as computers, phones, TV, and fringes. These are hazardous when improperly disposed in landfills or when incinerated. For instance, the Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) present in televisions contains phosphors and lead that contaminates the land and water if improperly disposed, or when there is transfer of the ash from the incinerators. Such landfills contaminate the surrounding soil which in turn contaminates the underground water (MDEQ, 2005).

Air Pollution Plastics are derivatives of fossils fuels with varied chemical properties hence, complicating the recycling process. Therefore, burning garbage particularly the ones containing plastics, pollute the atmosphere through emission of toxic gases. Many have volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) such as chlorine/bromine that are released on burning and destroy the ozone layer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Carbon dioxide and monoxide released from burning organic matter also accumulates in the atmosphere. Ultimately, they deplete the ozone layer resulting to global warming, which is the chief facilitator of climate change (MDEQ, 2005).

PVC in particular, releases dioxin upon burning. Dioxin is an organic chemical, which has detrimental health effects when inhaled since they are carcinogenic and bio-accumulative. Incineration emits flue gas that contains hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) such as carbon monoxide and dioxide, nitrogen oxides, benzene, styrene, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), furans as well as heavy metals like lead, arsenic and mercury, which significantly pollute the environment (MDEQ, 2005).

Burn barrels release smoke containing hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde, which irritates the respiratory system and eyes. Formaldehyde is present in pressed wood and paints. On the other hand, bleached papers and plastics contain chlorine, which releases dioxins when combusted with other garbage at minimal temperatures.

Dioxins cause cancer, immune system dysfunction and birth defects (EPA, 2011). On the same note, statistics from 2002 to 2004 indicates that backyard and barrel burning comprised 57% of the source of furans and dioxins (U.S. Department of Health, 2011; EPA, 2011).

More so, combusting garbage with synthetic materials emits heavy metals that are carcinogenic and implicated with some birth defects. Combusting polystyrene polymers present in foam cups and plastic packaging produce styrene gas that can pass through skin as well as lungs and mucous membranes to cause damage to the central nervous system (U.S. Department of Health, 2011).

Water Pollution Some plastics and electronic wastes go ahead to breakdown into simpler toxic products that pollute the underground as well as the running water when buried or left to litter in dumpsites. After incineration of electronic wastes and plastics, the ashes finally find their way in rivers and lakes thus posing a hazard to marine life.

Mercury, dioxins, Furans and PCBs bioaccumulate in the ecosystem and therefore, they are transferred through the food chain. When plastics pile together due to poor disposal, they clog drainages and sewers leading to floods, where mosquitoes and other pathogens breed causing poor sanitation with serious health implications (Derraik, 2002).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Garbage Pollution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ash from incinerators may contain hazardous products, which when buried or placed in the landfills, contaminate the soil. Mostly, they contain heavy metals most of which are carcinogenic e.g. cadmium, lead mercury from batteries as well as chromium and arsenic from treated wood. These accumulate in plants or contaminate ground and running water.

Garbage debris moves to the oceans, killing the marine life such as zooplankton and marine turtles. Garbage discarded in beaches and from ships into the waterways or through fishing nets could ultimately be eaten by marine life, obscuring their digestive systems. Some are strangled, entangled or trapped by the debris causing the organisms to drown/starve, become exposed to predators or unable to hunt their prey.

These are some of deleterious impacts of marine debris facilitated by garbage littering, which jeopardize the existence of these organisms (Derraik, 2002). The ingested plastics also contain polychlorinated biphenyls that are hazardous to invader species. Moreover, the marine ecosystems also face the danger of hypoxia/anoxia, due to garbage debris that imbalance its usual functioning (Derraik, 2002).

Solutions and Recommendations The economic implications of garbage cannot be ignored since enormous amount of money is spent in clearing and treating the litter, addressing public health concerns and recycling. International legislations and cooperation should be oriented towards conserving the environment through proper disposal of garbage, recycling of plastic and use of alternative packaging that are biodegradable or long lasting bags that can be reused severally.

Moreover, public awareness should be enhanced through education of the wider community through the school curriculum. International relations facilitated by the concept of ‘Thinking globally and acting locally’ significantly address the environmental threat posed by garbage disposal (Derraik, 2002).

Garbage pollution can be managed through recycling measures or banning of plastic bags used in packaging. Alternative ecofriendly means of packaging should be drafted while high taxes should be imposed on the manufacturer and consumers of these plastics. Electronic waste can also be recycled and refurbished. ‘Reduce’, ‘Reuse’ and ‘Recycle’ are the 3Rs that go a long way in handling the issue of garbage.

Pre-cycle entails selecting items that are less packaged or those that can be reused. Reuse of old papers, plastic bags and cans, offering old clothes for charity as well as using a coffee mug rather than disposable cups is crucial. Reduce, refers to minimizing the household garbage through purchasing economy packs and avoiding wastage of papers. Recycling of plastics and papers, cardboards and even e-waste should be upheld (U. S. Department of Health, 2011).

Biodegradable garbage should be left to decompose in a composite pit while the rest should be placed in licensed landfills. To sum it all, backyard burning should be regulated in all countries particularly in the rural regions since it does not only pollute the air but also comprises a significant emission of toxic residue that poses a high risk to the public health and more so, decrease the quality of life.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Garbage Pollution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Burn barrels that facilitate incomplete combustion to emit very toxic compounds should be regulated. Therefore, licensed incinerators with filters and temperatures exceeding 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit to facilitate complete combustion, should be embraced to minimize hazardous emissions.

References Derraik, J. G. (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(9), 842-852.

Hill, M. K. (2010). Understanding Environmental Pollution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). (2005). Backyard Burn Barrels Vs. Municipal Waste Combustors. Retrieved from https://www.michigan.gov/

U. S. Department of Health. (2011). Does Burning Trash Make it Disappear: Stop Backyard Burning. Retrieved from https://www.health.ny.gov/environmental/outdoors/air/trash.htm

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2011). Outdoor Air – Industry, Business, and Home: Backyard Trash Burning – Additional Information. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/

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Musical Usage of Ethos, Pathos and Logos Essay college essay help: college essay help

Aristotelian appeals: Ethos, Pathos and Logos Musicians use persuasions from ethos in order to confirm the truth of something or their characters. In contemporary society, people have moved out their families, and some parents have joined retirement homes.

Consequently, the idea of ethos has shifted from family to individuals’ material possessions, academic achievements among others. However, Aristotle shows that ethos does not emanate from personal appeal, but rather from the use of language. For instance, Thievery Corporation establishes ethos through their song, The Richest Man in Babylon by use of artistic language.

Thievery Corporation show a character of an upright fellow who stands to condemn the indifference of the richest man in Babylon. The song by the Clash, Know your rights, tries to confirm to people about their rights. The musician assertively says that the song is a public announcement. John Lennon condemns the suffering people go through right from birth to adult working life. Every new stage evolves into a new form of suffering.

There is a problem in expression of modern ethos. The outward appearance has virtually consumed the intellect and moral of individuals. The Richest Man in Babylon demonstrates the modern notion of ethos whereby people put much emphasis on their personal wealth and self than character. The material possessions consume the moral and character of an individual.

Aristotle’s tells people elements, which speakers use to inspire confidence in a character. A person of ethos must observe good sense, moral character, and goodwill. People who utter misleading information and advices do not have elements of a good character. The Clash gives people good advice about their rights because he has the three elements of a character. By telling people to know their rights, he is exhibiting goodwill to every person who has experienced discrimination in any form. Further, use of “I” establishes The Clash credibility.

Pathos captures the emotions of the listeners. Musicians establish reception for their ideas into listeners’ minds through the use of artistic language. John Lennon creates a sense of pity for the Working Class Hero. At the same time, he also condemns wrongs the Working Class Hero undergoes.

Aristotle shows how to establish various emotional appeals among the audience. The musician can fluctuate from anger, pain, pleasure to sense of calm. This is what John Lennon does through asserting that “Till the pain is so big you feel nothing at all” and “Till you’re so fucking crazy you can’t follow their rules”. The Richest Man in Babylon appeals to listeners’ emotions through sense of virtue and vice, rich and poor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The song goes as “The wicked stench of exploitation” and “Beneath the praise and admiration” to highlight sense of vice behind wealth. He further appeals to listeners’ deepest emotions by the line “Your beggars sleep outside your doorway” and “Your servants have burned all their songs. Nobody here remembers freedom”. John Lennon balances between emotions as follows “But first you must learn how to smile as you kill”.

However, Aristotle warns musicians against playing with listeners’ emotions. This can ultimately corrupt the judgment of their listeners (Fabiola 20). Fabiola E. Saul is a Spanish writer who has authored books on pedagogical theory of education. This book provides a critical reflection of Aristotelian appeals of pathos, ethos and logos in studying human emotions, truth and credibility. This book is also available in Spanish language.

Musicians appeal to listeners through sense of logos. There is inductive logic, which involves a couple of examples and then generalization. Conversely, deductive logic is whereby the musicians give audience couple of general illustrations and then draw a specific conclusion. This is how musicians establish the new truth. The Clash urges people to know their rights by drawing a couple of example such as “You have the right not to be killed. You have the right to food money” and “You have the right to freeee speech”.

He then concludes that “Know your rights. These are your rights, all 3 of ’em”. Likewise, John Lennon gives a couple of frustrations the Working Class Hero undergoes, and he concludes that “Till the pain is so big you feel nothing at all”. Thievery Corporations uses logos appeal to the Richest Man in Babylon through several examples then advices him as follows “Babylon this is your final day. Babylon this is your final call. Read the writing that’s on the wall”.

Musical composition: Lyrics, Tone, Rhythm, and Melody Musicians base songs on four most vital elements. These elements are crucial in establishing the essence of a musical composition. These four elements appeal to listeners in various ways and collectively make up a song.

In melody, musicians use successive lines of one tone to create unity in length and intensity. Melody contains a unit of meaning. For instance, John Lennon’s unit of meaning exists in “When they’ve tortured and scared you for twenty odd years”.

Melody also exists in the final part of the song e.g. “If you want to be a hero well just follow me”. We can also find melody at the climax of the song. For instance, in Thievery Corporation we have melody at “Babylon this is your final day. Babylon this is your final call. Read the writing that’s on the wall”.

We will write a custom Essay on Musical Usage of Ethos, Pathos and Logos specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rhythm is the flow in music. Rhythm entails timely flow in a song. For instance, in The Richest Man in Babylon we have rhythm at “There is no guidance in your kingdom” and “There is no wisdom to your freedom”. The Clash utilizes rhythm at “Investigation, humiliation, And if you cross your fingers rehabilitation”.

John Lennon uses it at “There’s room at the top they are telling you still. But first you must learn how to smile as you kill”. Lyrics go with the tone of the music. We know that not every song is slow nor is every song fast. The tones and lyrics of these songs are fast and cheerful to the listeners.

Works Cited Fabiola, Gavito. Pathos, Ethos and Logos: An Aristotelian Theory On Education. New York: John Wiley

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California State Senate Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The California state senate is the higher house of the California State Legislature and it consists of 40 state senators who are restricted to serving two four- year terms. The state Legislature meeting takes place at the California State Capitol in Sacramento. The Lieutenant Governor, who was the President of the Senate is currently authorized to influence on the tied vote. The Presidents, Secretary of the Senate, and Senate Sergeant-at Arms manage the Senate and are elected at the start of each legislative session.

My State senator in is District 8 Leland Yee. He is an official representative of the western part of San Francisco and the biggest part of San Mateo County. Before he has become a state senator, he was a California State Assemblyman and Supervisor of San Francisco’s Sunset district. He has also been a member and President of San Francisco School Board. Yee was elected to be the first Temporal Speaker for African Americans and this is why he is considered to be the second most active Democrat in the California State Assembly.

Leland Yee has done a lot for the people of California and as a result, has been named Legislator of the Year by numerous organizations. Yee should be elected back to the senate. Some of his most recognizable contributions to the State include tireless fights for children, women and the elderly, improvement of education and health services, advocacy for an open government, consumer protection, and environmental protection (Cantrell, 2011). He has repeatedly voted against budget cuts to education, social services, and health care.

On matters relating to public safety, Yee has committed himself to not only protecting California’s most vulnerable, such as victims of human trafficking and domestic violence from oppression and discrimination, but also in enhancing public safety locally in the entire San Francisco. He passed a bill, SB 1356 that has been chaptered into the law which protects domestic violence survivors from the threat of confinement, when they refuse to testify against their abuser in court.

This fight has led him into receiving the Modern Day Abolition Award by the San Francisco Collaborative Against Human Trafficking, the Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Neighborhoods by the Coalition for San Francisco Neighborhoods and has been recognized as the Legislator of the Year by the California Partnership to End Domestic Violence. He is currently working on other bills that will be of help to the State, if he is re-elected, he will continue fighting for public safety and protection of the citizens.

Leland Yee has fought to reform public schools and public institutions of higher learning (Aoki

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Nanotechnology Risk in NanoBatteries Report (Assessment) college essay help online

Table of Contents Hazard and Exposure Identification

Consumer Risks

Environmental Hazards

Occupational Risks

Risk Management

Works Cited

Nanotechnology involves the manufacture and the use of biological, chemical and physical systems at scales ranging from individual molecules or atoms which are about a hundred nanometers (Bowman

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Ethical Problems for New Graduates Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

New graduates face different ethical dilemmas every time they join a new organization. Markkula Center of Applied Ethics offers dynamic insights regarding how new graduates should tackle different ethical dilemmas. Most of the advice given in the short videos recommends a scientific approach to handling ethical dilemmas.

For instance, the videos recommend that new graduates should always understand the background of the ethical dilemma in the organization and review if appropriate actions are normally taken in such situations or not. This is a scientific approach to handling ethical dilemmas. For instance, regarding the accounting dilemma, Markkula Center of Applied Ethics recommends that new graduates should investigate if errors of omission are normally committed in the organization.

Moreover, the interviewee (Hanson) explains that, employees should investigate if action is ordinarily taken in such situations. If it is established that there is a serious ethical problem, Hanson recommends that the problem should be escalated to superior authorities.

Based on a friend’s experience, it is normally difficult to escalate an ethical dilemma to a superior authority if an employee is still new to an organization. Often, new graduates have just secured new positions in organizations and ordinarily, their first preoccupation would not be to ask many questions regarding the ethical or unethical conduct of the organization but to get everyone to like them.

In extreme situations, most new employees would focus on securing their jobs and refrain from drawing too much attention to themselves by blowing the whistle on a colleague. Such scenarios are common for new graduates and Hanson’s advice of escalating ethical dilemmas to higher authorities fail to represent the real situation facing most new graduates in the organization.

The above approach of handling the accounting dilemma is also stressed in the ethical dilemma of gender discrimination. Hanson’s advice to women who think they are being discriminated against is defined by a background analysis of the ethical dilemma. He proposes that this background study is crucial to establish if there is substantial ground to assume an employee is being discriminated against (or not).

He points out that there are unique situations where an organization may treat an employee differently (such as when an employee is being prepared for an international assignment) and it is therefore important to refrain from unleashing the “gender” or “race” card (if a background study of the problem is not done). Hanson’s assessment is an intelligent but cautionary approach to handling gender-based ethical dilemmas because a colleague’s real-life experience shows that this approach is always the best.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, there was a case where a female employee confronted her supervisor for giving her fewer duties at work because she believed she was given fewer tasks because she was a woman. It turned out that it was the company’s procedure to give fewer duties to new staff until they got acquainted with the organization’s tasks. The female employee had to withdraw her complaint because she did not give herself enough time to learn how the organization operates.

Based on the above example, Hanson’s advice to new graduates is well informed Comprehensively, Markkula Center of Applied Ethics provides the right framework for handling ethical dilemmas but Hanson’s advice regarding first time ethical dilemmas is a little shallow. More sensitivity should therefore be given towards the “real” organizational environment facing new graduates (or employees who have just secured employment).

For instance, more focus should be made on how new graduates can solve ethical dilemmas without running the risk of losing their jobs or getting their employers in trouble. Such is the recommendation that applies to the accounting dilemma.

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The Vietnam War: A Clash of Viewpoints Research Paper argumentative essay help

Introduction: The Deadly Breath of the War Among all controversial issues that the humankind conceal sin the folds of time, the history of was must be the most biased one. Caused by certain political issues and demanding enormous blood-shedding to satisfy its thirst for cruelty, war is the most despicable and disgusting invention of the humankind.

Nevertheless, a part and parcel of evolution, wars do occur even in the most advanced countries on a variety of premises, not to mention the clash of cultures and the resulting conflict that occurs as two countries of different stages of development are at war.

Because of the complexity of the political, economical and personal issues that mixed in the course of the notorious Vietnam War, the latter can be posed not only as a conflict between the two states, but as a conflict between the two cultures, political forces and the visions of the reality, both political and civil one, which requires thorough considerations.

Providing sufficient food for thoughts, the events of the Vietnam War are quite hard to analyze from the bird’s-eye view of the present days, yet offer an enticing material for exploration that allows to learn more about the political affairs of the USA, the motivations of the 1967-68 Congress and the President and make certain conclusions about the policy of the United States.

Analyzing the viewpoints of an ordinary soldier and a civil citizen who witnessed the Vietnam War, one can demonstrate the differences in the visions of the two and offer reasonable explanations for the phenomenon.

The Matter of Honor and Courage: In the Eye of a Soldier There can be no possible doubt that, to realize what the war is, one has to see the horrors and the destruction of the armed conflict with his/her own eyes, which the author of the book, Frederick Downs[1], demonstrates quite well. With the help of the most realistic descriptions and the vivid pictures of woes that soldiers had to take in the course of the battles, the author makes the people sink into the mind of the man with the gun.

It is quite important that the author portrays both the elements of the relatively calm and peaceful environment – if anything in the front line can be calm and peaceful – and invites the reader into the mind of his own – the place where ideas and morals are set loose, and the only wish that is left is taking the revenge on those who destroyed his life – not the vengeance inspired by raging fury, but the revenge of a cool-blooded mind, the man who knows what he is doing and why.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Showing the readers that war literally kills the remnants of humanity left within, Frederick portrays himself as a man motivated by the wish to kill: “The American strategy was to draw them into a fight so we could use our superior firepower to destroy them. To win a battle, we had to kill them. For them to win, all they had to do was survive.[2]”

On the battlefield Whenever Downs refers to the descriptions of the battles, he emphasizes that the fights that take place here are far from what the civils imagine as they hear the word “battle.” Making it clear that there is no room for compassion when the war is going on, Downs draws the line between a soldier and the people left in the rear. Whenever the author mentions civils, there is a slight tint of scorn in his words:

‘Not everyone doing the fighting is in the newspapers. You’ll never ever see a reporter up there. It’s too rough for them.’ He looked at my youth. ‘You’ll get a belly full of fighting up there, son, if that’s what you want.[3]’

Thus, the author clearly showed that the Vietnamese war, like any other one in the history of the universe did, split the nation into two parts, the still living one and the ones who have their life on credit. In the vision of a soldier who is partaking in the Vietnamese War, there is no yesterday or tomorrow, there is only the current moment, the blissful “now,” which means that the death is not here yet: “Chu Lai was a free-fire zone.

I was instructed to shoot at everything not American, ROK, or ARVN. The brutal war of the highlands had come to the flat farm ground of the South China Sea coast.[4]” When the war has broken out, there can be no compassion, otherwise, the soldier will go mad.

The political controversy Of all the issues concerning the Vietnamese War and the decisions undertaken by the government, the issue concerning the way the war went and the way the government wanted to portray it to an average citizen were strikingly different, which Downs does not hesitate to expose. At this point, the interception of the soldier’s life and the life of a civil citizen can be traced to point at the obvious diversities in the perception of the two and point at the main difference between a soldier and a civil.

It was obvious that the Congress was trying to lift the spirits of the country and not let people become depressed about the tragic event once again, which resulted the striking contrast of the attitudes towards the war in the front and in the rear. While the latter were perfectly sure that the situation is fully under control and that the victory is just around the corner, the soldiers were supposed not merely to observe the opposite, but to fight it with their efforts doubled.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Vietnam War: A Clash of Viewpoints specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perhaps, it is even not the cruelty of the tragedies that occurred in the course of the war, but the cool, emotionless reports of Downs that sends shivers down the reader’s spine: “Two women survived long enough to cross the bridge and enter one of the hootches. Three of my men crossed over the bridge and threw grenades in the hootches.[5]” It is worth mentioning, though, that the lead character is not portrayed as a machine for murdering enemies either.

Though the battles and the numerous deaths that he has seen made him coarse and emotionless, there is still the remaining of his old self, and he still feels pity when mentioning that the war is spreading like cancer all over the place: “Chu Lai was a free-fire zone. I was instructed to shoot at everything not American, ROK, or ARVN. The brutal war of the highlands had come to the flat farm ground of the South China Sea coast.[6]”

Serving on the home front: An average citizen’s position In contrast to the soldiers in the front, the people in the rear were under the delusion that the Vietnamese with their attempts at defeating the American troops are doomed to a failure. Considering the letters to the New York Times Editor, one can see the way the enemies were portrayed: “the intense and futile commitment in Vietnam is deepening the sense of resentment…[7]”

However, it must be taken into account that the New York Times editors were aiming rather at keeping people optimistic, forgetting what kind of road good intentions pave, depicting the Vietnamese patriotism as “not quite bright” instead of “rather dangerous.[8]”

Playing a game of chess However, it is essential to add that the vision of war that an average citizen had in the USA in 1967-68 was half-optimistic, half-frightened. Some journalists conveyed in their articles the ideas that there were instances of corruption and treachery in the USA Army[9], which dropped the rates of optimism among the citizen.

Still, compared to the miseries and injustice depicted by Downs, these were the minor issues that called to people’s patriotic feelings and the willingness to protect the country, while the soldiers were already deprived of any hope. Portraying Presidents “rejection of dissent on war,[10]” journalists made attempts to stir the public, yet they did not reveal what happened in the front.

Here is the newsflash Offering the citizens snatches of essential information, journalists contributed to the shaping of people’s idea of war. For most of the citizens, war was the gas used on crowd[11] and the short notes on the success of military actions. On the one hand, such inspiring ideas did contribute to the shaping of patriotic feeling.

On the other hand, people were unable to see that was going on in the front, which made people think of the war as of some faraway monster that will obviously be defeated. With his incredibly gloomy and truthful story, Downs bursts the bubbles of the public, yet he is unfortunately late.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Vietnam War: A Clash of Viewpoints by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion: Counting the Losses Hence, it can be concluded that Vietnam War was rather versatile issue in the distant 1967-68 for a civilian and a soldier, which can be explained by a number of reasons.

Due to the different settings and environment, the two could not envision the war any different way; serving on the home front and learning about the events on the battlefield from the newspaper articles and short reports that could not deliver the grief and pain, though journalists did attempt to[12], citizens could not conceive the terror and pain of being in the heat of the battle and, thus, considered the war as the event that will help to restore justice in the USA if only the army pulls itself together[13].

Meanwhile, soldiers were facing the terror and agony of pain, coming one step closer to peril every single say and narrowing the article of death with every step that they made.

Therefore, it can be claimed that Downs’s book served as an eye-opener for millions of people. Obviously, the two viewpoints considered above are diametrically opposite to each other, the vision of a civil citizen being mist optimistic, and the world of a soldier collapsing in front of him. However, comprising the two, one will be able to obtain the ultimate truth – the real story of what happened in the course of the Vietnam War, the painful experience that was inevitable yet almost unbearable for the two nations.

Reference List Carr, A. Z. (1967). Our Vietnam policy. New York Times, p. 46.

Downs, F. (2007). The killing zone: My life in Vietnam War. New York, NY: W. W. Norton

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