Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Managers are mainly involved in running and administrating an organisation aiming at achieving the set goals and objectives. They are accountable to the shareholders of the company and ensure that they have achieved the corporate goals of the company within a particular time frame.
They are responsible for formulating the plans and strategies to be implemented by the company to enable it to achieve its objectives.
Therefore, they are to ensure that the goals and objectives formulated are the most suitable ones from the variety of alternative strategies that they may have brainstormed. Organisations and companies are formed within countries and kingdoms that have different political frameworks and structures, economies and cultural diversities (Reich 1991).
Findings The managers of different countries work in different cultural environments ensuring at the same time that they meet the corporate goals and objectives of their respective organisation.
Mostly, the managers who are responsible for administration of multinational corporations have a major challenge to align various cultures of different countries where their companies are established in and ensure that they meet the demands of the market by operating in accordance to their traditions.
The success of every company in the world is determined by how it satisfies its customers. That is why marketing is an important function in every organisation because it is involved in identification of the customers’ needs and wants, their anticipation and lastly satisfaction of their customers in order to attract them (Porter
Biological Underpinnings behind Child Abuse Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Infants at the period between birth and one year and toddlers between one and two year old normally grow very first with their physical or bodies changing in a intense and quick manner. Bodily growth is normally taken to refer to changes in biological structure that is experienced in children as time continues to pass.
Among the vital and very critical elements that determine the development of bodily growth in toddlerhood and infancy are brain and bodily adjustments; expansion of reflexes, feelings, motor skills, sensitivities and learning abilities; and health matters.
The period between birth and the fourth week is normally known as the “postnatal period”. The majorities of babies weighs around 5.5 to 10 pounds, and are around 17 to 22 inches long. With male infants, they are a little bit longer and heavier compared to their female counterparts.
Babies who are delivered either two or more weeks after their supposed date are termed as post mature babies. Both post mature and premature infants are normally critically prone to complications such as illness, mental or brain damage, or even transience, than when they are fully developed babies (Achenbach
Bill Clinton Leadership Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Leadership of Bill Clinton
Introduction Bill Clinton is one of the most famous politicians in the History of the United States of America. He served as the governor of Arkansas and later on became the president of the United States of America serving between 1993 and 2001 (Mas 325).
It is during his reign as the president that USA exhibited the concept of effective leadership. This was achieved through the leadership of President Bill Clinton. This essay shall therefore focus on Bill Clintons leadership qualities, styles and the success that he achieved as president.
To achieve this, the essay shall focus on the qualities that Clinton had and the impacts of his administration during the two terms that he served as president.
Leadership of Bill Clinton For an individual to be an effective leader, he/she needs to possess several qualities. Such an individual needs to be visionary, understanding, rational, conscious of the culture, team player, ambitious, reliable, possess communication and social skills, humble, able to influence masses and be knowledgeable (Cohen 8).
Bill Clinton possessed most of these qualities. This may have contributed greatly into developing him into a successful and effective leader.
In the process of his leadership, Bill Clinton experienced ups and downs. An example is his demise was his scandal with Monica Lewinsky. It should be noted that during the time when Clinton was facing this scandal, he remained confident and charismatic.
He was not destructed and performed his duty as the president of the United States to the best. This showed that he had empathy; a factor that enabled him to maintain a positive public figure. Giving the United States priority at this time proved that Clinton was an effective leader (Mas 327).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More USA, like many other nations all around the world has always been striving for social, political and economic sustainability.
Despite the fact that the nation has always been regarded as one of the best in terms of socio-political and economic sustainability, it is during the reign of Bill Clinton that USA experienced much of its economic growth. Through his leadership practices and policies, USA experienced a tremendous growth in its economy from 1993-2001.
An effective leader is one who keeps the promises that he has made to his people. During his presidential campaign, Bill Clinton made several promises to the people. He vowed that he would improve the economy of the United States.
Clinton became the president of USA just after the end of the Cold War, a period that USA spent a lot of money in the race for arms supremacy. As a result, the nations economy was in a deficit. Thus, as a result of this economic recession, USA required strong economic strategies that would lead to economic recovery.
To achieve this, Clinton came up with a combination of economic, fiscal and economic policies with an aim of modernizing the government of the United States (Stewart 15). This made the government to be entrepreneur oriented.
As a result, much of the powers that were concentrated on the central government were distributed to federal and local governments. This resulted to an increase in the government efficiency and a reduction of the size of the central government hence incurring lower costs as compared to the expenditure of previous regimes.
Clinton came up with tight monetary policies that reduced the expenditure of governmental institutions (Stewart 17). For instance, Clinton implemented the tight monetary proponents. This implementation had an effect of stabilizing and reducing the consumer price index.
We will write a custom Essay on Bill Clinton Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, goods and services within the nation became more affordable to a larger proportion of the population. Clinton also implemented several monetary policies. In 1997, Clinton passed the Taxpayer Relief Act into law that reduced the tax rate on capital investments from 28% to 20% (Stewart 18).
This increased the rate at which individuals made in investments within the nation. It also increased the rate of foreign investments hence boosting the economy.
The employment rate in USA during the Clinton administration also increased. Increasing the employment rate was one of the promises that Clinton made to the people during his 1992 campaigns. To deliver his promise, Clinton through his administration managed to create over 22 million jobs.
This tremendously increased the GDP of USA between 1993 and 2001 (Mas 326). Clinton also managed to reduce the national deficit that had accumulated as a result of the arms race during the cold war. Before Clinton became the president, USA had a trade deficit of -90.500 USDs. When Clinton left office, the trade deficit was roughly above -400,000 USDs (Stewart 14).
To ensure that this economy is maintained, Clinton embarked on a trade expansion activity. It is during this time that he developed warm diplomatic relations with countries such as Mexico and China. With the desirable relationship that these nations developed, trade between then also improved especially after the free trade deal was passed (Robinson 470).
Conclusion Bill Clinton is one of the renowned and leaders in the history of the United States as a result of the role that he played in reviving the national economy amongst other things. During his reign, he also managed to achieve social and political sustainability. He also possessed desirable leadership qualities that made him to be an effective leader. This made him to an effective leader.
Works Cited Cohen, Simon. “Effective Global Leadership Requires a Global Mindset.” Industrial and Commercial Training 4.2 (2010): 3-10. Print.
Mas, Andrew. “Racial Bias in USA Presidential Election.” American Economic Review 99.2 (2010): 323-29. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Bill Clinton Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Robinson, Allan. “Global Leadership in a Cultural Diverse World.” Management Decision 46.3 (2008): 466-80. Print.
Stewart, Benjamin. “Race, Region, and Vote Choice in the US Elections: Implications for the Future of the Voting Rights Act.” Harvard Law Review 3.2 (2010): 11-18. Print.
Concepts to Consider as Marketing Manager Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Employing concept of ROMI
Data that should be collected
Recommendations (Micro view)
Recommendations (Macro view)
Employing concept of ROMI Return on Marketing Investment is the revenue acquired from the increased sales of the company that have resulted from the marketing done by the company. Viewing marketing as an investment will necessitate the urge to get returns from it. It is calculated as ROMI=Increased Revenue-market expense.
NB: Where the increased revenue is the amount of extra money received as a result of the advertising. It is calculated as, Revenue after Marketing-Revenue before Marketing.
Marketing should be viewed as an investment and money spent on it should be expected back. The first step would be to invest a considerable amount of money in marketing with an aim of improving the sales of Alta Moda. This will be done by first assessing the current sales of Alta Moda and the revenue generated from the same, we would then invest in marketing through advertising in the media and women magazines (Arnold 2010).
In the magazines, we would portray Alta Moda products as something the lady’s really need to have, we (as a marketing department under my leadership)would engage in roadside promotion which is meant to answer any concerns from the clients about the our products (Barro, 2008).
Data that should be collected To calculate the ROMI we will need to collect certain pieces of information that will facilitate the computation. The first thing to do would be to have a record of how much revenue the company receives and what level of sales is made without the marketing(Increased Revenue). This is going to give us the sales baseline for the company.
We then need to have a very clear data and enough information from the budgeting carried out on how much we are likely to spend on the marketing of the Alta Moda products (Marketing expenses). Any incremental in the expenditure on the marketing and promotion activities should be recorded for the purposes of assessment on the success of the marketing (Arnold 2010).
Dashboard The dashboard indicates the projection that as a marketing department we would be spending during the year in both promotion and advertising activities. The different months will have different expenditure. This shows that different periods will need different costs in the expenditure. As shown below:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Column1 Jan Feb March April May June July August September October November December Promotion $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 Advertising $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 Other executives in the company will follow the lead of the marketing department and assist in the promotion and advertising of the products as the success of the company will help all of the company.
Recommendations (Micro view) Improving the sales for the store will need more of promotion hence the promotion activities in the dashboard. This is aimed at increasing the margin acquired from the marketing hence improving the return on investment (ROMI). Such ideas will also reduce on the marketing expenses since such promotions strategies tend to reduce expenses as compared to their advertising counterparts.
Recommendations (Macro view) Extensive and creative advertising should be aired. This is aimed at increasing the margin acquired from the marketing hence improve the return on investment. The putting up of a creativity department will ensure there are creative adverts being aired which is what the company wants in order to attract more clients to the stores of the company. While advertising, several factors should be considered:
The products should be portrayed as superior to the competitors
The clients of the company should be portrayed as of superior character
Conclusion It is only through creativity and employment of the above ways that the marketing department can gain considerable return on the money spent in the marketing of its products. Reduction of the marketing expenses while at the same time ensuring a high gain from it in order to increase the revenue earned as a result of the marketing. This will award the company handsomely insofar as ROMI is concerned (Barro, 2008).
References Arnold, RA. 2010. Macroeconomics. Cengage Learning: Chicago.
Barro, RJ. 2008. Macroeconomics: A Modern Approach: Cengage Learning. Chicago.
The Tool Box Project Report college admission essay help
Design fundamentals: The tool box “ The product selected was based on concepts such as productivity, uniqueness and ability to meet the specified requirements and JAG requirements. The tool box was designed to satisfy various user needs, including the ability to hold tools of various natures, from large industrial tools to small hand held tools. The tool boxes have a few features incorporated based on their specific use.
For instance, a tool box in a vehicle comprises a rubber matting to prevent movement, and another anti vibration mat that reduces noise and clashing of rattling tools. Other designs of the tool box include the slanted tool box, lock-in-tray, under ute tray and the LPG cylinder storage box.
The product was designed to satisfy various functional requirements such as security and wear resistance, as well as non-functional requirements such as durability, portability and the use of environmental friendly materials in fabrication. Other than these, there were design requirements by JAG Corporation, which controlled the selling price, construction tools and the construction process.
The project involved two markets: the primary market, comprising retailers whose purchasing price was set at $90; and the secondary market that included distributor such as construction companies. The latter were expected to buy in bulk for their workers, hence the selling price of $80.
These prices were according to the JAG requirements, which set the maximum price at $100, and limited marketing to trade persons and construction companies. The product proposed is viable, since the project concept involves various components that collectively address various requirements that make it profitable and competitive within the market.
Surveys conducted on the potential customers indicated that the target market is about half of the customers, who were dissatisfied with their current storage products due to their locks, corrosion, water leakage and inability to carry heavy loads.
Out of the dissatisfied customers, most of them were especially keen to have their heavy duty tools organized better for equipment in their vehicles. In addition to that, they indicated their need for tool boxes that provided security from theft and weather, to avoid delays during work, or replacements and repair costs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The customers were also looking for heavy duty toolboxes with hooks at their four edges, so that they could be connected to the ute tray, making them more stable when driving, and increasing safety of their tools and equipment.
The price of the product was satisfactory to most of the customers, since 65% were willing to pay an amount above $70, provided they satisfied their primary concerns, which included heavy withstanding, water resistance and secure locks. The surveyed customers did not have any concerns regarding additional features or material that the product was made from, and just required it to be a tool box that could cater for their needs.
The products dimensions are 120cmx60cmx50cm to be a reasonable fit a ute tray or the back of a van. The product may include hooks to allow a better restriction of the product as responders requested. For the convenient storage of small tools, the storage box has been divided into compartments and installed along the top shelf to increase accessibility.
This will make it easier for the user to locate, retrieve, place and store items which are used on a regular basis. As for larger tools, the tools box has an easy access compartment at the base, made possible by a sliding door. To maintain durability, the prototype will be constructed out of steel as to prolong is lifetime use. The product will assist the tradesperson in making good use of storage space in their vehicle or garage.
Asian Studies. “Monkey: A Folk Novel of China” by Wu Cheng Essay a level english language essay help
Wu Cheng’en’s best known novel Journey to the West, which is also translated as Monkey: A Folk Novel of China, provides an account on the pilgrimage of the Buddhist monk, along with his disciples, to save the sutra on transcendence and good will and rescue China from moral digression.
Aside from sophisticated account of the adventure of the four, the novel reflects a historical and religious background of late imperial China during the reign of Ming Dynasty.
In particular, Monkey is an allegorical representation of the three religious practices enhancing the concept of moral lesson that the Chinese people should learn.
Drawing the parallels between the story and the historical background, Cheng’en attempts to represent the synthesis of three religions as the moral foundation for the Mind China people to adhere. Among the moral principles, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism complement the existing practices introduced by Ming Taizu.
In this respect, to uphold the moral and religious beliefs of the Chinese society, Wu Cheng’en puts Buddhism over the other two religions and considers its philosophy as the main way to salvation.
At the same time, the author represents other religious movements – Confucianism and Daoism – that complement the ideological foundation of beliefs and attitudes in the time of the Ming Dynasty.
By highlighting the pantheon of Buddhist streams in the form of bodhisattvas, Wu Cheng-en attempts to reflect some philosophical and religious beliefs of the Chinese society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Buddhism, as the core stream in the novel, is strictly observed by the protagonist of the story Tripitaka who became the central figure in legendary adventures. His major accent on Buddhism school of thought is strongly associated with moral concerns, specifically with the necessity to direct people through the path of salvation and reconciliation.
At this point, the protagonist proclaims, “a priest…should be ready to die rather than commit acts of violence” (Cheng-en 133). In this respect, even those people who surpassed the moral conduct of Buddhism had the right to salvation through penance.
Similar to the story revealing the utmost Buddhist beliefs, the historical evidence highlights the transformation of the Ming dynasty to “a national moral crusade” (Theodore De Bary et al. 780).
Projecting this outlook on Cheng’en’s story, it should be stressed that the emphasis on Buddhism should be made to rescue the Ming China from sins and introduce new moral codes that would control and guide people’s behavior.
One of the Tripitaka’s disciples – the Monkey called Sun Wukong – personifies the Confucian tendencies by pursuing the practices of Taoism. Adhering to these teachings, the Monkey firmly beliefs in the natural foundation of the world and, therefore, he harmonizes himself with primordial essence of the world creation.
Being part of the nature, Sun Wukong asserts that the principle of “The Five Elements” is the basic condition for achieving immortality (Cheng-en 24).
Moreover, the Monkey, upholding all three religious teachings as the primary attributes for achieving moral and religious harmony, Wukong, along with Tripitaka, begins his path to reconciliation through Taoism to cognize the main pillars of Buddhism. In other words, Confucianism shapes the principal foundation for the other two teachings.
We will write a custom Essay on Asian Studies. “Monkey: A Folk Novel of China” by Wu Cheng specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the beginning of the novel, we see Monkey as the one who embodies wisdom and intelligence. As per the policies and trends in the Ming Dynasty period, Taizu also saw Confucianism at the core of all religious teachings. At this point, though emperor expands on the necessity of introducing three religious teachings in combination, he still places Confucian visions on the first place.
Synergy of the Three Teaching is brightly revealed in the novel, and pertains directly the main protagonist of the story. Their searching for the original morale, as well as for individual harmony brings all the characters to one conclusion that the moral conduct should be premised on the three pillars – Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism.
At this point, Taizu’s teaching also led to similar outcomes. Specifically, the emperor agrees with the idea that “the Three Teachings contain things that are abstruse and vital [in substance], yet solidly efficacious when put into practice” (Theodore De Bary et al. 792). The necessity to favor all three religions is grounded on different nature of people who have different beliefs, goals, and concerns in their life.
A complicated mixture of beliefs makes reliance solely on one religion meaningless because it cannot provide a universal policy for people to acknowledge their sins and enter upon the path of wisdom and humility. Taizu’s views are congruent with the ones declared in Cheng’en’s story.
At this point, Monkey argues that all three religious teachings allow him to become immortal (Cheng’en 24). Using the power of the five elements, monkey gradually refers to the study of Daoism and Buddhism to achieve wisdom and relieve himself from mortal sins.
Judging from the above-presented assumptions, each character of the novel possesses both virtues and vices that should be either enhanced or conquered on their way to enlightenment. In this respect, the monkey possesses intelligence and courage by means of which he manages to break the past boundaries and discover the “new land” of knowledge.
Tripitaka is a human who demonstrates humbleness and modesty, yet lack of faith prevents him from overcoming the obstacles. As a result, Tripitaka advocated the Buddhist concept of filial piety while being on the search for the Buddhist sutras. Finally, other characters – Pigsy, Sandy, and Dragon – represent the utmost sins and vices of society which should be exterminated.
They fall under the guidance of Tripitaka to change their moral and religious positions and seek enlightenment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Asian Studies. “Monkey: A Folk Novel of China” by Wu Cheng by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Notably, all three disciples, except for the only human, represent supernatural powers, which are typical of Buddhism and Daoism, but they are confined to nothingness and vacuity when being represented apart from Confucianism (Theodore De Bary et al. 792). In such a manner, Cheng’en reasons the presence of all “The Three Calamities” (24).
As all the pilgrims seek to uncover new knowledge and reveal themselves from boundaries and restrictions, Xu Guangqi, an acknowledged scholar and mathematician living in the Ming China, believed that learning new ways of cognition beyond the traditional visions was possible through learning more about Christianity.
According to the scientist, Christianity preached similar views on the idea of personal virtues, as well as the necessity to cultivate wisdom and intelligence, which was the only condition to serve Heaven and realize Heaven’s care for people. Moreover, Xu Guangqi proclaims, “the protection and the salvation of the soul are grand essentials; fidelity, filial piety, compassion, and love are to be universally exercised” (Xu Guangqi n. p.).
While analyzing this position in the light of Cheng’en’s Journey to the West, one can notice a strong association between the Christian visions observed by the Xu Guangqi and the beliefs pursued by Tripitaka who also chooses a path of salvation through penance and compassion.
While deliberating on the concept of Buddhism and its dependence on Confucianism and Daoism, it is purposeful to compare the presentation of the governmental hierarchy in a historical context with the one reproduced in the novel.
At this point, Taizu applies to the principles of Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism to eradicate the past order and introduce new ideological foundation. Making people believe in supernatural powers, as well as divine origin of the emperors allowed Taizu to control people and place them within strict moral frames where Confucianism cannot be a sole ideological basis.
Similar views were upheld by Cheng’en who introduced Confucian principles in Heaven’s hierarchical structure with the Jade Emperor to be at the head of it. With the authorities of Buddhism and Taoism reporting to the Emperor, the author rigidly criticizes tyranny of the Chinese imperial system. Consequently, Heaven reflects the Chinese bureaucratic system since there is there is no place for equality and good is as dominating as evil.
The attitudes expressed in the narration reflect the practice and purpose of religion in the times of Ming China. To begin with, the text attains to the historical period of Zhue Yuanzhang’s legacy, which has a potent impact on decision-making, and has specific views on the role of religion.
In particular, religion was beneficial because it imposed positive social outcomes on the Chinese society and, as a result, Zhu’s decision reveales that all the three teaching should be synthesized and equally observed by people to deliver social benefits.
During the reign of Wang Yangming, the three practices played a significant role in harmonizing all spheres of social life, including educational system, family institutions, and politics. Advocating self-cultivation and sage was at the core of ideologies of that historical period because it increased competition among people, as well as their aspiration to enrich their knowledge.
Looking through this perspective, Cheng’en was also congruent with the idea that each individual is responsible for his/her future and personal development, irrespective of the mistakes he/she had made in the past.
In conclusion, it should be stated, that the story represents an allegorical journey of the Chinese society on the way to salvation and penance.
Because Monkey provides a picture of human character transformation, with all its weaknesses and strengths, it is strongly associated with the transformations occurred to the Chinese people during the reign of the Ming Dynasty.
Cheng’en firmly believes that despite the evil nature of people, they have the right to redemption by committing themselves to good actions and aspiration for enlightenment. Therefore, the characters involved into the religious pilgrimage endeavor challenges, obstacles, and dangers and, despite these difficulties, they manage to find their ways.
In this respect, the author perceives religion as a sophisticated mixture of several teachings shaping the basis of moral conduct. The story becomes philosophical because it provides an insight into the new Buddhist philosophy.
At the end, Cheng’s states, “never again follow false doctrines nor follow foolish courses, but know that Three Religions are one” (249). Overall, the narration is an important historical source representing important historical events as well as visualizing the problems and constraints in the times of the Mind Dynasty.
Works Cited Cheng’en, Wu. Monkey: Folk Novel of China. Grove Press. 1984. Print.
Kuang-chi, Hsu. Memorial to Fra Matteo Ricci, 1617. Fordham University. 1998. Web. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1617hsukuang.asp
Theodore De Bary, William, Irene Bloom, Wing-tsit Chan, Joseph Adler, and Richard Lufrano. Sources of Chinese Tradition. US: Columbia University Press. 2000. Print.
African American Literature and Parody Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
“African American Literature is a thematically arranged, comprehensive survey of African American literature” (Gilyard 1). Gilyard notes that “the unique thematic organization of the anthology allows for a concise and coherent assessment of African American literature” (1).
An important tactic of African American literature is parody, a form that allows the writer to take on important qualities of a prior text or a literary tradition, and modify them with subversive intent.
This tactic has been employed by Ralph Ellison and Ishmael Reed to parody the work or earlier writers thus, making important cultural points. This paper examines how the use of parody is symbolic in the African American literature.
Hutcheon argues that “parody is repetition, but repetition that includes a difference; it is imitation with critical imitation distance, whose irony can cut both ways” (37). Parody utilizes two ironic versions that include trans-contextualization and inversion, in its formal operatives.
Pragmatic ethos of parody ranges from scornful ridicule to reverential homage (Hutcheon 37). On the other hand, the English Oxford dictionary (1182) defines parody as “a composition in prose or verse in which the characteristic turns of thought and phrase in an author or class of authors are imitated in such a way as to make them appear ridiculous, especially by applying them to ludicrously inappropriate subjects; an imitation of work more or less closely modeled on the original, but so tuned as to produce a ridiculous effect”.
“A critical distance is implied between the original text being parodied and the new in cooperating work; a distance usually signaled by irony” (32). The pleasure of parody’s irony comes not from humor in particular but from the degree of engagement of the reader in the intertextual bouncing between complicity and distance (as cited in Foster).
Thus, parody is an imitative work written to comment upon the original work, trivialize or mock at it. Humorous, ironic and satiric imitations are used in a parody. Parody is an important tactic of African American literature, a form that allows the writer to take on important qualities of a prior text or a literary tradition and modify them with subversive intent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bright examples of parody may be observed in the works written by Ralph Ellison namely “Invisible Man” and “Mumbo Jumbo” written by Ishmael Reed. It should be noted that the parody used in Reed’s and Ellison’s works is primarily parodic narration or internal polemic.
Through reviewing Ellison’s “Invisible Man” and Reed’s “Mumbo Jumbo”, this paper demonstrates the general peculiarities of African American literature where parody is skillfully used and plays an important role. The review of secondary sources allows for a deeper understanding of the peculiar characteristics of Reed’s and Ellison’s parody by black writers.
In his book titled “The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism”, Gates Henry takes into account the parody in African American literature. Gates argues that at the time when the study of literature is characterized by what many scholars feel to be undue concern with literal theory, parody should not lead to a drift from the original text.
He suggests that the primary aim of parody should be elaborative. Gates quotes the Russian scholar, Mikhail Bakhtin, who observes the use of parody through double-voiced discourse subdivided in parodic narration and internal polemic. These two types of double-voiced discourse are merged together in Ellison’s “Invisible Man” and Reed’s “Mumbo Jumbo”.
The author points out the correlation or as he calls them “the direct black lines” which connect Ishmael Reed with Ralph Ellison, Hurston and Toni Morrison (Gates, 111). Reed uses two autonomous narrative voices, which is the parody of two simultaneous stories of detective narration. The narrative of the past bears an ironic relation to the narrative of the present.
Criticism of the text is a sort of self-parody which is extensively used in Reed’s works. In addition, Reed imitates the dualism used by Ralph Ellison in his “Invisible Man”.
Gates notes that novelists such as Ralph Ellison and Ishmael Reed created texts that are double voiced in the sense that their literally antecedents are both black and white novels, but also modes of figuration lifted from the black vernacular tradition.
We will write a custom Essay on African American Literature and Parody specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gates further argues that black tests are “mulattoes’, with a two toned heritage. These two texts speak in standard Romance or Germanic languages or literally structures.
Thus, to locate and then theorize about, these formal differences are to utilize certain tools of close reading that facilitate explication. Gates notes that the black tradition has theorized about itself, explicitly.
Whereas Reed seems to be about the clearing of space of narration, Walker seems to be intent on underscoring the relation of her text to Huston’s in a joyous proclamation of antecedent and descendant texts.
Benard Bell in his book entitled “The Contemporary African American Novel: Its Folk Roots and Modern Literary Branches” critically analyzes the works of African American writers including Ralph Ellison and Ishmael Reed.
Parody is one of the ethic forms of oratory, the black vernacular, which is first developed by boys in play to assert masculinity among people and to achieve the sense of security in their contact with the hostility of a larger society (Bell, 79).
These ethnic forms of speech are used by a number of black novelists such as Charles W. Chestnut, Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, Ishmael Reed, John O. Killens and others.
Benard wonders whether race class or gender is the dominant issues in Afrocentric, Eurocentric and Americentric cultural theories. Bell agrees with many black African feminists who contend that race, class and gender are inseparable matrix (13).
Bell argues that in practice the social, cultural and literal criticism of popular black feminists like Bell Hooks, invariably privileges the empowerment of women over the two. Benard Bell agrees with Bell Hooks’ idea that patriarchy is the arch enemy of social systems.
Not sure if you can write a paper on African American Literature and Parody by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bell also agrees with his peers including Reed and Ellison that race, ethnicity, class and gender are intimately linked. However, Benard Bell stresses ethnicity and race over class and gender for three reasons.
First, Benard Bell questions the authority of post colonial discourse on immigrant groups crossing boundaries and assimilating into a nation that misleadingly stresses surface similarities over historical, geographical and cultural differences.
Second, Benard Bell challenges the authority of agency of the implied authors, narrators and characters who believe that man corrupts everything and that the feminization of men is the panacea of patriarchy as system of male domination.
Third, Benard Bell feels compelled to respond to narratives and discourses by black feminists, critics and pundits that reinforce and perpetuate negative images of black males. Such black feminists see black males as drug addicts, domestic abusers, moral degenerates, sex-crazed dogs and dead-beat dads. Ellison narration shows how he had hated his grand father.
He believed that his misfortunes were caused by the grandfather. Bell seems to parody Ellison’s work by distancing himself from ‘tainting’ the image of black men as he puts it. Benard Bell puts it clear that his neither an Africanist nor Egyptologist and that he is not concerned with the African discourse on the ancient civilianization during pre-colonial, African past.
Instead, he is concerned with renewing and reinvigorating discourse on the liberating impact of cultural and literally production by Americans of African origin (Bell14).
Page is another author who points out the role of parody in the development of African-American literature. In his book titled “Icons of African American Literature: The Black Literary World”, Page uses parody in evaluating various authors of African American literature.
Apart from this, the book is devoted to the bright representatives of African American literature who have influenced the history of this literature. Ralph Ellison’s works are observed particularly, namely “Invisible Man”. Ellison uses the background voices of various strains of Black Nationalists, Marxists, and religious leaders in his “Invisible Man”.
Page provides basic motifs covered in African American literature and the use of parody to reinforce the actuality of these topics. Page argues that iconic authors like Ralph Ellison and Ishmael Reed and their works, have played a significant role in the canonization of African American Literature.
Page argues that although Ellison was given a National Book Award, he could not escape from the fact that in many circles, he was a black writer who had written what many considered another facet of the black experience. In fact, white publications and publishers’ sought Ellison’s pronouncements, on the latest black novel. However, Ellison invariably refused to do so.
Page indicates that Ellison believed that the racial novel did not exist and that black writers should stay away from racial polemic. This opinion has been seconded by Page. Page notes that the literary legacy of Ralph Ellison continues as successive generations have evaluated and reevaluated the breath and scope of his literal intellect.
Page appreciates the recognition that Ralph’s work gets. Every year, a new perspective of the Invisible Man in the form of dissertations and critical essays and a scholarly appreciation of Ellison’s work essays on Jazz and African American Culture occurs. Page clarifies that biographer Rampersad also analyzed Ellison’s work.
Rampersad notes that Ellison pointed antipathy directed towards the emergence African American female writers during the 1970s. The African American female writers severely criticized the depiction of black women in the Invisible Man especially his depiction of the wife and daughter of the incestuous sharecropper, and the Mummy like figure of Mary Rambo.
Page argues that Invisible Man, perhaps, makes more sense today than it did in 1952 because its scope and structure were an unknown territory for African American writing. Page notes that although the work has been hailed as an exploration universal modern man, it is unmistakably black in its use of signification, African American folks and musicality (34).
On the other hand, Bruce and Zemliansky argue that the most controversial and innovated novelist of African American literature is Ishmael Reed. The two writers parody nine novels written by Ishmael Reed.
They observe Reed’s Neo Hoodoo aesthetic, which combines parody and satire, fantasy and comedy, myths, history, African and American religions, and other forms of culture. They observe double-voiced discourse in reed’s works and its role in passing to the reader the main ideas.
Observing the parody used by Reed in his works, the authors highlight how the use of parody is important in the African American literature. Bruce and Zemliansky argue that Reed has emerged as the most innovative and controversial African American writer despite his belief that he and other black male writers have been misinterpreted and virtually ignored in the press (2).
In addition, Nadel Alan points out the role of parody in Ellison’s works in his book titled ‘Ralph Ellison and American canon: invisible criticism’. Ellison employs modernist techniques such as the use of parody to establish his ethnic identity and the more we examine his text as a modernist one, the more it reveals that black American identity.
Nadel refers Ralph Ellison to the American literature canon demonstrating that allusions from “Invisible Man” changed readings of such American writers as Twain, Emerson and Melville (4). Ellison uses the parody, which does not mock at other literary works, but he imitates the style of writing of many writers of the American canon.
Nadel argues that the issue of canon formation has elicited a great deal of attention, a phenomenon not incidental to the influence of literary study of post structuralism, feminism and, ethnic consciousness. These approaches mandate modes of thinking which urge distance and skepticism.
Applying such modes to the realm of literature makes it hard to take it for granted the great authority canons have wielded over the last century. Nadel notes that the problem of speaking form invisibility and making the absence visible pertains not only to the public functions, but also to the speech itself.
Nadel points out that Ellison demonstrates this memorably when his invisible and nameless narrator speaks to an invisible and nameless audience, attempting to uncover in their shared otherness the voice which had encoded into silence, excised from the canon. Nadel narrates that the aim of the Ellison’s work, Invisible Man, is deeply informed and framed by the issue of canonicity.
The phenomenon enables a writer to speak to, and through tradition without sacrificing the speaker’s voice or denying the tradition it tries to engage. Nadel argues that this engagement with tradition is necessitated by a complicated interaction of historical and critical events which affected the erasure of the black’s role in the crucial parts of American history and literary history (1).
According to Nadel, Ellison used allusion, consistently and effectively to engage the issue of canonicity. In Nadel’s parody of Ellison’s work of the Invisible Man, the systematic use allusion exploits literal critical potential and creates a coherent subtext of literal criticism.
The subtext created by Ellison is one that engages the issues of marginality and decentering, of ethno- and logo centrism. This allows for encoding and interpretation in ways which anticipate much more contemporary European theory, and much American ‘rehistoricizing’ in regard to the role of the black in the American canon as the sense of canonicity itself (2).
Moreover, Braman parody of reeds work suggests that in Mumbo Jumbo, there are fundamentally two sides of humanity. One side is familiar to any reader and is, in essence, the society in which one lives.
Characterized by organized, serious, characteristically white people, this side of humanity populates most schools, governments and industries. Those who live in a controlled society habitually go through life as if it were a business transaction. As the title, Controlled Society suggests, people who survive this way are very controlled as well as petty.
Rarely happy, these people believe in absolute truths that lack an innate, humanistic foundation. This was the life style of the black community in the pre-colonial period (Braman 1). Brahman argues that this phenomenon has been illustrated by Ishmael Reed’s Mumbo Jumbo. Thus, organized and monotheistic religions reign absolutely.
They are untrue to themselves and contain their genuine emotions, wants and needs. It seems that people who live under a controlled society voluntarily sacrifice their human natures for the ‘greater good,’ but it becomes apparent that they are simply unable to have a human nature in the first place. These people treat art as they would treat a religion; they are happy to be simply in its presence.
This lack of depth is represented in Mumbo Jumbo’s art heist, and supports John Locke’s theory in Two Treatises of Government that people who comprise a society voluntarily forfeit a portion of their freedom to maintain a common public authority (Braman 1). They do not live, they merely subsist.
Ishmael Reed’s and Ralph Ellison’s lists of published, stirring works are impressive and their stylistic, fervid writing has become a critic’s reverie. Not only Reed and Ellison are notorious authors, but their proficiency of professing their knowledge is known in various schools like Harvard, Yale and Dartmouth.
What their students do not know is that most of Reed’s and Ellison’s novels and poetry are brimming with satirical representations of American religion and government, calling to question the ideals that existed in America hundreds of years ago.
Conclusion The paper has elaborated the importance of parody as a tactic in African American literature. The paper has discussed how the parody of Reed’s and Ellison’s top work has been used to make important cultural pints.
The paper has used Hutcheon’s definition of parody. Hutcheon argues that “parody is repetition, but repetition that includes difference; it is imitation with critical imitation distance, whose irony can cut both ways” (37).
The paper first examined “The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism”, in which Gates Henry parodied African American literature. Gates pointed out parody should not lead to a drift from the original text. The paper then examined Benard Bell’s book entitled “The Contemporary African America.
Bell argued that Parody is one of the ethic forms of oratory, the black vernacular, which is first developed by boys in play to assert masculinity among people and to achieve the sense of security in their contact with the hostility of a larger society (Bell, 79).
The paper also examined Page’s book titled “Icons of African American Literature: the Black Literary World”, in which the author indicated that Ellison believed that the racial novel did not exist and that black writers had to stay away from racial polemic.
The paper also illustrated how Bruce, Zemliansky and Nadel parody Ellison’s and Reed’s work in their books titled “The Critical Response to Ishmael Reed’ and Political Philosophy of John Locke respectively. Moreover, it concluded by examining Braman’s parody of Reed’s top creativity as illustrated in Mumbo Jumbo. This paper has demonstrated how the use of parody is symbolic in the African American literature.
Works Cited Bell, Benard. The Contemporary African American Novel: Its folk roots and literary branches. Massachussets: Massachussets University Press, 2004. Print.
Braman, C. Political Philosophy of John Locke. Chuck Braman 1996. Web.
Bruce, Dick and Zemliansky, P. The Critical Response to Ishmael Reed. California: Greenwood Press, 1999. Print.
English Oxford Dictionary. Parody. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
Gilyard, K. African American Literature. New York: Longman, 2004.
Hutcheon, Linda. A theory of parody: the teachings of twentienth century art forms. London: Routledge, 1985.
Nadel, Alan. Ralph Ellison and the American Canon: Invisible Criticism. Iowa: Iowa University Press, 1988. Print.
Page, Yolanda. Icons of African American Literature: the black literary world. Washington: Libray of Congress Publishing, 2011. Print.
Problems with International rights Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
Executive summary Human rights refer to the basic rights and freedoms that every person across the globe is entitled to. The recognition and implementation of these rights by the states is the foundation of freedom and ultimately result in justice and peace all around the world.
The violation of these rights has led to barbarous acts which have led to disastrous consequences and impacted negatively on the relationship between countries.
The rights this report will focus on are women’s rights that have not been well implemented and those that have been neglected. It will focus on human rights and state sovereignty. It will also focus on the question of who is liable as well as western influence in the policy making and implementation of human rights.
The states should agree and unite as one to implement with no compromise or prejudice stricter policies all across the globe. No rights should be neglected and a form of liability should be evident once ones rights are violated.
All groups should be considered in the implementation of human rights and the task of policy making and implementation of human rights should be left to a neutral structure that runs without external interference.
Context and importance of the problem These problems impact negatively on global activities and international relations.
Rights that are based on gender
The universal notion of human rights does not fully focus on the problems that women face. Though some articles in the various human rights declarations and conventions try to push for a woman’s place in the family and workplace positively, some factors are still suppressing these policies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rights of women are hard to implement while some are being ignored (Wight, 2006, p. 38). Poor salaries and working conditions are some of the problems women are discriminated against in the work place. In some countries they are isolated and labeled as “home workers”.
There are a lot of cases of mistreatment and harm to women. These include sexual abuse and rape as a tool in times of war. There are incidences of forced motherhood in Ireland. Domestic violence as part of the honor code is done in Brazil and Italy. Such cases are not protected against by the human rights conventions.
Women and children bodies have also lobbied against activities like the sex workers market for tourists found in countries like Philippines and Barbados and the use of sex workers to serve the American armies at their bases as well as the use of prostitutes from Eastern Europe in Western Europe using force by the mafia gangs.
Some equality rights although made for good, are left out, hence, making their implementation hard e.g. equal employment rights (Wendt, 1999, p. 36). Though this right is really important, some factors like transformation in maternal arrangements should be put in place so as to facilitate it.
Claim liability at times is not clear
In some cases, it is not clear against who a specific claim is made and to what extent the claim can be made. Individual rights are meant to be made against the state, but in some cases it is hard to make claims as the state may not recognize the claim or even the party that has violated a human right.
Such cases make it very hard for an individual to lay claim. An example is the case of the claims that were being made against the Nigerian Oil company Shell which is a body.
The influence of the west
The west exercises a lot of power when it comes to the making and implementation of human rights. The rights are shaped as per the western perspective. This makes their application in other areas of the world hard.
We will write a custom Assessment on Problems with International rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A further contradiction is the fact that some rights are neglected in the west. Some Muslim groups feel that the west objectifies women and that the thriving porn industry is an indicator of the neglect of the rights.
The west also has a tendency of politicizing aid terms to the developing countries, hence, increasing their control and influence, instead of just aiding the countries.
Individual rights and state sovereignty
Rights are neglected in cases where a state does not recognize them (Waltz, 2001, p. 82). This leaves some states to carry out some barbaric acts without fear of consequence or consideration of morals. These cases are evident in the Rwandan genocide and Kosovo crisis where the rights were neglected.
Critique of policy options
The policy that advocates for gender equality does not lay consideration to the fact that this policy cannot stand on its own. Equality in the work place should also amend other policies like maternal leave so as to accommodate the needs of women, hence, giving them a better chance of competing.
These rights are there but they are not implemented, hence, some people take advantage of this and strip the rights and freedoms of women.
Though the UN charter states that claims should be made on the state, some states do not even recognize these rights. For this reason, it becomes hard for the individuals to claim. Some rights are violated by bodies of which there is no clear guideline on how to make claims against such organizations.
The west offers aid to developing countries as per the policies of the UN but at the same time they tie the countries down with terms and conditions which eventually increases their control and dominance over them.
Some sovereign states do not implement the conditions of the UN; hence, they neglect the consequences of human rights violation (Drezner, 2011, p. 88). This has resulted in mass killings and other barbaric acts as the individuals are not prosecuted by the state and in some cases they are even protected by the state.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problems with International rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Policy recommendations
The policies put in place to aid women should also be backed up with policies that will boost them. The policies should focus on every detail that may disrupt implementation, e.g., in terms of equality in the workplace.
Policies should also be put in place to support it in this case a maternity period should be granted and should entail things like paid leave and job security in order to avoid unnecessary penalties.
Policies should also be put in place to cover all the problems women face thus leaving no loop holes. States should also implement stricter policies so as to discourage people from violating them. This could be in the form of increased sentences and penalties.
States should be encouraged to recognize vital rights so that the citizens can be able to lay claim in case ones right is violated. This will be achieved through the states recognition and implementation of the right. Policies should be put in place as per the states laws to be able to prosecute bodies in case they violate an individual’s rights.
A structure free from political interference and national self-interest should be put in place to make policies relating to human rights. It should consider the fact that different countries have different ideologies based on their beliefs and practices. The policies should consider the difference in religions, tribes and cultures.
Aid given to the developing countries should not have any terms attached to the agreement, hence leaving the countries free from western control. The countries in the west should also be pushed to implement the policies that they have advocated for.
States should be encouraged to give high priority to human rights. A strict agreement should be put in place to deal with cases like those of national rights violation, and it should have stricter policies that outline the consequences of state violations or protection of human rights violators. These policies could be stricter sanctions and cut off in relations with other countries (Weber, 2009, p. 51).
Conclusion A neutral structure based solely on morals should be put in place to ensure an unbiased implementation of human rights. States should prioritize human rights. Rights consideration should be made in reference to the differences across borders.
The rights of women should be prioritized and states should put strict measures to ensure their implementation, hence ensuring that women are protected. The implementation of these policies will greatly boost the global perception of human rights, leading to freedom, justice and peace.
References Drezner, D W 2011, Theories of international politics and zombies, Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
Waltz, K N 2001, Man, the state, and war: a theoretical analysis, Columbia University Press, New York.
Weber, C 2009, International relations theory: a critical introduction, Taylor
Consumer Behavior: How, Why and When Consumers Buy Goods? Report essay help online: essay help online
Discussion Consumer behavior can be described as how consumers buy and consume goods and services. Consumer bahaviour is basically concerned with studying the various consumers purchasing and consumption patterns. Consumer behavior will address the fundamental questions of how, why and when consumers buy goods.
It is also concerned with how consumers consume goods and later dispose them. It looks at the various reasons why consumers buy a certain bundle of goods. Consumer behavior is also concerned with the time period when consumers buy certain types of goods and services (Schiffman, 2010).
Consumer behavior varies from place to place and also among individuals. This variation can be attributed the following reasons: variations in cultures and beliefs, variation in consumer tastes and preferences and the purchasing powers of consumers. Consumers have different tastes and preferences.
These varied tastes and preferences largely determine how consumers are going to buy certain goods and services. For example, consumers in china have different tastes and preferences compared to those in another country like France (Schiffman, 2005).
Also, consumer cultural practices have an impact on how consumers behave with regards to product purchase and consumption. The cultural and religious practices have a positive correlation to consumer’s preferences.
For example, in most parts of Africa, some religious practices forbid the use of some animal products. Such a generation is likely to consume less meat products which in turn affect the consumption pattern in that area.
Consumer behavior is also largely affected by consumer purchasing power. This is determined by the availability of capital or money a consumer has for purchasing goods and services. If consumers have a lot of cash, then they are likely going to spend more and purchase more goods and services (Schiffman, 1997).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, if consumers have less money, then they are going to have a low purchasing power which will eventually affect their purchase behaviours. For example, in most developed countries, there is a high level of consumption of goods and services.
This is attributed to the fact that, the economy of such countries is stable and most consumers have enough money to spend on consumption. On the other hand, in most parts of the developing countries, consumers, on average, have low purchasing power which reduces their consumption trends.
Consumers in such countries have less cash at their disposal hence they cannot afford most of the goods and services (Tyagi
An Analysis of UK’s and China’s pharmaceutical markets Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Many firms are trying to improve their sales revenue by expanding into new markets. In this case, globalization plays a crucial role in helping the firms to achieve their set goals. In their assessment of the international theory of globalization, Johanson and Vahlne (1990) have identified three distinct phases of globalization.
During the first phase of globalization, the firm tries to establish itself in the local market. During the second phase of globalization, the firm launches its operations in the neighbouring countries.
Usually, neighbouring markets have similar characteristics and as such, the experience of the firm with the domestic market is crucial. In the final stage of globalization, a firm launches its operations in the international market.
Before a firm can decide to introduce its products or services into a new market, there are several factors that it needs to consider. For example, a Canadian pharmaceutical firm wishes to introduce a new type of painkillers in either China or the United Kingdom.
Before the firm can decide on the most appropriate market, several factors have to be put into consideration. The paper therefore focuses on the factors that the Canadian company should take into account before venturing into either the UK or Chinese market. It offers a critical analysis of benefits and shortcomings of each market.
Discussion Approaches to globalization
Before introducing the new drug to the international market, the Canadian company can choose between using a direct approach and entering into a strategic partnership with another firm that has already established itself in the desired market.
Under the direct approach, a company sets up the premises from where it will distribute the drug. A strategic partnership would involve the use of local partners for purposes of distributing the drug. Goldstein (2005) observes that China is one of the fastest growing markets with an average annual growth rate of 8%.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the Canadian company may require a local partner because the Chinese market is large with a diverse culture. Although identifying and contracting a reliable local partner would be a costly undertaking, there are several advantages associated such an approach.
For example, international partners may rely on the experience of the local firm in the market. On the other hand, the UK’s pharmaceutical industry is still reeling from the effects of the 2008 global financial crisis. The pharmaceutical market in the UK is expected to grow at an annual rate of 0.4% (Epsicom n. d.)
In addition, the National Health Service is expected to implement budgetary cuts, and this would effectively reduce its expenditure on new drugs. This would affect the pharmaceutical industry greatly and also derail efforts by the Canadian company to breakeven.
Competition and Market Share
China’s healthcare system is run by the socialist government whose aim is to provide quality healthcare to all its citizens. The government has implemented several policies aimed at improving the healthcare system (KPMG 2010). Among the proposed policies is the upgrade of health facilities and enlarging insurance coverage to include the rural population in China.
In China, small-scale firms account for 80 % of the pharmaceutical market (KPMG 2010). Plafker (2011) states that small companies have room for growth in China’s expansive market. On the other hand, the UK pharmaceutical market is dominated by international pharmaceutical giants.
The major players in the UK pharmaceutical industry include GlaxoSmithKline, Merce
How Do Genetic and Environmental Factors Contribute To The Expression of Depression? Research Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Statement of Question
Description of Neurochemistry or Functional Neuroanatomy
Limitations and suggested future research
Abstract Depression affects very many individuals in the world and results in reduced productivity in the workplace. Depressed individuals experience feelings of hopelessness and helplessness which makes them have negative perceptions about their immediate environment and some even develop suicidal thoughts.
This paper will look at the link between genetic factors and the environment on expression of depression. Some research studies that have been carried out have shown that some individuals might be predisposed to depression more than others. Such individuals might have body systems that either produces excess stress hormones or neurotransmitters that are not as balanced as they should.
The result is that an individual’s mood is affected which might affect their work and relationship with their family and friends. People who are predisposed to depression should avoid excessively stressful situations to avoid imbalance of the endocrine or nervous system. The paper will also look at methods, results and recommend areas that can be further researched on concerning the area of depression.
Introduction Depression is a clinical condition that affects the way an individual thinks or acts. Depression has been mentioned to result to sadness, feelings of stress and hopelessness about situations in an individual’s life. Depression affects physical functioning, thoughts, mood, behavior and communication.
Often, depression is mistaken with sadness but it should be noted that sadness usually goes on for too long. Depression usually results in a change in an individual’s life in a negative manner. Depression does not dictate on gender, age or race. Depression affects about 9.5% of adults in the United States of America (Ebert
The Facility Management in the Tourism Industry Case Study cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Opportunities challenges and trends
Technology and facility management
Drivers of change
Introduction It is doubtless that advancement in technology is one the achievements of the 21st century. From office motivation to online marketing, many firms around the world have embarked on incorporating technological ideas into business in order to promote performance and profit making (Cotts, Roper
Mao Zedong’s Rise to Power Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help
Historians provide various explanations for Mao Zedong’s rise to power. This person can be regarded as a skillful political strategist and tactician who could manipulate, forestall, and coerce his opponents into defeat. Yet, he can also be considered as an opportunist always able to take advantage of various circumstances, even those ones when he made obvious mistakes.
Thus, it is necessary to show how modern scholars describe and assess Mao Zedong. In particular, we can compare Maurice Meisner’s evaluation of Mao with the assessment offered by David Apter and Tony Saich. To some degree, the works of these historians represent opposing views on Mao Zedong political struggles.
Meisner emphasizes his efforts to appeal to various social classes. He shows what Mao Zedong gained the trust of his potential supporters. In turn, Apter and Saich attach greater importance to his rivalry with various people who could undermine his authority.
First, it should be mentioned that these scholars pursue a similar objective; in particular, they strive to explain how Mao Zedong gained supremacy in the Communist Party, and became a symbol of a leader for the Chinese people. Yet, these texts differ greatly in the style of presentation.
In his work Maurice Meisner looks at Mao’s succession to power from a strictly chronological standpoint. He discusses a series of events that contributed to Mao’s ascendance to power. His attention is focused on the Long March, the Japanese invasion of China, the establishment of Red Capital in Yan’an and so forth.
He shows how these events helped to gain the support of people with “proletariat consciousness” (Meisner, 45). In their turn, Apter and Saich discuss separate strategies and tactics that Mao employed to overpower his opponents among politicians, intellectuals, administrators and military.
Additionally, it is important to compare the data that these scholars analyze. For instance, Maurice Meisner discusses quantitative demographic data that shows how many people supported Mao and many people lost their lives because of his initiatives. Still, he also gives preference to quantitative research methods.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He focuses on Mao’s description and perceptions of his successes and failures. The data that this historian discusses mostly comes from primary sources such as Mao’s books, articles, and interviews conducted with this political leader.
He also uses secondary sources, especially, the books published by other historians and journalists. In contrast, Apter and Saich don’t use quantitative data. They give preference to qualitative data that allows the reader to understand the opinions of Mao and his opponents. Their data come from primary sources such as letters, diaries, pamphlets, and books published during that period.
There are some similarities in conclusions that these authors arrive at. One of his arguments is that Mao was able to transform his failed initiatives into victories. For example, the Long March which resulted in thousands of casualties, was later transformed into a symbol of “will, spirit, and revolutionary consciousness” (Meisner, 34).
Mao understood that this March could have been ruinous for the Communist Party, but he never admitted his errors and attributed them to his political rivals.
This idea is shared by David Apter and Tony Saich who also think that Mao Zedong was good at “turning defeats into lessons, and lessons into claims to truth” (Apter and Saich, 37). Overall, the authors agree that he was able to shift the blame for his failures on others.
However, these scholars have different perspectives on Mao Zedong’s strategy. For instance, David Apter and Tony Saich focus on the so-called “four struggles” of Mao (Apter and Saich, 35). This term describes Mao’s attempts to win military, ideological, intellectual, and administrative leadership in China (Apter
Multiculturalism Should Continue To Be Promoted In Canada Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Multiculturalism and Culture
Racism and Employment
Multiculturalism at workplace
Introduction The freedom of the people would be hindered if they were contained only in a certain cultural society by natural birth or language. Thus, it is important that every person in Canada, irrespective of their race or cultural origin, is provided with an opportunity to be exposed and learn any other language from countries in which Canada cooperates with in terms of business, politics, and other issues.
Multiculturalism policy inside a bilingual background has been seen by the government as a highly appropriate way of guaranteeing the freedom of culture within people of Canada (Tierney 6). This policy should further be supported since it has helped break down discriminatory thoughts and hatred among cultures.
Natural unity, whether it is to signify something in the totally individual sense, have to be established on self-assurance in one’s own personal character. Through this, everybody would generate respect to the other people and readiness to share thoughts, suggestions, and ideas.
Multiculturalism and Culture A strong multiculturalism policy will aid make this first self-reliance and it can create the foundation of a society that is derived from fairness for everybody. Additionally, multiculturalism informs people about other people or society origins and anyone in Canada can be informed about various cultures.
Because of the multiculturalism which is there in Canada, everybody can have an opportunity to learn about Greek, China, and African food in Vancouver without being in these countries. People can also learn about various fashions and religions in a community which is multicultural and it will also introduce different languages in Canada.
If a person desires to learn the second language, it will be easy to get a native speaker (Mooney 251). This will help then get a native speaker who can teach them to speak a certain language with appropriate pronunciation and accent. Therefore, the idea of multiculturalism enables various cultures and societies to learn from each other.
The government should maintain and promote different ethnic and culture clusters which provide liveliness and arrangement to societies in Canada. They should be promoted to share their cultural idioms and values with the rest of Canadians and as a result will add to a better-off life for everybody (Parada
Manager’s Role in Change Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The management roles that are easily observed in organizations include: directing navigating and interpreting. The directing and navigating roles involve the manager imposing the vision upon the members of staff.
This is an authoritative approach whereby the manager controls the operations of the organization since he or she is the final decision maker and interpreter of the vision. The interpreting role involves the CEO being the only party that is relied upon for interpretation of the vision.
This role places the CEO at the heart and central location of the organization given that without this person, operations would not run smoothly.
I am most comfortable with these management roles since they maintain power at the top thereby allowing managers to practice their leadership styles effectively. When the power to impose directives is held by the managers, change management is halfway guaranteed.
The directing role has the benefits of ensuring that organizational activities are controllable. Since the manager directs personnel on what to do and what to avoid it becomes easier to direct organizational activities towards the achievement of the vision.
When this approach is used indiscipline is easily dealt with and the manager can lead to creation of a reputable organizational culture. Directing however does not foster participative leadership which s the best method to influence behavior.
The navigating role also involves the manager controlling organizational activities but being subject to external factors which affect the outcome of change. The benefit of this approach is that there is room for the organization to be dynamic so as to adapt to changing needs of the market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This however does not provide certainty about achievement of successful change management. The interpreting role had the advantage of avoiding confusion within the organization since all directives come from the CEO who also interprets the vision.
If many parties are allowed to interpret the vision, this will lead to confusion and lack of a common purpose. However this approach is dictatorial in nature and it leads to overdependence on the CEO or centralization of power.
The nurturing, coaching and caretaking approaches have several shortcomings. These roles involve the manager consulting with employees before decisions involving the organization are made.
This creates a barrier towards organizational effectiveness since employees do not always require to be consulted. Where the manager seeks to shape the change process by influencing behavior of individuals, a strong stand should still be maintained so that there is no deviation from the vision.
It becomes difficult for the manager to work towards a vision when consultations always have to be made with the personnel who are being coached or taken care of.
I have been in an organization that concentrates on the nurturing and coaching approach. In this organization employees were always consulted whenever there was something to be done.
The end result was that the decision making process was too long. At times the consultations ended in stalemates and there was no mutual decision that was arrived at. The lack of consensus during consultations made the manager unable to direct the organizational activities since he could not impose decisions upon the employees.
We will write a custom Essay on Manager’s Role in Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A strategy that can be used to overcome these shortcomings would be to allow the leader to be the final decision maker even after consultations have taken place since this would allow for exercising of effective leadership skills.
Report on Local Acts New Information System Report college essay help
Explanation of SDLC Steps Required for Developing the System Preliminary analysis
The scope of organization is to ensure successful coordination between the managers at all levels and minimize the cases of the delays of the event preparation and completion. The problem lies in overloaded e-mails and indirect transfer of information between the managers, which decreases the reliability and efficiency of the system.
Using online self-service venue booking system can allow all the managers to view the booking arrangements, as well as all information attached. The book manager, along with the venue managers and facility managers should made corrections to the events and introduce all possible updates, which can be viewed by others.
In order to introduce this system, it is necessary to prescribe new instructions for all the employees. Specifically, each employee participating in the event should have an access to the database to track the updates and carry out the assigned duties.
Similar approaches will be presented to introduce online sales for advertising packages. The only difference is that they will be available for the top managers and the clients who will receive a specific identification code to view the variants and choose the most appropriate one.
The database will have different request forms where all the duties and systematic instructions will be posted for each employee to be aware of their responsibilities. The system design will include a set of information system on one website.
The access to each department (booking, payment, venue preparation, ordering, and facilities arrangement) will be available to each employee in accordance to the responsibilities he/she performs. For instance, the Booking Manager will have an access to all the items, the Venue Manager can access venue preparation, ordering, and facilities arrangement.
All these issues will be regularly updated so that each manager should keep track of those changes. The Facility Manager will have facilities arrangement and venue preparation at his/her disposal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As soon as the project is put into effect, the manager can view all the details of the preparation. Finally, each employee can view the request forms with regard to the project. Their names and surnames, along with other important information, will be attached to specific project data.
An important part of program implementation is test data generation. This procession implies creating a set of information for testing the efficiency and adequacy of software applications.
To carry out the test, it purposeful to fill out the order request in accordance with the above-presented categories to check whether all updates and processes can be viewed and analyzed by other departments.
The second step will be introducing a path model composed of three steps – software control flaw chart construction, path choice, and test data generation.
Introducing a new information system will significantly improve the internal information flow and the will regulate the coordinate both at virtual and horizontal levels. In this respect, employees can report to top managers online and inform them about the shifts and processes they accomplish.
The manager can access the results and introduce the corresponding changes. In such a manner, it is possible to foster time management approaches and significantly facilitate the overall process of order arrangements. Because automated steps deprive the managers of certain steps of operation, they can be more concentrated on the project accomplishment.
Moreover, online availability of the project can attract more clients and increase the number of orders. As a result, the director of the agency will receive maximum benefits will reduce the amount of employees needed for the venture. This is also a great possibility to expand the number of the venues and introduce more services.
We will write a custom Report on Report on Local Acts New Information System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Possible Effects of Project Failure In order to identify the possible pitfall of the information system work, it is necessary to split all the steps of implementation into smaller components. It will help define the degree of failure and damage that might occur if the software fails. For instance, the first level will include the actual information data posed online.
In case the system is arranged according to the principle of cloud of computing, the threats of invasion will be minimized. However, if there is a possibility of breaking the system. All information preserved on the online self-service system will be lost. However, similar outcomes can occur to the old system of e-mail exchange.
In this respect, the system should have additional hardware preserving all information. This electronic storage should be updated at least once a week to be able to preserve as much information as possible.
If the failure occurs to the second level of the information processing, namely the input and output of information between employees and their top managers, there will be a high probability of the event preparation failure. As a result, the calculation can lead to the loss of money and reduction of revenues.
Besides, it can negatively contribute to the organization culture, as well as the policy of employee retention. Second, insufficient training of employees can lead to the misinformation and late delivery of the final projects, which can also minimize the chances for success.
Centralising the Treasury Operations Essay college essay help: college essay help
The treasury in a business environment is the unit in charge of the management of the funds’ flow. Usually, the treasury fulfils its roles through cash flow and liquidity management. In addition, it controls the management of all the financial risks in an institution.
Globally, treasury managers in international banks encounter immense challenges concerning the overseeing of transactions across vast geographical locations and different time zones (Bragg 2010, P.34). Centralisation enhances an organisation’s management, assessment, and transparency.
By 1990, the redevelopment of the first sharing services had occurred in the US. The centers’ obligations were to increase and maximise the American corporations’ investment returns by employing project-planning solutions.
Afterwards, the multinational organisations and banks realised the outcome and importance of consolidating their treasury. In this regard, these organisations could merge and process numerous tasks and information in one central location.
Moreover, the organisations realised that centralisation enabled them to deliver efficient and transparent services while attracting qualified expertise.
Apart from its financial advantages, centralisation offers a chance for organisations to streamline their control and administrative procedures at the treasury level.
Likewise, the reengineering and rebuilding of an organisation’s processes enhances effective control. Therefore, multinational firms must redesign their structure to benefit from centralisation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Methods of treasury centralisation Banks and organisations must consider several factors before settling on the centralisation of their treasuries. As a bank expands, its treasury expands too. This creates the need for the selection of an appropriate model of operation.
Therefore, banks must consider the major aspects affecting their operations. These include the scale of the broadened operations and intricacy of the treasury desired. These aspects correlate to form a basic decision matrix tool for any treasury model.
The process of centralisation should reflect the growth and nature of the treasury’s tasks. Additionally, it is crucial to reflect the disparity in the execution of corporate finances as well as the cash flow activities.
With the technological advancements and improved financial markets, the financial support and prevarication management from a central location has become a possibility (Hudson 1994, 256). With cheap and efficient management practices, multinational banks and companies can utilise highly trained personnel to execute and manage their transactions.
Centralised treasury management Banks and organisations should centralise their treasury as per the cultural and geographical setup of their business tasks. Organisations employ appropriate database systems to run their management activities in different parts of the world.
In this regard, the organisations gain economies of scale as well as reduced operational costs, which result in improved returns and the creation of a favorable environment for business growth.
Additionally, the treasury’s centralisation allows affiliate companies to demonstrate their value adding processes to an organisation. Therefore, in this regard, banks achieve reduced costs and financial risks, increased investment returns, and the acquisition of qualified expertise.
We will write a custom Essay on Centralising the Treasury Operations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Outsourcing For the international banks to attain additional economic gains, they must embrace outsourcing and through centralisation. Banks’ treasuries often encounter numerous challenges such as the need to globalise treasuries and the attainment of efficient cash flow management systems in the ever-changing markets.
A combination of these forces and the limited resources and infrastructure has compelled treasuries to adopt outsourcing. Working with several outsourcing partners, banks can provide their workforce and clients with flexible and efficient services.
More so, through outsourcing, banks can allow their treasuries to tackle domestic and regional challenges. Currently international banks and organisations setups require treasuries that are more dynamic. Thus, several middle level companies have resorted to outsourcing part of their treasury to the international banks.
Similarly, companies with regional treasury can exploit the benefits of outsourcing when setting up new branches in new territories without investing more on their treasury budget.
This approach enables the treasury units to allow the treasury administration to focus on the vital aspects of its work while letting the service providers handle the operational related issues.
The impacts of globalisation on centralisation With more corporations and international banks increasing their operations worldwide, ethics, principles and payment procedures in the international market need regulation and standardisation. The centralisation of the international banks’ treasuries tackles these challenges as the banks have the capability to cater for both the domestic and regional treasury issues.
Regional treasury centers When deciding on the location for a new treasury organisation, the selected location should be central and its legal and tax policies should concur with the companies’ tax policies. By so doing, a company will significantly minimise its cost while expanding its investments.
For instance, Nokia chose Singapore over Australia, Malaysia, and Hong Kong in setting up its centralised treasury because Singapore’s tax systems were more favorable (Greuning 2009, P. 234). In this regard, it is important that banks do not solely major on returns and corporate tax, but also focus on their revenue contribution to the state.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Centralising the Treasury Operations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Phases of the treasury centralisation Normally, there are three phases of centralising the treasury (Greuning 2009, P. 254). The initial phase is the creation of a central treasury unit. The unit aims at dealing with the risk management and interest rates of an organisation.
The central treasury units can further be sub-divided into multicurrency cores and in-house banks. In-house banks provide organisations with the needed banking services in the subsidiary levels. Within the In-house banks, the central treasury can obtain information regarding the cash level.
The second phase of the treasury centralisation comprises the centralisation of money and liquidity administration. The creation of a regional multicurrency pooling system within the local banks enables the achievement of this cause.
This process is referred to as cash concentration. International banks are required to have several cash balances on diverse bank accounts in different currencies across different banks worldwide.
This enables the banks’ treasury management to concentrate their extra cash balances on a single account in one location facilitating the maximum control of the liquidity position as oppose to the case of a global spread (Greuning 2009, P. 255).
Thus, multinational banks have established complex strategies to concentrate their offsets and renovate their cash scales to achieve a single balance stand through the year.
The third phase of centralisation comprises the centralising of all the transaction processes within an organisation. This achieved by centralising the incoming, outgoing, and documentary payments.
By establishing new consolidated entities referred to as payment factories, banks and other organisations can achieve this objective. With these payment factories in place, an international bank can centralise the standard accounts from its subsidiaries enabling a single payment distribution to banks (Greuning 2009, P. 157).
The risk of treasury decentralisation In a decentralised setup, banks allow their subsidiaries to control and manage their own payment procedures. Each bank relies on its own staff and infrastructure to run its operations. In this regard, flexibility is achieved.
However, the system results in a weak visibility of monetary and high interest rate risks due to the absence of pooling methods. Consequently, the lack of standardisation and automation in the banks’ treasury can present transaction risks caused by the erroneous outgoings and data dismissals.
Decentralised banks can only benefit from their ability to manage all the factors within their business setups. Thus, the managers of such banks should be convinced to adopt centralisation to improve on their tax returns and attain effective treasuries.
In the end, such banks will benefit from the improved profits and a highly qualified workforce upon the adoption of centralisation.
Near shoring In Europe, this term refers to all the shared services between various companies. The system has thrived in Hungary and Czech Republic because both countries have no legal restrictions on the treasury centralisation leading to advanced skills within their banks’ workforce (Greuning 2009, P. 257).
In addition, the location of these countries has significantly benefited them since they are nearer to the manufacturing facilities, which provide them with a large market.
Conclusion Currently, multinational banks are encountering significant challenges concerning the creation of firm and effective treasury infrastructures to cater for the ever-evolving market demands. To achieve this objective, they should focus on the reduction of their operational costs and develop viable operations that enhance their growth in the market.
Furthermore, the banks should remain conscious of the international payments standards that are subject to change (Hostetler 1989, P.123). Despite the benefits of the treasury centralisation, many organisations’ treasuries encounter several setbacks due to their incomplete control and utilisation of centralisation.
Furthermore, small banks and organisations lack the proper infrastructure and technology to implement this system. These setbacks affect the treasury departments negatively.
Although there is immense pressurisation on several multinational companies to adopt the appropriate treasury structures such as centralisation, the treasury discipline as a whole is still immature compared to other financial and accounting disciplines.
Therefore, to optimize on this system, increased research and academic attention need to be directed on the treasury management in order to realise effective treasury operations in the international banks.
References Bragg, S. M. (2010). Treasury management the practitioner’s guide. John Wiley: Hoboken, N.J.
Greuning, H. v.,
Microserfs and Identity Disruption by Technology Analytical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
It is undeniable that IT plays a significant role in contemporary life. The fact that most people do not comprehend the machinations behind flicking on the TV, reading e-mail, buying things using credit cards clearly defines the transparency of IT among its casual users and its ubiquitous nature.
Private and public companies invest huge sums of money every year to update their IT infrastructure in order to remain technologically informed.
In the education sector, universities experience constant pressure to maintain their technology savvy image in order to attract new students who anticipate wireless internet all over the school premises, technically knowledgeable lecturers and online course resources.
Since IT is around the people and invisible to the eyes, individuals must watch the technology they use carefully in order to determine its impact on their self identity.
Coupland’s MicroSerfs is a novel that revolves around a group of information technology workers of mid-1990s whose residence is the Eastern suburbs of Seattle in Washington. The novel loosely tells the real life experiences of Microsoft employees and precisely captures the lives of individuals of the dot com era.
Their identity is affected by the invention of computers since they can blindly spend so many hours in a day blindly staring at their computer screens. Most of the characters in Coupland’s novel exhibit an almost religious devotion to IT.
Their personal identity is completely subsumed under their all inclusive desire to work in the Information technology industry. Some say that without their computers they are useless (Coupland, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For the characters in the novel, technology is central in the development of personal values and self identity. It has the potential to pose significant challenges both in the religious and social realms. The characters strife to master their computers the same way they master their lives.
Coupland explains how dehumanizing life is at Microsoft which is one of the most technological enterprises in the world. In the novel, Michael who is the most outstanding programmer in the group receives an email from the founder of Microsoft, Bill Gates that criticizes his work.
The email traumatizes him such that he decides to keep to himself in his office as he refuses to get in touch with the rest of the world. Daniel who is the narrator points out that with the main focus of dominating the IT and software industry, the life of individuals in the IT industry revolves around work only.
The identity of workers disappears as evidenced by Michael who locks himself up in the office and refuses to eat, simply because his work in the IT industry is been criticized by the president of Microsoft (Coupland, 2008).
As a result of technology, the Microserfs are always stressed in addition to the low salaries they are paid. Apart from their work in the IT industry, their lives have minimal satisfaction. Some of them admit that their world consists of Microsoft, home and Costco.
The working environment in the IT industry does not give them a chance to establish relationships hence most of them remain single even when they are supposed to be married. They start relationships but they are soon taken over by their works.
Having families is an integral part of reinforcing the identity of individuals but the IT industry disrupts their identity since it denies them a chance to establish their families.
We will write a custom Essay on Microserfs and Identity Disruption by Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The stress associated with the efforts to construct technology sometimes causes isolation as opposed to the connection which supposed to be achieved. Coupland says that workers stay close to each other yet they do not visit each others office as is the case with Daniel and Karla, who have never gained access to the office opposite theirs.
The workers only get to engage in a genuine conversation for the first time outside their work station when they get a break. The interpersonal gaps occasioned by technology cannot even be bridged by emails since once they are send, they is no chance of connecting with the people.
This clearly portrays how technology disrupts identity. It makes it difficult for people to identify themselves with their friends or colleagues at work because they either do not have time to interact or because they can simply connect by using technology (Coupland, 2008).
Coupland relates the emptiness caused by technology and how it disrupts identity to the specific Microsoft conditions. As the characters in the novel embark on a mission of reinventing and rediscovering their humanity, their attempts seem to be defiance against the dehumanizing and depriving effects of technology at Microsoft.
The rather complicated reevaluation of identity and humanity in the novel comes out strongly as the novel comes to an end. Daniel’s mother suffers a stroke, prompting the interiority community to surround her, remaining with her and willing to support her go over the unfortunate condition.
After trying to assist her for two weeks, an idea strike, that they should provide a computer keyboard for her to type messages for them to read. Michael assists her to move her fingers and through that method, they are able to communicate with her once again.
Reference Coupland, D. (2008). Microserfs. New York: HarperCollins.
Impact of online social media in conflict situations Essay online essay help
The internet has been credited by the United States of America’s Secretary of State Hillary Clinton as one of the most powerful forces for the advancement of freedom and political change. Clinton has called for consideration of internet based technologies such as twitter for the Noble Peace Prize.
Clinton’s remarks come at a time of heightened social media activities in conflict situations. While this raises the question of impacts of social media in conflict situations, the sobering reality however, is that it is quite impossible to enumerate the exact impacts. Nevertheless, social media has had both positive and negative impacts that have in one way or another shaped conflict dynamics.
A study commissioned by The George Washington University indicates that determining the actual effects of the new media in conflict situations is cumbersome due to methodological challenges and the newness of the subject.
The use of the term new media within the study refers to nontraditional media especially social media tools such social networks, blogs and mini blogs, wikis and others. Regardless of the aforementioned challenges, the study expose sufficient evidence which indicates that new media has significant positive effects in conflict situations.
The study reveals that in most of the conflict situations, the new media has emphatically changed people’s perceptions and actions with regard to issues in contention. With time recurrent activism gains popularity; followers are able to join and follow such activism at the click of the mouse.
As a result it becomes easier to facilitate collective action and thus spur mass movement (Aday, Farrell, Lynch, Sides, Kelly and Zuckerman 2010).
Aday et al.’s (2010) work indicates that the new media impacts conflict situations in four broad based areas. These include exposing individuals to new information flows such that an individual gains new competencies. The new media also improves how groups relate, thus improving inter and intergroup communication channels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By affecting group activities, social media enables such groups to form mass movements in politically charged conflicts (Eltantawy and Wiest 2011). Lastly, conflict situations easily gain international attention with the help of mass media tool such Facebook, twitter and blogs.
This has effectively led to social media to be referred to as the “magic bullet”. The phrase “magic bullet” is particularly used with reference to the impacts of twitter in spreading the Green Movement philosophy and the calls of political change in Iran (Aday et al. 2010; Esfandiari 2010).
The impact of social media goes beyond increasing the participation of the people in conflict situations. The dawn of social media has also given rise to new avenues through which peace, conflict prevention and resolution is attained.
Social media tools especially social network sites such as Facebook as well as blogs and mini blogging site such as twitter have had significant impacts in the search for peace, justice and conflict prevention in conflict zones. It is imperative to note that social media in itself cannot prevent or solve a conflict; neither can it ensure that justice prevails.
Nevertheless, these tools offer new and effective possibilities through which the avoidance and prevention of conflict occurs. One such example is the 2007/2008 post election violence in Kenya.
Through Facebook and popular blogs such as “Ushahidi”, Kenyans were able to report the occurrence of sporadic acts of violence which conflict prevention and resolution was attained. People used reports from social media to not only evade conflict but also intensified calls for end to the violence.
Additionally, heightened calls for justice through “Ushahidi”, underlines the usefulness of social media in conflict resolution (Goldstein and Rotich 2008).
We will write a custom Essay on Impact of online social media in conflict situations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Assertion made by Goldstein and Rotich (2008) indicate that in conflict situations social media has also helped to push the boundaries of journalism. As reported by Communication for Social Change Consortium social media has come in handy in countries where access to traditional media is limited (Monzani 2010).
While Monzani (2010) cites countries such as Iraq, Burma and Gaza as some of which social media has helped to highlight the nature of conflict, Aday et al. (2010) survey indicate that Iran also falls under this category.
Social media tools have given the rise of citizen journalism thus helping to eliminate or counter biased reporting by the mainstream media, which in most cases is usually under the tutelage of authoritarian regimes. While citizen journalism significantly lowers the quality of professional journalism, it nevertheless enables direct involvement citizens in conflict zones.
Citizens communicate with the outside world through social media news feeds. Such communication impacts the conflict situation in two major ways; it counters biased reporting from the mainstream media is as well as giving the citizens opportunities to voice their afflictions.
In the Syria protesters, realizing the need to back up activism with sufficient evidence, have turned to social media tools especially YouTube. According to Rafif Jouejati, the Syria opposition wing spokeswoman “Social media has became a powerful tool in getting the word out” (Sterling 2012).
YouTube is thus being used to smuggle news about the atrocities committed by President Bashar al-Assad’s regime, to the international community.
The assertion made above are likely to indicate that social media as inalienable from the successes achieved in successful conflict situations. It is therefore imperative to state that social media impact in conflict situations is exaggerated. In some situations, social media has had no effects at all while in others social media activities have exacerbated the conflict.
Aday et al. (2010) note that oppressive regimes have learned to use social media effectively to quell dissent form the experiences of other regimes. Aday et al. (2010) cites China’s example where, anticipating the Uighur protests, the Chinese government blocked twitter after the “Twitter revolution” in Iran.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of online social media in conflict situations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More But this is not the most negative use of social media by oppressive regimes. Stepanova (2011) notes that the Iranian government used social media tools such as twitter to institute oppressive countermeasures during the 2009 green movement revolution. Social media enabled Iranian authorities to trace and arrest protesters.
In resolving any conflict, Friedman, Tidd, Currall and Tsai (2000) assert that focusing on the interest of other parties involved in the conflict necessitates effective conflict resolution. The use of social media has effectively led to generating social capital necessary for mounting successful revolution in countries such as Libya and Egypt (Howard and Hussain 2011).
However, in most of these situations social media activism is largely uncoordinated and driven by self interest. Most of the social media activists seem to have concealed self interest. As a result social media activism obscures the real issues on the ground while propagating populist propaganda.
For instance, in Iran the while the revolution was based on political change much of the social media activism called for regime change since it was driven by selfish interest. Thus, in Iran social media activism largely ignored genuine interests from all stakeholders (Aday et al. 2010). This is perceived as one of the reason why the revolution was unsuccessful.
While social media is largely credited with positive impacts in conflict situations, the failure in Iran raises doubts about its actual effectiveness. Scholars from The George Washington University hypothesize that the use of social media fails to create the necessary vertical hierarchies to mount a genuine revolution.
As such the use of social media in conflict situations alters the political structures such that a lot of international attention is gained at the expense of shaping internal revolutionary activities. Thus, within the physical border of the conflict zones, social media activities are merely passive and largely fail to save the victims of the conflict.
For instance in the southern Sudan conflict, the “Save Darfur Movement”, while attracting enormous sympathy from the international community failed to generate any positive effects on the ground. Similarly, the twitter revolution in Iran failed because is seemed to have been designed for the international community, while the Iranians government continued unabated to oppress protesters (Aday et al. 2010).
The use of social media has had significant impacts in conflict situations. Heightened social media activities increase participation of individuals, empower groups to share crucial information and increase awareness by the international community.
This has had mixed impacts in different conflict situations. In Egypt, Lybia and Tunisia social media activities has largely mediated in toppling oppressive regimes, while in Kenya blogging supported the avoidance of conflict as well as the search of peace and justice.
While the failures in Iran, Syria and Sudan blot an otherwise positive record, it is nevertheless worth to note that social media activities have positively shaped the outcomes in conflict situations.
List of References Aday, S., Farrell,H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., Kelly, J. and Zuckerman, E. 2010. Blogs and bullets: New media in contentious politics. Web.
Eltantawy, N and Wiest, J. 2011. The Arab Spring| social media in the Egyptian revolution: reconsidering resource mobilization theory. International Journal of Communication. Web.
Esfandiari G. 2010. The twitter devolution. Foreign Policy. Web.
Friedman, R., Tidd, S., Currall, S. and Tsai, J. 2000. What goes around comes around: the impact of personal conflict style on work conflict and stress. The International Journal of Conflict Management 11(1).
Goldstein, J. and Rotich, J. 2008. Digitally networked technology in Kenya’s 2007–2008 post-election crisis, internet and democracy case study series. Harvard business Review. Web.
Howard, P. and Hussain, M. 2011. The Role of Digital Media, Journal of Democracy 22(3).
Monzani, B. 2010. Media in conflict prevention and peace building: an opportunity for E.U. Leadership. Web.
Stepanova, E. 2011. The role of information communication technologies in The “Arab Spring”: implications beyond the region. Web.
Sterling, J. 2012. For Syrian activists, YouTube is a sword and shield. CNN. Web.
The Australian superannuation industry Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Executive Summary The Australian superannuation industry is one of the largest companies both in financial assets and members in the country.
As a result, there are a number of companies that offer these services in the market which offers a wide pool of potential clients as the pension scheme is mandatory to all Australian citizens.
Consequently, there is competition among industry players as they try to control a larger section of the market and thereby increase its profitability. For any company to survive, it has to adopt strategies which will ensure that its products sell more, at a premium and developed using the least cost.
There are a number of strategies that a company can adopt to ensure that it meets its target. The choice of strategy will depend on the market position of the company, its objective and asset base and future objectives nevertheless; expansion of the market ought to be a key issue to any superannuation company keen to weed out competition.
In order to achieve new market segments, companies ought to come up with new and innovative products while at the same time minimizing on their production costs. Thus in order to achieve this, this paper has critically analyzed the superannuation industry in Australia.
It takes into account porters theories on competitive advantage how those theories affect the day to day running of the Australian superannuation industry.
In addition, it takes a closer look at one of Australia’s leading Superannuation companies, Perpetual Limited. Perpetual limited offers a broader and more personal analysis on how the company has maintained its competitive edge against rivals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, the paper offers recommendation which both the Australian superannuation industry and Perpetual limited ought to take account in ensuring that the industry remains lucrative and companies continue maintaining a competitive edge.
Industry Overview The superannuation industry in Australia is a program that caters for the provision of a pension fund scheme for Australians. It’s therefore compulsory under the Australian law that all citizens be part of the program as it caters for their welfare once they retire.
Under the program, registered employers are required to submit a given percentage of employees income based on a given proportion to a given superannuation fund.
The need for the industry was given by the projected analysis that, with time, the Australian demographic map was changing drastically with more aged citizens increasing thus putting a strain on the government and national economy as it would seize to be economically feasible to support the retirement program.
Over time, the Government has come up with additional policy changes meant for ensuring the scheme is up to date with the current market and demographic changes (Pelham, 1999 40; Cartwright, 1993 55).
Key risks As the Industry is liberalized with many players, negative practices have increased in the last decade with players engaging in unethical practices.
In addition, there isn’t a robust framework which the custodians of the scheme can effectively use to control the vast players in the industry. As a result, the industry players don’t take into account the regulations that the custodians call for.
We will write a custom Report on The Australian superannuation industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Political and Legal There has been a strong political will to control the superannuation industry to ensure that the interests of all stakeholders are taken care of without bias and exploitation (Conner
High Ethical Standards in Business Essay college essay help online
Introduction Ethics refers to the “conscious reflection on our moral beliefs and attitudes through the use of normative ethical theories and principles” (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2011, p. 11). Ethical principles describe the generally accepted human obligations and the normative ethical systems. In the context of business, ethics refers to the accepted code of conduct that guides the behavior of all stakeholders of a firm.
Thus, the behavior of all stakeholders in a business is expected to conform to the accepted ethical standards. Adhering to the ethical standards enables businesses to avoid breaking laws. Thus, businesses that uphold high ethical standards are able to avoid the costs associated with breaking the law. Additionally, a business is likely to be more competitive if it upholds high ethical standards.
Engaging in ethical activities or behavior enables businesses to protect the interest of their customers and employees, and this improves their competitiveness. This paper focuses on business ethics by analyzing two articles. The ethical issues in the articles will be highlighted and discussed. Additionally, recommendations on how the ethical issues can be addressed will be suggested.
Article 1 Title: Anger at Goldman Still Simmers
Media: New York Times (magazine)
Date: Published on March 25th 2012
Overview of the Article
Following the 2008/2009 financial crisis, Copper River made unexpected losses and collapsed. Copper River was a successful hedge fund with assets worth over $1.5 billion before the crisis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The owners of Copper River argued that the collapse of their firm was mainly caused by the actions of Goldman Sachs, rather than the financial crisis. Goldman Sachs was the main brokerage firm that conducted Copper River’s trades.
Copper River relied on Goldman Sachs to conduct its short sales as required by the law. According to securities trade regulations, shares must be borrowed before a short sale can be conducted. Consequently, Copper River paid Goldman nearly one hundred million for the purpose of borrowing shares.
Copper River was likely to make heavy losses if the shares were not borrowed while Goldman Sachs was likely to be investigated by the regulators. According to Copper River’s owners, Goldman Sachs did not borrow the shares as required. Overstock.com which is an internet-based retailer also accused Goldman Sachs of failing to borrow shares to facilitate short sale.
Attempts by the owners of Copper River to save their company failed when Goldman Sachs refused to allow Copper River’s short positions to be transferred to BNP Paribas bank. Goldman Sachs also thwarted the decision to have Copper River’s positions taken over by Farallon Capital.
The failure by Goldman Sachs to borrow shares to facilitate short sales eventually caused the losses that led to the closure of Copper River. After the collapse of Copper River, another firm, S.C.E also accused Goldman of willfully failing to pre-borrow shares before making a short sale.
A former employee of Goldman Sachs also complained that the firm pursued its interests at the expense of its clients. For instance, Goldman Sachs established a mortgage firm, Abacus, which was financially weak. However, the firm sold Abacus to its clients without disclosing its financial position.
The ethical issues that can be identified in this article include the following. First, failing to borrow shares on behalf of a client in order to facilitate a short sale is an unethical behavior. According to the regulations governing securities trade “failing to borrow shares on behalf of customers is illegal because of concerns about market manipulation”.
We will write a custom Essay on High Ethical Standards in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The customers are also likely to be exposed to rising prices if the shares are not borrowed. Hence, the cost of trading in the shares would be very high. Second, Goldman did not disclose the financial position of Abacas before selling it. Instead, Goldman took advantage of its clients’ ignorance and sold a company that was already in financial distress.
This is unethical since Goldman Sachs intended to make a profit illegitimately and at the expense of its clients. Third, the decision by Goldman Sachs to stop the transfer of Copper River’s short positions was unethical.
Goldman Sachs prevented the transfer of the shares so that it could avoid being questioned by the regulator for failing to pre-borrow shares. However, preventing the transfer denied the owners of Copper River the opportunity to save their company.
Discussion of the Ethical Issues
According to the theory of utilitarian ethics, the outcomes of behavior should be based on the principles of “achieving the greatest good for the greatest number” (Jones and Parker, 2005, p. 76) for both the firm, as well as, its clients. This implies that the behavior or actions taken by a business must benefit the business and its clients. Additionally, such actions must result into the greatest benefit for both parties.
In this context, businesses must consider their customers an end in themselves rather than a means to an end (Jones and Parker, 2005, p. 77). However, the failure by Goldman Sachs to pre-borrow shares did not benefit the clients. While Goldman Sachs made profits by trading in its clients’ shares without pre-borrowing the shares, the clients incurred heavy losses.
Goldman Sachs’ actions were not right since they did not result into as much good as complying with the law. This is explained by the fact that the accusations labeled against Goldman Sachs had a negative impact on its image. Copper Rivers and other clients considered Goldman Sachs a racketeering firm that does not care about the effects of its actions.
Additionally, Goldman Sachs was placed under regulatory scrutiny, and was also forced to compensate some of its clients due to its fraudulent actions. The firm could have avoided all these risks and expenses if it had chosen to comply with the law. The principle of consequences requires businesses to assess their actions based on the expected positive and negative outcomes (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 91).
Goldman Sachs seems to have focused only on how its actions would benefit it. According to the harm principle, businesses or industries must be regulated so that their actions do not harm the clients and the society in general. Hence, Goldman Sachs had to be put under regulatory scrutiny.
Not sure if you can write a paper on High Ethical Standards in Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the theory of contract ethics, businesses must behave in accordance to the contracts that govern their relationships with the customers (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 95). Hence, Goldman Sachs, as a brokerage firm, was expected to honor the contractual agreements with its clients.
However, Goldman Sachs did not honor the contracts due to the following reasons. First, Goldman Sachs infringed its customers’ right to information when selling Abacus. The principle of justice asserts that clients have a right to information in order to make informed decisions (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 97).
Second, Goldman Sachs obtained illegitimate advantage overt its competitors by failing to pre-borrow shares and preventing the transfer of Copper River’s short positions. For instance, both BNP Paribas Bank and Farallon capital could not benefit from Copper River’s short position since the transfers had been stopped. Additionally, the owners of Copper River missed the opportunity to strengthen their business.
Hence, Goldman Sachs’ decision to block the transfer of Copper River’s positions contradicted the principle of opportunity. According to the principle of opportunity, competing businesses must have equal access to existing opportunities (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 98). Thus, illegal business practices should not be used to overcome competition or to make profits.
Goldman Sachs denied all accusations of fraud by highlighting the weaknesses of the arguments of its clients. In the case of Abacus, Goldman was forced by the regulators to pay $550 million as compensation to the clients. In the case of S.E.C, Goldman Sachs agreed to pay $450,000 but refused to admit or deny the accusation of failing to pre-borrow shares.
These actions contradict the principle of openness which requires businesses to be open to opposing views. Goldman Sachs refused to accept the view that its actions were wrong. Consequently, it continued to defraud other firms after the collapse of Copper River.
The dispute between Copper River and Goldman Sachs remained unresolved. Mr. Cohodes who was one of the main shareholders at Copper River did not sue Goldman Sachs for damages. Additionally, Mr. Cohodes abandoned the securities business. Copper River’s owners should have sued Goldman Sachs due to the following reasons.
First, Copper River could have been compensated for the losses it incurred as a result of Goldman Sach’s failure to pre-borrow shares on its behalf. The compensations could have enabled the firm to continue in business or to refund the investors’ capital at the time of the firm’s closure.
Second, Copper River’s owners were not under any obligation to accept losses resulting from the actions of their agent, Goldman Sachs. The principle of “rationality asserts that legitimate actions must be supported by generally accepted reasons” (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 98). However, the decision by owners of Copper River to accept losses that they were not responsible for seems to be irrational.
The fraudulent actions of firms such as Goldman Sachs can also be prevented through effective regulation of the securities market. The rules or regulations governing trade in securities should not have loopholes that can be used by firms to engage in unethical behavior.
The rules should be based on the principle of impartiality so that all parties to a dispute can have equal access to justice. Reasonable penalties such as fines and compensations should also be used against firms that engage in unethical behavior. For instance, a fine could have discouraged Goldman Sachs from consistently failing to pre-borrow shares on behalf of its customers prior to making a short sale.
Finally, the clients should have exercised their right to information while dealing with Goldman Sachs. Upon suspecting that Goldman Sachs was not borrowing shares as required; the owners of Copper River should have demanded for information about their securities that were sold by Goldman Sachs.
Consequently, Copper River could have identified the irregularities and taken timely action. Additionally, the clients who bought Abacus could have avoided losses if they obtained all information about the firm’s financial position.
The affected stakeholders include Goldman Sachs and its clients such as Copper River and S.E.C. Ltd. Additionally the customers who invested in the companies that were defrauded by Goldman Sachs were affected. Each of these stakeholders was affected in the following ways.
The immediate effect on Goldman Sachs was the compensations it was forced to pay to its customers. In particular, the compensations required a lot of financial resources. Hence, paying out the compensations had a negative effect on Goldman Sachs’ revenues.
The accusations also had a negative effect on the image or reputation of Goldman Sachs in the market. In the future, clients are not likely to use Goldman Sachs as their stock broker. This is because Goldman Sachs is associated with fraud and unethical behavior. Hence, Goldman Sachs’ revenue and profits are likely to reduce in future.
The immediate effect on the clients was the loss of revenue as a result of Goldman Sachs failure to pre-borrow shares. In the case of Copper River, the investors lost their capital since the business collapsed. The losses are likely to prevent the clients from expanding their businesses due to insufficiency of financial resources.
The customers who invested in the companies that were defrauded by Goldman Sachs also incurred losses. This is because the funds managed by companies such as Copper River, essentially, belong to individual investors/customers. Thus, if the firm makes losses, its customers also share the losses.
Therefore, the affected customers are not likely to realize the expected returns on their investments in future. Additionally, the investors may have to look for alternative companies to invest in the future.
Goldman Sachs’ actions were unethical since they were meant to benefit the firm at the expense of its clients. In particular, Goldman Sachs failed to pre-borrow shares prior to conducting a short sale on behalf of its customers. Pre-borrowing shares is a requirement that is meant to cushion investors from the risks of market manipulation and stock price fluctuations.
The collapse of Copper River is partly attributed to the unethical behavior or actions of Goldman Sachs. Goldman Sachs was able to engage in unethical behavior due to the weaknesses of the regulatory framework of the securities market. Goldman Sachs was able to evade the rules that govern trading in securities. Even though Goldman Sachs benefited financially from its unethical behavior, it also lost its reputation in the market. Consequently, businesses should follow the utilitarian principles of ethics in order to remain competitive.
Article 2 Title: Ex-advisor Tells Court he gave Inside Tips
Media: New York Times (magazine)
Data: Published on March19th 2012
Overview of the Article
An investment adviser named Scott Allen was found guilty of providing classified business information to his friend. The information was about the sale of a drug company worth $ 2.6 million. Mr. Allen admitted that he illegally shared information about the acquisition of Massachusetts-based biotech firm referred to as Millennium Pharmaceuticals.
The pharmaceutical company was to be acquired in 2008 by a Japanese firm referred to as Takeda Pharmaceuticals. In 2009, Mr. Allen also illegally shared information about the acquisition of the American drug manufacturer, Sepracor. The American drug manufacturer was to be acquired by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharmaceutical Company which is based in Japan.
Mr. Allen told a “United States Court in Manhattan that he had” discussed with his personal friend the details of the companies which were to be sold. Consequently, his friend used the information to trade on the shares of the companies which were to be acquired.
Mr. Allen further admitted that he gave the information for financial gain, as well as, for the purpose of their friendship. Mr. Allen who worked for Mercer L.L.C was found guilty of securities fraud, as well as, conspiracy to engage in or commit securities fraud.
Mr. Allen also confirmed that he knew his actions were illegal and regretted his decision to disclose the classified information. The court freed Mr. Allen on a bond of $ 500,000 as he awaits his sentencing which is scheduled for August.
The process of acquiring a company involves the transfer of the shares of that company from one shareholder to the other. In the context of a publicly traded company, change of ownership is likely to affect the prices of the company’s shares in securities markets. Investors in securities markets usually make their decisions based on the available information.
The relevant information, in this case, should give insights on the firm’s future performance. In most cases, those involved in the management of the firm or the consultants involved in the sale of the firm have more information about the firm than the investors.
Consequently, the parties with more information about the company are prohibited by the law from using such information for their personal gains. Additionally, they are not allowed to share the information with a person who can use it for personal gain.
Disclosing the classified information is not allowed since it benefits those who have it at the expense of those who do not have it. Additionally, it can lead to manipulation of securities markets. It is against this backdrop that Mr. Allen’s actions are considered unethical and illegal.
The principle of double effect asserts that, “an act with intended and otherwise not reasonably attainable good effect and an unintended yet foreseen evil effect” (Jones and Parker, 2005, p. 88), is licit as long as there is a justified balance between the intended benefit/ good and the accepted evil.
However, an ethical dilemma arises when a person is obliged to avoid evil by abstaining from a good action (Jones and Parker, 2005, p. 89).
In this context, Mr. Allen was also in a dilemma since he had to choose between keeping the classified information and losing his friendship and the expected financial gain. Under such circumstances, the actions of the agent (Mr. Allen) should be guided by the following principles.
First, the object or essence of the act should not be contradictory to the agent’s fundamental commitment to his neighbor (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2011, p. 57). This means that the action should conform to the regulations of the securities market.
However, Mr. Allen’s actions were intrinsically contradictory to his commitment to his employers and their clients. He knew that disclosing the information about the acquisition of the firms was illegal and had the potential of distorting share prices. Nonetheless, he failed to avoid evil by sharing the information.
Second, the direct intentions of the agent should aim at achieving beneficial effects, as well as, avoiding foreseen harmful effects.
This means that the agent should not willfully cause harm to others. Contrary to this principle, Mr. Allen’s intentions were meant to create harmful effects. Even though he could have benefited financially by sharing the information, other investors could have been negatively affected.
Third, the foreseen or expected beneficial effects should equal or exceed the expected or foreseen harmful effects. In Allen’s case, only two people were to benefit at the expense of all other investors. Thus, the foreseen benefits were less than the expected harmful effects.
Finally, the expected beneficial effects should not be attained “by the means of the foreseen harmful effects” (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2011, p. 62). Thus, Mr. Allen and his friend were not expected to take advantage of other investors’ ignorance to trade on the shares of the companies that were to be acquired. This leads to the conclusion that Mr. Allen’s actions were unethical.
The theory of contract ethics asserts that the relationship between businesses should be based on mutuality and reciprocity (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2011, p. 71). Mercer L.L.C had been entrusted with the task of handling the sale of the American companies.
Hence, it was expected to reciprocate by restricting access to information about the transactions. This was not achieved since Mercer’s employee, Mr. Allen, disclosed the information. According to the principle of opportunity, investors should have equal access to transaction information. Thus, non-public information should be inaccessible to all investors.
Mr. Allen’s unethical behavior or act can be avoided through the following measures. First, the management of Mercer L.L.C should focus on selecting the right employees. The human resources department should identify a set of attributes that must be exhibited by potential employees (Djurkovic and Maric, 2010, pp. 410-430).
For example, financial advisors should be able to keep classified information and uphold high ethical standards. The identified attributes should then be used to screen applicants during the selection process (Djurkovic and Maric, 2010, pp. 410-430). Hence, the company will be able to select and employ people of integrity or individuals who understand the importance of business ethics.
Second, the employees should be sensitized on the importance of engaging in ethical behaviors. This can be achieved through on-the-job training programs. The trainings should enable the employees to differentiate between ethical and unethical behavior (Djurkovic and Maric, 2010, pp. 410-430).
Additionally, the training program should enable the employees to understand the consequences of engaging in ethical or unethical behavior. In this context, the employees should learn the beneficial effects of ethical behavior and the harmful effects of unethical behavior.
The training programs should be reinforced with mentorship programs. The mentorship programs should involve the senior and junior employees so that ethics become part of the organization’s culture (Djurkovic and Maric, 2010, pp. 410-430). The mentorship programs will also enable the employees to identify with the ethics that guide their company.
Third, disciplinary action should be taken against employees who deliberately fail to respect and follow the company’s ethical standards (Vitell, Ramos, and Nishishara, 2010, pp. 467-483). Besides, employees who make an effort to follow the prescribed ethical standards should be rewarded.
Disciplinary action will discourage employees from engaging in unethical behavior. The rewards, on the other hand, will encourage employees to engage in ethical behavior (Vitell, Ramos, and Nishishara, 2010, pp. 467-483). Finally, access to classified information should be restricted.
Sensitive information should not be accessed by unauthorized employees. For example, passwords can be used to restrict access to files and databases that contain important information.
The affected stakeholders include Mr. Allen and his friend, Mercer L.L.C and the investors who were interested in the shares of the companies which were to be purchased. Each of these stakeholders was affected in the following ways. Mr. Allen incurred high costs in terms of legal fees and the bond he had to pay in order to be freed as he awaits his sentencing.
These costs, possibly, had negative effects on Mr. Allen’s personal investments. In future, Mr. Allen is not likely to get a job as a financial advisor due to the following reasons. Currently, he is 45 years old and the offence he committed attracts a penalty of up to 20 years in jail.
Thus, by the time he completes his jail term he shall have also reached the retirement age of 65 years. He is also not likely to be employed due to his criminal record. Most American companies prefer to employ individuals with no criminal records.
Mr. Allen’s friend enjoyed the beneficial effects of the unethical behavior. In particular, he is likely to have gained financially, by using inside tips to trade on the shares of the companies that were to be acquired.
The immediate negative effects on Mercer include the loss of their employee, Mr. Allen, as well as, a bad reputation in the industry. Mercer had to incur the costs of employing a new advisor as Allen goes to jail. Additionally, the company is likely to be associated with unethical behavior.
Thus, investors are not likely to use Mercer L.L.C as their financial advisor in future. The resulting effect will be a reduction in profits and market share. The investors who held shares of the companies which were to be sold are likely to have incurred losses. This is because the information shared by Mr. Allen is likely to have negatively affected the share prices.
Mr. Allen was found guilty of committing securities fraud by illegally sharing with his friend inside tips concerning the sale of two companies. His behavior was unethical since it did not conform to ethical principles. In particular, his behavior was meant to benefit him and his friend at the expense of other investors.
His behavior also had negative effects on the reputation of his employer, Mercer L.L.C. Above all sharing inside tips with third parties for the purpose of financial gains is prohibited by the laws that govern trading in securities.
Mercer can avoid such unethical behaviors by verifying the integrity of its employees during the employee selection process. The company can also sensitize its employees on the importance of ethical behavior. In conclusion, unethical behaviors normally have adverse effects on the stakeholders of a firm. Thus, all businesses must encourage ethical behavior in order to remain competitive.
References Bloomberg News., 2012. Ex-Advisor Tells Court He gave Inside Tips. New York Times, 19 March, pp. 21.
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