Table of Contents Introduction
Indicators of a good life
Introduction Human beings constantly assert that there is only one life to live. This thus compels them to make the most out of it as it is considered to be short. The cornerstone to a good life is happiness which according to the dictionary, is the expression of intense joy and contentment usually classified by most as an emotion, a notion which religious experts sharply differ with. They instead classify happiness as the sum of all factors considered as constituting a good life.
Indicators of a good life In determining the factors that constitute a well lived life, different indicators are used which vary from individual to individual. While some may consider happiness as the leading indicator, others consider spirituality.
In deciding whether a person leads a good life or not, Abraham Maslow, in his 1943 paper, A Theory of Human Motivation (Harriman, 1946), suggested a hierarchical classification of needs. His research was solely based on the assessment of mentally healthy people who were achievers of their generation. These ‘specimens’ were chosen as they were role models and seemed to be the most content with their ways of life.
The most basic needs were at the bottom of the pyramid which was of a physiological nature, fundamental to the survival of the human body. Others that followed were safety, love, esteem and self-actualization. The epitome of this classification was the desire of a person to be something more he already is. In this level of needs, lies the desire to be spiritual.
Understanding spirituality Spirituality is defined as immaterial reality, a notion that allows a human being to understand the essence of his existence. The practices of prayer and meditation are the ways in which people connect to the spiritual world and grow their inner self. They are thus more contented with their own lives and the measure of this contentment is beyond that encompassed in mere happiness.
It summary, spirituality is a level higher than normal happiness; in the broadest meaning of the word. People who are spiritual are at peace and co-exist harmoniously with fellow humans, nature, the entire universe and the divine realm. They unequivocally believe in immateriality and their needs transcend those Maslow described in his hierarchy.
Spirituality has largely been associated with a religious experience; however, with the changing patterns and shift to secularism in the western culture (Burkhardt and Nagai-Jacobson, 2002), there has been a push to dissociate the two.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has led to the emergence of lay spirituality which captures all experiences which make up the human world but attempting to distance itself with the acquisitive views. This concept accepts all practices of meditation which they rank as very useful for human development but do not associate with prayers as there is no belief in God or any other supernatural being.
This notion thus encompasses pluralism, personalized beliefs and openness to newer ideas that may not be tolerated by any particular religious doctrine. Spirituality, therefore, goes beyond religion as even atheists who are skeptic towards the existence of spirits also subscribe to it. The new definition of the term details the connection of a human to some force or energy which leads them to a deep self.
Conclusion Spirituality, according to the above discussion is understood in many different ways depending on personal translation. The only point of convergence is that all those who have achieved spirituality are at the highest level of the human needs realization.
They have achieved peace between themselves and their surroundings and that concludes that they are happy with the way they lead their lives. Contentment with life, as a consequence of spirituality, points to happiness and hence a good life. In conclusion, spirituality is the best indicator of a well lived life in comparison to the other indicators.
References Burkhardt, M. A and Nagai-Jacobson, M. G. (2002). Spirituality: living our connectedness. New York. Delmar, Thomson Learning Inc.
Harriman, P. L. (1946). Twentieth century psychology: recent developments in psychology. The philosophical library, Inc.
Scenarios of Critical Decisions One May Need To Make As a Manager Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Human Resource Management involves handling personnel decisions which have an impact in the performance of any organization or company. These decisions may include hiring, position assignment, training, deciding on employees’ benefit and compensations among others.
For that case most organization’s executives appreciate human resource manager’s experiences and skills in assessing personnel (Charles
Erickson’s Theory of Development Research Paper cheap essay help
Erik Erickson (1902-994) was a German psychoanalyst who expounded on developmental stages in relation to the role of specific stage. He believed that children develop in a predestined sequence where their socialization affects them and their self-perception. For instance, when infant’s emotional and physical wants are neglected, they attain their role through developing capacity to have or lack confidence on them. All the same the unaccomplished roles haunt a person in the stages that follow.
Erickson was convinced that childhood is exceptionally crucial for personality development. Convinced by a number of Freud’s theories he however rejected his notion of expounding personality singly on the ground of sexuality. Erickson asserted that personality continuously enveloped even past five years (Sigelman
Ethical failures in business Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Ethical failures in business are not uncommon. Companies sacrifice even the simplest ethical principles for the sake of competitiveness and higher profits. Customer service professionals and salespeople often find themselves troubled by unethical values, with which they are bound to comply.
Customer satisfaction is rightly considered as one of the weakest elements of corporate ethics: competition and market saturation place new demands on businesses. Pragmatism bordering on ethical absurdity often turns into the main instrument of retaining customers.
Yet, unethical profits are never long-term. More often than not, customers do not accept unethical service and refuse to continue their relationships with unethical businesses. Therefore, organizations must build and sustain a healthy, ethical climate which will serve the basic measure of customer satisfaction in the long run.
Martha Wang has recently been appointed to Consumer Affairs Department of Herb’s Garden Products (Bauer
Challenges of the Huge Data in the Day-to-Day Transactions Term Paper essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Radio-Frequency Identification technology (RFID)
General Use of the Current Technological Devices
Storage Challenges Caused by Hi-tech Devices
Data Loss through Portable Devices
Introduction Through the years, there have been many devices, which have ventured to offer relief and easy working procedures to many users. These devices are rather expensive but have a vital task to perform in this vast and rapidly growing technology globe.
Such devices include Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), multi-media devices and Personal Digital Assistant (PDAs), which in the current market are for carrying out different tasks, or running different applications for user contentment. The most powerful feature they possess is their ability to receive, hold, store and send large amount of data. Current technology provides devices with huge storage memory or ability to transact large information.
There is urgent need to address the implications of handling or accommodating data of such large capacity. The devices have grown from large handheld devices to small portable memory cards or chips but increased in transformation and data storage capacity. This paper addresses some of the challenges the huge data may pose in the day-to-day transactions.
Radio-Frequency Identification technology (RFID) “RFID protocol is a communication protocol that uses radio waves to enable the transfer of data from an electronic tag attached to an object for the reader” (Espejo 2009). When passes through a reader, each of the tags generates a string of datum hat makes up a message.
Failure to filter such messages can easily cause clog up on flow of data thus compromise the meaning of data representation or interpretation when another source of data passes through the same threshold. Filtering data therefore facilitates noise reduction, and ability to reduce redundancy of processed data to significant levels.
General Use of the Current Technological Devices The Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) is mainly used in maintenance of field data through use of various features such as RFID transceivers that assists in reading and writing on the transponder. The Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and wireless modem also manage data in a similar manner. The GPS detects geographical coordinates and with support of the mobile modem, the information is sent to the database.
Most of the current multimedia devices enhance information processing and search tools funnel streams of data from the reader heads to centralized systems or hold the information in virtual machines during real-time transactions. Various devices such as the GPS, RFIDs and PDAs have common style of warehousing data analogously.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Users have therefore forgotten the need to implement methods of collecting, cleaning, transferring, warehousing and updating this huge data at the appropriate locations. Various inferences such as management strategies for the RFID’s generated data are very important. According to Espejo (2009), the data is delivered in real time and thus requires immediate propagation of the infrastructure.
The devices are mostly used for processing and storing office files, calendar listings, phone numbers, maps, images, system files, mp3s, movies and even games. The PDA has been characterized by high storage memory of over 4GB and high speeds of over 133x for duplicating, uploading and downloading files.
Storage Challenges Caused by Hi-tech Devices Although many people as well as organizations preferred to process and store their data in these devices, there can be negative aspects that scores of users fail to cover up (Haylor, 2005). Apart from being beneficial, the devices sometimes cause havoc to the data stores and information management systems.
Ignorance over the huge data management has resulted to mismanagement, collapse of the devices or loss of data, which would otherwise be easy to prevent. If users implement good back up systems for their data or avoiding disintegration of information tin various storage location, devices like RFID, GPS and PDAs would be manageable at all levels of usage (Haylor, 2005).
Many organizations have lost important data through theft such as cyber crimes, due to poor storage or lack of traceability options. Huge amount of information is left on machines for and lack of management procedures causes malfunctions.
The portability nature of these devices has made it easy to carry around and be used anywhere, anyhow and anytime according to user’s needs. Portability has also made the information in the machines to become more vulnerable to theft. Malicious attacks on information thefts target portable data devices since it is easy to establish a connection. Increase in theft is also high due to the soaring venerability rates.
Data Loss through Portable Devices Procedures for storing information have also been altered because these devices are subjected to virus attacks, through sharing and downloading of files.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Challenges of the Huge Data in the Day-to-Day Transactions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Managing information loss has been a high cost to many organizations since a lot of online data transfers from one PDA or one portable device to another can end up infecting the device with attached threats, which ends up destroying the Operating Systems and causing major loss of data (Chumbler, 2007).
Information can also be lost through these devices through hacking. Research shows that people who use devices such as the GPS are vulnerable of loosing their data, as they do not enhance security measures such as passwords or device locks. In many cases, people have hacked through database of many organizations through portable devices, which are codeless (Chumbler, 2007).
Another exponential way of information loss has been through damage. These devices are more vulnerable to damages such as physical breakage than any other form of storage mechanism. Increased capacity for storage means that more data becomes venerable to loss such as theft or system collapse. If you subject a PDA, GPS or RFIDs to instant shock, their data plates will disintegrate and break off.
PDAs are also vulnerable to data loss when batteries run out. This is because a PDA never shuts down even on prompt. All the data is usually stored in the Random Access memory (RAM). It is easy to notice this since upon putting it on, the display changes and displays all data, meaning the devise was still on process. This is a contrasting factor for a PDA, which stores large amount of data (Espejo, 2009).
Many people have had total or major losses after loosing their mobile devices. Current devices curry all personal or official information due to huge storage abilities. This form of information loss limits chances of getting back the information since it means finding back the device.
Sometimes getting back the device becomes null since the data might be compromised. Research showed that many people who have lost their PDAs often plead and give offers to someone who can find the devices due to the huge data losses. People often plead for data recovery and not the devices since data loss is much greater than loosing the device. This shows how important the data is for such people.
Recommendations Current data warehouses for RFID infrastructure depends activities that occur locally at the station. The data faces real-time querying at the source such as the point-of-sales workstation, where it is stored after generation (Espejo, 2009). When one considers getting data from the GPS system, how can one aggregate all generated information to a central point? One of the biggest challenges of managing the collected data therefore involves aggregation since the tag readers can generate and distribute the data to terminals within the network.
Conclusion The store and forward approach is required to manage data at the source since it is an efficient form of transforming information such as enhancing filtering of data at the source, and querying authenticity of foreign locations. There is general lack of designing data to avoid replication, redundancy and storage without any immediate relocation policies in the mobile devices.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Challenges of the Huge Data in the Day-to-Day Transactions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Hisrich (2008), data production and storage requires “simple performance policy on immediate (online) updates of local databases in response to tag-read and other events. Such policy allows push of data to the central infrastructure (which may be composed of several distributed servers) using persistent queues.”
References Chumbler, M. (2007). Access to government in the computer age: an examination of state public Records Laws. Illinois, IL: American Bar Association (ABA) Publishing.
Espejo, R. (2009). RFID Technology: Technology Issues: Michigan, MI: Gale Publishers.
Haylor, P. (2005). Computer Storage: A Manager’s Guide. Indiana: Trafford Publishing.
Hisrich R. D. (2008). International entrepreneurship: starting, developing, and managing a global venture. London, UK: Sage Publication Ltd.
“A Doll’s House”: Stage Design essay help free
What Type of Play is “A Doll’s House”? One of the foremost characteristics of Henrik Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House is that its plot appears linearly defined, which, in turn, explains the semantic realism of play’s overall sounding. As it is the case with most of Ibsen’s other plays, throughout A Doll’s House, characters’ existential stances never cease undergoing a qualitative transformation. The way characters position themselves at play’s beginning is different from the way they position themselves at play’s end. As it will be shown in this essay, stage design and costumes in “A Doll’s House” influence the characters’ self-positioning and the way the conflict unfolds.
There are reasons to believe that the realism of this particular play reflects the actual workings of the author’s analytical mindset. Ibsen never ceased being aware of the fact that the extent of play’s realistic sounding demonstrates the degree of presented characters’ intellectual flexibility, extrapolated in the particulars of how they address life’s challenges.
As Kaufmann (1965) put it, “[Ibsen] knows that truth never is a possession, but a constant effort to find the appropriate response to every situation which demands a decision” (22). The legitimacy of such our hypothesis can be explored with the play’s synopsis.
“A Doll’s House” Summary Nora Helmer is a married woman, who helped her husband Torvald Helmer (bank clerk) once by borrowing a large sum of money from the bank, after forged her dad’s signature. Torvald is entirely unaware of the forgery that had taken place. Initially, he is a loving husband, who affectionately treats Nora, even though he also appears to be utterly ignorant of Nora’s basic humanity – throughout the play, Torvald treats her as a pretty but soulless doll. Krogstad is another important character in “A Doll’s House”
When being faced with the prospect of losing his job in Torvald’s bank, he threatens to blackmail Nora (because of her forgery) if she does not convince Torvald to refrain from firing him. Eventually, Torvald finds out about Nora’s forgery and becomes enraged over his wife’s presumed infidelity.
In act 1 of “A Doll’s House”, he ends up accusing Nora of moral depravity while suggesting that under no circumstances should Nora have considered keeping secrets from him. Torvald’s behavior opens Nora’s eyes to the fact that she has been loyal to an unworthy man who was unable to address life’s challenges and for whom the continuous observation of social customs meant so much more than ensuring his wife’s happiness.
It begins to dawn upon Nora that her staying with Torvald may very well be compared to the stay of a bird in the cage. After having realized it, Nora decides to leave Torvald, who, in her eyes, has been downsized from a respectful head of the household to a regular moralistic hypocrite, unable to appreciate Nora in a way she truly deserved. Nora says good-bye to Torvald and her children and embarks upon the quest to find her lost sense of identity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Play Production The earlier provided outline of the plot points out what can be considered the first indication of the play’s dramaturgic uniqueness – the sharply defined dramatics sounding of its themes and motifs. Therefore, it comes as not a particular surprise that the action in A Doll’s House appears spatially limited. As was pointed out by Jakovljevic (2002): “Ibsen’s family drama [A Doll’s House] is set within the space of perspectival constraints.
The entire play takes place in this single set that represents the living room in a middle-class family flat” (432). What it means is that, while staging A Doll’s House, directors must focus their attention on ensuring the psychological plausibility of themes and motifs, contained in this particular play, as their principal priority. The best way to accomplish this is by exposing the essence of psychological anxieties experienced by the play’s characters, as such that relate to the worries on the part of the audience’s members.
Within the context of Ibsen play’s staging, ensuring action’s psychological plausibility will not represent much of a challenge.
The reason for this is simple – unlike what it is commonly assumed, A Doll’s House is not solely concerned with exploring the theme of women’s liberation from patriarchal oppression. It also exposes what accounts for the existentialist incompatibility between husband and wife – subject matter that even today remains utterly relevant.
As noted by Haugen (1979): “Ibsen’s Nora is not just a woman arguing for female liberation; she is much more.
She embodies the comedy as well as the tragedy of modern life” (vii). In other words, there is a clear rationale for a modernist staging of A Doll’s House, as it would emphasize the play’s contemporary themes and motifs. One way of ensuring the conceptual relevance of Ibsen’s play for a modern audience is to stage an unconventional production. The following is how four elements of theatre (set, costumes, characterization, and audience participation) can reflect a modernist staging of A Doll’s House.
Training, Learning and Development programs Employees Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Training and development
Identifying training needs
Selection of Trainees
Training Administration and trainers
Evaluation of the program
For an effective operation, organizations, whether in service, products, public or private entities, need physical and human resources; scholars in strategic business management have agreed that human resources are the greatest asset that an organization can have; without which no business transaction can take place. Human resources management teams with the assistance of line and top managers have the role of maintaining the right employees in quality and quantity teams.
Generally, to have a winning team, organizations should put in place elaborate programs for hiring, training/learning, development, retaining, and redeployment of its staff. Training, learning and development ensure that human resources expertise and talents have been tapped effectively.
Human resources intellectualism, creativity, and innovativeness are developed via an elaborate training process; when these attributes have been developed, they offer a company a competitive advantage (Muller, Maclean and Biggs, 2009). This paper looks into critical stages in any training/Learning
Effects of Computer Programming/technology on Human Behavior Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Technology and Communication
Technology and Information/Education
Technology and lifestyle
The continued use of computers in our everyday life is beginning to alter how we as humans behave. For instance, “multitasking, output and efficiency” (Ullman 2) concepts that ideally just work for machines are slowly defining “human thought and imagination” (Ullman 2).
Computers have a way of actively engaging an individual or seeking their attention when they are about their businesses by either popping up messages on the desktop about “unused icons on your desktop” (Ullman 1) or aid you in writing a document with software like “Clippit” (Ullman 1).
The concept of multitasking “introduced in 1960’s, was an engineering strategy for making computers more efficient” (Ullman 1) and it achieved this by switching “its attention to some other task” (Ullman 1) while waiting for the next human input when being used.
It is only natural for humans to want to adapt this type of efficiency after “years of working in an environment where efficiency is a god and idleness in any component is intolerable” (Ullman 2) by keeping themselves “as busy as possible” and focusing on different things at the same time (Ullman 2).
For instance, we can “drive, eat, talk on the cell phone” simultaneously in an attempt to be efficient; “the ability to multitask, to switch rapidly among many competing focuses of attention, has become a hallmark of a successful citizen of the 21st century” (Ullman 1). With its continuous advancements, modern technology will continue having an impact especially in the areas of communication, information and lifestyle.
Technology and Communication Communication has never been faster or even more instant with the day to day use of both phones and computers. Phones transitioned from the basic feature phones people used to own for the sole purpose of calling and texting, to smart phones that have amazing capabilities and have adapted the concepts of computers. In his article, Mobile Telephone History, Tim Farley exhaustively discussed the development of these devices.
These devices have brought unique changes (Farley 1). Firstly, mobile phones, whether the smart phones or otherwise, provide an avenue for communication among people of different geographic locations, making distance no obstacle. Software like Skype, enable voice or video calls over the internet and this links friends and families in different continents whether using phones or computers. Secondly, communication has also become instant since one is able to get immediate feedback without delays.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Email services have facilitated efficient communication between employers and employees, students and lecturers, in comparison to letter writing which as compared to previous times would take much longer. Thirdly, all these devices have reduced face to face/personal interaction since communication is hugely done using these avenues. This is definitely a negative effect in as much as communication has been enhanced by modern technology.
Technology and Information/Education Modern technology has in effect enhanced our accessibility to information, whether it is about general world news or completing our research projects for school work. In terms of education: students are able to have online discussion forums, do extensive researches and currently there are even online courses which are available for those who cannot attend classes (this is a milestone since conventionally, classrooms were the only forums of learning).
Thomas highlighted some negativity to this form of education. He claimed that although “online discussion forums can be effective in developing student’s knowledge…they do not allow for social construction between students” (Thomas 1).
Another commendable result of modern technology is its ability to make the globe small, i.e. when it comes to television; people in various places can all be streaming live news coverage in a totally different location from the viewers. This means that information is widespread and covers a larger span in the shortest time possible.
Technology has also enabled news and other events watched on television to be streamed live using computers connected to the internet. Other than education and information, in recent times there have been social networks like facebook, tweeter, among others which the young generation has particularly embraced as a form of disbursing information. Much of the rapid spread of news, information and even learning material owe it to technology for providing easy instant access to such.
Technology and lifestyle Our lifestyles have been transformed by advancing technology. Life can definitely be said to have become easier in more ways than one. First change that is undeniably notable is in the house environment.
People own microwaves, dishwashers, washing machines, driers, vacuum cleaners etc, all in an attempt to ease the work they need to do. Secondly, the transport industry cannot be said to have been left behind in this technology. Buses, planes trains and trams, all characterize how we are networking the different geographic locations in order that efficient mobility is achieved.
We will write a custom Essay on Effects of Computer Programming/technology on Human Behavior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, the work environment is also not spared for there are different machines and devices that have been adapted to improve productivity and enhance efficiency. Robots are also gaining popularity in such forums since they can do the extra work humans allocate them. With all this in mind, as much as our lifestyle is improving by reducing the amount of work we do, caution need to be taken that individuals do not resort to laziness with the excuse that machines will do the work for them.
Works Cited Farley, Tom. Mobile Telephone History. Cems, 2005. Web.
Thomas, Matthew. The Impacts of technology on communication- mapping the limits of online discussion forums. Impact of Technology, 2000. Web.
Ullman, Ellen. “The Boss in the Machine.” New York Times, February 19, 2005. Web.
Young Goodman Brown Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Prelimbib
Prelimbib Campbell, Donna M. “Puritanism in New England.” Literary Movements. Dept. of English, Washington State University. 21 Mar. 2010. Web. This source points to the main principles of Puritanism, the brief that people live in the state of depravity. It helps understand the message of the story.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Young Goodman Brown. Wildside Press LLC, 2005. Print. It is a primary source.
Neary, John. “Shadows and illuminations: Spiritual journeys to the dark side in “Young Goodman Brown” and Eyes Wide Shut.” Religion
Impact of environmental issues and laws in the aviation industry Term Paper best essay help: best essay help
Of late, the world is concerned about environmental conservation and management; domestic and international legislations have been enacted to control operations in different industries in the efforts of attaining sustainable development agendas. The aviation industry has had its share of controls that have affected its operations negatively and positively.
National Air Transport Association applauds the efforts made by environment conservation movements, but it is quick to point out that Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) policies have limited growth in the industry (Aviation Today, 2008). This paper discusses the impact of environmental issues and laws in the aviation industry.
Negative effects of environmental laws and legislations on aviation industry Limited growth
Although the industry appreciates, the efforts of environmental movements like Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Friends of the Earth, the industry feel that the requirements of the set policies limit its growth.
The legislations generally wish to reduce emission from aircrafts; however, they have not developed the machines and engines that are environmentally friendly, they leave the burden to aviation companies. When a company is planning on its developments, it sets the base on the available base of operation; however, the same operation level is challenged by environmental conservation movements. The industry thus lacks a constant source of income necessary for development.
To initiate programs requested by the legislations, it requires massive capital investments; this diverts the need for resources. Aviation companies are left at cross roads whether they should initiate recommended environmental programs or they should consider normal development policies. When aviation companies produce environmentally unfriendly products, legislations in some countries charges them pollution taxes that is not an allowable when computing corporation taxes. The taxes are an additional expense to the company reducing resources available for services expansion.
To be compliant, some machinery and aircrafts have been regarded useless since they cannot life to the standards of the legislations; this is an additional cost of disposal to the industry. In some companies, they have received negative publicity from the conservation groups as they advocate for efficiency and environmental conservation, this has directly affected such businesses (Linda, 2007).
The standards set by environment laws and legislations have forced aviation companies to use expensive equipments that are “green compliant”, the cost of such equipments is passed down to the consumer making the services offered more expensive. According to the low of demand, when prices of a service has increased, then the demand for the commodity increases; with the expensive equipments and operating materials, then the demand for aviation services reduces.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the commodities that the laws want used include disposable bags in airplanes, fuel-efficient aircrafts, and aircrafts that do not produce noise.
Kyoto protocol that was ratified in Japan, on 11 December 1997 and aimed to be fully implemented by 16 February 2005, aimed at reducing green house emission . It was a project of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and ratified by 37 industrialized countries and European community.
The main aim of the protocol was to ensure that emission of green house gasses was reduced by 5% below their level in 1990 by the end of 2010. The protocol targeted the major greenhouse emitters; the aviation industry was one of the considered industries. When fulfilling the needs of such conventions, the aviation industry has lost some business at least for the short run (Ernesto
Similarities between Capitalism and Socialism. Compare writing essay help
Introduction Socialism has been regarded as kind of economy which relocates its means of production from individual ownership to state ownership and communal ownership.
A state that operates under socialism possesses all the means of production and also supervises them. This system has been believed to construct a different egalitarian system which is founded on the values of cooperation and solidarity. However, this further relies on another feature where human beings are viewed as capable of interacting and cooperating with one another (Newman 3).
Capitalism on the other hand could be reffered as a system where means of production are employed and owned by individuals. This kind of economy develops under the right of an individual who decides freely where and how they want to produce (Hunt and Lautzenheiser 5). Therefore these are two diverse systems; the following essay illustrates the differences and similarities between these two systems.
Economy and Trade Marxist economists described various ideas concerning socialism and capitalism using various illustrations. According to his famous accounts, capitalist was depicted as destructive, a kind of system that is prone to crisis and administered by logic of capital. It was mostly expressed on the basis of economic laws of motion also the desire to accumulate on the capital.
However, socialism denoted elimination or suppression of such logic and its fundamental drives and laws, hence created the likelihood of a rational, organized way of managing social and economic life. Marxist economists condemned capitalism because of instability and irrational outcomes of a system based on private markets and properties.
Marxist noted the devastating social and economic outcomes of capitalist organizations, economic anarchy; for instance, sales seldom matched actual or expected levels of production, and the overall amount of savings planned for investments, hence affecting business cycles. Other associated crises were ineffective outcomes and uneconomical expenditures which led to starvation, unemployment, and ecological deterioration.
There was social disintegration and fragmentation because of unequal distribution of power and wealth and promotion of privacy, social interests, and personal interests over public. It encouraged alienation for instance through commodity fetishism because conception of false needs was encouraged rather than satisfaction of true needs. This led to denial of genuine individual knowledge concerning themselves and also the society surrounding them (Ruccio and Amariglio 216-17).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In contrast, socialism because of eliminating the scope of private markets and properties and its institution of planning, it has been represented as a system that demonstrates basic rationality and stability. Therefore, the results were fairly different; economic coordination and balance which was supervised by a central planning board and analyzed by enterprises and ministries.
Furthermore, the system portrayed effective and socially beneficial expenditures which were based on coherent calculations and no profit making motive. The system created unification and social harmony because of establishment of relative equality and social and private interests which were then allowed to converge.
More importantly, it promoted self realization and true needs could be articulated and the nature of social interactions was transparent and immediate. Marxist economists has also noted the degree at which capitalism has been based on individual exploitation which involves extraction of surplus value while in socialism almost all surplus was appropriated communally or socially (Ruccio and Amariglio 216-17).
Property Rights Socialism could be defined as transfer of titles of a particular property from those individuals who have invested scarcely to those who have contractually acquired them or for some different use. It could be regarded as a social system where the scarce resources or means of production which are utilized to produce consumption products are socialized or nationalized.
The concept of socialization of means of production has been practiced in a number of countries such as Soviet Union and afterwards by Soviet dominated nations of Eastern Europe and various countries all over the world. If private property becomes the means of production, then one encourages differences. By eradicating private ownership everybody’s ownership means of production is equated.
Every person becomes the co- owner of all the properties and this reflects every individual’s identical standing as a human being. The economic rationale of a scheme like that one is suggested to be more effective. In contrast, capitalism which concentrates on private ownership as the means of production seems to be very chaotic. It appears more of a wasteful system which is characterized by ruinous competition, duplicating efforts and lacks concerted, coordinated action.
Unless the communal ownership is substituted with private then it’s possible to eradicate that waste by executing a single, coordinated comprehensive production plan. The property regulations which are assumed under the socialization policy and those which comprise the general legal principles of nations such as Russia are distinguished by two complementary attributes. First, no one possesses socialized means of production but they are owned socially.
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Compare of Capitalism and Socialism Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Capitalism: A brief overview
Capitalism: A current perspective
Socialism: A brief overview
Socialism: A current perspective
Socialism and Capitalism: causes for debate
Differences between Socialism and Capitalism
Similarities between socialism and capitalism
Recommendation and Conclusion
Arguably, one of the most outstanding features in human beings is their ability to design systems that help them develop various aspects of their civilizations. Over the last century, nations all over the world have implemented various systems that help them allocate, distribute and govern the available resources accordingly.
Despite the effectiveness exhibited by these systems, various scholars and system analysts have come up with evidence that either support or disapprove such systems in relation to how they help the citizenry achieve their needs, and how the governments allocate various resources. Among the most common systems adopted by most nations are the capitalistic and the socialistic economic systems.
Through their use, these systems have in the recent past proven to be effective to some and detrimental to others. This research paper shall set out to explore the differences and similarities between these two systems. A detailed analysis of how each of these systems affects the distribution of wealth and resources within different nations shall also be provided.
This shall aim at elaborating the extent to which each of these systems has proven to be effective in maintaining certain socioeconomic aspects such as human right, health care, social economy, model of development and social wellness among others in specific nations.
Capitalism: A brief overview According to Hooker, Capitalism traces its roots back to the early middle ages where individuals participated in a form of trade known as mercantilism (1). In this trade practice, individuals would distribute goods and services with the main aim of getting profits (Hooker 1).
One of the recurrent characteristic in this form of trade was that merchants would buy goods from one region and redistribute the same to other regions at a higher price. As time went by, this system of trade was introduced and adopted by other nations across Europe. It is from here that the word capitalism was used to define this evolved economic practice.
Capitalism: A current perspective Considering these undertones, Capitalism can be defined as an economic system in which individuals exercise a high level of freedom in matters regarding to acquisition of property, price determination and private ownership of resources. Members of a capitalistic economic system have the freedom to make their own decisions as relating to how best they can utilize the scarce resources in their possession as well as the freedom to own and operate a business of ones choice (Blumenthal 8).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This indicates that in such economies there is little to no government interference on how businesses, income and profits are earned or regulated. In economic terms, Petras asserts that capitalistic economies are run by the forces of demand and supply (1).
In light of this definition and description, one would argue that this is the most convenient system of economic governance because individuals have the freedom to conduct business in a manner that best meets their business goals (making profits and market expansion), all the while appealing to their creativity in running business endeavors (survival for the fittest). However, documented and practical (real life situations) evidence has in the recent past proved that this assumption is far from the truth.
Socialism: A brief overview In the world we live in today, historical as well as present economic situations have proven that granting individuals the freedom to determine market trends (prices, supply, resource allocation and distribution among others) is not only detrimental to ethical business practices, but also prevents the less fortunate from having access to some much needed social amenities such as roads, hospitals, schools and in some instances land.
The socialistic economic system is based on the principles of equality, freedom of expression and individual’s ability to exercise democracy. As such, is an economic system through which government and other significant regulatory bodies determine how, scarce resources should be allocated and distributed equally to all sectors of their economy.
Socialism: A current perspective In regard to the above description, socialism can be described as a political and economic theory which advocates for the equal distribution of a nation’s scarce resources and wealth through the government (Pierce 16). Arguably, this is a convenient economic system in today’s world which is characterized by greed, injustices and high inequalities in both the social and economic/income perspectives.
Socialism and Capitalism: causes for debate Ask yourself this question: what would happen to the world if people were allowed to only produce goods and services that earned them high profits? Would you afford to buy a car, use the roads, hospitals or even have access to a descent education? The answer that pops up in my head is; ‘NO’. This is mainly attributed to the fact that such amenities have proven to be of great use to us as human beings. In other words, they are highly demanded by people.
It therefore goes without saying that if they were individually owned with no government interference or regulations, the prices charged on such amenities would be insanely high such that only the rich in the society would benefit. So what happens to the poor members of the populace? This scenario highlights the differences between these two economic systems.
We will write a custom Essay on Compare of Capitalism and Socialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Blumenthal, capitalists believe in the notion that survival is indeed for the fittest (274). As such, the author suggests that capitalists are firm believers of the fact that everyone has a right to own as much land, property, resources as he/she is able to acquire.
Pierce further reiterates that capitalistic economies are defined by the notion that people who do not work as hard as those with property and other resources should not eat or be given special considerations because wealth is a reward for a person’s determination, creativity and aggressiveness in similar business situations (387).
These are logical arguments considering the fact that if people were spoon-fed without any ambitions or efforts, the world would have been a sad place characterized with low productivity, poor growth and development and poverty. As such, the capitalistic economic system would be most desirable if a nation wishes to promote determination, wealth creation and hard work among its citizenry.
However, Ross asserts that this economic system and its proponents fail to acknowledge the fact that there is no country within which people enjoy equitable distribution of natural resources (85). This is mainly due to geographical and climatically factors which in most cases affect the level of resources that can be found in a specific region within a country. In addition, people do not have equal mental skills.
This means that while an individual in Afghanistan can comfortably do some productive farming in the desert, another individual in the Sahara desert may not necessarily posses the same intellect or skills to do the same. In addition, the capitalistic economic system undermines the fact that no government can guarantee employment to all its citizens.
On the other hand, socialists believe in the notion that the government should be responsible for the allocation and distribution of resources within their countries.
This sentiment is further accentuated by the fact that government-regulated resource allocation is the most viable means of promoting equal growth and development within the country as well as an effective tool for combating inequalities and poverty within a nation. With these undertones, this report shall use various parameters to indicate the differences and similarities between these systems.
Differences between Socialism and Capitalism Arguably, people go to work or spend most of their time working so that they can accumulate their wealth base and get financial rewards which in turn enable them to achieve set goals and objectives. According to Ross, capitalistic economies are governed by very strict policies regarding the ownership of private property (128).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Compare of Capitalism and Socialism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As such, it would be safe to suggest that economic beliefs held by capitalists are most often influenced by private investment and innovation. This means that capitalistic economies are designed in such a manner that citizens can freely buy and sell their own property/possessions. This is not the case in socialistic economies in which private ownership of property is to a large extent discouraged or lack property rights (Kronenwetter 67).
In regard to investments, Pierce alludes that socialism discourages its proponents from investing (214). Personal investment means that some people will have more resources or wealth than others and this would go against the principles that govern this economic system.
In addition, people probably shy away from investing because at the end of the day, their effort will not matter as much as the notion that they should share their wealth and resources with those who do not have regardless of their effort or contribution in the investment (Pierce 229). Blumenthal therefore asserts that in a socialist setting, the probability of lazy people exploiting their hardworking counterparts is significantly high (114).
On the other hand, Blumenthal argues that unlike socialism, capitalism is a source of encouragement in regard to creativity and innovation (267).
The author suggests that due to the unequal distribution of resources that is normally backed by the capitalists’ desire to succeed; people are often under pressure to exhibit high levels of innovativeness and creativity as they struggle to remain relevant in an economy characterized by high levels of competition related to resource and market share acquisition.
This assertion is further reinforced by the fact that in most cases, people who have limited resources tend to work harder than their counterparts with more resources.
Similarly, Blumenthal sheds some light on the fact that capitalists have a right to patent their property as long as they do not infringe the rights of other people (28). As such, monopoly is a common and acceptable practice in capitalistic economies. However, this is not the case with socialism where every piece of property is government owned and monopolistic business entities are not allowed (Pierce 38).
A great example to expound this fact is the American health care system which is documented as being the most expensive in the world. This is mainly due to the fact that most insurance companies as well as health care facilities are owned by private parties who normally prioritize profits before safeguarding the wellbeing of their clients.
However, this is not the case with Australian health systems where the universal health care system which allows all citizens equal treatment is adopted. The American health care system is an example of a capitalistic business practice while the Australian system represents the socialistic approach in healthcare delivery.
Similarly, a look at the capitalistic Russia indicates that capitalism is detrimental to the growth of any economy. For example, since Poland shifted turned into a capitalistic nation, more than 20% of its labor force were considered unemployed by the year 2004.
In addition, 30% of the employed citizens get low paying jobs. Additionally, the real per capita growth of Poland has decreased significantly in comparison to the preceding 15 years that the country was socialistic in nature (Petras 1). The economic situation being experienced by the people of Poland are similarly being experienced by people in Bulgaria, Romania and most parts of East Germany which is filled with capitalists.
In addition, Russia which is a capitalistic economy has in the past two decades experiences political and economic unrests and declined progress due to the fact that most of the resources therein are owned by a numbered few who use illegal means such as murder, corruption, intimidation and violence to cut-off competition.
In addition, the nation is run by criminals who pillage resources for personal gains. As a result, the provision of social amenities such as hospitals and schools has declined significantly since such issues are not given adequate budgetary allocations in the national budget.
Similarly, the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS has increased even among young children who are subjected to child labor or forced labor as prostitutes and drug peddlers. In regards to mortality and life expectancy rates, the number of premature deaths increased above 15 million deaths after Russia transitioned to capitalism.
Petras suggest that these numbers would have been significantly lower if Russia stayed as a socialist nation (1). In addition, the life expectancy rate of Russian men decreased from 64 years to 58 years as a result of the increased rates of suicide, drug abuse, alcoholism and prostitution which came about after the transition into capitalism.
On the same not, a country like Armenia which was recognized as a technological hub has been reduced to a sad state of affairs where the number of scientists and researchers reduced from 20, 000 in 1990 to a shocking low of 5,000 professionals in 1995 (Petras 1).
Currently, the country is run by criminals and most of the population therein do not have access to power and heat facilities. These are the side effects that capitalism has on an economy.
The fact that people in capitalistic economies have unrestricted rights to do as they please means that the rich will get richer while the poor becomes poorer. The level of lawlessness exhibited in the above mentioned capitalistic nations is proof enough that without regulatory systems, most of the core values that hold a nation together are most likely bound to be neglected as people try to fight for survival and accumulation of personal wealth.
In contrast, Cuba and Bangladesh have recorded significant progresses since they adopted the socialistic system of economic governance. For example, by the year 2003, Cuba’s infant mortality had improved significantly (6 deaths per 1000 live births) as compared to statistics presented in 1989 (11 deaths per 1000 live births).
In addition, Russia only spent an average of 5% of its GNP on public and private health care while Cuba spent a little over 16.7% to support the same. In addition, the male life expectancy rates increased to 74 years in 2003 while it reduced to 54 in Russia (Petras 1).
During the same year, unemployment reduced by 3% in Cuba. This was as a result of the government initiative which enabled the youth to access training and educational programs that facilitated their efforts of acquiring employment. In contrast, capitalistic Poland had a 21% increase in unemployment during that period (Petras 1). Poverty has also reduced significantly in Bangladesh and Cuba.
This is mainly due to the fact that socialistic economies have regulated minimum wages which are increased in accordance to the type of job being done. In addition, the fact that resources are government owned means that they are distributed equally thereby promoting balanced progress in all sectors all the while ensuring that citizens have access to the basic social amenities. These are the characteristics of socialism that have aided such countries progress to such unimaginable statuses.
Similarities between socialism and capitalism Ross states that the distribution of resources is the key concern in both the Socialism and Capitalism systems. In capitalistic settings, resources are distributed by those who have the ability to acquire them while in socialistic economies; resources and wealth are distributed by the governments. Similarly, both systems have proven to be unfair to various members of the economies. In both cases, wealth and resources are not distributed fairly.
For example, since the government allocated and distributes wealth and resources in a socialistic economy, people who work hard are at a loss since their efforts and rewards will be shared amongst those who do not have regardless of the reasons behind their lack of performance. The same case applies in capitalistic economies where those who are able acquire more resources than those who cannot access them regardless of the reasons behind their inabilities.
As regarding to company policies and management, both economic systems share the concept that markets can be monopolized. For example, the government in socialistic economies controls the market since it has all the resources. The same is true in capitalistic economies where the person/organization with the most resources controls the market (Blumenthal 231).
Regardless of the characteristics, the government has the power to decide and intervene in both systems. By using various economic policies, the government can influence capitalistic markets just as much as it does on socialistic markets. On the same note both systems make provisions for their citizens upon retirement.
For example, in capitalistic economies, private organizations as well as those owned by the government offers their retired employees pensions which help them cope and survive after their contracts have expired. Similarly, governments in socialistic economies have programs that cater for the needs of retired employees when the time comes. These are some of the similarities that are evident in socialistic and capitalistic economic systems.
Recommendation and Conclusion This report has effectively illustrated that there are differences as well as similarities between socialism and communism. While each has various strengths and weaknesses, the discussion herein has shown that capitalism is not the best economic system to adopt in this day and age.
The risks associated with capitalism far outweigh the benefits as has been proven by the examples illustrated in this paper. Considering the fact that both systems have loyal followers, it would be best if they set aside their differences and learn from the weaknesses inherent in their preferred systems.
For example, while socialism advocates for the spirit of brotherhood (sharing and equality) among its followers, it has been noted that lazy socialists may take advantage of their hardworking counterparts and conveniently survive on their effort and sweat. On the other hand, capitalism is based on the Darwinian concept that survival is of the fittest. However, there are capitalists who may suffer due to inadequate access to resources despite the fact that they may want to succeed.
As such it stands to reason that socialists should adopt the Darwinian concept in a bid to promote hard work among fellow socialists and at the same time, the capitalists can utilize the brotherhood concept and share with those who are less fortunate in their economies.
Implementing such a strategy would not only guarantee economical success in terms of growth and development, but it would also ensure that followers in these systems enjoy some peace, equality and fairness as they go about their day-to-day activities. By accepting these changes, the world can finally look forward to a future characterized by practices that work for the common good of all.
Works Cited Blumenthal, Max. Republican Gomorrah: Inside the Movement that Shattered the Party. Minnesota: Minneapolis, 2009. Print.
Hooker, Richards. Capitalism. Web.
Kronenwetter, Michael. Capitalism versus Socialism: Economic Policies of the US and the USSR. California: San Francisco, 1986. Print.
Petras, James. Capitalism versus socialism: The great debate revisited. Web.
Pierce Charles, P. Idiot America: How Stupidity Became a Virtue in the Land of the Free. Massachusetts: Yarmouth, 2009. Print.
Ross, John. Murdered by Capitalism: A memoir of 150 Years of Life and Death on the American Left. California: San Francisco, 2006. Print.
Experimentation on Animals Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Presenting the Case
Introduction The debate about experimentation on animals, though well documented in literature, is still endeavoring to free itself from past controversies and current challenges.
This particular debate have attracted many advocates and critics, each advancing valid reasons as to whether it is morally, scientifically and logically right to subject animals to experimentation (Horner