Table of Contents Overview
Economic conditions in the US and International markets
Future Financial Trends
Overview Started as a single retail store in coffee business at Seattle, Washington in 1971, Starbucks Corporation now (as of July 1, 2012) has 17,615 coffee chain retail stores spread across 60 countries with a loyal customer base of several millions. The Company’s mission is ‘inspiring and nurturing ‘of humanity through serving coffee.
At the beginning, the non-descript store roasted and retailed in whole coffee bean and ground coffee along with tea and spices. Now the company’s retail outlets have become gathering places for families and friends for consuming the coffee beverage. In its objective of serving the best available coffee, the company sources its coffee purchases of the best quality from around the world in Latin America, Africa and Asia.
The company serves to its customers at the retail stores, coffee of consistent quality by direct sourcing from the coffee growers in the above said world coffee markets. Apart from serving its own beverage, Starbucks sells a wide range of consumer products in coffee, ‘coffee and tea’ brewing equipment along with other eatables.
Its brand portfolio consists of “Starbucks Coffee, Seattle’s Best Coffee, Tazo Tea, Evolution Fresh, La Boulange and Torrefazione Italia Coffee”. The company was incorporated in November 1985 and was listed on NASDAQ on June 26, 1992 at @ $ 17 per share which closed at $ 22.50 per share on the first day.
As a socially responsible company, Starbucks adopts ethical sourcing of high quality coffee direct from the farmers offering them support loans and forest conservation programs that have ensured long-term supply of coffee beans of consistent quality during the last 40 years of its existence. The company‘s policy of making its cups 100 % reusable or recyclable by 2015 reflects its environmental commitments.
Starbucks also has community involvement in the neighborhoods of the coffee growers it is sourcing coffee from and it has planned to devote one million volunteer hours every year from 2015 onwards as part of being a responsible neighbor .
The company has promoted its brand so well that the name “Starbucks” ranks next to the topmost ranking Coca Cola on the Facebook . Recently Starbucks announced launching of its retail chain in Sweden and Norway by 2013 through joint venture with the Norway based restaurant chain Umoe Restaurant Group.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Starbucks’ results for the quarter ended July 1, 2012 showed net revenues of $ 3,303.6 million and operating income of $ 331.3 million, Total Assets at $ 8,308.9 million and liabilities at $ 2,290.9 million .
Company’s sales mix, product wise, at the company owned stores for the fiscal years 2009, 2010 and 2011 is as follows.
Fiscal Year ended October 2, 2011 October 2,2010 October 2, 2009 Beverages 75 % 75 % 76 % Food 19% 19% 18% Whole bean and soluble coffee 4% 4% 3% Coffee making equipment and other merchandise 2% 2% 3% Total 100% 100% 100% Financial Trends for the past five years
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Sales (net revenues) in $ billion 9.4 10.4 9.8 10.7 11.7 Operating Income in Millions $ 1,054 843 894 1,419 1,728 Operating Margin 11.2 % 8.1 % 9.2 % 13.5 % 14.8% Earnings per Diluted Share $ 0.87 $ 0.71 $ 0.80 $ 1.24 $ 1.62 Operating cash flow from operations in millions $ 1,331 1,259 1,389 1,705 1,612 Capital Expenditure in $ millions 1,080 985 446 441 532 Year 2011 has recorded the highest annual sales turnover of $ 11.7 billion representing an increase of 11% from last year. The operating income of $ 1.7 billion represents an increase of 22 % from last year. ‘Earnings Per Share’ of $ 1.62 has increased by 31 % from last year. During the year 2011, company introduced a new brand “Starbucks Blonde Roast”.
The company has served more than 156,000 hours of community service touching about 60,000 people in about 1,400 community service projects. There was an acquisition of super premium “Evolution Fresh” in juice segment. During the year, the company returned approximately $ 945million through share buy-back which was more than double that of previous year. Starbucks’ share price increased by 43 % from last year.
The Company claims that results achieved in the 40th anniversary year have improved its operational foundation and increased customer satisfaction which is a pointer to the development of a robust organization in the future.
Competition Quick service restaurants and specialty coffee shops are the main competitors. Customers choose their product based on quality, service, convenience and price in which the company is continuing to face competition from quick-service restaurant sector and ready-to-drink coffee beverage market. Business is subject to seasonal fluctuations and hence quarterly results are not comparable.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Starbucks Corporation’s Finances specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Risk factors Most of the risk factors described below are beyond the control of the company. These factors have the potential to affect adversely on the company’s financial performance.
Some relevant factors are: Lower customer traffic due to the strategies of existing competitors and the ever increasing number of competitors that affect average value per transaction impacting on store sales, net revenues, operating income, operating margins, and earnings per share. Customers switch to lower priced products both within Starbuck and outside Starbucks.
Customers do not readily accept new products or price increases to offset higher cost of inputs. Adverse economic conditions prevailing lead to reduced customer spending. There is general decline in demand for specialty coffee products. Negative publicity and health risks from consuming coffee in general cannot be ignored.
Economic conditions in the US and International markets Retails derive support from discretionary spending by the consumers and hence company’s operations are susceptible to changes in macro-economic conditions prevailing in the US and other countries.
Job losses, foreclosures, bankruptcies, higher energy costs, higher interest rates, higher taxes do impact on the income of the consumer. This directly affects consumption of coffee which is just a beverage. Due to persisting adverse economic conditions, consumers are likely to develop changes in their discretionary spending practices on a permanent basis.
When recession hit the US and global economy in 2009, Starbucks had to close 900 of its stores resulting in the elimination of 34,000 jobs in an effort to earn more revenue with reduced cost of production. It started entering into strategic partnerships in foreign countries in order to reduce upfront investment and to share the risks with the strategic partners overseas.
Future Financial Trends In spite of recessionary trends, Starbucks has registered 11 % growth in revenues in 2011 as also operating income which increased by 22 %. The company’s resilience against the setback it had during the recent recession can be attributed to the brand loyalty which the company has built over the period of four decades.
Studies indicate that a retention of 5 % in customer base leads to an increase of 25 to 75 % in profit and cost of getting a new customer is five times more than the cost of retaining a customer.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Starbucks Corporation’s Finances by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Brand image of Starbucks has been positive which aids it to not only intensify its competition but also induce customers to make repurchases. Customer satisfaction is a factor in inducing customers to make repurchases that in turn leads to future growth in revenues and profits of an organization .
Undeclared results show a Total revenue as of September 29, 2012 as $ 13.3 billion as against $ 11.7 bn in 2011. Operating income for 2012 is $ 1997.4 million as against $ 1,728.5 million in 2011. These current trends as revealed by the analysts on Yahoo Finance demonstrate the positive trends in the growth of the company.
It can be safely predicted therefore that Starbuck’s brand image and customer satisfaction will continue to help the company post positive results in the years to come.
The company selected for investment is in the perishable consumer products industry and notwithstanding any adverse publicity of coffee’s health risks, sporadic reports on its health efficacy will continue to benefit the business in coffee which is an affordable soft drink for the consumer provided the company maintains its brand image and customer satisfaction.
References AnnualReport. (2011). Starbucks Corporation Fiscal 2011 Annual Report. Seattle: Starbucks.
Anonymous. (2012). Yahoo Finance. Starbucks Corporation (SBUX)– NasdaqGS. Web.
Anoymous. (2012). Starbucks Company Profile. Starbucks.com. Web.
Lee, K. (n.d.). Case Study : Starbucks Coffee. Itsmekathleen.com. Web.
Liston, E. (2012, September 27). Starbucks Corporation to Open its First High Street Stores in Scandinavia (SBUX). Web.
NehalHesham. (2012). My Starbuks Idea [Case Study]. Web.
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International Business Environment: The Benefits and Risks of Deeper Globalization for Guidia Report essay help: essay help
Table of Contents What is Globalization?
A Review of Guidia’s Socio-Economic Profile: A SWOT Analysis
Benefits of Deeper Globalization
Risks of Deeper Globalization
The recommendation by the IMF for Guidia to embrace deeper globalization aims at increasing the economic opportunities of the country. The IMF believes that Guidia will have an increased volume of trade, more foreign direct investment, and greater transfer of knowledge if it pursues deeper globalization.
The basis of this recommendation is the view held by development economists from the IMF based on the belief that globalization can improve the economic fortunes of any country. Research into this subject does not support a universal positive outcome for countries that embrace globalization.
This paper reviews the specific economic circumstances of Guidia in order to determine whether it will benefit or lose from deeper globalization.
What is Globalization? The term globalization normally refers to the sum total of several forces that are shaping the relationships of nations across the world. It includes political issues, social and economic relationships, and cultural interaction among the peoples of the world. There is no consensus on when globalization started.
Some scholars pin the origin of globalization to the departure of Columbus to the Americas, while others prefer to associate it with the colonial era during the industrial revolution. Others prefer to look at it as the technology driven changes of the latter half of the twentieth century.
For purposes of this report, globalization refers to the current forces shaping global relationships. The recommendation of the IMF to Guidia to pursue deeper globalization assumes this meaning.
In this sense, this report will investigate the actual circumstances of Guidia in relation to its political, social, cultural, and economic realities through a PESTLE analysis. While the IMF offered its recommendation to Guidia to improve the performance of the economy of the country, deeper globalization will precipitate several other changes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the political scene, globalization creates a greater desire for political space by the citizens of any country. Depending on the political system in use in the country, globalization can lead to either political instability or political maturity. If the government does not want to become more accountable to its citizens, then globalization can precipitate political instability.
Economically, deeper globalization can create opportunities for profit by meeting the demands of the international market. The IMF foresees this situation for Guidia.
Becoming a player in the international market will ensure that Guidia harnesses its competitive advantages as a country on order to enjoy the benefits of international trade. However, deeper globalization can also lead to deeper exposure of the country to shocks. Events in far off countries that trade with Guidia will have an effect on local economic conditions.
On the social front, globalization tends to increase the expectations of citizens from their governments when they see how people in other countries live. Globalization exposes citizens to new ideas and different viewpoints that at times contradict local customs.
For instance, many African and Asian countries are reluctant to accept same sex unions as an alternative to heterosexual unions. In the West, same sex unions find wider acceptance. Globalization means that the ideals of a country will experience challenges associated with the ideals of other countries.
Technologically, deeper globalization calls for the introduction of new technologies that support globalization. The most significant technological investment needed for deeper globalization is the internet.
It also means that the country will need the human resource to handle the technologies it adopts to support deeper globalization. Increasingly, a free press is becoming an important aspect of globalization. In a globalised economy, it is impossible to control news because people have a multiplicity of new sources.
We will write a custom Report on International Business Environment: The Benefits and Risks of Deeper Globalization for Guidia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Environmental issues are also an important part of the global economy. The main issue underlying global discussions on the environment is global warming and the fight to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
Industrializing countries such as India and China are opposed to emission reduction because they feel that it is unfair to ask them to control their emissions at this point in their development. They feel that no one asked the West to do the same thing when they were industrializing.
Finally, on the legal landscape, international law is becoming more important. The free movement of labor means that every country needs to subscribe to an internationally acceptable code to guide international trade and international relations.
The issue of jurisdiction in cyber crime is a very sensitive topic in online commerce. For instance, what happens when someone located in a foreign country hacks into local systems? Is there a way to prosecute them for cross boarder crimes?
The issues above underlie this analysis. They will form the bedrock for the analysis of the benefits and risks Guidia will experience by taking IMFs advice to pursue deeper globalization.
A Review of Guidia’s Socio-Economic Profile: A SWOT Analysis A SWOT analysis is the best tool for carrying out a socioeconomic analysis of the condition in Guidia. Guidia has a relatively high-income per capita standing at four thousand dollars. This means that with a population of sixty million, the country has a strong local market. The fact that sixty-five percent of the population is in urban areas means that it will be easy for the country to embrace deeper globalization.
Urban communities tend to have better exposure to international issues. A high urban population is a critical sign of the ability of a country to pursue deep globalization. The country also has raw materials, which it currently exports.
The presence of raw materials is an indication that the country can establish local industries through foreign direct investment (FDI) in order carry out value addition for products before export. Finally, the country’s trade in natural gas and the recent establishment of export processing zones are sources of learning for the country that can enable it to pursue deeper globalization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Business Environment: The Benefits and Risks of Deeper Globalization for Guidia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main weaknesses of the country include the potential problems associated with middle and low-income countries that have high population densities. The information provided does not substantiate the population growth rate or the demographic ratios. Therefore, the classification as a weakness comes from the perception that the country has a high population.
High population can hinder the growth of a country because of competition for resources. Secondly, the country will suffer because of little industrial development. The fact that the country exports natural resources shows that the industries in the country are underdeveloped.
The opportunity cost of being a net exporter of raw materials high. It is always better to sell value-added products. Thirdly, the country has limited experience in international trade. So far, the only exports the country makes are natural gas and products made in the newly created export-processing zone.
The two opportunities the country has in the context of deeper globalization the availability of affordable labor and the availability of raw materials. The population of the country is an asset. The citizens can provide labor for business process outsourcing. As a middle-income country, it can compete favorably for outsourcing contracts with companies from high-income economies.
Apart from this, its population is already high enough to provide a market for products from both local and international companies. Secondly, the presence of raw materials makes the country an ideal investment destination for international investors. The country can attract foreign direct investment from investors who can utilize the raw materials in the country to produce products for sale in the international markets.
The threats facing Guidia include the potential for exploitation by international investors, and lack of capacity to deal with the consequences of deeper globalization. Experienced international investors can bind the country in unreasonable contracts. Due to its lack of experience in international trade, Guidia can fall for one-sided contracts.
Elements of one-sided agreements include unreasonably long tax holidays, long land leases, and unfair profit repatriations. Secondly, the country is vulnerable to the disruptive effects of deeper globalization.
People in the country will demand changes in the political and social environment to match the experience of other countries. Such changes can cause political and social instability. If Guidia’s political leadership is not accountable, then deeper globalization may lead to political unrest in the country.
Benefits of Deeper Globalization Based on the SWOT analysis of the socioeconomic environment of Guidia, and the examination of its environment, the country can enjoy some benefits by pursuing deeper globalization.
First, the country can gain from deeper globalization by making use of its competitive advantages. The SWOT analysis revealed that the country has natural resources, and a high population.
In addition, its classification as a middle-income country suggests that labor costs are more competitive in Guidia than in high-income countries. These are potential sources of competitive advantage for the country as it determines the best policies to pursue in its globalization efforts.
According to Faulkner and Segan-Horn (2004) when a country concentrates on using its competitive advantages in international trade, it receives better returns. In turn, the country can access products from other countries, which are more expensive to produce locally.
In this sense, Guidia can enjoy better quality of goods and services by increasing its returns from international trade. It can then use those returns to access high quality goods and services bought at lower cost from competitive producers.
If Guidia chooses to pursue a globalization policy based on the Washington consensus promoted by the IMF, then it means that the country will need to focus on institutional changes as the primary means of economic development. Institution-driven changes usually mean that the country’s development programs will move from personality driven to issue driven policies.
As such, decision-making will move from a centralized model to a more institutional approach. Foreign investors usually feel more confident in institution-driven systems rather than personality driven systems. The benefit that Guidia will experience from such a shift is that it will have a more predictable environment. Therefore, no radical changes take place when new people ascend to the helm of the institutions.
The second model that Guidia can follow is pursing growth spurred by foreign aid. This model will involve finding countries and international lending organizations that can forward development aid to Guidia. The basis for this approach is an economy grows through various thresholds. Each of these levels corresponds to certain operating characteristics of the economy.
In order to grow from one level to another, the country needs a certain amount of capital injection in order to arrive at the next threshold. International aid is an example of the capital injection needed to spur the growth of an economy. An example of a region that benefited from international aid at some point in its history is Europe after the Second World War.
However, the structure of the aid is very important. Some countries in the developing world have found themselves in a perpetual poverty cycle caused by aid. When international debt equals or exceeds GDP, the debt becomes unsustainable. Apart from the debt cycle, international aid may come with conditions. These conditions may not reflect the priorities of Guidia.
For instance, the IMF and the World Bank promote democratic ideals and free market policies in their aid programs. If Guidia does not believe in these ideals, then it must take care as it accepts the conditions imposed on it. Change is very disruptive. Guidia must take such aid with caution if it decides to use this model to pursue globalization.
Risks of Deeper Globalization The global financial crisis of 2009 illustrates the interdependence between global economies. The crisis arose from events in the financial markets and the real estate sector in America. Property prices plunged as many people saw their investment in real estate disappear. Financial institutions suffered most because most of their assets were in the real estate sector.
When more and more people defaulted on their mortgage payments, financial institutions could not remain afloat. These events affected the entire global economy. The countries that had the most globalised systems suffered most from the global crises. This illustrates the exposure Guidia will have if it pursues deeper globalization. Globalized economies are at a high risk of exposure to events taking place in other countries.
Another risk that Guidia will need to address if it takes on deeper globalization is that it will have to deal with the disruptive impacts of globalization. As a country, Guidia has a set of national values, culture, and a generally unified worldview. These elements of the Guidia society will come under scrutiny from outsiders, and its citizens will ask questions.
The Arab Spring is a good illustration of the disruptive nature of globalization. The citizens of the countries that faced the wave of popular dissent found their voice based on information gleaned online. The actual coordination of the protest meetings took place via social media platforms. The demonstrations received support from people across the entire world.
In response to these disruptions, some countries developed controls over the internet to reduce the risk of popular revolt coordinated through the internet. China, for instance does not allow unhindered access to the open web by its citizens. Some commentators refer to the Chinese control over the internet as the great firewall. This is means of controlling the disruptive effects of globalization.
There is debate whether such efforts will remain in place over the long term. The point here is that deeper globalization will have an impact on Guidia. These impacts will be more severe if the country does not embrace democracy, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press. As soon as the citizens of the country learn about the extent of freedom citizens in other parts of the world enjoy, they will revolt.
The success of deeper globalization in Guidia also depends on the financial system of the country. Deeper globalization will force Guidia to conform to international norms of trade. Part of these norms includes market driven currency exchange rates. This means that the strength of the national currency of Guidia will depend on the demand and supply of the currency.
In addition, Guidia will have to develop a tariff system that is in conformity with rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Failure to conform to these rules will lead to the isolation of Guidia from international markets. In addition to these issues, Guidia will stand a better chance of benefiting from international trade if its financial policies conform to the national culture and business practices.
While the World Bank and the IMF previously argued in favor of free market economies, the experiences of many countries show that it is better to develop a national policy in line with the governance systems rather than adopt foreign systems. The Asian financial crisis affected countries with liberal financial policies proposed by the Washington Consensus.
However, China, which still controls many aspects of its economy, did not suffer a lot from the crisis. The lesson here is that opening the markets to the forces of globalization without appropriate checks and balances can result in economic problems for the country.
Conclusion Guidia can benefit from deeper globalization based on the following conditions. First, Guidia must develop policies that affirm its aspirations and its economic objectives, and not the will of external parties. Secondly, the country will benefit from deeper globalization if it can align its political system to conform to the international norms of governance.
This means that the country will benefit more from globalization of it upholds open and accountable governance. Thirdly, there will be a greater reward for the country from globalization if the country uses a capitalist model in its economic planning. The model must take into account the country’s culture and traditions, and the expectations from players in the global markets.
Finally, Guidia will benefit from deeper globalization if it can identify and use its competitive advantages as a country as it positions itself as a global player. The competitive advantages should encompass aspects such as national branding, strategic planning, and any peculiar elements of the population such as availability of skills.
On the other hand, Guidia will face a number of risks associated with deeper globalization. These risks include the disruptive effects of forces of globalization, risk of increased national debt, and the risk of internal economic instability caused by institutional changes demanded by international financiers.
Reference List Bond, P 2008, ‘Global Uneven Development, Primitive Accumulation, and Political Economic Conflict in Africa: The Return of the Theory of Imperialism’, Journal of Peace Building and Development, vol 4, no. 1, pp. 1-14.
Changes in Social Media Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Changes in social media
Introduction With the rapid change in the digital economy observed in the last century specifically in the last decade, the future only looks brighter for this area. The last decade has seen various developments in the way people keep in touch. This move has mainly brought into shape what is popularly regarded as social media.
These changes raise questions of where the social media will be in the next decade of 2020. The essay seeks to find out the changes in the social media in the last decade, and the future of this industry.
Changes in social media The information and communication industry has changed over the last decade with advances and revolution in the way people interact. Some of the most significant achievements in the social media include Skype, email, social networks such as Facebook, and short message texting over mobile devices.
All these have the combined effect of making the world a global village in the year 2020 linking people previously separated by physical and political boundaries. The last five years alone have seen the multiplication of people engaged in social networks with new sites being developed almost annually (Donath,
Cognitive Mapping, Imagery and Mirror Neurons Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Mental Imagery and Cognitive Mapping
Utilizing Cognitive Mapping and Imagery
Mental Imagery and Cognitive Mapping Imagery can be considered a means by which an individual experiences a particular event, perceives a certain object or views a distinct scene all without the event, object or experience being there in the first place.
For example, if a person were to close their eyes and imagine an apple that act would already be a form of imagery given that the perceived apple is not actually there but is viewed utilized stored memories which take the form of an apple.
While the origins of how the human brain is able to accomplish the task of imagery is still a mystery, the fact remains that it is an action that is often utilized in order to remember particular key details about an event, object or scene that is necessary for a particular task to be accomplished.
For example, mental imagery can be defined as a form of mental rehearsal wherein an individual visualizes an action or an event and then subsequently practices the motions within his/her mind in order to better understand how to perform that type of action within a given situation, all of this in absence of actual physical exertion.
One of the first theoretical guides in examining the worth of mental imagery is neuromuscular theory which specifically states that the neuromuscular pattern associated with a particular movement in a sport can actually be “excited” or rather activated through imagery as well thus facilitating the process of trial and error that comes with repeated practice of a specific skill.
The basis of this particular theory can be seen in studies such as those by Knäuper (2009) which show that the activation of neurotransmitters associated with a particular action do not necessarily need to rely on performing an action but can actually be accomplished by thinking of the action itself (Knäuper, 2009).
One of the supposed applications of mental imagery can be seen in the various claims over the past few years which consist of supposed improvements in performance, energy, technique, motivation and the overall enjoyment that an athlete can derive from the sport that they are in as a direct result of utilizing mental imagery in their training regimen (Eddy. 2003).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Advocates of the technique claim that given enough time and practice an athlete will be able to determine what mistakes he/she has made in previous games and as a result can practice within his/her own mind in order to determine what to do right next time (Sargent, 2002).
Cognitive mapping on the other hand is an entirely different type of skill that is a form of mental processing which enables individuals to observe, acquire, store then subsequently recall specific types of information collected through observation. From a certain perspective, it can be considered that cognitive mapping is a method of associating a particular cognitive device with a set of information that one wishes to remember.
For example, a specific object such as a tree, home, or lake can be utilized as a means of association regarding a particular type of information. This can come in the form of a type of home and rural background being associated with either one’s parents or an individual’s first love.
It should also be noted that cognitive mapping as a frame of reference is not limited to mental imagery as a means of recalling information, rather, it can encompass other “points on the map” in the form of auditory and textual clues.
For example, the acronym “H.O.ME.S” is utilized in various high school classes within the U.S. as a cognitive mapping method in order to remember the names of the great lakes region (i.e. Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior).
Various forms of mnemonic devices are applications of cognitive mapping and are commonly utilized in order to remember and code large amounts of data into snippets of information that can be obtained from the mind via the use of various mnemonic points in the brain’s cognitive map.
It must be noted though that similar to case of imagery the process by which cognitive mapping is put into practice is still fairly unknown to researchers. One way in which researchers have attempted to explain how cognitive mapping works is through the use of the Baddeley and Hitch (1974) multi-component model.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Cognitive Mapping, Imagery and Mirror Neurons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This model states that working memory operates via a system of “slave systems” and a central controller which supervises the transmission and coordination of information (RepovŠ
Ybarra v. Spangard Case Case Study online essay help
Introduction People make mistakes and it is obvious that people forgive, however, when it deals with medical malpractice, the mistakes are forbidden, however, they still occur. Ybarra v. Spangard is a case study which deals with a specific situation when doctor’s mistake has lead to patient’s injury.
Clinical negligence is a very serious and one of the most complicated accusing as at one and the same time the fault of a person is difficult to achieve. Having considered the case study Ybarra v. Spangard, the form of negligence that best fits this case is going to be discussed along with the elements for a claim of negligence found there.
Which form of negligence best fits this case?
The duty of care is one of the clinical negligence which perfectly fits the situation.
One of the main reasons for this is the four elements which are included in its definition, which are as follows, “the medical professional had a DUTY OF CARE owed to the plaintiff”, “the medical professional BREACHED that DUTY OF CARE”, “the breach was both the ACTUAL and PROXIMATE CAUSE of the injury”, and “the injury resulted in DAMAGES to the plaintiff” (Negligence, 2009).
In our case, the plaintiff was injured, however, due to anesthesia he is unable to make sure who of the doctors was responsible for it. Being put at the operational table, doctors failed to follow whether the patient is appropriately comforted.
Due to anesthesia, a patient was unable to comfort himself as well as he was unable to say about some problems which made him feel pain. Therefore, the doctors failed to take care of a patient while they had such a duty.
Are all the elements for a claim of negligence found in the case? Identify each of the four Ds.
Before answering a question whether all the elements for a claim of negligence are found in the case or not, it is important to enumerate those elements. Duty, dereliction, direct cause and damages are elements for a claim of negligence (Lynch, Hancox, Happell,
Military Leadership in US Essay best college essay help
The capacity for an organisation to adapt to changing dynamics and effectively discharge duties to the society is dependent on the leadership within it. Such an understanding informs why effective military leadership is paramount for a resilient, dynamic, effective and ethical military. Many scholars are interested in designing parameters that can develop a framework for leadership suited for the military.
On reviewing multiple studies on military leadership, my perspective of crucial elements required for an effective leadership within the military despite many challenges there is wider. Here, leadership must balance between adopting mechanisms that are useful for an effective accomplishment of missions within a supporting environment for the military without compromising core military ethics.
What is military leadership? During an interview after retiring as the United States 29th commandant, the famous General Al Gray (credited with implementing crucial changes that transformed the US military into a modern and effective fighting machine), summarised crucial aspects that must define leadership within the military (Bartone 2002, 494).
Here, Al Gray talked about exerting a positive influence on the military through the use of selected actions as well as by example. Military leadership involves the use of suitable behaviours, personality, and actions that can align the overall behaviour of the military with mission goals without compromising the growth, wellbeing, and development of the military force (Bartone 2002, 494).
Apart from strong mental and performance capabilities, an effective military leader must have a suitable personality that can expand the ability of the military force to do difficult tasks within challenging environments. As it will become clear, a military leader must inspire the military, as well as work within ethical standards (Bartone 2002, 490).
The US military has in the recent past faced multiple challenges resulting from the shortage of resources and the changing dynamics of modern warfare. While the US government is tightening the military budget, potential threats to the US are on the increase (Charles et al. 2009, 4).
As a result, military personnel overwork due to frequent deployments in places like Afghanistan where they face unseen enemies in an unconventional warfare (Charles et al. 2009, 4). As they face a highly challenging environment of operation, the US military personnel must develop resilience to complete missions within required goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Several studies show that people who develop high resilience are more suited to deal with stressing environments than those with low resilience (Charles et al. 2009, 4).
Highly resilient people are able to make out meaning from stressful environments and can create a happy atmosphere despite the challenges they face. Therefore, military leaders must inspire resilience capabilities within the military force to protect mission goals (Charles et al. 2009, 5).
A number of factors, such as separation from friends and family, meeting with continuous threats from the enemy, unclear instructions on how to react to danger, boredom, the death/injury of comrades, and harsh environments can especially create a stressful environment for military personnel working in overseas missions(Charles et al. 2009, 3).
Military leaders must show an example of high resilience to inspire resilience within the military force. Besides, military leaders should carry out measures which are successful for effecting resilience in a challenging environment. Here, leaders must find ways to encourage group members (Charles et al. 2009, 7).
The issue of ethics is significant for a successful leadership within the military. On one hand, the use of ethical standards within the military is helpful in developing a clear chain of career paths as well in clarifying a framework of operations within the military. On the other hand, it is difficult to counter unconventional warfare without putting some ethical considerations into perspective.
The presence of persons with different values and personalities within the military necessitates the need for designing a clear set of ethics to align the conduct of military personnel with mission goals and societal values (Kermit 1980, 47).
One of the main issues that hinder ethical conduct within the military is an assumption that ethics are of less importance than achieving mission goals (Kermit 1980, 52). Fear of superiors by subordinates can also prevent an officer from questioning the conduct of military leaders (Kermit 1980, 52).
We will write a custom Essay on Military Leadership in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another hindrance to embeding ethical values within the military is an overbearing responsibility on the part of an officer to protect the image of the military at the price of ethical values (Kermit 1980, 63).
Moreover, prioritising one’s career path can act to prevent ethical values in the military (Kermit 1980, 48). Leaders, who among other things, bully their subordinates into unethical actions (or give questionable promotions) are unhelpful in promoting ethical values in the military.
Unconventional warfare is a phenomenon that is defining modern war. Such a shift in military warfare blurs the goal of a military operation from annihilating an enemy to fighting an unseen enemy who can hide in the public as well as use other unconventional means to win warfare (Pfaff 2011, 12).
Here, decisions of military leaders must balance ethical considerations in achieving the goal of a military operation, protecting team members, and minimizing damage (Pfaff 2011, 15). It is always difficult to select among the three areas of compromise to protect the goal of a military operation.
For example, while the use of force against an enemy who is hiding in the public could help to protect team members, an angry reaction from the public could make the task of a mission more difficult in the future.
Here, military leaders should stay firm, aggressive, and decisive during the first stages of a military operation (Pfaff 2011, 15). However, later stages of an operation need leaders who can engage the public to build strong institutions that can protect the goals of a military operation after exit (Pfaff 2011, 15).
Conclusion Military leadership is a challenging task that transcends beyond suitable mental abilities to inspirational abilities, effective personalities and a wide database of knowledge and skills. An effective military leader must inspire ethical values in the military by avoiding improper leadership approaches (such as bullying subordinates to take part in improper acts of cover), which prevent ethical values within the military.
The US military has in the recent past faced multiple challenges resulting from the shortage of resources and the changing dynamics of modern warfare. Emerging challenges, such as unconventional warfare, make it difficult for military leaders to make decisions that can balance between conflicting ethical considerations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Military Leadership in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A military leader who lives in the 21st century is obviously in a more difficult position than his counterpart who lived in previous centuries. Such a direction calls for policy designers in the military to use an effective training and preparation program for the future leaders of the military.
Bibliography Bartone, Paul. New wine in old bottles: Leadership and personality in the military organization. Chicago: Department of Defence Press, 2002.
Charles L. Barry, Paul T. Bartone, Emily, Richards, and Robert E. Armstrong. Build resilience: Leader influence on mental hardiness New York: Defence Horizons Press, 2009.
Kermit, Johnson. Ethical issue of military leadership. New York: Defence Horizons Press, 1980.
Pfaff, Tony. Resolving ethical challenges in an era of persistent conflict. New York: Strategic Studies Institute Press, 2011.
Panera Bread Business Case Study college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Company Background
Strategies to attack major problems faced by Panera Bread
Strategy that works
Implementation of the strategy
Conclusion/Evaluation of Strategy’s success
Company Background Founded in 1981 by Ron Shaich and Louis Kane, the famous Panera Bread Company started operating under the brand name Au Bon Pain Co. Inc. It first grew along the United States’ east coast before it was internationalized between early 1980’s to 1990’s.
This immense growth had the implication of making the company a dominant business operator in the category of bakery-cafe. In 1993, Au Bon Pain Co. Inc. bought St.Louis Bread Company. At the time of this acquiring, St.Louis Bread Company had 20 bakery cafes. In 1993 to 1997, the company recorded an increment of 75 percent in its mean unit volumes.
This prompted the alteration of the brand name from Au Bon Pain Co. Inc. to Panera Bread Company. In 1997, the Panera Bread Company recognized its capacity for growth to become a leading bread maker in the United States. However, to achieve this noble potential, heavy investment of monetary resources was required.
Indeed, in 1999, the company completed a transaction involving a sale of the business units of Au Bon Pain Co., Inc. only remaining with those of the Panera Bread Company. With regard to Panera Bread, after the completion of this transaction, “the company’s stock has grown thirteen-fold, and over $1 billion shareholder value has been created” (Para. 5).
The company acquired the title of the best performer under the category of restaurants with 1, 5, and 10-year shareholders’ returns. Later, in 2007, Panera Bread Company also purchased paradise bakery and cafe. As Panera Bread points out, “in March 2012, the company announced that Bill Moreton and Ron Shaich would both assume the roles of chief executive officers” (Para. 2).
Currently, Shaich acts as the co-CEO and the chairperson of the board of directors. On the other hand, Bill Moreton is the co-CEO and the president of Panera Bread Company. As at September 2012, the company had established business presence in 44 states where it operated 1,625 bakeries.
SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis involves strategic planning approaches engineered to evaluate strengths, limitations, and opportunities without negating threats that businesses face in their operation environment. Strengths are the traits that make it possible for an organization to have an advantage in comparison to other organizations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For the case of Panera Bread Company, the strengths include appealing and attractive food menus that comprise a variety of products from which customers can choose. According to Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, these products include “fresh baked goods, made-to-order sandwiches on freshly baked breads, soups, salads, custom roasted coffees, and other complementary products” (10).
Due to the company’s strong financial position, it has managed to invest in cozy cafes, which create a smoothing environment for the customers. This has the impact of making the company build a strong customers’ experience.
The strength is implied in the company’s statement of goals, missions, and aims in which it stipulates that the central goal is to ensure that Panera Bread Company is the first choice of all customers who crave for sandwiches, soup, and salads. In addition to these strengths, the company has an enormous distribution ability covering a large geographic area (44 states as of Septembers 2012).
It has products having relatively better quality while compared to its competitors. It has differentiated its services with the rival companies besides accumulating customers’ beliefs that the company stocks fresh breads. Besides, it has developed a powerful and winning business strategy. Amid the above-cited strengths, Panera Bread Company encounters some weaknesses.
These include the traits of Panera Bread Company that place it at a disadvantage in comparison with rival companies operating in the same industry. One of the weaknesses is the heavy investments in bread centric line of business, which means that Panera Bread Company has a narrow product line.
Other weaknesses are higher prices at the company-owned stores in comparison to the franchises, declining customer service, and customer preferences. In particular, alterations of preferences and customer tastes may make them consider opting for buying more nutritious food items in other restaurants.
Contextualization of this weakness introduces some chances that the company may consider as existing external chances, which, while utilized, may make it improve its performance. They include international expansions and opening of new outlets to tap the growth potential within the suburban markets.
We will write a custom Case Study on Panera Bread Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fact that the company has a weakness of narrow product line introduces an opportunity for introduction of new items in the product line. On the other hand, Panera Bread Company encounters external chances that impair its performance. These are threats to the operation of the company.
They include lawsuits, government regulations, and competition from rival companies such as Sturbucks and Mc Donald among other local and international restaurants offering fast foods. In the context of lawsuits and drawing from Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the company admits that it is “subjected to other routine legal proceedings, claims, and litigations in the ordinary course of its business” (10).
This requires heavy commitment of financial resources and management attention. Saturation of the market creates another incredible threat. The company would encounter challenges in getting strategic places for opening new outlets consistent with its strategic plan of enhancing profitability through rapid expansion.
Strategies to attack major problems faced by Panera Bread Panera Bread Company encounters several problems in the derivation of its strategic plans to enhance a continuous growth in an environment that is saturated by a variety of companies offering similar or substitute products. One of the problems of the company is that it offers products in its company-owned stores at prices that are higher than the franchises.
A significant reason for these differences is the need to gain higher profit margins to cater for the costs of running the business-associated issues that are extrinsic from the control of the company such as the cost of settlement of lawsuits filed against the company by past employees.
For instance, in 2009, Nick Sotoudeh filed a case costing the company 5 million dollars in its settlement (Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q 2 4). In 2010, Corey Weiner, Caroll Ruiz, and Denarius Lewis filed another case against the company costing 1.5 million dollars in its resolution (Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q 2 4).
To meet this cost to ensure that Panera Bread Company is able to offer bread at its own stores at competitive prices, it is crucial that the company results to intensive growth. On the positive side, growth is vital since it will provide the necessary economies of scale. This means that the company will remain profitable amid making small profit margins for every product sold.
The negative side of this strategic move qualifies as a technique of enhancing growth such as forming joint ventures with other big competitors such as McDonald who will deprive the company of its executive control power. Panera Bread Company is likely to experience the problem of reduced profitability due to narrow product lines. To resolve this problem, it is crucial that it focuses on widening its product lines.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Panera Bread Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This strategic move will, on the positive side, help in drawing more customers to its stores. Hence, the revenue will also hike. On the other hand, the strategic move will increase the logistical costs and other costs associated with service delivery at the stores. Therefore, under certain circumstances, increment in revenues would be outweighed by the resulting additional costs.
Somewhat different from the above two strategic moves, to address the challenge of how to increase revenues, the company can resolve to recruit more franchises besides opening more stores that are company-owned. On the positive end, this would increase revenues.
On the other hand, increasing the number of company-owned stores would truncate into recruiting more staff, a case that increases the risk of experiencing more employees’ filed lawsuits. Another strategy that has not perhaps been considered by the company is focusing on extending its services away from America and Canada to other continents of the world.
On the positive side, this would increase the sales of the company since being global implies meeting new fresh markets in which the company can develop products consistent with the demand requirements. Unfortunately, the option would expose the company to different political, legal, and cultural environments.
Consequently, Panera Bread Company would have to change some of its practices to match the new demand. For instance, there might be a conflict between the accounting standards. The company deploys the U.S’ GAAP, which might contradict the national generally accepted accounting principles of the new nations in the global space.
Strategy that works With the current financial and business environment of the Panera Bread, the best option for dealing with the challenge of the need to increase profitability of the company is via recruitment of more franchises besides opening company- owned stores within Canada and America. Hence, I would open 300 new company-owned stores and franchises at the first phase of expansion of Panera Bread Company.
The rationale for this strategy is based on the argument that, as evidenced by the estimations of good will in its balance sheet, the company has an immense market value. Additionally, in comparison to potential competing companies, Panera Bread Company has an incredible market position by virtue of its strengths. However, as argued before, the market is highly saturated with restaurants.
Hence, there is a dominant challenge of acquiring buildings in strategic places within many cities where the company may consider as having the requisite market segment it targets. Additionally, at the entry level, many of these competing restaurants have the will and ability to pose competitive challenges to the company at the new franchises and or company-owned stores since they will have secured their market share.
However, given the brand image and the quality of products and services offered by Panera Bread, the company has probabilities of getting some of this market share to build the clientele level at the new stores and franchises. The claim holds especially when it invests to improve its service delivery experience to levels above those of the existing restaurants in the new markets.
Utilizing the strategy of growth through recruitment of more franchises and company-owned stores is particularly significant in enhancing Panera Bread Company’s competitive position since it will make it develop the capacity to take a full advantage of the economies of scale.
At the current size of Panera Bread Company, attempts to exploit the markets of all continents of the world are found unworthy due to many standards and legal compliance issues, which go into adding the cost of running the company.
Implementation of the strategy In the implementation of the strategy of recruiting more franchises and opening of new company-operated stores, several considerations are vital before the implementation process kicks off. In the first place, this strategy needs financing. It is thus vital to consider whether the financial position of the company and the anticipated incomes can support the strategy.
If not, it is critical to consider whether there are alternative sources of finance. Fortunately, with regard to Panera Bread Annual Report on Form 10-K, the company charges a “franchise fee of $35,000 per bakery-cafe (of which it generally receives $5,000 at the signing of the ADA and $30,000 at or before the bakery-cafe opening)” (4).
By noting that Panera Bread Company does not support the construction of the franchises, the money raised through the fees is utilizable in opening of the additional company-owned stores. According to Panera Bread Annual Report on Form 10-K, the company also has accessibility to a loan facility of 250 million dollars as an additional source of capital (3).
Similar to the old food dealers like Mc Donald, the implementation of the strategy proposed above means the focus would entail opening a store or franchise and then waiting for the customer to do the purchasing. Based on the experience he or she gains with the product, he or she becomes loyal and hence a regular customer. Therefore, the strategy is customer-centric.
For the success of such a strategy, it is crucial that an organization possesses the capability to penetrate new markets. It should develop services and products, which create an immense appeal to the customers besides possessing the capacity to offer outstanding customer services (Wheelen and Hunger 851).
Fortunately, these are some of the strengths of Panera Bread Company. With these strengths, the challenges in the implementation process rests in the development of customer-centric growth strategies in the new company-owned stores and franchises. I would accomplish the implementation of the strategy from three customer-centric paradigms.
These are identification of core business, creation of propositions that have high value and impacts, and focusing on businesses that are highly linked to the core business of the company. Determination of the core business of the new stores starts with the identification of the core business that will be conducted in the stores and the franchises.
In other words, expansion through the opening of new stores and franchises is not done blindly but rather with considerations of geographic areas and channels that would help to generate the highest amount of revenues.
Therefore, before the company’s financial resources are committed to opening and subsequent running of the stores, profitability benchmarking and evaluation of the reputation of the company within the new geographical areas are necessary. In this approach, the stakeholders of the company are fully involved in the implementation process.
Some of the stakeholders that I would include are non-loyal and loyal customers of the existing stores. The views of the loyal customers on why they embrace the products of the company are critical success factors of the strategy implementation. They would help in incorporating the attributes of the company that attract them in the new stores and franchises.
On the other hand, the views of the disloyal customers create opportunities of establishing new stores that have improved customer service experience. This would help to avoid replication of the past mistakes in the new franchises and stores. Arguably, this step of implementation of the project involves planning and analysis stage. It would take six months and an estimated cost of $ 210, 000.
The second implementation step is the creation of propositions that have high values and impacts on the sub-segments of the potential customers.
Based on the results of the first step discussed above, sub-segmentation of the customers’ groups in the new franchises and stores based on the found needs and anticipated buying patterns coupled with the profit contributions of the forecasted sales are vital in setting of a mechanism of reaping most from the new markets.
This mechanism encompasses creation and innovation of value propositions targeting the sub-segments that are likely to be most attractive. This step is followed by conducting a field test of the impacts of the propositions. Based on the results of the field tests, scaling up is done. This step of the implementation process of the strategy is the analysis phase of the project. It is anticipated to take about 3-31/2 months.
Its budget is $1 million. Most of this money caters for the wage expenses of analysts and data collection staff. Lastly, there is a need to focus on businesses that are highly linked to the core business of the company.
The need implies that, after conducting a number of field tests and analyzing the potential of the success of the growth strategy, the next course of action will be to channel the resources of the company to open stores and accept franchise requests in areas that are likely to have large clientele.
The point here is that there is no need of investing in an area where no substantive sales can be made to make the stores break even in the shortest time possible. Thus, the idea is to open stores selectively depending on the competitiveness of the market segments and sub-segments.
Conclusion/Evaluation of Strategy’s success Upon implementation of the growth strategy, it is crucial to evaluate its success capacity. In the context of the proposed strategy for solving the problems of the Panera Bread Company, success refers to the accomplishment of the predicted outcomes when the strategy is implemented.
The desired outcome is the increment of the revenue levels of the new stores and franchises such that the stores would be able to break even in the shortest time possible. On the other hand, it is desired that the new franchises end up being profitable so that Panera Bread Company can get substantive royalties. Measuring success calls for the evaluation of the strategy on its capacity to realize the core objective of the company.
Measuring success in the context of the strategy for growth of the Panera Bread Company takes six approaches. In the first place, the strategy is implemented within fixed timelines. Therefore, one of the measurable success factors is whether the various time schedules for the strategy implementation were accomplished within the set timeframes. The other success factor is the degree to which the scope of the growth strategy has been released.
The original plan is to open 300 stores and franchises. Thus, success is measured in terms of the number of the new company-owned stores and franchises opened. Thirdly, the implementation of the strategy must be consistent with the set budget. Consequently, the degree of success of the strategy is measurable from the context of the degree to which the implemented strategy complies with the budget constraints.
Fourthly, it was argued in the implementation section that the overall goal of the strategy is to focus on opening stores in regions that will attract large clientele only who would get loyalty based on the company’s products. Thus, success may be measured from the dimension of the degree of customers’ loyalty, which is measurable through customers’ satisfaction levels.
Unfortunately, satisfaction is only measurable qualitatively (either happy or unhappy). A subtle strategy of organizational growth needs to reduce the weakness and threats of an organization within the new operational centers.
For this purpose, SWOT analysis is vital in determining whether the threats and weaknesses of the old stores and franchises have been replicated in the new geographical locations of the Panera Bread company-owned stores and franchises. Lastly, the success of the strategy may be measured in terms of the improvements of service quality in the new company-owned stores and franchises.
Therefore, the growth sort for Panera Bread Company is not only in terms of numbers of stores and franchises but also in terms of increased quality service delivery in every new company-owned store or franchise that opens. Measuring success this way is inspired by the argument that learning organizations stand better chances of success than those, which do not learn.
Works Cited Panera Bread Annual Report on Form 10-K. Annual Report Pursuant To Section 13 Or 15(D) Of The Securities Exchange Act Of 1934 For The Fiscal Year Ended December 27, 2011. Web.
Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Quarterly Report Pursuant To Section 13 Or 15(D) of the Securities Exchange Act Of 1934 For the quarterly period ended September 25, 2012. Web.
Panera Bread. Company Overview. Web.
Wheelen, Thomas, and David Hunger. Strategic Management and business policy. New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
Potential Unreported Income Case Study essay help online
Introduction Individuals and businesses should present a complete disclosure of income in the financial reports. Unreported revenue comprises of certain income that a taxpayers fail to report in their tax returns. The tax payers aim is to avoid paying tax or reduce tax obligation. There are a number of ways that can be used to discover unreported revenue.
They include bank deposit method, net worth method, source and application of funds method, lifestyle audit, third party contacts, and mark up analysis among others.
Selection of a suitable approach to use depends on a number of factors such as industry in which the customer operates, the permanence of assets and liabilities, stability of net worth over a number of years, availability of clients financial information, and banking practices of the customer among others. Indentifying unreported income is commonly carried out by auditors and tax authorities.
Aim of the paper The paper determines availability of unreported income for Mr. Jung. It uses the net worth method, sources and application of funds method, and bank deposit method. It also talks about the reasonableness of the estimates and the drawbacks of the three methods used for estimation.
Net worth method The difference between assets and liabilities for a definite period gives the net worth for the client. The value obtained is compared with the net worth for prior years. unfounded rate of increase of net worth for different periods gives indications for unreported income.
In this approach, it is necessary to compute accuratelty the net worth of the client at the beginning and end of the period. The increase in net worth that cannot be accounted for gives an idea about unreported income.
Computation of unreported income using net worth approach Total assets
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Assets 31/12/2009 31/12/2010 1 Chase bank 15,000 112,500 2 TD Ameritrade 50,000 75,000 3 Rental property 400,000 405,000 4 Personal residence 800,000 800,000 5 Vehicles 33,000 55,000 6 Bank of Nova 240,000 230,000 Total 1,538,000 1,677,500 Total liabilities
Liabilities 31/12/2009 31/12/2010 1 Mortgage residence 200,000 188,000 2 Mortgage – Commercial property 300,000 176,000 Total 500,000 364,000 Unreported income
Assets 1,677,500 Less Liabilities 364,000 Net worth of 2010 1,313,500 Less Prior year net worth (for 2009) 1,038,000 Add Living expenses 60,000 Net income (expenses) 335,500 Less Funds from known sources 307,000 Funds from unknown sources 28,500 Explanation From the calculation above, unreported income totaled to $28,500. It means that the changes in net worth in the two years could not be supported. The results obtained from the calculations are not reasonable. The method relies on a number of assumptions that are not realistic.
For instance, it assumes that the client keeps money in financial institutions. It also assumes that the records of income and expenses are accurate. These two weaknesses depend on the customer’s readiness to reveal required information. Besides, the investigator may not be able to identify private assets acquired during the year.
Sources and application of funds method The approach evaluates expenses and income of the client. All known sources of funds should be used in this calculation. Undisclosed income is the excess of uses over sources.
Calculation of unreported income using sources and application of funds method
Expenses 1 Estimated living expenditure 60,000 2 Mortgage –residence 12,000 3 Mortgage – commercial 24,000 4 Stipend to mother 12,000 5 Suburban 40,000 6 Trip expenses 24,000 Total 172,000 Known sources of funds
We will write a custom Case Study on Potential Unreported Income specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 1 Income 207,000 2 Investment income 21,000 3 Rental income 12,000 4 Tax refund 12,000 5 Loan 25,000 6 Sale of a vehicle 20,000 7 Inheritance 10,000 Total 307,000 Unreported income
Expenditure 172,000 Subtract Known sources of funds 307,000 Funds from unknown sources -135,000 Explanation
From the calculations, revenues exceed expenses. It means that client did not unreported income. However, the estimates are not reasonable. For instance, the known funds used in the calculations are less than the totoal net chas deposit in the bank.
The difference shows the inaccuracy of the estimates. The approach has several weaknesses for instance, the customer may understate revenue or overstate expenses. Also, the method assumes that the customer will disclose all his spending. These assumptions reduce the effectiveness of the method.
Bank deposit method Bank deposit method bank transactions of the customer these are, debits and credit. Changes are made to remove transfers between banks and non income deposits. The method is is beneficial since shows trends that are essential in giving an indication of the possibility of unreported income.
For instance, it shows the regularity of making deposits into the accounts, transfers made by the customer, period within the subject was involved in income generating activities, and the source of the deposits.
Calculation of unreported income
Chase bank Bank of Nova Scotia Deposits Checks Deposits Checks Total deposits Total checks Jan 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 Feb 18,250 10,250 5,000 70,000 23,250 80,250 March 18,250 10,500 5,000 0 23,250 10,500 April 18,250 11,000 5,000 12,000 23,250 23,000 May 28,250 10,250 5,000 0 33,250 10,250 June 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 July 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 Aug 43,250 10,250 5,000 0 48,250 10,250 Sept 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 Oct 38,250 11,000 5,000 12,000 43,250 23,000 Nov 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 Dec 18,250 45,000 5,000 0 23,250 45,000 Total 274,000 158,250 60,000 94,000 334,000 252,250 Cash expenses 1 Estimated living expenditure 60000 2 Mortgage –residence 12,000 3 Mortgage – commercial 24,000 4 Stipend to mother 12,000 5 Suburban 40,000 6 Trip expenses 24000 172000 Funds from known sources 1 Income 207,000 2 Investment income 21,000 3 Rental income 12,000 4 Tax refund 12,000 5 Loan 25,000 6 Sale of a vehicle 20,000 7 Inheritance 10,000 Total 307,000 Unreported income
Total deposits to all accounts 334,000 Less Transfer and redeposits 12,000 Net deposits to all accounts 322,000 Add Cash expenditures 172,000 Total receipts from all sources 494,000 Less Funds from known sources 307,000 Funds from unknown sources 187,000 Explanation
From the calculations, unreported income totaled to $187,000. The result is reasonable because it takes care of all the financial activities of the client. The method assumes that the customer banks all revenues. Also, the method cannot be relied on when the client records are inadequate, do not exist or show possibility of manipulation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Potential Unreported Income by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The paper identifies the availability of unreported income for the client using three approaches. The results of the calculations show that the clien didi not disclose some income. The three methods used cannot be relied on with certainity since they are not effective. However, they give a hint of the availability of unreported income.
In addition, they give information about the client such as regularity of income, sources of income, and how the customer spend his earnings. An investigator should use effective approaches such as unit and volume method and mark up method to determine unreported income.
Things that Move: Lift as a Mechanism that Moves Without Help Exploratory Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Mere movement of inanimate objects is subject to certain mechanisms and principles. However, the principles of movement of various objects need to be analyzed to define the reasons and initial origins of these movements, including the controlling mechanisms and the various meanings they have for people1.
In this respect, it is possible to consider an automobile as an object that moves in accordance with certain principles despite the fact that it is controlled by a human. So far, care is considered as a means of transportation where further development of different models has been defined as an individualized representation. The assigned personality makes car movement even more meaningful.
So, it can be admitted that the car is a mask that a human bears to prove its respectable image. The speed, therefore, is the main sign of the quality of the mechanism, as well as the opportunity that a human can enjoy.
An automobile can be compared with marionettes that are controlled by a superior mind, as it represented in Von Kleist’s account on the Puppeter and his puppets2. In fact, the person who controls inanimate objects is also able to give life to them and make them move in different directions3.
Similarly, people control cars that can ride slowly or with high speed. Some cars can lose control, which indicates humans’ inability to control their movements. The wheels of the car are enacted by means of pushing the foot-throttle.
The car engine can be identified with the heart of the mechanism that influences the rest of automated functions. Together with overall appearance, it is often compared with a unique ‘attitude’ and ‘behavior’ that an automobile can disclose. In the majority of cases, car can have various meanings, depending on the person controlling this mechanism.
By looking at the car, it is possible to find similarities between the car and its owner. During movement, one can also find out the connection between its ‘psychological’ qualities and the owner’s attitude to the surrounding world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similar concepts are discussed in Rudlin’s introductory essay, claiming, “’Mask’ refers to character type and is inclusive of each individual mask”4. Therefore, car image can also be inclusive in the image of its owner who has certain tastes and preferences while driving.
The symbolism and aesthetics of car driving is of high importance because it contributes to the owner’s individuality, just like a human face.
This significance is explained in simplistic terms and is confined to the idea that face has features that allow to understand the human soul5. Similar to these characteristics, car as a mechanism moves under control of human actions and, therefore, it becomes the part of human’s nature and individuality.
In conclusion, movement of inanimate objects is distinct from those of animate ones because it is not controlled by similar powers. At the same time, the mechanism has its own principles that make people’s actions limited. In this respect, the movement of an automobile can be controlled to the extent of the human knowledge about the principles of mechanics.
In addition, the mechanism can also embrace a kind of ‘individuality’ that serves as a mask for humans, as well as a means of representing their uniqueness. Finally, aesthetics is another function that the automobile can perform while enacting certain processes. This is of particular concern to movement, engine sound, and color.
Bibliography Craig, Edward Gordon, The Actor and the Uber-marionette. US: The Mask, 1908.
“Pulling Strings”, New Times. 2012. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Things that Move: Lift as a Mechanism that Moves Without Help specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rudlin, John, “The Mask”, in Commedia Dell’Arte: An Actor’s Handbook. edited by John Rublin. 34-48. New York: Routledge, 1994.
Simmel, George, “Aesthetic Significant of the Face”, in Contemporary Aesthetics, edited by Matthew Lipman. 336-357. US: Ardent Media, 1973.
Von Kleist, Heinrich, “On the Marionette Theater”, 2012. Web.
Footnotes 1 “Pulling Strings”, New Times, 2012.
2 Heinrich von Kleist, “On the Marionette Theater”, 2012.
3 Craig, Edward Gordon, The Actor and the Uber-marionette. US: The Mask, 1908. 45.
4 Rudlin, John. “The Mask”, in Commedia Dell’Arte: An Actor’s Handbook. ed. John Rublin. (New York: Routledge, 1994), 35.
5 Simmel, George, “Aesthetic Significant of the Face”. in Contemporary Aesthetics, ed. Matthew Lipman. (US: Ardent Media, 1973), 336.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Things that Move: Lift as a Mechanism that Moves Without Help by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Conceptual Framework of a Study about Teachers` Practical Knowledge Coursework best essay help: best essay help
Teacher is a person who implements new curricula and change the people they teach using their ability to initiate and shape in the classroom. There is no doubt that teachers translate theories into practical in class (Westbury 1977). This research elaborates the teachers’ knowledge as practical knowledge.
This is achieved through study of the conceptual backdrop and assumptions underlying the conception of practical knowledge, the methodology of the study, the analysis of data, and data implications.
In the concept of practical knowledge, the researcher concludes the best way to conceptualize practical knowledge should be through direct examination. Thus, a case study on an experienced high school English teacher is carried out.
Five orientations of practical knowledge were identified: situational, theoretical, personal, social, and experiential points of view. This is necessary to put order in the topic of study. To make it more clear rule of practice, practical principle and image were coined. Cognitive style has been used to describe ideas gained as a result of the case study.
The methodology used in the study had to meet practical needs and reach those who know about curriculum field and those concerned with teaching. Other studies in psychology, social science and education were used in the study. They include Wann 1964; Hudson 1972; Giorgi 1970; Parlett and Hamilton 1972; Hunt 1976; Wilson 1977; Smith 1978.
The case study was crucial to give a vivid and account for description of a teacher’s case. It is not only educationally valuable but also particularly called for in the present state of understanding of teachers’ knowledge. It was also essential to give the teachers own perspective of practical knowledge.
How narrative has been used Narrative was most suitable considering the topic of study required interaction with other parties, collecting and analyzing data. The research starts by orienting what drove her to carry out the study. Following her experience as a teacher and a curriculum worker, she was not comfortable with the generalized view of the teacher in the field of teaching and curriculum development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She uses dialogue to gather information for analysis in the study by interviewing an experienced high school English teacher. The researcher has used features of narrative such as dialogue. She carries out an interview on an experienced high school teacher. This builds the idea by providing first hand information. Narrative is evident in the order of events how the researcher carried out activities in order.
One activity led to another. The chronological order of events in the report presents ample time for research and demonstrates order in research. The researcher has used narrative to describe and relate other people’s ideas to her own. For instance, using Connelly’s (1972) view of the teacher as “user developer” concludes the function of the teacher as adopting, adapting, and developing students.
Narratives are used to spotlight on interventions and reflects on the collection of relative factors that pressure outcomes considering research on teaching, like classroom research and the study of curriculum, frequently views teachers in different ways. Narratives have methodically been used to collect claims and information from other independent sources such as Sarason (1971) and Hunt (1976).
The information gathered during the research has been used to compare and contrast with the published work. Narratives data have been accessed for emergent themes such as the adequate approaches formulated against negative and fragmented views on teachers.
The most likely limitation of the study was misunderstandings during the interview which could have made it hard to get the required information. The researcher also states that she was listening poorly.
This is an indication that there was a poor listening skill in the data collection. Another limitation was that the researcher lacked enough information about some parts of the study. Biases in the research could have produced inappropriate results and caused a communication barrier due to disagreements.
The studys validity and reliability are high considering the methodology of research used. It is a suitable position for the researcher to carry out the research being a teacher and a curriculum worker.
We will write a custom Coursework on Conceptual Framework of a Study about Teachers` Practical Knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also, the use of an experienced high school English teacher is an advantage in improving the quality of the research. From the beginning, the research exhibits the indulgent of the study with literature from other sources. This shows the efforts done to make sure the research is valid and reliable.
In conclusion, the study was a success. The study clearly reflects the fact that teachers’ knowledge is broadly based on their experiences in classrooms and schools and is directed toward the handling of problems that arise in their work but, at the same time, the term reminds us that what teachers know is capable of being formulated as knowledge and of being used to generate consistent practice.
Teachers’ practical knowledge should be used effectively to teach students and make teaching models for use in schools. Teachers themselves should take the study crucially and maximize the findings made improve their skills and realize the potential they have got.
The Influence of Emotions on Organizational Change Expository Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Acceptance of change within an organization depends on the emotional state of employees and managers. The behavior, feelings and attitudes of employees within an organization are influenced by their emotions (Zerbe 2008, p. 173). It is important to highlight the interpersonal effects of emotions in order to comprehend the exact influence of emotions within an organization.
The domains of organizational behavior are very essential in understanding the effect of emotions on the performance of employees (Zerbe 2008, p. 173). Organizational behavior domains such as leadership, group decision making and customer service require emotional intelligence from the parties involved.
Emotional intelligence is a very valuable attribute that all stakeholders within an organization need to possess (Zerbe 2008, p. 174). The success or failure of an organization actually depends on the level of emotional intelligence among its employees and managers. This paper will highlight the role of emotions in the management of organizational change.
Discussion Many organizations have always underestimated the effect of emotions in the day activities of an organization (Weick 1999, p. 364). In fact, the topic of emotions never featured in the past until recently when managers realized that emotions actually play a significant role in the success of an organization (Weick 1999, p. 364). Many organizations are now taking the subject of emotions very seriously after discovering its significance.
Organizations believed that emotions could only be expressed at home but they forgot that employees still remained human despite being at the workplace (Weick 1999, p. 364). The corporate world is now discovering that the positive emotions of employees should not be left at home because they are crucial to the success of an organization.
A recent research indicates that the productivity and creativity of employees is affected in a great way by emotions (Weick 1999, p. 366). Emotional intelligence determines the career success of an employee compared to cognitive intelligence.
Although cognitive intelligence is important for an employee, research reveals that a combination of both cognitive and emotional intelligence is crucial for employees to achieve their career goals (Weick 1999, p. 366). The management of organizations has come to realize that their success depends on their ability to utilize positive emotions of employees to their organizations’ advantage (Weick 1999, p. 367).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Managers who have mastered the art of stimulating and sustaining positive emotions in their employees have actually been able to witness positive results (Vince 1996, p. 17). The current market is very competitive and it is therefore necessary for organizations to come with strategies that can give them a competitive advantage.
The primary sources of competitive advantage such as intellectual capital, customer service, organizational responsiveness and productivity are influenced directly by employee emotions (Vince 1996, p. 17). The creativity and knowledge of employees are very significant in the success of an organization since the modern economy is knowledge-based.
Employees that are creative and knowledgeable are very receptive to organizational change compared to those who are not knowledgeable and creative (Vince 1996, p. 17). The ability of an organization to harness intellectual capital from its employees will enable it to survive in an innovation driven economy.
The intellectual capital of employees should therefore be engaged and cultivated by management for the expected results to be achieved (Vince 1996, p. 18).
The emotional state of employees determines the organization’s level of intellectual capital (Pfeffer 1981, p. 43). The intellectual functioning of employees within the organization is also affected directly by emotions. A smart and innovative workforce is a dream of many organizations and this can only be achieved through proper management of employee emotions (Pfeffer 1981, p. 43).
The flexibility and originality an employee’s thinking is normally diminished by a negative emotional state. Flexibility in thinking is one of the key attributes needed in the implementation of organizational change (Pfeffer 1981, p. 43). It is the duty of management to ensure that employees remain in a positive state of mind to enhance originality and flexibility in their thinking.
A dispirited workforce loses the interest to innovate and identify new opportunities (Pfeffer 1981, p. 43). Negative emotions make employees lose the energy and drive to be creative. A passionate, confident and secure workforce will always make wise decisions and at the same time create new solutions (Pfeffer 1981, p. 44).
We will write a custom Essay on The Influence of Emotions on Organizational Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sharing of knowledge and expertise in the entire organization is very important in a knowledge driven economy (Neal 2004, p. 60). Employees in a negative emotional state are always unwilling to help and share information with others.
Implementation of organizational change requires knowledge to be shared throughout the organization and if this does not happen, then organizational change implementation becomes difficult (Neal 2004, p. 60). The intellectual capital of an organization enables information to be disseminated freely.
Organizations that have effective information dissemination systems experience a lot of success because implementation of organizational changes becomes much easier (Neal 2004, p. 60). Employees who are insecure about losing their positions are normally reluctant to share knowledge with others.
Employees who feel safe and valued show high levels of commitment and are always available to share their knowledge with others (Lyubomirsky, King
A New Role for Contrastive Analysis Critical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Language issues seem to have been the stumbling block for people’s communication for centuries. In his article “Cross-Linguistic Awareness: A New Role for Contrastive Analysis,” Carl James discusses the question concerning the contrastive analysis and its application for the comparative studies of two or more languages.
Considering the following quote from Fries’ paper: “The most efficient materials are those that are based upon a scientific description of the language to be learned, carefully compared with a parallel description of the native language of the learner,” James makes it clear that, questioning the reasonability of a cross-linguistic analysis, the researchers are most likely to encounter considerable difficulties in reaching to the representatives of other cultures, hence, causing the entire learning process to shrivel.
While the author gives credit to both the arguments of Lado and Fries (Odlin, 1989), it is obvious that James is inclined to believe that Lado’s idea of a cross-linguistic analysis as the basis of successful communication is not reasonable enough, while Slobin’s arguments for the analysis actually make a lot of sense: “Slobin seems to be suggesting that Behaviourism has not been totally banished from language learning contexts after all” (James, n. d., 2).
Therefore, the seed of doubt is planted into the minds of the adepts of abandoning the CA.
It is also essential that James touches upon the related issues, such as culture learning, to prove the point. With the help of real-life case studies, James makes his argument all the more impressive, demonstrating the instances of cultural misunderstanding on an everyday level:
T1: Qu’est-ce que c’est, saucisson?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More T2: Sausage, yes, what sort? What sort of sausage? Wall’s?
T3: Sort of salami type of sausage, that sort of sausage. (James, n. d., 3-4)
Touching upon the Audiolinguialist vetoes, James adds another interesting point to his chain of arguments to consider, such as the existence of other forms of English (e.g., the Irish dialect) the experience of which can also be considered from the cross-cultural point of view.
However, with the cross-cultural analysis no longer in existence, the experience would be impossible. In addition, James touches upon neo-Whorfianism, which presupposes that languages shape the thinking process greatly.
On the one hand, in the preset fast-changing world and the globalization process, the issues of cultural differences seem to have become slightly more insignificant (Suarez-Orozco
Desires in Human Mating Critical Essay custom essay help
Of all the issues which remain just as important for the modern world as they used to be centuries ago, the mechanisms of human mating remains by far the most mysterious.
No matter how many theories have been developed to explain the numerous ways in which people are attracted to the opposite sex, the main question, which is what draws people of the opposite sexes together, remains unanswered.
The author of the article titled Desires in human mating, Buss tries to answer the given question, offering his interpretation of what makes people fall in love.
However, it is necessary to mention that Buss not only tries to discover these mechanisms, but to explain them with the help of a specific theory; to be more exact, Buss obviously chooses evolution theory (Shoemake, 2007) to back his evidence up with.
In addition, Buss asks a number of the questions which are somehow related to the human mating issue: “Why should humans seek similarity or equity? What might be the origins of these motives? What functions would they serve?” (Buss, 2000, 39).
However, when considering Buss’s research in a more general way, one can consider that the answer to the question “Why should humans seek similarity or equity?” summarizes the goal of Buss’s research in a nutshell.
When speaking of the article’s specifics, it is necessary to mention that one of its key peculiarities is the number of curious hypotheses which Buss offers at the very start.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Buss’s suggestion that “biological differences, recurring over millions of years of evolutionary history, fail to select for a sex-differentiated sexual psychology” (Buss, 2000, 40) is a very challenging statement to begin with.
However, Buss goes even further in his research, claiming in his next hypothesis that “parental investment is defined by decrements in a parent’s residual reproductive value” (Buss, 2000, 40).
In addition, Buss also states in his third hypothesis that the choice of a mate depends on not only a momentary sympathy, but also on long-lasting plans: “higher-investing sex can select mates on various grounds, depending on the particular species, to increase the survival and reproduction of her offspring” (Buss, 2000, 40).
The above-mentioned signifies that Buss also incorporates the social exchange theory (Nakonezny
Sonoco Case Study essay help
This research systematically looks at HRM practices and organisational behaviours at Sonoco with aims of identifying current conditions, evaluating practices, providing new designs, and ways of implementing best HRM practices.
The company must restructure its HRM strategies in order to promote new initiatives, meet various functions of HRM such as talent management and support of Sonoco growth strategies, and reduce function’s cost by 20 percent or $2.8 million.
Sonoco is a multinational packaging firm that has over 100 years since its inception at Hartville, South Carolina with a capital of $6000. Sonoco has consumer and industrial packaging as its main business categories. Between 1980 and 1990, the company achieved tremendous success.
However, in the 1990s, Sonoco experienced challenges due to global issues. These factors resulted from the decline in the US manufacturing export economy due to Asian financial crisis of 1997 and 1998. Globalisation created operational challenges and business opportunities to Sonoco.
Sonoco was a highly leveraged company because of its many plants. Therefore, any slight change had severe financial impacts. For instance, between 1995 and 1995, sales fell by six percent (from $2.7 billion to $2.5 billion).
In the same period, the net income increased by 14 percent. Still, Sonoco stock prices fell, which resulted into heavy pressure of restoring shareholders’ value.
Diagnosis Sonoco HRM Situation
Sonoco HRM practices have been highly fragmented. The corporate HR roles are still traditional in which every HR manager focuses on its own initiatives. The HR did not link individual goals and business initiatives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Instead, performance and appraisal systems focused on individuals’ benefits rather than the company’s performance. The compensation system depended on the general manager (GM) who used it to favour their employees. In fact, the company lost revenues from these diverse compensation systems.
Analysis Cindy Hartley’s Objectives for Changes at Sonoco
The role of Cindy Hartley as a senior vice president of HR was to introduce new HRM policies that would change performance management, compensation, development, and succession planning.
The aim of this project is to reduce cost, enhance accountability on talent management, and define the role of HRM in supporting strategic business objectives.
The HRM roles have changed to strategic human resource management (SHRM) and strategic human resource development (SHRD) within a global context (Yorks, 2004; Barney and Griffin, 1992; Vaiman, Scullion and Collings, 2012; Scullion and Starkey, 2000; Becker, 1994).
Based on a resource-based theory, the HR manager can use human resources to create competitive advantage that can support Sonoco strategic business objectives (Noe et al, 2012).
According to Barney, strategic advantage entails “when a firm implements a value creating strategy not simultaneously is being implemented by any current or potential competitors” (Barney, 1991, p. 100).
This observation also supports human capita approach, which emphasise the role of HRM in developing human resource for competitive advantage. This implies that Hartley must apply SHRM in HR developments.
We will write a custom Case Study on Sonoco specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Currently, some of the Sonoco employees (free riders) perform below the accepted standards. Such employees depend on the performance of other members of the organisation.
First, Hartley must initiate changes in which all employees must provide value and returns to the organisation. HR management must spread various talents across the organisation. Thus, various departments can benefit from diverse knowledge, skills, expertise, and experience of different employees (Mello, 2010).
Second, highly qualified human resources in Sonoco are resources with rare capabilities, which organisations must manage or protect. At the same time, Hartley must insist on high-levels of skills and qualifications of potential recruits.
Wright and McMahan observed that such qualities are scarce due to general distribution ability (Wright and McMahan, 1992). Hartley must ensure that selection and recruitment activities focus on recruits with high qualifications and skills, who can promote Sonoco needed changes and a culture of performance.
Hartley must ensure that HR departments consider changes needed in the organisation (Schuler and Jackson, 1987).
Third, according to Ulrich employees for creating competitive advantage must have inimitable quality (Ulrich, 1991). In this sense, HRM practices must focus on ensuring that Sonoco employees have inimitable qualities.
Finally, Sonoco must reorganise its compensations and reward structures. Currently, every division manager decides on what is best for his team, which leads to excessive spending on employees’ benefits.
The system is prone to manipulation. Still, the performance management also makes it difficult to retrench redundant on non-performing workforce.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sonoco by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evaluation Success of the HR Changes at Sonoco and the Sequence of Changes
When Hartley arrived at Sonoco in 1995, she introduced new HRM policies in order to improve performance management, compensation, development, and succession planning. Corporate evaluation shall enable Sonoco to make the required changes in order to realise DeLoach’s Challenges.
Key performance indicators (KPIs) must focus on all line managers and employees in order to create value for Sonoco. Thus, Harley’s focus on key issues shall enable the firm achieve its desired results.
Unlike other HR managers who are unable to define their roles, Harley seems to have identified HRM issues, which affect Sonoco. In order to make her department relevant, Hartley must show values HRM department has achieved through evaluation.
Executives consider HRM initiatives as expenses, which employees must recover in terms of results (Stone, 2010). This argument posits that HRM practices should shape employee’s behaviours and consequently contribute in achieving goals of the organisation.
Hartley can apply Kirkpatrick’s evaluation framework to enable her account for effects of the HRM strategies on performance management, employee development, and succession planning (Kirkpatrick, 1994).
This framework focuses on the trainees’ reaction to training, learning outcomes, changes in job behaviours and performance, and results of HRM practices based on return on investment (ROI).
Hartley must note that effective HRM practices must influence employees’ behaviours and attitude by developing appropriate programmes, which encourage the best performance among employees. Scholars believe that HRM practices can have positive effects on employees and improve a culture of performance in an organisation.
Hartley must perform cost-benefit analysis on her practices. This is necessary because DeLoach wants Hartley to restructure the HR department and save the company 20 percent ($2.8 million).
At the same time, Hartley must recognise that Sonoco is a highly leveraged company due to fixed costs of its many plants. Therefore, HRM initiatives must minimise direct and indirect costs.
The HRM departments must conduct thorough auditing and benchmarking in order to evaluate progress against HR initiatives. Audit ensures that HR department is on track.
This shall enable Hartley to assess current employees’ performance and develop action plans and future objectives for Sonoco. Hartley must collect information from employees for purposes of improving Sonoco strategies and practices.
Design The Right HR Structure for Sonoco – Evaluation of Centralization and Hybrid Options and Justify Your Choice of Option
Hartley must transform HRM practices at Sonoco. Her new design must meet three objectives:
Implementation of a talent development process
Even distribution of HR talent across the company’s large and small divisions
Support of the company’s new growth strategy with strategic deliverables—all while reducing the function’s cost structure by 20%, or $2.8 million
Given the above objectives, Hartley must align HRM practices with objectives of Sonoco through appropriate design and implementation strategies. Hartley presented two options, which were hybrid and centralised models of staffing Sonoco. Thus, we have to evaluate the best method for the organisation.
Centralised model allows management to have direct control over employees and staffing functions. A centralised model shall allow Hartley to exercise control over processes, strategies, budget, and resources.
On the other hand, hybrid (decentralised model) shall allow line managers to control staffing practices, have local recruitment processes, and create their own strategies and processes at every plant in order to meet their local needs.
Lermusi notes that most organisations favour “centralised model (59 percent) while only nine percent of companies deploy a fully decentralized structure” (Lermusi, 2003). About 32 percent of organisations use both centralised and hybrid models simultaneously. In this case, some aspects of HRM practices take place locally and centrally.
Centralised model shall enable Hartley to pursue a consistent strategy, goals, processes, and achieve economies of scale. Conversely, hybrid model shall allow line managers and other managers to pursue their own needs and give them flexibility in staffing issues.
This model shall create a major challenge for Hartley in terms of establishing corporate strategies, standards, and evaluation of the progress of HRM activities. Nevertheless, it is imperative for Hartley to understand how the HRM department is progressing, in spite of the HRM model chosen.
Therefore, the design of these models must reflect the structure of employees’ functions, effectiveness, and reliability. The model should be:
Aligned with Sonoco business strategies; this enables the HR department to align corporate business objectives with HRM strategies and then change them into tactics for implementation.
Consistent; this provides clear ways of evaluation and measurement with specific methods of gathering data for effective comparison.
Actionable; Hartley must develop a suitable metric that can provide useful information for action.
Tracked over time; the design must allow for tracking over time in order to obtain HRM information and trends.
Centralised model shall enable Sonoco to have:
Reduced organisational and transaction expenses
Concentration of the firm’s skills
Effective knowledge management and learning
Effective coordination of organisational main goals
Cater for organisational skills and needs
Allow for consistency in practices and processes
However, centralised model can limit globalisation aspects such as various cultural needs, languages, hiring and firing practices, and regional needs.
On the other hand, if Hartley considers hybrid model, she can achieve the following advantages:
Favours various cultures in the organisation
Responds to diverse needs of regional managers and regional needs
May advocate for local talents, skills, and experiences among others
This model may increase organisational costs, limit knowledge and talent management, and provide inconsistent processes and procedures in executing Sonoco initiatives.
Given these diverse pros and cons in both models, Hartley should consider both options. However, she has to centralise most of the HRM practices in order to maximise benefits and reduce disadvantages.
In this sense, Hartley must implement a corporate (central) HRM practices on issues like performance management, compensation and benefits, talent management, and cost management strategies.
HRM must also review its reward, benefits, and recognition design. This should be a centralised practice. Agency theory focuses on tension between employees and shareholders. Executives want to reward themselves heavily as a way of pursuing self-interest and not interests of the organisation (Bernthal and Wellins, 2006).
For instance, Hartley established that most divisional mangers often manipulated performance rating to wangle salary increments for their staff. Costs in Sonoco have increased due to evaluation processes, rewards, benefits, and through other indirect ways, which mangers manipulate (Jensen and Meckling, 1976).
Agency theory aims to ensure that all stakeholders in an organisation are content with reward and benefit systems in the organisation. The HRM must be aware of varied interests in the organisation. From Sonoco, we have observed that it was difficult to link performance with individuals and there were free riders.
The agency theory shows that some employees have habits of limiting their outputs and relying on roles of other employees (free ride) in cases where the organisation does not provide incentives to motivate them.
Therefore, HRM practices must include motivational practices by understanding behaviours of various employees in order to empower them (Randolph, 2000). As such, HRM must implement effective ways of motivating all employees.
Therefore, HRM must ensure that there are KPIs for evaluating performances and developing appropriate reward and benefit systems for such staff (Mathis and Jackson, 2011).
Hartley must strive to integrate HRM design with succession and development of employees in order to promote growth of Sonoco. Growths and cost reductions are the main priority of DeLoach. Thus, the only solution for Hartley is to integrate talent management with the HRM design.
Talent management is difficult in a large organisation like Sonoco. Talent management goes beyond the traditional roles of HRM and may create difficulties for some HR managers.
Talent management meets employees’ needs and serves organisational needs (Vaiman, Scullion and Collings, 2012). First, Hartley must design a talent management model with all essential elements.
These elements must demonstrate relationships among themselves.
Second, HRM department must establish the scope of talent management model. This is because organisations have various ways of defining talent management. For instance, some firms may view talent management as a way of attracting and retaining high performing workforce.
Others may consider it as a method of attracting and retaining senior executives while some firms take it as an organisation-wide practice.
These methods have implications for HRM practices on talent management. Hartley must consider her three objectives in her design.
To increase GM’s accountability for talent management
To distribute HR talent and support more evenly across the company’s divisions and make HR systems and processes consistent
To optimise HR’s ability to provide customised and strategic support to the GM’s business
Hartley must develop the best model for Sonoco. This may focus on succession planning and aggressive training of existing staff.
Third, Hartley must also consider the available resources for implementing talent management model. Sonoco is a large organisation that may require a complex model (Evans, 1986).
Lastly, Hartley must determine appropriate ways of talent management necessary to ensure effective implementation of the model. The GM must conduct regular performance appraisal for the entire organisation (Marchington, and Grugulis, 2000).
Therefore, all line managers must be accountable for their employees’ talent and performance because they have strong influences on employees’ behaviours and attitude (Purcell and Hutchinson, 2007).
Implementation Sustaining Changes Based on Advise for Cindy Hartley and Harris DeLoach
The focus is on how GM shall implement and sustain HRM initiatives. In this sense, we can apply the vertical, horizontal, and temporal linkages of Gratton, Hope-Hailey, Stiles, and Truss (Gratton, Hope-Hailey, Stiles and Truss, 1999).
The model shall help GM accounts for different HR practices. These include performance management, rewards and benefits, training and development, recruitment, selection, retention of employees, talent management, and succession.
The main aim is to link these practices with HRM strategies for positive productivity and employee retention (Guthrie, 2001). This is a vertical relationship. Conversely, a horizontal linkage accounts for HRM practices and their relationships to one another.
Therefore, the HRM department has a significant function to play in the implementation of HRM practices for sustainability. However, this requires all line managers and employees to play their roles for successful implementation of HRM initiatives organisation-wide.
Effective implementation requires a 360-degree feedback mechanism, which should minimise cases of employees’ dissatisfaction (Carson, 2006).
The GM must centralise important aspects like employee recruitment, selection, and retention in the entire organisation. GM shall also ensure that employees learn strategic objectives and culture of Sonoco in order to add to value strategic goals of Sonoco.
Performance management and development must focus on individual employees, strategic objectives of Sonoco, and motivational needs of employees (Miner, 2005).
Line managers must actively participate in the implementation of performance management, appraisal, talent management, and needs of individual employees.
Therefore, GM must make them accountable for talent management in their divisions. This shall enable such managers identify employees for succession, those who need improvement, and employees for retention and dismissal.
Employees’ performance is the main indicator of success in the organisation (Becker and Gerhart, 1996). Therefore, performance management must reflect effective KPIs of Sonoco. Divisional managers must be responsible for performance appraisal and designing of effective KPIs.
Sonoco must link its reward and compensation system to performance. This shall enable the company to save costs. This is because managers shall not be able to manipulate the process to increase salaries of their preferred employees.
Reflection This case study has provided an opportunity to understand the role of HR in a real organisational setting. It shows that roles of the HR have changed due to globalisation issues and economic conditions. Therefore, the core roles of HR managers have become formulating strategic business objectives.
Analysis of the case reveals how different factors, which relate to employees’ selection, recruitment, performance management, and retention, can influence the overall business outcomes.
However, these roles have become ambiguous, complex, and shifting in directions of other business needs, workforce’s welfare, change agent, and leveraging human capital. It shows that HRM requires clear planning and set objectives based on realistic practices. This enables the HR manager to gauge outcomes based on the objectives.
This cases study shows that the future roles of the HR shall change based on prevailing economic conditions. Therefore, it highlights how functions of HRM shall be crucial in future for achieving strategic business objectives. In addition, it also highlights the need to work closely with line managers and senior managers to manage their staff effectively.
Reference List Barney, J and Griffin, R 1992, The management of organizations: Strategy, structure, behavior, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Barney, J 1991, ‘Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage’, Journal of Management, vol. 17, pp. 99-120.
Becker, B and Gerhart, B 1996, ‘The Impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance: Progress and Prospects’, The Academy of Management Journal, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 779-801.
Becker, G 1994, Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, 3rd edn, University Of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Bernthal, P and Wellins, R 2006, ‘Trends in leader development and succession’, Human Resource Planning, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 31-40.
Carson, M 2006, ‘Saying it like it isn’t: The pros and cons of 360-degree feedback. Business Horizons, vol. 49, pp. 395-402.
Evans, P 1986, ‘The context of strategic human resource management policy in complex firms. Management Forum, vol. 6, pp. 105–107.
Gratton, L, Hope-Hailey, V, Stiles, P and Truss, C 1999, ‘Linking individual performance to business strategy: The people process model’, Human Resource Management, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 17-31.
Guthrie, J 2001, ‘High-Involvement Work Practices, Turnover, and Productivity: Evidence from New Zealand’, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 180-190.
Jensen, C and Meckling, W 1976, ‘Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure’, Journal of Financial Economics, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 305-360.
Kirkpatrick, L 1994, Evaluating Training Programs, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco.
Lermusi, Y 2003, Metrics in Centralized and Decentralized Staffing Functions, https://www.ere.net/metrics-in-centralized-and-decentralized-staffing-functions/
Marchington, M, and Grugulis, I 2000, ‘Best practice human resource management: perfect opportunity or dangerous illusion’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1104–24.
Mathis, L Robert and Jackson, J 2011, Human Resource Management, 13th edn, South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.
Mello, J 2010, Strategic Human Resource Management, 3rd edn, South-Western Cengage Learning, San Fransisco.
Miner, B 2005, Organizational behavior I: Essential theories of motivation and leadership, M.E. Sharpe, New York.
Noe, R, Hollenbeck, J, Gerhart, B and Wright, P 2012, Human resource management: Gaining a competitive advantage, 8th edn, McGraw-Hill, Boston.
Purcell, J and Hutchinson, S 2007, ‘Front-line managers as agents in the HRM performance causal chain: theory, analysis and evidence’, Human Resource Management Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 3–20.
Randolph, A 2000, ‘Re-thinking Empowerment: Why is it so hard to achieve’, Organizational Dynamic, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 94-107.
Schuler, R and Jackson, S 1987, ‘Linking competitive strategies with human resource management practices’, Academy of Management Executive, vol. 1, pp. 207-219.
Scullion, H and Starkey, K 2000, ‘In Search of the Changing Role of the Corporate Human Resource Function in the International Firm’, International Journal of HRM, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1061-1081.
Stone, R 2010 Human Resource Management, 7th edn, John Wiley
Bisphenol A Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The BPA Debate from Two Perspectives
Introduction For over a long period Bisphenol A (BPA), which is a chemical product, has been used in the industrial manufacture of plastics. The plastics include polycarbonates and epoxy resins. This compound is usually produced in large amounts. Polycarbonates are used in very many ways.
The uses include making the bottles that are used in the packaging of water and food. They include medical devices, compact discs, infant bottles, and safety equipment. Manufacturers use epoxy resin in coating metal products. The products are food cans, water pipes, and bottle tops. Composites of dental sealants also have elements of BPA.
Toxicology Bisphenol A mainly gets into the human body through the diet. Other possible ways include water, air, and through exposure to dust. Food and beverages account for the highest percentage of BPA consumed daily by people. Bisphenol A leaches into the food through the internal coated layer of epoxy resin in products.
The products include food storage containers, baby bottles, polycarbonates tableware, and water bottles (Cooper, 2011). The temperature at which the product is stored determines the degree of the leakage of BPA into the food.
The exposure of BPA to people has spread so widely that the issue has become a concern to governments, health institutions and the manufacturing industries. The impact of BPA affects even the unborn and this is likely to lead to the birth of deformed children.
BPA has very toxic effects to people if they are exposed to it at very high levels. Researches carried out on animals revealed lose of weight along with the consequences that come with weight loss.
Government institutions, production industries, and academic research groups have carried out the research surrounding the toxicological effects of BPA (Deligio, 2010). The different groups came to an agreement that there are no adverse effects if people are exposed to BPA in some circumstances.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Exposure resulting from normal industrial production, safe environmental use, and levels below any expected effect are some of the circumstances.
In the reproductive health, children are not affected unless the level of exposure is very high to be considered systematically toxic. The BPA components used in the treatment of parents do not affect negatively on off springs.
The mammary glands including other reproductive organs of parents are also not affected when exposed to BPA during treatment (Soto, 2010). Experiments performed in various laboratories in an attempt to ascertain the use of BPA as a replacement for estrogen have shown that the two have similar estrogenic activities.
The researchers have however failed to confirm its use due to the unknown extreme effects on human beings. Research emanating the above fear reveals that when BPA is used in amounts that induce maternal toxicity then pups from the animals exposed to BPA will have reduced weight in addition to producing less number of live litters.
The number of live litter and postpartum dam weights also reduced. Among the male animals and the off springs of dams, there was a decrease in the weight of reproductive organs and sperm concentration.
A study on rats concerning the sub chronic and chronic toxicity of BPA showed lower weight as the main effect of using BPA in treatment.
The BPA Debate from Two Perspectives In the early 1990s, Dr. David Fieldman almost discovered the migration of Bisphenol A from polycarbonate test tubes he was using into a test-specimen and looked like estrogen.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Bisphenol A specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since then debate has been hot on the BPA’s chemical safety (Weiss, 2011). This controversial debate has been fuelled by bans imposed on the use of BPA and its PC.
The discovery occurred when Dr. Fieldman and his team saw estrogenic activity develop in cultures of yeast that they had not added precursors. Subsequent experiments showed that the estrogenic activity came from the polycarbonate flasks they were using for the growth of yeast and not the yeast that was being used in the experiment.
The journal discusses the response from Dr. Fieldman over the safety of BPA and includes the defense by Steven Hestges from the industry of the BPA Global Group.
In the Journal Dr. Fieldman admits that the first discovery of BPA was accidental. The chemical was first discovered as it looked like an estrogen molecule. It was leaching from the plastic they were using in the synthesis of yeast.
Further prove came when the experiment was done without the yeast as the activity was seen again. Experiments using glass flasks did not show the estrogen activity. According to Dr. Fieldman, the continued use of PC containers to pack food and drinks is a serious health problem that has not been explored well.
It is still not safe to carry out experiments on people though its adverse effects on people are not clear. Based on the results of diethylstilbestrol (DES) it is confirmed that changes caused by BPA are inheritable (Winas, 2011).
The successful use of DES to stabilize risky pregnancies resulted in high risks of vaginal cancer in the DES babies when they approached their late twenties. This carcinogenic effect led to a stop in its use. This proved that the use of the molecule affected the offspring.
Analysis The similarity between BPA and DES showed that BPA changes the epigenetic profile of the animals exposed to it. BPA alters the proteins that cover the DNA and in the process determines what parts of the DNA are to be used.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Bisphenol A by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The long-term effects include causing various types of cancer i.e. uterine, breast, and vaginal among others. (Sato, 2010) BPA is a bioaccumulative chemical making it a high risk factor. Its effects spread fast if it combines with other endocrine disruptors.
Steven Hestges on the hand defends the use of BPA products. He believes that the issue of BPA and endocrine disruptors is fascinating to scientists. He agrees with facts put forward on this matter saying that government legislations are base on them.
To him the use of BPA in its current is safe to human health and therefore acceptable. The new findings on BPA are mere updates of the views previously put forward.
Hestges quotes DR. Joshua Sharfsten of the FDA who argued that banning the use of BPA was acting from the legal perspective but medically it is still safe. No legislation about BPA is new. To him it should be used as the scientists find more facts on it.
Conclusion Analysis of various articles about the safety of BPA I am convinced its use is still safe. The conflicting statements from various scientists do not serve to make matters clear. Even Dr. Fieldman himself in conclusion acknowledges that there is still more to be done to unearth more facts about BPA.
The structure of DES and BPA are very similar hence, the effects of DES cannot be used to rule out the use of BPA. Scientists must dig deep into the matter to make precise differences and similarities are understood.
The regulations surrounding the use of PC containers are currently enough to manage their use. It will be very difficult to develop new packaging products. The loss on the manufactures could be very huge.
References Cooper, J. E (2011). Assessment of Bisphenol. New York: Chemosphere abstract.
Deligio, T. (2010). The BPA debate from two Perspectives. New York: Plastic Solutions.
Soto, A M (2010). Environmental causes of cancer. New York: Endocrinol abstract.
Weiss, B (2011) Endocrine disruptor as a threat to neurological function. New York; Neuroscience abstract.
Winas, B. (2011). Environmental toxicants and the developing immune system. New York: Repro Toxicol abstract.
Leadership Style Emotion Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help
Table of Contents Article Summary
Links Between Performance and Leadership
Case Study, Hypothesis
Best Leadership Models
Quality of Work Life, QWL and Its Effects
Article Summary The article on Leadership Style Emotion has broadly explored the impact of negative and positive organizational behaviors. According to the authors, all leaders aim at maximizing the ultimate performance of their workers in regards to achieving their organizational goals (McColl-Kennedy
Critical Marketing Expository Essay essay help: essay help
Critical marketing has recently become one of the most popular objects of research and analysis.
With the growing body of marketing literature and increased relevance of marketing strategies in business, more scholars are willing to reconsider the relevance of the most popular marketing concepts and advance the role of ethics in strategic marketing.
In this sense, critical marketing is believed to be intended to challenge the existing status quo and promote a more objective view of the postmodern marketing realities. Yet, the meaning of critical marketing is not as comprehensive as it may seem.
On the one hand, researchers need to re-evaluate the intent and approaches of critical theory in the marketing field. On the other hand, critical marketing requires a stronger emphasis on application.
Despite the growing body of critical marketing research, the exact meaning of critical marketing remains extremely ambiguous; one of the greatest problems facing critical marketing is that its findings are rarely translated into practical applications, being used mainly to criticise old ideas rather than propose new ones.
Critical Marketing: Defining the Boundaries Critical marketing is a popular object of scholarly analysis. Different researchers proposed their vision of critical theory in the marketing field.
Hastings and Saren (2003) suggest that critical marketers follow the traditions set by Arnold and Fisher, famous reconstructionists, and use diverse approaches to question marketing processes and outcomes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These approaches may include but are not limited to feminism, sustainability, ethics, and discourse analysis (Hastings
Public Sector Financial Management Compare and Contrast Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction The quality of service delivery in any public service institution is determined by the effectiveness of its internal structures. One of the structures used in the monitoring and evaluation of public accounts is the audit procedure. The main role of an audit procedure is to assess, evaluate and monitor the systems in a public service institution (Moeller, 2007).
Generally, any accounting department in a public institution has to have an audit committee. The committee is normally an independent body comprising of non executive members of the public institution. The committee is mandated to oversee the overall audit programs. In some cases, the committee is tasked to review the internal audit process (Roberge, 2011).
It may involve testing the internal controls for their accuracy and effectiveness. It may also perform operational audits on the overall operational systems. This provides information on the integrity of the accounting and the information systems (Menzel
Houston Air Pollution Essay essay help site:edu
Introduction Air pollution is one of the forms of pollution that affect the environment negatively. Air pollution results from chemical emissions from companies and human actions that pose health risks to individuals as well as to the environment. Furthermore, air pollution may destruct the ozone layer leading to global warming.
Though pollution is virtually everywhere, the paper focuses on Houston, one of the major cities is the US that have unacceptable levels of pollutants that pose health risks to the lives of people, plants, and animals. It addresses the sources of pollution in general besides identifying a major air pollutant in Houston. Further, the paper will present the various bodies put in place to fight air pollution in Houston.
Sources of Air Pollution In Houston, various sources of pollutants cause negative effects to the environment and human beings. Sources of these emissions include toxic pollutants, which are emitted to the environment from chemical manufacturing facilities that surpass 400 in number in Houston (Donaldson et al., 2004, p. 3).
Two among the four largest refinery companies in the US include the port of Houston and the Petroleum Complex both of which are located along the Houston Ship Channel in Houston. Other companies that contribute to these emissions include dry cleaners, printing processes, coating process, restaurants, gas stations, gasoline fueled lawn maintenance equipment, and charcoal barbecues amongst others.
Other important sources of these pollutants are tailpipe emissions that come from trucks, buses, and cars. These emissions are spread to the air. Often, they are inhaled by human beings unknowingly.
Other particles from emissions diffuse into the air. These emissions from these companies have negative implications to the ozone layer in the higher atmosphere. When this layer is impaired by the particles, it becomes a health hazard causing global warming, which increases temperatures on the earth surface.
Air Pollutants In Houston, various air pollutants cause environmental pollution. These air pollutants include “fine particular matter, 1-3 butadiene, the Ozone, asbestos, chromium VI, diesel particle matter, nine hazardous air pollutants, chlorine and hexamethylene diisocyanate, ethylene dibromide, acrolein, benzene, acrylonitrile, acrolein and formaldehyde” (Donaldson et al., 2004, p. 3) amongst others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Ozone air pollutant has high effects on the environment as well as on the health of the people, as revealed next.
The Ozone The Ozone is one of the air pollutants that have raised a lot of concern in Houston for a number of years. The Ozone is a form of gas that usually reacts under the influence of light. Ozone is a two-fold substance implying that it has two layers: one in the high atmosphere and the other one at the ground level that is mostly considered as a pollutant. This air pollutant continues to affect the health of people in the city of Houston.
Measures have been put in place to ensure that the prevalence of ozone gas is minimized. Therefore, the danger inherent in this air pollutant has triggered relevant stakeholders to come up with ways of reducing its levels in the environment (Lezon, 2012, p. 2). The most dangerous areas are Brazoria and Galveston in Houston.
What compelled the issuance of this alert were the atmospheric conditions that indicated that Ozone pollution was in the offing. The Ozone is categorized as a definite risk in Houston because it surpasses the required standards of 8ppm (Donaldson et al., 2004, p. 6). The ratings indicated that it has the highest potential of causing air pollution.
It is among the critical causes of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases that affect people in Houston. Thus, it is an issue that Houston should be concerned about and work hard to bring its level down. The Ozone appears in two forms. One is formed in the atmosphere while the other is formed on the ground level called tropospheric.
The ground level ozone is formed from the interaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)/Oxygen, nitrogen oxides, and the solar energy. For the Ozone to be formed, the most favorable conditions include high temperatures, low speed of the wind, and a low cloud cover (Green Facts, 2012, Para. 2). Surprisingly, Houston reveals all the conditions. The Ozone shields the higher layers of the atmosphere.
It protects people on the ground from the high levels of ultra violet radiations that emanate from the sun. These rays are very strong, as they cause health effects when people, plants, and animals are exposed to them. Furthermore, the ground level ozone is formed from other pollutants. It is able to react with other substances when exposed to light (Lezon, 2012, p. 2).
We will write a custom Essay on Houston Air Pollution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Concentration of the Ozone is mostly higher under the aforementioned conditions. In most instances, busy urban centers of Houston experience low concentrations while suburban adjacent rural areas usually experience higher concentrations of ozone. This scenario is mostly exhibited during sunny summers in Houston.
The Ozone formation varies across cities and the time of the day (Green Facts, 2012, Para. 5). Usually, peak occurs in the afternoons. Ozone is air borne. It is “transportable over a long distance through the air and across the borders” (Hackney, 2010, p. 639). Therefore, the pollutant may affect many people following it capacity to cover wide distance.
Trends Houston city is one of the cities in Texas that have been affected by high levels of Ozone. Environmental protection agency has been in the forefront trying to ensure that all areas and regions in the US remain clean. The enactment of the clean air act was one of the efforts by the EPA to ensure that all regions are free from any form of pollution.
Therefore, in line with this act, various standards have been set up by EPA to ensure that air pollution is minimized. Some of these standards were aimed at reducing the ground level ozone, which has had significantly tampered with the lives of people in Houston. The standards of the Ozone have taken quite some time for Houston to implement.
The notable reasons for the delayed enactments are the variability of emissions in the city. Efforts in Houston seemed to bear fruits in the last 35 years because of adherence to the strict control measures. The clean air act that came into effect in 1970 besides the subsequent amendments to the act has contributed to reduction of the Ozone levels in Houston during the period (Donaldson et al., 2004, p. 5).
However, the level of ozone is feared to have increased after the year 2000 because of various reasons. There is much concern that the issue may become unbearable. This is a worrying path even as the population of Houston continues to increase each day. For this trend to be managed, experts and concerned parties need to collaborate and find the way forward.
Identification of every particular pollutant that poses health effects to people should be investigated and dealt with. For instance, the efforts put in place by the Environmental Protection Agency should be stepped up with regulations and standards being put in place for the state to comply. This will ensure reduction of these pollutants thus making the city of Houston a place that every person will desire to visit.
Sources The source of Ozone is the high temperature that causes the higher atmospheric layer to be prone to ultra violet rays. This layer is important in deterring sunrays from reaching the earth. On the ground level, sources of Ozone emanate from air pollutions and other substances that are toxic in the air. The interaction of these substances causes the effects of Ozone (Coleman, 2012, p.3640).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Houston Air Pollution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, low speed of wind and low cloud covers contribute to the high Ozone levels. This therefore implies that the level of pollution emitted to the air through combustion of substances and chemicals emitted from industries play a crucial role in exacerbating the effects of Ozone.
Therefore, human actions may play a key role in the Ozone air pollution. Studies have revealed that exposure of the Ozone to nitric oxide helps to reduce the levels of the pollutant. This qualifies as one of the strategies that need to be employed to reduce the high concentration of the Ozone, as well as its effects. The Ozone pollutant also results from the meteorological patterns and conditions in Houston.
For instance, between the month of April and that of October, the climate is usually warm and sunny characterized by quiescent breezes that cause the ground level to build up air pollutants that concentrate and cause health effects. Furthermore, high ozone levels are caused by wind especially when it rotates continuously. The Ozone is transported from one place to another as the wind propels.
The wind taps unmoving air in the towns hence transporting it to other areas (Darby, 2005, p. 1788). This therefore makes it difficult to control the spread of the Ozone pollutant.
Apart from the major companies dealing with emissions, other small aggregate airborne emissions have emanate from many other small sources that are spread in Houston such as gasoline-fueled lawn machine maintenance equipment and surface coating processes amongst many others.
Managing the Ozone pollutant Managing the Ozone pollutant has turned out to be a very complex process for policy makers. However, if they want to deal with the solution amicably, they need to trade off between the cost of ensuring that the problem is solved and or whether the problems should continue affecting the health of the people.
Because of the many air pollutants that are in Houston, policy makers should make decisions implicitly or explicitly to determine which pollutants pose higher health risks to be able to strategize on ways to manage them.
Consequences of exposure: Health Risks Various consequences are brought by high exposures to the Ozone. These consequences may affect human beings, plants, and animals. According to Donaldson et al (2004), protection of the health of Houstonians from the effects of environmental pollution and other health risks has always been the agenda and the central goal of the city of Houston (p. 3).
The city adopted various measures to ensure that health of people of Houston is upheld (Green Facts, 2012, Para. 2). These measures include setting up of standards concerning emissions in the environment, requiring the sources of pollutions to limit their levels of emissions, and educating members of the public on the required actions to take to protect their own health besides ensuring that they limit environmental pollution.
These measures have been achieved because the city has experienced a number of risky health implications. Various health risks are associated with the Ozone air pollutant. The consequences of exposure in Houston are evident in the health of those who have been exposed to it.
The vulnerable populations include people who are more sensitive to air pollutants and those with a genetic predisposition, young children, old people who have developed increased sensitivity due to various diseases, environmental and socio-economic factors, and those who are exposed to extremely high levels of air pollutants (City of Houston, 2012, Para. 2).
People who are exposed to the short-term Ozone usually suffer from respiratory diseases, lung, and eye problems. The Ozone level further “increases the level of susceptibility to allergens that are inhaled” (Hackney, 2010, p. 638). When individuals are exposed to the Ozone for longer periods, relatively low concentrations of ozone may affect the functionality of their lungs.
According to Donaldson et al, from the Environmental Protection Agency, many health problems are caused by exposure to high ozone levels (2004, p. 8). He noted that the Ozone poses health problems to children, the elderly, and healthy adults. Asthma is one of the health effects of exposure to high ozone levels. It also causes acute respiratory problems when a person inhales air that is polluted with high levels of Ozone.
It also aggravates emphysema and bronchitis besides impairing the immune system defenses of an individual (Hackney, 2010, p. 639). The other effects of over exposure to high levels of ozone may make an individual have other complications in the body that may make him/her a frequent visitor of health facilities and hospitals.
Ozone Standards under the Clean Air Act The clean air act requires the environmental protection agency to set standards and regulations that should be adopted to ensure that air pollution is minimized. The clean air act requires standards to be established to limit exposure of potentially harmful pollutants in the environment. Six criteria pollutants have been set up by EPA to ensure that environment in various cities, Houston included, is kept clean.
The six criteria standards include “particulate matter, ground level ozone also called smog, lead, Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide” (Lisa, 2012, p. 30088). So far, most of the standards concerning the pollutants have been met successfully by the Houston city. However, the ground level ozone is the only one remaining to be successfully met.
Efforts are underway under the hospice of EPA to revise the standards concerning the Ozone. The proposed plan is to phase out one-hour standard approach to replace it with eight-hour approach to the menace. Since the establishment of the standards, Houston did not comply. Rather, it indicated in its states implementation plan (SIP) that it was planning to attain the standards by the end of 2007, which was the deadline.
Under the one-hour standards that had been set by EPA, every region of the country was not supposed to exceed 125 parts per billion (Schade, Khan, Park,
Product Manager in Mexico and the U.S. Report custom essay help: custom essay help
Being a Product Manager Basically, being a product manager entails developing a particular product in such a way that it appeals to a specific target demographic. What must be understood is that consumer demographics each have their own unique “tastes” when it comes to specific products. As a result, it is necessary to develop products in such a way that they appeal to specific consumers by way of taste, smell, appearance, functionality etc.
For example, a product manager of a soft drink company would attempt to market different classes of soft drinks to suit differing consumer tastes. Examples of this can be seen in the differences between Mexico and the U.S. when it comes to the overall flavor of a soft drink that is being sold in each country.
Consumers from Mexico prefer a certain degree of tartness when it comes to their soft drinks while Americans prefer a greater deal of sweetness. As such, it is the responsibility of the product manager to ensure that the type of product that is being sold in each individual location conforms to the flavors that local consumers enjoy.
Influencing Factors in Getting into this Field The most influential factor in getting into this kind of work comes in the form of the desire to develop a product as if it was your very own child. From conceiving the idea of the product on a drawing board to eventually manufacturing it and having it on store shelves creates a certain amount of pride in a product manager since the idea they initially conceived of is now being bought by consumers.
Should the product become a considerable success this would of course create a feeling of happiness comparable to witnessing your very own child graduate from college.
What type of education is necessary for this job? Should someone wish to enter into this particular type of career it is generally advised that they focus on becoming a product manager within a specific field.
For example, the requirements for a product manager in the food services sector are drastically different to that of a product manager within electronics or social media services. As such, it is advisable that students combine a business degree in management with a secondary degree in whatever field they wish to specialize in.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Advice to College Students The best advice I can give to students in becoming a product manager is to gain as much experience in the field as possible. Academic literature can only get you so far, it is important to develop a sufficient understanding of various consumer demographics in order to understand how to best develop a product that they will buy.
It is due to this that experience will be your best teacher rather than theories and literature which may or may not be able to give you the necessary information you need.
What difficulties can students expect when entering into this particular career? The main problem that students can expect when entering into this field is that they will be unable to rise quickly without sufficient experience. While in other career fields employees can rise quickly given enough hard work and diligence, the world of product management often will not promote an employee unless they have accumulated a certain number of years within the company.
The reason behind this is due to the span of time it takes to understand a consumer demographic and know what does and does not appeal to them.
Ethnic Polarization and the Duration of Civil War Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The article discusses the relationship between the civil war duration and ethnic polarization. The arguments in the article provide that civil wars are key barriers to the development of the economy. Civil wars lead to the destruction of infrastructure, loss of human life and have an effect on future prospects for investment.
The causes of civil wars can be analyzed in relation to their onsets, the duration of the wars, as well as the incidence of civil wars. Civil wars may start randomly, after which conflicts emerge. Factors such as a country having mountains where rebels can hide also contribute to the onset of civil wars.
Civil wars may also emanate from low per capita income; this makes a civil war last longer than it would have lasted if the per capita income was high. Lack of democracy may also trigger a civil war as rebels form militia groups in order to oust an undemocratic regime (Montalvo