Success Behind Flight Essay Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

History Of Flight Centre

Current Financial Status of Flight Centre

The Success Behind Flight Centre

Strategy Formation Of Flight Centre

Strategy Evaluation Adopted By Flight Centre

Marketing Strategy


Reference List

Introduction It takes unique skills and managerial prowess to keep a company running even in times of global economy distress. It should have the ability to achieve its goals and missions despite the challenges likely to be faced in the competitive industry (Brooks 2006). Most companies fail to withstand the pressure of financial crisis that is experienced globally.

This year has seen the worst global financial crisis hit most industries in the world and Australia has not been spared. Most industries have suffered due to the financial crisis with most of them recording a huge decline in their net profits. However, it is important to note that despite the huge decline in most of the companies, others have continued to survive the crisis (Davidson 2007).

One such outstanding company is the Flight Centre Company which continues to prosper in the competitive market. Flight Centre has been termed as the leading travel agent and although its management has been widely criticized, it has stuck to a particular management strategy that has led it to its success (Davidson and Griffin 2006). This paper is aimed at discussing the factors attributed to the success of Flight Centre.

History Of Flight Centre To understand the success behind Flight Centre better, it is important to look at how it was formed, its management and challenges (Johnson 2005). Flight Centre traces its origin way back in 1981. The owner, Graham Turner operated a UK bus company in partnership with Bill James called Topdeck. When they decided to part ways, Turner retained 18% ownership to form Flight Centre.

Beside the United Kingdom, the company opened branches in other parts of the world such as the United States and New Zealand. However, the company was greatly affected in 1991 as a result of the Gulf War leading to the closure of the UK and US offices. Nevertheless, the company picked up by 1995 and opened more offices in South Africa and Canada. The UK and U.S offices resumed their operations later on in the same period.

Economists claim that Flight Centre has changed the air-travel industry in Australia by revolutionising it (Singh 2008). This has been attributed to their capability of driving their profitability by volume as opposed to margins.

The company has expanded to cater for different travel needs of its clientele. It has set up various brands to deal with the expanding travel industry. Some of these brands include a student flight, corporate traveller for the clients in the corporate industries, campus travel and holidays, company travel which organises holidays for people in businesses and many other brands.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is however important to note that despite its history of success, Flight Centre, just like any other company has had its shares of problems.

The year 2005 saw its worst decline in performance by recording the lowest annual profit which had fallen by 7.7% compared to the previous year. This poor performance was attributed to the decision by Graham Turner to relinquish his seat as the Managing Director in 2002 in order to pave way for Shane Flynn, a senior manager in the company then, to succeed him.

The management strategy applied by Shane Flynn was greatly criticized when the company started performing poorly in the Australian Stock Exchange the same year. However, Graham acted fast to remedy the situation before the company collapsed by taking back his position as the Chief Executive Officer of the company hence putting it back to its track.

Current Financial Status of Flight Centre This year has recorded a great come-back for the company despite the economy recession that is being experienced globally. With an operating income of more than $244.4 million, Flight Centre continues to generate more revenue yearly. The trading period between 2007-2008 recorded a profit of $201 million before tax. The management projects an increase in profit by the end of this year at $240 million before tax based on its current performance (Shaw 2011).

In an interview with one of the leading local newspapers, Mr. Turner expresses his joy at the performance. He reports that the company is enjoying full profits from all its offices in the 10 countries that they operate in for the first time in history. The US office in particular stands out in this exemplary performance by recording a great improvement in its profit margin despite the fierce competition it faces by other leading travel companies in the region.

In Australia, the company becomes one of the few companies that have the opportunity to reap benefits using the stronger Australian dollar during this trading period. However, though the company’s operations have recorded a major growth compared to previous years, its share price has dropped. The share price in May was at $23.50, a figure which has drastically dropped to $22 currently (Shaw 2011).

This year has seen Flight Centre trade between the range of $17.20 to $ 25.13. The current share price implies a drop against the target share price set in the FNArena database. This has not deterred the company from being rated a Buy more than five times as indicated in the FNArena database. The current Flight Centre shares close at $21.40 (Shaw 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Success Behind Flight specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Success Behind Flight Centre The question that keeps running in many people’s minds is the reason behind the success of Flight Centre. This can be attributed to its strategic management applied by the Managing Director Mr. Turner to enhance the company’s performance (Phillips 2005). Part of the strategic management applied includes specifying the mission and vision of Flight Centre and ensuring that its objectives have been achieved.

He has further developed some strategic policies that have led to the implementation of certain projects. An example of such a project is setting up two distinct sectors to deal with both the corporate and leisure travel. These sectors have recorded the greatest performance that has acted as a boost to the annual profit at Flight Centre.

Being a transnational company, the management has been wise to employ a structured strategic concept rather than the entrepreneurial concept in their management (Dick and Merrett (2007). The model adopted is suitable due to its wide operational scope, the size of the company and the ability to integrate the stakeholder’s requirements. The success can therefore be attributed to the factors that will be discussed below.

Strategy Formation Of Flight Centre A successful company should have a document that gives an outline of the activities that a company wishes to achieve (Baum 2006). Flight Centre has an articulated mission statement that clearly states the raison d’être of the company. They approached their strategic formation by conducting an analysis of the company’s situation, target market and the competitor. They then used this assessment to come up with their long term and short term objectives that have helped them achieve their vision.

The strategy formation used by Flight Centre has helped them be ahead of their competitors at all times. It has also helped them to carefully analyse any situation at hand which has led them to penetrate other markets such as Hong Kong and China. This has seen Flight Centre opening up more than 2000 offices in 11 countries and has employed a workforce of over 8000 qualified staff to run their offices. This formation strategy has helped them to be ahead of their competitors in the industry.

The competitor’s move to reduce airline commissions has led to the collapse of many travel agent companies with others recording a poor performance in their profit margin. On the contrary, Flight Centre has managed to curb this competition with their strategic move of adding more shops in different countries and through market segmentation. This strategy has helped the company to position itself for any unforeseeable economic recession (Pratt and Edwards 2008).

Strategy Evaluation Adopted By Flight Centre This is another factor that can be attributed to the success of Flight Centre. The choice of an effective strategy evaluation is based on all important issues that are deemed to affect the running of a company (Mullins 2005). These issues are then carefully vetted by the management to determine the progressive mode of the company. The competition base should be carefully evaluated to enable the company establish a competitive edge.

Flight Centre is faced by fierce competitors with the main competitor being the airlines themselves who do not associate with any travel agents. An example of such an airline is Qantas who deal with the customers direct rather than through a travel agent. The other competitors are other agents like the Webjet, United Kingdom Trailfinders as well as S8. Despite the tough competition that Flight Centre faces from its competitors, it has come up with a unique differentiating factor that sets it apart from the competitors.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Success Behind Flight by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One factor is the wide range of global chains of stores. This has enabled the company to evenly distribute its services to various countries as opposed to its competitors. Secondly, this approach has helped Flight Centre become a brand name that is internationally recognised. This makes it one of the most recognized travel agents in the world especially through its online services.

The mode of action adopted by Mr. Turner to run the company has been greatly evaluated. The director has conducted a thorough analysis that has helped him ascertain major strengths and weaknesses that affect the running of the business. He is known to take precautionary measures especially when the company is being faced with an internal or external factor. When the US office started performing poorly, he changed the entire managerial strategy to get it back on track.

Marketing Strategy The company mostly relies on its website as its main marketing tool. The website has been ranked as the most popular travel website globally with thousands of visitors viewing the page on a daily basis. Besides the website, Flight Centre is currently using the social media to advertise its services. This online strategy has enhanced the company’s exemplary performance leading to its success.

Conclusion Flight Centre projects an increase in the annual profits in the years to come and this will not come as a surprise to many. With a genius mind like Mr. Turner, the company is projected to outsmart its competitors especially due to the new technology that has enabled information to flow even faster. The success behind Flight Centre is purely through hard work and not sheer lack.

Reference List Baum, T (2006) Human Resource Management For Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure: An International Perspective. London, Thomson Learning.

Brooks, I (2006) Organisational Behaviour: individuals, groups and organization. New York, Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Davidson, A (2007) Management and Organisational Behaviour Workbook. Sydney, John Wiley


The Evolution of the Division of Labor Theory Starting From Ancient Greek Economists to the Present Essay essay help online: essay help online

Introduction Division of labor is an economic theory that has been in use for many centuries. As a result, there have been several definitions accorded to the term depending on the use of the theory.

However, a more acceptable version that has been relied on by many is that of Peter Groenewegen in the New Palgrave’s Dictionary of economics (1987, p. 901) which defines division of labor as the “division of a process or employment into parts, each of which is carried out by a separate person”. This is to mean that individuals will cooperate with or without their conscious to perform processes or employment that is divided.

The question that results is, why and how the separation of people in processes and employment concurs with the social and economic consequences? This question and many others are best answered using the evolution of the ideas generated from the theory of division of labor. This paper is therefore an in-depth analysis of the evolution of the division of labor theory starting from the ancient Greek economists such as Adam Smith, Karl Marx and William Petty, among others to the present.

The analysis will begin by examining the relationship between increasing returns and the division of labor as stipulated by Smith. This will be followed by the important insights by Karl Marx on the division of labor in the society and division of labor in manufacturing. The theories of other great economists on the division of labor theory will also be explored and finally comparing them to the modern theory of division of labor.

The history of Division of labor Theory The evolutionary history of the theory of division of labor has been explained through various mechanisms. It was long ago used by the Sumerians to group their jobs and thereafter allocate them to the skilled people in the society.

However, according to Plato Socrates, the origin of the theory of division of labor is based on two main facts. The first one is the fact that human beings are endowed with different abilities (Bogers 2). The argument states that if at all human beings had equal strengths and abilities then the issue of division of labor would not have arisen since everyone can perform all tasks.

Secondly is the issue of the variation in the external conditions on the earth. This again leads to the creation of division of labor since had all the external production conditions been similar everywhere, then division of labor would have been of no use. After the realization of the theory of division of labor, several economists have tried to argue their points on this theory.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Ancient Theories on Division of Labor Adam Smith

Adam Smith is one of the greatest economics known who lived from the year 1723 to 1790. He engaged in many works in the economics field where he had major contributions in the theory of the division of labor. Smith explored the various advantages of the division of labor. In one of his books titled The Wealth of Nations, Smith explained how the breakdown of a task into several operations made production easy (Dhamee 1).

He gave the example of a pin-factory, where he claimed that such a company’s production could increase by up to 240 times higher just because of the division of labor. The main reason for this is because the worker becomes acquainted to what they are doing hence becoming experts in that field. On the other hand, workers remain in their jobs for a long period hence saving time unlike when they have to switch tasks in the course of the day.

Smith continues to say that this was what led to the success of the Victorian factories in the 19th century. This was as a result of productive labor which is meant to fulfill two essential requirements which are creation of surplus that could be ploughed back into production and secondly lead to production of objects that are tangible. “The ideas of Smith were based on perfect liberty in order to assert the principle of organizing labor solely by a free market” (Bogers 4).

After his assertions, Smith identified the shortcomings of the theory of division of labor. He pointed out that it created boredom due to the monotony of performing a similar task for a long time. This in the long-rum would lead to dissatisfied and ignorant workers.

Charles Babbage

This was another of the ancient economics who lived between 1791 and 1871. Charles continued with Smith’s work in which he focused on simplifying and integrating the tasks. He argued that simplifying and integrating tasks had a great impact on the labor costs in that it minimized them greatly. The reason behind this is the low bargaining power of the worker since workers will require minimal time to get acquainted to each task.

Karl Marx

Within his short life span of 65 years, Karl Marx made inevitable contributions in the field of economics. His, was criticism on the present theory of division of labor arguing that it led to the alienation of people. In his assertions, Marx claimed that there ought to be very little or no division of labor at all.

This would make workers have control over work thus being contended with it unlike when there is division of labor. Karl Marx thus wrote that “with this division of labor, the worker is depressed spiritually and physically to the condition of a machine” (Bogers 5). He further claims that alienation is great societal problem that could be easily generated through division of labor.

We will write a custom Essay on The Evolution of the Division of Labor Theory Starting From Ancient Greek Economists to the Present specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the same theory, Marx describes labor to have value. He goes on to describe value as being a fraction of the total labor that is present in the society within a stipulated period of time for instance a year, and used in the production of a given product. Therefore to find the value of labor, the average labor available is divided by the number of units produced hence expressed in time of hours, days or eve months.

However, Marx’s greatest contribution in this theory is when he classifies the two types of division of labor as technical/ economic division and the social division. He stipulates social division of labor to be based on the different social classes and status of hierarchy that are present in the society. Technical division is usually as a result of the different skills that people have.

William Petty

Sir William Petty is again one of the ancient economics who lived in the 1623 to 1687. As a matter of fact, he was the first writer to take note of the theory of division of labor where he made its significance to the Dutch shipyards. Petty made several contributions in political economy which eventually led to the differentiation of classical political economy as a science on its own.

Among other notions in economic science such as labor theory of value to econometrics he is the founder of the notion behind surplus and the division of labor. Petty claimed that the society could be equated to the human body which has several functions. In the society people will play different roles and functions all of which are of great importance to the societal functions.

Treatise of Taxes and Contributions

If there be 1000 men in a Territory, and if 100 of these can raise necessary food and raiment for the whole 1000, if 200 more make as much commodities, as other Nations will give either their commodities or money for, and if 400 more employed in the ornaments, pleasure, and magnificence of the whole; if there be 200 Governors, Divines, Lawyers, Physicians, Merchants and Retailers, making I all 900 the question is, Since there is food enough for this supernumerary 100 also, how they should come by it? (Gianni and Groenewegen 30).

Fredrick Taylor

Another great contributor to the division of labor theory is Fredrick Winslow Taylor who named his developments as ‘scientific management’. This theory of scientific management has been thoroughly developed and the final version of it is to be named after the innovator that is ‘Taylorism’. According to his theory, Taylor argued that the industrial process could be broken down into several unit tasks that are able to be well organized and timed. Despite having widespread application, it was of great use in Japan.

This theory generally entails working out the best and efficient way of organizing work such that the monetary allocation to the work equates the output generated. Taylor proposed that the tasks be distributed in accordance to knowledge, experience as well as skills of the worker. Therefore if the Taylor system is well applied in an organization, it will result into good labor returns.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Evolution of the Division of Labor Theory Starting From Ancient Greek Economists to the Present by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The only shortcoming with Taylor’s theory on the division of labor is that human beings are treated like robots or animals having to work tirelessly and continuously. There is monotony in work and less chances for creativity and inventions.

Max Weber

Max Weber is often referred to as the father of bureaucracy due to his invention of the theory of bureaucracy. This theory was an opposition to the theory of the division of labor since it argues that occupational duties and workers can be freely interchanged such that there is no specific position for workers. The workers are therefore to move from one task position to another within the same organization.

The list of the ancient economists who made their contributions (whether small or big) to the theory of division of labor is endless with other being people such as David Hume, Henri-Louis, Durkheim and Henry Ford just to mention but a few.

The Modern Theory on Division of Labor The modern theory of the division of labor has undergone several reforms from the ancient economics discussed above the most recent ones such as Romer and those to come in the future. It is arguable that not all the constituents of the ancient models have been incorporated in the modern theory since some of them have been left out and other modified.

Taking the example of Romer, who is a more recent economist to handle the theory of division of labor, he argues that Adam Smith had two ideas which conflicted. “In the first idea, Smith claims that competition leads to efficient resource allocation and in the second he notes that growth is an indigenous phenomenon” (Robert 76).

Both claims have been proved wrong after the developments of economics whereby growth is no longer viewed as an indigenous process. Other modern contributions concern the introduction of fixed costs in computation of profits, something that was not done before among many other developments.

Nevertheless, some of the ancient theories on the division of labor have still found their way into the modern society. A good example is the contribution of Emile Durkheim which is of great significance today.

In his book entitled The Division of Labor in Society of 1893, Durkheim majors on the effects that come with specialization (division of labor) and how they affect the society. For Durkheim, division of labor is infinite separation of occupations such that even the final product is independent. This is very evident in the modern society, take the example of a student who joins college and is asked to select a ‘major of specialty’.

Let us say, they select accounting, thus throughout the college years they will be specializing in accounting being prepared to be accountants. They graduate as accountants and get a job in an accounting firm where they perform accountancy services and duties. Their whole life revolves around accountancy. This is a perfect example to show that specialization or division of labor is inevitable and in practice in almost all areas of life.

In a nut shell, it can be said that the modern world is making great use of the theory of division of labor. It is mostly applicable in the management and organization functions of any business enterprises. Given the fact that societal hierarchy is inevitable, division of labor has been used to cater for such differences as well as others.

Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be seen that the theory of division of labor has undergone various evolution from the ancient time to the present. The theory of division of labor has found its application and use in the present society by a great deal. As a matter of fact, the increased productivity in the current society can be attributed to the division of labor.

According to Robert, “a major shift in firm’s strategies and organizational structure driven in part by increased global competition and technological process” (Robert 184). He further continues to argue that, despite the many variables and processes involved emphasis should be put on specialization and division of labor.

On the other hand, division of labor has been found to have negative features since time immemorial. Some of these negative features include; boredom, demoralization and imposition of the discipline of labor among others. These negative features can be easily overcome by removing the direct producers from the market and the fact that repetitive performance of a task increases the efficiency of the operation.

Works Cited Bogers, Marcel. Division of Labor. 2002. Web.

Dhamee, Yousuf. Adam Smith and the Division of Labor. 1995- July 24, 2011.

Gianni, Vaggi And Groenewegen, Peter. A concise history of economic thought: from Mercantilism to monetarism.-2003. Palgrave Macmillan.

Groenewegen, Peter. “Division of labor,” The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics -1987. v. 1, pp. 901–07

Roberts, J. The Modern Firm. – 2004 Oxford University Press, New York, NY.


What qualities does Henry embody that would serve a modern-day president? Essay custom essay help

Introduction The Henry V movie concept is set in the early fifteenth century. It takes place after the death of King Henry IV, the young King Henry V is the next heir to the throne. Therefore, in order to gain both court and public respect and acceptance, Henry is forced to leave his youthful past, in which he associated himself with drunkards and criminals at the boar’s head inn situated at the seamy parts of London.

Basing on some technical interpretation of the ancient law concerning land, King Henry V claims some portions of France. Dauphin, the youthful prince of France sends Henry an offensive message in reaction to his claims; this compels Henry V to continue with his plans of conquering some portions of France. Therefore, with the backing of his country’s clergy and noblemen, King Henry V assembles his troops for the invasion of France.

However, some severe civil wars over the years had left the people in England even more restless and discontented with more such imminent wars. Through some cunning expertise, King Henry later on discovers a conspiracy plot, which is meant to end his life, before he headed to France for the war with his fleet.

He then finds out that Scrope, his former friend is among the conspirators employed by the French and therefore orders for their immediate execution. It is arguably evident from the movie that King Henry V demonstrated qualities that are essential for an effective modern day president. This paper discusses the qualities of Henry in the King Henry V movie that will suit a present day president.

King Henry V and his convoy, which had army officers from all corners of Britain such as Captain Fluellen who was of Welsh origin, and many others headed for France against numerous odds but manages to conquer towns as they fight their way across the French countryside.

However, as they advanced, some members in his troop such as Bardolph and Nim are detained for looting and this compels Henry to call for their hanging. Despite such disciplinary issues, King Henry also conquers the French town of Harfleur and goes on to give a heartfelt historical speech that was intended to motivate his troops for further victories.

The battle of Agincourt becomes the climax in the movie as King Henry and his soldiers are outnumbered by their French opponents. Despite this disheartening fact, King Henry goes around the camp in disguise as a fellow soldier to talk and comprehend on his army’s thoughts over their general mission the night before the great battle.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More King Henry is in an awkward position since he is unsure of his ubiquitous liabilities as a King. The morning after his subterfuge episode into his army’s camp, he seeks divine help by praying to God and then giving a stirring speech to his army. Amazingly, King Henry and his soldiers win the great battle and triumphs over their proud French opponents who eventually surrendered to the English.

Later on in the movie, the English works out a peace negotiation with the French and King Henry marries Catherine, who was the daughter to the King of France and the resulting marriage would unite both the British and French Kingdoms. King Henry’s son was the next heir to the French throne. Even though he defeated the French, he allowed Charles, the King of France, to hold onto his throne.

According to the movie, King Henry V decides to put away his wild youthful past in order to become a legitimate and an effective leader. Such leadership qualities are quite desirable in the contemporary political scene, as they serve well a modern-day president. First, King Henry’s resolution to change his youthful behaviors for the purpose of his new role tells us of his visionary attitude for the country he was going to serve, as it was bigger than his personal happiness and satisfactions, and this would largely shape a contemporary president.

A presidential figure should not let his past interfere with his work, whereby he only serves a few friends and individuals due to their previous relationship and should instead have a visionary map of serving the whole country by also bypassing party lines and affiliations.

It also enhances democracy because of the principle of public equality. In addition, King Henry’s leniency towards a solitary union of respect and brotherliness without any form of national prejudice is a significant leadership quality that is needed for a modern day president.

Henry established peace with his French opponents and was not consumed by power to hold it out against them. A lenient president would also try to foster peace with their enemies especially in the current political scenarios. An effective president should not hold onto experiences as a basis for longtime enmity because as demonstrated by King Henry V after his battle and triumph over the French, we should cement our union by not being repressive but by looking for any peaceful means.

In addition, King Henry is relentless in pursuing his ambitions, well focused, fearless, committed, and his brilliancy illuminated his oratory skills, which he uses to put forth his claims while also motivating his own troops. These leadership qualities serve a modern-day president, as they are relentless in pursuing the people’s dreams and expectations.

We will write a custom Essay on What qualities does Henry embody that would serve a modern-day president? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, when the country goes through a period of hopelessness towards achieving these targeted expectations, a president’s oratory skills would best serve in motivating and uniting the country at large in order to realize these expectations while renouncing the things that divide us. Occasionally, a leader may experience uncertainty over their progress stature as shown by King Henry before the main battle of Agincourt.

It is always comforting for the people to know that their commander still has both hands on the daunting situation and this eventually instills hope for a winning mentality that would enforce the zeal to be persistent in achieving a common objective without being strenuous. In general, King Henry’s oratory skills were a double-edged sword with nearly as much force and strength as that used by his soldiers.

His words would inspire or even stir up his supporters while intimidating his adversaries and influencing nearly all those who listened to him and this is reflected by his wintry and menacing rhetoric while addressing Prince Dauphin’s messenger, and during his inspiring speech at St. Crispin. In other words, the modern-day president should not rush into war in a deadlock situation before being explicitly frank with their motives.

In conclusion, Henry portrayed the leadership qualities that would fit a modern day president. The most outstanding leadership qualities possessed by King Henry was his resolved set of mind in accomplishing whatever goal he had his eyes and mind focused. He would use any kind of resource, which was readily available to see to it that his objectives were eventually accomplished.

He was an inexorable force that had to be carefully contended with by others who must opt on how to act energetically in response to his actions that were ethically questionable at times. Although his conducts may seem quite horrendous to the populace, King Henry was an exemplary leader who took a serious mantle over his Kingship since he elevated his responsibilities above personal gains and that is why the film portrays him both as a protagonist and as a hero, despite the mitigated effects of his personal pronouncements.

Work Cited King Henry V. Dir. Olivier Laurence. Perf. Sharman Bruce, et al. 2000. Film


Biography of a Long Island Town Research Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

History of the town


Declaration of Rights


American Revolution


Works Cited

Abstract Specifically situated on the Southeast side of America, the Long Island is one of the ancient Islands in America. This Island stretches to the Northeast side of the Atlantic Ocean and has a number of towns and counties. This discussion looks at one of the Long Island towns, how it has developed over the years and the impact that events in America have had on the development of this town. The town of choice is the Town of Huntington.

History of the town The history of Huntington Town dates back to the year 1653 when some men namely Robert, Richard and Daniel, who came from Oyster Bay bought a piece of land which would later come to be referred to as the First Purchase. The three men would later sell this piece of land to other people who had settled nearby.

A great majority of the people who settled in this town in the early days were English men, whom came to this town either via Connecticut or Massachusetts. Due to the constant settlement of English people in this town, it did not take long for the town to become well established.

The very first settlers of this town mainly settled in one area which was known as town spot (Wilson 45). This is what is known presently as the Village Green. As time went by, this town continued to prosper and so did the increase in the population. Social institutions such as schools, saw mills, forts, tanneries and places of worship began to emerge as well.

Economy With the growth in population of this town, there were equally many economic activities that the settlers in this town engaged themselves in. The harbor was one of the busiest places in this town and formed an integral part of its economy. Ships from within the town and even beyond as far as West Indies became common.

Other businesses that contributed immensely to the growth and expansion of the economy of this town were, ship making and other activities related to the sea (Boroff 66). The inhabitants of this town used the water as a means of transport as it was the only most efficient means of transport both for cargo as well as people considering that this was a town within an island.

Declaration of Rights In the year 1744, an adaptation was made by the authorities of the Town of Huntington which was known as the Declaration of Rights. This declaration affirmed that the property of every free man was his own and that any kind of taxation which was done without some form of representation amounted to a violation of the rights of all subjects of British origin (Bessel 47).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, the declaration required that all colonies would unite and refuse to transact any kind of commercial transaction with the government of the Great Britain. This was a move that was received with great enthusiasm by all inhabitants of this town.

However, this would be short lived because the rebel forces would lose the Battle of Long Island and this saw the British army enter and occupy the entire Long Island (Huntington 56). People in this island including those that were in the Town of Huntington were forced to comply with the requirements of the British and they were even forced to take an oath of allegiance and loyalty to the British government.

For the people who continued to rebel against the British government, they suffered a major blow as they lost all their property. There are those who would however not back down and continued engaging the government in guerilla wars until the year 1783 when the war ended and the British left the town.

In the year 1776, a man named Nathan Hale was sent by George Washington to spy regarding the British forces that were in this town and the entire Long Island as well as the city of New York. This man was however captured and what followed was an execution in the same year.

Slavery Just as was the case in many other parts of the world during this time, slavery was very rampant in the Town of Huntington. The white settlers who engaged in farming would use slaves to provide affordable labour in their fields. Most of the slaves were black and the higher the number of slaves one had, the better their status in the society. The economy of this town did not however depend greatly on slavery for labour and by the nineteenth century, slavery had been totally abolished in this town and the entire island.

American Revolution The American Revolution which took place between the years 1775-1783 is one of the wars that hit the Town of Huntington really hard. This war threatened to cause the collapse of this town and especially economically. This is because during this war, the town was not getting a lot of business from the outside owing to a lot of tension. By the end of the revolution, the town had lost a lot in terms of business and was on its knees. The rebuilding process was not a downhill task but nonetheless, they managed.

In the year 1867, a railroad was established in this town and this marked the beginning of the decline of maritime activities and economy. Although the use of water still remained important until the twentieth century, its use declined significantly when the railroad was established.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Biography of a Long Island Town specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The people of Huntington were not ready to give up on shipping just yet because it is the one that ensured that this town remained connected to the rest of the world for all this while. Therefore, this town was not isolated as other towns in the Long Island were. Those living in New York would find it easy to come to Huntington using either ships or the newly established railroad (Ross and Pelletreau 33).

When the Second World War came to an end, it is as though people had discovered as safe haven in the Town of Huntington and the entire Long Island. This is because, the population size of this island and the Town of Huntington in particular began to swell. It was amazing to note that 200 years after its establishment, the town had only experienced gradual growth and especially in terms of population increase. This however took a drastic change after World War II as the number of people increased significantly.

Conclusion The Town of Huntington has continued to grow with the population going up and the economy of the town expanding even further. There are now no vacant lands anymore as they have been replaced with social institutions, industries and factories.

Works Cited Bessel, Matthew. A brief history of the town of Huntington. New York: Town of Huntington, 1983. Print.

Boroff, David. The State of the Nation. London: Prentice Hall, 1966. Print.

Huntington, Elijah. History of Stamford, Connecticut: From its Settlement in 1641. Virginia: Huntington Publishers, 1868. Print.

Ross, Peter and Pelletreau, William. A history of Long Island: from its earliest settlement to the present time, Volume 2. Lodnon: Lewis Pub Co, 1905. Print.

Wilson, Rufus. Historic Long Island. New York: Berkeley Press, 1902. Print.

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“Cross” by Langston Hughes [Analysis Essay] best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Persona

Use of Metaphor

The Overall Theme


Works Cited

Introduction Langston Hughes’ poem entitled ‘Cross’ is a one stanza poem with a title that carries a deep and rich meaning and one that perfectly reflects the overall theme. The author has used the first-person persona to pass the message to the reader (Bloom 20). This paper intends to explore the identity of the author and the critical figure of speech as well as the overall theme that is being discussed in the poem. The analysis of “Cross” by Langston Hughes shall be provided in this essay.

The Persona The persona is this poem represents a son who is born by a white father and a black mother. He is full of anger because he has been brought up in a mixed heritage, which consists of two races, which are different. Although the persona regrets later for disapproving his parents for having sired him in different racial communities, his anger seems to be strongly inflected by issues of racial discrimination (Bloom 20).

Use of Metaphor The title of the poem (the cross) has a deep and rich meaning and great significance. The significance of this title reflects the central theme that was intended by the author. There are scores of meanings that can be attached to the word ‘cross’ used as the title.

As the analysis of the poem “Cross” evidences, the persona is very dissatisfied and angry for the reason that his heritage is torn between two ends. At first, he vents this anger towards his parents, only to regret his actions later. Cross has been used metaphorically to portray this anger and dissatisfaction.

The persona’s mixed heritage has indeed put him in a testing moment that can be described as a burden. The cross represents this burden to emphasize suffering. The persona’s predicament can also be compared to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, who was tried with no wrongdoing. Similarly, the persona is suffering from being brought up in a mixed heritage, even though it is not his fault.

Assording to the summary, the persona crosses over from being angry and offensive, to adopt a forgiving character. This transformation entirely gives the word ‘cross’ another meaning. Finally, after making over and forgiving his parents, the persona is torn between uncertainty fates. He wonders whether he will die a bi-racial. In other words, he is left in a crossroad (Juhasz 56). Thus, one can see the meaning of “Cross” by Langston Hughes as very important.

The Overall Theme The poem is generally discussing problems of racial heritage. The speaker is particularly perturbed for being born in a mixed heritage – having a black mother and a white father. Indeed, the speaker is full of grief and frustrations for belonging to a diverse culture. He is reported as regretting having hated and disapproved of his parents for being responsible for the purported regrettable fate.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The deep feelings exhibited by the persona reflect the significance of racial heritage, and besides, portray some degree of disconnection between the black and the white. Perhaps, the persona was born during the age of the slave trade, when Africans were being enslaved in America, resulting in bi-racial heritage. Thus, the main theme in “Cross” by Langston Hughes is the character’s inner confusion about his mixed heritage.

The anger that the persona vents originates from the negative feelings of slavery. Also, the persona is reported saying that his father died a wealthy man while his mother died a poor woman, perhaps to portray how the white was using the black to enrich themselves. In essence, discrimination of one race against the other must-have contributed towards the persona’s offensive attitude towards a mixed heritage (Bennett 16)

Conclusion The anther’s use of metaphor has attracted my attention and encourages me to think critically about the issues being discussed in the poem, and as such, understanding the themes in a more profound and more precise manner.

The figure of speech has made me emphasize with the speaker who is in great turmoil, as I imagined his predicament. Overall, as the analysis of “Cross” by Langston Hughes shows, the author has successively used the speaker to pass on his rich message to the reader (Bennett 16).

Works Cited Bennett, Sandra. Identifying themes and poetic devices in selected poems. Utah: University of Utah, 1972. 16. Print

Bloom, Harold. Langston Hughes. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2007. 20. Print

Juhasz, Suzanne. The metaphor and the poetry of Williams, Pound, and Stevens. London: Associated University Presse, 1974. 56. Print

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