Introduction The desire for one to employ him or herself is a dream that many people try to achieve in the early stages of life but how one can be his or her own boss depends on many factors. Starting up an own business is one of the few ways in which one can achieve this but creating a successful business requires a good combination of a good idea and the driving power to do it.
A successful business requires skills, experience, and ability to make a dream come true as most of the times it involves personal sacrifice particularly during the start up stage. When starting up a business it is necessary to conduct a feasibility study on how successful the business is likely to be under the existing conditions. The objective of this research is investigating how feasible and profitable is it to start a new business. The feasibility study involves among others the following:
Market Analysis The question that comes to one’s mind when starting a business is whether there is a sustainable market for the product or service you want to offer.
Before one starts a business there is need to investigate whether there is a sustainable market for the goods or services that one wants to offer by assessing the consumers of your products, how many they are and the form they want the product to be in, the price the customers might be willing to pay for your products and whether the market is a permanent one or a seasonal one and the existence of both supplementary and complementary products to your goods and services.
After assessing the above and deeming the results positive then you can move into the next step of investigating who your competitor will be in the market.
Competition Analysis Satisfaction that you have a reliable market is just the first step in the business development process. After you are satisfied that a reliable market exists, the availability of the market and the possible rivals you are likely to face in the market becomes the next big issue. This is done by analyzing who the direct and indirect competitors are.
The direct competitors are those individuals selling similar products as yours. A deeper knowledge of what they offer, charge, what they do well, and what they are not and the existence of any gaps that you may use to woo customers on your side is very important. Indirect competitors are those other business players who deal with complimentary products to the goods and services you want to offer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The importance of studying these indirect competitors is that they may be a distraction to your customer pool by offering cheaper complementary products and thus causing a shift from your products to their products thus the necessity. After you have done the above analysis and the playground seems comfortable the next question that comes into your mind is how affordable the enterprise is.
Factors or Costs Among the worst mistakes that any business entrepreneur can make is underestimating the start up costs and the operating capital required to run the business until the break-even position is achieved. It is always important to make accurate estimates as sources of extra capital in future may be limited. For example if one wants to start a French beans importing business it is very important to make accurate estimates of the required capital both for starting up to the point where the business will break even.
Calculating the set up costs and the working capital Realistic forecasts boosts one’s confidence and the ability to meet own commitments. When you set the required costs straight it means you won’t require extra capital after the business has started and thus there are chances that the business may run successfully without shortages in the required running capital.
There are many types of costs that a business entrepreneur incurs in the process of starting a business and they include costs of sales, professional costs, administrative costs, transaction costs classified as either fixed or variable costs among others as indicated by Webber (n.d).
With the available cost on one side and the costs that may be incurred on one side, calculating the initial costs gives one a chance to consider the items which are of high necessity and giving them higher priorities compared to those lowly placed depending on the capital available. Accurate estimates reduce the gap between the real budget and the expected budget and thus placing the business in a comfortable position (Anon, 2009).
The working or operating capital is the amount of money needed to keep the business running. For a sustainable business one has to allocate enough working capital in order to ensure the business runs successfully. It is important to factor out the fixed and the variable costs so as to know the required capital.
Fixed costs are the fixed expenses the business has to incur irrespective of the sales made. The costs required when investing in the fixed assets such as the cost of machinery or the cost of land among others.
We will write a custom Essay on Starting Up a Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Machinery or plant costs: these are the costs required to buy the required machinery if the business demands one.
Land costs: these are costs of buying the piece of land or paying for the rent if you are leasing the land.
Stock costs: these are the costs required for buying the initial purchases which will be needed by the business.
These are the costs related to the delivery of one’s product or service. These costs usually relate to the activities going on within the business. They include;
Transaction costs: these are the costs which the business will incur during the negotiation process.
Administration costs: these are the costs which the business will have to incur when enquiring about any expertise information that may be required. Others include what the authority will charge you in order to issue you with a license allowing you to start the business.
Wages: the costs incurred when paying the workers or your own salary. Wages vary with the size of the business and the ongoing activities.
Costing and Pricing
When setting prices it is advisable for one to set prices which can cover the costs of production in addition to generating some profit. The business owner should take into consideration the costs which will be incurred during the start up and the running process so as to ensure the product set prices covers everything.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Starting Up a Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Other costs which should also be taken into consideration are the hidden costs (Garrison, Noreen
History of Manhattan Project in US Research Paper essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
The New Technology Derived From the Manhattan Project
Benefits and Dangers of the New Technology
Social and Cultural Effects of the Manhattan Project
Political and Technological Effects of the Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project and Its Use in Medical Science
Introduction The Manhattan Project was a code name for a military project that was conducted during World War II between 1942 and 1946. It is however believed to have officially started in 1939 after President Roosevelt responded to a letter written by the famous physicist, Albert Einstein, expressing his concern that nuclear weapons were being developed by the Nazis. This concern was also fuelled by recent research that had shown uranium could produce large chain reactions that could be used in powerful bombs.
The purpose of the Manhattan project was to develop atomic bombs that were the first to ever be created in the world. The atomic bombs would be used in the War against Germany by countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. The atomic bombs were made of nuclear material that would biologically destroy a large section of the target area and its inhabitants.
Albert Einstein drafted his letter to the President together with Leo Szilard who had escaped the Nazi regime in Germany to the United States. Both Einstein and Szilard believed that the German’s were creating nuclear weapons that would be used in destroying countries that opposed Fascist oppression.
President Roosevelt responded to Einstein’s letter by informing him that he had set up a committee that would be used to conduct research on uranium and its use in atomic bombs. President Roosevelt appointed Robert Oppenheimer to head the Manhattan Project and to oversee the research and project facilities that were based in various parts of America (Gosling, 1999).
The Manhattan project derived its name from the location of its early operation centers which was Manhattan Island in New York City. The island was chosen because of its port facilities as well as a large military presence. Other locations that were used in the production and research of the atomic bombs included New Mexico, Tennessee, Richland, Washington, Canada, Oak Ridge and Los Alamos. These locations were chosen because of their remoteness and because they allowed for secrecy of the research facilities.
The secrecy and remoteness made it possible to obtain large supplies of raw materials and labor as well as make decisions without any political interference. The amount of money that was invested in the project amounted to $2.2 billion dollars that was mostly used in conducting research on the effects of uranium and how this compound could be used in developing atomic bombs (Gosling, 1999).
The New Technology Derived From the Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project has been considered by many chemical and nuclear scientists to be the revolution in technology, warfare and moral ethics. The technology that was used in creating the atomic bomb was viewed to be more advanced and developed than the scientific technology that existed before that time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The high level of scientific and technological innovations used in separating the uranium neutrons was used in the development of chemical weapons and technology that would be used by the US military and scientific institutions (Hughes, 2002).
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) was a nonpartisan organization established in 1945 by scientists and chemical engineers who were involved in the Manhattan Project. This organization was created because of the important part that science and technology played during the development of the atomic bomb.
The main goal of the FAS was to develop and advance scientific technology that would be used in providing solutions to security and scientific problems in the US. The main programs that fell under the FAS included the strategic security program, the bio security program, the earth systems program and the educational technologies program (FAS, 2010).
The strategic security program was developed to control atomic energy developed during the Manhattan Project. The program was focused on reducing the risks that came from nuclear exposure. The technologies that emerged from this program included portable air defense systems and chemical, nuclear weapons.
The bio security program concentrated on researching on ways that would be used to balance science and security. The scientific and technological work that emerged from the bio security program included biodefense research and biosecurity policies. The educational technologies program focused on how innovative technologies derived from the Project could be used for teaching and learning purposes (FAS, 2010).
The program designed and developed games and learning tools that would be used in the learning process. A major project of the educational technologies program is the Immune Attack game simulation that teaches high school students the inner workings of the body by navigating a tiny drone through the various circulatory and immune systems within the human body.
The Immune Attack project developed by FAS was a program that was meant to introduce molecular and cellular biology in a more visual way to high school and college students.
We will write a custom Research Paper on History of Manhattan Project in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The earth systems program was developed to examine how the earth’s natural resources interacted with international security. This program was developed as a means of allowing people to use technology to better their lives. The technological innovations that emerged from this program included prefabricated components, composite materials, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency (FAS, 2010)
Since the development of the bomb, chemical scientists and physicists the world over continued to conduct research on how nuclear or atomic technology could be used to make even more powerful bombs. Research into how nuclear energy could be used to power submarines, ships and power whole cities was also been conducted.
This research was mostly based on the Atomic Energy Commission’s (AEC) atomic energy research program that saw the development of the hydrogen bomb, the nuclear-powered submarine and the first public utility nuclear power plant in the United States (Herrera, 2006).
The research was also based on the technology that went into the creation of the atomic bomb has been used in creating volatile anesthetic agents such as methoxyflurane, halothane and halogenated ethers. The atomic bomb technology also improved the research information that existed on organofluorine chemistry and halogen agents. This was possible when the chemical engineers and nuclear physicists developing the bomb conducted the exercise of separating uranium 235 from uranium 238 (Angelo, 2004).
The collaboration that has taken place over the years between state, military, industry and university specialists in the development of military and scientific technology has been a result of the Manhattan Project. The institutions that were used in creating the atomic bomb in the Manhattan Project formed the foundations of postwar technology.
The most important wartime technology organization that emerged in the US was the National Defense Research Committee which was later changed to the Organization for Scientific Research and Development (OSRD).
This organization oversaw many scientific and technological projects that were used during and before World War II. The two most important projects that emerged from the OSRD included radar research and uranium project research work. The radar research which was later renamed to Radlab developed 150 technological innovations in the form of radar and electronic systems (Herrera, 2006).
The energy crisis that took place in 1973 saw the United States experiencing a sharp increase in fuel and oil prices as well as related oil products. Until the energy crisis, energy research and development activities were mostly focused on the development of nuclear power which was under the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC).
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Manhattan Project in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The commission was formed by the U.S. Congress after the Manhattan Project to manage civilian and military projects that were related to nuclear and atomic energy in 1946. To respond to the energy crisis, the US Congress incorporated the research and project facilities that were used in the Manhattan Project into the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Atomic Energy Commission (Stine, 2009).
The technologies were proposed to improve the energy problem that was being experienced by the United States included developing alternative technology vehicles that would require less harmful energy sources, developing and building energy efficient buildings that would use no more than 50 percent of the energy used by buildings of a similar size and type, constructing a large scale solar thermal power plant that would be capable of generating 300 megawatts or more at a cheaper cost.
Other technologies included developing biofuels that do not exceed 105 percent and developing carbon capture facilities that will be used in large scale coal burning (Stine, 2009).
Some of the scientists who were involved in the Project used radionucleides in localizing radioactive isotopes that would be used in destroying cancerous cells. Before the Project was started, cancer patients were mostly treated through surgery which most of the times was not successful.
But after the Project was completed radiographic and chemotherapy technology was developed by engineers involved in the project to treat cancerous cells and tumors. This involved introducing the radioactive isotopes in the radiographic and chemotherapy treatments (Lenoir
The Motivation behind Employer-Offered Healthcare in the US Essay essay help: essay help
Although the American healthcare system has undergone a number of transformations ever since its inception, its present-day state is to a large extent a reflection as well as the product of the country’s own sociopolitical, economic, cultural, technological, and organizational history and tradition (Litman, 1997).
A multiplicity of players, including the government, healthcare institutions, insurance companies, employers, and consumers, have been involved in deciding the architecture of the healthcare system, and therefore can rightly share in the apportioning of benefits and blame brought about by the system.
Employers can be singled out as one group of stakeholders that has been increasingly involved in shaping the healthcare system in the U.S. (Reinhardt, 2001). By looking back into the history of employer-offered healthcare in the U.S., this paper purposes to evaluate why American businesses were originally motivated to offer healthcare provisions for their employees
Employer-offered healthcare in the U.S. was initiated in the 1930s after President Franklin Roosevelt decided not to follow the route of universal socialized medicine.
His decision was largely informed by the fact that healthcare was comparatively cheap and, as such, businesses could be provided with economic incentives to start providing healthcare for their employees (Thomson, 2006). It can therefore be argued that the economic incentives provided by the federal government motivated American businesses to start offering healthcare provisions for their employees.
Another motivation factor came from the fact that businesses could spend less money to adequately satisfy union demands by agreeing to offer healthcare provisions for their employees since the concept had been hatched by the government and enjoyed its full support. Spending less money meant more profits for the businesses, an idea that was too good to be resisted judging by the fact that it was also comparatively cheap to provide healthcare.
Another motivation factor came from the fact that employers were placed in the driver’s seat to manage the healthcare costs for their employees and, as such, they could “…force upon their employees employer-sponsored health insurance products that limited the employees’ choice of providers to defined networks, that often limited direct access to medical specialists, and that sometimes limited somewhat patient’s access to new and expensive medical technology” (Reinhardt, 2001, p. 5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The implication here is that the employers were well positioned to control the purse of healthcare for employees, and could use the directive of managed-care to ensure that healthcare costs remained minimal, thus enhancing the profitability of the their organizations.
However, this directive had a direct negative implication on the part of employees in terms of receiving sub-standard healthcare provided for by employers. It is imperative to note that this is one of the historical injustices of the American healthcare system that the Obama administration is trying to resolve in the proposed reforms to the system.
Employer-offered healthcare also came with employment-based health insurance, a system that offered wide-ranging perks for the organizations, thus the motivation.
According to Reinhardt (2009), “…Congress further encouraged the growth of employment-based health insurance by treating the employers’ contribution to their employees’ health insurance as a tax-deductible business expense” (para. 5). This arrangement ensured that while businesses continued to be offered with opportunities for profitability in tax cuts, the workers continued to suffer since their own contributions were not viewed as taxable compensation by the authorities.
Surprisingly, and quite unjustly, the tax preferences extended to businesses was not granted to individuals forced to buy health insurance on their own. However, the tax preferences nevertheless served as a motivating factor for employers to offer healthcare provisions and employment-based health insurance for their employees.
Reference List Litman, T.J. (1997). Health politics and policy, 3rd Ed. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning.
Reinhardt, U.E. (2001). The United States healthcare system: Recent history and prospects. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on The Motivation behind Employer-Offered Healthcare in the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reinhardt, U.E. (2009, May 22). Is employer-based health insurance worth saving? The New York Times. Web.
Thomson, R.E. (2006). Employer-provided healthcare: Where’s the Justice? Web.
Divine Revelation and the Mystery of the Blessed Trinity Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The Blessed Trinity and the church
Introduction The aspect of faith is a contentious issue and therefore different Christian denominations have different beliefs in various aspects pertaining to God, the Supreme Being. There are however certain elements of faith that are almost universal to all Christians while others are treated differently.
The Nicene Creed that emphasizes on the Blessed Trinity, for example, attracts different views as some completely adhere to it while others reject it on the basis that it is not part of the bible. This paper tries to evaluate the Church’s understanding of mystery of the Blessed Trinity and the various arguments associated with it.
The Blessed Trinity and the church The Blessed Trinity comprises of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit as one body and spirit. It shows the unity among the three parts in one God. It is given high emphasis in the Nicene Creed which is adopted by most churches including the Anglican Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Churches, Assyrian Church of the East, the Roman Catholic (Old Catholic Church and Eastern Catholic Churches), the Lutheran church and most Protestant denominations. Some churches and Christians however consider it as unauthoritative because it is not part of the bible, for example, the Church of the New Jerusalem and the Jehovah’s Witnesses.
According to the Nicene Creed, there is only one God who is the creator of everything that is visible and invisible, one Lord Jesus, the Son of God who was born of the Holy Spirit through the Virgin Mary for the sake of our salvation, crucified, suffered and died for our sins then rose and ascended into heaven and will come again for judgment, and the Holy spirit who is worshiped and glorified together with the Son and the Father. The Nicene Creed also states that there is also the resurrection of the dead and life after death (eternal life).
The creed gives a person some form of identity in professing what he/she believes and gives him/her the spirit to keep growing in faith and doing the right things knowing that at the end of it all there is life after death just as Jesus Christ resurrected from the dead. Any person though has the option of either professing the creed or not. The creed clarifies opinions on whether and how Jesus Christ is God and also serves as a basis of church doctrines.
A Christian should believe and understand the mystery of the Trinity. In prayer Christians should ask God the Father to draw them close to the Son, the Son to reveal the Father to them and Holy Spirit to unite them to the Father and the Son. The trinity should be treated as one God in three persons and none of the persons should be under-emphasized. The three persons interrelate and work together as one.
The Catholic Church preaches that there is only one God who is infinite in knowledge, power, and other aspects of perfection. In this supernatural being there are three self who are perfectly equal to each other.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jesus Christ is God for he is over all things and Man since he was born as man through incarnation and lived a normal life and died as we do. The sign of the cross used by Christians, for example, in baptism shows a profession of faith in the Blessed Trinity. Members of the church should be united and believe in the same doctrines of revelation (Gibbons, 2003).
The Blessed Trinity is a concept adopted by the church in its practices. A Christian should in all ways believe that God manifests Himself in three bodies; The Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit as one. Just as there is unity in the Blessed Trinity, the church expects unity and harmony among the church members and also among the various organs that constitute the church. People should co-relate and work together to achieve what God require of them and in the long run to inherit the kingdom of God.
The controversial element in the Blessed Trinity is the second person; the Son; where people tend to disagree to the idea that He is God basing their arguments on the fact that he was created by God the Father. Further arguments state that the Son is not equal to the Father as He is visible as opposed to the Father, He is a created being and that his generation is not eternal and hence He is inferior to the Father.
In His teachings Jesus Christ also stated that there is a powerful God who had sent Him making us feel the superiority of God the Father. Nevertheless, the church teaches that Jesus Christ is God since he is of the substance of the father and he is also Man since He was born of the Virgin Mary through incarnation, and he lived and died as man.
The Blessed Trinity has co-existed and neither the Father has lived without the Son or the Son without the Holy Spirit. The Blessed Trinity aspect has been given great emphasis by various congregations by integrating the Nicene Creed in their ways of worship in the liturgy. The creed is recited after the word of God is read and before the prayers of intercession and this shows the importance attached to it since it acts as a link between the word of God and prayer.
Though the Blessed Trinity idea is not in the Bible it receives great support from the scripture, for example, in baptism where Jesus Christ authorized baptismal of people in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit (Mathew 28:19). He also told them to recognize him as the Son of God and promised them that the Father would send them a divine person; the Holy Spirit.
It is nonetheless associated with debate since some people believe that since the three persons have equal powers, there are three Gods as opposed to one God in three persons. The fact that the Son and the Holy Spirit draws power from the Father also makes people believe that they are less equal or inferior to the Father.
We will write a custom Essay on Divine Revelation and the Mystery of the Blessed Trinity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The Blessed Trinity teaches God’s nature. It is evident that God implements His powers through three persons who have a divine nature. The persons; the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are perfectly equal though distinct from each other. The Son is begotten of the Father by eternal generation and the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and Son by an eternal procession. It is however through divine revelation that this concept of Blessed Trinity can be understood, all in all this remains an impenetrable truth to reason.
Reference List Geitz, E. Gender and the Nicene Creed. Church Publishing, New York, 1995. pp 11-85.
Gibbons, J. Faith of our fathers; blessed Trinity’, Tan Books and Publishers, New York, 2003. pp 17-19.
Lafrance, J. Abiding in God; Prayer and Life in the Blessed Trinity, National library of Canada, Canada, 2004, pp 47-56.
Willies, D. Clues to the Nicene Creed: A brief Outline of the Faith. WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing co., Cambridge, 2005, pp 14 -18.
Footnotes E Geitz, Gender and the Nicene Creed. Church Publishing, New York, 1995. pp 11-85
D Willies, Clues to the Nicene Creed: A brief Outline of the Faith. WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing co., Cambridge, 2005, pp 14 -18.
J Lafrance, Abiding in God; Prayer and Life in the Blessed Trinity, National library of Canada, Canada, 2004, pp 47- 56
J Gibbons, Faith of our fathers; blessed Trinity’, Tan Books and Publishers, New York, 2003. pp 17-19.
Democracy in the Policy of United States of America Term Paper essay help online: essay help online
Democracy, in its rudimentary form, is described as a kind of a political government whose powers are derived from the people. The power is often found by referendum or by electing representatives in county governments, members of Congress and other political government representatives.
Democracy is therefore the system of rule, which the people who are governed have chosen. Democracy contrasts with other systems like monarch, totalitarian rule, communistic rule, and timocracy. This is because, in the case of democracy, there is freedom of expression and the public is free to participate in sociopolitical activities. There is more freedom and the public participates directly in the system of governance.
In a democratic system, all citizens are allowed to vote whoever they want. Apart from participation in governance by the public, there is also liberalization of economic sector and social activities. It is worth noting that the United States is a Republic not a democracy. A republic is a system in which the people chose people who represent them in formulating policies.
Settings and the mediation organizations should be restructured to ensure that they enhance reclamation of public work for citizens. This will in turn reinvent the citizenship of Americans. The practice of public works is crucial in this aspect. This is because the practice forms a basic conceptual approach to civic education. Thus, public work provides the framework in which the reinvention of active citizenship is built.
Therefore high schools should incorporate the culture of mandatory community service in their curriculum. Work places should be in democratic environments which allow for the participation of their workers in community services and public activities. Forums should be encouraged so that people can assemble to petition their representatives to redress their grievances.
In these assemblies, the public can also speak and act in concert. Reinventing citizenship through the above ways has its own pros and cons. In addition to this, the civil society has the mandate to train people on civic education so that they become more effective in the contemporary political world.
First of all, teaching the habits and skills of citizenship has a particular challenge in that some members of the public are known to be law breakers. In any particular community, there are those people who heed the law and those who do not heed. Those who do not heed cannot implement the teachings of citizenship. Similarly with offering mandatory civic courses, those people who are law breakers, tend not to heed to civic education thus offering a direct challenge to this method.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue of mandatory community service has also been met with a lot of resistance from a section of the public. This is because some legislators claim that it is unconstitutional and also offers the public free labor from the young people. Due to these challenges, mandatory community service has not been implemented in all parts of the country.
Public spaces in communities are very important areas for the public to meet and discuss major issues concerning the community. Public spaces in communities which are supposed to be used for social activities and public gatherings have reduced in number. In most cities, public land has been changed into other utility because of the high demand on land.
Thus there are certain places where public land is no more thus making this method of reinventing citizenship not viable. Most neighborhoods have already been designed such that there are no easy connections between citizens. This creates a hindrance for people to meet and exchange ideas aimed at problem solving.
Time is also a major issue when it comes to participation in public activities. In most of the major U.S cities, everyone is busy in their own business and lifestyle. It is not possible to gather the desired number of members of the public at one given time. Collective problem solving becomes quite difficult in this case. Thus, a decision made in a particular gathering during a particular time will not necessarily be a decision representing everyone’s opinion.
Workplace policies also face a major challenge. Implementing the culture of community service and participation in public activities is quite hard for many workers. This is because some say that it adds on the burden of work they already have in the workplace.
Therefore, some workers will find it hard to do community service because they already have enough workload to worry about. The current budget of the Government does not give business enough incentives to help them actively take part in community service. This also compounds the issue since every business is aiming at making profit.
Democracy plays an important role in enhancing public participation. In the political arena, democracy enables Americans to vote whoever they want to. It also enables the public to participate in social activities they want to. And it also gives workers a democratic space in which they are able to work in good work conditions.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Democracy in the Policy of United States of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such activities bring the public together thus creating a good atmosphere of solving problems. The process of public participation also helps in reinventing citizenship. Democracy gives the public enough space to engage in social activities without fear of reproach. Thus community service can be done without fear. Democracy in the work place also gives workers enough freedom to express their views and practice their culture.
The government usually does the people’s business without the participation of the public. Citizens are required to share the work of setting the public agenda with politicians and civic leaders. New opportunities should be formed or expanded so that the public can deliberate and also to elect leaders who are more serious with public judgment.
It should be noted that public confidence has the capacity to act effectively in political issues so that participation is enhanced. Those citizens who are most efficacious are much likely to try in political participation than the least efficacious. The personal logic of political participation has a relationship with the individual characteristics of the individual participation.
Thus, people participate in politics when they benefit by getting something tangible as a result of their participation. Political logic of political participation on the other hand has a direct relationship with political leaders. This is because the participation of politics by the public is governed by the way politicians influence them into taking part in the game.
The media comes in handy in bringing people into political participation. The media can create interactive shows which require participation of the public. However, creating new occasions for public deliberation such as National Issues Forum and Study Circles does not exactly involve every desired member of the public.
Not everyone will participate because of many issues, time, being one of them. There are also the issues of use of resources such as time and money which take a toll on public funds. Public forums use a lot of these resources which may also end up to waste if the decisions of the forums are not implemented.
Neighborhood councils can be quite effective in relation to aims of bringing the public back into political activities. These councils can serve as meeting points for the public to speak out and share their views concerning politics and governance. However, it has become quite difficult to bring people together in communities which share different cultures. This method may only be effective if proper plans are executed and enough resources are used.
Thus, the method may not be as easy, in the city, as in the country. It must be noted that this will also depend on the financial and political elite. The ruling class will always affect the community in the area of decision making. Conflicts between the elite can either be detrimental or of benefit to the community. Thus the conflict theory holds. This is because power is the ability to affect the conditions of life in a society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Democracy in the Policy of United States of America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Political campaigns play a major role in making the public to participate in political issues and public activities. This is because it acquaints the public on their political leaders and gives them an opportunity to select the leaders of their choice according to the politician’s policies. The length of political campaigns is therefore important because it is a factor that gives people enough time to engage in public and political activities.
Reducing the length of political campaigns only serves as a reducing factor in the time needed for public participation. The public will not have enough time needed to actively take part in political activities. It should be noted however, that political socialization plays a major role political activities. Thus if a person’s parents held a certain belief against a certain political party, the person will most likely have similar views.
The competition of political parties is well known as a breeding factor of public’s interest in politics. If this interest works to the advantage, higher turnout will be experienced during the voting process. Political parties create a good atmosphere for greater public participation if they treat each social group rationally.
Thus the young should be treated just like the adults and senior citizens. The financially handicapped should also be treated the same as the economic elite. If political parties become irrational towards members of a particular group, the members affected will become less interested in politics.
Reducing the cost of political campaigns will reduce the resources needed to familiarize the public with their leaders and therefore acts as an inhibiting factor in enhancing political participation by the public. It should also be noted, however, that, expanding public funding to political campaigns will not help much.
It will only be of bad taste to the public since the public will notice an element of misuse of funds. Political parties are therefore placed strategically in this issue. They have to balance between increasing funds for their political rallies and the public opinion about the same.
Conclusion There are a number of concepts and theories which have been considered as major factors that affect public participation in the United States of America. Public participation is directly related to democracy. If there is total democracy, more of the public will participate in political and public activities.
Civic education is quite necessary in enhancing public participation because civic activities bring people together and learn how to solve problems. Schools are also required to offer civic education and to improve the participation of their students in community services. Communities should have public spaces so that neighbors can connect with each other. Thus reinventing citizenship and improving public participation of the public should be enhanced.
Lean logistics in Air force Term Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
US Air Force Logistics
Application of Lean logistics in the US Air Force
Introduction Lean logistic owes its roots from the JIT philosophy formulated by Toyota Company. In United States, lean concept was initially applied in the manufacturing sector but has spread to the other sectors of the economy. This idea is aimed at getting rid of wastes such as inventories and had a series of specific approaches in achieving an organization’s objectives (Maidhar, 2005).
Thus lean objective is geared towards achieving minimum waste and to attain the lowest inventory. Lean concept is controlled by two aspects and that is to constantly reduce waste, and to add value to any production process (Guanyi, 2003).
The centre of lean logistics is a concept of stable improvement, elimination of potential wastes, serving the clients/customers promptly at a low cost and with the highest quality products/services thus enhancing the competitive capacity of an organization (Maidhar, 2005).
Lean logistics strategy tries to minimise inventory at the lowest possible level and only produce what can be consumed. This has helped many organizations to reduce costs associated with holding large inventories, improved their net income and eliminated kinks from their supply chain (Maidhar, 2005).
Lean logistics remains widely accepted among the automobile companies and other manufacturing entities that produce a long repetitive chain. This concept highly demands cooperation among different parties within the supply chain. In the non-manufacturing sector, lean logistical have been used in recruitment of human resources, supply and chain management, financial management, leadership structure among others.
Therefore, an organization or any business entity that applies the concept of lean logistics is swaying toward the realm of lean enterprise (Cohen, 1999).
A lean enterprise is defined as an integrated firm or company that effectively generates value for its numerous stakeholders by applying the principles of lean logistical management and practices. Efficient management of any business entity necessitates identification of the business dependencies and relations. Employees within a lean enterprise works together, recognize their place in the enterprise and are guided by the lean culture. Lean enterprise adapts lean principles in all the operations besides manufacturing process (Maidhar, 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Transforming an entity into a lean enterprise entails employment of lean concepts, instrument s, and methods when formulating the organization’s goal and objectives (Cohen, 1999).
This on the other hand tries to consolidate the whole entity and its employees together when developing the core mission and vision of the organization. Transforming an entity into a lean enterprise minimises the excessive and burdening influence of the managerial and functional storage capacity, if any, with more focus on networking and consolidation of an enterprise (Guanyi, 2003).
Most government organizations ‘objective is service delivery and not profit making thus have limited measures associated with value addition/production. This increases the chance of more resistance by these organizations towards adopting lean principles. Therefore some of the government policies have affected the adoption and absorption of the lean principles among the government offices.
According to some studies within the US Air Force, there is always lack of consensus among the leaders and the general staff and as a result no clear standards on wastes and value have been achieved. In most cases, the US military command employs the top down approach to its policy and daily operations. Instructions for the junior members are received from above (Cohen, 1999).
Over the years, the Air Force have used wider logistical systems that are based on management practices and concepts that have been used again and again and are have become outdated (Guanyi,2003). Air Force logistical system is usually referred to as logistical pipeline and plays a major role in providing materials required at different bases.
These activities include buying, warehousing, supplying and maintenance services, which demands huge amount of investments to be sustained. This explains the reason behind lean logistics introduction in the Air Force (Cohen, 1999).
US Air Force Logistics US Air Force department was established just immediately after the Second World War and was separated from the US Army in 1947 following the national security Act .Air Force responsibility has always been revised from time to time but its core value and mission of protecting the US air space has always remained the same. Air force is separated into four categories and sub categories (Christopherson
Turkey’s 2000-2001 Financial Crisis Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In the last twenty years, the Turkish economy has undergone two major crises. The first crisis began at the early 90’s while the second began at the beginning of the 21st century. During this time, the Turkish government was in the middle of a stabilization program in its exchange rate. Although the government managed to calm market tensions through numerous assurances, things soon got out of hand.
Towards the end of 2000, the country’s interest rates quadrupled within a period of one month. This also marked a five times increase over the rate of depreciation that the government had predicted for a two year period. At the beginning of 2001, rates had jumped to an all time level of close to 6000%. This led to the collapse of the exchange rate and the beginning of the country’s second economic crisis. Some things stand out as having caused the economic crisis.
One thing that comes out as having contributed to the 2000-2001 economic crises in Turkey was the poor macroeconomic performance of the country. During the period, the country’s public sector was relying highly on borrowing and the sovereign debt to GNP was on the rise. The rising public debt and the appreciation of the lira were becoming a cause of concern for investors.
This was worsened by the external interferences caused by the rise in oil prices at the time and the rising of the U.S. dollar against the other currencies. To compound this situation, the country lacked a flexible banking system, something that made the lira unable to deal with the crisis.
During the preceding years, the banking sector was in a risk itself. Almost all the major banks had a load of non-performing loans and had an increased currency and maturity imbalances. This made the banking system unable to deal with any capital reversal. These weaknesses in the banking sector had a big contribution to the economic crisis experienced during the time. (Ozatay 3)
On top of the problems at the country’s banking system, the other problems that caused the economic crises were political and policy uncertainties. In 2001, the country was hit by two negative occurrences in the political sphere. These started after the Prime Minister was suddenly taken ill sparking a spate of rumors about his health. This led to instability in the political sphere since there was a possibility that his party, which was the largest partner in the coalition government would dissolve.
On top of this, the coalition parties were unable to agree on the necessary steps to be followed in talks that were ongoing for the country to be admitted into the European Union. The ensuing political indecision gave rise to an atmosphere of policy indecision. This political and policy uncertainties in the country played a major part in the economic crises that hit the country. (Ozkan)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The 2000-2001 economic crises in Turkey were the worst in the country’s history. During the period, the country’s rate stood at an all time high of 6200%. This major cause of this crisis was the lack of reforms in the banking system. This gave rise to a load of non-performing loans and maturity imbalances that made the banking system unable to deal with any capital reversal.
During the time, the coalition government was also having a hard time in trying to agree on key issue in the government. This affected the country’s policymaking organs hence leading to lack of key reforms that could have prevented the crises.
Works Cited Ozatay, Fatih. Turkey’s 2000-2001 Financial Crises and the Central Bank’s Policy in the Aftermath of Crisis, n.d. 1-8. Print.
Ozkan, Gulcin. Currency and Financial Crises in Turkey, 2000-2001: Bad Fundamentals or Bad Luck? The World Economy, 2005. 541-572. Print.
Morningness-Eveningness Preference to Sensation Seeking Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract This paper focuses on juxtaposing between morning types and evening types in terms of their disposition towards sensations. The research is based on the hypothesis that evening types are more sensation seekers than morning types. This paper is based on a research that was carried out. In the research, a total number of 1243 participants filled in questionnaires on how they are likely to behave after waking depending on there sleeping times.
The 1243 participants were students from a psychology class who were attending a seminar. The seminar leader used two questionnaires to collect data from the students, that is, the sensation scale and morningness and eveningness scale questionnaires. After collecting and analyzing the data, on the whole, the results highlight the comparison between evening types and morning types with regard to sensation seeking.
Introduction Morningness-eveningness preference (circadian typology) can be considered one of the most marked individual differences in circadian rhythms, which is represented along a continuum between two extremes: morning types(sometimes labeled “larks” ) go to bed and awake early; evening types (sometimes labeled “owls” ) have later bedtime and wake up time and are tired when waking up (Tonneti et al, 2009).
There greater chunk of the population are intermediate types i.e. they are moderate in their preference of excitement and search for sensational experiences (Tonneti et al, 2009).
They are neither too inclined towards risky behavior nor are they people who shy off from challenge and thrill. Sensation-seeking, is a term used to refer to the inclination by individuals to seek out pleasurable moments or excitement in life. People with this trait, which is also known as excitement seeking trait, go an extra mile just to have fun and enjoy moments in their life. Such like people seek to experience and enjoy life not for any other reason but for the sake of the experience or fun in itself.
According to Horvath and Zuckerman (1992) in there search for novel and intense sensation and experience, sensation seekers take various kinds of risks. They take physical risks in dangerous sports and vocations. They take physical and legal risks when they drive too fast, recklessly or while intoxicated (Horvath and Zuckerman, 1992). They volunteer for psychological experiments regarded as risky, tend to drink too heavily, they smoke thus accepting health risk. They tend to make bigger bets in gambling, associated with larger increases in arousal, and show a tendency to make risky financial investments (Horvath and Zuckerman, 1992). Their tendency to engage in varied sexual activities with a variety of partners puts them at greater risk for venereal diseases, including Autoimmune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (Horvath and Zuckerman, 1992). High sensation seeking is a major trait of psychopaths who seem almost oblivious to the risks of their criminal activities, compared to non-psychopathic criminals.
The big question would be to consider why some people are sensation seekers i.e. go for experiences against all odds while others are reserved and laid back. This could be explained by the possibility that excitement seekers find more value in activities and experiences than non-excitement seekers (Tonneti et al, 2009). For instance, these individuals will go for adrenaline drawing activities because in them they find a high that is more than one can ever get doing the ordinary. Excitement or sensation seekers find a lot of stimulation from daring the devil. They enjoy taking risk and only passion or being on the edge makes them tick in life. They are lured to risky activities because what they feel in such intense experiences is more rewarding and moving and thus outweighs the fear of repercussions due to risk involved.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An alternative, but not necessarily contradictory, hypothesis is that high sensation seekers have an ‘optimistic bias,’ that is, they see themselves less at risk and having less possibility of a negative outcome of the risky activity(Horvath and Zuckerman, 1992).
In their research, Horvath and Zuckerman (1992) asked Ss to rate the riskiness of a variety of activities. They further asked the Ss to indicate how many times they had engaged in those activities. The correlation between appraised risk and experience was high (r = -0.56) and indicated that the more experience one had doing something, the less risky the activity was judged to be.
This finding can be explained by the development of a sense of competence because of non-injurious experience. Unrealistic optimism increases with perceived controllability (Weinstein, 1987 as quoted by Horvath
Raising a child with high self esteem Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Raising a child with high self esteem
Introduction Self esteem refers to an individual’s by and large valuation of his or her own significance. It includes convictions and feelings such as achievement, hopelessness, satisfaction and indignity. Self esteem is wide-reaching as it can refer to a distinctive aspect or can have a comprehensive coverage (Grose 1).
An individual’s self esteem commences its development for the better or worse from the early stages of life. It is all about the kind of environment and upbringing that one goes through that determines their self esteem level. The manner in which a parent/guardian communicates with their child and the parent’s self image are all contributing factors to the child’s self esteem. For that reason, it is imperative that parents, guardians and teachers make certain that children are raised in a manner that boosts the development of their self worth.
By the age of three years, though normally considered to be yet tender, a child has gone through quite an extensive array of emotions and is a psychologically complex individual (Grose 1). The importance of careful and psychologically sound upbringing cannot, thus, be overemphasized if parents and other caregivers aim to raise persons who will be able to develop and maintain good relations with other people and also have the capability to effectively be in charge of their emotions.
Child learning and development experts advise that the psychological development of a child should be recognized and promoted at home and in the early learning environments like childcare schools and pre-units (Reese, Bird and Tripp, 461).
Raising a child with high self esteem Parents, teachers and other caregivers need to lay emphasis on children’s psychological progress, the form of development that bears both physiological and psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning aspects which affect behavior (Weiner 16). These feelings should be certainly emphasized to enhance a high self esteem right through the child’s life.
The kind of reactions that a child receives from their earliest caretakers has a huge impact on how the child will be able to go about their sentiments and feelings later on in their life.
A child having a safe and sound relationship with their mother and/or other caregiver(s) will be able to easily establish constructive relations and react positively to instigations with other people (Henderson 118). On the other hand, a child who has a relation with their caregiver that lacks self-confidence or assurance will exhibit more downbeat and pessimistic sentiments while interrelating with others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A very important point to note is that in young children, self esteem is not gauged by their personality significance, but by how intimately the loved ones in their lives deference and take action to their specific needs. For instance, children who lack someone or some people worthy of imitation or those who lack parental prop up have a propensity to having an inferior self esteem since the general feeling is that these grown persons do not acknowledge or get concerned about them.
This is the key element which children base their self esteem height in the course of their early days and then into their later life (Henderson 118). A good illustration of this is can be observed early on in babyhood growth of children who act in response and connect themselves to the adults or caregivers who show utmost love and care and are in charge of them.
Parents and other caregivers of children need to establish a sense of connectedness by use of loving physical touch and words as the first step. These develop a sense of belonging and security. The child is assures that there is someone or there are a people who really care about them and thus their self esteem is boosted (Vallee 1).
Early childhood development specialists advise that the fastest and effective means to quiet and calm a crying baby is by cuddling together while lightly stroking him or her. Such strokes have a remarkable power to show love and care. When an infant calms after this has been done to him or her, the indication is that he or she is acting in response to the caregiver who is without a doubt trusted (Vallee 1). This goes a long way in laying the foundation for the child’s prospective confidence and self worth.
As much as everyone wants to bring up responsible and reliable kids, there needs to be a considerable allowance for making mistakes. It is appropriate and a positive contribution to a child’s self esteem when adults own up that they make slip-ups. It is more effective when they go ahead and talk about the existence of mistakes and blunders (Henderson 119). In doing this, they ensure that the psychological growth of the child is enhanced since the fear of attempting new things is dispelled. This is a big positive in terms of creativity and innovativeness.
It is suggested that adults ask children their take on the most suitable actions to take whenever people commit mistakes or offences. Such sessions offer perfect opportunities for getting the take of the young ones on various issues and teaching them what is the best way of going about life. It also increases their feeling of self worth as they feel they are part and parcel of a family, classroom or school set up.
They get to appreciate that mistakes are part of the larger learning process, and that they are not experiences to be beaten by. Otherwise, they will be left feeling powerless and vulnerable (Grose 1). A majority of them end up turning into class comics, oppressors, gloomy, drug abusers, and other forms of self-destruct behavior. The mentality that nothing constructive can come out of one no matter what they do is responsible for this.
We will write a custom Essay on Raising a child with high self esteem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Children need to be made to feel that they are making a contribution to their family, classroom, and church, among others. Self esteem grows from feeling valued and worthy. For that reason, these developing people need to be offered ways in which they can make their contributions of whatever form.
Everyone has got at least an area or competency and if this can be discovered so that it is exploited then the better (Grose 1). For instance, an example is given of a little boy who instead of going to school spent his time in the bushes. When interrogated innocently to find out what he really liked, he revealed that he would rather be at home caring for his pet dog.
After this, the school head attracted him to take care of the school’s pet rabbit. With this, he looked forward to going to school every day since he had been offered to do what he enjoyed most and above all he felt that he had a contribution to make at school. Children who exhibit a likeness for various activities and duties need to be given chances to do that albeit in small or unsatisfactory levels to boost their self confidence.
Giving a choice is such an important self esteem development tool that it should be employed always. Almost all things or activities can be made to be in the form of alternatives. For instance, if you give a child the alternatives of writing using either green or red ink they are going to write more than if they were just told to write.
Giving choices or options helps build up logic of possession and accountability than situations whereby other individuals at all times make a decision on what you are to do, when and the manner in which you will do it (Vallee 1). Allowing children make choices gives them the opportunity to try out, make gaffes and gain knowledge in nonthreatening states of affairs.
Adults need to watch the language that they use around children. These young ones are not impervious to the inappropriate language that a substantive amount of people use. For example, children as young as five years old have been heard asking whether they are fat or not. One would expect that at this tender age they should not be having such thought in their minds. All this has resulted from what they hear and see in the mass media and what those around them are always talking about (Reese, Bird and Tripp, 463).
To avoid such negative thoughts in children there is need to always watch one’s language when in their presence. Whatever that they are exposed to through the mass media needs to be controlled and regulated. Whenever they come up with such enquiries, one should try to find out where they got or heard that from so that such incidents can be controlled and avoided. Whenever describing people one needs to stick to personality and character rather than appearance.
Praising children boosts their self esteem. However, it should be done whenever deserved and care should be taken not to overdo it. Continuous praising eventually results in them soon or later ignoring these praises as false and thus a negative effect on their self esteem. It is important that challenging and giving confidence to children to take risks should come in between.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Raising a child with high self esteem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Children need to be taught fine societal and conversational techniques by means of mock ups, direct coaching and directed performances. All these are vital skills in ensuring self esteem and boosting the way in which they will interact with other people in society (Grose 1).
Another vital self esteem developer in children is talking about the kin stories, ancestors, customs, and nationality in an affirmative and constructive manner. Parents, other caregivers and children should begin to talk about past occurrences almost as soon as the children language capabilities allow it (Weiner 16). Past event discussions should be presented as positively as possible, in a more detailed manner. Children undergoing such narratives end up with enhanced autobiographical recollection. Such events also make certain that children’s oral and non-verbal remembrance is enhanced.
Children need to be taught to set minor and main goals or objectives in a bid to assist them develop into responsible persons. They should be made to understand matters according to priority and thus enhance their planning and management skills (Henderson 120). They should be able to prioritize effectively so that they are in control of matters affecting their lives and thus hold high self esteem.
All caregivers need to build up the intellect of distinctiveness in their children. The reason for this is due to the simple fact that every person has a unique talent or gift which needs to be enhanced for him or her to attain his or her full potential. Whenever one’s uniqueness is enhanced in a constructive way then their self worth gets a boost.
All that is needed is to find occasions where this can be done. For example, if a child has shown a liking for drawing and/or painting, place drawing materials and tools within their reach and you can be sure that at one time or another they will get hold of these and draw or paint or both (Grose 1). Once you come across whatever that they have done be sure to commend and appreciate their work. This will boost their morale and self worth and they will seek to improve their skill even further.
Conclusion Self development is usually a superior obligation as compared to self sacrifice. Having a first-rate self worth or mind set about oneself can describe self esteem (Grose 1). Children with a high self esteem always feel that the significant adults in their lives acknowledge and appreciate them and would go to whatever extent to make certain that they are out of harm’s way.
A child’s self esteem is not a thing to do with genetics; it is founded and developed with the help of parents and all the caregivers that the child comes across in the course of his or her development (Reese, Bird and Tripp, 467). Quite a substantial amount of time, commitment and affirmative back up is required for an effective development.
These and the aforementioned prerequisites for the development of self esteem in children may or may not work depending on the specific conditions in which the child is. It is thus of essence to ensure that a child is raised in a favorable environment for development so that the child can be helped by parents/caregivers to develop self-esteem.
Works Cited Grose, Michael. “Building high Self-Esteem in Your Child.” 2006- November 14. Web.
Henderson, Shirley. “Boosting Your Child’s Self-Esteem.” Pp 118-120. Johnson Publishing Company, Inc. (2010).
Reese E, Bird A and Tripp G. “Children’s Self-esteem and Moral Self: Links to Parent–Child Conversations Regarding Emotion.” pp 461-467. University of Otago. (2007).
Vallee, Tammy. “Parenting tips for raising children with high self-esteem”. 2002. Web.
Weiner, Jessica. “Build Your Child’s Self-Esteem.” EBSCO Publishing, 2003. p. 16.
The British East India Company Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
A Brief Contextual History of Chartered Companies
The Establishment and Organization of East India Company (EIC)
Introduction Even to day the term Chartered Company is usually applied with reference to the great chartered that existed from the sixteenth to eighteenth century including the likes of English, French and Dutch East Asia companies. These establishments were formed for other purposes other than trade and continued flourishing beyond the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Evidence of this can be seen by turning to a recent stock exchange yearbook where a list of British Chartered companies will be identified. According to statistics provided by Orinhal, in the volume compiled for the year 1960, there were seventeen of these companies listed.
The origins of these Chartered companies can be traced back to an era during the middle ages. It was during this age that it was observed that not all enterprises could be operated by individuals on their own account or by partnerships. It became apparent that a corporate form was necessary to conduct business in an efficient and proper fashion. Following this, the English developed several ways of forming such a corporation; through parliamentary authority, using common law and by prescription or charter of the King.
As suggested in the name, the option of incorporation by charter became the most popular method of formation of these companies. The charter drafted on paper was a document by which the state conferred certain privileges on corporate bodies. Among the privileges accorded these companies was state protection in their excursions whether at home or abroad.
This explains how these corporations accompanied by soldiers spread across the world. In this paper the discussions presented will delve into the subject of these chartered companies. A Brief history and an analysis of their role in history and politics will be presented. Based on the facts a conclusion will be offered suggesting their role if any in business today.
A Brief Contextual History of Chartered Companies Having established how these companies came into existence it is essential to also answer the question as to why they were created. The answer to this lies in the fact that documentary evidence was required to protect the trades and industries within the country in the event of civil commotion, feudal oppression and general lawlessness. These companies were initially limited to particular localities within a state but owing to mutual advantages to both the Crown and the corporations their realm rapidly expanded.
It has been reported that during periods of border warfare between Scotland, Wales and eventually during the disastrous War of the Roses, numerous of these concessions were grated to the Great trade guilds. Prior to this these private bodies were institutions acting in the common interests of their craft.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However upon receiving these state concessions they were accorded numerous immunities, privileges and monopolies in exchange for services and money grants to the Crown in times of emergency. Among the trades that benefited from these concessions included gold smiths, haberdashers, fishmongers, etc. These charters formed the basis upon which future charters with merchant classes that carried out trade across borders. However, it was the effects of these charters that led to the economic growth that saw an increased need for raw materials.
The Establishment and Organization of East India Company (EIC) According to reports by Gupta, the British East India Company (EIC) was formed around the year 1600. Within a period of fifteen year after incorporation the King of England had noted the immense value trade from this region had brought to England.
The principal driving factor behind this immense benefit could be traced to activities of the native rulers abroad and the role of the English Crown. The native rulers sought to attain the most favorable trading treatment possible while the Crown managed to build a monopoly of English trade to the region of the East Indies.
By the second half of the eighteenth century the power of the Crown had expanded steadily albeit unevenly following the conquest of the Bengal region on the eastern coast in 1765. Following this efforts to expand trade opportunities in the region required the involvement in Indian political affairs with the result that there arose an era of intense political aggression and military conquest.
Following this intense campaign unrest increased within the local communities and eventually led to the Indian Mutiny in 1857-1858. During the period of the campaign the company gradually shifted its interests from those of a trading corporation to that of a colonial power. As expected this shift in focus also led to a shift in strategy used by the company in the region.
As mentioned in the introduction these charters included privileges such as trade monopolies which were of great value to their home states. It is important to note at this on that prior to this campaign there were other East Indian companies in operation in the region. The Dutch, French and Danish companies had co existed with the British East India Company in the region from 1600 to the late 1700’s.
This suggests that the period of the 1800’s marked the beginning of British monopoly in the region and may have been the reason behind the change in focus.
We will write a custom Essay on The British East India Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Following the exit of the other companies, the British implemented strategies to increase their authority in their coastal territories and expand control further inland. Owing to this by 1820 the company controlled the greater portion of this sub continent. Local control was achieved through varied forms of land administration.
This saw the formation of presidencies in Bengal, Madras and Bombay. Majority of local administrators were selected from the land owners who were given charge of the peasantry. In other states annexation which allowed for the levying of taxes in exchange for protection was practiced. In many cases the steep charges of annexation eventually led to the complete conquest of regions.
As the territory grew in size the company embarked on training programs in England for administrative officials who were to be incorporated in the civil service. These civil servants were posted in newly created districts inland to perform administrative and company duties.
The district official was charged with duties which included; dispute resolution through court where they acted as magistrates, revenue collection within the district and control of the district police. Within these sub units the knowledgeable and skilled locals were enlisted though owing to racial innuendo they were barred from any high ranking offices.
Having so far highlighted the role of the monarchs and governments in this history of this company, the discussion will also briefly glimpse at the role of merchants. The main purpose of this company was trade which essentially described the purchase of goods in Asia and their sale in Europe. The agents of the company were accorded the privilege to trade from one part of the Indian Ocean to another with exception of Europe.
This privilege was also extended to license holders not employed by the company also known as free merchants. Within the territories the company would make arrangements with local rulers to establish factories from which its agents would procure goods and transport them either inland or abroad. Inland trade was meant to be free from duties though these concessions were often vague and prone to misinterpretation by territorial rulers.
As it can be seen from the above paragraph the operations of this company was not without challenges. However, it has been suggested that the work of these merchants in the various territories may have been the driving force behind colonization. In fact some authors have argued that the formation of these companies was part of a political machine with a single objective of gaining resources and control associated with those resources.
This position is reflected in the fact that from the establishment of this company it concerned itself with trade and expansion of its trade territory. It would be unrealistic in the opinion of mercantilism to continue expansion of trade without government regulation and involvement.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The British East India Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This point is further strengthened by the fact that local rulers in India were used to using despotic means over their citizens. As such it was easy to use strategies such as annexation to gradually take control of the entire region. On clear aspect that is evident from the performance of these companies is the existence of a persistent link between state affairs and regional trade. This is due to the fact that a well orchestrated partnership between the two allowed these companies to survive in a period that spanned over two centuries.
Conclusion In this paper the discussion presented introduced the subject of trading companies that existed within governments that colonized vast territories of the world in the past. The discussion suggests criteria that led to their formation and subsequent sections have shown how these partnerships flourished amid changing times. Owing to this it has been suggested that the merchants of these times provide on possible core of information for free standing firms today.
It is possible that these companies formed the basis for business entities as we know them today. According to Jones, both firms and individuals attempt to create institutional forms when existing ones fail efficiently meet transaction relationship requirements.This suggests that what we see today may be due to attempts to replace these companies owing to their inability to survive in the free world.
Bibliography Bowen, Huw, Margarette Lincoln and Nigel Rigby. The worlds of the East India Company. Woodbridge: The Boydell press, 2002.
Carter, Mia and Barbara Harlow. Archives of Empire: From the East India Company to the Suez Canal. USA: Duke University Press, 2003.
Cavendish, Marshall. World and its People: Eastern and Southern Asia. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2007.
Cawston, George and Augustus Henry Keane. The Early Chartered Companies (A.D. 1296-1858). New Jersey: The Law Book Exchange Ltd., 2003.
Chaudhuri, Kirti Narayan. The trading world of Asia and the English East India Company. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Gupta, Brijen Kishore. Sirajdullah and the East India Company, 1756-1757. Netherlands: E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1962.
Jones, Geoffrey. The multinational traders. London: Routledge, 1998.
Orhinal, Tony. Limited liability and the corporation. London: Action Society Trust, 1982.
Footnotes Tony Orhinal, Limited Liability and the Corporation, (London: Action Society Trust), 137.
Tony Orhinal, Limited Liability and the Corporation, (London: Action Society Trust), 138.
George Cawston and Augustus Henry Keane, The Early Chartered Companies (A.D. 1296-1858) (New Jersey: The Law Book Exchange Ltd.), 1.
George Cawston and Augustus Henry Keane, The Early Chartered Companies (A.D. 1296-1858) (New Jersey: The Law Book Exchange Ltd.), 2.
George Cawston and Augustus Henry Keane, The Early Chartered Companies (A.D. 1296-1858) (New Jersey: The Law Book Exchange Ltd.), 2.
Brijen Kishore Gupta, Sirajdullah and the East India Company, 1756-1757 (Netherlands: E. J. Brill, Leiden), 1.
Marshall Cavendish, World and its People: Eastern and Southern Asia (New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation), 366.
Marshall Cavendish, World and its People: Eastern and Southern Asia (New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation), 366.
Marshall Cavendish, World and its People: Eastern and Southern Asia (New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation), 366.
Marshall Cavendish, World and its People: Eastern and Southern Asia (New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation), 367.
Marshall Cavendish, World and its People: Eastern and Southern Asia (New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation), 367.
Kirti, Narayan Chaudhuri, The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 41.
Brijen Kishore Gupta, Sirajdullah and the East India Company, 1756-1757 (Netherlands: E. J. Brill, Leiden), 1.
Huw. Bowen, Margarette Lincoln and Nigel Rigby, The Worlds of the East India Company (Woodbridge: The Boydell press), 70.
Mia Carter and Barbara Harlow, Archives of Empire: From the East India Company to the Suez Canal (USA: Duke University Press), 89.
Geoffrey Jones, The Multinational Traders (London: Routledge), 102.
Geoffrey Jones, The Multinational Traders (London: Routledge), 201.
Racism, Colonialism and the Emergence of Third World Essay college essay help: college essay help
Racism refers to actions that a specific group of people may take due to the prejudice, looking down upon, or even hostility towards a specific group of people based on their ethnic origin, which may be manifested in skin colour or otherwise (Fredrickson, 2002, p 1).
On the other hand, colonialism can be defined as the widening of the country’s rules to areas that are beyond or outside its borders (Kozlowski, 2010, p 1). The area that is outside the colonizing country’s borders is known as a colony; primarily, the colonizing country may directly govern the country or govern it indirectly through other people who are accountable to it.
Third world countries are the countries, which are comparatively economically and politically underdeveloped to the developed nations. Primarily, these countries include all the countries of Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and some Asian countries.
Most scholars have argued that racism was initially brought by religion; for example, Christians generally rejoiced when people of other religions accepted to be converted to Christianity. However, Jews, who practice Judaism, were reluctant to be converted to Christianity and believed in the old testament of the bible. Therefore, due to their belief, the Jews prevented the spreading of the gospel.
Moreover the Jews were the people who made Jesus to be crucified, thus other Christians had prejudice towards them. This prejudice later turned to racism when other Christians turned to the belief that the Jews were generally evil despite their beliefs and practices (Fredrickson, 2002, p 19). This laid the foundation for the emergence of racism in society, as with time, the attitude of the other Europeans towards Jews became more and more hostile, culminating in the massacre of Jews in 1096.
Moreover, Jews had a different physical appearance from other Europeans hence they could easily be identified (Fredrickson, 2002, p 19). This form of racism gradually leads to modern day racism, which perceives whites to be superior to other races (Fredrickson, 2002, p 46). Racism made one group feel superior to the other groups and hence this made them to feel as if they are supposed to be the masters of the other groups. This notion led to the development of colonialism where one group is ruled over by the other group.
The earliest documented form of colonialism involved the Greeks and the Romans. They colonized most of the islands in the Mediterranean Sea and eventually the whole area, which surrounds the Mediterranean Sea. Primarily, they used a mechanism where they provided housing for the people who they had colonized and allowed them to set families in the areas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These people worked in their farms under inhuman conditions; however, since these people could reproduce, the Greeks and the Romans believed that the system could support itself since their children could work in the firms hence ensuring there was adequate labour (Anon. 2010). The issue of colonialism and superiority of race had not attracted the attention of scholars to develop theories to explain the phenomenon.
The first scholar to come up with a theory which explicitly explained the issue of superiority of certain groups was Charles Darwin, a 19th century biologist. He suggested that nature has a way of self-regulating itself and selected the species that was most suited to survive in the present conditions.
According to Darwin, the other species, which are not able to effectively cope with the changes, soon, die out hence leaving the other species as the dominant one. In his theory, the species self-enriched themselves while the minority species were subjected to extinction. He used his theory to explain about evolution and why some of the species seem to be disappearing (Anon Para. 8).
According to Darwin the superior species was capable of adapting to the present conditions was not created by nature, it existed together with the other species and was formed to gradual genetic change of the species generation after generation (anon Para. 7). This view is further supported by Adolf Hitler the “Mein kampf”.
According to Hitler, the Aryan is a superior race hence natural selection will ensure its survival and propagation (Hitler part 1). This view is also shared by Josiah Strong, a social reformer of the 19th and 20th century. According to Strong the superior race is the Anglo-Saxon, a race formed by the interbreeding of the Americans and the English people (strong 223).
However, different scholars have different views concerning how the superiority of the specific groups is achieved. Darwin argues that the superior species are formed due to the slow alteration of the genetic makeup of the species. This process usually takes many generations to achieve the superiority of the species (anon para 7).
Hitler argues that the superior race has been in existence since the human being came to existence. However, both of these views are disputed by Strong who argues that the superior race was formed only recently. Its dominance will be felt in the coming generations (strong p 225).
We will write a custom Essay on Racism, Colonialism and the Emergence of Third World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The scholars also have different views concerning the preservation of the superior species. Darwin is of the view that these species will self-regenerate itself due to the continued change in the genetic makeup of the species to enable it to cope with the changing conditions (anon para 7).
This view is shared by Josiah Strong who argues that the superior race is subject to improvement from generation to generation due to improvement of the race due to breeding with other superior species (strong 224). However Hitler is of the view that for the self preservation of the species the superior race must avoid cross breeding with the inferior race at all costs. Cross breeding will lead to a reduction in the ability of the other species (Hitler part 1).
The above scholars’ views were interpreted differently by different people. Darwin’s was used by Strong and Hitler as a basic foundation of their theories. The theories of Josiah Strong led to colonization of many countries by its supporters. However the theories of Hitler had the most tragic effects. They led to the massive killing of Jews – who were perceived to be inferior to other Jews – in concentration camps during the Nazi Germany. Around six million Jews were killed in what came to be known as the holocaust.
Colonization exposed countries to severe and inhuman rules with the people of these countries fought with the colonialist to obtain independence. However, when the colonial rule ended and the country obtained independence the colonialist still wanted to control the development of these countries. This led to eventual war in many countries as the countries wanted to determine their development as sovereign nations (Racism, Colonialism, and the Emergence of Third World 209).
The control of development by the colonial countries led to eventual impoverishment of the countries leading to the emergence of third world countries. Moreover, the wars also led to impoverishment of the countries.
Racism and colonialism usually have traumatic consequences on the lives of the people who are subjected to the practices. However this practice is usually creates opportunities for various capitalists to venture into the countries. As the people try to come to terms with the effects different people use the opportunity to venture into the areas since the people are usually concerned with the effects of the tragedy.
This people exploit the countries concerned for their own benefit. This people exploit the countries leading to further impoverishment of the countries. The disasters provide an opportunity for the capitalists to venture into those economies during the times (anon. the shock doctrine: an excerpt from the introduction para 9).
The views of the above scholars are strongly opposed by the W.E.B Du Bois, Obama and Edward Rhymes. These scholars point out the negative effects of racism, which was formed due to one group having the perception that they are superior to the other races. W.E.B. Du Bois points the fact that society usually corrupts people. A child is usually born with an innocent heart society is the one that teaches it to be racial (Dubois 2).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Racism, Colonialism and the Emergence of Third World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is clearly illustrated by the statement that “he knew no color-line, poor dear–and the Veil, though it shadowed him, had not darkened half his sun; he loved the white matron, he loved his black nurse; and in his little world walked souls alone, uncolored and unclothed” (Dubois 2). Obama also argues against racism but sees that the problem can slowly be eradicated.
These scholars see racism as a vice which must be eradicated in the society. Dubois is of the view that racism will never be eradicated. In his essay the death of the child signifies the loss of hope for the end of racism (Dubois 2). However, Obama is of the view that racism will be eradicated but the process will be gradual and may take many generations to end. In his view the union between the two groups – one which sees itself as superior and the other which is perceived to be inferior – is perfected generation after generation (Obama 2007).
The problems posed by racism are complicated by the double standardness of different groups towards racism. Actions of specific groups are perceived to be wrong due to their race. However, if a different race does the same action they are not perceived to be wrong (Rhymes 2007)
A recent ideology is the fact that people currently use the excuse of disasters to enter into different areas and establish enterprises which lead to further impoverishments of the areas. Instead of venturing into the areas to provide humanitarian aid, these people go there to exploit the people. They form ties with the administration to ensure that they achieve their goals. These practices have been effectively used by different administrations to exploit the people (Klein Para 8).
During the periods when there are disasters, the administration may take measures, which will generally not be acknowledged by the citizens as they are reeling from the effects of the disasters. The administration may liberalize the economies paving way for the capitalists to venture into the countries. This practice has effectively been used in Chile (Klein Para 11).
Conclusion Racism and colonialism are two aspects which are closely related to one another. The two aspects lead to the impoverishment of different nations hence affecting their economic position. The vice of racism leads to very many other adverse effects and therefore it should be discouraged at all costs since are all equal regardless of race, colour, sex or beliefs. The world is slowly being healed from racism and its effects and in future it is expected to have been completely eliminated or reduced to very minimal levels.
References Anon. “Darwin and Natural Selection.” Darwin and Natural Selection. 2010. Web.
DuBois, W.E.B. “Of the Passing of the First-Born.” Of the Passing of the First-Born. 1903.
Fredrickson, George M. Racism: a short history. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 2002. Web.
Hitler, Adolf. “Nation and Race.” Nation and Race. Web.
Klein, Naomi. The Shock Doctrine: An Excerpt from the Introduction. Web.
Kozlowski, Darell J. Colonialism. MN: Infobase Publishing. 2010. Web.
Obama, Barack. “A More Perfect Union.” Organizing for America. 2008. Web.
“Racism, Colonialism, and the Emergence of Third World.” Racism, Colonialism and the Emergence of Third World.
Rhymes, Edward. “Caucasian Please! America’s True Double Standard for Misogyny and Racism.” Black Agenda Report. 2007. Web.
Strong, Josiah. The Anglo-Saxon and the world’s future.
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing System Report (Assessment) essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
The Geographic Information System and Business Intelligence
Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence
Models of Data Warehousing
Standard Statistical Methods and Business Intelligence
Introduction The name business intelligence (BI) is a name that was formed in the mid 1950s to describe the act of changing un-grouped data from a company’s or an organization’s contrasting functional data into a common data warehouse that could help the organization to come up with or in reporting and presenting information.
The person uses this collected data network through an easy-to-use interface which functions to display the outcome of the extraction, transformation and loading procedure. This is commonly known as the ETL procedure and it is used to expand the data warehouse.
This particular network also acts as an ordered reporting environment that distributes the completed and available functional reports and business decisions all over the various departments of the organizations. It is noted that in the recent times, service oriented architecture (SOA) has decided to start supplanting and augmenting data warehousing and business intelligence implementations (Biere, 2003).
This action of merging data warehousing and business intelligence has a business advantage in that the reporting and making of decisions are carried out or are dependent on a common functional view or better still on one model of the truth. Access to business intelligence information has become timely and it is also known that graphic dashboards have been developed with the main aim of keeping tracks of major business operations.
As a result, this has made business intelligence more graphic intensive. Practically, charts and business graphics now form a common part of reports. The graphic dashboards were named so because of their resemblance to the usual automobile or car dashboards. They work by giving operational information at a glance (Moss
The New Thinking on Followership and Leadership Philosophy Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Different categories of followers
Different styles of leadership
Positive and negative side of leadership
Negative aspects of followership
New thinking on followership and leadership philosophy
Introduction Followership is one of the most under researched discipline. This is because of the stigma that the societies attach to the term follower. The term followership can be defined as the ability of a person or a group to follow the directions and offer support to a leader for maximization of an organization’s structure (Ellice, 2004). On the other hand, this term has been associated negatively with other terms such as feeble, submission and conformity. Followers have always been looked down upon and the term has attracted hostile images (Goffee
Radiation in the Workplace Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Radiation comes from natural sources and man-made sources. Included in the natural sources are those that come from outer space (especially the sun), the rocks and soil, and the human body (Natural Radiation, par. 2). Man-made sources include medical equipment, consumer products, nuclear weapons and industrial infrastructures (pars. 7 -10). Radiation has a harmful effect upon the human body.
However, since it is useful in medicine and industry, its use must be controlled so that human exposure will be minimized. New modalities and uses are being introduced using radiation.
Radiations are classified as alpha, beta and gamma radiations. An alpha radiation emanates from “heavier elements” (with atomic number higher than 52) and becomes ionized easily that prevents penetrating a material (Types of Radiation, par. 4). It cannot penetrate and cannot harm the skin (4).
This emission can only travel for a short distance in the air (What Types, par. 2). The particle is a helium nucleus (2) with a positive charge (Types of Radiation, par. 4). The Beta radiation can have a positive charge (positron) or negative charge (negatron), lighter, moves fast, and has a higher penetrating capacity (5). Although it can penetrate water, inner layer of the skin, and other materials, an aluminum metal can stop it (5).
A gamma radiation is electromagnetic in nature just like the ultraviolet rays (6). It has a short wavelength, high penetration capacity (even into the tissue) and a danger to people (6). The X-ray is grouped together with gamma radiation (Radiation Protection, 6).
Frequency and Wavelength Spectrum
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More (Source: Radiation Protection, 6).
Although nuclear medicine has benefits to health, there are accompanying risks that may result to serious consequences or death (Occupational Radiation, xxii). Exposure to radiation is a risk to cancer. Therefore, people working with them should wear protective gears or at lesser time.
How is Radiation Measured The international unit of measurement under the metric system uses the System Internationale (SI) (Radiation Measurement, 1). The SI unit for emitted radiation is “Bq” (becquerel) while the conventional unit (used in the US) is “Ci” (currie) (1). The radiation absorbed by the body and deposited in the tissue uses the conventional unit “rad” (radiation absorbed dose) and SI unit “gray” (Gy) (1).
The absorbed dose refers to the energy taken for every unit of weight of tissue (1). Gy is generally used at present than rad (1 Gy is equivalent to 100 rad) (1). However, when measuring the biological risk due to exposure, the conventional unit “rem” or SI unit “sievert” (Sv) is used (1).
The biological risk is calculated based on an assigned number (depends on capacity to transfer energy to cells) for the ionizing radiations (e.g. alpha, beta, gamma, x-ray); referred to as Quality Factor or “Q” (2). To get the risk in rem, the dose in rad is multiplied with Q (rad x Q) (2). One Sv is equivalent to 100 rem (2).
Measurements below “1” and those measured by thousands have been assigned prefixes.
We will write a custom Essay on Radiation in the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Prefixes for Measurements below 1
(Source: Radiation Measurement, 2).
Figure II provides the prefixes for measurements below one while Figure III shows the measurements made in thousands.
Prefixes for Measurements by the Thousands
(Source: Radiation Measurement, 2).
Radiation and Radioisotopes in Medicine Radiation has found usefulness in medicine. The branch of medicine that uses radiation either for diagnosis or treatment is nuclear medicine (Boyd, par. 1). Products from radioactive materials whether used for diagnosis or therapy are called radiopharmaceuticals (Radioisotopes, par. 14).
With the use of radiation, organs inside the body and the bones can be imaged quickly and accurately (1). In this manner, the physician can make a diagnosis of one’s illness by viewing the disorder or malfunctioning (1). Radiation is also utilized in the treatment of organs and abnormal cell growth (1). Radiation therapy is used in leukemia treatment (What is Ionizing, par. 8).
The three general categories of radiation use in nuclear medicine are: radiation therapy, diagnostic radiology and fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures (Jensen, pars. 5-7). In radiation therapy, the dosage of radiation given is very high but care is given so that danger to nearby healthy tissues is minimized (5).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Radiation in the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Diagnostic radiology detects fractures and lung conditions (6). X-ray, the primary modality used in this approach, is carcinogenic (6). Fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures give higher doses than diagnostic modalities (7). The procedures angioplasty and stent replacement allow the doctor to see the movement of internal organs with the use of X-ray energy (7).
Radiation diagnosis is made possible with the use of radioisotope (2). Isotopes are two atoms of an element “with the same atomic number (same number or protons in the nucleus) and position in the periodic table and nearly identical chemical behavior but with different atomic masses and physical properties” (Radioisotopes, par. 1). Each element was found to have one or more isotopes (par. 1). An isotope can be stable or unstable, both are used in nuclear medicine (par. 6).
A stable isotope does not go through radioactive decay (par. 6). The protons and electrons in the nuclei of a stable isotope of two or more forms of a chemical element has the same number but different neutrons (par. 7). Carbon-13, nitrogen-15, oxygen-18, and the noble gas isotopes are the stable elements utilized in medicine (par. 9).
The number of protons is responsible for the attribution of atomic number while the atomic mass is the total of the neutrons and protons (Radioisotopes, par. 10). Thus, isotopes that have the same atomic number may have different masses due to the variation in the number of neutrons (par. 10).
A radioisotope (or radioactive isotope), which is unstable, is one produced artificially (Radioisotopes, par. 11). Of the two hundred radioisotopes being used, majority of them are artificially manufactured (par. 12). Radioisotopes are produced by increasing the number of neutrons in the nucleus through neutron activation inside the nuclear reactor or increasing the number of protons in the nucleus inside the cyclotron (par. 13).
A radioisotope may become stable when an alpha or beta particle is emitted and during such process, the electromagnetic radiation gamma rays are released (par. 14). Technetium-99 is the most commonly used radioisotope in the diagnosis of diseases in thousands of hospitals around the world (Boyd, par. 2).
Ionization and Ionizing Radiation A non-ionizing radiation (e.g. sound wave, visible light, microwave) is one whose energy can make atoms vibrate but not enough to knock-off an electron (Radiation Protection, 6). On the contrary, an ionizing radiation is powerful to remove an electron from an atom, and such property makes it useful for diagnosis, imaging, destroying of abnormal cells and in manufacturing (6). Ionizing radiation can destroy DNA and healthy cells, amplify the risk to cancer, and can cause death at high doses (What is Ionizing, par. 8).
An example of ionizing radiation is X-ray (Radiation Protection, 7). Overexposure to X-ray is dangerous to humans. The usual dose for a chest X-ray is around 10 mrem (7). It can pass through a thick substance (8). An X-ray released by the X-ray machine is controlled by cone in order to concentrate its beam only to the targeted area (8). Ionizing radiation is used in X-ray imaging and CT (Computed X-ray tomography) scan (What is Ionizing, par. 8).
Exposure to Radiation and Protection The patients who undergo diagnosis and treatment utilizing nuclear medicine are exposed to radiation. However, in the hospital setting, radiation is released under a controlled environment. Radiation exposure in the US from CT scan and nuclear medicine, embodied in the 2009 report of the US National Council on Radiation Protection
Gamescorp PLC on the Chinese Market Report essay help site:edu
Cultural differences between China and Europe Factors to consider before investing in China
It is essential for any business hoping to enter into the Chinese market to have a comprehensive understanding of the country’s business environment, local culture, business practices and government policies. China has an immensely diversified culture, which means that the country has a fragmented market.
As such, for instance, a strategy for investing in Shanghai may not necessarily apply in Beijing. China is quite different from the western world; therefore a company should take into consideration the Chinese culture and societal values, before commencing operations. It is only through the understanding of the local culture that a business can establish strong foundations in that particular geographical area, which will ensure successful business planning.
A foreign business should also not assume what works in it’s home country will also be successful in another country. China has multiple cultures, unlike most western countries. Comprehending how the local people operate, and how their businesses operate could allow a foreign country to blend in quicker than time it would have taken to adapt without first having implemented a market research.
Significantly, it would be cheaper and more time effective to change a company’s policies in regard to the local environment, as opposed to changing the local culture to suit the company’s policies. Therefore, adaptability and adaptability to the local situation are crucial for business success in China.
Foreign management has to develop a close relationship (guan xi) with domestic partners, which will further the understanding of the Chinese market and business ties.
Strong relationships also prove useful in times of trouble, or when a company needs assistance. Some of the risks that may arise in China could be due to the political environment, financial crisis or labor disputes. Employing local management staff will be advantageous in the development of strong business partners, especially due to networking, which in turn help in mitigating potential risks.
The Chinese government’s regulations have a toll in market movements, and a hand in influencing foreign business’ policies. A strong relationship with government officials is an important factor to consider in doing business in China.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although China could be considered to be a highly bureaucratic state, commitment to governmental policies ensures smooth business operations foreign business could benefit from employing local managers, who would form the basis of interpreting the country’s laws. Different regulations also apply to different provinces, which calls for different strategic policies when expanding operations in China.
Cultural differences between China and Europe
Western Europe is predominantly capitalist, meaning that there is an acceptable common concept of individualism. Individualism as a moral stance makes people behave in manners that promote the achievement of their own personal goals and interests.
There is a greater deal of independence and self-reliance in most European settings, where individuals opt to rebel against rules that come between them and their needs. People in the western world display more artistic and bohemian interests, and their lifestyles are directed towards self realization and shows of self expression. There are also displays of individualist anarchism, whereby people emphasize their needs over those of external bodies such as groups and society as a whole.
Individualism has not prospered in China, where conformity is the norm. The Chinese practice Confucianism, a concept that derives heavily on the logic behind harmonious relations.
There are five different bonds stressed in the society, which include the bond between a ruler and subject, husband and wife, parent and child, sibling and sibling, and friend to friend, for the smooth running of the society as a whole. These relations affect business practices, since they help in averting conflict within an organization. Chinese employees regard relationships, or guan xi, more than specific individuals.
Differences also arise in self expressions during communication. The Western European way is “I” oriented, where people relay information based on their individual perceptions, beliefs and experiences.
As such, communication can be said to be sender oriented. In China, on the other hand, there is more focus on teamwork. During sessions, communication is usually “we” oriented and individual interests come second to group objectives. People in China are receiver-sensitive in their queries, so they will choose words more carefully when addressing peers or superiors.
We will write a custom Report on Gamescorp PLC on the Chinese Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conflicts often occur when people from low context cultures work with people from high context cultures. According to Chhokar and House (2007), most of the information in high context cultures is initialized in the person, while little is explicit. In contrast, much of the information is explicitly vested in low context cultures. Logic expressed in low context cultures is linear, meaning there is a direct relationship between elements in discussion, while high context logic tends to be more subtle.
Most western countries have low context cultures, in which everything has to be expressed in full and explicitly. In terms of direction, workers in high context cultures look to in-group members for communication purposes. Here, in-group members could include close workmates, family members and friends. In comparison, low context cultures rarely differentiate between in-group members and out-group members.
Communication in low context cultures is likely to be broad and diffuse in terms of quality. High context culture workers will be more intensive in their discussions, quantity difference, where communication will be based on different topics thus employees will be up to date on company matters. In the case of quality, employees discuss only relevant details or to the necessary extent in the work environment.
Key facts are discussed during meetings, and the resultant decision is made during the meeting. On the contrary, individuals in China discuss everything in conversations, quality difference, and discussions are made in advance before meetings. Generally agreed on decisions are subsequently announced during the meetings. This would mean that the Chinese are more efficient at work because of the free flow of information.
Differences between low context and high context cultures continue to affect interactions between people from these two different geographical settings. Outsiders to Chinese in-groups may have a harder time feeling accepted in the workplace due to the large diffuse connections. For instance, the Chinese may think that a westerner wants to make them feel inferior by stating obvious facts. A westerner on the other hand may feel that the Chinese offer no direction.
Low context cultures may experience breakdowns in communications, especially in the case where individuals assume that they share a common understanding while there is none. Low context cultures may not have a firm understanding of diversity, and tend to be more inward-looking. They may fail to comprehend why the Chinese are so secretive, or unforthcoming with information.
Still in communication, most European countries tend to be argumentative. Individuals are likely to be more willing to express their disagreements verbally, but in China and other Asian countries, people find it more difficult to say no, or even express their disagreement verbally.
Through open expressions of disagreements, westerners may be viewed by the Chinese as being offensively blunt, and this may affect relations when criticisms are directed towards them by a European superior. In so doing, a European manager may distance himself from being in the in-group, if he/she wants to relate well on a personal level with the company’s employees. The Chinese therefore are less likely to speak out their minds, indicating that they will be inclined on being more subtle.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gamescorp PLC on the Chinese Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In terms of thinking orientation, most Europeans are used to following rules based on application of regulations or laws. Without these abstract principles, people would opt to carry out activities in their best interests. In China, however, people tend to take the current context into consideration, or observe the specific situation before interpreting the rule. Westerners find it hard to interpret these rules because they are set to apply differently to different situations.
Individuals in most countries in Europe have greater needs for rights that safeguard their autonomy and need for individual achievement. People here tend to act in ways that will clear the path for climbing the corporate ladder. Activities experienced may be selfish in nature, such as stealing credit for a valid business idea, as a result of the concept of individuality. People also join labor unions so that they can be protected from corporate exploitation.
In China, there is greater emphasis on group work. In a factory, for example, workers believe that it is the duty of each individual to ensure cleanliness and safety. People may not necessarily join unions, but there is a greater belief in working towards the attainment of organizational goals, than working for ones personal interests.
In China, relationship (guan xi) is stressed in business above all else. Business agreements rarely occur without a sound relationship between the two parties.
Relationships are hard to form and can take months before they are established, but the benefits of such business relationships is that they are long lasting. In Europe, business relationships are less important. To ensure performance for both parties, the agreement has to be put down on paper by signing contracts. Conversely, most business partnerships in the western world end on the expiry of the contract.
When conflict arises, most companies in Europe opt to settle their disputes in courts. Legal expenses tend to be high since these companies have contracts with law firms to provide legal services whenever they arise. The Asian way when handling disputes is quite different from that of Western Europe (Schultz, 2007). Companies in China rely on mediation from trusted third parties to settle disputes. Legal action is often considered after other alternative procedures fail.
The Chinese may take more offense if a person is late for an appointment. A person should therefore state well in advance in case being late is inevitable, so as to allow them time to re-adjust their time arrangements.
Most business hours are from 8:00 in the morning to 5:00 p.m. in weekdays, while store hours are from 9:00 a.m. to late in the evening, ranging from 7:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m… In Europe, businesses stay open during the afternoon, although there might be a slow down in operations since some personnel could be out for lunch.
Holidays are often short, affecting at most two days. In China, however, business may “shut down”, during lunch hours, that is between noon and 2:00 p.m., and some holidays may take up to a week, such as the Chinese New Year, May Day or the National Day. Dates for these occasions vary from year to year, since there has to be official advice on such long holidays.
Meetings in Europe may start with a slight introduction, where seated people merely nod or raise a hand when their name is mentioned in most cases. The procedure could be unheard of in China, a land where meetings form the basis for strong business relationships. Meetings start with handshakes, and a small nod of the head.
A westerner should ensure to avoid a vigorous handshake as this may translate to being over aggressive. The Chinese also discourage physical contact, especially in business. A person who has not adapted to their culture should be keen not to put an arm around a Chinese individual in an official meeting. The body stance ought to be formal and attentive, as this illustrates that one has self control and is worthy of respect.
Significance on Human Resource Management
Cultural differences may bring about conflicts in the workplace, which could all be due to misconceptions. In instances of differences in opinion, Chinese employees tend to be reserved and operate more in silence. To a westerner, one may conclude that the employee is weak or afraid to speak out their mind. This perception may affect staff evaluations or promotion opportunities where the manager is from the west, say the UK, France or Germany. To the Chinese, being silent is one way of avoiding arguments, and could be a show of respect.
Performance appraisal should be conducted with caution, so as to preserve and build on ‘face’. Face, in China, implies the positive perception of each individual. Public reprimands lessen face, thereby decreasing motivation. Managers should be careful with their words as most Asians are sensitive people.
Instead, HR managers could restrain from using strong words when expressing discontent in performance, or criticizing an employee in public. Words of complement may help to build on face, which would go on to increase motivation in Chinese personnel.
Orientation of organizations Ethnocentric
This orientation strategy is geared towards sourcing for nationals from the home country when an international firm starts operations in a foreign country. Companies that practice this form of orientation may have a belief that their nationals are more capable, or trustworthy, than local personnel.
This notion could be based on past experiences and current beliefs. The strategy is mostly practiced when an international firm opens a subsidiary in a developing country, and nationals often sought to fill in top managerial positions. Local employees are integrated into these firms, but in less powerful positions (Bartlett, Ghoshal
Proposition 19 in California Essay essay help: essay help
The vote on Proposition 19 in California raises certain issues with regard to best methods of decision making. The referendum in California was on whether to legalize recreational use of marijuana. Referendums are direct votes in which an electorate accepts or rejects a proposal.
A state wide referendum was a good way of reaching a decision on the legalization and regulation of marijuana. This is based on the characteristics of populist democracy. According to Lukacs the populist democracy refers to an ideology that is meant to represent the desires of common people or citizens (4).
Populist democracy pits the interest of the people versus the elites. In the Proposition 19, it was through the referendum that the desires of the people could be known. Although the political representatives are meant to advocate the desires of the people they also have their personal opinions.
After all their research and familiarization of a case they case they reach decisions. Lukacs states that these decisions do not always represent the desires of their electorate (11). As was the case in Proposition 19 Jerry Brown, the Democratic candidate for governor was opposed to the acceptance of the proposal according to Slater (2010).
Even President Barrack Obama was against the proposition despite the federal government allocating the right to legalize marijuana use if the state voted for the proposition. Those who are considered elite in society do not therefore represent the desires of the people as well as the people can. By individual votes people can express their desires in an expansive way.
Another reason why a referendum is a good method to use is that it allows people to actively participate in changing their political and social systems which according to Lukacs populist democracy aims at (46). Sound decisions can only be made when people are involved in processes of change.
If people need to vote they will be more likely to get educated about the issues of concern. In the Proposition 19 people tried to inform others as could be seen by the flocking of those who are involved in the marijuana . On the other hand those who were opposed to the proposition organized rallies so that they could educate people about the other side of the issue. The more people are informed the more authentic their decisions are and the better for the state.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through referendum a more positive and democratic participation is gained. When people have to vote the real issues are at hand compared to party stand and ideas. The referendum eliminates the chances of party interference. According to Slater (2010) people can voice their own desires even when they differ from those of their political parties or associations. Thus, according to Lukacs, a genuine desire about the issues at hand is ensured (72).
This in most cases results in decisions that can withstand time. In Proposition 19 the referendum was quite a good way to get people to choose for themselves. Every holder of a ballot had a chance to influence the vote and be a part of accepting or declining the proposition. That is the height of democracy.
There are still reasons as to why the representative democracy could have been used with elected representatives making the decision. According to Urbinati one of the reasons that would make this method valid is that through it members of the public are still well represented since they elect their representatives (35; 140).
As it is the representatives are already trusted to make decisions for the state affairs. Proposition 19 was just such an affair. Since people undergo a rigorous process to elect those they feel can adequately represent their desires, it is not necessary to spend a lot of money to get people to take their power back again. It would have been better to save money and have the elected members represent the people.
Closely related to this point is that the use of elected representatives also avoids instability to political processes as cited by Urbinati (163). Using representatives allows people to express their desires and yet stability is attained because people know that it is the decision of their elected members that will be taken at the end of the process.
When people are engaged in direct democracy as in the case of using referendum they are more opt to engage in activities and agendas that maximize exposure of their desires in the hope of earning the most awareness and support. This can lead to more political events and demonstration. In the case of Proposition 19 people used many forums to reach to the people including social networks.
Another reason according to Urbinati as to why elected members would be used is in order to protect people from exploitation and swaying by people who stand to benefit or who present themselves as authorities of the issue at hand (102).
We will write a custom Essay on Proposition 19 in California specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the case of Proposition 19 there are several people who tried to influence the people based on what they felt. According to Slater (2010) however, some of these people are already in the marijuana business and therefore stand to gain from acceptance of Proposition 19. People can often be swayed and make the wrong decision based on current emotions.
Rationality can be overthrown especially when popular members of the public make their personal stand known. In today’s age when even movie stars are worship and have huge followings, it is not unlikely to find that there are people who do not make their decisions but rather depend on the opinion of others they look up to or admire. In that case genuine democracy is not achieved. Using the referendum has been noted in some cases to lead to fascism.
Even when referendums are conducted and civic education takes place, it is not always to educate people about the entire issue. In the case of Proposition 19 many voters still had to make a decision based on the personal information they had acquired. As stated by Urbinati just because everyone has a vote does not mean that they will keep themselves informed (52).
They may end up voting blindly when they are ill informed and thus negatively contribute to the decision. Elected representatives are however in a position to get as much information about issues as possible and thus make more informed and dependable decisions for the majority of people whom they represent.
It is clear that both democracies have their strengths and weaknesses. However in the case of Proposition 19 the populist democracy was appropriate for a decision on marijuana use. It gave the people an opportunity to make their own decision on a new issue that has the potential to change history. It is quite appropriate that the vote lay with the electorate.
Works Cited Lukacs, John. Democracy and Populism: Fear and hatred. New York: Yale University Press, 2005. Print.
Slater, Joanna. California Considers a Truce in The War on Pot. CBC News, 2010. Web.
Urbinati, Nadia. Representative Democracy: Principles and Genealogy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2008. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Proposition 19 in California by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Prevention of Disease Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Breast Cancer
Health is very important to all people because it determines how a person can best enjoy his or her life. God created man to take care of His creations but man’s activities and aggressiveness are posing a great threat to his health. This paper discusses the prevention of breast cancer and diabetes. These two illnesses are currently curable depending on the intensity of infection but scientists have established methods of managing them. First let’s have a look at the causes and treatment of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Breast cancer just as its name suggests affects the mammary glands. It affects both men and women, but women are more prone than men. The first indicator of breast cancer is the presence of a lump that feels like a swollen matter that is not tender like the rest of the breast tissues. The lump can develop for a longtime without being realized but it can be identified by in early stages by using a mammogram.
Other visible symptoms are deformity in the appearance of the breast due to swelling and also the nipple turns upside down. Discharge may also ooze from the infected breast and it may be accompanied by a sharp pain. The breast also looks reddish and pale in complexion coupled with mild temperatures.
The chances of contracting cancer are determined by age, sex, financial status, hormonal level, race and diet. A woman who suffered from cancer in the recent past is more prone to breast cancer. This argument is based on the history of an individual. In some instances breast cancer has been found to be hereditary. Medew (2010) argues that if one member of a given family was diagnosed with breast cancer, the women of that lineage are more prone to breast cancer than any other.
Breast cancer can be detected by screening the patients using x-ray technology and also injecting a needle into the breast tissue to collect the fluid for cross evaluation. Self breast evaluations are also highly recommended and they are done by stroking one’s breasts to help identify any abnormal internal protrusions.
Breast cancer is normally treated by dissecting the infected breast in order to remove the affected part. Chemotherapy is also efficient in treating breast cancer and it is administered for 3 to 6 months with the aim of destroying the DNA of the cancerous cells hence deterring their growth.
Radiation is usually the last option after surgery and it’s considered expensive hence most patients can not afford it. Radiation is applied after the growth has been literary excavated from the breast. The area adjacent to the abnormal growth is radiated to kill any cancerous cells that might have detached themselves from the growth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are several ways that help to reduce chances of contracting breast cancer. First people must adopt responsible drinking behavior because alcohol is the major inducer of many kinds of cancer. Smokers are also at risk of contracting cancer including people who are subjected to secondary smoke. Actually, most governments have banned smoking in public places. Regular exercising and a balanced diet are strongly recommended for keeping weight at bay.
Diabetes Diabetes is a metabolical disorder whereby the body is unable to make its own sugar or rather insulin. Diabetes is divided into two, namely type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is caused by lack of insulin in the pancreas and is common among health conscious adults. Diabetes is also transmissible. Type 2 diabetes is caused by failure of insulin because the available quantity is not satisfactory for metabolic reaction in the body. Most people suffer from this kind of diabetes.
Smokers are more prone to diabetes. Bad eating habits increase chances of contracting diabetes because the fats in junk food are attached to blood veins therefore increasing blood pressure which can cause heart attack. Idling also promotes diabetes because the body does not burn excess carbohydrates hence contribute to accumulation of cholesterol in blood veins. Stress is also known to induce diabetes. This is because stress causes a person’s blood pressure to increase abruptly.
According to Rother (2002), the immediate indicators of diabetes include increased rate of urinating in a short period. The person may also feel thirsty and hungry in most cases. Other indicators include nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting and regular breathing problems.
The treatment of diabetes is impossible but it can be managed by creating a balance in blood sugar. Experts argue that diabetes can be controlled by eating appropriate foods that have low fat content and also routine exercises to burn existing body fat. Patients are encouraged to avoid situations that might increase their blood pressure such as drinking alcohol, arguments and anger. There are also appropriate medicines that are used to control blood sugar such as aspirin.
References Rother, KI. (2007).”Diabetes treatment-bridging the divide.” The New England Journal of Medicine .356(15):1499-1501.
Medew, J. (2010).Study finds big risk of cancer in the family. Australia: Sydney Morning Hearld.
We will write a custom Essay on Prevention of Disease specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Concept of Imperial Powers in History Research Paper writing essay help
Introduction Imperialism is a term used to describe the relationship between a more powerful state and a less powerful one (Howe, 13). In addition, imperialism is the creation and maintaining of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship mainly between states. The relationship is based on domination and subordination.
One way of enhancing Imperialism is through the use of walls, which are fences demarcating territories. Primarily, imperial rulers used walls to out mark their territories; these walls were meant to limit movement within empires and offer security against enemies.
In most times, Imperial powers are associated with unjust rule and control of people (Garnsey and Whittaker 1). Some of the examples of walls created by Imperial states are the great walls of Hadrian in the Roman Empire, the west bank barrier between Israel and Palestine, and the Berlin walls separating west and the Communist East German.
One major role of walls is to offer security and economic development. Most of these walls were set with entry points, which were controlled by the rulers, while the gates were used as taxation points.
West bank barrier
This wall separates Israel and Palestine. It is created by the state of Israel and due to completion in 2010. The main function of this barrier is preventing terror attacks in Israel by Palestinians. Primarily, the wall consists of fences, walls vehicle barrier and trenches.
The Palestine claims that the area where the barrier is built was taken from them. The barrier contains of entry points that allow only permitted people and goods. This barrier has caused a lot of tension in the world. This barrier has limited Palestine from accessing vital social services.
Great Wall of China
This barrier was built in the 7th century in china. The first part of the wall was built by Emperor Qin Shi in 221 BC (Evans, 3). It is approximately 3700 miles and consists of several walls and fortification, many running parallel to each other. These parallel walls were meant to reinforce the original wall. The wall was designed to with stand small arms like swords and spears.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main intention for the wall was to protect the unification Emperor Shi had achieved by conquering his neighbors. Later the wall was extended by the kingdom rulers to keep off normads invaders on the northern border of China. This wall was seen as a sign of the Emperor dictatorship. There is a myth that the Great Wall of China can be seen from the outer space, which has been refuted by scientist. The Walls of China are one of the best-known empire walls presently.
The Hadrian’s Wall was established by a Roman ruler named Hadrian in northern Britain. “Construction began in 122 Newcastle to Bowness-on-Solway and later extended eastwards to Wallsend” (Lesley and Roy 101). It was first of two-fortification build in Great Britain.
The Hadrian’s Wall was 117 km long, 10ft thick and 15 to 20 ft high. The wall was built with stones but the western part was built with turf since limestone was not available in that region, while ditches were incorporated in the wall. There were eight fort lets along the wall each being 1480m apart, between which there were two intermediate watch towers which allowed signals to be transmitted. Moreover, the fort let were used for housing patrol troops and storing weapons and other non-strategic materials (Lesley and Roy 103).
The construction of the Berlin wall began in 1961, with the aim of preventing the interaction between the East and West German. This decision was arrived at after East Berlin had suffered a massive brain drain. The fence was initially made of barbed wire fence, but as the number of people making attempt to climb over increased; the wall was rebuild using bricks.
The wall was also reinforced with soldier to check people trying to cross the border. This wall was used to support the ideologies of a repressive regime. The Berlin wall came down in1989, which marked the end of cold war.
Significance of the wall Defense
The major significance of the empire walls was military and defense. They were built to limit movement and possible attacks from other people. Walls were built to incorporate defensive works like forts, stores, and beacon towers. The walls had built-in barracks for housing soldiers and watchtowers for looking out for invaders.
The stores along the walls offered storage space for foodstuff like dried grains for consumption by soldiers on patrol. The beacon towers on wall aided in Communication between the Territorial Army units along the length of the wall. Some walls were used to demarcate territories especially after capturing.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Concept of Imperial Powers in History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Great Wall of China was built to ensure that the nomadic groups did not enter the northern part of china; however, after conquering the opposing states Emperor Qin Shi unified China in 221 BC. In order to centralize and his empire, he erected a wall along the new empire’s frontier.
The importance of the west bank barrier is to protect Israel population from the Palestine Terrorism. This barrier is said to have reduced suicide attacker from entering Israel territory.
The other importance of walls is aiding and supporting economic, and infrastructure development. The Great Walls of China protected trading routes like the silk route, hence safeguarding the transmission of goods and communication. On the other hand, the gates of the Hadrian wall served as customs stations for collection of tax and levy from traders entering the Empire. Moreover, the Berlin wall prevented economic migrants from leaving East German for West where cost of living was cheaper.
The walls symbolized also indicated the might of Empires; for instance, the skills and economic requirements are large such that only the large and wealthy Empires could afford. Primarily, they are symbols of a nation’s enduring strength, as well as repelling foreign influences and hence exerting influence on its citizens.
In addition, they are a symbol of strength and unity; like in the case of Berlin wall, it was made to deter people from defecting from the East to West Germany. The walls also prevented the slaves of an Empire from fleeing from their masters, thus, the slaves gave a large contribution to the economy of the Empires.
Political and governance
The walls have shaped the governance and politics of the nations. In Berlin, the fall of the wall resulted to unification of West and East German to the present Germany, while in the politics of the world, the separated sides became evident. For instance, the fall of the Berlin wall defined the current governance structure in Europe. Different groups and nations felt sympathy and campaigned for ending of repressive regimes; thus “two historians have demonstrated in a recent academic paper that, Labour politicians, trade unionists, churchmen and The Guardian gave moral support to East Germany as recently as 1980s” (Thompson para1).
The Berlin wall helped the communist party to control and govern its people. On the other hand, the Hadrian wall also used it many gates for collection of revenue through taxation and levy from traders. The walls were also to demarcate the boundaries. They also symbolized existence of sovereign political, economical, and cultural power among the people in the Empire. These symbols became typical evidence of autonomy and sovereignty as seen in its reception of written constitution (Fryde and Reitz 27).
Industrialization and globalization
The walls were used to control both natural resources and indigenous societies and putting them to work (Bulliet, et al, 676). Imperial powers brought about industrial revolutions, which enhanced import and export. This is due to the fact that the need for raw materials like agricultural products and minerals for industries make trade grow faster.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Imperial Powers in History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the growing need of industrial products could not be met using the traditional means of production and transportation. In order to counter this challenge the imperial powers brought their territories to the global market. Moreover, transportation means were most detectable start of Globalization, while migration and urbanizations contributed to urbanization.
Imperial powers used walls to cartel foreign influence on their regimes and restricted people from moving from one empire to another. As a result, the Imperial powers were able to suppression their subjects without any complain. It also limited intercultural interaction and hence maintained their cultural values and heritage.
People in East Germany were left to be ruled by evils of communism without anywhere to go, as the soviet did not allow them to use their border. In addition, “in East Germany, a communist system was established and many people had to suffer under repressions of the Communist party” (Best, Hanhimaki and Maiolo 237).
Indeed, East Berlin lost most of their skilled workers to West German since life was cheaper in the west. Moreover, many people were shot dead in attempt of the crossing the barrier. However, the people of East German devised floating balloons made from nylon, which they used to fly over the wall with. Nevertheless, in order to restrain this new method of escaping, the government restricted the sale of light cloth making it impossible to find cloth.
There has been reduced terror attack in Israel since the building of the West Bank barrier; that is, it is believed that in areas where the barrier is complete the level of attack has reduced to zero.
Many Jerusalem Palestinians who occupied the areas beyond the border brought about many social problems following their move to the city; however, the impact the barrier has created; reduced freedom, loss of land and road closures to the Palestine. It is difficult to access medical and education services in Israel. It is predicted that this barrier will prevent many Palestinians from receiving healthcare services like immunization, emergency treatment and specialized surgical procedure. The blockade has undermined the economy of Palestine.
The barrier was built on land seized from Palestine. Along the route, shops and stalls were demolished crashing the economy of Palestine. In addition, families that lived near the boarder lost their homes. The barrier has divided some people’s farmland and the farmers will require permits to cross over to access their land.
Given that farming is a primary source of income in Palestine, harming of this sector has made the Palestine economy to weaken. Additionally, it has resulted to high food prices due to the reduced farmland. The Palestinians are not able to market and transport their produce. This border has split families from their relatives.
Another effect of the wall is that, Palestine will lack water since a third of water resources are on the side of the border. On the other hand, the wall broke the communication links including roads and air traffic. In addition, the building of the barrier will not only increase the hostility between Palestine and Israel, but also will make peace negotiation between the two nations difficult in future.
The ancient walls and their ruins are a big tourist attraction and offers big contribution to the economic sector. During the building of the Great Wall Of China Canals and massive road, systems were built to help trading between North and South China.
As a result of imperial walls, the transportation and communication system was created, while transportation of people and goods in the sea was discovered. Deep Harbors, ports and canals eased transportation of heavy raw materials. Steamships lowered the time and the cost of transportation (Bulliet, et al, 677). Extensive road linkage was build along the walls. The road system was used by traders and soldiers. The Great wall of China opened the silk trade route.
Industrial requirements of raw materials resulted to degradation and pollution of the environment. For instance, the mining of coal, gold, and copper for industrial purposes exposed the land to soil erosion. In addition, the introduction of commercial plants in some areas caused the forests to be cut down and replaced with new plants.
Due to Imperialization, new species of plants were introduced in other areas; for instance, in West bank barrier, agricultural activities have been hampered since some farmers land was separated by the wall. The mining of raw materials ruined the forest cover, Amazon, polluted water sources with silt and so on. Imperial powers also exploited mineral resources from their colonies and later shipping them to their Empire leaving the environment bare.
According to Strickland and Boswell (16), “the roman Empire stretched from England to Egypt and from Spain to southern Russia.” Due to this, interaction with foreign cultures such as the Romans absorbed elements from other cultures, particularly the Greece (Greco-Roman).
This culture blend was later passed on to Western Europe. Primarily, this blend of cultures leads to globalization and the start of cosmopolitan cities. In the Roman Empire where many people were poor, the emperors used entertainment to divert their attention from their grievances. For instance, the roman rulers build the Colosseum of Rome, a 50,000 spectator seated theater. Moreover, the Colosseum is still one of the largest buildings by size and it inspired the present day stadium design (Strickland and Boswell 18).
Generally, culture was expressed in form of art through art graffiti and slogans on the walls. For instance, in the Greco-Roman culture, the Greece and the Romans influenced each other using artistic style. In addition, through the Roman Empire, expansion and conquering other states, the Romans were able to spread Christian religion (Adkins and Adkins 105).
The walls in the Roman Empire gave the people a sense of belonging. The walls also have separated families; for instance, in West bank, the barrier has separated family members by restricting them from visiting either side without permits
Resistance Movements and terror
The existence of walls caused resisting of the repressive regimes; for instance, in the case of the Berlin wall, people in Europe campaigned against the communism system. In the end the wall came down in1989. On the western side of the Berlin wall slogans of resistance were written calling for the end of communism.
After the fall of the wall, German was unified with the West and the Eastern Berlins were able to enjoy freedom of expression, good economy among other benefits. On the other hand, wall stopped resistance since the imperial had a total control of them. The walls helped imperial powers to exert complete dominance on its subjects. In the case of the Roman Empire, many people lived in desolate state but they did not offer resistance for a long time. These walls helped to advance slave trade and use.
The Palestine in resisting the building of the west bank wall has resulted to terror attack. There have been many cases of suicide attacks on the gates of the west bank killing people crossing the wall. The Palestine terrorists have devised new methods of attacking Israel such as launching explosives over the fence. The wall has also created a state of war with Palestine sympathizers, condemning Israel while the allies of Israel are supporting its action.
Architecture and Engineering
The wall built by imperial powers and their dynasty gave insight and inspiration to the modern structures, architectural techniques and engineering. They were able to build very high barriers, which could withstand and support large amount of weights. One of greatest symbol of architecture in the Roman Empire the ‘colloseum of Rome’ gave insight to the present day building of stadiums.
How barriers can be circumvented In order to circumvent the Berlin Wall the people of West German devised ways of crossing the barricade. Some of the methods used are; underground tunnels, flying over and also climbing over the fence. In attempt of crossing over to West German a series of underground tunnels were dug. The premier triumphant tunnel was dug in a graveyard by students, and was later discovered when a woman dropped in the channel and left her child. This channel was later sealed.
The other method employed was flying over the wall through the use of hot air balloons made out of nylon cloth; and using some fuel, they put the balloons in the air and floated over the boarder to West German. Due to this activity, the sale of light cloth was greatly restricted. The government banned sale of ropes and twines. Most of the people who tried to climb the wall were shot on sight.
In the West Bank territory, many channels have been dug to transport goods and people. This is a big industry for owner of the channels make large amounts of money from these routes. Other means of circumventing the walls was through water channels. Using sail rafts, boats and in some cases swimming across seas, oceans and lakes. The walls were also demolished by either the people of the Empire or the Invader. Several sections of the Berlin wall had to be repaired or reinforced after destruction from fleeing Berlins.
How walls have taken life of their own not expected by their creators The walls have become tourist sites and museums; for instance, the ruins of the Roman Empire walls are a rich cultural heritage site. These walls help the economy through foreign exchange generated from the tourist sector. In addition, they have created employment; tour guides, conservers, museums workers and archeological experts, thus, they became areas of developing art. Graffiti and other symbols were engraved on the walls as signs of rebellion and social activism.
Therefore, the walls were used to communicate social and political messages. Slogan appeared on the Western side of the Berlin wall but not on the Eastern side. Moreover, there was no freedom of expression in the communist East. When the Berlin wall fell the graffiti walls attained of commercial value. Individuals were able to buy a piece of history. The Collesium of Rome and the Great Wall of China are endorsed by UNESCO as one of the wonders of the world.
These sites have become a symbol of the power and resilience nations and the people. The wall of Berlin later became the unifying factor between the West and East German and gave a rich history of the ancient days. Nevertheless, through exploring these sites, archeologists are able to predict the era and lifestyles of those days.
Works Cited Adkins, Lesly
Advertizing and Globalization Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Presenting a Research Question and Outline of a Research Thesis
Presenting a Summary of Scholarly Sources
Providing Supporting Arguments
Presenting a Research Question and Outline of a Research Thesis The process of globalization has spread over many spheres of human activities and advertizing is one of those. The development of new media, technological advancement, the rise of multinational enterprises, and, finally, rapid expansion of integration processes to the economy through trading relationships is a result of universal promotion of products.
The research question under consideration puts forward an argument that globalization has become the key issues for the creation of new standards and requirements for the development of advertising.
In particular, globalization make the advertizing marketing develop new concepts with regard to cultural diversity and, at the same time, present a shift in producing more universal products. This presents a controversy that needs to be resolved and tackled in cultural, social, and economic terms.
Presenting a Summary of Scholarly Sources According to Lee and Johnson (30), global perspective of advertising is directly related to cultural and social development influencing the course that should be taken to attract global consumers and to promote a product to the international market.
In particular, the researchers state that “the advertiser who wants to communicate with foreign consumer must consider the environments that influence people’s tastes, attitudes, and the way they think” (Lee and Johnson 30). Interpreting this statement, the integration process, informative and political expansion should construct culturally competitive advertising campaigns that would take national and social demands in the deepest consideration.
Like globalization influences the principles of advertising, the advertising industry plays a tangible role in the development of economic and cultural change. In particular, advertising agencies has been subjected to transnationalization through foreign direct investment, which has led to the construction of a global advertising approach (Leslie 403).
Advertising is now closely intertwined with global concepts, global research studies, and global standardized campaigns. Advertizing and globalization, thus, have become mutually dependent because they are both based on the consideration of cultural, spatial, and economic characteristics of social organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The arguments developed in the above-presented sources provide consistent explanations and argument correlating with the above research question because they provide a consistent chain of connections between advertizing, globalization, and social and cultural organization.
Providing Supporting Arguments While discussing the role of culture in launching a global advertizing approach, one argues the necessity to address national cultures, which sometimes contradict the universal tendencies of global markets (Batra 152).
On the one hand, due to the rise of globalization and integration, national and cultural boundaries are fading away, thus, eliminating any opportunities for introducing cultural identity and originality (Szeman 212). On the other hand, although global advertising makes feeble attempts at introducing cultural aspect, there is still a threat of the introduction of the so-called contemporary neo-liberalism (Szeman 213).
In response to the creation of global concepts and universal approach to advertising, there is still a necessity to introduce diverse communicative schemes in a global marketplace where the priority should given to particular tastes, attitudes, and habits of a particular community (Lee and Johnson 23). So, if the message is culturally irrelevant, the entire advertising campaign is doomed to be a failure.
The increase of consumers’ mobility and company’s global activities is also the result of political and economic integration where advertising plays the role of catalyst. The research conducted by Hansen and Christensen (121) has proved that cultural issues have gradually become of secondary importance. More importantly, the companies that were not globally active before use their political and economic domination in the world as an effective means for promoting their culture (Hansen and Christensen120).
By introducing the corporate branding, leading companies and giant producers provide a great impact on globalization making it more objective and irresistible to other cultural concerns. Such an unequal approach to cultural diversity leads to uneven global trends in advertising where less represented cultures are ignored by dominant cultures (Pieterse 32).
According to Pieterse, “…contemporary globalization refers to the exclusion of the majority of humanity – the majority in large parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America who are excluded from life in the last lane, from the ‘interlinked economies’ of the ‘Triad zone’”(32). In other world, global tendencies in advertising can have diverse effects for cultural and ethnical minorities, specifically in the developing cultures.
We will write a custom Essay on Advertizing and Globalization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering the reverse side of our research question, there is a growing tendency in using global technologies for advertising specific product, thereby, promoting national culture (Schumann and Thorson 308). Hence, being a brainchild of globalization, the Internet has become a platform for the companies to advertise their specific products.
In such a way, the advertising use global approaches for promoting local product. Such trends in marketing have made globalization as one of profitable tools for business development. Hence, the marketers and advertisers do not underestimate the necessity for advertising localization on the World Wide Wed. The point is that the global nature of the Internet can promote local trends for advertising and present a solid platform for sustaining national culture and providing them with global status.
Works Cited Batra, Advertising Management. UK: Pearson Education India, 2006. Print.
Hansen, Flemming, and Christensen, Lars Bech. Branding and Advertising. Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press DK, 2003.
Lee, Monle, and Johnson, Carla. Principles of Advertising: a Global Perspective. NJ:Routledge, 2005. Print.
Leslie, David. A. Global Scan: The Globalization of Advertising Agencies, Concepts, and Campaigns. Economic Geography. 71.4 (1995): 402-426. Print.
Pieterse, Jan Nederveen. Globalization and culture: global mélange. US: Rowman
Swot analysis of Adams Aircraft Report (Assessment) best college essay help
Strengths The prevailing technology makes it possible for quick advancements to be made within the industry for the benefit and satisfaction of consumers. The use of computer design software in modelling airframe structures was a great boost to the company and industry at large.
This saw improvement in manufacturing and tooling capabilities. Strength could be drawn from the talented and experienced staff that provided the possibility of blending superior performance capabilities. Everyone within the management team was an experienced pilot and had flown different types of aircrafts.
The employees were well acquainted with speed and innovation processes and understood so well the importance of moving with time to avoid unnecessary competition. The innovation process was scheduled to run for 24-hours on a daily basis with employees working in shifts with the management team comprising of highly motivated workers who worked under very minimal supervision (Hedberg et al 258-263)
The company’s ability to set up an engineering centre having all the characteristic capabilities of big aircraft companies made it possible for them to compete favourably within the industry. The presence of the tooling mill made it possible for renovation and change of designs to fit the recommended tasks.
The team of AAI engineers ensured the innovation of smart tunnel device which was used for the purposes of adjusting the centre of gravity and also enabled the airframe to accommodate wide range of engines of different models (Hedberg et al 263).
The company’s A500 model aircraft had the capability of serving two potential markets at the same time; this was because the model had capabilities of allowing both private and professional usage. In private flown, the owner of the aircraft had the benefits of being the pilot in command while for professional non-owners acted as pilots. The engineers had worked extra to ensure that the aircraft system could easily be accessed for inspection purposes ensuring low costs of operation (Hedberg et al 268).
The development of A700 aircraft increased the capacity of passenger carriage as well as flight operations. The speed by which it was built proved the proficiency and credibility of Adam’s engineers which was one point of their great strength. The emergence of this aircraft brought about one of the most efficient modes of air transport.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The jet was light as compared to other American models which were little oversize, hence had the capability of covering distances within less time possible. The reduction in size and weight of the aircraft made it more convenient for use as well as improving the efficiency of flight operations.
The new aircraft A700 also brought the possibility of calculating the travelling cost per passenger ensuring affordability to all travellers (Hedberg et al 271). The company has the capacity of accommodating around one hundred planes annually and has built assembly points that could accommodate over thirty five planes per year. The marketing principles employed by the company also appear to be very strong, since it utilizes the media so well (Hedberg et al 273).
Weaknesses The company experienced the development of heavier and more expensive aircrafts; this was below the expectations of the company. The process of bringing new airplane into the market was a challenge to Adams Aircraft Company because of the high costs involved as well as time duration for the completion of the process.
The in-flight calculations revealed that the M-309 aircraft had small empennage at first and also the position of the door made access to cabin more difficult. The company could not raise the start-up cost of nearly $250 million due to the fact that there was no eminent success in airline industry by the time the company begun (Hedberg et al 263-264).
The use of manual equipments made it difficult for the company to make appropriate designs at the first attempt. They had to perform several attempts till right design is found, this was quite time consuming and made it difficult for Adams Airline to compete with computerized companies. There was need for the company to adopt computerized industry concept which was a prerequisite to overall development of aviation manufacturing company (Hedberg et al 270).
Opportunities Despite the presence of many pilots, there was lack of new products within the industry. The demand for air travel was high contrary to low services that were rendered by the few available airline companies (Hedberg et al 261).
The building of production airplanes made it convenient for those who enjoyed travelling by air. These airplanes used single engines instead of twin engines and this provided opportunity for innovation. There was also the opportunity of developing single airframe that could carry both jet engines and twin pistons.
We will write a custom Assessment on Swot analysis of Adams Aircraft specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other airlines had made successful entry to the market which provided opportunity for other airlines to venture based on new airframe designs. The company had the chance of utilizing the new technology by linking to approval body through internet instead of the manual process. This could help in speeding up the process and making appropriate adjustments on time. The electronic process also provides the company with the opportunity of undertaking most accurate documentation (Hedberg et al 266).
The industry has numerous underutilized regional airports that require the attention of the aviation industry. The opportunity had not been fully utilized due to little exposure observed on the side of regional travellers who were used to travelling only in small airports. There was need to beef up the air taxi system which required more airplanes to help manage the passenger capacity.
Threats Some of the threats faced include the rising maintenance and travelling costs within the industry. There was also the threat on how to develop a new culture within the industry that could accommodate every performing sector. Threat also came from other powerful aircraft builders who invented powerful design machines driven by very expensive mainframe computers (Valentin; Hedberg et al 266)
Another threat was working with FAA, the authority that ensured type certification process. FAA was never moved by the design but by the surety that the model was safe for consumer use. This process required lots of finances and was also time consuming posing one of the greatest challenge to the company. There was also the disadvantage posed by the gridlock due to the congestion within the airline system.
The presence of critics offered some threat to the company; they would sell the ideas negatively to consumers making it a big challenge for the company to reverse customer’s negative thoughts about their designs and improvements. Besides, the achievement on the network coverage required high operating costs to ensure success (Hedberg et al 266).
Implications of the Analysis using Porter’s Five Forces Model of Competition Porter’s uses the five forces to give appropriate strategies that help in analyzing company’s position against any competitors within the market. The forces used include; the power of suppliers, new entrants, threats posed by substitutes, customers power and rivalry.
Threats posed by new entrants
The aviation industry is one of the industries with extremely high start-up costs which guarantees low rate of new entrants. Adams Aircraft Company has explicitly utilized their technological know-how and the experiences of the few staff members. The company has basically based their sales on stable brand name based on viable technology which has made it difficult for the new entrants to penetrate the industry (Davenport).
Status of the suppliers within the market
The business within the aircraft industry is maintained using constant supply of airframe parts from few suppliers within the market. The larger companies like Lancair and Cirrus, introduced computerized design and modelling software.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Swot analysis of Adams Aircraft by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Adams airline made the position within the market to be low since they were still using manual equipments that could be cheaply obtained like physical scale models. Since most of the companies within the industry switched to computerized models, the suppliers of manual equipments had to adjust on their prices and quality of their models in order to attract bids from the big companies. This clearly shows that the competition was too high leaving the suppliers with tough decisions to make (Porter).
The status of Buyers within the market
Consumers demand for top service designs and aircrafts that are easy to maintain. Professionally flown aircrafts focuses on lots of issues that would ensure comfort to the passengers. The focus is geared towards seat designs, availability of luggage area and other sanitary and requirements and also the presence of entertainment system. There is also the need to include pressurized cabin to make the plane all weather, besides all these the overall design must look attractive to the consumers (Hedberg et al 268).
The costs involved when switching to any option is low making the consumers to move at will. This is brought by the differences in cost, quality and services provided. This has made the power of buyers to be strong within the aviation industry. The companies can only find it difficult when differentiation is done within the computer operating systems (Porter).
There are numerous substitute aircrafts within the industry that are readily available for sale. This calls for Adam’s Airline to put extra effort in order to convince customers of the superiority of their airframe designs. The use of the computer has increased the possibility of switching individual units keeping other things constant (Boone and Kurtz).
Level of Rivalry
Adams Airline Company faces other competitors with the potential of commanding larger portion of the market share. These include Lancair, Cirrus and Beechcraft amongst others. The competition remains high since the switching costs are very low making it very tricky for expansion of the company (David).
Works Cited Boone, Louis and David, Kurtz. Contemporary Marketing. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press, 1992.
David, Fred. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. 13th ed. Vol. 306. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
Davenport, Thomas, “Putting the Enterprise into the Enterprise System”. Harvard Business Review 76. 4 (1996):121-132.
Hedberg, Carl, Hamilton, John and Bygrave, William. Case 13; Adam Aircraft. Babson College, 2004. Print.
Porter, Michael, Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. New York, NY, 1985. Print.
Porter, Michael, “What is Strategy?” Harvard Business Review 74. 6 (Nov Dec., 1996): 61-78.
Valentin, Erhard. “SWOT analysis from a resource-based view”. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 2. 9 (2001): 54-68.
Eysenck Theories’ Analysis Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Processing efficiency theory
Attentional control theory
Conscious processing hypothesis
Theory of ironic effects
Processing efficiency theory This theory was offered by Eysenck in 1982 and was later developed by this and other scientists, including Calvo and Derakshan (Chong, 2003). The theory is based on the assumption that there is a strong interdependence between the stress level and the ability of an individual to perform different tasks.
To be more specific, the focus is put not on the final task performance, but on the process of its performance and its efficiency. Thus, the distinction between effectiveness and efficiency is crucial (Eysenck, 2007). According to the author, while the task performance quality can be unaffected by the stress and worry, the processing, including the efforts spent on task performance and the resources of mind and the whole organism are more vulnerable to stress (Eysenck, 1992).
The theory also takes into consideration the different psychological types of individuals, which determine one’s level of anxiety. Thus, it is implied in the theory that the high level of anxiety allows an individual to operate the resources more efficiently while dealing with a difficult task, which can lead to the better final performance of the task comparing to the low anxiety individuals.
However, in the long term perspective high anxiety is undesirable, as it demands more efforts to be spent in order to preserve the capacity of work. In addition, the high anxious individuals ”devote more of their processing resources to worry” (Wilson, 2007), which can lead to a poor task performance.
The theory has been tested and applied to a number of experimental works, which allowed checking its sufficiency and finding the possible gaps. It has to be noted, that most of the theory’s points have been supported by the studies. Moreover, the theory can be referred to as rather flexible, due to its “consideration of compensatory effect” (Wilson, 2007), which means taking into account all the possible effects of both high and low anxiety levels.
However, there are still some aspect that need further investigation and explanation. For instance, here is a point in studying the factors which contribute to the general anxiety level, and as a result can affect the processing efficiency (Eyseck
How to Make Human Resource Management in North East Wessex District Council more effective Report essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
‘Glass Ceiling’ Elimination
Training and Retirement
Special Additions for Managing Human Resources
Conclusion and Recommendations
Introduction North East Wessex District Council is the organization which deals with providing government services to the citizens of southern England. The company employs about 300 people. Age, gender and other characteristics are absolutely different as well as the time employees have spend with the organization.
The company has decided to merge with North West Wessex District Council with the purpose to reduce some money by means of outsourcing some services provided by North West Wessex District Council. It becomes obvious that human resources play crucial part in company functioning.
Perfectly organized Human Resource Management may be really helpful for the company and may increase its profit and labor productivity. The main purpose of this report is to consider some ways and strategies which may be directed at the company with the purpose to organize the human resources in such a way that it could be possible to improve cost effectiveness of the company. Here is the list of actions the company should provide to improve its efficiency.
‘Glass Ceiling’ Elimination It was considered that the ‘glass ceiling’ exists in the company. It is extremely inconvenient and out of fashion now. The world has understood that women may be rather efficient in work and they may improve the work of the whole organization. One of the main reasons for setting ‘glass ceiling’ is that women should balance work and family which makes them distract from their responsibilities too often.
Still, it has already been proven that women may cope with their responsibilities both at the workplace and at home successfully. Thus, being guided by the experience of such companies as AFLAC, Quaker Oats Company, IBM, KPMG, etc. it may be concluded that such organizations have succeed by using special programs which are really helpful.
Thus, IBM and KPMG say that those programs helped to increase the number of women specialists in their companies (Bohlander
Wild Strawberries Essay cheap essay help
Diverse people/cultures constitute this world and such diversity is reflected via the cinematic experience. Film emanates the entire infrastructure of a people’s culture (gender, age, creed, race, personal impressions, ideas, emotions, prejudices and religious/political/ economic/educational institutions, etc.).
At the height of the 20th century, many countries witnessed a rise in cinematic prominence and Sweden was no exception. Gustaf Molander, Alf Sjöberg, Victor Sjöström, Mauritz Stiller and most recently Lasse Hallström as well as Lukas Moodysson brought prominence and popularity to Swedish film. Among this distinguished cadre of Swedish filmmakers is the accomplished and prolific Ingmar Bergman.
A repertoire comprised of over sixty documentaries and films (television and cinema) as well as one hundred and seventy theatrical plays, Bergman’s work featured a typical element of Swedish film – slow pacing and austere landscapes. His distinctive style/attribute and contribution, however, was exploration of human emotions and its vast landscape with death, illness, betrayal, and insanity as the focus.
Bergman’s 1957 film, Wild Strawberries, is superbly characteristic his style. Wild Strawberries was written and directed by Bergman and has an acclaimed cast of Swedish actors, among them Max von Sydow. Deemed a classic and one of Bergman’s best films, thought-provoking themes such self acceptance and discovery as well as human existence constitute the thematic core of the film.
Bergman wrote the screenplay while hospitalized and such experience served as an impetus. Wild Strawberries is character and plot driven in that the two intertwined bring the fundamental themes to the surface and explain them. The film chronicles the emotional voyage of an elderly physician named Eberhard Isak Borg (Victor Sjöström).
This emotional journey filled with self introspection/re-evaluation is introduced at the onset of the film with Borg’s opening statement – “In our relations with other people, we mainly discuss and evaluate their character and behaviour. That is why I have withdrawn from nearly all so-called relations (Wild Strawberries).
At seventy years old, Borg appears to have come to a point in which evaluation of his behaviour and character is of primary concern rather than others. The journey unfolds as he travels to receive an honorary degree/award at Lund University. Such accolade, however, has no value and does not bring him happiness for he comments prior to his trip “Honorary Doctor! They might as well appoint me Honorary Idiot (Wild Strawberries).”
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the 400 mile sojourn from Stockholm to Lund, in which he is accompanied by his daughter-in law – Mariaane (Ingrid Thulin), Borg seventy eight years old, undergoes a life assessment or revaluation process.
The various people he meets along the way force him to confront various personas about himself (aloofness, loneliness, etc.), his past and relationships (mother, son, etc.) that contributed to his behaviour. Self examination also comes in the form of nightmares and daydreams throughout the film. At the conclusion, Borg comes to terms with himself (past, present, self acceptance) and immanent death which in the beginning he greatly feared.
Smultronstället is the original Swedish title for the film and translated literally means wild strawberry patch. Idiomatically the title refers to something underrated or devalued yet possesses sentimental or personal value. Self awareness, value, acceptance, and even love appear to be the sentimental and personal emotions at the core of Bergman’s focus/message and for this reason Ingmar Bergman Wild Strawberries’ impact will remain indelible.
Work Cited Wild Strawberries (1957). Web.
Migration, Identity and Multiculturalism Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Multiculturalism is the living together of people from different cultures. A culture is defined as the way of life of a given people; it entails such aspects as their race, their religion and their groupings which forms their behaviors and their values.
Multicultural societies must aim at addressing social, political, and economic needs of the minority thus ensuring that each and every member in that society has his needs catered for. Governing of societies with many ethnic and religious groups must be given the due priority in any multicultural society.
Identity Countries all over the world have continued to experience ethnic based conflicts with the worst of these being the genocide experienced in Rwanda in 1994. Other countries such as Sudan (Darfur region), East Timor, Sri Lanka, and Kashmir have also had violent conflict for their failure to embrace multiculturalism.
The question is; what really causes all these conflicts? The answer lies not only in ensuring equal distribution of economic resources but also practicing good governance that is democratic (Panossian, Berman
OFT accepts distribution business sale in heating oils’ merger Essay cheap essay help
Market features OFT is the organization which is aimed at creating the circumstances where the customers are satisfied with the services and the business is fair and competitive (Office of Fair Trading 2010a). Considering the features of the oil market in the world and especially in the United Kingdom, it should be mentioned that the competition in the market is increasing.
To reduce this competition within the market, GB Oil Limited has decided to merge with Brogan Holdings Limited. The increase of the competition was not very profitable for the GB Oils Limited which wanted to monopolize the market. The Brogan Holdings Limited acquisition is one of the ways to reduce the competition and make the oil market more predictable (Completed acquisition by GB Oils Limited of Brogan Holdings Limited 2002).
Possible market failure issues The completed acquisition of Brogan Holdings Limited by GB Oils Limited has affected the market greatly, especially heating oils and transport fuels markets (Completed acquisition by GB Oils Limited of Brogan Holdings Limited 2002). Moreover, considering the situation from the point of view of Office of Fair Trading, the acquisition resulted in failure “to be referred to Competition Commission” (Office of Fair Trading 2010b).
The current merge could lead to the monopoly in the industry which is considered to be the main market failure (Bagheri 2000, p. 16). A number of actions had been provided to eliminate that failure. One of those is the Highland Fuels purchase of Western Isles business which belongs to Brogan Holdings Limited. Hus, such actions may help reduce the market failure created by the virtual market monopoly and leave the competition in the industry.
Whether the market has failed in any significant way If to consider the situation without the case where Highland Fuels purchases Western Isles, the market would not be competitive any more. The merge of the greatest oil companies in the country may lead to the market monopolization which will negatively affect the industry.
There is already an idea that “the oil market is one for the gambler” (Moore 2010) in the world. Moreover, the market could fail in a number of other fields different from monopoly, such as imperfect information, political and economic interests, and externalities (Bagheri 2000, pp. 17-21).
Whether there has been or could be a proportionate and effective intervention Considering the oil industry in the UK, it may be competed that there are a number of different companies which could conduct the same intervention on the market by means of buying other companies. Still, that intervention could not be the same as the oil industry companies’ potentials are rather different.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, the acquisition of Brogan Holdings Limited by GB Oils Limited cannot be compared and contrasted with the acquisition of Dana Petroleum plc by the Korea National Oil Corporation in the UK (Office of Fair Trading, 2010c).
References Bagheri, M., 2000. International contracts and national economic regulation: dispute resolution through international commercial arbitration. Kluwer Law International, 2000.
Completed acquisition by GB Oils Limited of Brogan Holdings Limited, 2002. Office of Fair Trading. Web.
Moore, J., 2010. The oil market is one for the gamble. The Independent. Web.
Office of Fair Trading, 2010. Targeted enforcement and improved capability are priorities in OFT Annual Plan. Web.
Office of Fair Trading, 2010. OFT accepts distribution business sale in heating oils merger. Web.
Office of Fair Trading, 2010. Anticipated acquisition of Dana Petroleum plc by the Korea National Oil Corporation. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on OFT accepts distribution business sale in heating oils’ merger specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Genre Analysis: Gossip Girl Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Teen drama genre conventions
Gossip girl innovation
Pilot episode analysis
Successful series of the teen drama television genre sustain themselves through a careful balance. On the one side, these dramas strictly adhere to the rules of the genre. On the other, they stretch its bounds, and in so doing, facilitate its evolution.
An example of a teen drama that negotiates this balance effectively is Gossip Girl. Since its premiere in 2007, the show has maintained an audience, as well as its creative edge, by consciously respecting the conventions of the teen drama genre while simultaneously twisting it to suit an expanded purpose, namely, to root the series in the cultural and technological ethos of its audience. Gossip Girl’s innovative representation of technology as a character, via the faceless narration of the blogger, Gossip Girl herself, and the literal aural depiction of gossip as it goes viral via personal mobile devices in the Gossip Girl pilot episode, develops the teen drama genre to embrace the reality of technology in the lives of its fans.
Teen drama genre conventions Thriving teen dramas share many elements with the soap opera genre in that they are relationship oriented. The majority of teen drama storylines delve into the interpersonal relationships, both sexual and platonic, of their main characters.
These relationships typically teem with infidelity, longing, lust, heartbreak, betrayal, social war, and sometimes even violence. Gossip Girl mainly explores the tempestuous relationship between Serena and Blair. The love-hate encounters between Serena and Blair form the heart of the show, and crackle with jealousy, betrayal, love, envy, sabotage, and competition, classic teen drama fodder.
Also, the choice to base the show on a relationship between two teenage girls consciously respects the teen drama genre, since teenage girls compose the lionshare of the audience fan base for this genre. Other important characters that stem from the teen drama genre convention present in Gossip Girl include the jerk/antagonist Chuck, the sensitive thinker Nate, and the impoverished hero Dan.
Money is an important element of the teen drama genre, and warrants its own discussion. Successful teen dramas, those that flourish for multiple seasons, share one common trait: wealth. Beverly Hills 90210 and The O.C. provide the two clearest examples of this phenomenon. Affluent locales such as California and Manhattan are prime real estate in the teen drama genre.
These are the locations where the fans of the teen drama genre want to live, urban hubs full of nightlife and glamour. Privileged characters such as those found on Gossip Girl typically embody the glitz, the trust funds, the designer clothes, the social status, and the social access that fans of teen dramas seek. In Gossip Girl, money and privilege provide the backdrop of many of the stories.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Money serves a dual purpose in the teen drama genre: it provides the fantasy, yet it does not detract from the emotional drama. Teen dramas appeal to fans because they offer visual “proof” that having money does not garner immunity to life. Despite their wealth and advantage, the teenagers on Gossip Girl have more than their fare share of problems, heartache, disappointment, pain, and loss.
Beauty is another vital element of the teen drama genre. Gossip Girl is no exception to this rule. Every character is a knock-out. Beautiful actors fulfill the stipulation of the genre in this regard. Why is beauty necessary to the teen drama genre? Beauty is a symbol of social power, in high school and in life.
Beautiful people have access, enjoy elevated status, and rarely need to work as hard to be wanted or accepted by their peers. However, similar to the convention of money, the convention of beauty in the teen drama genre does not remove the characters from the tribulations inherent to life. The beautiful characters on Gossip Girl still suffer infidelity, rejection, violence, and social ostracism.
In essence the characters in the teen drama genre become relatable because they have all the social power and standing that their teen fans strive for, yet they share the exact same problems. The Gossip Girl characters live in one of the best cities in the world, they have the best clothes, go to the best parties, and yet their boyfriends still cheat on them, and they still don’t always get what they want. It is this quality – this inherent “different yet the same” dichotomy – that makes the series Gossip Girl so connected and compelling to its fans.
Gossip girl innovation Technology is a character in Gossip Girl, and this is the element of the series that deviates substantially from the teen drama convention, and takes the genre to a new level of relevance and timeliness. Gossip Girl, the blogger, is never seen, yet we hear her voice and we experience the impact of her presence.
Gossip Girl narrates each episode. She provides opening context and closing analysis on each episode. She also comments on the action throughout each episode, often providing insight into the action of any given scene. Sometimes she accesses the private emotions of the characters.
The presence of Gossip Girl the blogger resembles the presence of technology in our lives. She is omnipresent and omniscient, and gives us direct personal access to each other, access that is unprecedented in any other time in human history. Also, like our own personal mobile devices, Gossip Girl is there in our most private, intimate moments. Gossip Girl the series supports the evolution of the teen drama genre to relate precisely and poignantly to the technological experience of its fans.
We will write a custom Essay on Genre Analysis: Gossip Girl specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gossip Girl the series also offers an innovative and artistic depiction of gossip itself via the personal mobile devices of the characters. This discussion continues in the analysis of the pilot episode.
Pilot episode analysis The pilot episode of Gossip Girl begins with attractive flashes of Manhattan’s Upper East Side, interwoven with shots of Serena’s beautiful face (Savage and Schwartz 2007). These visual effects immediately adhere to the teen drama convention in two ways: first, we recognize immediately that we are in an affluent and desirable neighborhood, Manhattan. Second, we recognize a main character that fits the genre conventions: she is a teenager, and she is beautiful.
The scene then switches to New York’s Grand Central station, as we follow Serena, who waits, presumably, for someone to pick her up. The first voice we hear belongs to Gossip Girl, the blogger. On screen, another teenager watches Serena and reaches for her cell phone. As the teenage girl snaps a photo of Serena with her phone, Gossip Girl introduces Serena thus: “Hey Upper East Siders. Gossip Girl here. And I have the biggest news ever.
One of my many sources, Melanie 91, sends us this: ‘Spotted at Grand Central, bags in hand: Serena van der Woodsen. Was it only a year ago our it girl disappeared for quote boarding school? And just as suddenly, she’s back. Don’t believe me? See for yourselves. Lucky for us, Melanie 91 sent proof. Thanks for the photo Mel” (Savage and Schwartz 2007).
When Dan, the impoverished hero, sees Serena at the station, Gossip Girl instantly has a response: “Spotted. Lonely Boy. Can’t believe the love of his life has returned. If only she knew who he was. Everyone knows Serena. And everyone is talking” (Savage and Schwartz 2007). A series of rapid-fire shots follow Gossip Girl’s introduction, as we see numerous characters checking their mobile devices for the juicy gossip tidbits provided by Gossip Girl’s blog. We witness as Melanie 91’s photo of Serena at Grand Central goes viral.
This visual depiction of gossip bears analysis. On screen, we see Serena’s photo bounce from phone to phone. Aurally, we hear numerous rings, buzzes, beeps, and vibrations as the message travels through the Gossip Girl network. This phenomenon sets the standard of gossip, and Gossip Girl, as characters, which in turn expands the genre’s understanding of narrative devices and how they can be used to tell stories on screen.
Similarly, in the later scene where Dan’s sister Jenny needs rescuing from jerk/antagonist Chuck’s manhandling and unwanted sexual advances, she uses her cell phone to call her brother for help (Savage and Schwartz 2007). When Dan and Serena crash the Kiss on the Lips party, a dazzling onscreen moment occurs when Serena stands alone in the middle of the party that she has been barred from (Savage and Schwartz 2007).
All around her, we hear gossip fluttering, hundreds of little voices twittering, all centered on Serena, and we understand that the viral nature of technology is firmly rooted in the human social experience.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Genre Analysis: Gossip Girl by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gossip Girl the series brilliantly and innovatively utilizes the social nature of technology to expand the teen drama genre. For many teens, their personal mobile device is their lifeline to their peers. The teen drama genre, as seen in Gossip Girl, blossoms to form a window into the social lives of teenagers through their technology habits.
Gossip Girl the series uses personal mobile devices to root itself in the real life experience of its core fan base. The series holds to the conventions of the teen drama genre while ultimately spinning the genre and advancing it. Gossip Girl depicts the union of culture and technology, as experienced by the current generation.
Works Cited “Pilot episode.” Gossip Girl: Season One. Writ. Stephanie Savage and Josh Schwartz. Dir. Mark Piznarski. The CW, 2007. DVD.
DISCLOSE Act: The Clash of the Viewpoints Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Because of the current situation in American economics concerning taxation and spending the governmental funds, people demand precise information on the money that has been spent on the electoral campaigns. Since people demand complete clarity in the political moves of the parties and the specified leaders, the government has decided to meet their numerous requests. The new policy has now being emerging; however, it has already awakened hot discussions in the political sphere.
On April 2010 the new concept was introduced by Chris Van Hollen in the House of Representatives. The solution that the new law suggested was rather simple, but demanding a lot of changes to be taken to adjust the new law to the sphere of politics and economics. It was expected to cause multiple consequences, both inspiring and not quite desirable; however, the main issue about it was that it promised the new democratic way of holding the elective companies on the territory of the USA.
The new law implied that the unions that represented the electors themselves (the trade union, and the communities alike) should have the right to control the funds donated for the election campaigns for the candidates for the president’s chair.
Earlier, this money was controlled only by the committees that did not allow ordinary people to see how the funds raised for the election campaigns were distributed. The purpose of the act was to make the campaigns as clear as possible following the principles of democracy proclaimed by the U.S. Constitution.
With this noble idea, Barak Obama proclaimed on April, 26 2010 that the new Act has come into effect with the new on-coming elections.
However, the procedure that preceded the act becoming effective in the USA was not simple. The numerous debates concerning the pros and cons of the Act are still going on causing a great stir in the political life of the United States. Like any other law, it does have its positive and negative aftereffects. Coming closer to analyzing it, it would be more reasonable to start with the drawbacks of the new law.
First, it “burdens the ability to speak”, as the opponents claim. With the trade unions controlling the funds, as the court claimed, there might be the tendency to give the necessary support to the preferred candidate, while another party might be left with very little opportunity to gain some weight in the eyes of the electorate (Legislative Background on Campaign Finance 201).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, it seemed quite doubtful that there will be no other mischief actions carried out. For example, together with the opportunity of controlling the elections campaigns the possibility of creating the so-called “shadow groups” can rise. The abovementioned groups can pose a serious threat to the existing democracy, taking control over the election process and pulling the necessary strings to promote the desired candidate against the will of the population.
Prohibiting “independent expenditures and payments for electioneering communications by government contractors” (Summary of the DISCLOSE Act. Major Provisions of H. R. 5175 p.199), the DISCLOSE Act unwillingly encouraged the notorious “shadow groups” to appear. The threat to the stability of the country would be enormous in this case. (Campaign Finance Timeline. Evolution of Current Policy 224)
Third, it has been argued that the additional money contributed to the election campaigns might float to those who will control the process of the elections.
As it can be easily seen, the risk that the Act would have a range of negative effects was substantial. However, it cannot be denied that it has a lot of reasons to be established as the guide to holding elections in the USA. Several arguments make introduction of the Act seem quite reasonable.
To start with, the new law has the advantage of being open and speaking to the democracy, which is supposed to be the basis for all the political and economical processes that are going on in the country. The fact is undeniable, and it speaks for the act to be adopted as the new law. (The Citizens United Ruling and the legislative Response 196)
Second, it cannot be doubted that the restrictions on the governmental control are much loosened in this case. Thus, the both parties, that are the nation and the government, are satisfied with the input that they make to the electoral company. The procedure itself stays open to the population, and the people have opportunity to observe it.
In turn, the government does not influence directly the opinions and actions of the citizen, but is able to observe the overall situation so as to mark the unjust events that may occur and correct them. Thus, the Act is the way to reach the harmony between the citizens’ and the government’s interests (New Statutes Effecting Alterations in the Law).
We will write a custom Essay on DISCLOSE Act: The Clash of the Viewpoints specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Third, the DISCLOSE Act is expected to “mitigate the impact of the Citizens United decision” (Campaign Finance and Free Speech193). As the effects of the Citizens United are at the moment quite difficult to evaluate, there are concerns that the DISCLOSURE Act will be needed to manage these effects (The Citizens United Ruling and the Legislative Response 198).
To sum up, the new law has the points that can be taken as the factors of the positive effects. They are rather numerous, and they might contribute to the future of the country in the most positive sense. Those are mainly based on the ideas of the democratic rules that are the chief asset of the USA.
However, there are certain controversial moments that can drive the situation to another conflict and spoil the idea of the just elections. As it has been mentioned,
If the DISCLOSE Act fails to become law, the Citizens United decision is likely to have a major impact on the upcoming mid-term congressional elections and on how political campaigns are conducted in the future. (Campaign Finance and Free Speech 193)
It seems that only the time will show if the new law will help the country to advance the system of elections. But still the prerequisites tell that the new act will be a huge step towards development of a system of elections that will serve to the needs and interests of the population.
Works Cited “Campaign Finance and Free Speech. Response to the Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission Decision.” Congressional Digest Sep. 2010: 193. Print.
“Campaign Finance Timeline. Evolution of Current Policy.” Congressional Digest Sep. 2010: 224. Print.
“Legislative Background on Campaign Finance. Recent Action in Congress.” Congress Digest Sep. 2010: 201. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on DISCLOSE Act: The Clash of the Viewpoints by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “New Statutes Effecting Alterations in the Law”. The Legal Observer, Digest, and Journal of Jurisprudence. Vol. 46. Spettigue and Farrance. 1853. Web.
“Summary of the DISCLOSE Act. Major Provisions of H. R. 5175.” Congressional Digest Sep 2010: 199-200, 224. Print.
“The Citizens United Ruling and the Legislative Response. Overview and Issues for Debate.” Congressional Digest Sep. 2010: 195-198. Print.
The Ostpolitik in the Soviet Empire: the Clash of Different Viewpoints Term Paper writing essay help
However hard the relations between Germany and the Soviet Union during the Ostpolitik have been discussed, there are still a lot of questions that remain unanswered. In spite of the fact that Germany and the Soviet Union had a certain scheme that could make their collaboration fruitful and profitable for each of the parties, it ended just as suddenly as it had started. There must be some light shed on the situation.
The idea that underlay the politics of Germany was the fact that the economical state of the both countries left much to be desired, and they were tending to reach the European level without going into big expenditures.
The core idea of the Ostpolitik was implemented in the motto “Change through Rapprochement Policy”. This meant that Germany and Soviet Union were trying to come into closer contact with each other and intertwine the policies, sharing the economical experience and trying to recover together.
The man to introduce the very idea of the new policy was Willy Brandt, one of the most influential men in Germany of all times. He suggested the new concept in 1963 and went on with the experiment to bridge the two great countries.
The basic idea was about connecting the two parts of Germany that were set apart, Willy Brandt saw it as the first reason for Germany to be pushed far behind in its development, and, trying to improve the state’s condition, he searched for every method possible for the country to get united again, which would create the profound basis for its further economical and political development.
When the idea took certain shapes and the process of creating links with the Soviet Union was launched, Egon Bahr, the man who conducted the whole procedure and was in charge of the changes that took place during the negotiations, made it possible for the idea to be put into practice.
Signing the agreement with Moscow was an important step, and Willy Brandt knew it perfectly well; as a chancellor, he made every possible move be directed to connecting the two parts of the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Was it the collaboration with the Soviet Union that he had been searching for? The answer would be probably yes, but the first thing he was to do was to destroy the wall between the Eastern and the Western parts of Germany, both metaphorically and literally.
There were a lot of people in Germany against collaboration with Russia, among them Konrad Adenauer. He expressed his doubts about the reasonability of the project and unwillingness to contribute to the new politics in the open, but the chancellor was determined to act in this very course. And finally the general admitted that it was only the union of two great states that could improve the situation in Germany.
Germany laid a lot of hopes on the future relationships with the Soviet Union. As Spaulding explained,
Politicized trade played a central role in the new Ostpolitik of Chancellor Willy Brandt and the Social Democrats. Steadily improving trade relations played an important part in the “policy of small steps” that aimed ultimately at change through rapprochement“ with the East.
Europe took this alliance as something out of the ordinary.
Their emotions were rather easy to understand. Indeed, creating a common workplace that would grow into trusted relationships and further on perhaps into the collaboration and partnership of the two most powerful states of those times was something to worry about. The European states, together with all their separation from each other and their policies never bespoken in the open, could not oppose the tremendously strong empire these two could turn into one day.
That is why the fact of signing the treaty in the Soviet Union by Konrad Adenauer was taken with indignation by whole wide Europe. The states had the idea that the persistence of the communist moods in the Soviet Union might lead to its ideas spreading all over Europe and finally seizing the power.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Ostpolitik in the Soviet Empire: the Clash of Different Viewpoints specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As he returned from Moscow, whole Europe was talking about his ways of an owner which were more than noticeable as he was signing the agreement. The US ambassador in the Soviet Union, C. Bolen, compared him to Chamberlain signing the defeatist contract with Hitler and Mussolini. That was already reeking of an international scandal.
The Soviet Union expected that this would contribute to its might, too. In fact, the Ostpolitik did. It made the Soviet Union stronger in terms of its economical power. In addition, it also drove the political powers of the country to think of establishing the ideas of democracy in the country.
Normalizing the relationships with Germany and acquiring the knowledge about the Western idea of a state, USSR took the new model of development with curiosity. That could mean a turn-up in the plot and a new page in the history of Russia and the Eastern Europe.
However, this all ended just as unexpectedly as it had started.
In spite of the worries of the neighboring countries, the states did not go further than they have planned. Both Brandt and Stalin did not go any further than it had been planned. They both understood perfectly well that the two states could not work together on the parities, and it was impossible to continue the further work.
The great idea collapsed.
The whole plot being a wonderful idea that was set brilliantly did not work as the two states of the same power collided. They knew that in case they would not agree upon some subject, there would be another was. At that time, neither could afford such costs, since they both were trying to heal the wounds caused by the previous conflict.
As Pittman emphasized,
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Ostpolitik in the Soviet Empire: the Clash of Different Viewpoints by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It may be that the Soviet reluctance to respond to West German appeals to increase the number ox exit permits was due to the general deterioration of détente and also to Soviet disappointment in material benefits (economic) expected from the FRG-Soviet relations.
However, it influenced the union of the two parts of Germany in 1990, this is the fact that cannot be denied. Indeed, the traces that people’s actions leave drag the most unexpected consequences.
Reference List Ash, T. G. In Europe’s Name: Germany and the Divided Continent. New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2010. Print.
Pittman, A. From Ostpolitik to Unification: West German-Soviet Political Relations Since 1974. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2002. Print.
Spaulding, R. M. Osthandel and Ostpolitik: German Foreign Trade Policies in Eastern Europe from Bismarck to Adenauer. Oxford: Berghahn Books. 1997. Print.
Footnotes Ash, T. G. In Europe’s Name: Germany and the Divided Continent. (New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2010).
Spaulding, R. M. Osthandel and Ostpolitik: German Foreign Trade policies in Eastern Europe from Bismark to Adenauer. (Oxford: Berghahn Books 1997). 489
Pittman, A. From Ostpolitik to Unification: West German-Soviet Political Relations Since 1974. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). 30
Turkish accession to the European Union Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction This paper will contain information that pertains to Turkey’s accession to the European Union. It will contain research questions, an explanation as to how the research questions will be of help to the topic in question; through answering the research questions the topic of the paper will be fully and critically answered.
The literature review that will contain written literature that will discuss the history of Turkey and the European Union and how Turkey came to be interested in the European Union as well as literature pertaining to the discussions held by members of the European Union towards the request of Turkey being a part of the European Union.
This paper will contain a hypothesis that would be proven and supported or discredited through conducted research relevant to the content of the topic question. Methodology to be used in the research will also be included in the paper and finally a conclusion and bibliography will be included in the paper as well.
Research question What is the European Union?
When and why did Turkey join the European Union?
The above research questions when addressed will be able to give us a brief history of the European Union and how it came to be. These questions will also give a brief explanation of why the European Union was founded and its activities. These questions will also give us an overview of the activities of the European Union and how and when Turkey came to be a member of the European Union.
These research questions are important they it will critically and analytically trace Turkey’s interest in the European Union up to the point it joined the union and the activities that turkey has helped with and carried under the European Union. Through addressing the research question we will understand and find out the reasons as to why Turkey joined the European Union and how the other members of the union reacted to this addition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The research questions will also be able to give the advantages and disadvantages of Turkey joining the European Union both on the Turkish side and the European Union. Through critically analyzing these advantages and disadvantages one will be able to draw conclusions and decide for one self if Turkey’s choice of joining the European Union was a right move or a wrong move.
Literature Review Macapahil (2008 45) states that the ruling party in Turkey, AK, is still very much at the fore front to the full accession to the European Union, however the citizens of Turkey appear to be more reluctant to join the European Union. This tells us the citizens of turkey have come to the realization that the current headship of the European Union is against Turkey joining the Union.
This coupled with the Citizens of Turkey also not wanting to join the Union, shows there is a grim hope of Turkey ever joining the Union. Resentment for Turkey to join the European Union does not come from Turkish citizens but other European countries a well namely; France, Spain, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Belgium and the Netherlands. (Bilge, 2000 45).
The main reason for this resentment comes down to the fact that Turkey is not in Europe and the members feel that its geographical position should be a reason as to why Turkey should not join the European Union as it was formed for the European Countries and not countries located outside Europe. The Turks feel and understand this discrimination hence why they do not want to join the European Union as they know they will be prejudiced against due to the fact that their country is not geographically located in Europe.
According to Schimmelfennig (2009 25), the resolution by the European Union to open up talks that would lead to the appointment of Turkey to the European Union was one of the topics that brought about great controversy. This was because rejection was extremely high among the influential people as well as the public as well. The question as to why Turkey was not invited to join the Union during the Brussels EU Council held in December 2004 by any of the Members Veto power was raised.
This is to show that the member states did not want Turkey to join the European Union; from this piece of literature we can easily conclude that the member states of the EU did not want new members and in addition they did not consider Turkey to be in Europe or want it as a member of the Union. The issue comes in the sense that not all veto wielding countries are in agreement of allowing Turkey to join the European Union.
Steinmo 2008 argues that the choices presented to the member states in the year 2004 had been inhibited by the resolutions made in the previous years. These decisions can be retraced to the verdict at the Helsinki summit to propose candidature to Turkey.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Turkish accession to the European Union specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the Helsinki summit the member states only agreed and consented to identify and be acquainted with Turkey as a candidate for membership. This in simple terms states that Turkey would have to go thorough a rigorous series of political and economic improvement that are up to the standards of the European Union member States so as to be accepted as a member of the union.
If Turkey was to fail or not comply with these political and economic standards then it means their proposed candidature to the European Union would be revoked taking away all the hopes of Turkey ever becoming a member of the European Union. The changes needed in the political and economic sectors would adequately affect the citizens of Turkey and it would force them to assimilate the political and economic ways of the European Union member states so as to be at par with them.
In reference to George and Bennett (2005 20-55). Turkey was offered candidacy to the European Union as a wide effect of variations brought forth by the end of the cold war. Some of these changes encompassed and inclined the guidelines of decisions to be made in this case the proposal of Turkey to be offered candidature seemed to be a brilliant idea and was thought to be essential.
With such an offer on the table the Turks were very much persuaded to undertake a serious domestic reform for the constitution and the relationship between Ankara and the EU was strengthened. The problem then came with the issue of the geographical area of Turkey with some of the members denying Turkey membership because it was not in Europe geographically.
During the cold war the eastern and western countries were at war of ideologies with each other. Each of the sides wanted to have the more allies than the other and therefore these countries offered economic assistance to the developing countries so as they could join one of the sides; capitalism or communism.
It is during this ideological war that the European Union saw a golden chance of offering candidacy to Turkey so as Turkey could join and become part and parcel of the capitalist countries. The candidacy was offered to Turkey so as the capitalism countries could continue to spread their ideas to this country. The European Union put in a lot of money in form of financial and economic assistance so as to ensure that Turkey was on the capitalist side.
According to Ankara-Hurriyet Daily News 2010 the British Prime ministers fully supports Turkeys bid to join the European Union and that he would fight for Turkey to be accepted into the union. The prime minister stated that the other members should look at the things Turkey has done including the Turkish soldiers in Afghanistan alongside the European troops keeping the peace, protecting Europe as it is a NATO ally.
All these aspects should be looked upon and considered alongside Turkey’s bid to the European Union. This simply shows that the British are fully supporting the bid by Turkey while at the same time some European countries that are member states of the union are not supporting this cause. This shows the reason as to why Britain feels the need to try and convince the other members to accept the bid by Turkey as it has to be a unilateral decision by all member states on order to accept a new member.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Turkish accession to the European Union by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Prime Minister Cameron went ahead to state that there were three different groups of people who were championing the rejection of the bid by Turkey to join the European Union. The fist were the protectionist that viewed Turkey as an economic threat, the second were the polarized they based their rejection on the history of the country and a conflict of cultures and last but not least the prejudiced who based their rejection on religion.
The fact that majority of Turks are Muslims seems to be a hurdle to some of the member states of the European Union even though that Turkey is a secular and democratic state. Through these statements we are able to conclude that the European Union is a secular organization that is not run according to any particular religion, this drives home the fact that some member states of the European Union are clutching at any straws so as to deny Turkey membership in the European View.
According to Bilge (2000, 63), the European Union did not act accordingly in the Greek-Turkish conflict when this took place. These two countries were historical rivals and its resolution involved leaders of both countries holding talks and coming up with general collective characteristics that both countries shared, and also entertain ideas of a union between Greece and turkey to be called Greek-Turkish union. The idea of the Greek-Turkish union however happened way before the formation of the European Economic Community which was converted to European Community which eventually became the European Union.
Greece and Turkey both applied to join the EEC in 1959 when the relations between the two countries were already unpleasant because of Cyprus. Due to this dispute over Cyprus, the rejection by other members of the union came into play. The nature of conflict was to escalate after a while whereby, the member states would be forced to ally themselves with either of the countries and this is why the member states rejected both countries as they did not want to be forced to choose sides.
The European Union watched as these two countries fought over Cyprus and border disputes. The European was expected to set in and offer a solution to this conflict but they choose to stay at the sidelines. Despite the fact that both countries were candidates to the European Union and they both maintained close ties with the Union while the relationship between the two countries remained hostile to each other. (Hurriyet Daily News 2007)
The European Union proved to be unsuccessful as it did not have any optimistic influence on the conflicts between these two states. This was due to the fact during the conflicts the European Union did not act out its part and only started getting actively involved on such matters after 1999 in both countries.
However the Unions involvements in dispute settling have been quite limited and development on Turkey’s membership has been connected to the resolving of the border dispute with Greece. This resolution put in place a structure and an agenda that would be used by both parties when disputes arose in the future.
Hypothesis H1-Turkey does not possess the right qualities to be a member state of the European Union.
Methodology In order to prove the above hypothesis, case studies, written literature and research articles will be used. These methods will provide a good strong base whereby one can draw conclusions pertaining to either way. Sources that are to be used to answer the research question and prove the hypothesis will range form E-books, internet articles, case studies and literature reviews previously conducted on the relevant topics. Through answering the research question one will be able to test the hypothesis and draw conclusions from the research carried out.
Literatures reviews concerning the topics have been critiqued therefore leaving it open for any person to draw their own conclusions on the topic of Turkey joining the European Union.
Then again the literature reviews give insight on the process of the application by Turkey to be part of the union since 1959 when the Union was known as EEC. From 1959, debates by member state have been carried out so as to know if it would be advantageous to add Turkey to the union. This shows us that there are some member states that are relentless when it comes to opposing the membership of Turkey.
In conclusion there are different reasons as to why the European Union would integrate or reject Turkey. This all depends on the member states and how they vote. The debates whether to include Turkey have been active since 1959 and these debates are still on going. The Member states of the union need be on the same page when it comes to Turkey’s integration and this has proven difficult in the application of turkey.
Some member states that are rejecting Turkey are basing their arguments on the geographical area of Turkey. The fact that Turkey is not located in Europe yet it wants to join the European Union seems to be a challenge to some of the member states. Another factor that seems to be a basis for rejection of Turkey is the economic activities that the European Union will undertake if Turkey becomes a full member. Some of the members argue that it would be a loss to allow turkey to join them, hence the rejection based on financial abilities.
This paper has come up with research questions that when fully answered will prove or disapprove the hypotheses of this paper. With the help of literature reviews on the relevant topics that are concerned with and linked with the topic in question one would be able to know if Turkey has what it takes to be a full member of the European Union and if the advantages will be experience on the Turkey side or on the European Union side.
References Bilge, A.S., 2000., Buyuk Dus: Turk-Yunan Siyasi Iliskileri [Megali Idea: Turkish-Greek Political Relations], Ankara: Yuzyil Yayinlari.
POPO’s All Natural Pet Foods New Product Problem Solution Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The World’s Healthiest Dog POPO’s All Natural Pet Foods have created a new product for dogs that is made up of natural ingredients. A unique combination of crops that have been organically fertilized will make all dogs much healthier, from bones to ears. In order to prove that this product has always been of high quality, we plan to organize a world’s dog show under the slogan – “The World’s Healthiest Dog: The Power of Nature”.
Such a competition will involve the participants whose pets are fond of POPO’s products. This would be a great chance for promoting a new product and for attracting more clients.
The concept implies that this product is an essential condition for all dogs to be strong, invincible, and happy. The show will also imply also provide the exhibition of new products as well as the presentation of the production process that is carried out with the use of ecologically pure tools. In order to ensure the show’s success and idea, we also plan to cooperate with Born Free USA, a nonprofit organization that will serve as a guarantor of a healthy and ecological atmosphere of the show.
Aside from organizing an event, it is also possible to post the results of competition on our official site to attract other owners of dogs and demonstrate all advantages of holding such competitions and buying these healthy and natural products. In addition, they can also express and share their opinions with other owners, which will be rather beneficial the product promotion.
In addition, a successful communication with a client can be ensured through forums where the highly qualified professionals can answer all questions about the products, their quality and ingredients. Finally, we also plan to post the photos and videos of the event to demonstrate new opportunities for dogs to be stronger and healthier and for their masters to be satisfied.
Dharma, Liberation and Religious Geography in the Film “Water” Directed by Deepa Mehta Essay a level english language essay help
A social position of woman in Indian society has always been one of the issues of concern. The attitude to women can be describes as discrimination. Such an attitude was caused by religious and social development of the country. It was never so widely paraded and criticized until the film “Water” was produced by Deepa Mehta.
We got used to Indian films which show positive sides of this culture. However, the film by Deepa Mehta can be considered a film of new generation that attracts attention of modern society to the problem of social relations, in particular, social role of women in India. The society made a great step forward in last decades, but still, in some villages, the traditions described in the film are still preserved.
The film is not only a depiction of social relations and old traditions, it is the author’s perception and interpretation of social beliefs and religious practices in India. In order to convey his idea, the film author makes use of symbols and different technical things. So, in this essay, I am going to analyze the rupture between social beliefs and religious practices in Indian culture using the film by Deepa Mehta “Water” as the best example.
The film is the last part of the Metha’s Elemental Trilogy: “Fire”, “Earth” and “Water”. As the author says: “the trilogy is about elements on one level that nurture and destroy us. They are very tangible elements. Fire is about the politics of sexuality, Earth is about the politics of nationalism and Water is about the politics of religion”. “Water” is the most controversial film that describes one of the aspects of Indian social life that is greatly affected by the religious beliefs.
The director focuses attention on the widows’ fate through the story of a seven-year old Indian girl who became a widow the next day she married. The girl is taken to ashram where widows should live. Through the eyes of this girl, Deepa Mehta analyzes many themes: the theme of love, friendship, religious beliefs and use of religion to justify actions of upper classes. The director analyses such issues as dharma, liberation and religious geography.
The main concern of the film director is a social role of woman, “wives must play their appropriate roles” (Markham and Lohr 2009, 56). Through the description of life of one person (the girl named Chuyia) and people surrounding her, we found out about cruel traditions that defined the rules women had to obey. Woman in Indian society had no social rights. There were many things that she could not do and rules she had to obey.
For example, Jauhar, wife should die if her husband dies, purdhar, a tradition to cover all the body and a tradition the permits young girls to marry. One of the traditions that is describes in the film is Sati. The tradition presupposes that if husband dies, his wife can marry his younger brother, be burned together with the husband’s body or live as a pariah in special institutions. “It has been said that there is no more unfortunate character in the whole range of Hinduism that the vidhava or widow” (Walker 1968, 599)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the film, we see how parents prepare her for life of a widow. They cut her hair and dress her in a white dress. According to the customs of that time, she will have to live punished by society and mourning her husband. It was considered that wife was responsible for death of her husband. White color that dominates in the film is one of technical things that are used to transfer the atmosphere of religious asceticism.
White color dominates not only in clothes, but in other details, such as bleach white powder which widows throw into the air during the spring festival of Holi. “White is a color of peace and purity,” (Chakravarti 1994, 31). That is why the girl was dressed in white. It meant that she should clear her karma. According to religious beliefs, “karma is the effect of past actions, either in this life or before, on the present life and future incarnation”. (Chakravarti 1994, 15).
Discussing religious geography, religious practices and social beliefs, it should be mentioned that this film shows perfectly the inconsistency of social life and religion. People from lower classes, such as Chuyia and other widows in the house had to expiate the forgiveness for their sin.
Their destiny was to beg money for living. However, the head of the house used one of young widows (Kalyani) as a prostitute to get money and support the house. Of course, the customers were rich people. The status permitted a rich and respected man permittedhave any woman, as Narayan’s father said. This situation in the film shows that upper social layers used religion for their own purposes.
Even the belief that talking with a widow is a sin could not affect such a person. The author, not only depicts social and religious conflict, she also criticize them. She uses the techniques of filming, such as deep focus in some scenes and shows the attitude of characters to the whole situation and makes us understand that they are the people of new generation and can overcome prejudices. This theme is developed through love between Kalyani and Narayan. They characters are the examples of the struggle against prejudices.
The line of dharma is one of the main line of the film. Dharma dictates the right living which should help to reach nirvana and get rid of suffering. The issue of dharma appears at the very beginning of the film when we see a flower of lotus. Lotus is a symbol of purity, fertility and eternity.
Using this symbol, the director leaves the hope that girl whose fate was so unhappy has a chance to be saved. In addition, white lotus is a symbol mental purity and perfection of spirit. It can be interpreted as characteristics of main characters. Each of them is “clean” in his/her own way: Chuyia is still a child, Kalyani and Narayan cleaned their souls with love, and one more character, Shakuntala is shown as a perfect Hindu.
We will write a custom Essay on Dharma, Liberation and Religious Geography in the Film “Water” Directed by Deepa Mehta specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The motive of dharma is one of the main in the film. Again, it is disclosed through the main characters. The director shows the religious and moral sides of the issue. However, the author is far from the religious perception and interpretation of dharma. The moral side of it is in the focus of Mehta’s attention. She estimates that only purity of soul and not blind obeying to rules can save a person. One more important interpretation of the issue is that the author puts the fortune into people’s hands.
The issue of liberation is another important theme of the film. Liberation is the aim of all women of India, liberation is that what the main characters aspire to and liberation is that what they get at the end. Describing this story, the director emphasizes the absurdity of certain social traditions.
The story implies that human happiness does not depend on some traditions that were imposed by some historical events and religious interpretations of certain laws. The author says that every person has right to be happy. And as soon as one realizes it, he should fight for his/her happiness.
The symbol of liberalism in the film is water. It is also one of the main characters of the film, as it begins and ends with scenes that take action near the river. Running water is a symbol of time. It is also the symbol of purity and strength. All the important things and all the important decisions in the film occurred at the water. Another symbol of liberalism is the train that takes main characters into a new and free life.
The film is the depiction of the social beliefs and religious practices that took place in the old Indian society. The director managed to present her interpretation of such religious issue as dharma and the role of woman in Indian society. Through the analysis of the film, I discovered that social traditions were dictated by religious beliefs and were different relatively to different social layers. Various techniques and symbols used in film help us understand the author’s intention.
References Chakravarti, Sitansu S. 1994. Hinduism, a way of life. Delhi: Jainendra Prakash Jain at Shri Jainendra Press.
Markham, Ian S. and Christy Lohr. 2009. A world religions reader.Singapore: Blackwell Publisher.
Walker, Benjamin. 1968. The Hindu world: an encyclopedic survey of Hinduism, vol 2. New Yourk: Praeger.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Dharma, Liberation and Religious Geography in the Film “Water” Directed by Deepa Mehta by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Does Psychology Make a Significant Difference in Our Lives? Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
In his article, Does psychology make a significant difference in our lives? Philip Zimbardo intends to explore whether the field of psychology has achieved any significant milestone in the lives of humankind. In this case, the author wishes to show why and how psychology matters in the lives of humankind. For example, Zimbardo has examined the role played by psychology in political polling, in which the application of sampling techniques finds use in a bid to predict the outcomes of an election (Zimbardo, 2004, p. 343).
In addition, the author explores the issue of discrimination and prejudice by assessing behavioral and emotional motivations that are often attributed to racial prejudice (Zimbardo, 2004, p. 343). The issue of humanizing of the factory work is yet another illustration of the role played by psychology at the factory setting.
In this case, the author illustrates how the psychology theory has found application in according a humanizing impact in as far as industrial work is concerned, as opposed to the dehumanizing effect of the workforce at the factory whereby they are treated as robots (Zimbardo, 2004, p. 343). Moreover, Zimbardo has evaluated the role of psychology in unconscious motivation. On the issue of parenting, the author recounts how parenting advice by psychologists appears to have changed over time, in terms of both value and quality.
The article by Zimbardo appeals to a diverse audience, ranging from scholars, parents, employees, employers, and students, among others. The authors has also endeavored to use sufficient evidence in an attempt to indicate illustrate just how psychology has been instrumental in transforming the lives of humankind.
For example, the author illustrates how psychology has found use in affording a sound comprehension of visual perception in the improvement of traffic safety. Examples here include the application of the Skinerian behavior analysis with the intention of helping to reduce at risk-behaviors, enhancing safe behaviors, and preventing the occurrence of unintentional injuries both on the road and at the place of work.
In the criminal justice system, the input of social and cognitive psychologists has been invaluable in revealing the unreliability that often characterizes testimonies by eye-witnesses (Zimbardo, 2004, p. 345).
In the field of education, psychological research helps to reveal negative impacts of social desegregation through the establishment of “jigsaw classroom”, in effect helping to reveal rampant prejudice against minority children, high tension and poor performance. In the health sector, behavioral toxicology has proved quite invaluable in revealing how a majority of the toxins targets the nervous system, resulting in symptomatic consequences, such as defective mental and behavioral processes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The arguments presented by Zimbardo on how [psychological has been instrumental in changing the lives of human kind are logical because the author uses practical examples in everyday live that we can all identify with. In addition, the author has also organized the article in a clear and easy to read manner, meaning that the article has desisted from using a complex structure.
Also, the author has also endeavored to back his claims on the various areas in which psychology has had an impact with credible evidence from scholars and authors, as well as the use of peer reviewed journals.
Furthermore, the author has also endeavored to make use of sufficient evidence in making up the arguments that he has made on the issue of whether psychology makes any significant change in the lives of humans. Moreover, his arguments are in agreement with his main point, that the field of psychology has achieved any significant milestone in the lives of humankind.
Reference Zimbardo, P. G. (2004). Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives? American Psychologist, 59(5): 339-351
United Nations and International Peace Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The United Nations Provisions
Effectiveness of the United Nations
Introduction United Nations is an international organization, established in 1945 after the Second World War following the dire consequences of the First and the Second World Wars. Although the First World War led to the establishment of the League of Nations in order to promote international peace and security, it failed to prevent the occurrence of the Second World War. To overcome the flaws in the League of Nations, the United Nations was formed on 26 June 1945, when the Charter of the United Nations was signed by member states.
The functions of the United Nations as stipulated in the Article 1 include maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, promoting international cooperation in problem solving and harmonization of the collective responsibility of the nations (Auden, 1997, p. 50). This essay examines the role of the United Nations in maintenance of international peace and security, and its effectiveness as empowered by the charter.
The United Nations Provisions The Charter of the United Nations Article 24 empowers the Security Council to exercise the functions of the United Nation. According to the International Court of Justice (2010), the United Nations members “confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf.”
The Security Council has prerogative of determining peace and security status of the member states by ensuring that every member has equal rights of protection. The Security Council should discharge its functions as stipulated in chapters VI, VII, and XII in the Charter of the United Nations.
Chapter VI of the United Nations Charter deals with Pacific Settlement of Disputes. This chapter empowers the Security Council to call disputing parties to solve any dispute “by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice” (Browne, 2003, p. 16).
The Security Council identify, investigate and recommend appropriate procedures of addressing situations that may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security to the International Court of Justice (Novak, 2001, p. 5).
In chapter VII, the United Nations Charter gives powers to the security to “determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Article 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security” (Miller, 1999, p. 67). The Security Council will use all means to make sure that all its members are protected against any threat to peace or an aggression.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In chapter VII, the United Nations Charter empowers the Security Council to ensure that any regional arrangements that involve maintenance of the international peace and security should comply with the United Nations purposes and principles.
According to the Article 52, “the Security Council shall encourage the development of pacific settlement of local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies either on the initiative of the states concerned or by reference from the Security Council” (Brader, 2005, p. 78).
The Security Council should be updated “at all times about the activities undertaken or in contemplation under regional arrangements or by regional agencies for the maintenance of international peace and security” (Smith, 2002, p. 33). Since the United Nations Security Council is responsible for the maintenance of peace and security worldwide, then any issues related to peace and security are of great concern lest they threaten peace and security of others.
Effectiveness of the United Nations Political nature of the General Assembly and the Security Council hinder the effectiveness of the United Nations in fostering international peace and security. Simon (2009) argues that, ‘the United Nations’ efforts to preserve international peace and security are the most contentious aspect of its entire work, because of the inherently political nature of its role” (p. 23). The resolution of conflicts and disputes depend on the political orientation of the General Assembly, Security Council and member states thus complicating the issues.
The decision to invade Iraq was formulated politically by George Bush and Tony Blair to deceive the world that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction. Prados and Ames (2010), argue that, “the evidence indicates the decision was made very early, long before ultimatums to Iraq or other diplomatic action.”
This shows that the main reason for Iraq invasion was political rather than a security reason. Another case is the cold war between the United State and Soviet Union where Baruch describes it as “the most important political and diplomatic issue of the early post war period” (2007). The split of the Soviet Union was due to political influence of the United Nations.
Conclusion The main reason for the establishment of the United Nations was save the world against horrible consequences of war. Horrible experiences of First and Second World War made the world leaders to come together and think of various ways of preventing the future occurrence of war.
We will write a custom Essay on United Nations and International Peace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The United Nations in its Security Council arm is fostering international peace and security through legal procedures, diplomacy and military peacekeeping. With this noble responsibility, the United Nations experiences undue political pressure as they maintain international peace and security.
References Auden, H. (1997). The United Nations Charter. Human Rights Journal, 22(3): 45-53. Print.
Baruch, B. (2007). Cold War. Global Security. Web.
Brader, S. (2005). International Relations: Peace and Security. New York. Norton. 78.
Browne, M. (2003). United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress. The Library of Congress, 6(2): 1-16.
International Court of Justice, (2010). The Charter of the United Nations. Web.
Miller, T. (1999). Peace Treaties and the United Nations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 67.
Novak, G. (2001). The Security Council: United Nations. Journal of Human rights, 3(1): 5.
Not sure if you can write a paper on United Nations and International Peace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Prados, J.,
Leading and Motivation: Case study of FedEx and UPS Inc. best essay help
Leadership is the process of influencing people to contribute willingly to the goals and objectives of the organization. Leaders are required in organizations to help unite people and reduce conflicts between different stakeholders. There are many challenges that leaders encounter and they must be prepared to face such challenges. Change management is an important skill that leaders should have because there are many processes which change within the organization.
Leaders must possess good interpersonal skills so that they can relate well with their followers to achieve the goals which have been set (4). This section of the paper deals with discussing how leadership can be applied in an organization to achieve goals and solve problems. A case study of FeEx Inc. has been used with a clear analysis of leadership skills applied by Fred Smith, the founder of FedEx.
Fred Smith is a renowned leader who founded FedEx Inc. after serving in the Vietnam military in the position of a marine back. It is from the military job that Fred acquired his leadership skills and this helped him pursue his business successfully. Fred opined that the military teaches its officers good leadership skills with an emphasis on influencing people to achieve organizational goals. Military leadership requires that a leader should trust his followers will achieve the set goals.
Leaders in the military must ensure that their followers achieve the goals which have been set. Failure to achieve the goals can lead to serious mistakes especially in war where a simple mistake can cause death to a lot of people. According to Smith, leaders are required to get the maximum output from their followers by encouraging them to contribute all their effort towards the achievement of the goals of the organization (7).
Efficiency in communication has been identified by Fred Smith as the most important aspect in achieving good leadership skills. In addition, leaders must provide feedback to their followers to ensure a complete understanding between and among people in an organization. Fred was also of the opinion that managing change in an organization is very important as a strategy of achieving goals and overcoming competition from other players in the industry.
He also explained that in an organization, report cards are important so that employees can know what is expected of them and how to perform duties assigned to them (7). Employees need to be appreciated for their contribution towards the goals of the organization by providing them with attractive rewards, and sharing in the profits made by the organization among other incentives (4).
There is a time when FedEx Express National, a subsidiary of FedEx was faced with low employee motivation and high rate of turnover. This was a great challenge especially when the company was launching its new products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To solve this problem, the managers of FedEx used 360-degree feedback system to identify the causes of the problems facing the company as well as to identify leadership strengths and weaknesses as applied by the managing director and the senior managers (5). The analysis found out that there was inefficient communication between the managing director and the senior managers.
To solve this problem, the managing director improved communication among the employees. This created trust among the employees and their leaders and the company was able to improve communication systems among all stakeholders. This reduced the rate of employee turnover and the work environment was favorable for achieving goals of the organization. The performance of the employees also improved.
To improve the performance of employees, Fred Smith encouraged efficient communication between the leaders and their followers. Fred Smith encouraged the workers to put all their effort towards performing their jobs because they were doing a very noble business which was important to many people in the world.
Smith was able to maintain change within the company depending on the prevailing conditions. For example, Smith developed Zapmail in the 1980’s to improve communication among all stakeholders of the organization. This technology led to the development of a worldwide express market. FedEx continued changing its systems to avoid risks of competition from other companies in the industry (7).
From the case study of Fred Smith is observable that leadership is based on efficient communication, good feedback system and adapting to change. Feedback system is used to identify the source of conflicts within an organization while communication helps identify solutions to the conflicts.
Therefore, communication and feedback complement each other. Adapting to change helps improve workplace environment. Adapting to change requires taking risks to overcome the turbulent workplace environment. Thus, success in an organization is achieved by using good communication and feedback systems as well as adapting to change.
Employees have needs which need be satisfied and failure to satisfy these needs can cause poor performance. They are motivated to work towards achieving the goals of the organization when their needs are satisfied. Therefore, motivation can be explained as the aspiration to satisfy needs by an employee in an organization.
We will write a custom Report on Leading and Motivation: Case study of FedEx and UPS Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Employees are willing to contribute towards the goals set by an organization when their needs are satisfied. Competition in the global markets has intensified and there is need to come up with strategies of motivating employees to come up with innovative ideas about production (3).
In this section, two companies FedEx and UPS Inc. will be studied in terms of how the companies motivate their employees to improve performance.
Job satisfaction improves the level of motivation for employees. Employees who are motivated and satisfied with their jobs have the ability to contribute willingly to the objectives of the organization. Maximum output is provided by employees when they are motivated to work.
Managers should realize that employees are the greatest assets that an organization has and they should be treated with care. FedEx is a company that appreciates its employees and encourages them to contribute willingly to the goals and objectives that have been established. The company has realized that having the most efficient equipment and technologies is not as important as having motivated employees.
Organizations experiencing a lot of changes within a short period of time require motivated employees so that they can keep pace with the changes being experienced at the workplace. (1). It is also important for employees working in such a work environment to socialize and understand each so that they can know the strengths and weaknesses of their colleagues. This creates effective teamwork at the workplace.
Organizations can use monetary or non-monetary motivational strategies to improve their performance. FedEx has been applying the two methods to motivate its employees.
Examples of such motivational rewards include job promotions, training employees on new technologies, paid leaves, awards and other motivational strategies. UPS Inc. has also applied a motivational system similar to that of FedEx. To achieve its motivational goals, the company has introduced strategies such as 401(k) plan, healthcare plans among other strategies (6).
There is a compensation and reward program that was established by the company to motivate employees, encourage innovative ideas and encourage teamwork within the organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Leading and Motivation: Case study of FedEx and UPS Inc. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To achieve this, the company has established several programs such as increasing the wages for employees, offering training sessions, paid leaves, offering discounts for travels and shipping rates on employees and other programs. Promotional incentives at the company are offered depending on the performance of employees. Employees are trained on modern and up-coming technologies to equip them with changes in the global market.
Paid leaves are offered when employees require maternity, marriage or paternity leave. Employees are offered a discount on their travels and shipment of goods to encourage them to use the services of the company and making them feel as part of the company. Special awards are offered to employees with improved performance during a specific period (2).
The Company has adopted the strategy of offering continuous training to its employees to maintain the quality of performance. Employees are offered opportunities to advance their education in support from the company. Employees are promoted depending on the level of education they have acquired from the sponsorship of the company. Gradual growth in career is maintained by offering employees the opportunity to learn step-by-step until they achieve good skills.
Other benefits accrued from working at the company are paid weekends and holidays, healthcare benefits and others. Workers at the supply chain departments are offered financial assistance, dental and vision insurance schemes, and other types of insurance, as well as retirement benefits and the 401(k) scheme. Freight employees are offered with schemes such as 401(k) plans, medical cover, dental and vision insurance paid leaves (8).
These incentives have motivated the employees of UPS and the company has been able to achieve most of its objectives because employees are ready to work towards achieving the goals. UPS has been able to maintain a high level of competition in the market by adopting better human resources management strategies which have placed it at a competitive edge in the market.
Motivation is an important aspect in an organization that makes employees to improve their efficiency leading to improved performance. Motivation provides incentives to employees to improve the quality of their work and to perform in a timely manner. Rewards given to employees motivate them to provide extra time to the job they are assigned.
The success of a business depends on the ability of the managers to motivate and encourage its employees to contribute willingly towards the goals and objectives of the organization. Employees are not only motivated by monetary factors and managers should use a mixture of strategies to motivate their employees.
Managers should be able to identify what motivates their employees most to avoid investing blindly towards motivational strategies. Motivation has been identified as a factor which reduces employee turnover and encourages them to become efficient in their activities. The motivational schemes should be changed constantly to ensure employees graduate from one level of motivation to another. This should be done to avoid stagnation at one level of motivation.
End Notes Bohlander, GW and Snell, S. Managing human resources. Cengage Learning, 2007. ISBN 0324314639, 9780324314632
FedEx. “FedEx Careers”. Web.
Gitman, LJ and McDaniel, C. The future of business: The essentials. Cengage Learning, 2008. ISBN 0324590768, 9780324590760.
Greenleaf, RK, and Spears, LC. Servant leadership: a journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Paulist Press, 2002. ISBN 0809105543, 9780809105540.
Real Time Performance. Leadership makes the difference: How FedEx increased employee engagement to successfully launch a new service. Web.
Retirement prudential. Teamster-UPS 401 (k) plan transition. Web.
Smith, Fred. “How I delivered the goods”. Fortune Small Business. 2010. Web.
UPS. “UPSCareer”. Web.
How the AIDS epidemic has affected the world on a political, social, economical way Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
History of AIDS
HIV/AIDS in the world
Political Effects of the AIDS Epidemic
Social impacts of HIV/AIDS
Introduction AIDS is an international epidemic that has interfered with the political, social and economic status of most states in the world. It is an epidemic that was discovered in the 1980s, and since then it has taken many lives, not to mention, both adults and children, scientists have been involved in vigorous research, although they have not been successful in discovering its cure.
However, they have managed to come up with some drugs that suppress the effects of the disease in the human body, although they do not cure. AIDS knows no boundaries and affects all groups of people.
Many children have been orphaned at a very early age while some partners have lost their spouses to this deadly disease. These people go through a lot of economic hardships trying to adjust to their predicament while their social status continues to deteriorate. Governments have spent large sums of money in providing medication for the diseased and there is still much to be done.
This paper give a brief overview of the history of AIDS, looks at the prevalence of AIDS in some of the highly affected countries, and gives the political, economic, and social impacts of AIDS in the world. Some of these impacts include loss of loved ones, increased demand for health services, increased cost of medication, reduction in labor supply, among others.
History of AIDS People are believed to have suffered from AIDS as early as the 1970s although the disease had not been discovered by then. AIDS was discovered in 1980 and it is believed to have originated from Africa. At first, it was common among gay men and some people referred to it as gay-related immune deficiency (GRID) while others referred to it as gay cancer.
It was not clear what caused the disease back then and scientist engaged in all sorts of researches to investigate on the causes of the epidemic. It was in June 1982 when a study was carried on a group of gay men from California who were suffering from the disease.
The report suggested that the disease was sexually transmitted and was caused by an infectious agent. By July the same year, more than 450 cases had been reported from over 23 states and the disease started growing at an alarming rate and it begun affecting non-homosexuals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was in September 1982 that the acronym AIDS standing for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome was discovered and was used in journals and newspapers and since then, the epidemic of AIDS has been affecting virtually everyone and it is common in every state.
HIV/AIDS in the world Africa is believed to be hit the most by the epidemic of AIDS. As at 2007, one in every ten adults (15-49 years) was infected by the virus in nine countries while one in every five adults is living with the virus in three countries from the south. South Africa has the biggest percentage of people living with Aids (18.1%) than other African countries.
However, the rates of infections are enormously high in the sub-Saharan countries where more than 1.9 million people are infected with the virus every year. Today, there are more than 22 million Africans living AIDS with the biggest percent being women. As the rates if infection increases more people are at risk of contacting the disease because the chances of having sex with an infected person rise.
West Africa is estimated to have the least number of people living with the virus although the prevalence is rising in some large countries, for instance, Cote d’Ivoire is ranked among the top 14 countries in terms of HIV infection while more than 2.6 million adults and children are living with the disease. In East Africa, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, the rate of HIV infections was estimated to be 5%.
The epidemic of AIDS seems to be more diverse in Asia than in Africa. It is approximated that nearly half of the entire populace in the globe resides in Asia and thus a minor increase in the number of infectivity in Asia may have vast impact to the number of individuals infected all over the globe.
More than 4.7 million people live with the disease in Asia with the highest percentage being the homosexuals, drug users and sex workers. Most of the countries in Asia have taken quick measures to combat the spread of the disease, for instance, Thailand has launched extensive campaigns to enlighten the public about the disease consequently preventing the spread of HIV.
Other nations such as China remain behind when it comes to the prevention of HIV since they had not entirely accepted that the extent of HIV would threaten their populace. There is need for quick and effective actions to be taken in these countries before the epidemic take more lives than it has already done.
We will write a custom Essay on How the AIDS epidemic has affected the world on a political, social, economical way specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The AIDS scourge may increase further in Asia following the increased use of banned drugs as well as booming sex trade not forgetting the fact that there are increased movements across and within borders. Globalization has led to an expansion of the international market and many people are moving from one country to the other facilitating the spread of AIDS. Many countries have not been able to access the treatment for AIDS although many efforts are being made for the same.
The utilization of anti-viral remedy is to a large extent improving the length as well as quality of life for individuals existing with the virus even though they are also escalating the percentage of citizens living with the illness thereby augmenting the pervasiveness figures for HIV. Several scientists are worried about the harm that is created by the HIV preclusion activities particularly when a lot of efforts and funds are devoted to the provision of treatment.
In the developed nations, HIV infections are common among homosexuals and injecting drug users. These groups of people are at high risk of the disease although heterosexual intercourse also accounts for the increase in HIV cases. In the U.S. 25% of the people diagnosed with the virus in 2008 were women and about 75% of these women had contracted the disease through heterosexual sex.
In other countries such as the U.K. and Europe, heterosexual intercourse accounts for over 75% of new infections. At the early stages of the epidemic, a lot of information was provided to large population on ways of preventing the disease. With this information, the number of unprotected sex decreased and the demand for reproductive health services such as, HIV testing and counseling started increasing.
On the other hand, the prevention work has been declining and many children are not given sexual-health education notwithstanding the fact that many governments are sentient of the risks of HIV. Politicians have been left with the work of preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS, although most of them avoid discussing any sex related issue.
Political Effects of the AIDS Epidemic Before the epidemic was recognized in the early 1980s, the HIV virus was widely spread among homosexuals and it had already affected a large population. Many prevention campaigns were launched which were targeted at the homosexuals and risky sexual behavior reduced significantly and the rate of infections also reduced towards the late 1980s.
However, recent information propose that, risky sex behavior is increasing in many parts of the world because many people think that the danger posed by the disease is over now because the media no longer covers issues related to HIV/AIDS.
Many countries have already started massive prevention efforts although others still lag behind in terms of prevention because the political costs of prevention are assumed to be too high to initiate or maintain the prevention programs and some developed countries continue to suffer from the effects of the disease because they hold that HIV affects other people and not their communities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How the AIDS epidemic has affected the world on a political, social, economical way by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This view hinders policy makers and budget setters in designing strategies aimed at preventing the epidemic. It is seen as an issue that is common in Africa and other low income countries. Some of these developed countries for instance America provides treatment for patients in low-income countries and fails to provide treatment for their own citizens.
Just like any other person, politicians too have lost their lives to the AIDS epidemic. This interferes with economic development since; the government has to replace the diseased who may have been a very influential person. Further more, voters registers are affected because of the increased mortality rate forcing the government to conduct regular voters’ registration exercise, which is not only expensive but time consuming.
A significant sum of money is spent on this exercise which may leave the government in debts or force it to borrow aids from other nations. Government’s demographic statistics are also interfered with and they do not represent the real figure because the death rate is higher than the birth rate in many states.
Economic effects A significant sum of money has been spent on HIV/AIDS treatment but still large groups of people cannot access the treatment. This has attracted the attention of the global environment in assisting poor countries to fight against this epidemic. South Africa is believed to have been the most affected by the epidemic and its economy continues to deteriorate. AIDS differs from other diseases in that it strikes people when they are at their most productive age and it is 100% fatal than other diseases.
The economic effects caused by the epidemic vary depending on its severity and the national structure. Most nations suffer from a reduction in labor supply and increased costs which are incurred in the treatment process. As we have seen the epidemic strikes young adults at their productive stage thereby reducing the labor supply.
The direct costs associated with AIDs include but are not limited to expenditures on drugs, funeral expenses, and medical care . There are some indirect costs which include recruitment and training costs which are incurred when an employee dies; a lot of time is lost because of illness of employees and expenditure incurred in curing for orphans. The level of investment is also affected because some of the costs are financed out of saving.
A study conducted by the World Bank revealed that the economic impacts of AIDS in Africa is rampant than in other countries. These effects are first felt by the individual who has been infected by the virus and the families, and then ripple effects are felt by firms, businesses, and the macro-economy. In the family, economic impacts begin as soon as an individual has been diagnosed with the virus. The patient’s income reduces since he becomes less productive and it can even be worse if the patient is the breadwinner.
The family expenditure may increase significantly to cater for the medical expenses and some members of the family may be forced to dropout of school because of lack of school fees. This means that the impacts of the disease will be felt far and wide because these children are not able to access education, then their future is destroyed. The death of a patient leaves the family in a bad situation because it permanently loses a source of income and as if that is not enough it has to cater for the funeral costs of the diseased.
In Africa, a big portion of production and employment opportunities come from the agricultural sector. Studies done in some African countries for instance Tanzania have revealed that AIDS has adverse effects on agriculture including but not limited to loss of labor supply and remittance of income.
The reduction in manpower supply at the harvesting or planting phase can to a large extent lessen the probable harvest. Food security has been an issue in most of these countries and a slight reduction in the household production can have adverse impacts on the national level. The economic impacts of AIDS are also felt by firms. When employees are suffering from AIDS-related illness or death, the firms suffers not only from increased expenditure but also a reduction in revenue.
On the other hand, revenues declines because of employee absenteeism due to illness, time off for funerals, labor turnover, and time spent on training of new employees. A research carried out in Botswana and Kenya revealed that a swell in the cost of labor was as a result of regular absenteeism orchestrated by HIV/AIDS. Skyrocketing burial costs was also a factor.
These costs can be analyzed as shown below:
HIV absenteeism 37%
AIDS absenteeism 15%
Training cost 7%
Funeral attendance 6%
Labor turnover 5%
Health care 5%
The impacts of AIDS are also experienced in other sectors among them being the education and water, health, transport, and mining. The heath sector is affected two folds; increased number of people seeking for health services, increased health care cost for treating AIDS patient and the education sector is affected in terms of supply of experienced teachers, children drop out of school because of lack of school fees or to care for a member of the family suffering from the virus.
Social impacts of HIV/AIDS The social impacts of AIDS are first experienced by the family, and then the community and the effects ripple down to the whole nation. By striking the most productive persons in the society (the youth), the epidemic destroys the entire society. By interfering with the economic growth, it becomes difficult to provide some social services. The effects of AIDS are vicious, by increasing the levels of poverty; the population becomes more vulnerable to the spread of the virus making it even harder to control .
Life expectancy at birth has fallen in many countries and the population structure has also changed, for instance, in South Africa, the life expectancy of children born after 2000 is 30 years less than the life expectancy before the start of the epidemic. Poverty has also deepened in most of the low-income countries especially the sub-Saharan Africa. There has been an increase in the number of premature births and fertility rates have reduced among the HIV positive women consequently reducing the birth rate.
The death rates have increased compared to the birth rate and this has affected the population growth. Many countries have suffered from high mortality rate among young adults leaving many children and old people without someone to look up to. More than 15 million children and adolescents have been orphaned at a very early age because of AIDS and have now become the heads of the households.
These children have to seek for means of earning a living, and some end up in prostitution where there are exposed to high risks of contacting AIDS. Their education is interred with, meaning that, they may end up in poverty for the rest of their life. Others loss hope and may opt to take away their life other than face the problems they are exposed to.
Most of the social impacts trickle down to the society because it has to look at the welfare of the public. When children are orphaned, it is not only the family that suffers, but the entire society. It has to come in to ensure that, these children do not lack the necessary things in life to enable them live normal lives. However, this is not usually the case, since in most societies; the children are left at the mercy of well wishers.
They struggle on their own and chances of contacting the disease remain to be high. We have a big number of children dropping out of school because they can not afford to pay their school fees; others have suffered from multiple illnesses without proper medication because they do not have a means to access health services. The diseased use large sums money in accessing treatment leaving the family in debts. Not to mention, funeral expenses have increased substantially and this leaves the family in a very bad financial status.
This not withstanding, the psychological and physical trauma that these people go through is immense and some of them are not able to recover after the death of their loved ones. Children who are orphaned live without experiencing parental love, which we know is very crucial at the early stage of development.
This does not only affect their present lives, but can haunt them for the rest of their lives. Some may respond positively to the struggles they go through while others may live in denial and fail to accept their predicament which can be detrimental both socially and psychologically. We have seen a big number of people who are able to accept their situation and work hard to ensure that it does not affect their future live, whereas others just sit and watch.
Conclusion This paper looked at the history of AIDS, prevalence in some of the countries that have been hit most, and the political, social, and economic impacts of the deadly disease. The epidemic called AIDS was discovered in the early 1980s and since then it has been having political, economic, and social impacts in the countries suffering from the disease.
AIDS is rampant in Africa and most of the Asian countries such as China and India. In Africa, the highest number of cases is reported in South Africa and this has resulted in a decrease in the life expectancy. Through globalization, the international market has expanded and many people are moving from one country to the other facilitating the spread of AIDS.
In many countries, especially the developed nations, HIV infections are common among homosexuals and injecting drug users. Through research, scientists have been able to discover a drug that can be used to treat HIV positive patient, although it can not cure it. Anti- viral drugs repress the replication process which produces viruses, and by doing this, the length and quality of life of the HIV positive person is improved.
HIVAIDS mostly affects the young adults who are at their very productive stage. This does not only interfere with their personal life, but that of their dependents. In the family, economic impacts begin as soon as an individual has been diagnosed with the virus. The patient’s income reduces since he becomes less productive and it can even be worse if the patient is the breadwinner. The family expenditure may increase significantly to cater for the medical expenses and the children may be forced by the circumstances at home to leave school.
This epidemic also affects firms by lowering their productivity and increasing the costs. When employees are suffering from AIDS-related illness or death, the firms suffers not only from increased expenditure but also a reduction in revenue. The social impacts of AIDS are first experienced by the family, and then the community and the effects ripple down to the whole nation.
By striking the most productive persons in the society (the youth), the epidemic destroys the entire society. Social impacts associated with AIDS include, high mortality rates, reduced fertility, increased premature births, increased poverty levels, reduced life expectancy among others. Children from diseased parents are forced to drop out of school in order to care for other siblings or to look for a means of surviving.
Bibliography Primary sources
Lavreys, Baeten J M, Martin H L, Overbaugh J, Mandaliya K, Kreiss, J K, “Hormonal contraception and risk of HIV-1 acquisition: results of a 10-year prospective study”. AIDS 18 (2004): 695–7.
UNAIDS. “2008 report on the global AIDS epidemic.” United Nation Aids Program, 2008. Web.
Anon. “Evolution of AIDS.” WGBH Educational Foundation, 2001. Web.
Anon. “AIDS and HIV around the world.” Averting HIV and AIDS, 2010. Web.
Blechner, Mark. Hope and mortality: psychodynamic approaches to AIDS and HIV. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press, 1997.
Epstein, Helen. The invisible cure: Africa, the West, and the fight against AIDS. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2007.
Hel Z, McGhee, J R, and Mesteckey, J. “HIV infection: first battle decides the war”. Trends Immunology, Elsevier publications ltd. 27 (2006): 274–81
Manish, Sagar. “Identification of modifiable factors that affect the genetic diversity of the transmitted HIV-1 population”. AIDS 18 (2004): 615–619.
Stover, John and Bollinger, Lori. “The Economic impact of AIDS.” The center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA), 1999. Web.
Footnotes Anon. “Evolution of AIDS.” WGBH Educational Foundation, 2001.
Anon. “AIDS and HIV around the world.” Averting HIV and AIDS.
Anon, ibid p 1
UNAIDS. “2008 report on the global AIDS epidemic.” United Nation Aids Program, 2008.
UNAIDS, ibid p 1
Anon. “AIDS and HIV around the world.” Averting HIV and AIDS, 2010.
Mark, Blechner. Hope and mortality: psychodynamic approaches to AIDS and HIV. (Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press, 1997).
Mark, Bletcher, ibid
Mark Bletcher, ibid
Hel Z, et al. “HIV infection: first battle decides the war”. Trends Immunol. 27 (2006): 274–81
Baeten, Lavreys, et al. “Hormonal contraception and risk of HIV-1 acquisition: results of a 10-year prospective study”. AIDS 18 (2004): 695–7.
Helen, Epstein. The invisible cure: Africa, the West, and the fight against AIDS. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2007.
Helen, Epstein ibid
John, Stover and Lori, Bollinger. “The Economic impact of AIDS.” The center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA), 1999.
John, Stover and Lori, Bollinger, ibid.
Sagar, Manish. “Identification of modifiable factors that affect the genetic diversity of the transmitted HIV-1 population”. AIDS 18 (2004): 615–619.
Sagar, Manish, ibid.
Sagar, Manish, ibid.
The Study of International Relations: For and Against Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Case for the study of international relations
Case against the study of international relations
Introduction Most universities and tertiary level institutions have integrated the study of international relations as one of their courses. The belief has been that international relations study is relevant in enabling learners to study various aspects of a globalised world. International relations are defined as the relationship between countries in terms of their governance, the roles played by the international alliances and multinational companies from the international point of view.
It studies global as well as foreign issues among different countries and the issues include the state roles, Multinational corporations, non governmental organizations and inter-governmental organizations .The following essay tries to relate the concept of studying the international relations and in particular the notion that there is no need of studying the international relations. The paper presents a case for and against the study of international relations and a conclusion based on the weight of the two sides.
Case for the study of international relations It is vital for one to study international relations so as to be familiar with the many issues that continuous to understand the problems that are associated with the international relations such as terrorism and crime, violation of human rights, natural calamities such as floods,draught,earthquakes e.t.c and hence device constructive proposals of addressing these issues. Whenever a crisis hits a country, other nations cooperate in order to save the citizens from extreme suffering (Dudley, 2006).
Thus a student needs to know the countries that collaborates with his or her country and those that do not relate well because he or she may need to import something or conduct business with a country which is an enemy of the state and as far as there is a breach of contract, then the other person may not be liable for the damages caused.
The students need to study the international relations so as to get acquainted with the cultures, institutions, ethnicities as well as the interactions among various states. This knowledge is important because it is an eye opener on the part of the student as he or she gets to know about the global issues and policies (Xintian, 2009).
The students gets a wider view on how certain governments are run and this may assist him or her in the future as he or she becomes a leader whereby there is international relations. Studying international relations is important especially for those students who are studying abroad because they will have the knowledge about the culture and institutions that are present in the country where they are studying and thus avoid violating the laws of that country hence promoting peaceful coexistence.
International relations as a discipline usually related closely to various disciplines such as international law, history, economics, politics, sociology and psychology. It also compliments these subjects as far as international phenomena is concerned and so the students gets familiar with such aspects as the international organizations that exists, international treaties among others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Learning international relations enables one to know about the policies that different institutuins, corporations as well as governments adopts and this is important in decision making e.g. many banks that have operations in different countries world wide have financial sanctions and prohibition of business activity that are aimed at encouraging a change in behavior of target country, prevent and suppress the financing of terrorists and terrorist attacks e.t.c.The student thus will be able to know which countries are under sanctions by the international community and the reasons why the sanctions are imposed (Gray, 2004, p.66-78).
Also, it’s important for a student to study international law because he or she can benefit an international job in a foreign country. As countries continue to cooperate with one another for mutual benefit, international careers are being created.
There are many jobs that are associated with international relations such as law, on-government organizations, international business and diplomatic services such as ambassadors and high commissions. The students thus can be able to know which countries are conducive to work in as far as security and other factors are concerned.
Case against the study of international relations There are criticisms however concerning the study of international relations for instance the fact that not all students who study the discipline will end up in an international career or a job concerning the international relations. In studying international relations, students usually learn certain things that is irrelevant as far as their normal life concerned e.g. the political status of a given country does not involve them as far as life after school is concerned an thus rendering the discipline as irrelevant.
Also international relations as a discipline cannot be applied in domestic affairs but only in international matters and therefore those students who will not get an international job or a job that involves the discipline not have a chance to exercise what they have learnt in school fully(Heer,2003,p.37-65).
Conclusion Despite many criticisms and negative arguments about its study, International relations as a discipline cannot be scrapped all together in school curriculums due to the numerous advantages that it poses on the students. It should be supported and those teaching the discipline should be equipped with the current issues. It is a vital subject that should be encouraged in almost all the schools so as to give students an overview of what goes around the rest of the world.
Reference List Dudley, P. (February 22, 2006). Embassy: Why Study International Relations in Canada? Canada: The Hill Times Publishing Inc. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on The Study of International Relations: For and Against specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gray, P. (2004).Studies in International Relations. Eastbourne East Sussex: Sussex Academic Press. Pg.66-78.
Heer, J. (2003).The Philosopher. Boston: Boston Globe. Pg.37-65.
Xintian, Y. (2009). Combining Research on Cultural Theory and International Relations. China: Xinhua Press. Web.
Zarathustra the Teacher of the Soul Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Zarathustra Teachings to the Last Man
Introduction Zarathustra becomes a teacher of the soul after spending ten years of solitude in the mountains. In the mountains, Zarathustra is very grateful for the sun and the company of eagle and the serpent as he describes them as “the proudest animal under the sun, and the wisest animal under the sun, – they have come out to reconnoiter.
They want to know whether Zarathustra still lives” (Kaufmann 10). He prefers to have company of animals than men because men are very dangerous and surpassed. He despises men’s wisdom saying that, “even the wisest among you is only a disharmony and hybrid of the plant and phantom” (Kaufmann 3). Zarathustra sought to correct and transform the last man’s understanding of the three notions of the soul: the body, the power of virtue and the spirit, so that he could have the real meaning and values of life.
Zarathustra Teachings to the Last Man When he came out the forest, he taught people who were assembled at the market place saying to them that Superman is the real meaning of the Earth and blaspheming it by rating mysterious wisdom greater than the meaning of the Earth is a horrific sin. Zarathustra teaches that there is a conflict between the body and the soul due to contempt. “Once the soul looked contemptuously on the body, and that contempt was the supreme thing: … it thought to escape from the body and the earth” (Kaufmann 3).
He argues that the soul of a man is polluted with poverty and self-complacency like a polluted stream, unlike Superman who is like the sea and can withstand pollution. “Alas! There cometh the time when a man will no longer give birth to any star … the time of the most despicable man, who no longer despise himself” (Kaufmann 5).
He is imagining a situation where the last man will be a Superman and overcome the life’s challenges that are impairing their abilities. The last man asked about love, creation, and star and when he got the true meaning of them, he responded that, “we have discovered happiness” (Kaufmann 5). Zarathustra transformed the last man soul, body and spirit from a state of just a man into Superman as the last man exclaims he has discovered happiness.
The last man had despised his body, so Zarathustra is teaching him why he should not despise his body. He argues that, despise of the body is due to esteem as “the creating Self created for itself esteeming and despising, it created for itself joy and woe. The creating body created for itself spirit, as a hand to its will” (Kaufmann 10).
He warns the last man that in his folly and despising of the body will cause his Self to die. He is quite against the despisers of the body bidding them farewell by saying “I go not your way, ye despisers of the body! Ye are no bridges for me to the Superman” (Kaufmann 10). Zarathustra wants to correct and transform the last man from despising the body so that he can create a better life for himself and see the real meaning of life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Zarathustra describes the virtue of gift giving as the highest virtue but it is insatiable to the soul. He explains that the virtue of gift giving is greedy because “you force all things to and into yourself that they may flow back out of your well as the gifts of your love” (Kaufmann 187).
He teaches the last man to use the power of virtue in attaining the meaning and remaining faithful to the earth. “Lead back to the earth the virtue that flew away, as I do- back to the body, back to life, that it may give the earth a meaning, a human meaning” (Kaufmann 188). The spirit and the virtue have flown away leaving errors within our bodies.
Zarathustra further emphasizes to his disciples to dedicate the spirit and virtue in seeking the meaning of the earth because “with knowledge, the body purifies itself; making experiments with knowledge, it elevates itself; in the lover of knowledge all instincts become holy; in the elevated, the soul becomes gay”(Kaufmann 189). The attainment of knowledge of the power of virtue will make the last man be a Superman when a great noontime comes.
Overcoming the Self is a step of achieving the meaning and reality of life.Zarathustra perceived that the unwise people devote their precious time in seeking will to truth for they doubt everything in life. The unwise people too have extended their will to truth in doing both good and evil thus transforming their will to truth into selfish will to power.
He wanted the last man to achieve the right will to truth and will to power for his power to will override both. He has realized that, “with your values and words of good and evil you do violence when you value; and this is your hidden love and splendor and trembling and overflowing of your soul” (Kaufmann 288). Thus, the creator of good and evil is as well an annihilator of both.
To overcome will to power requires the spirit of overcoming as he claims that life has revealed to him that, “I am that which must always overcome itself” (Kaufmann 227). The spirit is the means of attaining the meaning of life to the last man for he has failed to achieve the right will to truth and will to power. The struggles of the will to power are insatiable to both the weak and the strong resulting into dangerous sacrifices making the last man not to achieve the meaning of life.
Redemption is the hope of the last man.When Zarathustra met beggars and cripples, they questioned him on how they can get their redemption and healing. He defined redemption as “to redeem what is past, and to transform every ‘it was’ into ‘thus would I have it’ (Kaufmann 250).
We will write a custom Essay on Zarathustra the Teacher of the Soul specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although the Will is the emancipator, it is still a prisoner of time because time cannot be reverted. Since the Will has become a prisoner of time due to its irreversibility, it turned into will to revenge as “it became a curse unto all humanity, that this folly acquired spirit” (Kaufmann 258).
The will to revenge caused a lot of suffering to the humanity as the last man is seeking the reality of life. Until when the Will unlearn the spirit of revenge and the past become reversible, then, the last man will achieve the real meaning of life through emancipation, but this is literally impossible. Zarathustra taught that will to power has ability to revert and save the last man from the anguish and attain the reality and true meaning of life.
Conclusion At last, Zarathustra got the vision and the riddle about the real meaning and values of life showing that the there are two paths in life, which contradict each other eternally. As Zarathustra was sailing with a number of sailors and he admired their courage in the sea and he them told a vision.
He addressed them saying “to you bold searchers, researchers, and whoever embarks with cunning sails on terrible seas, whose soul flutes lure astray to every whirlpool, because you do not want to grope along a thread with cowardly hand” (Kaufmann 268).
He related their courage with his vision where he dreamed and thought until he became so weary. He acknowledges that man experiences the deepest pain although he is has a lot of courage. The hope of the last man lies in the two paths that contradict each other eternally and the spirit of gravity complicate the situation.
Therefore it is very difficult for the last man to attain reality of life when the two paths are contradicting each other as “…whatever can walk in this long lane out there too, it must walk once more” (Kaufmann 270). The two ways that leads to the reality of life complicates the future of the last man, hence he cannot realize the meaning and values of things.
Work Cited Kaufmann, Walter. The Portable Nietzsche. New York: Viking Press, 1977. Print.
Operations and supply Chain Management: Managing Risks Posed by Remote Suppliers Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Operations and supply chain management has become an even more complex affair, given the nature of globalization and the meeting of international markets (Miller 2002). There have been major benefits for suppliers in finding new markets for their goods, producers because of getting cheaper raw materials and cheaper labor, and for the consumer because of the corresponding drop in market prices of the finished goods (Boyer
The Evolution of American Slavery Essay custom essay help
This paper aims to discuss the evolution of such social phenomenon as slavery in the United States. In particular, it is necessary to explain why it became associated primarily with black people. Secondly, we need to show how it changed with time passing and how slaves tried to cope with this experience.
Overall, it is possible for us to advance a thesis that the origins of black slavery should be sought in the economic development of American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and especially the fact that it was based on agriculture.
First, we need to need say that the first colonizers, who settled in North America, were most engaged in the production and export of coffee, sugar, cotton, and tobacco as the climate and soil of those lands was perfectly suitable for these crops (Foner, 22). These activities required cheap labor force, and the easiest way to procure these workers was to bring slaves from Africa. One should bear in mind that slavery existed in Africa long before the arrival of Europeans.
More importantly, human trafficking was a common source of income for many people (Foner, 22). This is the key reason why slavery is now associated mostly with black people. It has to be admitted that there were also the so-called white slaves: they were mostly British or German people, who were forced to work for a planter, but they had a right to ransom themselves out slavery, whereas African people were not allowed to do that.
Some Indian Americans were also enslaved but such cases were not very widespread especially in comparison with the number of black slaves. The key reason is that Indians were perceived as a different race, but not an inferior one. Apart from that, European colonizers were reluctant to come into conflict with them as they could put up a violent resistance, whereas Black people did not have such an opportunity.
Secondly, one should not overlook racial and religious prejudices against African slaves, especially in the seventeenth century. They were regarded as subhuman individuals or at least someone, who was inferior to Europeans (Foner, 132). The very ideology of slavery was based on the premise that Africans were created to serve superior races, i.e. Europeans. Certainly, there were intellectuals, who objected to this standpoint, but they were not numerous at least at that time.
The abolitionist movement intensifies only in the early years of the nineteenth century when industrial revolution was already under way and there was no need so slave labor. Thus, political and social views of that period linked slavery with a particular race.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Having no civil rights, black slaves could not protect themselves from the cruelty of their owners. Therefore, they tried to work ways of shielding themselves against this injustice. There were two forms of such resistance: passive and active ones. As far as passive resistance was concerned, we need to say that African slaves found consolation in their language and culture (Foner, 143). For example, they spoke Gullah, and built houses that resembled their own homes in Africa.
However, the key issue is that they began to live in very small and secluded communities, to which slave-owners did not have access. Religion and especially Christianity also helped them to guard themselves against their oppressors. To a large extent, it gave them a spiritual comfort or the belief that in the afterlife there will be no suffering. Apart from that, it gave them hope that sometime they would manage to break free (Foner, 417).
It should be mentioned that life of urban and rural slaves was different. Those slaves, who lived in villages, were forced to work in very harsh working conditions; their work was based mostly on backbreaking physical labor. In contrast, urban slaves often worked as craftsmen who had to possess well-developed technical skills (Foner, 412). Again, we need to stress an idea that that industrial revolution made the slave labor less necessary.
For example, such inventions as spinning wheel or steam engine helped to reduce the number of workforce, needed for the same task. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the US cities became more industrialized and as a result, the living conditions of many slaves improved. Certainly, they had to give their wages to their holders but they acquired a higher degree of independence (Foner, 412). Overall, one can argue that the industrial revolution undermined the very institution of slavery.
When discussing passive resistance of African slaves, one should not overlook the works of such intellectuals as Olaudah Equiano, Ignatious Sancho or Frederick Douglass, all of whom we once slaves but managed to regain their freedom. The books and articles, written by these people emphasized the cruelty of slavery and it’s brutal nature (Foner, 428). They showed that African people have the same feelings, emotions and needs as Europeans do.
One should not assume that culture, language, and family were the only means of resistance to slavery; as in many cases it took more active forms. We can mention Turner’s rebellion that broke out in Virginia. In 1831, Nat Turner and his followers revolted against their owners and killed more than sixty white people (Foner, 421). One can as well remember German Coast uprising that took place in 1811 and left two slave-owners dead.
Naturally, each of these insurgencies was suppressed and those, who had been responsible for them, were executed. Nonetheless, they clearly illustrated an idea that slavery ownership could not remain unpunished and that a constantly suppressed person was rather likely to strike back. These revolts contributed to a shift in the public opinion: American society understood that slavery had to be abolished; otherwise it would lead to relentless feud between black and white people.
We will write a custom Essay on The Evolution of American Slavery specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Attempts to escape from slavery were another form of active resistance. According to the rough estimations, at least one thousand people managed to reach the Northern states or even Canada (Foner, 419). This also greatly intensified the movement of abolitionism. On the whole, this active and passive resistance of African slaves culminated into the American Civil War which completely uprooted the institution of slavery.
As we can see, such phenomenon as black slavery came into existence due to several economic, political, religious and philosophical factors. Despite the fact that it was full abolished in 1865, it left an indelible trace in the memory of American people and the process of American Reconstruction that began after the Civil War, still goes on.
Works Cited Foner Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History. NY W.W. Norton
Inventory Control for Finished Goods in Manufacturing and in Services Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of inventory
Introduction Inventory can be described as the raw materials, merchandise and finished and finished products alike of a company of which have not yet been sold (Song
The Office Layout Importance Research Paper college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The main idea of this paper is to answer the question whether office layout is closer to the notion of the retail service layout or to the manufacturing layout. The office layout is closely related to the retail service layout as the main purposes of these notions are similar.
Thus, retail service layout is aimed at minimizing the way a customer should come to the desirable product (Alavudeen
Gun Control in Deterring Repeat Offenders Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Repeat Offenders and Crime
Introduction It is always puzzling to see a person released from prison repeat the crime for which he/she was convicted, or any other for that matter. Whether prison for such a person is paradise or not, is the big question whose answer is emphasized here.
Many argue that prisons are not stringent enough, but availability of the means of which these offenders commit the crimes; firearms, is a factor one cannot downplay. Others argue that crime has to do with psychology and the approach to this issue has to be from a psychological point of view.
Moreover, others still suggest genetic makeup of an individual has a role to play. Nevertheless, the degree to which each factor contributes to the whole issue is paramount; hence, the medium by which most of these crimes are committed is a critical issue.
The readily available firearms, which are easily accessible to both first time and repeat offenders arguably, constitute the biggest factor in the prevalence of crime. Lack of good gun control policies increases the prevalence of firearms. As will be illustrated, the rate of gun-related crimes involving repeat offenders and gun control regulations are closely related. Is it then possible to curb repeat offenders by enforcing strict gun control legislations?
Repeat Offenders and Crime The current statistics in crime give shocking revelations. A tremendously high percentage of crimes are committed by a very small percentage of criminals. In fact, repeat offenders commit up to 90 percent of all crimes. It is a common trend that, over 60 percent of persons released from prison are re-arrested for serious crimes within a period of three years.
The justice system seems to defend the criminal and neglect the victim. Would it not be better for the system to keep a repeat offender off the streets, rather than allowing such an individual back into the society to repeat the same crimes? With a conviction rate of over 95 percent, one then begs the question why they go back to their crimes.
More shocking is the fact that some commit felonies while on probation. This indicates presence of some factors, which encourages such an occurrence. Of all crimes committed in 2008, 67 percent were committed using firearms. Therefore, the concept of their control is of great importance if the government is serious in combating crime.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 2005 alone, around ten thousand people died of gun related violence with over four hundred and fifty thousand falling victims of crimes of similar nature. Most homicides, where guns are used, are related to arguments and other family issues.
Quite a high number is not preplanned, an indication that a person with poor anger management is more like to commit a crime, whether or not that individual has done it before, provided a gun is within reach. Moreover, homicide is not the only crime ‘easy’ to commit with a firearm; rapes, robberies and assault are more tempting for repeat offenders as long as one is armed.
Gun Control Politics in states with high crime rates surround the issue of gun control, creating a perception that stricter regulations increase the rates. Nevertheless, Lester and Murrell argue that, “states with stricter handgun laws in 1968 were shown to have lower suicide rates by firearms both in 1960 and 1970” (131).
Gun control needs to be enforced comprehensively if it is going to be of any impact in mitigating crime. This would require an approach from all perspectives. The minimum age at which an individual can posses and own a gun should be specified. In addition, legislations on storage conditions are necessarily to minimize access of firearms to children.
A considerable number of repeat offenders are juveniles and such a step would be helpful. The manner in which the guns are sold is another critical aspect in their regulation. The owners need to be licensed after the issuance of firearms with the period before obtaining them extended. It would even be better if the licenses were to be renewed after a certain period, not long, after the owners profile for the period of possession strictly scrutinized.
This would force gun owners to adhere to such regulations, as it would be mandatory to be responsible in maintaining a firearm. Making records available would make it possible to restrict persons with criminal history from accessing firearms. Over 50 percent of firearms used in gun-related crimes are obtained from friends or family, a clear indication of how unsafe the guns are in the custody of those who legally own them.
This however, would not entirely be the solution since criminals can still access firearms from the black market. The idea is to block all the avenues through which guns can reach the wrong hands, strict regulations being just one of them. Safety training prior to any firearm purchase for the buyer will also come in handy. This would lower the risk of the guns getting on the wrong hands. Specifying who gets what kind of firearm is also vital.
We will write a custom Essay on Gun Control in Deterring Repeat Offenders specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Whether or not gun control would lower crime rates, especially with repeat offenders, is out of question. School shootings need not to escalate any further for all to see the essence of gun control. It is clear that the prevalence of firearms in the society is directly proportional to the crime rates at any given instance.
It would cost less to enforce gun control regulations than to constantly convict repeat offenders and withstanding the worst of their crimes. However, gun control may not be the ultimate solution to reduce gun-related crime, neglecting other factors would obscure its benefits.
Works Cited Lester, David, and Murrell Mary. “The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.” Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 12.3 (1986): 131-40. Print.
How does Revolutionary Communism compare with Democratic Socialism? Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Brief overview of Communism and Democratic Socialism
Introduction The last two centuries have been characterized by the emergence of ideologies which have brought about potent political movements advocating for change and transformation of the government systems of the world. While some of these ideologies have been largely ignored and practiced by an inconsequential proportion of the population, there are those which have been widely embraced and used by states all over the world.
These varied political ideologies have differed in terms of their philosophies, policies and agendas. Arguably the most prevalent political ideology is democratic capitalism which is championed by the western world and is currently the most popular system in the world.
Revolutionary communism and democratic socialism are two other potent political ideologies. While communism remains to be a former shell of what it was in the past, democratic socialism still has a significant following though out the world. Both these political systems differ profoundly from the capitalist ideology which hugely favors the capital contributors in the society.
This paper will undertake a concise yet informative comparison between revolutionary communism and democratic socialism so as to arrive at a conclusion as to which of these systems is better off. The political questions on which these two movements agree as well as those which they disagree on will be articulated. A discussion on which of these systems offers a better government will also be presented.
Brief overview of Communism and Democratic Socialism Communism by definition is a system or form of common life in which “the right to private or family property is abolished by law, mutual consent, or vow” (Woolsey 1). This definition parallels the ideals of socialism which are centered on giving power to the workers who not only form the majority but responsible for the creation of wealth.
Socialism therefore calls for them having an equal share to the profits that they help generate. Socialism and communism share some major characteristics with the major difference being that while socialism is only an economic system, communism is a political system.
Communists advocate for the socialist system which is characterized by centralized planning agencies and the single legal party. Notable Communist regimes are the collapsed Soviet Union and China. In these regimes, the single party is authorized to set goals and organize activities of the workers collectively as well as devise plans that balance the need to reward skilled workers against the need to prevent high income inequalities that characterized capitalist societies (Kornblum 479).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Socialism is regarded as the primitive stage of communism in which public ownership maintains a dominant position in the economy especially in key economic sectors. However, this system does not hold some of the radical views as expressed by the communism ideal.
As such, democratic socialism can be seen to be and evolved or precursor to the communism system which advocated for an absolutely socialist nation. Democratic Socialists believe that “both the economy and society should be run democratically to meet public needs, not to make profits for a few” (DSA). As such, the government structures that are set up under the capitalistic ideology out to be transformed so that the ordinary citizen has a greater say in decision making.
Similarities Arguably the most apparent similarity between social democracy and revolutionary communism is that both see capitalism as a grossly exploitative system that results in numerous social injustices (Schwartz and Schulman 4). Both of these political systems argue that capitalism inevitably gives rise to vast disparities of wealth as the working class’s efforts are used to make the wealth industry owners even wealthier.
Both systems blame industrial capitalism for destroying important human values such as compassion, religious believes and altruism among others and replacing them with naked exploitation as everything is based on money (Wren). The two systems also see capitalism as hugely undermining the individual’s sense of personal value since the working class who are responsible for creation of wealth are never paid or valued enough and instead, the wealth goes to the capital owners.
Both social democracies and revolutionary communism praise the efforts of the laborer who turns the raw materials into something of greater value and as such believe that he should play a bigger role in decision making. The very symbols of communism which are a hammer and a chisel reinforce the importance with which the working force is held in revolutionary communism.
Kornblum notes that Karl Marx, the acclaimed “Father of Communism” taught that the socialist state which communism sought to create would be controlled by the working class led by their own trade unions and political parties (479). Social democracies on the other hand advocate for an increase in the power that the worker has as well as an increase in the share that they receive from the profits since they are deemed to be the most important piece in the economy.
Social democrats and communists alike view capitalism as being socially unjust and somewhat undemocratic. While capitalism purports to be democratic in nature, Schweickart questions this proposition by highlighting the enormous role that money plays in contemporary elections and the fact that major media outlets which influx public opinion are owned by and controlled by the wealthy (8).
We will write a custom Research Paper on How does Revolutionary Communism compare with Democratic Socialism? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, capitalism results in the elite being in power as a result of their enormous wealth and vested interests in media. Schwartz and Schulman note that while capitalism proposes an economic and political relationship that is free and private to all; this is not feasible since such a contract is not made among economic equals and as such, only the well off benefit (1).
A significant similarity between communist parties and social democratic parties is their relationships with trade unions. The BBC suggests that communist trade unions played a significant role in government and were used as the “communist party’s transmission belts” which increased the power of the communist regime.
Democratic socialists on the other hand back up trade unions and propose for the incorporation of democracy in industry which results in a situation whereby the workers are not only “drones” but play an active role in establishing their destiny. Democratic socialists continue to enjoy a close relationship with trade unions since they view building of strong trade unions and community organizations as the only means through which the imbalances that capitalism has created can be redressed (Schwartz and Schulman 4).
Differences A significant difference between communism and democratic socialism is with regard to property ownership. In communism, the private ownership of property is abolished in favor of public property which is run by the state for the good of all the people.
As such, changes to communist regimes are characterized by the widespread repossession of land and property from the rich and a management of the same by the state. On the other hand, social democracy does not call for the abolishment of private property but rather believes that the public should have some measure of control on the use of property.
This is in line with the democratic socialism belief that private property may exist at the same time that large corporations are owned by the state and run for the benefit of all citizens (Kornblum 478). Social democracies advocate for the promotion of majority social ownership in which there exists a property-owning working class. Guo notes that social democracies propose a system whereby stock ownership by individual workers is the main form of public ownership in the society (124).
Another difference between democratic socialism and communisms is in their idea of how the change into their political ideals can be made. Revolutionary communism holds it that the capitalism would never let go of their hold on community and political power and as such, only a violent revolution can result in the changes that communism calls for.
The 1917 Bolshevik revolution that threw off the Czar in Russia and led to the establishment of a communism state were marred with violent uprisings. This revolt was led by the workers and the peasants just as the communism mandate proposes that such revolutions would occur. The socialist revolution that occurred in china also had a violent history with little sympathy being shown to the “bourgeois democracy” that had once ruled the nation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How does Revolutionary Communism compare with Democratic Socialism? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Social democracy on the other hand believes that the changes they propose for the society can occur through an evolutionary process that follows the democratic means that are a part of our modern society. The prevalence for following of democracy by social democrats is evident with most European countries having parties which identify themselves as social democrats.
Social democracy and communism also show huge differences in the economic model that they follow. Communism follows the non-market, centrally-planned economy. Schweickart notes that modern day social democracies have distanced themselves from this economic model and rather follow a post capitalistic economy that “retains market completion, but socializes the means of production and in some instances extends democracy to the workplace” (9).
This difference in their economic outlook can be best articulated in the difference between the socialist principle of “from each according to his ability, to each according to his work” to the communist principle of “from each according to his ability to each according to his needs” (Bornstein and Fusfeld 117).
Discussion While both revolutionary communism and democratic socialism continue to play second fiddle to capitalism, both are influential ideologies. The demise of the Soviet Union was without a doubt a major blow to communism and Ziblatt notes that the collapse of communism presented a significant challenge to the ruling communist parties of East Central European as they lacked the central leadership, Moscow (123).
As such, most of these parties reinvented themselves as social democratic parties. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, many parties which were once socialist began to distance themselves from the socialism as it was traditionally understood and reinvented themselves as social democratic parties
Guo notes that while the European social democrats have been criticized by most of the capitalism oriented parties, this has changed with time and in the recent years, these former critics are gradually endorsing the ideas of the social democrats (127).
Firm believers of democratic socialism such as Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez hold it that only this political system can solve the world problems and bring about social justice and prosperity for all. This is a sentiment that has sound theoretic backing since social democracy combines the best from the major political ideologies of the world namely; capitalism and communism.
While most people deride communism and social democracies as being undemocratic, the New York Times notes that capitalism as well comes in various forms and in the same manner that a communism or socialist state might fail to be democratic, capitalism is not necessarily democratic as was the case with Hitler’s Germany or Mussolini’s Italy.
As such, each ideology should be taken on merit and the making of generalizations should be avoided at all costs. The communism ideal has long lost popularity and communist parties remain unpopular in post-communist democracies. However, their significance in certain organizations such as trade unions remains strong and as such; their influence can still be felt.
Conclusion Inequality has been universally acknowledged as a major roadblock in the way for economic and social prosperity. Political ideologies propose to solve this by coming up with systems that income inequality is diminished or ideally done away with therefore leading to a utopian society. This paper set out to perform a critical comparison of two political ideologies; Communism and Democratic Socialism, both of which propose to do away mitigate social ills therefore leading to a harmonious society.
From this paper, it has been seen that both this systems have a lot of similarities and that communism is in fact a more evolved form of democratic socialism.
From the arguments presented in this paper, it can be seen that at the present time, democratic socialism is not only more feasible but presents the best system of governance. This is because the absolute equality and communal ownership that communism advances may never be achieved in the world but the ideals that Democratic socialists’ advances are achievable in the present time.
Works Cited DSA. Democratic Socialists of America. 2007. Web.
Guo, Baogang. “Old Paradigms, New Paradigms, and Democratic Changes in China.” Journal of Chinese political science, 2008.
Kornblum, William. Sociology in a Changing World. Cengage Learning, 2007.
New York Times. East Berlin Diary. Web.
Sackur, Stephen. President Chavez’s socialist world vision. 14 June 2010. Web.
Schwartz, Joseph and Schulman, Jason. Towards Freedom: Democratic Socialist Theory and Practice.
Schweickart, David. Democratic Socialism Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice Sage Reference Project. Sage, 2006.
Woolsey, Dwight. Communism and Socialism in Their History and Theory: A Sketch. BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009.
Wren, Christopher. Communists Meet in South Africa. 06 Dec 1991. Web.
Ziblatt, Daniel. “The Adaptation of Ex-Communist Parties to Post-Communist East Central Europe: a Comparative Study of the East German and Hungarian Ex-Communist Parties.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 119–137, 1998.
Internet Marketing: World Wide Web as a pull Medium for Marketing rather than a Push Medium Essay college essay help near me
Internet marketing involves sellers who persuade customers to purchase their goods and services through the World Wide Web. This persuasion is done by displaying media stuffing that include search engines, banner advertisements and electronic mail marketing. Customers need to be pulled rather than be pushed.
Conventional media such as radio, magazines, and television tend to push advertisements to customers without any form of interactivity. On the other hand, the World Wide Web provides users with opportunity to select the site they would like to visit. In this sense, companies have embraced the internet as a marketing tool.
Internet marketing has been adopted by many organizations due to its efficiency in delivering message to intended customers within the shortest time possible. Advancement in technology that has been witnessed in the recent past has drawn many people to the use of internet not only for communicating but also to do business.
The emergence of software that help in detecting the physical location of an internet user has enabled dealers to narrow their intended customers in order to increase chances of reaching them. This is because advertising at random may not convey the message to people who need specific services and items.
Sellers are able to specify their intended customers depending on their sex, age, state and other categories where necessary. It is perceived that customer requirements vary depending on their gender, age and location. First and foremost males and females have different interests thus internet sellers should watch what they intend to introduce to both sexes because they may not match.
Females usually refer to the internet for learning purposes whereas males use the internet to mingle with their pals and also for leisure purposes such as downloading movies and music. This information is useful to internet sellers because it helps them identify the most convenient web spots for their advertisement that is mostly preferred by people of a particular sex.
Business on the internet follows a particular trend based on friendship which then is extended to doing business. It is advisable to establish friendships on the internet because the very same friends will turn in to be regular customers. This can be done by driving conversations through social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter, thus giving customers the opportunity to such for specific products and consequently pull them to a company’s products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sellers should not insist so much on selling their services and commodities in their first encounter with a potential customer. They should seek to familiarize themselves with their newly acquired friends and should not drop the issue of doing business until the time is ripe for them to do so.
Internet sellers should keep in touch with these friends regularly and as time moves by they can introduce them to their services and items because by now the said friend has developed a sense of trust and confidence towards them due to the regular mingling between the two concerned parties.
Thus it is important for internet marketers to withhold their interest. For instance if an internet business executive sends an email with details about his or her business prospects to a new friend without the consent of the intended recipient it might result in termination of friendship because the recipient might feel he or she is being monitored.
For friendship to be fruitful it has to be well taken care of hence sellers should listen to their potential customers to know their interests which can be used to determine what products might best suit them.
The internet presents many advantages that can be experienced by advertisers which are non existent to people who advertise their products and services offline. Organizations and individuals are considering sensitizing their potential customers about their products and services through the internet because it is cheaper in the long run.
This is owing to the fact that advertisements can be rephrased as opposed to offline which require advertisers to design a new presentation from the scratch if the current one is not satisfactory. This means that the advertiser has to pay more money for the amendments to be applied because offline advertisements are very laborious in designing them.
Marketers should design an Internet marketing strategy that can be able to drive web sites that sell. In internet advertising if the owner of a given advert wishes to add more contents or erase some information contained in an advert corrections are done swiftly at the click of a button because its only a matter of typing or deleting text.
We will write a custom Essay on Internet Marketing: World Wide Web as a pull Medium for Marketing rather than a Push Medium specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the World Wide Web, the advertisers can monitor the progress of their advert by looking at the number of people who have actually responded to their advert. It is possible to identify respondents of a given advert and the exact time that they did so. In traditional advertising, monitoring consumers’ response is very demanding because it relies on calls that are made on inquiries pertaining a given product or service.
The Internet provides many vectors that are reliable in conveying advertiser’s message as opposed to offline advertisement which is limited to television, radio, newspapers and magazines. These vectors include blogs, audio, social networks, emails, videos and journals.
These vectors allow potential customers to give their opinions and make inquiries instantly which can help an advertiser to understand the needs of his or her customers. Securing a possible sale is very fast online because the process of buying and selling is computerized hence there are no papers involved.
Social websites provides a pool of potential customers thus advertisers should consider exhibiting their products and services in these sites. The sites include Facebook, twitter, Youtube and MySpace which are very popular among people of all ages. Politicians such as Barrack Obama has proved the effectiveness of advertising using these social websites and since his success story, other people are following his foot steps.
Joining social sites does not guarantee that sales will increase within two days therefore once one has become a member of a social site he or she has to stick around for his efforts to be realized. Being on and off the social site means one is not entirely concerned with pulling potential customers.
One of the major requirements in internet marketing is to have a web portal that attracts the attention of users. This means that even if a website is featured as a sponsored link it will be very appealing to customers. It is certain the growth of a web portal can be enhanced by promoting search engine marketing and paid per click. PPC involves paying internet users who respond to ones activities online.
If an individual or an organization can not socialize on the internet it is better to hire somebody who can establish friendship with the customers on behalf of the individual or the organization. A business portal on the internet should be much customized to meet the various demands of customers.
This means that a business web site should provide customers with several options when they want to purchase items listed on the web page. For instance, there should be several modes of payment because customers have different tastes and whereas one mode of payment may be convenient to a particular shopper it might inconvenience another customer at the same time.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Internet Marketing: World Wide Web as a pull Medium for Marketing rather than a Push Medium by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Research has indicated that customers may be willing to purchase an item listed on the website but then they may be discouraged by the available modes of payment because they don’t apply in their geographical location. Currently there are several major modes of payment, which include bank wire transfer and paypal among many others.
Most people prefer to pay the purchase of services and items through bank wire transfer because it’s very first hence more reliable. The layout of the website should reflect the personality of the person or the organization that owns.
People judge a website not by its attractiveness but the contents that are presented. People prefer to shop from virtual shops that are known hence it is good to list testimonials from previous customers. If the testimonials are from public figures such as prominent musicians the better it is for the advertiser.
People trust websites that have a valid telephone number of the owner because they know incase something goes wrong there is someone to attend to their problem. The telephone contacts should be complimented by physical addresses. By limiting contact details available on the internet the advertiser implies that he or she does not care what happens after a sale has been closed hence customers tend to ignore such sites.
In essence, through internet marketing, companies have been able to pull customers towards their products and services; with a lot of finances placed on internet strategies. Great products, reliable web site, and strong marketing strategy are the major components of successful internet marketing strategy.
Bibliography Feng L., What is e-business?: how the internet transforms organizations, Wiley-Blackwell, New Jersey, 2006.
Laudon, K. C.
Adoption of Nuclear Technology in South Asia Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Nuclear technology has always brought about heated discussion since it is a powerful source of energy and quite overt threat for the peaceful future. After the World War II, many countries in the world understood the importance of proper use of nuclear power, so numerous debates and summits have been held since then. One of the major results of such international discussions was the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which came into force in 1970.
However, some countries in South Asia refused to join the treaty and continued developing nuclear technology in military and civilian purposes. Of course, such policy has evoked a lot of criticism and caused various restrictions as for trading with these countries. Apart from this, recent changes in U.S. policy towards India led to emerging of new concerns about the spread of nuclear threat from South Asia.
India and Pakistan were actually those few countries which refused to join the treaty. Indian officials announced that the treaty is quite imperfect since it leads to many violations and unclear policies which presuppose that some countries have the right to possess nuclear weapon, and others, by some quite covert reasons, were deprived from this right.
Moreover, India announced that having nuclear weapon was a strict necessity since its nearest neighbor, China, was in possession of such powerful weapon. Indian officials stressed that the state was going to use the weapon only in response to aggression (nuclear attack) from the side of China or any other country from the club of “nuclear haves”. In its turn, historical rival of India, Pakistan, announced approximately the same and continued developing its nuclear technology.
Of course, the rest of countries criticized such policy and tried to convince the governments of the two countries to join the treaty and since it was impossible India and Pakistan were excluded from the world nuclear market. It goes without saying that it was harmful for the development of nuclear technology which India and Pakistan needed badly for solving energetic issues, but the two countries have led the same policy.
Reportedly, India presumably possesses about 150 nuclear warheads and Pakistan about 100 warheads. Thus, the international community has also been anxious because of numerous conflicts between India and Pakistan, which could lead to nuclear disaster. However, recent changes in U.S. policy have evoked more concerns of other countries.
In 2006 the United States and India started collaborating in terms of civilian nuclear power development. Despite criticism from many countries and overt violation of the Nuclear
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Non-Proliferation Treaty, the US started supplying India with products necessary for the development of nuclear technology.
The USA announced that such cooperation is legal and even indispensable since India has proven its adherence to non-proliferation regime and the state really needs the development of nuclear technology to cope with severe problems of energy lack and increase of population.
The agreement between India and the US has led to two major concerns. First of all, many countries like Russia, France and Australia were also eager to enter the nuclear trade on such a promising market. Of course, financial benefits of such trade can be hardly overestimated.
It becomes clear why these countries criticized the US for violating NPT since they became on the second place in the range for becoming India’ suppliers. Thus, the policy of US caused the rise of economical concerns which outweighed the issues of security and peace in the world. It is necessary to point out the concerns of Australia as for such collaboration.
Initially, this country followed the policy of NPT and did not supply nuclear products to India.
However, after the US initiated such supplies which were potentially highly profitable, Australia, having more than 20% of the nuclear deposits and the second supplier of such products in the world, could not stand aside. In spite of criticism inside the country Australia, eventually, has started working with India. Apart from this Australia has announced its plans to enrich uranium.
However, the rush for the new market was not the only one outcome of the American Indian collaboration. Many countries witnessed that whereas some countries like India could refuse to sign Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and in some time get the necessary supplying, other countries like Iran were oppressed for enriching uranium which cannot be regarded as NPT violation. Of course, such controversy has caused many conflicts and has remained unsolved.
We will write a custom Essay on Adoption of Nuclear Technology in South Asia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, peaceful nuclear technology development in Iran was often criticized by the USA and the former often had to suspend uranium enrichment. However, India’s example has always been a potent stimulus to continue the development of nuclear technology. Moreover, India often declared that it will not criticize Iran for the development of nuclear technology in both directions, peaceful and military.
As far as the international community is concerned, it is necessary to point that the majority of planet population criticize the initiative of the US in particular and development of nuclear weapon in general. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was a kind of a pillar of security in the world and its violation by one of its creators undermines the whole system of world security.
The refusal to join NPT by South Asia countries has led to strict policy from the side of other countries and nuclear isolation, so to speak. However, the change in such policy made any countries see the opportunity to continue some actions without any reaction. Governments of many countries were “inspired” by the development of nuclear power in the South Asia. Nowadays many states which followed all the points of NPT start enriching uranium or even develop their military nuclear technology.
In conclusion, it is possible to point out that the development of nuclear technology in South Asia has brought about two major concerns of the rest of the countries. First of all, the issues of security in the region were unlikely to be solved, and numerous conflicts emerging could lead to nuclear war.
Proliferation policy of one country of the region caused the same policy from its neighbors. However, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty secured three decades of relative stability, which defined free market opportunities for countries which followed the treaty and complete isolation for countries which violated it. The US policy of collaboration with India has ruined that stability.
Instead of struggling for non-proliferation countries have started rush for best bargains on new nuclear market in India. Moreover, such development of nuclear technology in South Asia can become an evidence of impunity and lead to unpredictable results. Thus, the governments of all countries in the world should work out some program which could regulate the development of nuclear technology in the world since it is impossible to neglect such affluent source of power; however, it is essential to use it properly.
The reservation system in India based on Caste Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Original purpose and its progress
Impact on the productivity of the workforce
India’s reservations policies
Political, social, and economic consequences
Reservations for women
The caste system in India is a social structure where individuals are classified into groups according to their genetics within firm organization of social stratification. In the olden days, caste was a phrase used to refer to individuals limited in their choice of work and the extent of socializing with other people. However, in the modern days the social rank is dependent on the caste of one’s birth rather than work (Dumont 2000).
The history of the caste system in India is dated about 3000 years ago. This structure was made for the purpose of fulfilling the requirements of social order related to hierarchy. The misfortune of caste system is still common in some regions of India. Its unpleasant consequences are observed on social matters of marriage and kinship.
The caste structure is classified into different Varnas and Jatis. The class of Varnas comprise of Brahmans, the priestly and elite people; Vaishyas, planters and traders; Kshatriyas, the fighters and leaders; and Shudras, peasants and manual workers; In addition, the Untouchables are also under Varna. People under Varnas are grouped into jatis. The Jatis have typical regulations and traditions. In the beginning, all classes were treated the same and inter-caste marriages were allowed (Hutton 1998).
The caste system had influence on various issues. For example, a marriage between castes was not allowed. However, in the present India inter-caste marriage is permitted. The Indian government has legalized castes, mainly to determine the justified reservation through poll. The reservation system in India is wholly founded on quotas. Individuals classified as Scheduled Tribe, Scheduled Castes, and OBCs benefit from exceptional favors in learning bodies and places of work (Nesiah 1997).
In the present India, the rulers of India were determined to make India a self-ruled, socialist, and worldly nation. Basing on this policy there is a distinction between religion and government. Doing untouchability or isolating individuals because of their caste is an abomination of the law.
Together with this policy, the state permits positive isolation of the depressed groups in the country. The Indians are now not strict followers of the beliefs of the caste system. Basically, the Indians living in towns are more flexible with their traditions than those living in the countryside (Dumont 2000).
In the city various caste people mix with each other, however in the countryside there is inequality founded on castes and untouchability. Sometimes cruel clashes occur linked to caste pressures. Sometimes, the superior castes hit the inferior castes who are attempting to improve their lives. As a result, the inferior castes fight back. In the present India, the phrase caste is used to refer to the Jat and Varna. Caste was a term used by the British when they dominated India till 1947 (Radhakrishnan 2000).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The British who headed India made a record of the Indian communities and used names like castes and tribes to classify them. Tribe was used to refer to those people who lived in the bushes away from other people. It was also used to refer to those individuals not categorized under castes for instance, those who lived through thieving. The record used by the British, was applied by the Indian administration to make records of people permitted for constructive discrimination (Hutton 1998).
The superior castes in the Indian community were categorized as high classes while the inferior were classified as lower castes. The lower castes were classified into three groups. The first group was the Scheduled castes. It comprised of the untouchables. In the present India, untouchability rarely takes place.
The untouchables are known as Dalit, implying the depressed. Before the 1980s, they were known as Harijan referring to God’s children. This name originated from Mahatma Gandhi who wanted other communities to acknowledge the dalits and treat them fairly (Rana 2008).
The second group was called Scheduled Tribes. This group consisted of those people who rejected the caste system and decided to live in the bushes away from the society. The Scheduled were also referred to the Adivasi, implying the aboriginals. The third group known as the Backward Classes consisted of people from Sudra Varna and the untouchables who switched to other religions. This class also comprised of individuals who made a livelihood from unlawful acts (Himansu 1997).
The government had a positive intention when implementing the isolation policy. However, after the execution of the new rule, more problems emerged. The superior castes felt isolated by the state policy because of acknowledging the Backward Classes. As a result, many people of the high caste fought for the few ranks set for them.
On the other hand, the Backward Classes didn’t fight because they had many positions. In order to fill the differences between them, the Backward Class was given ranks though not qualified. In other cases, the reserved ranks remained unmanned due to less people from the lower class resulting to more pressure between the castes. Amongst the lower castes conflicts arose as a result of reservation matters (Nesiah 1997).
Original purpose and its progress The reservation system was used and is still used to gratify the desires of some people and a tool for getting more votes during elections. This is made possible through the constitution which was initially planned for 15 years or execution of Mandal Commission. There are many features of reservation.
We will write a custom Essay on The reservation system in India based on Caste specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, there is resistance to the reservation system because the privileges are consumed by other people from the superior castes, while people in the lower class are still suffering (Dumont 2000). Therefore, the superior caste continues to benefit from the reservation system.
Impact on the productivity of the workforce Work place discrimination due to caste systems has resulted to the marginalization of the inferior class in the Indian community. As a result, legal action has been initiated to protect the minority group from such discrimination.
In India, diversity is the foundation for prejudice and is the center of its legal reservation policies. Individuals belonging to the inferior class and the outcaste still encounter unfairness in all areas of their life, though this action of naming individuals as untouchables is forbidden according to the Indian constitution in 1950. India’s NGOs attempted for several years to solve the subject of castes systems. However, the state administration stated that the caste subject was not related to racial prejudice (Dumont 2000).
The 1950 bill of liberated India formed the world’s initial and ancient structure of helpful discrimination and affirmative action towards the inferior in the community. It protects India’s reservation laws demanding public firms to establish quotas for the three key recognized classes: Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Backward Classes.
Despite these policies, injustice against these castes is carried on and is still persistent in India, even presently. In addition, the prejudice is not restricted only to job matters but also every part of life from birth, education, job, housing, marriage, death, and even after death in burial processes especially in the countryside (Hutton 1998).
In 2001, a UN meeting on race in South Africa was held. It was here that the issue of caste systems was acknowledged as a serious matter similar to racism. The phrase Untouchables was substituted with Dalits meaning the depressed. It has been observed that dalit children are made to stay behind the classrooms in more than half of learning institutions. These kids are disgraced, bullied, beaten forcing many of them to abandon their studies. The dalit students are made to do tedious tasks such as sweeping and cleaning toilets (Borooah 2005).
The Untouchables were ordered to stay away from caste Hindus; even their shadow was seen as evil. If they broke this rule they were severely punished. In spite of the abolition of the term Untouchable and the defense laws under the 1950 constitution, prejudice and hostility towards the Untouchables prevails especially in the countryside. Regardless of the attempts of Mahatma and six decades of the constitutional abolition of biased actions, the social shame to be classified as a Dalit is powerful than before.
India’s affirmative action policies were known as reservations. They were formed in the 1950 constitution as a short-term corrective procedure of compensatory helpful discrimination to handle a long period of past inequalities and oppression. These policies were founded on rank and position emerging from the customary Hindu caste system.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The reservation system in India based on Caste by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The caste system affects capital structure, opportunity systems, and payment of salaries in India. It is a significant subject in the Indian community with the state’s offers for caste founded work quotas in private firms and a rise in reservation systems at places of higher education. It affects individual’s financial decisions (Hutton 1998).
Religious isolation is still practiced in the individual, professional, communal and financial lives of the community especially in the rural setting. Though the city people are not strict on their traditional beliefs, prejudice is still a serious matter in India. As a result of prejudice, the dalits lack proper education and good job opportunities.
The Untouchables find jobs in unclean and insecure places such as sewage cleaning. They work without protective garments such as protective shoes, masks, and gloves. Consequently, they are exposed to diseases such as tuberculosis, respiratory and liver diseases, or the risk of sinking into the excreta. In ship breaking, the dalits are given the work of smashing ships holding hazardous substances like asbestos, without any protective clothing (Nesiah 1997).
The dalits are also accountable for excavating graves, picking dead bodies to the funeral pyres, making fires and collecting ashes afterwards. They throw the carcasses of dead animals. As a result, India is confronted by the problems of competing in the global market with its work force still intensely separated by faith, traditional beliefs and castes (Ray and Mary 2005).
India’s reservations policies The four main standards for the justification behind these laws are: reimbursement for unfair actions, safety for the inferior group in the community, enhancing equality in all aspects of life, and practicing social justice. Private firms do not adhere to the reservation laws and do not stand for affirmative action in spite of the strain and force from the government. For the functions of affirmative action, the government has a record of the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled tribes and Other Backward Classes (Borooah 2005).
Conducted by Mahatma Gandhi’s peaceful group of reactive opposition, India received its liberty from the British in 1947. The Constitution of India was designed under the head of Ambedkar, who was India’s supreme winner for the dalits. It was unconstitutional to give more rights to one caste than the other because the constitution prohibited that (Vohra 2001).
The constitution banned prejudice, and enhanced equal opportunities to all castes in jobs and abolished untouchability. Under this law, the children were given free and compulsory studies until they were 14 years of age. The educational and financial matters of the SCs and STs were also dealt with. The president was given the authority to form records of these people for the affirmative action goals of reservations (Paswan and Jaideva 2003).
Though there was a sensible agreement among Indians on forming reservations for the SCs and STs, there was heated opposition on the meaning, requirement, and degree of reservations for the communally and educationally inferior castes because the phrase has not been precisely defined in the constitution.
In 1990 when the Singh government initiated the Mandal Commission’s proposals for caste-based reservations of public works and learning centers, there was opposition all over the nation, by the superior caste student groups who were against the reservation system (Nesiah 1997).
Political, social, and economic consequences The reservation procedures in India are at an early and very controversial level of who should be considered in the reservation policies. In addition, instead of including the castes into the Indian constitution, it has re-institutionalized the caste classes and powered caste uniqueness to both inferior and superior classes.
Reservations strengthen the preservation of one’s caste identity for fiscally stability. The 1992 Supreme Court declaration reserved work for the OBCs however restricted complete reservations to beyond 50 percent of the people (Hutton 1998).
The transformation has been political. This is done by eliminating the marginalization of Hindu caste-based professional differences into a wider political matter, above religious limits, and forming it as a way to get more votes. Matters to do with caste are of concern in the state and national politics of India. As a result, the percentage of Indians qualified for reservations has increased rapidly from freedom and persistent electoral pressure, on raising the reservation quotas (Yadav 2005).
Currently, fifty percent of the ranks given to learning and public works depend on the reservation laws. These stages of reservation are the highest found any place on the earth. For example, in the city of Karnataka, 90 percent of all people are qualified for reservations. In Tamil Nadu, 68 percent of the university positions are set aside (Maheshwari 1991).
In politics, organizations show their main followers in terms of class. The Congress party portrays equality of all castes. However, the Bharatiya Janata party is for the superior and Bahujan Samaj for the inferior group. However, there is rising hostility and resistance to reservations in India. Caste-based hostility over the rising quotas is common as upper caste students practice protests, destroying status and self- immolating in demonstrations (Basu 1996).
With the rapid economic freedom in India since the 1980s, foreign dealings have risen, price regulations have reduced, and many national businesses have been privatized, making market pressures more powerful. Many international firms have penetrated the Indian market and formed centers in India, incorporating foreign business practices in India.
Urbanization and immigration have made the caste system less important for professionalization in the cities. Though the names of people can establish their castes, less people follow it. This is because people are able to surpass their traditions so as to get good jobs in the urban centers. This experience is observed in the information technology firms and other managerial positions (Özbilgin and Syed 2010).
Studies have revealed that the differences between the average income of the superior and inferior castes was a result of caste-based prejudice. To solve the problems of financial differences, the SC and ST should be motivated through affirmative action in learning institutions and places of work.
The work market bias has brought about great distinction in wealth between the inferior and superior class of people over many years as a result of separated social systems. In order to improve personal capability, their entrance to social capital should be opened to abolish the lasting consequences of discrimination (Borooah 2005).
Reservations for women Women are not completely guarded under the reservations laws because quotas of women are still being discussed in different Indian states. The caste system has made women encounter double prejudice as they are still suffering from mistreatment due to their inferior caste and female femininity. Moreover, women confront various difficulties because of the load of dowry (Keane 2007).
While the 1950 Constitution of liberal India allows same privileges for all Indians, Article 15 forbids segregation on the basis of gender, permitting unique treatment for women and children and equal job opportunities. However, women are not legally incorporated in all the reservation laws. India is the oldest nation with constitutional requirements formed in 1950, for the safety of the inferior communities. However, the success of India’s reservations policies is determined by the jury.
The Indian community is still isolated on how effective their state’s reservation laws have been handling initial discrimination and accomplishing its aims as addressed in the constitution. Meanwhile, the communities guarded by the reservation policies have increased dramatically so that they can benefit from these laws (Özbilgin and Syed 2010).
After India was liberated from the British rule, the reservation policies were designed as a short-term measure for the inferior groups. In the political and financial contribution in the country, the caste system would ultimately diminish. However, in the present India there is still no accord for the reservation of women and the OBCs though this subject is being discussed and the pressure on increasing reservations in private firms.
Though caste-based professionals are becoming less important in terms of finances in the modernized India, studies have revealed that caste systems are becoming more significant in nationwide and state politics. Political parties founded on supporting SC, ST, and OBC have been supported. However, the struggle between those for and against reservations still goes on (Dumont 2000).
As for women, India is still dominated by men. However, many firms are making advances of giving women equal opportunities as men. Corporations that have supported the affirmative action have enhanced job opportunities for women. Because of the reservation policies, there are various forces working on both the public and private firms in India. The reservation policies enable the minority groups to have equal opportunities of education, jobs, and government representation (Basu 1996).
Works Cited Basu, Amrita. 1996. Caste and class: the rise of Hindu nationalism in India, Harvard International Review, 18 (3) summer: 28-31. Harvard, Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Borooah, Vani. 2005. Caste, inequality and poverty in India, Review of Development Economics, 9(3): 399-414.
Dumont, Louis. 2000. The Caste System and its implications. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Himansu. 2008. Dalit: The Downtrodden Of India. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.
Hutton, J.H. 1998. Caste in India. Oxford, IL: Oxford University Press.
Keane, David. 2007. Caste-based discrimination in international human rights law Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Maheshwari, Shriram. 1991. The Mandal Commission and Mandalisation: a critique. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press
Nesiah, D. 1997. Discrimination with reason? The policy of reservations in the United States, India and Malysia. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.
Özbilgin Mustafa, Syed Jawad. 2010. Managing cultural diversity in Asia. London, England: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Paswan Sanjay, Jaideva Pramanshi. 2003. Encyclopaedia of Dalits in India: Human rights new dimensions in dalit. Delhi, India: Kalpaz Publications.
Radhakrishnan, P. 2000. India, the perfidies of power: a social critique. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.
Rana, Mulchand. 2008. Reservations in India. New Delhi, India: Concept Publishing Company.
Ray Raka, Mary Fainsod. 2005. Social movements in India: poverty, power, and politics. London, England: Rowman
Debt Doesn’t Matter Term Paper writing essay help
In the recently concluded GOP elections the populist vote said no to government spending. Many believe that government spending and its accomplices, debt and deficits are the reasons why the economy is in turmoil (Karabell, 2010, p.1). The Tea Party capitalized on these fears and experienced a decisive victory in the said GOP elections.
Their battle cry can be summed up in the following statement made by a congressional candidate who said, “Federal spending must be drastically reduced … To ignore this issues is a crime against our children and grandchildren” (Karabell, 2010, p.1). However, the author said that this is just popular opinion but in truth extreme austerity measures is detrimental to the U.S. economy.
The author argued that this is a good platform that a candidate can run on, especially those who oppose the current administration. He added that even the Republican Party’s Pledge to America is built around the promise that the party will work hard to end the kind of heavy spending that ran amok when it comes to health care bills and bailouts (Karabell, 2010, p.1).
It is easy to understand why many are afraid of spending. In their own lives they can easily see what it can do. When a person spends there is less money left for other expenditures and worse the heavy spender can be easily in debt.
By arguing against this populist mentality the author had to have a few assumptions. One of the major assumptions is that government spending is needed to boost a stalled economy. The second major assumption is that the debt burden has not dramatically changed in the past twenty years (Karabell, 2010, p.1).
Finally, the third assumption is that what the candidates are proposing is an extreme form of austerity measures that can hurt the economy in the long run. Businessmen must have access to funds because they are the only people who can generate jobs and jumpstart the economy.
The author did not offer any clear evidence or any form of tangible data that would support his first assumption. He based it on the common idea that in order to make money one has to spend money. He did not put it so plainly, he rather said that the key to economic prosperity is investments and the solution is for wise fiscal policy that would enable the government to do just that.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When it comes to the second assumption, the author provided convincing arguments pointing to the fact that “in 2009, net interest payment on the debt decreased from the year before, and the overall percentage the U.s. spends to service its debt (currently less than 3% of GDP) is lower than it was in the late 1980s and most of the 1990s” (Karabell, 2010, p.1). This means that even if the Federal Government is carrying a heavy burden it still has the capacity to pay.
For the third assumption the author used information culled from history books and a closer inspection of the Great Depression of the 1930s was sparked by the growing fear of financial instability and as a result bankers and businessmen became afraid to spend money.
One historian supports this claim saying that when fear gripped the nation, people began to play it safe, and as a result, “The financial machinery of the country began to freeze into rigidity, the industrial and commercial machinery to slow down” (Shcultz, year, p.11). This proves that the author was correct when it comes to his major assumptions.
Conclusion Debt is indeed not the problem. The most important issue is wise fiscal policy this means that the government has to prove that it has the capability to spend money wisely. The author was against irrational austerity measures. He pointed out that wise spending is the key. He used evidence from history and he used the tools of the economists to show that the government must be allowed to spend money in order to create jobs and to jumpstart a stalled economy.
Works Cited Karabell, Zachary. “Debt Doesn’t Matter.” Accessed from http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2028095,00.html
Schultz, Stanley. The Great Depression. WI: Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2006.
Seltzer, Marc. “Are Republicans Lying About Financial Reforms?” Accessed from https://www.care2.com/causes/financial-reform-what-you-need-to-know.html
We will write a custom Term Paper on Debt Doesn’t Matter specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Non-Traditional Families and Child Behaviorism Affects Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Society attitude towards non traditional family parenting
Impact of non traditional family parenting on children
Introduction The orientation of modern families has shifted away from the ‘ideal’ context of a nuclear family paving way for the emergence of more controversial family setups such as single parenthood as well as gay and lesbian families (Arrigo, 2005).
Various states in America and other regions of the world have legalized homosexual marital unions, which have enabled them to enjoy relatively similar legal rights as those enjoyed by heterosexual couples. These jurisdictions have further prohibited discrimination of homosexual parents during the process of adoption, which has been prevalent in the past (Arrigo, 2005).
Various concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of the non-traditional families’ environments for the development of children. While some scholars suggest that children in these non-conventional families are likely to experience difficulties in developing gender orientations, identity, and gender roles, others suggest that children raised in homosexual families are likely to become homosexuals themselves.
Further, children in homosexual and single-parent families are often subjected to stigma and can be traumatized by their peers from heterosexual family settings rendering them more vulnerable to psychological and interpersonal difficulties as well as behavioral problems (Arrigo, 2005).
Society attitude towards non traditional family parenting Through a research study, Hereck and other scholars sought to identify the causes of society’s negative attitudes towards gays and lesbians as well as their views towards the impact of their parenting (Crawford, 1999).
The study revealed that men have a tendency to be more homo negative than women and the society’s negative attitude towards gay and lesbian parenting could be partly attributed to external forces prevalent in society such as religious orientations of a given society, traditions upheld in that community as well as the ideologies and attitudes towards gender and the family.
Crawford (1999) concludes that the most likely people to hold negative attitudes towards gay and lesbian parenting are theistic highly traditional people who conceptualize homosexuality as a lifestyle choice and people who are surrounded y a society that holds similar views towards homosexuality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the contemporary society, one out of every three children is born to unmarried parents rendering the child to a higher risk of negative pressures being elicited by society.
Negative impacts are likely to result from societal attitudes as well as low income often associated with single-parent families. In their empirical paper ‘The Impact Of Marital Quality, Divorce And Remarriage On The Relationship Between Parents And Their Teachers’, Oruch, Thomton and Cancio analyzed the parent-child relationship putting into consideration such variables as marital quality as well as the marital status of the parent. According to them, the parent-child relationship differed depending on the gender of the child.
In cases where the mother was divorced and failed to remarry, the relationship between the mother and the daughter remained intact while the relationship between her and the son was negatively affected by the family restructuring. The quality of the father-child relationship was also negatively affected by divorce in both the daughter and son, but the impact was found to be stronger in daughter (Elizabeth, 2000).
The role of the father is considered vital in the development of the child and consequently his absence may negatively impact on the child in single-mother families. It is often assumed that the primary role of the father in the family is economic and in his absence the family is likely to suffer from economic hardships, which put more pressure on the single mother as well as her children (Elizabeth, 2000).
However, with the changing roles of fathers in as well as the social norms about fatherhood in the modern society; this trend is continually changing towards family set up where the mother can independently provide for her children without male assistance.
Impact of non traditional family parenting on children Homosexual and single parents’ families have to constantly struggle with prejudicial notions and such as homophobia and gross stereotyping in the modern society which labels them as ‘unfit parents’.
However, there lacks adequate literature to prove significant negative impacts on children brought up in non-traditional family settings relative to the impacts on children brought up in heterosexual two-parent environment. The existing research suggests that these parents are as capable as heterosexual parents to provide an environment condusive for positive development of their children (Arrigo, 2005).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Non-Traditional Families and Child Behaviorism Affects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A study conducted in 2001 in the United States revealed that out of a random sample, 8% of lesbian and gay men were parents or legal guardians of minor children with 49% of the participants revealing the intention of being parents in the future (Arrigo, 2010).
It is a general societal expectation for heterosexual parents to become parents and they often do this in absence of a strategic plan, on the other hand, minority groups such as homosexuals and single parents have to endure complex procedures in an attempt to become parents and due to external pressures and negative expectations from the society, such parents are likely to strive to become better parents than parents in heterosexual relationships.
Tasker and Golombok’s longitudinal study in 1995 where they studied a sample of 25 young adults from lesbian families and 21 young adults from heterosexual single parent’s families revealed that those children brought up in lesbian functioned normally psychologically and in terms of sexual orientations which served to nullify the misconception that homosexual families results into homosexual children.
Further, no significant differences were found to exist between children raised in homosexual family setting from children raised in heterosexual single-parent homes and the children raised in these two family settings displayed relatively similar levels of anxiety as assessed by trait anxiety inventory as well as depression levels as assessed y Beck Depression inventory. The study was clear evidence that non-traditional families do not have substantial detrimental effects on child’s development (Arrigo, 2005).
Further, a study conducted by C. Patterson (1994) on 37 four to nine-year-olds found two differences existing between children from homosexual families and heterosexual parents whereby the children in homosexual families reported more symptoms of stress than children in heterosexual families but enjoyed a stronger sense of well being.
Through this study, C Paterson concluded that development of children in these families was within the normal limits and misconception that the children were likely to develop homosexual orientations was completely unfounded (Arrigo, 2005).
Conclusion The dynamic nature of the modern world has led to restructuring of major institutions in the society. The family set up has shifted towards non-traditional form and this has raised a lot of controversy in the society. However, as a result of modernization, the significance of family structural variables such as sexual orientations of parents and the number of parents in the family set up is gradually diminishing, rendering the changes in family set up inevitable.
Therefore, people should aim at accommodating and accepting individuals from homosexual and single-parent families rather than criticizing and excluding them. This will serve to promote their self acceptance, boost their self-esteem as well as the overall effect of promoting the cohesion in the modern world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Non-Traditional Families and Child Behaviorism Affects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Arrigo, A. B.,
How Racial Discourses Subtend Military Projects Essay best essay help
Introduction Danticat writes about the 1937 massacre of Haitians by a Dominican dictator, Refael Trujillo (3). Between October 2nd and 4th the Dominican Republic solders under the political influence of prominent landowners slaughtered approximately 15,000 – 20,000 immigrants from Haiti at the massacre river (Danticat, 3).
The reason for massacre was to force out the squatters and make way for the big landowners to take over. The next year, the two governments come to an agreement of settling the matter without international court proceedings. The Dominican Republic agreed to pay $750,000 but paid only $500,000, which translated to approximately $25 for every victim to overrule need for justice.
The massacre river that was once a swallow of bodies is today a place full of life, peace and habitual routine. The Haitians’ tale is part of global history as a remembrance of Haitian community, as well as correlation to the global denotations or results of such massacre. Danticat (11) presents the case of Haiti not only as a Haitian community problem but also as a global concern especially in relation to the military projects.
There are therefore various facts that stand out from the massacre. This paper forms a critical analysis of racial discourses and the delimiting factors on military projects. The paper aims to advance understanding on effects of discrimination through analysis of the relationship between military men and women as well as between military and civilians. What really subjects soldiers to racial, cultural or ethnic hatred and thus negatively affect military projects?
Historical Analysis the Haitians’ Massacre The Dominican Republic army used tactics to cover up their tracks from possible prosecutions. For instance, the murder of victims using machetes, bayonets, pitchforks, smashing children’s heads on walls, forcing some to jump over cliffs and drowning others. They avoided using firearms and this meant that it was not easy to trace back the murderers (Danticat 13). The agreement between the two governments shows the complicity of the Haitian government to cover-up the massacre thus ensuring denial of justice to victims.
These are clear indications of racial discontents within the military and the vast effects on overall performance as well as project development for their units. Since time in history, particularly in a close reference to Haitians’ massacre in 1937, racial and ethical discriminations seem to be an element in the daily military contracts.
General Analysis of the Army The appointment of army personnel occurs through assignment of duty and analysis of specialty, rather than general selection of personnel. However, the assignment procedure is certainly not an arbitral procedure, therefore the appointment frequently occur based on chance. The assignment to duties is deliberate procedure, based on expertise and proficiency, without considering a soldier’s ethnic or racial background.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The military argument is that, when personnel are in ranks, then assignment of duties is likely to occur within a particular hold up basis. The military personnel often express interest and preferences for duties and work locations as they advance through the ranks and experience. The army’s requirements ought to be the main force over appointments. This is not possible because performance and allocation of duties as well as advancement of rank have very high influences to appointments.
Common Sources of Racial Discourses in the Army War or inhuman acts such as the Haitian’s massacre starts due to negative administrative assertions. Racial discourses or affirmations by administrative units in the military catalyze its emergence. Discrimination is part of political fight or strategy to gain power and authority and these influences are common within the military as evidenced during the 1937 Haiti massacre (Niebuhr 32).
Good examples are military affirmations indicating that war starts because of violation of resolutions, such as being in possession of weapons of mass destruction. Fight for peace is also another issue that fuels inhumanity since some governments feel the need for ensuring favourable conditions and run into unsuccessful endeavours to promote dialogue for peace. This subsequently degenerates to threats, and eventually to war.
Military personnel react pro-actively and make the most of all in its power to enhance racial hostility either against external forces or within themselves. However, power of command controls conflicts that lack logical or solid reasons and proof for justification. In most cases, racial discourses results to negative effects on human lives by depriving military men and women the most essential needs and respect for civilization. Some of the cases occur through political instigation in favour of a certain category of people.
The main reason why racial segregation or racial talks are not justified is due to the negative effects on human rights for instance, most conflicts among these great military compatriots is due to haste by administrators such as the political figures in the government. Racial indifferences within military setting are the foundation for work-based conflicts and in some cases deaths, thus depriving many families their special members whom are responsible for love and basic provisions.
Other than fatalities, many casualties who are immediate family providers may end up depending on others in different ways due to physical, mental and psychological injuries caused by racial-related wars. Such conditions increase pressure on the coalition governments, particularly on the military projects for instance, when those assigned are of conflicting views.
Cost of Racial Discourses within the Work Setting Racial discrimination causes high dependence humanitarian aid and reconstruction assistances and primarily leads to compromise on human dignity (Sifry and Cerf 27). Humanitarian crisis during racial conflict are very high. Loss of human life such as the Haiti massacres is attributable to greed, fright between the rich and the poor. In line with Sifry and Cerf (27), racial war distracts the non-governmental organizations plans for humanitarian assistance due to the uncertainty during and after such conflicts.
We will write a custom Essay on How Racial Discourses Subtend Military Projects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Poverty is one of the main effects associable to human racial-related discordances. Basic needs such as medicines, shelter, hygiene facilities and food therefore remain scarce during wars. There are fears over shortage of basic assistance even among the solders. Casualty reports confirm the fears, as the numbers of victims are overwhelming during that period.
Effects on Education and Healthcare Racial discrimination causes people especially women and children to vacate their home and settle in displacement camps due to need for safety. This remains a permanent scar to the society and leads to diversification of resources to cater for the affected. Regardless of some humanitarian assistance from well-wishers, there is often refusal to offer physical assistance in settling of victims. People lack comfort to attend school and access health services.
The military is responsible for provision of some health care services and education programmes. Racial discourses leads to poor or lack of proper governance and this means that the affected sectors are not able to cater for the indispensable needs. Innocent children end up suffering from something they rarely understand and furthermore such racial conflicts causes psychological suffering of their naive minds.
Compromised security Compromise on security is one of the critical effects of racial conflicts or discourses on military projects and is a big challenge. The racial discourses in the military camps halts major operations due to broken trust.
This cause worries over security since protection by the involved parties may compromise work-related collaborations. The compromise of social security pervades the human working environment. This causes low working morale, difficulties of finding trained or retrained workers and disrupted training or supervision when undertaking military projects.
Compromised security also affects activities especially during combat. For instance, when required to maintain teamwork and team strategies in the fields such as the war-torn areas, the social opposition may compromise confidentiality and lead to weak coordination or poor communication among personnel.
A co-officer may give up on others due to rivalry brought about by racial discourses among soldiers. Those emotionally effected individuals or the discriminated parties may find other possible payback mechanisms for instance, exposing fellow soldiers’ to opponent attacks.
Compromised human rights The biggest effect of racial discourses on projects is denial of various human rights. Most military projects in majority of the countries especially areas involved in wars fail due to racial divisions. First, the situation causes financial segregation owing to the fact that decision makers may try to favour certain groups over others in the same base camp.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How Racial Discourses Subtend Military Projects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Seniority therefore prohibit equal access to resources in what is supposedly a teamwork activity thus compromising on success of projects. The racial reasoning also compromises provision of the basic needs such as health care and eventually there are shifts from the normal form of equal provisions, to categorized care. This adversely compromises military project.
Disrupted health surveillance and compromised public health programs negatively hinders humanity, for instance favour on usage of health resources like clinics, referral systems and vehicles. Additional, racial discourses affect the communication logistics. It may also lead to poor equipments maintenance procedures during projects. Finally, it is evident that majority of the adversely affected projects results from prejudice against the essential basic human resources such as sanitation, food security, water and power.
Majority of the military projects are concern with restoration of peace and order. The projects are important especially when humanitarian needs are in consideration. Racial discourses are the main barriers to restoration of understanding. Provision of human needs for such peace-related projects mainly depends on a nation’s infrastructure.
Generally, war activities such as the Massacre of Haitians by the Dominican Republic soldiers caused compromise on communication, which is the main support for humanity and human rights (Danticat 13). After such war activities, it is not easy to enforce peace since effects of insecurity shifts focus towards individual involvements and personal acts.
In most instances, racial talks or discriminatory acts brings in the negative influences on employment such lack of job satisfaction thus affecting majority of the projects, which are often group assignments. According to Chancellor (71), one in every ten soldier’s experience, racial discourse or their family suffer from similar discriminatory acts.
Effects of Military Discourses to Consumer Projects Some of the military projects relate to local consumer markets. The discrimination reasoning within the military camps extends to the non-military personnel. The local consumer may thus face discrimination during interaction or transactions with the military. The military has extensive orders that prohibit racial talks and discrimination.
The desegregation policies work extensively well within the military bases, but rather slowly off the barracks. Some of the communication policies within the military base guards against discrimination that relate to job specifications, training opportunities and schooling or training within the base. On the other hand, state laws fight against any formal or informal state of segregation.
Racial discourse or segregation gets support from soldiers’ reluctance to implement their rule while off the base, arguing that the policies are not applicable outside barracks. Lack of proper reinforcement of rules is certainly a setback to majority of these projects outside of the military settings.
The civil right leaders increase the pressure to fight against off-base discriminatory acts and emphasize the need for enhanced troop morals during the off-base projects. Discourse within the community causes members to respond in a less partisan manner to assist such project completion.
The high-ranking officers have powers to respond to discriminatory practices that may affect projects both outside and inside the military base settings. They have to encourage immediate control of situations that may get out of hand and affect military projects or those of the neighbouring communities. These officers have to ensure that all projects that promote racial discourses or discrimination face immediate rejection or possible termination.
Today, there is no need to have project termination approvals from the secretary of defence; the commander has power to terminate any discriminatory acts (Chancellor 71). According to Chancellor (71), sociologists’ estimates indicate existence of less racial segregation in the military due to influences by the commanders and the locals’ activists.
Considering that there is low individual’s propensity, to report discriminatory behaviours in the workplace, it depends with the amount of discrimination and individual’s tolerance to such behaviours as racial discourses within the work setting. Solder’s propensity will also depend on the nature and frequency of contacts with workmates. A person who lives off base is likely to react very differently, compared to the single personnel who live with others within the base.
Racial discourse mainly occurs due to cultural diversity. Diversity boosts individuals’ competitive abilities and neutralizes the racial situation within the workforce. Unlike the early days when soldiers’ appointment was confined to policies, the current job market is full of challenges.
In order to enhance good services when tackling a project, there is need for a universally acceptable strategy such as appointment of culturally diversified personnel. The engagement enables today’s soldiers to know that different cultures demand for different opinions.
Racial discourses prevent understanding of concepts and importance of working in a multi-cultural setting. A culturally diverse group is rich in knowledge due to inclusion of people from various countries thus has enough chances of enhancing project achievements (King and Stivers 81).
Soldiers’ garrisons having ethnically diverse personnel can easily serve a wide base of clients without discrimination and with a great deal effort considering the ease for workers to relate with each other and with clients. This kind of situation would have prevented the Haiti’s 1937 massacre.
There is a wide and equally diverse and well-balanced pool of knowledge created by diverse cultures in the workplace. Knowledge is power to gain experience, creativity, customer support or participation, lasting results and eventually long-term high profit margins (King and Stivers 81).
Discrimination acts and lack of acceptance are the barriers to enhancing cultural diversity in the workplace. People from different background still have personal feeling that hinders this form of development. Society with such people can be the main source of social conflicts, group-work failures, fall of operations and eventually poor economic growth. The discrimination issue can therefore be a negative aspect if it lacks proper control measures.
Consequences Related to Racial Denounces at the Workplace Implementation and acceptance of culturally diverse community in military barracks requires subsequent strategic planning. Execution or change in management must entail inspiration through infusion or integration of different aspects such as those involving diversification into project procedures or requirements.
Cultural acceptance ought to apply from the top executives, who should show commitment and importance of diversity. Having the soldiers to understand significance of diversity from the word go reduces any possibilities of racial conflicts.
Fostering cultural diversity at the workplace The top officials must engage in upbeat measure of solving racial-related conflicts by regularly emphasising on cultural benefits to the military. Cultural commitment to diversity requires legal gazetting with the external regulator body to emphasize on the consequences regarding those racial conflicts that break the project rules. In relation to King and Stivers’ writing (82), a corporation need to have programs for performing prior training to employees on how to deal with counterparts from different cultural setting.
Arguably, it is impossible for employees to grasp various complex cultural nuances in one sitting, therefore the need for them to be careful on issues regarding stereotyping, language differences, time differences and individual versus collective racial mind-set, as a measure of avoiding or resolving diversity related conflicts.
Conclusion Promotion of cultural differences in the workplace ought to take place before commencement of hiring. This means that commanders should include need and importance of stressing diversity in the recruitment plan. In line with King and Stivers (82), discovery of strengths or benefits of an action occur well prior to proper planning.
These calls for the management to be responsive over recognizing respecting and capitalizing on various positive aspects regarding ethnic, race and gender difference. There is need for soldiers to note that even outside the work setting, they can find exposure from various cultural practices.
According to King and Stivers (82), a good system capitalizes on the employees strengths while minimizing on their weaknesses. The differences between employees’ culture should therefore entail proper usage, to strengthen understanding and enhance stronger bonds through team works as a measure to capture and workout global projects.
Militaries ought to understand that diversity is something more than mare moral obligation. It is a necessity for enhancing growth opportunities and avoiding inhuman activities such as those experienced during the Haiti massacre by the Dominican Republic Soldiers.
Works Cited Chancellor, Schroeder. Remarks on anti-war Stance as Saddam Crumbles. Mexico City: Agence France-Presse, 2003. Print.
Danticat, Edwidge. The Farming of Bones: A novel. (Vol, 3), New York: Soho Press, 1998. Print.
King, Cheryl, and Stivers Camilla. Government Is Us: Public Administration in an Anti-Government Era. California: Sage Publications, 1998. Print.
Niebuhr, Reinhold. Moral man and immoral society: a study in ethics and politics. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005. Print.
Sifry, Micah, and Cerf Christopher. Iraq War Reader: History, Documents. New York: OpinionsSimon
Bilateral Relations between the US and Paraguay Essay college essay help near me
Paraguay is a country located in the southern part of America. It is part of Latin American countries. The country has a population of approximately seven million people, the majority of whom, about ninety percent are Roman Catholic Christians. The people speak Spanish and Guarani languages (Jermyn and Yong, 137).
The country has flourished in Agriculture and has pleasant forest and wood resources. Paraguay has a rich history characterized by wars and military interventions. The Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia defined a political system in Paraguay, which has undergone various transformations to form its current political and leadership system.
Paraguay has signed many bilateral and other relations agreements with its neighboring countries and other countries in the world. This is in effort of achieving political stability, economic growth, fight against narcotics and terrorism and other social evils in the region and the world at large. The United States on the other hand is a larger country located in the northern part of America. The country is more stable politically and economically when compared to Paraguay (Bowles, 2).
With its resources and desire to invest, the US has also entered into a number of agreements with many countries. It also gives such countries political, financial and military support to enable them to achieve their goals, which also interests the US. The bilateral relation between Paraguay and the United States is one of these beneficial relations that has realized much accomplishments and is also likely to yield more benefits for both the two countries in the future.
The start of the relation between Paraguay and the United States of America dates back to as early as 1845. The countries established the relationship so that they may meet their own interests. USA helped Paraguay in its domestic concerns while taking advantage of their president’s anti-communist stand in Latin America.
Paraguay wanted the US to assist them in their security concerns. Paraguay’s president, Stroessner, felt that his government was threatened by communists and thus supported US’s security policies to solicit US’s support in maters of security and development. The US, on the other hand was interested in trade and investment in Paraguay.
The relationship between these two countries was good between World War II and towards the end of 1970s. However, this relationship started wavering in the late 1970s due to a bridge of human rights and lack of political reforms. Stroessner’s dictatorial nature denied the citizens political and press freedom, an issue that America did not support (Mora and Cooney, 196).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His government officials also were involved in trafficking of narcotics, an issue which distorted the country’s relationship with America. Therefore, political, constitutional and governance reforms were necessary in Paraguay in order to rejuvenate its relationship with the US.
Alfred Stroessner, president of Paraguay, served for the longest time as president as compared to other Latin American countries. Stroessner reigned in Paraguay for eight successive terms between 1954 and 1989, for thirty-five years, after staging a coup d’état against the then reigning President Federico Chavez. Stroessner was born and brought up in a German family. His daddy came from Germany.
And his mother was from an influential wealthy family in Paraguay. Stroessner started his journey to power by participating in various public and background activities in Paraguay. He first participated in the Chaco War against Bolivia in 1929 (Morales, 101). This is where he excelled as a good commander and impressed the people who were craving for power once the war was over.
However, Stroessner acted in the background through the period of coups and periods of short governments in Paraguay, assisting presidential aspirants ascend to power through military interventions. In 1951, the then Paraguay’s president Federico Chavez appointed Stroessner as the commander in chief of the armed forces of Paraguay as a tribute to his assistance accorded to him to gain presidency.
Stroessner later overthrew Chavez in 1954 by staging a coup against him after differing over the issue of arming the police. Stroessner changed the constitution of Paraguay to enable him cling to power as long as possible (Mora and Hey, 2003). His government carried out many assassinations, torture, and was involved in corruption; drug trafficking, money laundering and gross election malpractice.
He suppressed the freedom of his opponents and the press an issue that made many of them to live in exile throughout his reign. General Andres Rodriguez staged a coup d’état against Stroessner on February 3, 1989 that ousted him. Stroessner then lived in exile in Brasilia, Brazil for seventeen years where he died. The Paraguayan government denied Stroessner state honors in his burial. His family members and a few of his friends buried Stroessner in Brasilia, Brazil.
Stroessner’s anti-communism attitude made him accepted by the US as a partner in many of its activities. The US used his anti-communism to fight anti-communists in Paraguay and in the Latin America. This friendship is what strengthened the relationship between Paraguay and the United States of America.
We will write a custom Essay on Bilateral Relations between the US and Paraguay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stroessner depended on the US troops to offer his country security against communists and his political rivals while US was interested in investment and trade. He maintained his relationship with America to his advantage until America pushed him to allow political reforms in Paraguay.
Regional blocs played an important role in enhancing relationships between countries in their region (Haas, xi). Countries made regional blocs in order to strengthen their local economies, eliminate trade barriers, and even assist each other in governance issues (Mattli, 3; Laursen, 106). The American countries formed regional blocs after the Cold War. They believed that a state driven economy would lead to economic collapse and would not favorably compete with a market driven economy.
“After the Cold War, the market driven, liberal economic model has spread throughout the world and the world economy has become interconnected as a result of globalization” (Kantorun, Para.1). Kantorum also noted that some of the regional blocs formed around the world not only represent trade and economic policies but also other regional interests. Regional blocs of interest in this case include MERCOSUR, EU (European Union, and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement).
MERCOSUR is one of the regional blocks, of Latin American countries. The founding members of MERCOSUR are Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay. The bloc unites countries of southern America. The aim of coming up with this bloc was to establish one market for the members and to do away with internal tariffs.
The countries’ motivation into forming a regional bloc was to enhance regional integration, improve their economies and promote democracy in member countries. Brazil and Argentina are the founding nations of the MERCUSOR trade block.
They came up with it deliberately to eliminate security uncertainties in these countries and avoid military coups and takeovers as those experienced before. These countries including Paraguay and Uruguay had experienced military coups before they attained democracy. The member countries therefore view this regional organization as an important tool, which is likely to prevent overthrowing of governments through military interventions and institutionalize democracy in their countries.
Another motivation for this regional integration is economic liberalization through common plans of industrialization and setting marketing tariffs (Aquin and Caro, 1; Barbato and Bucheli, 2). Uruguay and Paraguay, who were smaller members of MERCOSUR, transformed their policies to allow foreign investment and export substitution between member countries.
These are the policies, which enabled Paraguay to liberalize its trade and investment activities and undergo political, social and constitutional transformations to meet basic requirements for the relations. The member states formed committees to make policy and marketing strategies and set tariffs for the trading bloc.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Bilateral Relations between the US and Paraguay by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They also made committees responsible for dispute resolution in member countries. However, since these countries had non-uniform constitutions, the member states made the last decision in line with their constitution.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into action in 1994, with Mexico, Canada and United States as its founding members. Just like MERCOSUR, NAFTA’s aim was to eliminate trade barriers and tariffs between member countries and enhance regional integration (Hufbauer, and Schott, xi).
The heads of state of these member counties established NAFTA. Unlike MERCOSUR, NAFTA had no committees to bring together the heads of the member states to put plans in place for further integration. Thee bloc helped boost the economic growth of member states especially Mexico.
For US, NAFTA was to help it to minimize illegal immigrations and improve the economic relations between the two counties. MECURSOR had a more comprehensive regional integration plan than NAFTA and it succeeded in combating military interventions in member countries. The blocs also have served as tools for regional integration and globalization of trade and economy.
Paraguay’s major economy is Agricultural, some commercial activities, and a struggling industrial economy. The country has a large subsistence sector, high urban unemployment, a large labor population and re-export sector. It has a large electricity-generating sector, which is the world’s second largest hydroelectric generator.
The country is open to foreign investors and treats them with dignity. The country’s economic growth depends upon a number of export products. Some of these are cotton, sugar electricity, and various ceral crops.
The United States and Paraguay enjoy a cordial association in commerce and in various state operations that are intended for their mutual benefit. Paraguay is committed to counteract drug trafficking, human trafficking, money laundering among other trans-boundary evils taking place across its boundaries. It takes part in anti terrorism and anti narcotic activities in partnership with its neighboring countries and the United States. The United States is also committed to help Paraguay to meet its development goals. It supports the stabilization of Paraguay’s democracy as well as economic and constitutional reforms.
The two countries have continued to work together in fulfilling the requirements of a number of global agreements. There is also great improvement in bilateral trade between the two countries. There is an active exchange of imports and exports between the two countries. US’s multinational firms have also a number of branches in Paraguay to enhance this partnership in investment and trade.
This firms feature sectors like agro-industry, computer, banking, communication among other service-oriented sectors. (“Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs”, Para. 28). There are many US business agents in Paraguay and a good number of US citizens reside in Paraguay.
The US also offers Paraguay material, monetary and technical support. This includes the skills and tools the Paraguay government needs to achieve its goals.
The U.S. Department of State, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Department of Justice, and the Department of Treasury “provide technical assistance, equipment, and training to strengthen counternarcotics enforcement, combat trafficking in persons, promote respect for intellectual property rights, and to assist in the development and implementation of money laundering legislation and counterterrorism legislation,” (Para. 30).
Paraguay has signed bilateral investments agreements with other countries. These include Argentina, Taiwan, South Africa, Brazil, France, Chile, United Kingdom and Uruguay.
It has also signed other agreements with other countries like Austria, Peru, Spain, Romania, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Germany, among others. The agreements that Paraguay has signed with the US include Agreement relating to investment guaranties of 1955 and Agreement relating to investment guaranties of 1992 (“2008 Investment Climate Statement”, Para. 30).
The signing of agreements between regional blocs like MERCOSUR and the European Union will open up marketing opportunities leading to globalization and economic development.
Apart from trade and investment agreements between Paraguay and US, the two countries also collaborate in military issues. Military agreement between US and Paraguay came into effect in 1994. The agreement was mainly aimed at averting local military interventions and terrorism. The agreement gave the United State’s military immunity to carry out humanitarian operations in Paraguay and enabled it to carry out joint exercises with the Paraguayan military. They also collaborate in protecting intellectual property rights (Beittel, Para. 2).
In conclusion, the bilateral relationship between Paraguay and the United states has been a long-term venture. Even though the relation started in 1845, many scholars do not agree with this fact.
This is because the relation between these two countries was not very much public during its establishment. The relation became public in the late 1970s when the US tried to force Paraguay to brig about reforms in its political system and constitution. This is what ended the tyrannical governance in Paraguay and reinstated humanitarian and press freedoms.
Even though the US and Paraguay have hand a long-lasting relation, there have been a number of challenges in this relationship. The relationship between the two counties has faltered a number of times due to war, political and humanitarian issues. Similar interests in combating narcotics, terrorism and communism made the relation flourish. The US signed an agreement with the US to get permission and protection to carry out investment activities in Paraguay.
Paraguay also entered into the agreement because it needed protection against communists and needed to develop the country. President Stroessner of Paraguay started this partnership agreement with the US in pursuit of his own interest of clinging to power. The relationship, however, forced him to be flexible to reforms and took Paraguay to another level.
The Policies of MERCOEUR, in which Paraguay is a member, prohibited the countries to make bilateral agreements with non-member states. This must have threatened the relation between the US and Paraguay. The signing of agreements between regional blocks like MERCOSUR, the EU, and NAFTA has changed the situation. With this globalization, Paraguay and the United States have a good prospective future in their relations.
Works Cited Aquin, Nora, and Caro, Ruben. Políticas públicas, derechos, y trabajo social en el Mercosur. Buenos Aires: Espacio, 2009. Print.
Barbato, Celia, and Bucheli, Mario. Mercosur, una estrategia de desarrollo : nuevas miradas desde la economía y la política. Montevideo: Ed. Trilce, 2000. Print.
Beittel, S. June. Relations United States-Paraguay. Bloggers of the Americas. 2010. Web.
Bowles, Nigel. The government and politics of the United States. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993. Print.
“Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs.” Background Note. U.S. Department of State. 2010. Web.
Haas, Ernst B. The uniting of Europe; political, social, and economic forces, 1950-1957. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1968. Print.
Hufbauer, Gary C., and Schott, Jeffrey J. North American free trade: issues and recommendations. Washington, DC: Inst. für Internat. Economics, 1992. Print.
Jermyn, Leslie, and Yong, Jui L. Paraguay. New York : Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2010. Print.
Kantorun, Ufuk. Regional intergration in America: MERCOSUR, NAFTA. Bilgesam. 2010. Web.
Laursen, Finn. Comparative regional integration: theoretical perspectives. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2003. Print.
Mattli, Walter. The logic of regional integration: Europe and beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999. Print.
Mora, Frank O., and Cooney, W. J. Paraguay and the United States: distant allies. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. 2007. Print.
Mora, Frank O., and Hey, Jeanne A. K. Latin American and Caribbean foreign policy. Lanham, Md.: Rowman
Pop Music Nature and History Term Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Pop music, as the name suggests, is popular not just in various societies but also to different age groups. In this ethnographic work, I chose to study pop music, especially its history. Pop music is a general term that encompasses genres such as hip-hop, rhythm and blues, rock, rap, soul and country music. Hatch and Millward simply define pop music as “a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, jazz and folk music” (1).
Pop music has evolved with the industrial revolution, defying all odds to come of age. It is a multimillion-dollar industry propelled by the media and record companies. Attending a pop music live concert is a memorable event that everyone should look for. Pop music gives people something to identify with as I discovered after attending one such concert.
The Concert The stage was three feet above the ground. The cameras were rolling, some across the stage, and others above our heads. At the back of the stage, a few feet above it was a gigantic screen.
The stage lights, of virtually every colour, were magnificent. Some were on top of the stage, others on the upper balcony of the auditorium, directing all their magnificent colours to the stage. This was modern technology, at its best. On the right side of the stage, at the back, was the drum set. Three electric and box guitars hung on their stands on the other side. All the microphones were set.
The performing artist, Gordon Lightfoot, entered the stage, followed by his band. The drum set, the guitars, the vocals, all combined their musical sounds to back the lyrics. One song after another was performed. Gordon paved way for Joni Mitchell and later Leonard Cohen. It was a euphoric atmosphere and everyone could feel it. The Lyrics talked of a wide range of issues from love to the composers’ perception of life
Here I was, amidst hundreds, thousands to be precise, of loud screaming pop music fanatics. Their sound was deafening. Looking at such a crowd, I could not stop thinking of the hundreds of thousands, probably millions of dollars the event organizers gained. After a glance to my left and right, the back, I realized most of the people in the auditorium were young. Some holding up placards, others holding beer bottles waving them sideways like flags. A teenager standing beside me, on a sleeveless top, had tattoos all over her right arm.
She had one big tattoo of someone who looked like Michael Jackson with the words, ‘love you forever’. An unimaginable number of earrings were on her ears. She had two rings on both sides of her nose. After some time during the concert, I discovered she had another piercing on her tongue. In front of me were two young men with an amazing hairstyle. At this point, I was battling with one question on my mind. Has pop music always attracted this kind of crowd?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The History In the seventeenth century, as the middle class was emerging in big cities, pop music became the idealistic approach to depict their lifestyle. It was not called pop music back then. Classical music was for the high class, the affluent in the society, but the rapid urbanization brought by the industrial revolution came with a type of music popular to the middle and lower classes. It addressed their issues; defining who they were and what they experienced in everyday life.
It displayed the civil injustice in the society. It was their most powerful tool. It traces its roots back to the sixteenth century, in Napoli Italy, by composers like Alessandro Scarlatti and Francesco Provenzale who brought live into music. They made it a more appealing and interesting form of entertainment. Later, music became an art that could be performed in weddings and other parties.
The industrial revolution gave birth to a new class of people, the bourgeoisie. The bourgeoisie, middle class people, in turn paved the way for populism, which created a perfect platform for pop music to thrive. The American and French revolutions, which brought changes in cultural dimensions, came only to fuel this kind of music to greater heights.
With the establishment of the ‘Opera-Comique’ theatre in Paris 1715, forms of entertainment were diversified to include dance and comedy, which would later form part of pop music. Unlike the operas, pop music could be performed in a casual environment and settings, a condition, which was comfortable for the bourgeoisie. Music became easier not just to compose but also to perform.
This was in complete contrast to the complexity in operas, which strictly followed musical notes and only the experts could compose or perform. Pop music could address the issues affecting the bourgeoisie, their day-to-day life and plight. Due to the simplicity in this new type of music, amateurs could compose their own music and even perform. It is the kind music, which did not require one to go to a theatre to listen.
You could listen to it while taking a drink with friends at a cafe. This gave rise to café concerts. Video technology, multi track recording and digital editing from the 1980’s increased the quality and hence popularity of pop music. All along, creativity and innovations with invention of new styles in musical art were the key ingredients in pop music.
The Blues genre begun among poor blacks in the American Mississippi region and later spread to other parts. Soul music and Rhythm and Blues (R
The Short Story “Found Objects” by Jennifer Egan Essay best college essay help
Introduction Found Objects is a short story by Jennifer Egan that gives an account of a young woman trying to find identity in an ever busy world. Sasha as the name of the young woman goes is in her mid-thirties and has serious issues that have pushed her to consult the services of a therapist.
Sasha has adopted a habit of stealing anything that she can lay her hands on. This ranges from screwdrivers to wallets and a host of other things that she does not really need. The strangest part of the story is that she does not mix the things she steals with her private life. Instead, she keeps them on a separate table as though hoping “to return them one day.” This leads us to conclude that she steals these things for a higher purpose than to fulfill her needs.
By looking at the story, it is hard to exactly pinpoint the motive for Sasha’s kleptomaniac behaviour. However, one thing that we can decipher from the story is that Sasha’s behaviour relates to her relationship with people. By stealing, Sasha seems to be passing across a message that she does not trust people and neither does she expect to be trusted.
This comes out clearly at the Lassimo Hotel where she steals a wallet from a woman in the washrooms. When she goes to adjust her eye shadow, she notices a wallet sticking out of a bag belonging to a woman who is peeing in the next toilet stall. The “trust” that the owner of this bag has on New York residents provokes Sasha to steal the wallet.
By doing this, she is sending across a message that people should not be too trusting. This clearly means that she does not trust anyone and neither does she expect to be trusted. Maybe, this is the reason why she gets so surprised when she sees her date Alex trying to help the woman recover her wallet. This leads her to conclude that both the woman and Alex must be residents of another town outside New York. To Sasha, stealing is simply a way of saying that people will do worse things to you if you give them the opportunity.
By closely looking at the story, one does not fail to realize that all the problems bedeviling Sasha have their genesis from the broken relationship with her father. From the story, we gather that Sasha’s father left when she was six years old and he never came back to get her. Sasha must have loved her father since she blocks any discussion about her father.
This shows that she must have loved her father so much and that his decision to abandon her hurt her so much. On his part, Sasha’s father does not appear to have loved her so much since he never came back even once to see how she was doing. This is perhaps one reason why Sasha has stopped trusting the people around her life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is seen from the incident with the plumber whom she believes has character traits similar to her fathers and her therapist whom she claims that she cannot trust his background. However, the relationship with her therapist Coz is more cordial since she feels that he can understand her. The therapist has one agenda and that is helping Sasha have a fresh start in her life. On her part, Sasha respects the therapist since she feels that he can see right through her.
The event where Sasha steals an inspirational message from Alex’s wallet gives us a deeper insight into her life and character. According to the story, Sasha keeps all the things she has stolen since using them would imply that she is greedy or that she is simply driven by her self-interest.
However, when she steals the note from Alex’s wallet with the words “I believe in you” scribbled on it, she realizes that she has to keep it. Although the reasons why she wants to keep this note separate from the other things are unclear, we are left with an open space to guess her reasons for doing so.
One reason why this might be the case is that Sasha might be under the illusion that this particular message is from her father who had abandoned her. This shows that she is still looking for approval and affection from her father. The other thing that might be the reason for her choosing to keep this note is that it implies a connection between her and someone in the heart of New York. This shows that Sasha felt disconnected from the society and she was looking for love and acceptance.
Conclusion Found Objects is a short story that shows the struggles that a young woman by the name of Sasha goes through to regain acceptance and recognition in the world.
This leads her to form a habit of stealing perhaps to fill her emptiness. The genesis of Sasha’s problems can be traced to her father’s leaving when she was six years old. By analysing her character, one realises that Sasha is looking for acceptance and recognition from the society. This can be seen from her desire to keep a note with an inspiring message that she steals from a man she is dating.
The effective early childhood educator Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Early childhood education plays an important role in educational, physical and social development of a child. There is no question that the education given to a child in its early years of development has significant contribution to the future intellectual development of the child.
The relationships, educational experience and nutrition during the first eight early of a child have high contribution to the child mental and social growth. Therefore, a good early childhood education helps a child to develop in a healthy manner while poor program can have long-term negative effects on a child’s development. Effective early childhood educators are the backbone to successful early childhood education.
Success of an early childhood education program is highly depended on the competence of early childhood educators. An early childhood educator does not just teach but helps the children to develop in various aspects of their lives (Early, et al., 2007). Above introducing children to education, early childhood educators have to take care of physical, nutritional and social developmental needs of the children.
On top of introducing the children to reading, writing and simple computation, early childhood educators have to teach hygiene, safety and other important things that a child needs in its development. Importantly, early childhood educators act as parents to the children and have to respond to the children’s emotional needs. In this paper, I will explore the qualities that make an early childhood educator to be effective.
Early childhood educator is an occupation like no other. Early childhood educators must be able to deal with children and respond to their multiple needs. They have the responsibility of laying a foundation to future lives of their students and above all, act as parents to the children.
The educators give instructional assistance in the most important part of the children’s education. It is during the early years of development that a child acquires vital social skill and learns to interact with other people. In addition to helping children develop in their social aspects, early childhood educators play significant role in shaping a child’s attitude towards school (Early, et al., 2007).
To be effective, therefore, an early childhood educator must have a passion to teach young children. Without having the passion, an early childhood educator cannot withstand the many demands from young children and their parents. The main motivation for early childhood educators should be the children themselves. Early childhood educators must enjoy spending most of their time with young children and participating in their activities such as plays.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Children require a supportive environment for them to develop effectively (Vialle, Lysaght
Existing Business Expansion Plan Problem Solution Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Summary The purpose of this paper is to prepare a business plan for the FlexMation, which will expand its business with existing products in the US market. However, FlexMation will open XYZ New store to address the emerging market demand for aluminum structural framing.
However, The XYZ new store will be located in one of the busiest streets of Blaine, MN, offering a variety of products that would suit with the needs of many other businesses like construction industries, real estates, recycling factories, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, and so on. Initially, the store would provide the local customers with products from categories such as carts, clean rooms, enclosures, fixtures, frames, guards, material handling, and work cells.
Among the products of cart categories, the most high quality ones would include Mobile Test-Cart, Instrument-Towers, Instrumentation-Cart, Label Cart, HEPA Enclosure-Cart, and Controlled-Environment Parts Cart. The clean room product categories will consist of Wall and Ceiling Clean Room and Controlled Environment Wall, and the enclosure categories would consist of Weld Robot, Pharma Enclosure, Machine Enclosure, Dark Room Test Station, and Positive Pressure Enclosure.
On the other hand, the fixtures would comprise of Tool Holder, Adjustable Height Fixture, etc, whereas the frames would comprise of Peristaltic Pump Stand, Test Frame, and the guards would comprise of Cat Walk and Guard, ECOSAFE Machine Guard, and Mazak Stand. In this context, with such a widely diversified product line, it is important for the store to build up popularity among its client in order to acquire a good market position in Blaine. This requires the implementation of a good advertisement strategy through which the store could create awareness between public.
This would be mostly to attract the local customers and therefore XYZ would adopt advertising forms like Billboards and Hoardings, Yellow Pages, Direct mail, Electronic Mail, and Radio for example. In addition, FlexMation will invest 60% of its total starting capital to expand its operation in the US market. As FlexMation will expand its business by opening a new store, it will be easy for the company to generate profit from the first year of its operation.
Timeline The business plan of XYZ New Store will be placed to the board of directors for review, and approval on January 2011, and design its timeframe to go into operation within three months (90 working days) that counted April12 2011. As parent company FlexMation has very strong credit line with several financial institutes, it will be less time consuming for the XYZ New Store to receive start up and working capital from bank.
Due to an extension of existing business, the XYZ New Store would face less obstacles and time constrains. The arrangement of total startup and working capital would be completed within a month i.e. February 15 2011 as the initial activities would be started from the at once after the approval of board the site selection continues from January 16 to February15 2011.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the second month of 2011 after the sanction of bank loan, XYZ New Store will make contract with the rented premises and start decoration and renovation. To do so, the XYZ New Store will complete all contracts with the suppliers within a week starting from February 16 to February 21 2011.
All preachments, decoration, and renovation will be completed with in March 15, 2011. The project would consider adverting as a most significant tools for success and take it as an ongoing process staring next to rental premises and continues advertise in the print and electronic media in order to attract target customers.
The project XYZ New Store would like to start employee’s selection process from February 16 2011 and complete on March 14 2011. From March 2011 to April 2011, it will continue training for the employees and project has aimed to celebrate opening ceremony on April 15 2011.
The managers would provide day-to-day update to the CEO by phone or e-mail to know future tasks and start operation seriously with the objectives to reach break-even point within first year of its operation. However, the project would lead and operate complying with the following timeline that will demonstrated more elaborately the work detail and the milestone scheduling for XYZ New Store.
Deadline and milestone:
The XYZ New Store will try to finish all the initial functions within three months of project approval by the board of directors, for instance, preparing documents for the registration the name of the company. All the entrepreneurs also arrange their 15% capital within this short period. Additionally, they will contract with banks to know about initial documents, try to find out a rental premises near to selected location and secure the place by rent, contact with other suppliers, complete the procurements, employee selection and training and start operation as per following timeline and milestone which has also demonstrated in a Microsoft Project Gantt chart –
Table-1: Timeline for project implication
(A Gantt chart has presented into the Microsoft project File)
We will write a custom Essay on Existing Business Expansion Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Relationship of events:
Here, it is significant to argue that all the above functions are interconnected with each other, for instance, it would not be possible for XYZ New Store to submit the proposal for bank loan without preparing a business plan.
On the other hand, bank loan is the key factor to start new project, as the entrepreneurs would not be capable to start XYZ New Store without fund, as they would only invest 45% of the total capital involved. In addition, bank loan is also a major issue to coordinate all the operational activities, human resources management, promotional activities, as well as marketing functions.
Moreover, the fund would engage for purchasing raw materials, fixture, fittings, furniture, and appliance. In addition, appointing employees is a longer process as adverting for job position, listing selected applications, interviewing short listed candidates, and appointing potential staff as well as providing training for them.
At the same time, market research is another significant task to selection the location, assesses market risks, external business environment, attitude of the target customers, comparison the size of XYZ New Store with competitors, response of competitors, and to identifying other significant factors.
Finally, XYZ New Store intends to develop an e- commerce site in order to facilitate the customers for online order and payment opportunities, communicating with customer, advertises the company, and introduce home delivery services better than other competitors in the market.
Products XYZ New Store will offer following products –
List of the Products Reasons for Setting the Costs (Depending on Product Features and Quality) Controlled-Environment Parts-Cart The product will be completely enfolded with stainless-steel top/bottom panes, poly carbonate surface panes, 2 doors through padlocking grips, 9 modifiable ledges and 4 padlocking caster-wheels HEPA Enclosure-Cart The top of the cart would clutch a HEPA filter to compel the higher cabinet zone comprising the combination tools; the polypropylene subordinate cabinets would clutch instrumentation and spare equipment whilst the frame will size to fit through the consumer’s constricted doorways Label Cart-Product The product could grip eight single reels of labels in a hospital product construction zone; it would restore a plastic-shelf pushcart that could only grip a couple of reels Instrumentation Cart-Product It will hold abundant file-servers and data-collection tools; the 2 clout strips will integrate for control management from the overhead source and the backside will have SS panes that would serve as shielding and decorative pivoted-doors through the main-walkway; moreover, the unit will sit on heavy duty caster wheels and foot operated floor locks Instrument-Towers The explicit towers would usually be for burn-in-testing and its remarkable characteristics would comprise of the louvered-SS hinged door-panes, wire-bondage, shelf-brackets, heavy-duty casters, and floor-locks Mobile Test-Cart This custom cart will house an electo-mechanical press and the upper tower will hold the actuator enclosed by plain poly carbonate panels; the table top would be gray laminate on a wood core, whereas the base unit will have a storage with two doors that would provide access to the control panel W I P Cart This product will handle work in progress in a manual automated assembly area; through this cart, the consumer could get 7 portions-shelves into this exceptionally mobile-cart that would assist the clients to save floor-space SS Top-Workstations These two tables would be custom designed to suit the consumer’s particular needs possessing of stainless-steel clippings for stability and locking caster-wheels for mobility; moreover, the left table will have adjustable tilt top tray, a hinged arm for holding a flat panel screen and a detent pull-out keyboard tray Calibration-Station This product will be a setting up precision measuring equipment; the top right will contain a hinged arm to hold the monitor and keyboard and the beneath that is an aluminum tabletop will have special features for the test fixtures; besides, the lower left will contain aluminum shelves for holding the fixed PC equipment Table 2: Products of XYZ New Store
Source: Self generated
Not sure if you can write a paper on Existing Business Expansion Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The following figure shows the price of the products of XYZ New Store –
Figure 1: Price of the products
Source: Self generated
Competitive analysis The marking research demonstrates the result that ergonomic workstations industry is already saturated with numerous conventional competitors. FlexMation has both direct and indirect competitors for all the service and product items like Work In Progress Rack, Parts Presentation Rack, Rear Support Bar, Main Table, and Tool Holder.
Thus, several direct competitors of this industry are ShapeMaster, Terra Universal, Pentz Cast Solutions, and indirect competitors are Applied Industrial Technologies, Inc, Industrial Distribution Group, and MSC Industrial Direct Co. However, Terra Universal is the direct competitor for the Electropolished Stainless Steel Work-In-Process (WIP) Racks, DARLEX Manufacturing’s wide range of aluminum extrusion profiles,
Porter 5 forces:
Porter (2004) argued that market competition should assess by considering following five forces and these are –
Figure 2: – Porter 5 forces model for XYZ New Store
Source – Self generated from Porter (2004)
Threat of New Entrants: The threats of new entrants are relatively low in this industry due to the presence of a number of obstacles to pierce the market; therefore, despite of a quite high international demand it is rather hard for the new comers to capture a large part of the market at first instance. However, new entrants may find it easy to penetrate if they concentrate on a niche market rather than mass market.
Just like many other commercial sectors, the biggest obstacle to come into this industry is the enormous expenses related to set-up and sustain the business in such a competitive market embraced by price wars. Nonetheless, it is important to argue that since FlexMation Enterprise is already an efficient, renowned, and moneymaking business, XYZ new store will not suffer from the typical problems like lack of efficiency, finance, and hostile competition like many other new entrants.
Rivalry among competitors:
Although there are many indirect competitors of XYZ new store, but, conversely the number of direct competitors are few. Nevertheless, the competitive rivalry is quite high in the market, since the indirect players who focus on niche market have strong market share and customer base from their own positions.
In this context, all the products of the new store of FlexMation will need to compete with many other small and medium sized enterprises like Applied Industrial Technologies Inc, Industrial Distribution Group Inc, and MSC Industrial Direct Co Inc as well as the giant players like ShapeMaster, Terra Universal, and Pentz Cast Solutions.
Bargaining power of buyer: Hollingbery (2007) pointed out that the bargaining power of the buyer is low because the market demand for the products including aluminum solutions, steel products, and ergonomic Workstations is high in global market.
On the other hand, this power is low due to availability of similar products the in the market, and numerous diversified product range offered by the customers. However, the new store of FlexMation will target both individual customers as well as small medium sized companies to market these products.
Bargaining Power of Suppliers: Hitt, Ireland
E-commerce and Competitiveness: Amazon.ca and Chapters.Indigo.ca Report custom essay help
Internet-based systems enable companies to simplify their information management process by removing complexity, which makes the organization more responsive and as a result, organization generates more profit through revenue and saving.
The process of doing business over the Internet or any other electronic medium is known as e-commerce. This paper analyzes two competing businesses that use their websites for electronic commerce. The two companies are Amazon and Chapters, with their websites being Amazon.ca and Chapters.Indigo.ca respectively; both serving Canadians people.
Both companies have been able to embrace e-commerce technology by offering their customers a wide range of products, including music, toys, electronics, software, books, and clothes. However, the differences between Amazon.ca and Capaters.Indigo.ca can be realized in terms of their functions, user friendliness, and ability to support the company’s business strategy. The criteria used in evaluating these websites are interactivity, integration, and e-market mechanism such as e-catalogue, search engine, and shopping cart.
Amazon.ca (2010) provides Canadian customers with many options of selecting products. The site organizes its products in form of books, music, movies
Definition of Animal Rights and Its Problems Essay online essay help: online essay help
Since the research works held every year in the field of biology and biodiversity show that the decline in the number of rare species is constantly growing, and that animals rights are being violated by a number of physical persons and legal entities, the obvious conclusion that can be drawn is that there must be something done about the situation. In spite of the fact that animals right have been talked much about, there is still very little done to protect the wildlife from the people and their inventions that pose a terrible threat to the state of the wildlife.
Humanists have come up with the idea of animal rights rather recently, and the progress that the idea has brought, rapidly growing popular with the people all over the world, is truly indescribable.
People have grown concerned with the issues that they have never thought of, and the humanism that the theory of animals having their own right is shot through is a clear evidence of the fact that the mankind has achieved another level of development. The notion of mankind and humanity are bound to be intertwined someday, and this is quite cheerful news.
In spite of the fact that the progress cannot but bring joy and relief, there are certain questions rising as the new ideas start developing.
However, not all people think that animals are supposed to have any rights at all. For example, Cohen (2008) assumes that according to their natural state, animals cannot have any rights, in contrast to people. He explains it by the fact that animals are no human beings, while rights are the attribute of people only, according to the law and logics.
Human beings are self-legislative, morally autonomous. Animals (that is, nonhuman animals, the ordinary sense of that word) lack this capacity for free moral judgment. They are not beings of a kind capable of exercising or responding to moral claims. Animals therefore have no rights, and they can have none. (p. 709)
This is the core of the argument about the alleged rights of animals. Indeed, the existing laws do not presume that animals should have the same rights as people do. From this point of view, it must be ridiculous to think that animals can understand the notion of rights, and accept that they have certain rights.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since humans are the only beings that can be taken as sane and articulate, only humans can have rights and freedoms. Meanwhile, the wildlife does not have the privilege of rights. It is not that animals are thought to be of less importance than the progressive mankind or the other elements of the Earth, but the whole idea is that wildlife cannot fit the idea of rights. It is high above the moral concepts – the latter are not applicable to the nature as it is at all.
Cohen (2008) explains that his idea is not that, because of people’s superiority, a man can do to animals whatever he or she wants to – on the other hand, he tends to think that people should take care of animals, since the latter are more vulnerable. Yet Cohen insists that animals cannot possess rights owing to their belonging to the sphere where no morals or laws can exist.
Rights entail obligations, but many of the things one ought to do are in no way tied to another’s entitlement. Rights and obligations are not reciprocals of one another, and it is a serious mistake to suppose that they are. (p. 708)
In other words, nature is the environment different from the human civilization, and animals cannot possess rights in the meaning that people are used to out to this concept. Freedoms, as well as obligations, are the substance that does not fit into the frame of the wild life.
With all the regard to the abovementioned point of view, it is necessary to mark that it embraces the concept of rights only from the legal point of view. This is only the constitution and the Declaration of Rights and Freedoms that such judgment is based on. In other words, since the nature itself id the notion that stands out of the structure of the human world, the rights of animals are supposed to touch the sphere that does not have the direct correspondence to the acting laws and justice.
As Regan puts it, the treatment of animals in the modern society is not to be improved, it is to be changed completely, for its ideas are interconnected – once something has been changed, the whole system is brought down.
Regan (2008) shows a complete revision of the concept of animals rights as the possible way out of the conflict situation: “What’s wrong — fundamentally wrong — with the way animals are treated isn’t the details that vary from case to case. It’s the whole system.” (p. 696)
We will write a custom Essay on Definition of Animal Rights and Its Problems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This wrongness is the fact that drives people to the abuse of animal rights.
However much one might know about the right treatment of animals, it will be impossible to solve the misconception of the animals rights with help of the standards that we are used to apply to people.
There must be something deeply wrong about the way people perceive the idea of respecting animals and their rights. The basic question is whether it is possible to respect the rights of chicken having it for a dinner. This is what vegetarians are conducting debates about.
The perfect explanation that Regan (2008) provides for the drawbacks of the existing system of animal rights is the following:
As for animals, since they cannot understand contracts, they obviously cannot sign; and since they cannot sign, they have no rights. Like children, however, some animals are the objects of the sentimental interest of others. (p. 699)
This is as far as the law system goes with providing animals with their right to live and to enjoy their life, the right not to be treated brutally and killed. The law makes their rights equal to naught, since they can be posed neither like physical persons, nor like a legal entity, of course. Like lawyers say, “dura lex sed lex suus” – “the law is hard, but it is the law.”
Still it is obvious that animals must not be mistreated. However different they might be from people, it is the principle of humanity that must guide people in their relation towards the living creatures.
It goes without saying that people can make use of the plenty that the Earth provides us with. Since people cannot handle without eating meat, the question of vegetarianism remains open, and the “meat-eaters” can stay with their consciousness unstained. But as far as it goes about mistreating the living beings, making them suffer just because a man is a superior creature to those who are in pain because of people, such things have to stop.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Definition of Animal Rights and Its Problems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cruelties that people can do make one’s hair rise in terror. As Regan (2008) said, animals suffer greatly because of people and their actions, which are wilder than the nature itself, completely deprived of logic of the wild world where killing is for food, not for pleasure.
But what is wrong isn’t the pain, isn’t the suffering, isn’t the deprivation. These compound what’s wrong. Sometimes – often – they make it much, much worse. (p. 697)
As a matter of fact, they do. These compounds shape into such terrible results that one cannot help thinking of whether a man is any difference from a beast. In fact, even animals do not treat each other with the cruelty of a man.
Regarding the situation, one must say that it has to be dealt with. People have to acknowledge that animals are living beings just like people are, and their rights are not a vague notion but the basis for the humanity of people all over the world. Animals have to get the rights that they have been deprived of for so long, and the aim of giving them those rights must be the prior goal of humanists and animal protection organizations.
Reference Cohen, C. (2008). The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research.
The Norton Reader: An Anthology of Nonfiction. 12th Ed. New York, NY: W.W. Norton
People Resourcing Essay essay help online free
The most valuable asset that any organization can be in possession of is the human resource of the organization. According to Jackson and Schuler (1990, p1), “human resource is a part of a strategic business planning.” There is therefore a necessity that there should be an organized procedure in obtaining and maintaining these valuable resources.
The role of a Human Resource Manager whether in a profit making or a non-profit-making organization is to ensure that the acceptable chord of conduct is executed during the selection of the employees and that the working conditions are conducive to encourage the employees. The morale of an employee is also boosted if during their selection, there was transparency. An employee bribed his way into a job will always be haunted for as long as he serves the company.
To facilitate this, there should be a strong relationship and co-ordination between the Human Resource management and the recruiting authority. The expanse of the personnel’s responsibility will depend on the kind of business an organization is carrying out (Johns
Human resource management – Starbucks Report essay help free
Introduction Starbucks prides itself as the largest coffeehouse in the world. As a matter of fact, the company has more than 17800 stores. In this case, it has operations in more than 49 countries (Starbucks 18). Most of the company’s stores are located in the United States of America. The company offers a wide range of coffee products. These include; deep brewed coffee, cold and hot drinks, salads and other drinks.
The company has an entertainment division that markets music, books and films. In this case, most of the company’s products are meant to suit a particular market depending on the prevailing season at that particular time. In addition, these products are developed according to the needs of that locality. As a matter of fact, it offers branded ice cream and coffee (Starbucks 38). The company has been expanding rapidly since it was formed.
A lot of expansion was witnessed in the 1990s where the company opened a new store in every single working day. After opening its first store in Canada (outside USA), it has continued to open other stores in different countries. As a matter of fact, its overseas stores constitute a third of the company’s operational activities. It should be known that the company had planed to open 900 new stores in 2009 (Starbucks 21). These stores were to be located outside USA in a bid to consolidate its market and operations.
On the other hand, the company had announced that it will be closing more than 900 stores in USA. Therefore, it should be known that the company has been subject to a number of protests (Starbucks 27). This has been in relation to issues that revolve around anti-competitive practices, labor relations, fair trade policies and environmental impact.
This paper will try to look at the successful execution of human resource management practices and processes at Starbucks. In this case, the paper will try to evaluate how these processes have enabled the company to achieve its goals. This is because human resource plays and important role in ensuring that a company achieves its goals and objectives.
Starbucks has been having a good human resource strategy to enhance its operations. As a matter of fact, the company has a recruitment department that ensures that it attracts the best talent in the market. Starbuck has a coffee master course that is supposed to be taken by all employees. All employees who have undergone this course wear black aprons. The company has also come up with a good mentoring program to ensure that senior and more experienced employees are able to mentor their juniors.
Recruitment revolves around attracting, screening and finally selecting the best individuals for a specific job in an organization. This process can be done by the firms’ professional recruiters or it can still be outsourced to other recruitment organizations (Legge 12). As a matter of fact, there are many stages that are involved in the recruitment process. Every firm or organization has its own ways of recruiting people or individuals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Starbucks has continually recruited people to join its operations. Because the company has operations in more than 39 countries, it has been forced to ensure that it attracts the best talent to enhance its operations. In this case, the company manages a full cycle recruitment process. This means that candidates end up having a positive experience in the recruitment and selection process. As a matter of fact, the company has a recruitment department that ensures that it attracts the best talent in the market (Starbucks 17). The company has come up with an open recruitment process to avoid any complaints from different and diverse candidates.
Recruitment is a good topic that is supposed to be effectively addressed by all organizations (Ulrich 9). Therefore, there are many benefits that an organization can get by ensuring that it has an effective recruitment and selection process. When an organization effectively addresses this issue, it will save on time and ensure that its operations are not interrupted.
This process is very important because it speaks a lot about the organization and its activities. In this case, it will be a true reflection of the company’s professionalism and validity (Legge 14). This therefore explains why Starbuck has continually enhanced its recruitment process to build on its existing professionalism. A good recruitment process enables the company to hire the right people. These people are supposed to have the necessary skills and talent to undertake their duties and responsibilities.
Starbuck has settled on an internal recruitment process because it saves on costs. In this case, it has been able to save on time and thereby enhance its operations as time goes by. There are various problems that can arise from a recruitment and selection process (Legge 6). In this case, various candidates that were supposed to be recruited can experience issues and delays as far as the recruitment process is concerned.
In extreme cases, organizations might have problems in ensuring that their recruitment process is well organized. This means that they will be having a long recruitment process. In this case, an organization might end up with the wrong person for a given job (Ulrich 14). This means that all organizations should have a fairly efficient recruitment process. It should be known that delays can lead to various technical problems that can end up affecting the whole recruitment process.
Because the recruitment and selection process is an important aspect that relates to the general well being of the organization, managers are supposed to ensure that it is well addressed for sustainability.
Starbuck has put in place the right mechanisms to enhance its recruitment process by welcoming suggestions on how it can improve its recruitment activities and processes (Starbucks 15). Managers should ensure that the organizations recruitment process is open enough to attract the best talent. This will encourage various professionals to participate in the recruitment and selection process.
We will write a custom Report on Human resource management – Starbucks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Training
Training is the acquisition of knowledge, competencies and skills that relate to a specific job or responsibility. It is an essential activity for organizations because it provides them with enough skills and knowledge. This ensures that an individual has the right skills to undertake a specific job or responsibility. Training provides the necessary and specific useful competencies that employees need to undertake their tasks (Legge 34). In this case, it provides the backbone of the content that is needed for sustainability.
Current business trends require people to continually undergo training beyond their initial qualifications. This enables them to maintain, upgrade and update their skills as time goes by (Ulrich 11). As a matter of fact, training can also be referred to as professional development. This is because it improves employee performance after they have acquired the necessary skills.
Starbuck has a coffee master course that is supposed to be taken by all employees. All employees who have undergone this course wear black aprons. As a matter of act, this training educates them on coffee growing regions, coffee tasting, purchasing and roasting (Starbucks 25). The company therefore has its own training policies that are supposed to be strictly adhered to by all employees in the organization.
To accommodate fast growth, the company trains baristas and store managers on the best practices. This has enabled the company to build its image and thereby enhance its operations as time goes by (Starbucks 18). Training is a very important aspect that relates to human resource development. This is because it enhances and improves employee commitment in the organization.
Training keeps employees motivated to continue working for the organization. The business world is continually changing and organizations need to train employees throughout their career. This will enable them to stay ahead of competition as they will be motivated to face various challenges. New skills and knowledge can help employees to reduce boredom (Legge 24). As a matter of fact, it increases their confidence in the organization.
An organization should continually invest in training programs for sustainability. This increases the morale of employees because they will feel that they are very valuable for the organization to invest in them. In a broad perspective, training can be used to create positive attitudes (Ulrich 13). This is done through the clarification of attitudes and behaviors that are expected in the organization.
The most outstanding benefit of training is that it is very cost effective. This is because it is cheaper to train existing employees in relation to specific industry requirements than to hire new ones (Legge 45). Hiring new employees is very costly as they have to be integrated into the organization for sustainability. There are various problems that can arise from employee training. For instance, it is difficult to handle diverse and distinct employee attitude problems.
Some organizations might lack the necessary communication skills that are needed for effective training. Starbuck has come up with performance improvement discussions to enhance its training activities as time goes by. Productivity can be affected if various attitude problems are not dealt with as expected (Ulrich 23). There might be cases where supervisors do not have the necessary skills to carry out training activities in their respective portfolios and departments.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human resource management – Starbucks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To enhance training programs, managers need to come up with the best and acceptable practices that will make the organization more competitive in the market place. In this case, they should be able to understand the most common causes of attitude problems in the organization (Legge 41). To address this topic effectively, they should enhance team work in the organization and encourage cooperation among employees.
This will enable them to come up with better ways of enhancing their work. As a matter of fact, a manager should undergo management training programs to remain competitive. This will increase confidence and the comfort level that mangers need to deal with various problems.
Mentoring is an important personal development and empowerment tool that all organizations are supposed to have for their own sustainability. This is because it encourages and supports people/ individuals and employees to maximize their potential (Legge 14). This is normally done to develop their skills and enhance their individual performance. Effective mentoring can enable employees to become what they want to be as far as their duties and responsibilities are concerned.
As a matter of fact, mentoring can help employees to progress with their careers. In this case, it is a partnership between two people who might be working in the same field (Ulrich 13). In a broad perspective, these employees might be sharing the same experiences. Mentoring should help employees to boost their confidence and morale to continue working for the organization.
Starbuck has come up with a good mentoring program to ensure that senior and more experienced employees are able to mentor their juniors (Starbucks 24). In this case, mentors rely upon their past experiences to gain a good empathy and understanding on different issues. This is because employees are supposed to be encouraged to undergo different trying moments in the course of undertaking their duties and responsibilities.
This has allowed the company’s employees to explore new ideas with confidence. In the process, they have become creative in coming up with better ways of enhancing the company’s operations (Starbucks 15). Through mentoring, employees have been able to identify new opportunities that the company can explore to its own advantage.
There are many benefits that come out of mentoring programs in an organization. Mentoring programs enable employees to do the right thing thereby encouraging them to perform their duties more effectively. In this case, it speeds up the process of redeploying employees to new places within the organization (Legge 19). Mentoring has also been known to enhance employee satisfaction. This is because employees who participate in mentoring programs end up with a high job satisfaction.
Another benefit of addressing employee satisfaction can be seen in employee productivity. This is because they will have a good mechanism of getting the right answers at the right time. As a matter of fact, employees can be able to rediscover and reinvent good solutions to different problems (Armstrong 27). Mentoring programs enhance career growth and succession planning. In this case, an organization can be able to grow its employees into senior positions without hiring new ones at high costs.
Mentoring gives employees synergy while reducing the levels of frustration. This is because employees who do not know how to go about their jobs and can end up being frustrated. Frustrations affect employee turnover by bringing about morale problems (Armstrong 21). This topic is very important because it is directly linked to the quality of work. There are various problems that can arise from a mentoring program.
Organizations might find it difficult to establish a good mentoring relationship between employees. This can be as a result of different rules and regulations that guide a given organization. Conflicts at work can hinder the accomplishment of a mentoring program (Armstrong 18). It might also be difficult to establish a mentoring agenda that will suit an organizations needs.
To establish an effective mentoring program, managers need to come up with a good curriculum for mentor development in the organization. This will enable them to deal with various issues and challenges that might arise as far as mentoring is concerned (Pfeffer 16). Managers should know the value of mentoring programs in their organizations as time goes by for sustainability. This will enable them to remain competitive in the ever changing business world.
Workplace violence is the violence that is witnessed in different firms and organizations. As a matter of fact, it originates from various employees and employers. It should be known that workplace violence can end up threatening employees as far as their work is concerned (Pfeffer 16). This can end up affecting employee morale and productivity in the organization. In extreme cases, employees can suffer or end up being exposed to violent scenarios.
It has been known that an unpleasant work environment can increase the probability of work place violence in an organization. Employees can be stressed up as time goes by because of a poor working environment (Armstrong 27). Starbuck has been enhancing employee relationships to reduce incidences of work place violence (Starbucks 16). In this case, they are always reminded that their security is the organizations priority.
Communication and training has been occasionally done to ensure that employees are comfortable as far as their jobs are concerned. As a mater of fact, the staff at Starbuck undertakes periodic work place violence awareness programs (Starbucks 9). This enables them to be informed of the current work place violence issues. In this case, employees should be aware of all issues that relate to work place violence.
Training employees on workplace violence can save lives. This is because some of these activities can end up being fatal if they are not properly dealt with. Employees can also benefit by coming up with a good conflict management system that will end up enhancing an organizations activities (Pfeffer 20). As a matter of fact, employees will be in a better position to understand each other well. This enables an organization to create a good working environment for its employees.
There are various problems that can come out as a result of work place violence. In this case, it might be difficult to understand different employee attitudes (Armstrong 17). This is because work place violence is brought about by employee misunderstanding in the course of carrying out their duties and responsibilities.
Current managers are supposed to address this problem because it affects employee productivity and morale. In this case, they are supposed to come up with good training programs to educate employees on work related issues. This should be done by educating them to treat each other with respect. In the long run, they will have a good working relationship that will increase their own productivity.
Employers are supposed to use disciplinary procedures at work to tell employees that their behavior or code of conduct is not in line with the organizations expected ethics (Armstrong 23). As a matter of act, disciplinary procedures can be used to encourage improvements in productivity. It should be known that a disciplinary procedure can be used to tell an employee that something is certainly wrong as far as his duties and responsibilities are concerned.
Starbucks has different supplier social responsibility standards that it expects from its employees. In this case, suppliers are supposed to implement and come up with reasonable procedures of disciplining various employees. As a matter of fact, Starbucks uses monetary fines for its disciplinary practices (Starbucks 11). This is done to ensure employees are able to comply with the company’s expectations as far as their work is concerned.
The company encourages its employees to continue being disciplined. This has ensured that they perform their duties within the company’s expected code of conduct. Discipline procedures at work enable organizations to set good standards of conduct at the work place (Pfeffer 18). In a broad perspective, they ensure that an organization has fair and consistent mechanisms of treating employees.
Employers will be able to deal with various problems that relate to their employees code of conduct in the organization. As a matter of fact, an organization will be able to deal with various problems that relate to employee productivity (Legge 16). There might be problems in dealing with a given organizations disciplinary procedures. This might be seen in documenting good procedures to deal with disciplinary problems.
Overlapping grievances can also come up as a problem in executing disciplinary procedures. Problems can also arise from contractual policies that a given organization might be having as far as employment issues are concerned (Armstrong 27). This is because every organization has its own way of undertaking employment issues.
Managers should effectively understand disciplinary procedures because they have an impact on employee productivity and morale. Good disciplinary procedures will enable them to deal with distinct and emerging employee related issues.
Conclusion I think that the company has a good approach to human resource management. This is because it has not had any human resource problems in its operations. As a matter of fact, the company has a very high rate of employee productivity. In this case, I will continually support the company as it enhances its operations in the ever changing and competitive market.
Starbuck has continued to have good human resource practices for its own sustainability. In this case, it has always reviewed its human resource practices in relation to existing industry standards and expectations. This is because it has operations in more than 49 countries.
As a matter of fact, the company has a recruitment department that ensures that it attracts the best talent in the market. The company has come up with an open recruitment process to avoid any complaints from different and diverse candidates. The process of recruitment and selection is very important because it speaks a lot about the organization and its activities.
In this case, it will be a true reflection of the company’s professionalism and validity. This therefore explains why Starbuck has continually enhanced its recruitment process to build on its existing professionalism. A good recruitment process enables the company to hire the right people. These people are supposed to have the necessary skills and talent to undertake their duties and responsibilities.
Works Cited Armstrong, Michael. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. London: Kogan Page, 2006. Print.
Legge, Karen. Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Print.
Pfeffer, Jeffrey. Competitive advantage through people. Harvard: Harvard Business School Press, 1994. Print.
Starbucks. Our Company. 2010. Web. https://www.starbucks.com/about-us/company-information
Ulrich, Dave. Human Resource Champions: The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press, 1996. Print.
Public Awareness of Climate Changes and Carbon Footprints Annotated Bibliography cheap essay help: cheap essay help
This research explores the subject of public awareness of the issues of climate changes. In particular, the research focuses on the issues of the impact that global warming and big concentration of carbon have on human health and what possible decisions of these problems are. The research also considers questions of the importance of media and public interaction to address global climate change.
This research can argue that “lexical creativity and lexical framing” (Nerlich and Koteyko 206) can influence greatly on the propagation of terms related to environmental issues and explanation of them. For example, it can promote public interaction and “conduct public discourses on global climate change” (Inglis 500) and raise peoples’ interests to such issues as the influence of a greenhouse effect and carbon in the air on human health.
This study aims at drawing attention to the importance of media in evolving questions of global warming and its consequences (greenhouse effect). A sustainable work should be led to “put the issue of carbon mitigation into the public spotlight” (Nerlich and Koteyko 208).
Certain steps had already been done in this direction as “most scientists now accept that climate change is a reality” (Brook 253). However, this questions still deserves great attention because according to the work by Gautier, Deutsch and Rebich, a majority of people, students in particular, have some “misconceptions about climate” (387).
Consequently, there is a “knowledge gap” as, “public health officials are aware of the growing human risk associated with climate change” (Akerlof et. al. 2561). Thus, media should pay bigger attention to inform and explain issues related to global climate change. One more important solution to the problem of peoples’ awareness of the global issues and comprehensive social changes is a “public interaction” (Inglis 501).
Having analyzed the works mentioned above, we can come up to a conclusion that: one of the reasons of global warming is a big concentration of carbon in the air. As a result, we can observe a greenhouse effect that has a negative influence on peoples’ health. A major task of media and scientists is to join their forces and promote people’s awareness of these issues through different sources of information and public interaction. It can elevate peoples’ consciousness and encourage finding common solutions to the problems.
Some steps have been taken to solve the problem. First, many the subjects concerning global climate change have been introduced to the curriculum of many educational establishments to raise students’ awareness of the climate change.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, the Kyoto Protocol that aims at preventing climate changes was signed. Third, the production of newsletters concerning a greenhouse effect sent to e-mails was developed. Finally, media was involved in the process of fighting against global warming while producing specialized articles and educational TV programs.
Our research reveals the problem of public awareness of the influence of global climate change and its effect on human health. Thus, further work in this direction presupposes creating specialized classes and student conferences that would promote peoples’ interaction discussing problems of climate change. The production of more articles in scientific and non-scientific journals that would explain the issues in an appropriate language can also bring positive results and attract peoples’ attention to the problem.
Works Cited Akerlof, Karen et. al. “Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 7 (2010): 2559-2606. Web.
Brook, Ryan K. “Ignoring the Elephant in the Room: The Carbon Footprint of Climate Change Research.” InfoNorth. 62. 1 (2009): 253–255.
Gautier, Catherine, Katie Deutsch and Stacy Rebich. “Misconceptions About the Greenhouse Effect.” Journal of Geoscience Education. 54. 3 (2006): 386.
Inglis, Jan. “Evolving to Address Global Climate Change and the Scale of Public Interactions.” World Futures 64.5-7 (2008): 498-502. Web.
Nerlich, Brigitte and Koteyko, Nelya. “Carbon Reduction Activism in the UK: Lexical Creativity and Lexical Framing in the Context of Climate Change.” Environmental Communication. A Journal of Nature and Culture. 3: 2. (2009): 206 — 223.
We will write a custom Annotated Bibliography on Public Awareness of Climate Changes and Carbon Footprints specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Working Bibliography Akerlof, Karen et. al. “Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 7 (2010): 2559-2606. Web.
Akerlof and others discusses the problem of influence of the global environmental changes on peoples’ health. Several surveys were conducted in the United States, Malta and Canada order to define how people perceive the global climate changes. It was defined that concerns about the climate changes grow.
Moreover, people thing that the main reason of the majority of diseases related to heart, respiratory problems, cancer and infectious diseases is a global warming. During the research, it was discovered that global warming influences greatly on elderly people and children. People in America sure that environmental changes are more dangerous in developing countries. The authors offer to mount public health communication initiative and inform people about consequences of diseases related to climate change.
Brook, Ryan K. “Ignoring the Elephant in the Room: The Carbon Footprint of Climate Change Research.” InfoNorth. 62. 1 (2009): 253–255.
The author of the article attracts attention to the question that global climate changes are the results of the human activity. He present the results of a Global Pole that only 41 % of people believe that global warming is the result of human activity and carbon emission. The author provides the opinion that people are aware of a danger of carbon emission, but nobody still does anything and that data gathering can have significant positive impact and solve the problem.
Thus, Ryan Brook suggests making first steps to reduce the carbon omission. For this purpose, he offers calculating individual research footprints and do something about it. He assumes that only uniting their forces, people can do significant contribution to reducing the carbon emission. Finally, Brook provides the idea that scientists who preoccupied with the global climate changes should share their knowledge and data about carbon emission and how to reduce it providing leadership on issues of tourism and business actions.
Gautier, Catherine, Katie Deutsch and Stacy Rebich. “Misconceptions About the Greenhouse Effect.” Journal of Geoscience Education. 54. 3 (2006): 386.
Catherine Gautier, Katie Deutsch and Stacy Rebich in their article present the research directed on defining the misconceptions about climate changes among students. Students were suggested to pass several tests in order to define the level of understanding of such issues as global warming and greenhouse effect The study was conducted in mock summit class on global changes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Awareness of Climate Changes and Carbon Footprints by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Having analyzed the results, the scientists understood what methods should be used to overcome misconceptions. The study showed that the majority of misconceptions were maintained through the class and many students had built their own mental models about the greenhouse effect. The authors emphasize that as future citizens of the world, student should be well aware of greenhouse effect and lead a research work in order to prevent its destructive influence on environment.
The authors suggest a “potential role of students in decision making related to global climate change”. Moreover, the task of such students will be to prevent further misconceptions in environmental science. The authors also suggest basic information that students should know. This information is about the gases that constitute greenhouse effect, their qualities (how gas absorb and reemit radiation), etc.
Problems of the Individual’s Privacy in the Society Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The debate on the use of technology still rages unabated. On one hand, technology has paved the way to a change, a change that virtually all people have welcomed. With this technological progress, the world seems reduced in size and terms like ‘global village’ have sprouted as a result to describe how connected people are in contemporary times.
Things have become simplified; however, as the old adage asserts, ‘when the deal is too good, people ought to think twice.’ Although, technology is highly used for security purposes by almost all countries, it has in turn violated the initially prevailing individual privacy rights.
As online services continue to blossom, gadgets, which cannot distinguish a private, and/or personal from a public package have arisen in the name of improving the security sector. Since people have the right to privacy, the end thereof is not warranted by the means owing to the corresponding impact.
The government is not justified in using technology that may violate individual privacy in its security endeavors because, “People have the right to traverse the streets and parks of the DC without being under scrutiny of Chief Ramsey and the FBI” (Parenti, 2002, p. 432). Should the government break human rights the name of beefing up security?
Why Even though the government seeks to enhance the safety of its people through the establishment of the surveillance machines, which is a right move, it fails to consider how the move interferes with peoples’ right to privacy. As a result, it loses the justification in using the technology because with the establishment of surveillance gadgets strategically located all over, along streets, inside buildings, and vehicles, information concerning people is currently being gathered on a continuous basis.
Though peoples’ security is the intended outcome, there lacks a clear cut line between the kind of information, that ought to and the one that ought not to be collected. As Parenti (2002) exposits, “…when police watch a person with a high-powered intelligent camera…they are in effect conducting an unwarranted and unconstitutional search” (p. 432).
Since the camera collects information of all people regardless of rank, there is a high possibility of arousing disputes from prominent people based on the revelation of their private or personal information. For instance, if President Obama’s privacy were publicized, would the world be at peace? Chesterman (2010) comes in handy to answer this when he says, “If we surrender our liberty in the name of security, we shall have neither” (p. 2). Political reasons deprive the government of this justification as elaborated next.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following the massive and uncontrolled information gathering, the government may seek to satisfy its political desires by falsely following up the whereabouts of a person, who seems to pose a political challenge. This is no more than an abuse of the available technology, which cannot justify the government use of it. John Adams, a former American president offers the best illustration of this issue. Kaminer (2002) says that, “John Adams supported the Alien and sedition acts which… was used to imprison his political foes” (p. 436).
Moreover, the issue of the former President Bush to arrest all the immigrants at the dawn of September 11 terrorism implies a predisposed collection procedure in the sense that, majority of those detected as having participated in the bombing were not even connected to the attack.
It therefore stands out that government crime detection criteria are subject to biasness and may be employed in favor of some hidden political agenda like chasing away the immigrants or fighting against some political enemies, whose private information has been accessed and then used to weaken him/her politically.
While the fight against terrorism may be the fuel behind the use of technology by the government, the government is to a large extend unjustified owing to the inability of computer programs to perfectly identify the nature of the person being investigated, whether a student, a spy, or a terrorist.
Therefore, as an alternative, the government ought to modify the surveillance gadgets so that they can tell a terrorist from a group of innocent people. These programs, by investigating the peoples’ privacy go past FISA’s limitations and at the same time defying the peoples’ privacy rights.
As Posner (2006) observes “…the problem with FISA is that the surveillance it authorizes is unusable to discover who is a terrorist, as distinct from eaves dropping on known terrorist…” (p. 446). This is a clear implication that even after the privacy investigations by the government, a lot is required in order to avoid the evident inaccuracies which have left many suspected and detained, though absolutely innocent.
Conclusion Considering the aforementioned expositions, it suffices to declare the government unjustified in its endeavors to use technology as a way of boosting the security sector. Though it is a working criterion, the other side cannot be ignored. The method has gone against the rights of individual as far as their privacy is concerned.
We will write a custom Essay on Problems of the Individual’s Privacy in the Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, a balance ought to be struck between privacy and security because the two are equally basic; therefore, the government has no reason to major on security leaving the privacy section unattended bearing in mind that, privacy is a right and need only to be accessed under one’s consent. Since this is not the procedure applied by the government, it is therefore not justified to use the technology, which violates the privacy of its people in its bid to keep them safe.
Reference List Chesterman, S. (2010). A Little Less Privacy, a Bit More Security. The New York Times, pp. 2.
Kaminer, W. (2002). Trading Liberty for Illusions. Spring: Free Inquiry.
Parenti, C. (2002). DC’s Virtual Panopticon. The Nation, pp. 432.
Posner, R. (2006). Wire Trap: The New Republic. The New Republic: LLC, pp. 446.
Oroonoko by Aphra Behn Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Attitude to slavery and enslavers
Introduction Different authors try to communicate their views about race and class differences, relations between certain categories of people, and the historic and sociocultural context of these differences.
Aphra Behn is the author of Oroonoko who can be considered one of the first professional female writers due to her original style and applicability of plays to theatrical performances. Aphra Behn uses colonialism as a method to demonstrate her attitude to the class differences by means of contrasting an enslaved African prince and the nobility that inhabits Surinam colony.
The author tells about the events of her time suggesting the political situation in the country and the world where people did not as willingly apply for a job on another continent as they do today due to globalization.
It is necessary to compare and contrast the attitude of the author towards the slaves in Africa and in colonies with regard to Oroonoko who serves as a bridge in building up relations between two different cultures though he fails to succeed in applying traditions typical of his native tribe to the setting typical of English colonies of that time. I plan to focus on the author’s manner of describing the actions of Oroonoko and Englishmen to provide a clear evidence for the argument.
Attitude to slavery and enslavers The main concern of the author is to show her attitude to the position of slaves with regard to their origin and nobility contrasted to slaves that were sold to enslavers by their compatriots. Though Aphra Behn implements an original composition of the text to ensure that the readers believe that the text is drawn from the true story that took place in the life of inhabitants of a colony, she fails to convince me of the true historic usefulness of this story as it is full of personal ideas.
Behn claims about being a witness of the events though she applies her writing gift to describe vividly the setting where he characters were found in their homeland. Thus, an African prince who was enslaved is referred to as the ‘royal slave’ (Behn 2003) by his enslavers and by other slaves who were sold to slavery by Oroonoko. Honor and other virtues play a crucial role in the establishment of the author’s attitude to Oroonoko shaping readers attitude as well.
Personal experience of the author should be taken into account while reading the story and assessing the historic usefulness of it for evaluation of slavery and assessment of the European perception of slavery. In this respect, readers can genuinely understand the author’s attitude to slaves as they are depicted in their ‘state of innocence’ (Behn 2003, 11).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the same time, the author demonstrates her certainty in the necessity of enslaving people for political and economic reasons beneficial for the country (meaning England). Ambiguity in the author’s attitude makes this work of literature of special literary significance for readers because slavery was favored by one category of people and received negative acclaim from the other.
In other words, the author fails to show how she treats slaves and the principles of slavery including the ways people are enslaved and reasons for that. The same situation occurred in contemporary European society where people demonstrated different attitudes toward slavery as well as Aphra Behn in the novel about African slaves on the South American continent.
Another way of demonstrating the author’s attitude to differences between slavery as positive and as negative phenomenon in the contemporary society is the presentation of the romantic story where a beautiful Imoinda was opposed, in some way, to the narrator of the story. Though these two characters have some features in common as European women used their beauty to obtain a position in court and Imoinda ‘who trusting in the strength of her charms, believed she should appease the fury of a jealous king’ (Behn 2003, 30).
A contrast appears when Imoinda is enslaved and sent to Surinam where the author finds herself visiting the colony and admiring the slaves. The women that come from Europe are independent and can do whatever they want contrasted to women that live in African tribes and have to fulfill their responsibilities as a wife and a mother instead of being a representative of some company in a colony and write poems.
The more readers learn about the beauty of African women, the less they believe that the author could support the principles of slavery for any reason.
Though Aphra Behn has a sort of ambiguous attitude to slavery as it is depicted in her story, she also imposes some portion of uncertainty about the real attitude of Oroonoko to his people and representatives of other tribes while being in Africa and after being sent to Surinam colony.
He is referred to as the ‘royal slave’ but he fails to address the principles of nobility in European people who appear to be the colonizers. The moment when Oroonoko kills Imoinda, he is depicted as barbarian for the Europeans and as a man of nobility, honor, and traditions for other slaves. He did not treat slavery as something negative before due to the education he obtained. In this respect, the African prince fails to understand the situation he found himself in and the true perspectives of his further life within colony.
We will write a custom Essay on Oroonoko by Aphra Behn specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More So, he appealed for colonizers to leave him and Imoinda to Africa as she was pregnant and had nothing to do as to kill her and himself ‘first cutting her throat, and then severing her yet smiling face from that delicate body, pregnant as it was with the fruits of tenderest love’ (Behn 2003, 72) in accordance with the honor principles of their motherland.
Conclusion The author communicates her message of slavery and its ambiguous nature with the help of a complicated composition where she persuades the readers in the origins of the story and her being witness of the events introduced in the novel. Thus, the attitude of Aphra Behn changes in the process of describing the beauty of ingenious people of Africa and explaining the economic and political usefulness of the slavery for England and other European countries.
Moreover, it is possible to trace the differences between the attitude of the author towards the male and female slaves on the territory of African when they are sold to slavery by their compatriots and in colonies when they found themselves in the status of slaves. Though the romantics of the story is obvious, the characters die in the end in accordance with the principles of honor and nobility typical of slaves as well as colonizers.
Reference List Behn, Aphra. 2003. Oroonoko. New York: Penguin Classics.
Organizational Design and Culture Evaluation Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
This paper aims to discuss the changes in organizational structure of healthcare institutions. In particular, it is necessary to show how workplace hierarchy in these hospitals was restructured and how the administration modified means of coordinating and monitoring work of healthcare professionals.
Furthermore, we need to evaluate the efficiency of these changes and the improvements they brought. Overall, it is possible to argue that the majority of hospitals attempt to become less bureaucratic and turn themselves into adhocratic organizations. This means that they try to eliminate formal barriers between the top managers and their subordinates in effort to improve the quality of healthcare and remove time-consuming red tape (Mintzberg
Newspaper Response on Buddhism Essay (Article) custom essay help
Buddhism is one of the largest religions in the world. It is quite different from other world religions. For example, almost all religions have a God who is a sacred spirit. Buddhism has Buddha, who was a man reached nirvana. There are several “types” of Buddhism that are now considered different religions: Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. However, all these religions are based on one teaching and have common principles.
In the article by Tenzin Gyatso “Many Faiths, One Truth”, author discusses this question comparing the basic principles of Buddhism with basic principles of other religions. The author claims that there is not the best religion, all world religions teach people the same basic virtues but interpret them in different ways. Thus, it can be summarized that Buddhism is related to other religions of the world in spite of all its peculiarities, consequently, all “faiths” share “one truth” that is universal for all people.
The article by Tenzin Guatso is devoted to the exploration of different religions and comparing them to Buddhism and its basic principles. The author writes about situation in the Middle East and Europe. He says that there are still fights between representatives of different religions.
However, apart from these conflicts, there is also a tendency for globalization and tolerance, “peoples and religions become ever more entwined” (Gyatso). The author finds common things in Buddhist’s and Christian’s religious ideas, myths and rituals, thought, these religions were considered to be absolutely different. Finally, the author estimates that harmony is the “essential ingredient” of all religions and it is a guarantee of the welfare of all nations.
Giving a response on this article it should be mentioned that the author discusses one of the most urgent questions of the modern society concerning questions of religion.
According to Bailey and Fisher, “traditional cultures and religions naturally assumed their own points of view…Every culture saw itself as the center of the universe.” (2). However, the truth is that the world’s nations seek to uniting. And the same thing can be said about religion. Moreover, a proper analysis of different religions proves that the standpoints of all these religions are common.
For example, Buddha teaches to lead a pious life and live in piece with nature and people around. In addition, one of the core ideas of Buddhism is the theory of emptiness, which means that all things around are out of importance and the aim of everyone is to reach “nirvana”. The same assumption (but in different words) can be said about a core idea of Christianity: one should lead a right life in order to go to Heavens after the death.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gyasto supports this idea in his article when suggesting the example with “compassion”. He says that the theme of compassion can be found in Talmud and Bible. He also found “centrality of selfless compassion in Hinduism and Islam” (Gyasto). Thus, in his article, the author provides a very important idea that “Finding common ground among faiths can help us bridge needless divides at a time when unified action is more crucial than ever” (Gyasto).
The article “Many Faiths, One Truth” by Tenzin Gyasto is devotet to the exploration of the similarities of the Buddhism with other religions of the world. The author assumes that there are very many common things, for example, a theory of compassion. Thus, having analyzed this article, we can assume that harmony between different religions is possible and very important for the welfare of our world.
Works Cited Gyatso, Tenzin. “Many Faiths, One Truth”. The New York Times. (2010): n. pag. Web.
Fisher, Mary P. and Bailey Lee W. An Anthology of Living Religions, 2nd. Ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.
United Kingdom and the “Opt Out” from the European Monetary and Economic Union: Was this a Good Decision for British Business? Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction The United Kingdom opted out of the European Union Monetary and Economic Union (herein referred to as EMU) for several reasons, specifically what came to be referred to as the five economic tests. In retrospect, the “opt out” was not a good decision for the British business given the fact that businesses in this country effectively became outsiders to the Eurozone, and will be affected by policies made by this union just like any other foreign country.
Verdun (1999) provides a working conceptualisation of the term monetary union. This is the definition that will be adopted throughout this essay. According to this author, a monetary union can be viewed as an agreement between several nations to use a common currency amongst themselves (Verdun 1999: Stauffer n.d). The nations may go as far as establishing a single central bank and other centralised agencies that are tasked with the role of regulating the financial aspects of the nations.
The European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is such an example of a monetary union as defined by Verdun (1999). According to Adiong (2008), this union was to be implemented in three stages over a period of several years. Adiong (2008) refers to these steps as discrete but evolutionary, meaning that a step builds on its predecessor.
It is not all European Union nations that joined the EMU and this can be attributed to several reasons. There are those, specifically Greece and Sweden, that failed to meet some of the criteria put down to qualify member states to be part of the monetary union.
Others, like the United Kingdom, negotiated for what Willis (2010) refer to as opt outs. This means that these nations are exempted from the provisions and regulations of the monetary union, and they can join whenever they feel like, provided of course they meet all the necessary conditions.
This essay is going to look at the case of United Kingdom’s opt out from the European Monetary and Economic Union. The author is going to look at the reasons why this country opted out this union among other issues. The author will especially critically appraise whether the decision to opt out was the best or not for British businesses.
The European Economic and Monetary Union: Overview Before looking at the reasons why the United Kingdom opted out of the monetary union and analysis of the impacts of this decision to the British business, it is important to provide a brief overview of this union. According to Stauffer (n.d), the European Economic and Monetary Union’s idea can be traced back to the year 1979.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is the year that the European Council ratified the decision to adopt the European Monetary System [herein referred to as the EMS] (Stauffer n.d). This system was mostly concerned with the regulation of the union’s currency exchange rates.
However, the European monetary and economic union was not to be formed until the year 1992. This was the year that saw the signing of the famous Maastricht Treaty, the treaty that led to the founding of the European Union (Stauffer n.d). In this treaty, provisions, referred to as the convergence criteria (Adiong 2008), that were to be met by each of the European union member states before they could be allowed to join thee monetary and economic union.
The European economic and monetary union was to be set up in three steps, a process that was recommended by the findings of the Delors Report (Bojden 2010). This was the report of a commission that was structured by thee European council to look into stages that can be followed in forming and adopting a monetary union for the European Union member states. The figure below depicts these steps and the provisions of each of them:
Figure 1: The Three Stages to the Adoption Economic and Monetary Union
Source: European Central Bank 2010-11-27
The first stage of the adoption was initiated on July 1st, 1990, and it provided for the elimination of virtually all restrictions imposed on the movement of capital from one European Union state to the other (Cash and Jamieson 2004). The second stage of the adoption saw the structuring and adoption of the European Monetary Institute (herein referred to as EMI) and the European Central Bank [herein referred to as ECB] (European Central Bank 2010).
This second stage commenced in the year 1994. The third stage begun on January 1999 (European Central Bank 2010: Blackstone, Lauricella and Shah 2010). This stage is still continuing, and it aims at fixing a common exchange rate for all the members of the monetary union.
We will write a custom Essay on United Kingdom and the “Opt Out” from the European Monetary and Economic Union: Was this a Good Decision for British Business? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The United Kingdom has remained in stage two of the adoption of the monetary union. It has failed to move with the other members to the third and final stage of the EMU that would have seen the abolishment of the sterling pound and replacement of the same with the euro. This move has been informed by several factors, ranging from political, economical to social considerations.
The United Kingdom and the European Economic and Monetary Union: Why the Opt Out? Overview
The United Kingdom has been cynically referred to in many quarters as the master opt outs. This is given the fact that her majesty’s government has an affinity to negotiate for exemptions from major treaties, the provisions of which would have naturally affected the nation.
The latest in these escapades is the country’s total “opt out” from the provisions of the Justice and Home Affairs policy region (Willis 2010). Her Majesty’s negotiators were able to secure this preferential treatment during the negotiations that went into the Lisbon Treaty (Willis 2010: Blackstone et al 2010).
It was thus not entirely surprising when the United Kingdom negotiated for opt out from the European Economic and Monetary Union in the year 1992. The provisions of this opt out were that this country will be exempted from the participation in the third stage of the adoption.
Addressing the issue of the country’s participation in the third stage of adoption, the government was of the view that this will depend on several factors. This included the achievement of five economic tests as formulated by the then Labour Party Chancellor and later Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Gordon Brown (Bojden 2010). When the five tests are met, a referendum will be held, seeking the approval of the British citizenry before the joining of the union.
Why the Opt Out?
As earlier indicated, several obstacles stood in the way of the adoption of a single currency by the United Kingdom’s government. These included economic, political and social obstacles (Cash and Jamieson 2004).
One of the major economic reason informing the refusal to join the economic union is the fact that the economy of this country is “out of synch” (Willis 2010 p4) with the others in the European continent.
This is especially so considering the fact that the sterling pound, the United Kingdom’s currency, has performed relatively well as compared to other currencies in the region. It is also noted that the unemployment rate, economic growth rate ad other aspects of the United Kingdom’s economy are not at par with the rest of the region’s (Bojden 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on United Kingdom and the “Opt Out” from the European Monetary and Economic Union: Was this a Good Decision for British Business? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also important to note that, at the time the United Kingdom negotiators worked out the opt out provisions, the degree of trade interdependence that the United Kingdom had with the rest of the economies making up the European union was quiet low (Willis 2010). This is unlike in the case of today, where sixty percent of the United Kingdom’s foreign trade is made up of trade between this country and the European Union economies (Willis 2010).
Political and Social Barriers
It is important to note that, despite being an economically oriented treaty, a lot of political and social overtones are discernible in the European Economic and Monetary Union.
The European Monetary Economic and Monetary Union and the European Union in extension have been very unpopular with the British public. Successive opinion polls and surveys have consistently indicated that the United Kingdom citizens do not support the idea of the country embarking on the third stage of adoption.
This realisation might have informed the decisions of the negotiators credited with the EMU opt out. For example, in the year 2005, 57 percent of the public polled opposed the country’s adoption of the euro (Bojden 2010). This opposition has been consistent over the years, with 59 percent opposing in 2008 and 64 percent in 2009 (Blackstone et al 2010).
Majority of those opposing the adoption of the euro and the elimination of the sterling pound are of the view that their opinion is not only economically motivated, but also social to a large extent. They are of the view that if the country adopts the single currency policy, it will lose its identity in the process (Blackstone et al 2010). This is given the fact that majority of the citizens in this country have a strong attachment to the sterling pound, and have come to regard it as part of their national heritage.
These are some of the social considerations that have ensured that the United Kingdom remains an “opt out” as far as the European economic and monetary union are concerned. Politicians- eager to appease the populace and win votes necessary to keep them in power- have ensured that the country hangs onto the sterling pound, adhering to the provisions of the “opt out” clause.
This line of thought is significant given the fact that Gordon Brown, who was the chancellor who formulated the five economic tests, rose up the political ladder to become the country’s prime minister (Willis 2010). As the incumbent of this position, Gordon Brown has ensured that the country remains an “opt out” case, giving this phenomenon one of its most obvious political overtones.
These economic, political and social barriers are inexplicably interlinked with the five economic tests that Gordon Brown formulated. Following is an analysis of these tests:
The Five Economic Tests
The following are the five economic tests for the United Kingdom:
Convergence of business cycles
Improvement of foreign and domestic investment
Improvement of United Kingdom’s financial services
Positive effects on growth, stability and employment
A detailed analysis follows:
Convergence of Business Cycles
According to this test, business cycles in this country have to be compatible with those in other economies in the European Union region (Adiong 2008). Several indicators for this test were identified, and it is the achievement of these indicators that will determine whether the test itself is achieved or not. These include inflation and interest rates, output differences between the economies and currency exchange rates (Adiong 2008).
According to this test, the inflation rate had to be less than 1.5 percent of higher term (Adiong 2008). This is when compared to the mean of the three lowest inflation rates, according to this test (Adiong 2008). As far as the interest rate is concerned, it had to be less than or equal to two percent above the three lowest such rates that have been recorded (Adiong 2008). The deficit of the government’s financial estimates, according to this test, should not be above 3 percent of the gross domestic product (Adiong 2008). The debt of the government should also not exceed sixty percent of the gross domestic product (Adiong 2008).
Flexibility of the Economy
The second test provides that the economy of this country, before the adoption of the single currency, should be resilient enough to ensure that the local economy can absorb any fluctuations in the euro economy (Adiong 2008). For example, the labour market in the United Kingdom must be flexible enough to cushion the economy against adverse developments in the euro economy.
Foreign and Domestic Investment
If the United Kingdom was to take part in the single currency economy, the third test that must be met provides that there must be proof that this participation will improve investment (Adiong 2008). For example, there must be proof that in the long term, the number of local and foreign investors in the United Kingdom economy will increase, as well as the increase in the number of United Kingdom investors able to expand their wings to other economies outside the border of this country. This means that the exchange rates, the restrictions and such other provisions of the single currency must be friendly to investors.
According to this fourth test, the competitive advantage of the country’s financial services sector must be enhanced by the adoption of the single currency economy (Adiong 2008). This is especially so considering the fact that the United Kingdom’s financial services market is one of the most competitive ones in the world, and as such, the government will not adopt policies that threaten this position.
Growth and Stability
Gordon Brown and his advisors were of the view that the integration of the United Kingdom in the single currency economy must impact positively on the employment and growth rates of the country (Adiong 2008). This improvement can be gauged by the effects that the euro zone will have on this country’s foreign trade and economic stability.
A review carried out in the year 2007 found that only one of the tests has been met fully (Bojden 2010). This is the first one, the one on convergence of business cycles. This means that this country is not ready to adopt the single currency economy in the near future.
This state of affairs is not good at all to the business in the United Kingdom. This is given the fact that businesses in this country stands to lose a lot if they remain outside the euro zone, despite the public’s opposition of this kind of integration.
The Opt Out Bad for Business The businesses in this country are losing from the adoption of this decision by the country’s political class keen on appeasing the emotions of the public. For example, the businesses are losing as far as exchange rates are concerned. This country, as earlier stated in this paper, imports and exports a lot within the euro zone as compared to other economies in the world (Willis 2010).
This means that the business people in this country have to incur the extra costs of exchange rates, a cost that they could have avoided if the country was operating on the euro currency (Willis 2010).
The businesses in this country interact heavily with the euro economies. However, despite these interactions and interdependency, British business is treated as foreigners or outsiders in the euro zone (Blackstone et al 2010). This means that they are affected like any other outsider by the economic decisions that are ratified and adopted by the economies party to the monetary union.
There are arguments within the circles of those proposing the adoption of a single economy, arguments to the effect that should the EMU economy succeed, this will sound a death knell to the United Kingdom businesses’ competitive advantage (Bojden 2010). This is given the fact that competitive advantage brought about by the success of this monetary union translates into losing of business for economies outside the union, Britain included.
Conclusion There are those who argue that, by opting of the EMU treaty, the United Kingdom made the right decision which was the best for its businesses. They argue that, given the foreign nature of this country in relation to the EMU, United Kingdom businesses will not suffer negatively from instabilities within the union.
This is for example the fluctuations and weakening of the euro against major currencies such as the US dollar, fluctuations that may affect British businesses negatively. A lot of political friction, according to the views of these conservatives, is inevitable in the process of the United Kingdom’s adoption of the euro. This includes public outrage within the United Kingdom and political misunderstandings with other nations. All of this can be avoided by sticking to the “opt out” clause.
However, objective analysis of the situation reveals that the British business stands to gain more from the adoption of the euro economy. The public opposition to this is motivated by irrational fears of the unknown together with unrealistic and emotional attachments to the sterling pound.
References Adiong, N. 2008. United Kingdom’s challenges in the European Monetary and Economic Union (EMU). New York: Free Press.
Blackstone, B., Lauricella, T., and Shah, N. 2010. Global markets shudder: Doubts about U.S. economy and a debt crunch in Europe jolt hopes for a recovery. The Wall Street Journal, February 2010.
Bojden, K. 2010. The United Kingdom-does it belong in the EU? Wall Street Journal, March 2010.
Cash, B., and Jamieson, B. 2004. The strangulation of Britain
Keeping Employees Happy in a Post-Recession World Essay (Article) essay help online free
Table of Contents Suitability of the article
Author’s view point
Impact on management as a profession
Opinion on the contents of the article
Impact on future career
Suitability of the article This is an excellent article, since the author has clearly identified his target audience and tailored his message in line with their areas of expertise. While this article is addressed to managers, the message is relevant to different categories of persons in the society.
Proprietors of small-scale enterprises and other ventures may find this article beneficial in their daily undertakings. Employees perched at different hierarchical levels in the organization may also use it to their benefit. The paper is well written in clear-cut English with coherent ideas, making it easy to understand.
Author’s view point The author lays emphasis on the importance of retaining employees. He argues that this move provides continuity hence ensures efficiency in the firm. Managers are urged to embrace and deploy strategies that will ensure they retain most of the employees. He contends that managers should be flexible, taking up all possible options which create a favorable environment for their employees. Summarily, managers are challenged to leave their comfort zones and engage with their employees from a different perspective (Ryan).
Impact on management as a profession Employing principles proposed in this article will create responsive managers. The author quotes a survey, which revealed that a majority of employees are comfortable if the management cares about their affairs (Ryan). This will result in a low-employee turnover, hence relative security and stability. These constitute crucial aspects of company growth, which is necessary after the recent economic downturn.
The move is also beneficial, since companies will minimize the budgetary allocations reserved for the recruitment and selection process. Time spent on orientation and assimilation will also be minimized substantially. It should be noted that retaining the core of a company’s workforce implies familiarity among the workmates. This translates to a commendable team spirit and synergy, which is essential in realizing the established organizational goals.
According to the writer, ignoring these proposals may prove detrimental to the firm, with grave ramifications on the future of the said business venture. This is true, because unresponsive managers ignore the importance of feedback (Ryan).
This implies the existence of severed connections with their workforce, due to the difference in perception; hence methodology of achieving established goals. He also argues that rigid managers are content with the status quo. This may be damaging to company prospects in case managers utilize unsuitable management techniques. I concur with this argument, and the proposal that managers should take up coaching in order to improve on their areas of weakness (Ryan).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Opinion on the contents of the article Primarily, the article proposes changes in the way managerial responsibilities are discharged. Given his credentials and work experience, the author is better placed to offer advice on this topic. The timing for the release was also blameless, because most firms are recovering from the economic melt down. This was a period characterized by loss of jobs hence reduced spending power.
As a result, management strategies should be altered, due to the changed situation of employees. Most of them are mentally disturbed as a result of the unstable market. I agree with the concepts the author is advancing, since they strive to introduce humanity into management practices. This implies that managers will consider their subordinates before decisions are arrived at. Subsequently, realistic targets will be set for clients and administrators operating at a lower cadre than the policy makers.
Impact on future career This article has contributed immensely in changing my perspective towards management. Consequently, I have been inspired to adopt a dynamic approach when handling employees and other work related responsibilities. Most importantly, I appreciate the fact that constant evaluation is an integral ingredient in the advancement of organizational ambitions (Ryan). This should be done across the board, beginning with the management before employees are taken through the process.
The article has also enlightened me on the importance of appreciating the efforts displayed by employees. This way team spirit and collective responsibility will be encouraged in the process of realizing organizational goals.
Work Cited Ryan, John. Keeping Employees Happy in a Post-Recession World. Bloomberg Business week. 2010. Web.