Agriculture is the backbone of any economy given that people will need food now and in the future. It is important to note that people spend huge percentages of their income on food. To have sustainable growth in any country, there needs to be a continuous growth in food production (Acquaah 549). Food production has even gained a lot of concern in the recent past because of the ever increasing population which exerts more pressure on the current quantities of food.
Consequently, scientists all over the world are busy looking for ways of increasing productivity from agricultural fields. Unfortunately, while scientists and other professionals are working hard to come up with ways of curbing weeds, nature is working against their efforts. Strains of weeds that are resistant to herbicides have developed and are increasingly becoming a problem to agriculture. Super weeds as these new strains are known are quickly multiplying and giving specialists a lot of problems.
Over the years, people have depended on herbicides to deal with weeds and this has been so far effective. However, from early 2000’s reports started to be made on some strains of weeds that were resistant to herbicides (Rastogi par 3). Though the problem looked minor at that time, it has slowly caught up with farmers.
Since then, more and more farmers have reported presence of resistant weeds in their fields. Despite the increased efforts that have been directed towards researching on how to deal with super weeds that have destroyed many farms, solution is not insight. Weeds are increasingly becoming resistant to the herbicides that are currently in use. Waterhemp and actually many weeds are developing herbicide resistant strains at a very alarming rate.
The numbers of acres of land that have been infested by super weeds have increased to around 12 million (Gillman and Eric 148). The crux of the matter is that no current technology seems to have a solution to this problem. Scientists have hinted that it might take as long as 20 years before they are able to come up with herbicides to deal with super weeds. That period spells doom to the entire human race.
It is difficult to explain with certainty how the problem of super weeds begun. However, the era of roundup has been blamed for making people forget that weeds were also mutating. Genetically modified crops that were produced with the ability to withstand glyphosate that is the main ingredient in roundup made many people to use the herbicide.
It is important to note that this worked wonders from the beginning. Weeds were destroyed and output increased (Zimdahl 381). As a result, people forgot about the traditional methods of weed control or even to use different herbicides.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, while people were basking in their temporal success, strains of weed that are resistant to glyphosate developed. This has become a real problem in the agricultural sector given that more and more weeds are becoming resistant to herbicides. On the same note, advanced technologies in food production that were highly advocated for in the 1990’s encouraged the use of too much herbicide. This has also been linked with the emergence of super weeds which are resistant to these herbicides (Garthwaite par 6).
Some people wonder why the issue of super weeds is a problem. We have had weeds from time immemorial so why should this one be special. Super weeds have been known to be very efficient in absorption of soil moisture leaving the ground dry for crop survival. It is important to note here that that super weeds take up water from the soil at a faster rate than crops do therefore giving crops unfavorable competition.
Unfortunately, super weeds do not only absorb water from the soil, they also take up nutrients leaving crops without the important means of survival. Moreover, the weeds multiply and grow at a very high rate compared to crops. As a result, super weeds interfere with the normal production of crops (Moss and Brown 143).
This reduces the output that can be collected from one acre compared to a field without weeds. Reduced production of food directly leads to increase in the prices of food in the world. Given the current rate of population growth as well as worsening economic standards, we cannot afford either food reduction or increased food prices. Besides the reduction in the quantity of food in the country, reduction in production reduces income of farmers.
On the same note, farmers usually try their best to find ways of eliminating the super weeds from their fields. This makes them to use different herbicides with the aim of finding the best one (Johanning, John and Bryan 403). These herbicides are not given freely to farmers.
As a result, farmers end up using a lot of money on a problem that they cannot solve. Similarly, in their quest to do away with the super weeds, farmers go to the extent of assuming that they apply small quantities of herbicides. In this regard, farmers increase the quantities of herbicides they use.
Unfortunately, these herbicides contain chemicals that are harmful to the environment in the long run. Subsequently, the problem of super weeds has indirectly led to increased chances of environmental pollution (Zimdahl 384). Additionally, some species of super weeds have been identified as being harmful to the health of livestock. Some weeds grow very tall to the extent that they are able to stop combines in their run ways.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Super Weeds and Problems with Them specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fortunately, there are alternative ways that can be used though they are not very effective in dealing with the problem of super weeds. Those fields or areas where super weeds have not taken root should take precautions to avoid getting into this predicament. Firstly, traditional means of weed control will have to be used in some instances (Rastogi par 7).
Crop rotation is one way through which weeds have been controlled over the years. It is important to note that crop rotation is also environmentally friendly because it reduces the amount of herbicides that are used in a given field. Use of cover crops is also good because it helps to hinder growth of weeds. Moreover, there are other very effective biological weed control methods that can help in reducing development of resistant weeds.
Additionally, good soil management can significantly reduce weeds as well as the use of herbicides. This will help in curbing the problem of resistant weeds given that people will not depend on herbicides which frustrate them. On the same note, farmers should be educated on the importance of interchanging the type of herbicides they use so that weeds do not easily develop a resistant strain (Garthwaite par 8).
There is a proposal that people should find ways of collecting seeds of weeds during harvest so that they can be destroyed. This is expected to highly reduce the rate at which weeds multiply though nobody has decisively explained how this will work.
The future of the super weeds problem is vivid. The problem will get worse if people do not reduce their reliance on herbicides. Nature has once again manifested itself as being superior. Scientists are busy trying to come up with a chemical that can be effective in dealing with the super weed problem. However, this will not extricate farmers from the current scenario. Chemicals will just postpone the problem, but it will eventually come back and nobody knows how serious it will be.
The main aim of technological advancement in agricultural production has been to reduce the quantity of chemicals used in farming. But with the current wave of things, farmers are being forced to use huge quantities of chemicals. Moreover, given the emergence of resistant weeds, the possibility of having resistant insects in future is high which poses another problem (Johanning, John and Bryan 405).
Food production needs to be enhanced in order to feed the ever growing population of the world. Consequently, weeds should be eliminated to reduce competition they give to crops. However, weeds are continually mutating and will develop resistant strains.
It is important to note that though scientists say that they are working round the clock to come up with a solution to super weeds, the truth is that these kinds of research take decades before they give results. Meanwhile, a way has to be found to contain the super weeds that are increasing daily. Otherwise, our country and the world at large should be ready to deal with the problem of food scarcity in the near future.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Super Weeds and Problems with Them by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Acquaah, George. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding. Hoboken: John Wiley
Cezanne’s Sense of Color Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
A renowned French artist, Paul Cezanne is considered as ‘The father of the modern art’ for his contribution to the evolution of painting. His inspiration was revealed in Paris during his frequent visits to the Louvre Museum (Turner 459). His paintings are considered a foundation and inspiration to the modern art. In fact, it has been argued that his intensive use of colors and compositions represents his originality in painting (Loran 26).
Cezanne’s unique way of color application in his paintings seems to develop a unique color application theory defined by a change in paradigm from the use of dark colors to an application of light colors (Sidlauskas 90). The purpose of this paper is to analyze some of Cezanne’s paintings with an aim of describing his sense of color in painting (Turner 459).
Arguably, one main factor that has contributed to his success as a father of modern painting is the ability to use color in a creative and skillful manner that reveals his sense of his world (Sidlauskas 84). Cezanne paves way for upcoming artists when he decided to give quality to his paintings as compared to the traditional ones (Bois and Krauss 32).
Cezanne’s 1896’s painting “Lake of Annecy” was an exhibition of use of color to depict nature at its best. He used a range of cool colors such as blue and green with deep tone and a combination of warm color to produce contrast, thus making some features look closer. In 1906, Cezanne exhibited an oil painting, which he called “the Bathers” (Turner 26). He distinguished his artwork from other small paintings by calling it “Large Bathers.” The painting took him seven years though it was never finished due to his death in 1906 (Shiff 54).
His understanding and use of color was also an inspiration from his wife, who had a great passion to do artwork of her master. Cezanne wanted to articulate a painting meaning with color. An example is the painting of his wife Fiquet Cezanne he used color to give different conception to her features (Sidlauskas 90).
In his artwork, Cezanne used color to signify depth and surface at once, mobility and skin revelatory suited a young man nicknamed “Iecorche”. Although Cezanne’s “Mont St. Victoire” painting portrays a traditional landscape, the use of color technique makes it complete revolutionary. His impressionism is extreme as he uses color patches to convey mountains cape atmosphere.
This is an amazing work as the bluish tint color portrays a thick atmosphere. The use of color to portray fruits and glassware objects in “Compotier, Pitcher and Fruit” gives shadows and textures and creates a realistic perception as the fruits looks as they are falling off the table. In his Harlequin painting, Cezanne uses blue color to symbolize mood on how Picasso lean on his elbow (Bois and Krauss 35).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Loran (41), Cezanne’s unique way of color application in his paintings seem to develop a unique color application theory defined by a change in paradigm from these use of dark colors to an application of light colors.
According to Bleicher (122), this shift in paradigm provides some evidence of the influence that impressionism had on the works of several artists in the 19th century. In the initial stages of his career, Cezanne used flat brushstrokes. However, he progressively changed to the use of light strokes in which he added light and dark tones to produce a three-dimensional effect (Bois and Krauss 32).
His ability to use both dark and light colors to come up with three dimension effect is one of the fact that makes Cezanne’s work appears quite unique from those of other impressionist painters of the time (Badt 151). It is also worth noting that Cezanne’s initial strokes were usually based on simple primary colors. Rather than using a palette, Cezanne used canvas. This additional aspect makes Cezanne much different from the rest of his impressionist colleagues.
The shift in paradigm from focus on dark colors to lighter colors in his later part of career is explained by his shift of focus from mixing and blending of colors. Accordingly, his works increasingly became unique in that they appeared as patches of distinct colors.
For example, an analysis of his famous painting “Mont St. Victoire” reveals that although it is based on traditional landscape, it is equally applies revolutionary technique developed by patches of color that convey a true atmosphere of mountain (Merleau 62). Some scholars have argued that with this style of color use, Cezanne must have taken impressionism to the extreme.
Secondly, it is worth noting that in this piece of work, Cezanne has shows his amazing ability and skills by using blue-ish tint in his painting to portray a thick atmosphere. In fact, in this painting, Cezanne has moved towards a more architectural design rather than an imaginary painting. Riviere and Schnerb recall that Cezanne was very particular when working on planar surfaces like walls, where he made the look spherical by modulation of color (Bois and Krauss 35).
In fact, this is a common style among the cubist artists (Ione 59). According to Becks-Malorny (36), this method of color application in painting was popular among the cubist painters, which makes some scholars argue on whether Cezanne was an impressionist, a post-impressionist or a Cubist painter. However, he makes use of his skills and knowledge to ensure that both depth and perspective are present in his paintings. This is actually a researchable aspect within the context of his theory of color application (Sidlauskas 88).
We will write a custom Essay on Cezanne’s Sense of Color specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cezanne uses color in its three dimensions to favor different contrasts of hue to re-assert different structural painting qualities (Stewart 451). He had the opinion that surfaces that are near the viewer should have pure color. This hints how he uses color to build form. Cezanne used three dimensional model that is value to illustrated by light-dark color, hue using varying wavelength of green, red, yellow and other colors and saturation where he applied purity of colors.
These dimensions of colors he used in combination with four forms of contrast separately or mixed thus building form and space at the same time intensifying lighting effects. Cezanne at the same time used a warm-cool contrast, which is a function of hue.
According to Loran (83), Cezanne’s painting can easily be analysis used in terms of black and white illustrations of value. In his analysis “Cezanne’s compositions”, Loran argues that the paintings by Cezanne are quite brilliant due to his style of color application (Loran 94). Nevertheless, it is arguable that Loran overlooked the fact that Cezanne’s work was developed from a composition of sophisticated application of value, saturation as well as hue.
Cezanne’s painting, “naked female”, presents the evidence of density and tension (Loran 73). He grouped the naked women and shaped them like trees. A triangular shaped view gives focus to the lake and the bathers seem to be calmed under the trees. The painting “Large Bathers” gives the reminiscence of other artist’s work such as Paul Ruben and Titian with landscapes, trees and the river (Dorival 19).
The calmness of the water and the dawdling movement of the figures gives a mythically and an imaginary element to Cezanne’s work. Though Cezanne followed no stylish paintings, which did not match with the methods of the nineteenth century, he was in an attempt to come up with a timeless painting (Stewart 453).
According to Dorival (55), the paintings “large Bathers” are quite outstanding paintings due to their wide spaces, color use and figures especially on the right side seem to be well- figured. In addition, Cezanne’s use of space is revealed by the whirling blue, bright, and clear sky. Cézanne used lines to give a well-outlined shape of the women. In addition, lines created and emphasized movement, which makes one to hold the movement of the eyes. Cezanne seems to have a better understanding of the viewer movements.
Cezanne’s work is based on nature and his own imagination especially on the figure paintings. He was also fascinated by the human figure, which in his painting portrays un-sensual and statuesque showing his personal classicism interpretation. The painting shows how female figures can add an aesthetic value and harmony to the landscape (Becks-Malorny 88).
Cezanne’s work on the Large Bathers shows a well-developed architectural combination of rhythm, format and color. By pairing the spots symmetries of object is created resulting in a secret life to a static object. In addition, use of natural and human forms brings out weight and dignity in his work (Stewart 453).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cezanne’s Sense of Color by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Dorival (55), Cézannes works “Large Bathers” are surrounded by trees on their sides and each nude female is lend interiorly thus making a triangular shape which frames the lake. This gave the naked women a pre-arranged space. This composition gives Bathers various poses through bending to fit Cezanne’s art composition. He tried to create space between objects, which are closer from the far ones (Dorival 64).
This spacing could be seen through perspective though it depended on the viewer’s eye when standing on one place .He accounted his natural vision through art representation since nature cannot be reproduced through art. Cezanne expressed his emotion and feeling in his drawing, in his paining of his wife, he used pale coral pigment to draw her wife face giving it a distinct consistent feature (Sidlauskas 93).
Cezanne used dark and light blue colors in his Bathers. The paintings show how Cezanne toned his palette down. He also eliminated some colors and reduced the hue intensity to tones of green, blue and ochre. His tree trunks were painted with oak brown in addition to golden tones. Skin color of the bathers showed a complimentary color with brown hair. Back and the hips of the women are painted dark brown giving them a female shape (Loran 83).
Cezanne’s Bathers seem to be well illuminated especially on the right side hence little light reaching the bathers on their right hand side. He used natural light in creating shadow patterns, which in turn creates a spectacular outcome. In this painting, the light is seen hitting directly on the crouching down bather on the left elbow of the woman and on the lower sides of her thigh.
hough the waters seem to be calm, they look troubled by the waves. Cezanne’s use of a brush stroke gives the texture to his work. The painting appears unfinished leaving trails of the painting patterns. Thick coats of paint give the Large Bathers a fog of green and blue colors (Loran 91). In addition, the time that Cezanne spent in working out the painting produces shifts in point of view.
Although Cezanne did not finish his work, he left a spectacular artwork, which inspires many upcoming artists. Cezanne created a sense of distance by using parallel brush marks that added depth. In his work “Montagne Saint Victoire”, Cezanne painted a mountain shape in the middle and a stylised tree to the left incorporating shades. He added pink and blue colours with stretches of pale brown (Loran 118).
In his painting, “The Blue Vase”, Cezanne created a still life picture by using colours that are both luminous and high-keyed in the object as well as in the background (Loran 122). Despite the use of greater brightness, the sensitiveness creation of the small difference coupled with the richness of hues brought about a refined and gradated tones.
He uses blue colour to create mood giving a differing quality in the background and contrast with warmer tones used in flowers and smaller units. Cezanne’s work, which is rich in colour, employs variety of colour relationship to contrast, coolness, mood and harmony.
In a letter to Emile Bernard of April 1904, Cezanne gave his personal view on the use of color in his paintings. In this letter, he says that one cannot separate drawing and color, as long as the painter is drawing. According to him, the more the amount of color applied in a painting, the more exact is the painting.
Color brings richness to a painting, which in turn makes the form to attain its fullness (Bois and Krauss 34). He further argues that the secret of modeling and drawing is the contrast achieved through color tines. From this analysis, it is worth arguing that one main factor that has contributed to his success as a father of modern painting is the ability to use color in a creative and skillful manner that reveals his sense of his world.
Works Cited Badt, Kurt. The Art of Cézanne. Berkeley, CA: University of California press, 2010. Print.
Becks-Malorny, Ulrike. Cezanne. Ediz. Inglese. London, UK: Taschen, 2009. Print.
Bleicher, Steven. Contemporary Color: Theory
Debates on Whether Dog is the Best Pet or not Essay best essay help
Debates on whether dog is the best pet or not are very common when it comes to choosing a pet. There are many pets that a person can keep, but dogs stand out from the rest. Dogs have been branded as the best friends of man for a very long time and this yet to change.
The relationships between dogs and man have been improving over the years and this has made dogs to be the most preferable pets in the world. Dogs are known to reciprocate love by remaining loyal and the best companions. The people who are still reluctant to choose dogs as their pets simply lack adequate information on why dogs are the best pets to keep. This paper will explain why a dog is the best pet to keep compared to other pets.
The first reason why one should choose a dog for a pet is its ability to do things for its owner. Dogs can do several tricks that other pets such as cats and birds can not do. Dogs are quick learners and can therefore be taught simple domestic tasks for fun. In terms of companionship, dogs are the best option because they have the energy to jog and run alongside their owners.
Dogs are known to offer unconditional love to their owners and are always concerned about their safety. A good pet should give its owner some attention and no other pet does this better then a dog. Dogs learn their names in the shortest time possible and can always respond quickly when they are called by their names. Dog can be learned to play different games and are always available to play with its owner any time it is called upon.
Recent studies have shown that dogs bring health benefits to their owners apart from offering companionship. A dog owner becomes fit by having regular walking sessions with his or her pet. Regular dog-walking sessions help dog owners reduce their cholesterol levels.
Having a dog as a friend helps its owner forget about his or her worries by playing with it. A person who lives alone needs a dog for security and companionship. Psychologists believe that dogs can help bereaved people overcome their traumas in the shortest time possible compared to other pets.
In addition, dogs often serve as guides for blind people. It is believed that dogs feel seismicity and can help their owners avoid being harmed by destruction in case of earthquake. The strong bond between a human being and a dog makes the owner feel calm when their pet is by the side. A dog can make its owner laugh after a very stressful day. A dog is always available to welcome its owner at home regardless of the mood of the day.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In conclusion, people with a problem of choosing a pet for themselves should consider having a dog as a pet because of the many benefits it brings to the owner compared to other pets. Dogs have special qualities that make them stand out from other pets when it comes to companionship and security.
Other pets have limited abilities and can not match the versatility of a dog. Research has proven that dogs bring quite a number of health and social benefits to their owners compared to other pets. The reasons explained in this paper are enough proof that a dog is the best pet that one should consider keeping.
Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini’s Conservative Ideology Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Political and religious leader
Introduction Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini is a famous Iranian Muslim cleric credited with marshaling the revolution against the Iranian leader of the time known as the Shah. After the revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini was named the supreme religious leader of Iran, which later was transformed and renamed the Islamic republic of Iran in 1979.
When he was appointed, Ayatollah Khomeini ensured that the Shah did not serve as the Iranian ruler. The Shah was toppled due to his ties with the west. After the success of the revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini was subsequently named as the religious and political leader of the Islamic republic of Iran for life (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 1; Reich, p. 310).
Early life Khomeini is believed to have been born on the 24th day of September, 1902. This is also believed, which is also the anniversary of the birth of Prophet Mohammed’s daughter Hazrat Fatima. He was named Rouhollah Mousavi, which when translated, means “inspired by God”.
He was born in a small known as Khomeini, which is about 160 km southwest of Qom. His family was well known for their quest in religious scholarship. His surname was derived from the town in which he was born. Thus, he was known as Rouhollah Khomeini (Iran Chamber Society, para. 1). During the early 20th century, his father was murdered. Khomeini’s mother and aunt took care of him from a tender age.
However, they later on succumbed to cholera leaving him orphaned. Khomeini’s elder brother was left with the obligation of taking care of the family. There are assertions that Khomeini’s family was related to Prophet Mohammed. The family boasts of a legacy of avid religious scholars all the way from their ancestors. Khomeini and his sibling Mourteza were great Islamic intellectuals (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 2; Moin, pp. 2-4).
In his youthful years, Khomeini enjoyed sporting activities and was a jovial person. He was also very strong and a great scholar. He was also successful in his studies at the local maktab. Maktabs are local schools that are primarily dedicated to teaching the Qur’an. His older sibling who was responsible for taking care of the family asked him to go to the Arak City in the second decade of the 20th century. This was due to his scholarly prowess.
In Arak, Khomeini was in the same class as other Islamic scholars such as Yazdi Ha’iri. After three years of staying in Arak, Khomeini and Ha’iri went to Qom. Under the apprenticeship of Ha’iri, Khomeini dedicated and committed most of his efforts to the development and furthering of his own personal religious studies. He also taught other younger students at the Ha’iri’s school (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Political and religious leader The two great Islamic scholars worked together in Qom. However, in the 1930s, Ha’iri passed on and his religious position was taken over by Ayatollah Boroujerdi. As a result, he gained favor and had a strong following of all Muslims, Khomeini being one amongst them. It can also be noted that both Boroujerdi and Ha’iri shared a common belief that religion should be separated from the state. In this case, religion or the state should not involve themselves in matters of the other (Iran Chamber Society, para. 7).
Consequently, the Iranian leader, Reza Shah looked for ways in which he could tame the influence of the religious leaders. Most of the powerful religious leaders and clerics remained mute on the issue and encouraged their followers to follow suite. Furthermore, the same difference was advocated for when Reza Shah’s successor. His son, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi sought support of the western governments, particularly the United States.
This was meant to control and contain protests for democratic reforms in Tehran during the year 1950. Khomeini among those clerics muted. Khomeini was not able to challenge what he saw. He thought that his country was moving away from the teachings of the Islamic traditions. He was angered by this and decided to focus on teaching the Islamic science known as Fiqh (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 4).
After the demise of Ayatollah Boroujerdi, Khomeini emerged as one of the possible successors. This was brought about by his publications on the writings of Fiqh. The basic handbook of Islamic practice titled Tozih al-Masael was the most notable. Later on, Khomeini became a Marja-e Taqlid. In essence, he gained general acceptance among the Iranian Shi’as. In the early 1960s, the Iranian administration introduced new legislations on elections.
These laws did away with the previous prerequisite requiring the elected officials to take their oaths using the Quran. Imam Khomeini telegraphed both the prime minister and Mohammed Reza warning that they should stop violating the Iranian constitution of 1907 and Islamic law. If they failed to comply, the Ulama or religious scholars would lead the public in sustained protests to campaign against this provision (Iran Chamber Society, paras. 8-9; “Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 6; Harmon, pp. 16-20).
On the 3rd of June, 1963, Imam Khomeini made a speech at Feyziyeh madreseh. He warned the Shah that, if he did not change his ways, one day the Iranian public will welcome his departure from the country.
He was arrested two days later by military commandos. When news of his arrest broke at dawn, there were widespread demonstrations that took almost six days before calm was restored. Demonstrators were ruthlessly confronted by heavy military tanks. This marked the turning point of Iran. Imam Khomeini was later released on the 7th of April, 1964 (Iran Chamber Society, para. 11; Khater, p. 229).
We will write a custom Essay on Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini’s Conservative Ideology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Shah’s government continued to strengthen its ties with the west. He signed an agreement with America that offered immunity from prosecution to all United States people and their dependents in Iran. This triggered Khomeini to issue a statement against the leadership. He denounced the agreement and termed it as a relinquishment of the sovereignty and independence of Iran. Armed commandos from the military stormed the Ayatollah Khomeini’s residence in Qom and arrested him a few hours to dawn during the 4th of November 1964.
This time, he was not sent to jail but was taken to the Mehrabad airport where he was flown to Turkey for exile. While in Turkey, the Shah hoped that Ayatollah Khomeini would fade from the memory of the populace. Turkey had a law that prohibited the wearing of the turban and cloak. These aspects are critical to the Muslim scholars. However, on the 5th of November, Khomeini left Turkey for Najaf in Iraq where he spent the next 13 years (Iran Chamber Society, paras. 12-13).
During his stay in Najaf, Khomeini continued teaching Fiqh at Sheikh Mourteza Ansari madreseh. From his lectures on Velayat-e faqeeh, he published a text that bordered on issues of administration and religion. This was later smuggled into Iran by sympathizers who came to visit him in Iraq. He also started making video tapes of his lectures and sermons while in exile.
Through these strategies, Khomeini was accepted as the supreme leader of the Iranian opposition against the rule of the Shah’s government. The opposition’s struggle was starting to gain momentum. In 1975, a crowd of demonstrators camped for three days at a famous religious school in Qom where Ayatollah Khomeini used to teach while he was in Iran.
The crowd was adamant and was only dispersed by brutal military force under the orders of the Shah. As a response to this, Ayatollah Khomeini then released a public statement from exile in support of the demonstrators, which declared that the liberation and freedom from the shackles of imperialism for the Iranian people was indeed imminent (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 9).
More protests and demonstrations continued to be witnessed all around Iran during 1978 defending the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini. On each occasion, the rioters and demonstrators were heavily and violently confronted by the military and other government institutions.
The Shah was concerned about the frequency and the magnitude of the demonstrations. He felt that the proximity of Khomeini’s exile to Iraq was relatively too close for any comfort. Within a short period, Khomeini’s residence in Iraq was again surrounded by military personnel who gave him two alternatives: he was asked to either leave the country or stay in Iraq but stop making any political statements.
Ayatollah Khomeini chose to leave the country (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 10). The Iranian authorities then colluded with the Iraqi government to force Khomeini out of Iraq. He moved to Kuwait where he was denied entry at the border, but finally made his way to France. It is from France that the teachings of Khomeini dominated world news and media (Iran Chamber Society, para. 15-16; “Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 4).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini’s Conservative Ideology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Khomeini went to Paris, which inevitably was to become his last residence outside Iran before he made his jubilant return to his motherland, Iran. During his stay in France, he vehemently defended himself against skeptics and criticisms regarding the accusations of being power hungry by making various public statements.
He argued that it was the sole responsibility and the desertion of the people of Iran to elect, select, or choose individuals that they thought were trustworthy and capable to lead them. He categorically stated that he was not personally interested in any special role or responsibility. He asserted that he was comfortable with his status as the Ayatollah (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 11).
Khomeini returned to Iran in 1979. This was just a few months after he had moved to Paris. The middle class, students, self employed businessmen, and the Iranian military took to the streets protesting against the Shah’s administration. At this point, the Shah was forced to turn to his close allies from the west such as the United States for assistance to control the demonstrations. However, the Shah had to leave the country when the revolution found its way to his doorstep.
Regardless of the statements that he issued in Paris, Ayatollah Khomeini was widely regarded and accepted as the new ruler of Iran. When Khomeini finally returned home, he returned to cheering crowds and immediately embarked on laying the foundations of setting up an Islamic republic that he had envisioned for his country. During this period, he entrusted his fellow clerics with the task of formulating and writing the new constitution for the new republic. He also began making authoritarian statements and remarks than before.
This includes when he called for the people of Iran not to listen to those who advocate for democracy. He insisted that the proponents of democracy were against Islam, and their intentions were to derail the nation from its ultimate mission. Khomeini swore not to entertain those advocating for aspects related to the west. Specifically, he singled out those advocating for democracy and nationalism (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 12).
After the Shah left Iran, he needed a country where he could spend his exile. It was later discovered that the Shah suffered from cancer. With this in mind, the United States under the administration of President Carter reluctantly allowed the Shah to serve out his exile in America.
Back in Iran, a group of Iranian was outraged by the American decision to accommodate the Shah. They stormed the American embassy in Tehran and took about 60 American hostages on the 4th day of November 1979. Ayatollah Khomeini saw this as an opportunity to demonstrate the new Islamic republic of Iran in defiance of the western powers.
As a result, the new Iranian government and the American government were engaged in a standoff that ended after the inauguration of President Ronald Reagan in January 1981. This was due to the pressure of economic sanctions and oil embargos that the American administration imposed on Tehran. This is what came to be known as the Iranian Hostage Crisis (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 13).
Shapour Bakhtiar was appointed Prime Minister by Shah before he left Iran. Imam Khomeini came back to Iran on 5th of February, 1979. He was appointed a Prime Minister disregarding the one appointed by Shah on his departure from Iran. He then ordered the citizens to defy the curfew imposed, and on February 15th, the regime collapsed. A referendum was conducted in which the Islamic Republic of Iran was created, and Ayatollah Khomeini became the supreme leader (Iran Chamber Society, para. 18).
During his 10 year rule, Khomeini established a theocratic administration over Iran. He failed to fulfill his pre-revolutionary promises made to the people. Instead, he went on to marginalize and suppress the opposition groups. He amalgamated authority and protected the cleric governance. Most of the books were edited to reflect Islamic values or destroyed. Many who were against these changes were either sentence to life imprisonment or death (Iran Chamber Society, para. 21).
Once in authority, Ayatollah Khomeini was far less sympathetic to the plight of the secular left than the Shah was to Khomeini’s call for reforms. Anybody who protested against his administration was killed.
Khomeini made sure that his doctrines and beliefs were inculcated into the education curriculum in all schools and education centers. He also made sure that all the top positions in his administration were occupied by clerics who were sympathetic and loyal to his doctrines and beliefs. They ranged from the small town officials to the top officials in the government.
Furthermore, Ayatollah Khomeini believed that the new values and doctrines established in the new Islamic Republic of Iran were meant to be exported all over the Muslim Middle East. As a result of achieving this end, Ayatollah Khomeini declared war on Iraq and the two nations went to war for about eight years before a truce was called. The number of those who died in the war cannot be accounted for, but is estimated to be in the hundreds of thousands.
The war only came to an end after the American military forces intervened on behalf of Iraq, a key ally at the time. The American forces forced Iran and Khomeini into a ceasefire agreement. In his response, Ayatollah Khomeini termed the compromise made in reaching a ceasefire to be more deadly and venomous than swallowing poison (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 14).
Ayatollah Khomeini was also well known for the publication of various Fatwa. This is a legal publication published by a Muslim cleric. Khomeini released a Fatwa that called for the death of a controversial Indian-British author by the name Salman Rushdie for his remarks made in the book “The Satanic Verses” published in 1989.
This is a fictional book that was interpreted as depicting the Holy Prophet Mohammed as being a false prophet. The book also went on to cast significant doubts about numerous Islamic doctrines and beliefs. After the Rushdie Fatwa was published and declared, the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini succumbed to his illness and died on the 3rd day of June, 1989 (“Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 14).
His foreign policy was centered on reverting the notion where the Shah had established a strong relation with the west. Khomeini also advocated for the adoption of stance of unwavering hostility towards the super powers of the west. Under the rule of Khomeini, the Iranian economy foundered a lot. His quest for victory against Iraq in the Iranian-Iraqi war subsequently proved futile. However, Ayatollah Khomeini continued to endear himself among the people of Iran’s Shi’a community.
Thus, he ruled over Iran till his demise. Khomeini’s grave is situated in Tehran’s Behesht-e Zahra cemetery. This has become a shrine for his loyalist supporters and sympathizers who pay a visit to the tomb. In terms of ideology, he can best be remembered for establishing the ideology of velayat-e faqih (meaning ‘guardianship of the jurist’). This was published in a variety of lectures and sermons that he delivered and taught during the period when he was exiled.
These lectures and sermons were later published and smuggled into Iran by Khomeini’s loyalists who visited him in exile. They were later reprinted and circulated among his followers in Iran. In these publications, Khomeini emphasized on the establishment of a theocratic administration led by Islamic jurists instead of the corrupt secularist led regimes. Iran came up with a constitution in the year 1969. This constitution has articles that supports the authority of the jury (“Ruhollah Khomeini”, para. 6-7).
Conclusion Khomeini’s conservative ideology strongly opposed any pro-western affiliations. His rule was marked in history by the Iraq-Iran war and the Iran hostage crisis. Iran is still a religious-based society. The work and rule of Khomeini will unquestionably continue to influence the political and religious views in Iran presently and into the future.
Works Cited “Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.” The Biography Channel website. 2013. Web.
Harmon, Daniel E. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. New York: Infobase Pub, 2004. Internet resource. Print.
Iran Chamber Society. History of Iran: Ayatollah Khomeini. Web.
Khater, Akram F. Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East. Boston, MA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
Moin, Baqer. Khomeini: Sign of God. London: Tauris, 1989. Print.
Reich, Bernard. Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990. Print.
“Ruhollah Khomeini“. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2013. Web.
The battle at Gettysburg Essay essay help online
The battle at Gettysburg is considered to be one of the most significant and bloodiest battles of The Civil War. There were great losses on both sides and so, it has become a memorable moment in the history of the United States. It is also significant because president Abraham Lincoln gave a speech that became instilled in time and is thought to be one of the most powerful and influential speeches of the States. It serves as a reminder and basis for all those who fight for freedom and equality.
The Battle of Gettysburg took place on 1st to 3rd of July, 1863 and is regarded as a turning point in The Civil War. The army of General Lee was defeated and the further continuation of Gettysburg Company was halted. During the three days of battle North Virginian army lost more than 20000 men.
The fighting force of General Lee was exhausted and the danger of the federal army giving a counter strike was at hand. Lee had to withdraw his troops into a defense position and wait for the attack of Meade but the attack did not follow. After General Lee realized there will be no attack, he decided to withdraw.
The outcome was important because in case the South would have won the battle, they had a good chance to direct an attack on Washington, which was an easy target at the time. But the loss of the South had resulted in a major fall back. It lost many men and resources and so, was unable to continue with the same determination. The Union had a much better chance to replenish its resources and troops, creating all the conditions to continue the war (Ashby 37).
Abraham Lincoln’s address was a memorable one because it was short but at the same time powerful and heartfelt. The president mentions in his speech that it will not be remembered throughout time and that anything said is really incomparable to the losses and devastation that American people have suffered.
Lincoln mentioned the equality of people and referred to the war as the fight for freedom and the unity of the country in the search for better life (Olson 19). His speech pays tribute to the soldiers that lost their lives in battle and this shows that the president’s primary care was not in who was on which side but in people and his sorrow for the men who have lost their lives to the great cause. Even in the beginning of war, it was clear that he used every chance to avoid it and has only proceeded because there was no other choice.
It is memorable when he says that men who are present will never forget this moment and it is up to the future of these men and generations to follow to remember this moment and base the conditions of better life on the lessons that history teaches (McRaney 4). From the speech it is evident that Abraham Lincoln was a great leader but at the same time he was understanding of people, human emotions and forces that sometimes governed the worst events.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Civil War left a great mark on the United States and American people. It has become a part of history that people can learn from and strive to avoid such horrific events from happening again.
Works Cited Ashby, Ruth. Gettysburg, North Mankato, United States: Black Rabbit Books, 2002. Print.
McRaney, Amanda. The Gettysburg Address, New York, United States: Benchmark Education Company, 2007. Print.
Olson, Steven. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address: A Primary Source Investigation, New York, United States: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2004. Print.
Reasons why Americans work too much. Research Paper essay help online free
The modern American society is very demanding of people in their workplace. Very often, time spent at work is greater than that at home or at leisure activities. There are several reasons that offer explanations to such a trend. The way of the “American life”, people’s personal goals and work demands, all lead to extra work.
The society and the general population of a country are the moving force in the workplace. The article “Americans Work Too Much and Have Too Little Time for Play: Here’s How to Slow Down ‘The Great Speed-Up” offers explanations that are related to the demands of the society and gives ways to avoid being caught up in the workplace.
Even though the wages stay the same, so there is no clear incentive to stay at work longer, individuals still contribute extra hours to their jobs. This can be attributed to the society and the American way of life. The country is a very fast paced environment where industrialization has created many opportunities and avenues for people to work. There is a large number of professions that exist and so, people are able to choose any type of activity they like.
This, in turn, leads to the replacement of leisure time by working hours. This happens not because people are forced to work but because there is true enjoyment in work. A person can take pleasure and pride in their profession and this is very much representative of the society. The education provided is very differential, which gives people a very diverse selection of jobs they can dedicate themselves to.
Not only has work become more interesting but it is now a place of social life and self-representation. People are appreciative of their jobs and thankful to have one. Of course, financial reasons and the natural pull of society to have more resources is another factor. As social life creates conditions that require more money to be spent on life, people feel forced to spend more time at work (Jason par. 2).
The personal goals of a person play another significant role. Psychologically, a person can be greatly focused on their job. It is a place where they can practice and display their skills, gaining respect for themselves and from others. A determination to have a better way of life, to have higher quality of products acquired and services enjoyed will without a doubt lead to more hours spent at work. “The American way of life” is often associated with a dream where people are able to afford pretty much anything.
The society allows for a great number of pleasures and people are very attracted to the different activities they can participate in. This makes an individual become a victim of their own wants and as a result they spend more time making money for vacation and their favorite products, instead of actually taking a vacation or buying that car they have always dreamed of (Love par. 9).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The technology has also made it easier to work from a remote location. While on vacation, many people are still very much connected to their workplace through computers or phones. It might seem that working while on vacation is not very demanding but sometimes it interferes with family matters, which causes unnecessary stress for several people.
One of the negative reasons why people must stay overtime and sacrifice their family and leisure time is the fear of losing they job. The present economy and market are very unstable and people have to greatly rely on their jobs. Even if it is low paying or has an increased amount of hours, it is much better than being unemployed or constantly seeking a place to work.
This creates great stress on a person and often there are health side effects (“Stressed? Studies Show Americans Work too Hard” par. 5). The American nation is one of the most developed and highly industrialized countries but still, sometimes there are moments when jobs become scarce and so, people realize how important it is to have a well paying job.
While the society demands people to hold on tight to their jobs, a loss of work by someone close plays a major role in people being forced to work longer. Not to mention that many people are single parents and all they have to support themselves and their children with is their job. It is evident that people become victims of their circumstances of life and not their success or personal enjoyment of the workplace.
Overall, the majority of people are of the type where the environment gives them no choice but to work hard in order to get by and provide for their family. This is a sad reality of the modern world that has many negative effects not only on person’s physical health but on their psychological well-being also.
As evident, there are several reasons why people work more and while some of them might be beneficial, the majority are negative. The world is a fast paced environment that demands obedience and those unable to contribute, are left without employment.
Works Cited Jason, M. “Americans Work Too Much and Have Too Little Time for Play: Here’s How to Slow Down ‘The Great Speed-Up.” alternet.org. AlterNet, July 29, 2011. Web.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Reasons why Americans work too much. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Love, D.A. “Americans work too much.” startribune.com. StarTribune, June 10, 2011. Web.
“Stressed? Studies Show Americans Work too Hard.” CBNNews.com. CBNNews,October 09, 2010. Web.
Discrimination against Immigrants Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The United States has always been branded as a land of opportunities and this has consequently attracted many immigrants to the country. Immigrants arrive in the U.S without expecting any kind of discrimination but they often end up in disappointment. Immigrants face different types of discrimination in the course of their stay in the U.S that make their assimilation into the American society very difficult.
Discrimination against immigrants has been in existence from the colonial era and is still prevalent in the U.S (Lentin, 2011). The most common types of discrimination that the immigrants in the U.S encounter are language-based discrimination and racial discrimination.
The major immigrant groups that are in most cases exposed to acts of discrimination include Italian Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and the Hispanics (Lentin, 2011). Despite the efforts that have been put in place by the American government towards stopping discrimination, the most recent immigrants still complain of various forms of discrimination. This paper will highlight the different forms of discrimination that confront immigrants in the U.S.
The immigrants in the United States have a problem in finding employment because of their race and language (Lentin, 2011). The majority of companies in the U.S prefer hiring Native Americans compared to immigrants even in a situation where an immigrant is more qualified for a particular job than a native applicant. Statistics indicate that immigrants are the worst paid employees and yet they do the hardest jobs in America (Lentin, 2011).
This trend has been there since 1800s and there are no signs of improvement. Most government policies favor Native Americans and this has been a great challenge for the ethnic minorities living in the U.S. The fear of losing their jobs to immigrants makes the Native Americans angry and full of resentment towards immigrants. The refusal by some immigrants to learn the local language makes the native people think that immigrants do not respect the established norms.
The negative stereotypes associated with certain ethnic groups increase the chances of discrimination in the American society (Lentin, 2011). It is very easy to fuel antagonism if much focus is put on the negative stereotypes that are associated with a particular minority group. Cases of bias-motivated crime are on the increase with immigrants being the main targets of this type of crimes.
The Latinos who live in California have over time been attacked as a result of the anti-immigrant sentiments in the U.S. Native Americans are inclined to the view that most of their economic and social problems have been generated by the influx of immigrants into their country. The recent increase in terror attacks has not made things better for Americans of the Arabic descent (Lentin, 2011). The Arabs in the U.S have become victims of hate crimes just because they have the same national background with the perceived terrorists.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Language-based discrimination has become very prevalent in the U.S and the immigrants who refuse the idea of learning the native language face unfair treatment (Lentin, 2011). Immigrant groups encounter discrimination at their places of work where employers come up with polices that favor native English speakers.
Employers have always defended their actions by claiming that the policies are only meant to enhance efficiency and safety but this is not the case. Immigrant groups with high immigration rates are the most targeted because the natives fear that they might overturn their dominance (Lentin, 2011). The need to retain the hegemonic position of Native Americans is what motivates employers as they formulate policies that discriminate against immigrants.
An example of this type of discrimination happened in one healthcare organization where two Hispanic employees were dismissed for speaking Spanish at their place of work. According to the supervisor, the two employees went against the company policy (Lentin, 2011). The employees in this organization are not allowed to speak any other language at their place of work apart from English.
Language prejudices are a sign of hatred and mistrust and many immigrants suffer because of these injustices (Lentin, 2011). Communication problems should be the basis for language discrimination but this is not the case in the U.S. There are some schools in the U.S that do not allow the admission of immigrant students (Lentin, 2011).
There are many cases of open discrimination against immigrants but the authorities in America are not concerned about the suffering that immigrants go through. There have been some efforts towards accommodating the linguistic needs of immigrants but many of them still face language-based discrimination.
In conclusion, discrimination against immigrants is not a new thing in the U.S and is often motivated by the need for Native Americans to maintain their hegemony. Immigrant groups still encounter discrimination because of their linguistic and racial affiliation. Immigrants can not attend certain institutions or work in certain companies because of their identity (Lentin, 2011).
The American government and companies formulate policies that favor native citizens and pay little attention to the concerns of immigrants. The American policies and ideologies should accommodate and tolerate the needs of immigrants as a way of protecting immigrants against discrimination (Lentin, 2011). Legal immigrants should be treated fairly without any kind of discrimination because they play the same role as the native citizens when it comes to nation building.
We will write a custom Essay on Discrimination against Immigrants specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Lentin, A. (2011). Racism and ethnic discrimination. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group.
How and Why Indigenous Literature Approaches Decolonization Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help
Table of Contents Problem Statement and Purpose
Problem Statement and Purpose From 1892 to 1969, Canada forced many Aboriginal children to join public funded schools under the administration of churches like the Anglican Church and Roman Catholic Church. During this period, these children experienced both physical and sexual abuse besides the forced separation from the family and society.
This abuse left scars that have seen transmission across generations. To fill this gap, many writers have come up with indigenous literature that focuses on decolonizing the minds of the Aboriginals. Indigenous literature seeks to construct positive identities for people, families and societies as well as repossess economic, political, cultural and social independence. It is for this reason that most literature by non-native indigenous writers focuses on forgetting the past and obliterating narratives of colonization (Justice 335).
On the other hand, most indigenous writings by natives consist of narratives of dispossession, loss of land as well as language and identity. Thus, while both native and non-native indigenous writers aim at reducing the impacts of colonialism, they use different approaches. Indigenous literature by natives tries to build a common truth that can lead to healing though revisiting negative colonial aspects, while non-native indigenous writers seem to hide negative aspects of colonialism from their work.
Background Information Writing in English is a political and therapeutic act that offers the basis for the process of decolonization. Elucidation of indigenous literature in English focuses on the theme of communism.
According to Episkenew, literature is communist as far as it has a positive commitment to the native society (12). To encourage communalist values means to take part in the healing of the pain and sense of isolation felt by native societies, especially in communities that have often been broken and made dysfunctional by the results of over 500 years of colonialism.
That is to say, indigenous literature is communal since it attempts to heal psychological wounds caused among the natives in the process of colonization, and the main goal of communalism is to heal native communities by reconnecting native people to the larger society (Mosionier and Suzack 5).
The practice of writing in English is revolutionary in nature, as it seeks to recover indigenous societies through restructuring the language of the enemy (Episkenew 14).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Restructuring language in the colonizer’s dialect and revolving those images around to show pictures of the colonized to the colonizers, through a process of decolonization, denotes that something that will politicize and transform literary expression is happening and at the same time evolving. Reformulation occurs as a way of undoing some of the challenges that came with colonization.
The irony in the whole process is although the language and literary customs, which the colonial systems of education forced on indigenous people, caused vast damage to both communities and people, contemporary indigenous literature in English uses the very language and literary customs in its development (Weaver and Robert 22).
Contemporary indigenous writers maneuver the English language and its literary customs to recount indigenous experiences during colonialism with the intention of healing themselves and their audience from the colonial sufferings. While the English language cannot convey perfectly the practices and customs of indigenous communities, it does offer indigenous writers with several benefits on the distribution of their literary works.
Another irony is that we have come to get more commonalities than there were, since the colonizers started to group the many, different people indigenous to Canada using generic expressions “Aboriginal”, “Native” and “Indigenous” (Episkenew 13). Thus, we share a history of related experiences from colonial policies, and our societies experienced similar wounds.
A majority of these communities, including those who know their indigenous language prefer to speak in English apart from some natives living in Quebec, speak. Therefore, through writing in English, modern indigenous writers can reach a big and diverse audience that not just includes ethnic relations (Womack 17). For instance, they can reach Indian readers from similar or different ethnic cultures who are not conversant with the customary elements central to the work but who may recognize the strong power of language.
Modern indigenous writers can also reach non-Indian readers who look at the novel with a very different set of values and assumptions. Since indigenous writers are aware of their varied audience, they use different characters and themes to suit different implied readers in the text of their literature, so that every group of implied reader will comprehend the narrative quite differently, depending on their communal perspectives.
Gold, in his work of “Reading Fiction as a way of Enhancing Emotional and Mental Health,” explains that it is possible to differentiate people from other conscious animals in how they build and understand their lives through making narratives (Episkenew 14). Gold examines how we structure and restructure our autobiographies daily in our dreams and concludes that human beings are stories in themselves. He sees this as true for all communities, irrespective of race or culture, both individually and collectively.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on How and Why Indigenous Literature Approaches Decolonization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, he concludes that people in every society build and express their shared realities through narratives. Tafoya, a native psychologist shows that from an indigenous viewpoint, narratives are a type of therapy and like drugs can cure or kill depending on the prescribed amount or type (Episkenew 14). He explains that the natives have heard poisonous accounts in the colonial disclosure.
Thus, he supports that people must write or make a new narrative or script of their lives to heal. Anishaubae novelist Johnstone also supports that words are a remedy that can cure or hurt and have an aspect of the Manitou that allows them to build ideas and images from nothing (Episkenew 14).
Several native writers reverberates Tafoya’s and Johnstone’s opinions referring to their conventional indigenous knowledge about the healing characteristics of language and narrative. Harjo, a poet, explains that free expression without considering the cost leads to empowerment and not victimization through destruction (Episkenew 14).
Ethnic customs in a society realize the power of language to cure, to restore and to generate. Armand Ruffo, an Anishiaubae intellectual reiterates the words of Art Solomon, that “the need for expression and the need for healing and are inseparable. Ruffo further says that Art Solomon encouraged native writers to write for the promotion of their community, particularly the children and youths” (Episkenew 14).
Loyie, a Cree playwright of Oskiniko, explains that indigenous writing encompasses more than just the traditional narratives. From Loyie’s standpoint, writing is healing, or else a good way for people to manage the fury that exists among them. Masak, an Inuvialuit writer, portrays the way writing enabled her to manage the repressed sentiments allied with her residential school encounters (Episkenew 14).
Campbell writes a letter to Culleton expressing her feelings about his work on In Search of April Raintree (Episkenew 14). This piece of work involves its readers in April’s fights with internalized racism and colonialism as she alternately escapes and faces the social situations that portray her identity as Métis.
Cheryl, her sister develops the passage, providing significant characters of an anti-racist and anti-colonial viewpoint to the story (Mosionier and Suzack 5). As Cheryl falls apart, terminating her life and losing her earlier might and agency, April gets a new admiration of the views that Cheryl symbolizes. In a memo to Culleton, Campbell explains that the story is a powerful account because with calmness, it handles the illness in people and communities.
She describes the writing as one that will start the healing of the community, and let a dominant society appreciates and experiences the lives of a group it almost ruined. Thus, indigenous writing is not just like any other writing. Campbell recognizes literature potential to both heal native groups from post-colonial traumatic experiences and to cure the colonists from the mirage learned from their traditions. From this perspective, indigenous literature has power to build a common truth on our common past.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How and Why Indigenous Literature Approaches Decolonization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As Mosionier and Suzack state, “a non-native friend is one who acknowledges the confines of her or his comprehension, but does not hide himself under those limits” (65). A true non-native ally knows that he has to get knowledge on the cultures and societies whose artistic conceptions he evaluates before entering the decisive fray and giving public interpretations.
A true non-native ally assesses the work of indigenous scholars, authors and community members as a genuine effort to produce the most valuable criticism, but not as a political action. Nevertheless, he does not acknowledge their work without critic, as he knows that critical debate and good skepticism are symbols of commitment and respect.
Further, a non-native ally understands that profound and eventually valid perceptions of societies, cultures, and histories cannot emerge from book studies exclusively. Besides, he must understand that the continuing vigor of native communities should serve to increase and correct the alienated forms of library material. Lastly, the non-Native ally should act with a sense of responsibility to native societies in general and most specifically to those whose artistic work is under study.
Mosionier and Suzack show that indigenous literature develops from indigenous communities and as a result influences native societies (72). In exploring, conceptualizing and explaining indigenous stories, literary criticism tries to intervene in this common process. Criticism of indigenous literature usually tries to take part in the shared lives of stories. Stories affect the world outside.
Although not directly, or obviously, stories and significant discourses about stories do affect how people live. In the area of Native studies, some stories quite forthrightly, influence some lives far more intensely than others do. Given that intellectual understanding and ethical obligation can permeate the work of an intellectual with neither biological nor direct social relationship to native communities, the feeling of that person’s work cannot have a similar strength as one whose daily lived experience is being native (Warrior 75).
This critical consciousness, while necessary for morally suitable critical and political relations with indigenous literatures, has created great anxiety among non-indigenous scholars working in the area for the past several years, resulting in a line of critical reactions (Mosionier and Suzack 64). At the same time, main strategies assumed by non-indigenous critics to evade doing harm to native texts have had unintentional inverse (and adverse) impacts of concealing native voices and damaging the critical field.
The perspective of indigenous literature by natives and non-natives on decolonization faces lots of criticism. Some critics support the standpoint of indigenous literature on decolonization, while others oppose it. Apparently, most indigenous literature focuses on negative aspects of colonialism such as racism, oppression as well as loss of land and identity.
Proponents of how indigenous literature approaches decolonization explain that overemphasis on racism and identity is crucial as it facilitates cultural awareness and the impacts of colonization among both native and non-native people ( Mosionier and Suzack 7).
As McKegney explains, “…given colonial intervention, not all Native people have inherited full understandings of their tribal cultures and histories, let alone those of other Native nations” (57). Thus, indigenous literature facilitates healing through acceptance that follows knowledge dissemination.
On the other hand, opponents of indigenous literature on decolonization explain that most writers rely on secondary resources, or incorrect primary resources. As Mosionier and Suzack expresses, neither objective interpretation of individual research nor use of secondary material can offer full explanation of Aboriginal experiences due to inadequate cultural knowledge on various details and peculiarities of the indigenous population (5).
However, the fact is that unlike non-native literature that ignores the concepts of oppression targeting Aboriginal people, indigenous literature highly emphasizes on these issues. As Culleton states, “without a critical approach, the potential exists to perpetuate or exacerbate systems of oppression targeting Aboriginal people, particularly in that Aboriginal literatures often look at such oppression” (16).
From this perspective, contemporary indigenous writers take an objective approach in using literature as a tool of decolonization. These writers use English as a language and its literary customs to recount indigenous experiences during colonialism in with the aim of healing themselves and their audiences from the colonial sufferings.
Unlike their non-native counter parts who refuse to express negative aspects of colonialists, indigenous writers do not shy away from expressing themselves in English, which is a language of the colonists. This demonstrates their objectivity and honesty in their work, unlike non-native writers.
Thus, indigenous writers seek to write literature that will start the healing of the community, and let the colonialists appreciates and experiences the lives of a group it almost ruined. They also seek to build a common truth on their common past. These goals lack among non-native writers.
Possible Solutions Native writers should write indigenous literature in the native language. Contemporary indigenous writers maneuver the English language and its literary customs to recount indigenous experiences during colonialism. However, we know that English language cannot convey perfectly the practices and customs of indigenous communities.
To find the real reasons why native writers of indigenous literature emphasize on themes like racism and violence, studies about how colonialists treated natives are essential Issues such as land alienation, physical as well as psychological abuse should get a closer look.
To solve the problem of stereotyping in indigenous literature, we should avoid using native-oriented works and focus on cultural study of the aboriginal population. This approach should emphasize on the role of history, culture and social processes in explaining how colonization occurred in a broader context of indigenous history. This can occur through constant interaction between native and non-native populations.
Lastly, Canadian authorities should try to prove genuineness of their information sources before implementing policies on the native people. Canadian authorities rely predominantly on myths and stereotypes while forming their policies related to the Aboriginal culture (Episkenew 70).
In conclusion, indigenous literature from natives and non-natives approach the issue of decolonization from different perspectives. Most writings of native writers include narratives of dispossession, loss of land as well as language and identity. Native indigenous writers take an objective approach in using literature as a tool of decolonization.
These writers recount indigenous experiences during colonialism with aim of healing themselves and their audience from the colonial sufferings. On the other hand, their non-native counterparts refuse to express negative aspects of colonialists. Non-native writers do not show racism, violence, and inequality as the main underpinnings for depicting the relationships between native and non-native population during colonial times.
This inadequacy of non-natives is due to lack of cultural knowledge on various details and peculiarities of the indigenous population. Neither objective interpretation of individual research nor use of secondary material can offer full explanation of Aboriginal experiences. Indigenous literature seeks to heal and let a dominant society appreciate and experience the lives of a group it almost ruined.
Criticisms of indigenous literature usually try to take part in the shared lives of stories. As far as intellectual understanding and ethical obligation can permeate the work of an intellectual with neither biological nor direct social relationship to native communities, it is impossible to feel the effects of that person’s work individually with a similar strength as one whose daily lived experience is being native. Thus, indigenous literature from native writers is more precise than from non-native writers.
Works Cited Culleton, Beatrice. “Through White Man’s Eyes.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 24.1 (2012): 15-30. Web.
Episkenew, Jo-Ann. Taking Back Our Spirits: Indigenous Literature, Public Policy, and Healing, Ontario, Canada: University of Manitoba Press. Print.
Justice, Daniel Heath. “Current of Trans/national Criticism in Indigenous Literary Studies.” American Indian Quarterly 35.3 (2011): 334-352. Web.
McKegney, Sam. “Strategies for Ethical Engagement: An Open Letter Concerning Non-Native Scholars of Native Literatures.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 20.4 (2008): 56-67. Web.
Mosionier, Beatrice and Cheryl Suzack. In Search of Appil Raintree, New York: Portage
Mixed Race Marriage Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Treating people with dignity regardless of their skin color is a pre-requisite that of national integration. The United State of America has been struggling with racism for many years now. There have been attempts to fight it by encouraging interracial marriages as a way of improving national integration. The report from Pew Research Centre indicates that people are increasingly embracing mixed race marriages.
More than 22% acceptance of mixed race marriages means that there is a slight improvement in how people view their counterparts from other races. This may be as a result of work of scholars who, from time to time, tried to state the importance of accepting one another regardless of skin color.
The statistics also proves that the 1976 ruling changed the views of different people on interracial marriages. During the four year period of 1967-1970, people began to understand the importance of interracial marriage but due to fear, others still held on to their beliefs. Less than one 1% agreed with the fact that human beings were programmed to follow what others were doing (this is always a life preserving habit).
The number of interracial marriages moved from an insignificant percentage to 5% by the year 2000 even with that nature of human beings. The attitude to blacks also improved at that time due to establishment of international community. However, out of the 77% who said Yes to the relationships between blacks and whites, few were not ready to enter into such relationships because of fear. They needed to resign to the status quo.
The Y generation born after 1976 has a different perspective because they are aware of people like Luther King who spoke as they bubbled with rage at the palpable injustices and inequalities that the Black Americans experienced. As a result, 91% accepted interracial dating. They interacted, fell in love and would easily accept interracial marriage except for a few who still lived in fear and were not ready to compromise their relationships.
From the recent research done in 2005, more people were expected to have a positive attitude because they were approaching global integration where racism was perceived as outdated. From the report, it was clear that 97% of Africans supported interracial marriages. The youth were also interacting with other races in institutions and were getting to know the facts behind racial intermarriages. It was this behavioral change that led to the 34% of positive responses among the youth.
The regional pattern among the westerners had a slight influence on intermarriages. It was obvious that human beings took time to embrace change given the challenges within their communities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Acceptance could be one of the reasons why only 33% identified with friends and relatives in interracial marriages. The same happened in the Northeast and Midwest with a record of 19%. Further evidence of the life-preserving habit of human beings was shown in the census data done in 2000. Everyone did a common thing as in the case of white husbands marrying Asian wives.
Conclusion While other strategies have failed to improve integration, interracial marriages can be the fourth wheel towards this effort. Creating a peaceful coexistence is important for the country. Therefore, mixed race marriage is important and should be embraced by everybody. It is only a matter of time (with enough education and awareness) that this global village can generate more relationships from all corners. We started from somewhere. If the trends from these research reports continue then the future generations will win this battle.
Government Concentration of State Power Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Separation of power division of a nation’s resources
Key concepts Conservatism
Introduction Leaders in the political, social and economic domains in many states of the world usually control different forms of power by virtue of the nature of their jurisdictions. Power can be separated or concentrated depending on the system of administration in question. In the United States of America, separation of power is evidenced by the existence of political parties.
The Republicans and Democrats have a long history of contention involving several issues of governance in the United States. The party with the majority of votes is usually the winner of a particular dispute in parliament or in an election. Power can be defined as the strong will and authority to command, lead or administer a particular norm.
The President of the USA has the power to reinforce changes in the Air Force, the FBI or even the CIA. Power has been widely used in the field of academics to refer to the government, the elite class, the Supreme Court and the state among others. In all the mentioned areas, power is the central theme that defines the different institutions.
The government is considered to have the highest rank in power. Concentration of power on one state separates and isolates it from others. The Supreme Court is considered as a powerful institution in the judicial system. Separation of power is a wide subject which is operational in some sectors within the US and non-operational in a few cases.
The concept becomes operational when it applies to the partition of a nation in a democratic or socialist basis. The idea can also be considered non-operational when it comes to conservatism and liberalism. In non-operative cases, one can argue that power is concentrated rather than partitioned. Three theories have been advanced to explain separation of power and these comprise the theories of marjoritarism, the elitism and pluralism.
Separation of power division of a nation’s resources The United States is a sovereign nation comprising of many states. During the Civil War (1861-1865) that defined the federal government and eleven southern states, power was inequitably divided. The states from the South involved were South Carolina, North Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Albania, Louisiana, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and Texas. Each of the mentioned states demanded power and secession from the federal government.
The move by the states meant liberation for them and utmost freedom from the central government. However, though 10,000 Jewish soldiers were involved in the secessionist exercise by the states; Great Britain was non-partisan and therefore remained neutral. The existence of the Republicans, Democrats and political parties exemplified the whole phenomenon of separation of power.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theory of marjoritarism played a crucial role in the division of power. In 2010, the Democrats were able to dominate the Republicans by getting 255 to 180 majorities during the election. However, after the election, power shifted to the Republicans who enjoyed a 243 to 192 majority. It was surprising that even though the Republicans had the majority votes, the Democrats still captured the presidency and the senate as well.
Some observers even questioned the power of the Congress in determining key decisions. The fear of a ‘big government’ brought about insecurity within the political movement especially when the Republicans lost their popularity after speculation that they were reducing budgetary allocations on social programs. The 2012 elections described the electorate of the US as a close, bitter and divided one. The government was mandated to consolidate power to preserve itself.
Democracy Democracy can be divided into that of the few and of groups. Democracy offers any nation the freedom of choice. The elitist theory is a key proponent of democracy of the few. The theory of pluralism justifies democracy of groups whereby systematic clusters of people fight for power.
In this scenario, the impoverished are left out and only the privileged are represented. Even though many Americans consider themselves conservative Democrats, evidence shows that none of them has been actively involved in humanitarian and democratic issues in the capital of Washington D.C by 2008.
The issue of political affiliations only leads to cases of indiscipline between the Democrats and Republicans. Democracy means peace, solidarity and genuine contention of power. The dominance of the Republicans in the Northern State of Marine, Connecticut, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, Massachusetts and Rhode Island purely describes how the partitioning of power is a contentious subject.
Socialism Socialism unlike democracy plays a minor role in the politics of America. It has an ideological influence on social and economic equity. Division based on social status is not enormous in the US like in the 3rd world countries but the elite theory still applies to ideas of socialism.
Key concepts Conservatism Conservatism was driven by liberalism for religion, patriotism or support for traditional ideology. Conservatisms in the US were able to speak out against certain kinds of marriages between individuals of one gender. Though the government advocated for the practice, the church heavily opposed it. Separation of power became evident when there are opposing views or stand points between the state and the church (Rangel, 3).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Government Concentration of State Power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Liberalism Alongside conservatism, liberalism advocated for a position in governance and the welfare of individuals in the society was given priority. Prejudice based on religion of cultural standings was contested. Modern liberalism developed a strong foundation in the society and civilians embraced it (Art and Jervis, 13).
The separation of Britain from the US especially during the Civil War aroused interest and opinions with many experts predicting economic and social rivalry between the two most powerful nations of the world. The rivalry between the two sates led to a sudden change in their economic and foreign policies in the face of global recession and competition from the eastern bloc especially China Edwards, 38).
During the 2007-2008 global recessions, many experts made analyses that the war in Iraq depressed the US economy though it was believed that the US was demonstrating its military strength against terrorism enhanced by the need to make oil exploits in the oil rich country of Iraq. The division between the Republicans and the Democrats created differences between the two ideological factions. On one side, the world was fighting the financial recession but, on the other, Bush was fighting the Democrats.
It was not until the Democrats became fully opposed to the excessive spending by the Republicans under the regime of Bush that Barack Obama, a democrat, was elected to as the president to spearhead a neutral approach to issues afflicting the US especially on foreign policy (Bardes, 17). Political experts proposed that power was an important tool for democracy, conservatism, liberalism and socialism. However, the beneficial element of power can be destructive if not used or shared properly.
Works Cited Art, Robert, and R. Jervis. International Politics: Enduring concepts and contemporary issues tenth edition. Boston, USA: Longman. 2011. Print.
Bardes, Shelley. American Government and Politics today; Separation of Power, 17th Edition. Connecticut, USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. 2013. Print.
Edwards, Sebastian. Left Behind: Latin America and the False Promise of Populism. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press. 2010. Print.
Rangel, Carlos. The Latin Americans: Their Love-Hate Relationship with the United States. Connecticut, USA: Cengage Learning. 1977. Print.
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The Link between Video Games and Behavioral Problems in Humans Research Paper best college essay help
For the concerns of this paper, there is a need to understand what is meant by human behavior and behavioral problems. The term human behavior is widely explained across various disciplines of study.
Some of the academic disciplines that have been associated with the concern of human behavior include, but are not limited to, sociology, psychiatry, anthropology, social work, and psychology. Generally, the term human behavior refers to the wide range of habits or behaviors that are exhibited by humans. In other words, this refers to potential and expressed capacity for social, mental, and physical nature of being, as realized in the course of various phases of life.
Obviously, this domain is characterized by the way humans would act in accordance with the effect of different aspects that tend to influence various trends of life. As it would be observed, human behaviors are impacted by some particular traits as possessed by each individual, and are observed throughout the entire lifetime. Some of these aspects or trends include things such as attitude, faith, social norms or values, and genetics.
A behavioral problem, on the other hand, refers to unexpected outcome on an individual’s behavior, especially one that is negative, which may result from bad influence of the involved factors. Environmental and social factors are thought to be great contributors of various behavioral problems in humans. For the purpose of this topic, this paper applies the science of human behavior in providing a deeper understanding on the link that exists between video games and behavioral problems in humans.
As it would be observed, many studies have been conducted across the world to determine whether there is any link between video games and behavioral issues. However, there have been conflicting outcomes as well as perceptions from the work of various researchers who have played a role in this particular study.
While some of these studies have pointed out a significant connection between the two elements, others have been skeptical about it, and have remained stubborn in their contrasting perception that there is no link between video games and human behavior. However, there is strong empirical and theoretical evidence from previous studies justifying the fact that there is a very strong link between video games and behavioral problems in humans.
For the purpose of this paper, aggression and violence, both of which fit well within the identified context of social engagement will be applied among other behavioral issues. Video games, like any other form of interactive entertainment, are important for personal development among other benefits of leisure and entertainment. There are many avenues and platforms through which people could access and play video games, thanks to modern advancements in technology.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This form of recreational activity has become popular nowadays, especially with the teenagers and young adults, who are said to spend way too much of their free time in gaming activities on computers, mobile devices, and a variety of other hand-held technological devices (Anderson 119). Irrespective of the recreational benefits normally associated with such sedentary activities, their consequences on human behavior cannot be overestimated.
As it would be observed, video and computer games may stimulate human minds to some extent, thus helping them to relax from the stress of work and study. This is arguably one of the several benefits associated with video games as far as recreation is concerned.
There have been a lot of concerns, however, that these games would tend to have a significant impact on peoples’ behavior, thus contributing to increased behavioral problems among the participants. According to Strasburger, Jordan, and Donnerstein, there is a very strong link between televised violence and potential human behavior, since there must come a time when the experience would be sufficient to justify action in the near future (761).
Similarly, people who have had regular exposure to video games, especially violent ones, are likely to exhibit the behavioral elements portrayed in the games. One understandable aspect of video gaming is that it is active, unlike things such as watching television or movies, which are passive. Even though this is a special feature which is likely to attract many participants into these types of games, it is also a very dangerous avenue that can attract behavioral problems since it revolves around first-hand experience of violence.
Just to add weight onto this perception, humans have the inherent tendency of learning better when they are directly engaged into lessons in an active manner, rather than when they are passively involved. Based on this argument, there is a high likelihood that video games would tend to have a direct impact on our feelings, thoughts, and behavior. In this regard, violent video games play a key role in increasing the chances of adopting and harboring aggressive or violent behaviors on individuals.
Various studies on this subject have shown heavy players of violent computer and video games to possess aggressive attitude towards their siblings, peers, and teachers. More importantly, teenage pupils who have regularly taken part in violent video games have reportedly been involved in constant troubles with other people around them (Birch and Davison 893). Past studies have indicated a number of highly publicized actions from allover the world, where incidents of violence have been linked to peoples’ involvement in video game activities.
There is also suggestive evidence that those people who are known to possess traits of aggression or anger have responded differently after being exposed to violent video games. Apart from exhibiting increased aggression or anger, such players have proved to be less angry after getting exposed to violent video games. Even though there is limited evidence to support this claim, there is a possibility of a close association of speculated behavior and the applied form of sedentary leisure activity.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Link between Video Games and Behavioral Problems in Humans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As some proponents of video and computer games would argue, people don’t always bring into reality whatever kind of behavior they observe from various gaming activities. For example, those people who are used to playing video shooting games on computers would not allow this to transcend their normal behaviors or attitudes, and end up becoming murderers in real life.
This, according to Anderson and Bushman, is a fallacious reasoning which is meant to mislead people on the countless studies that have shown the existence of a direct connection between video games and human behavioral problems (459).
Violent video game activities may be cathartic to anger, as some people tend to believe. This, however, is not a perfect reason to convince humans, especially the younger generations who have been caught in the midst of this crisis, against the many dangers that are associated with video games. In just another perspective, the effect of video games on peoples’ behavior depends on the levels of exposure to the games.
This has the meaning that, those people who are directly involved in the activities will have higher chances of adopting the behavioral elements portrayed in them, compared with those who have been indirectly involved. This notion was proved by Funk and Buchman, in a study that was aimed to test the effectiveness of violent video games on human behavior based on levels of exposure.
In this particular study, teenage participants were randomly chosen and made to take part in a violent video game. In the meantime, a different lot was exposed to nonviolent video games, for comparison purposes. The lot which had participated fully in the violent activities would later on appear to be more aggressive, compared to those who had merely watched the activity or the ones who were exposed to non-violent video games (Funk and Buchman 94).
As it is observed from this research report, there is arguably a strong link between video games and the many behavioral problems observed in humans. Within the realm of modern psychological study and understanding, exposure to video game activities is likely to generate both positive and negative impacts on behavior depending on the context of the games. In this regard, people should try to disregard the less supported claim that exposure to video games does not affect our behavior and attitude towards other people around us.
As a matter of fact, there is no doubt in the conclusions reached upon in this report that video games, especially ones that have violent themes, do correlate with prolonged increase in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in prosocial behavior. This is a clear indicator of the strong connection or link that exists between video games and behavioral problems in humans.
Works Cited Anderson, Craig. “An update on the effects of playing violent video games.” Journal of Adolescence 27. 1 (2004): 113-122. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Link between Video Games and Behavioral Problems in Humans by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Anderson, Craig and Bushman Brad. “Media violence and the American Public revisited.” American Psychologist 57. 5 (2002): 448-450. Print.
Birch, Leann Lipps and Davison Kirsten. “Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.” Pediatric Clinics of North America 48. 4 (2001): 893. Print.
Funk, Jeanne and Buchman Debra. “Video Game Controversies.” Pediatric Annals 24. 2 (1995): 91-94. Print.
Strasburger, Victor, Jordan Amy and Donnerstein Ed. “Health effects of media on children and adolescents.” Pediatrics 125. 4 (2010): 756-767. Print.
Core Stability Training Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Article Summary
Article Summary The article, “Core Stability Training”, describes the role of particular training approaches in the enhancement of health and strength of athletes. Willardson discusses the applicability of diverse methods of training in the improvement of the strength and resistance of different body muscles. The impact of core stability training varies depending on the group of muscles that an athlete trains. Willardson compares the level of core stability attained among athletes exercising on different surfaces.
Analyses of core muscle activity shows that athletes exercising on a Swiss ball attain greater core stability in comparison to athletes who train on a stable surface. The Swiss ball initiates greater activation of muscles located in the lower abdominal region. Analyses of muscular activation during curl-ups highlights a significant discrepancy in the levels of abdominal activity for curl-ups performed on a stable bench and those performed on a Swiss ball (Willardson 981).
The article emphasizes on the need to maintain balance between the lower and upper regions of the body during core training to mitigate instances of diverse resistance performance among athletes. Willardson describes the role of core stability training in the improvement of athletes’ performance as skill-specific and thus the Swiss ball test for the general core stability could provide varying results during the evaluation of athletes’ performance based on their skills.
The Analysis of Swiss ball exercises for sports that do not involve a base of support provided different results in comparison to exercises on dry land. Apart from enhancing athletes’ performance, core stability training is crucial in the prevention and rehabilitations of injuries among athletes. Willardson concludes the article by providing recommendations on the modification of core training among athletes with different skills. In addition, he emphasizes the need for further research on the impacts of core stability on healthy athletes.
Article Analysis Willardson has extensively analyzed various muscles and joints affected by core stability training. He has clearly described the interconnection between different muscles and joints, and the impacts of training on different surfaces on athlete’s performance. By providing evidence concerning the level of core stability attained through different methods of training, Willardson has successfully highlighted the importance of the combination of core training and resistance training for athletes.
Analysis of data from different experiments on muscular activity during core training provides evidence regarding activation and strengthening of muscles and joints through appropriate training approaches (Willardson 982). However, the fact that most of the data used in analyzing the impacts of core stability training emanates from studies on injured athletes raises doubts on the applicability of the results in the case of healthy athletes.
Evidence shows that muscular activity varies between injured and healthy athletes sine healthy athletes may overlook core training and thus fail to attain optimal muscle activation during training. In this regard, the Swiss ball test results used in evaluating athletes’ performance may provide an inappropriate description of the level of core stability attained by healthy athletes. Jeffry bases his assertions on experiments with unspecified sample size.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the sample size used to test the level of core stability in different conditions was small, the results on Swiss ball training and flat surface training are likely to constitute numerous errors and thus discredit the assertions on the effectiveness of core stability training. Jeffry has effectively demonstrated the role of core training in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries by describing various experiments on athletes involved in extensive movement and resistance training.
Core stability training strengthens muscles around the abdomen, pelvis, spine and shoulders and helps in the maintenance of a good posture (Elphinston 11). In this regard, core stability plays a significant role among athletes concerning the enhancement of performance and prevention of injury. Appropriate core stability facilitates maximum utilization of the power originating from an athlete’s trunk and promotes effective coordination of movement in the limbs.
The lack of appropriate levels of core stability hinders sustenance of good posture during athletes’ performance and increases risks of injury due to poor protection of the spine and skeletal structure. Furthermore, core stability ensures proper distribution of forces acting on the body. Physiotherapists acknowledge the role of core stability exercises in enhancing the performance of athletes, building up weak areas and minimizing injuries.
The lack of focus on the benefits of core stability for healthy athletes is largely due the nature of core training that may seem boring to individuals without any muscle and joint injuries. However, evidence show that the benefits of core training supersede the benefits athletes derive from other sporting movements in their day-to-day activities. Different approaches to core training ensure that athletes do not get bored by core routines and overlook their benefits.
Conclusion By rotating the muscle groups that an athlete exercises, trainers can ensure core training becomes challenging even to healthy athletes and thus ensure they enjoy the long-term benefits of core stability training. Core muscles within the torso have significant impacts on the stability of the spine, pelvis and shoulders, which form the base of support for human beings. Powerful movements and stability have close correlation concerning functional fitness.
Works Cited Elphinston, Joanne. Stability, sport, and performance movement: great technique without injury. Chichester, England: Lotus Pub. 2008. Print.
Willardson, Jeffrey M. “Core stability training: applications to sports conditioning programs.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 21.3 (2007): 979– 985. Print.
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Sociology Reflection Paper Essay online essay help
The sociology of religion is the study of how different sets of people in religious groups interact and how their behavior is influenced by these interactions. People’s religious practices, norms and behavior are influenced by interactions they have with each other in their religious groups.
Religion is a collective set of beliefs and practices with a spiritual foundation meant to influence people’s perceptions and behaviors. People who share similar religious ideals have collective behavior which identifies them as followers of that specific religious group. They have strong ties to fellow devotees in their religious groups.
These beliefs strengthen people’s adherence to religious doctrines which define the essence of a religion. Followers of a religious group have common ways of interaction which bind them together. They are required to perform specific roles which determine their status and power in their religious groups. They have faith in religious teachings which are strongly emphasized as sacred.
Religions has a set of beliefs and practices which all members need to adhere to. Followers of different religions have to be familiar with sacred texts which spell out beliefs and their relevance. They need to satisfy various expectations by performing religious rituals and other activities which have a lot of spiritual symbolism. Members of a particular religious group are socialized to treasure various moral codes of conduct in their lives.
By fulfilling moral objectives, members satisfy important tenets of their religion. The sacred aspects of religion make people interpret extra ordinary experiences differently. Any extra ordinary event is associated with a revered form of supernatural power or deity.They believe that a supernatural power guides their lives and as such, they need to reciprocate by devoting by their lives to the religious order they believe in.
Religious sociology is important because it helps people understand the value of religion in their lives. This makes one understand the essence of religion and how it shapes human character, identity and personality. People devote their thoughts and emotions to their religion for various reasons. Therefore, this helps one understand how religion binds members of a particular society to enable them have collective practices and beliefs.
People are able to understand the relationship they have with their religion and how this contributes to their existence. They are able to look at various rituals, practices and teachings rationally. This helps them understand how these religious tenets build their faith. The sociology of religion makes one to look critically at religious rituals which bind him or her with other devotees. The devotee is able to understand how these interactions shape their personality and behavior.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This subject helps a person understand the moral implications he needs to satisfy as stipulated by his or her religion. Therefore, this models an individual’s behavior to conform to acceptable societal norms and standards of behavior. Religious affiliation makes people more aware of their identity and the roles they are supposed to play within a given society.
Interactions people have with each other in a particular religious group gives them a sense of belonging and identity. General beliefs which bind people within various religious groups help them focus on life and what they seek to achieve out of it. Sacred texts enable believers interpret the teachings contained therein and apply them in their own lives. Sacred texts reassure people to be more righteous in what they do to reduce their pre-occupation with material objects.
The Rational Choice Theory argues that people are motivated by their own self interests before they choose to perform certain actions. Therefore, natural human behavior inclines people to engage in activities which have material or psychological benefits. The theory argues that people who choose to observe religious doctrines are motivated by their own individual needs. They expect to benefit from their devotion to religion by improvements in their personal welfare.
This theory argues that people are rational beings who only engage in an action after assessing benefits they stand to gain. Individual human actions determine how people in a group interact with each other. Different life experiences shape human behavior and they impact on choices people make. Therefore, people make personal religious decisions based on their past experiences after assessing how these choices will work for them.
This theory asserts that people opt for religious choices which give them personal satisfaction. They evaluate results they intend to achieve and come up with ways to attain them. The theory argues that human behavior is planned and this makes every individual calculate rewards and losses likely to be experienced before engaging in a particular action. People prefer to engage in actions that are naturally rewarding over those that punish them.
Therefore, they are willing to devote themselves to religion to gain protection, consolation and future promises of personal prosperity. Human consciousness drives them into religion to gain recognition, status, social connections and money. This is made possible by interactions they have with other devotees who have similar aspirations. Therefore, by being active in religion, devotees achieve their own personal interests.