Spin, Science And Climate Change Report Best College Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Climate Change


Works Cited

Introduction Proponents of climate change argue scientifically that the cause of global warming is the accumulation of green house gases and water vapor in the atmosphere over a period. On contrary, opponents view global warming as scientific assumption and fraudulent which does not obey the physical laws of nature.

The controversy has lead to conclusion that “action on climate is justified, not because the science is certain, but precisely because it is not” (The Economist Para. 1). This conclusion questions the validity of the scientific evidence and recommendations used by politicians to achieve their desired ends.

Climate Change The United States senators and industrial groups discussed on legislations to regulate carbon-dioxide emissions based on the scientific recommendations from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

The implementation of the legislation is still to face some drawbacks such as unwillingness of the politicians as demonstrated during Copenhagen summit, economic recession, and credibility of climatologists (The Economist Para. 2). These drawbacks enhance the doubts and give an upper hand to the skeptics of global warming to reject scientific recommendations.

Although the United States government took seriously the problem of climate change at first instance by establishing the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, their recommendations attracted opposing views.

While some politicians felt that the problem of climate change have been overstated others felt it was understated. These opposing views have increased doubts on the certainty and reality of the global warming since politicians and journalists seem to be simplifying and exaggerating the problem of climate change.

The economic recession and the uncertainties of the scientific report has provided basis for unwilling politicians and economists not spent money in combating climate change (The Economist Para. 3-5). The controversy pose a great challenge to the scientists since their results and recommendations are misinterpreted hence it is a daunting task for them to regain their credibility.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The IPCC report illustrated uncertainties in their predictions by giving a very wide range of temperature increase. Due to the demands for certainty by the politicians and voters, varied scientific results are subjected to many interpretations to suite their interests.

For instance, exaggeration of the global warming effects may provide temporary measures to combat it, although it is wrong and dangerous approach of influencing people to support unknowingly (The Economist Para. 6). Exaggeration of the climate change effect and occurrence scare people in favor of certain political views rather than concrete scientific evidence.

Skeptics argue that the uncertainties and inconsistencies of the IPCC report exaggerate the gravity of the climate change because the results were very subjective and had many mistakes. Moreover, allegations of the unwillingness to share data by the scientists before Copenhagen climate summit raised more concern and criticism about the certainty of the results and the criteria of determining the extent of climate changes.

There is a perception that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is a political tool used by the government hence it has lost credibility and public confidence (The Economist Para. 7). Loss of credibility on the part of scientists is a deadly blow to the world of science.

Conclusion The uncertainties and inconsistencies of the scientific results coupled with the varied political and economic interests led to the manipulation and misinterpretation of scientific recommendations. The misinterpretation of the scientific results has raised questions over credibility of scientific procedures that seem unreliable in defining strategies of solving climate change.

Works Cited The Economist. “Climate Science: Spin, Science and Climate Change.” The Economist Newspaper Limited, 18 Mar. 2010. Web.


Reflection of Society Today Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Technology Innovation

Culture of Shopping

Social Capital

Use of the Internet

Reference List

Introduction Interpersonal disconnection is a social self-motivated phenomenon involving the reciprocated creation of a distance between people living in the same society. This adversely affects not only the social life of people but also their relationship with one another. Interpersonal disconnections cause a lot of pain and tension as people try to protect their feelings.

It is important to note that, an interpersonal disconnection does not happen overnight but goes through three main stages. The first stage is called the reconnection stage in which a mutual bridging is created; the second stage is referred to as stasis where an individual starts to adopt the rational distance created between them.

Finally we have distance creation in which the rational distance widens. This process does not just happen but it is triggered by people. When this happens other processes are triggered which results in alterations in social organization. This paper will focus on the perspectives of Pappano and Putnam as they try to explain the concept of interpersonal disconnections.

Technology Innovation Pappano holds that technological innovation is one of the factors that can trigger interpersonal disconnections. According to her, as technology advances, new communities are created from the existing ones; people tend to distance themselves from one another as they seek for a common ground.

They group themselves into different social classes with common interest and aspirations. Pappano argues that, technology is playing a big role in the growing phenomenon of loneliness based on its aptitude to unite people in new and different ways. As this is happening, people are feeling more isolated and estranged from each other. She wonders why this happens and how it is associated with the cultural factors and insinuation that correspond with it (Pappano, L. (2001).

I agree with Pappano’s perspective because, I think technology is the main contributing factor to this phenomenon. People who have advanced technologically tend to distance themselves from others or look for people who hold a common ground with them. Not all people are successful in this and most of themselves becomes lonely and involves themselves in other activities such as reading or watching movies.

Culture of Shopping Pappano observes that the culture of shopping has changed drastically and most people prefer to do distance shopping for materialistic purposes. This has continued to widen the gap that exist between the haves and have not thereby leading to interpersonal disconnection.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Shopping has become a way of valuing relationship, people no longer shop just to acquire goods and services but to form a basis for negotiation (Pappano, 2001). The language used has changed and now people can shop for almost every thing including mates. It has also become a means for finding love and or attention which might be lacking elsewhere.

Social Capital Putnam (2001) has used the term social capital to depict how essential elements of society life, for instance, interpersonal trust and social networks present the means for people to work together on mutual problems.

Social capital involves psychological and sociological factors that have inferences to political functioning. It is this concentration on social views and practices away from politics that makes hypothesizing on social capital and civic culture so important in forming an assessment of the association between models of media use and commitment in civic life.

The understanding of taking part in community projects, volunteering, and participating in other communal activities strengthens norms of compulsion and teamwork, cheering further involvement in community life (Putnam, 1995a, 1995b). Similarly, social trust grown in small group relations is considered to function as a heuristic that is useful in decisions to partake in large-scale communal action efforts

Remarkably, Putnam’s apprehension with the collective decline in social capital argues for the centrality of community practices, interpersonal trust, and life satisfaction in studies of civil society. He emphasizes that involvement and trust have declined, equally contributing to the wearing away of community life (Putnam, 2001). At the same time, life contentment appears to have gone through a noticeable drop, with rates of hopelessness and suicide among young people increasing.

Use of the Internet Putnam argues that, the use of the internet is another factor that triggers interpersonal disconnection. According to him, people use the internet for social recreation, for instance playing games, and chatting with friends. This creates a negative effect on how people engage themselves in civil activities and can even reduce trust in other people.

On the other hand, the use of the internet for gathering information may have a positive impact since it results in life contentment as people are able to learn different things which they may share with their friends. However, the negative effects of the use of the internet are more severe and can lead to interpersonal disconnection. This is because, as people get more and more oriented to the internet, they tend to shun away from social activities such as social gatherings, and rely on the internet for communication (Putnam, 2001).

We will write a custom Essay on Reflection of Society Today specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This only favors people who have access to the internet thereby disconnecting them from the others. It is evident that, people who use the Internet for entertainment or socialization rarely experience the benefits associated with social capital. If that is the case, recreation and socializing may become disconnected while the misapprehension of social interaction is upheld.

Reference List Pappano, L. (2001). The connection gap: why Americans feel so lone. New York: Rutgers University Press

Putnam, D. (2001). Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community. California: Simon Schuster


Australian Museum Preview Essay cheap essay help

Introduction Museums may serve to preserve the most important events from history. Its main function is to present society with cultural, social, economical, and political controversies of the past.

By exhibiting artifacts as historic evidence, various museums attempt to educate people and make them understand the actual value of the presented evidence. Two museums under consideration – National Museums of Australia and the Smithsonian Institutions – are considered to be the time keepers of the world history. Their exhibitions have contributed to better highlighting the crucial points of history.

Nevertheless, some of the exhibitions have received mixed evaluation of critics due to the museums’ failure to find appropriate strategies for presenting and explaining the events of the past. The problem is that their vision of history contradicts national policy. Hence, on the one hand, the main task of museums is to objectively present the facts based on the evidence. On the other hand, they should set the priorities and emphasize the key themes of their nations.

Social roles performed by museums. Discussing peculiar features of the National Museum of Australia It should be stressed that museums play a vital social role in describing the history and depicting the most historically important events happened in the past. What is more important is that the character of presentation can influence people’s attitude to the history and their awareness of the past. In this respect, wrong presentation and irrelevant emphasis on less important events can impose some distorted views.

Due to the fact that museums have a huge impact on the way society treats historical facts, there are a lot of controversies concerning the problem. In the same way, the National Museum of Australia considerably influences the character of history in terms of embroiled presentation of facts distinguishing the history of nation (Trinca, p. 85).

In particular, much criticism has been imposed concerning wrong setting of priorities in disclosing the facts from the Australian history. According to the 2003 review aimed at evaluating the museum performance and successes, the museum turned out to have certain drawbacks that can lead to a considerable distortion of the Australian history (Trinca, 2003, p. 86).

While visiting the National Museum of Australia, it has been discovered that the museum’s exhibitions and scientific exhibitions lack accuracy and coherency of storytelling. In particular, the main problem was a rigid disconnection between the material evidence and written explanation that is either insufficiently provided or, vice versa, is excessively emotional.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One way or another, the museum visitors can be deluded by the way the museum submits the history (Trinca, 2003, p. 85). However, the managers of the National Museum of Australia justify their actions and implementation of new techniques in displaying the fact by the necessity to keep pace with the development of contemporary society.

Understanding of contemporary issues in the society have been contributed to increasing awareness of the Australian culture making people to explore and exhibit the truth, facts and the national history.

The national museum of Australia exhibits contemporary issues which create identity to the people. Museums provides a venue for non-challenging social experiences to the society due to the political, cultural and social conflict in Australia and all space to debate and make decisions on topics and issues of contemporary importance and relevance.

The museum also saves intangible cultural heritage by placing the visitors in the community as it was many years ago, enable human development, human right and enhance humanity continuity. Exploration and valorization is a social role played by the museum by allowing the events, stories and narratives to unfold e.g. letting children go to the museums and learn to construct houses build by the indigenous people. It tries to tell and explain to the people the significance of the work left behind as evident by the past human activities.

With the application of advanced scientific technologies, the museum has succeeded in better presentation of history. What is more evident about the National Museum of Australia is that it provides a narrow presentation nation history.

In particular, it fails to correlate the Australian history with its place in the world history. This necessity for historic integration is indispensible to the nation because people should be aware of their perspective with regard to international relations, which is especially important on the background of contemporary global trends.

The social roles in the museums are evident from the displays, artifacts, collections and documentations. This has resulted to social purpose where more people are included in the museum management and decision making.

We will write a custom Essay on Australian Museum Preview specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Government documentation and records show how states were formed in the society and how their came to be in existence. It shows the presence of power in the society and the struggle to fight for freedom in the society. This is revealed through documentation about the aborigines’ history and social changes.

Painting found in art museums merge the scientific and humanistic fields contributing art history, conservation of our resources and archaeology. The collections housed in the museums create a balanced venue for past and modern relations between the society, government, and culture. The balance enhances a social metaphor which acts as a tool for historical representation. Therefore, Museums are used as a measure of social changes.

The controversies at the National Museum of Australia and the Smithsonian Institution revealing the role of history in shaping a sense of identity The Smithsonian institution is a research institute and museum institution complex managed and funded by the government of the United States while the national museum of Australia was formed by the national museum of Australia act 1980 to preserve, protect and interpret Australian history, observe and discuss important issues, people and events that have shaped the nation.

Museums exist due to people’s aspiration for national and cultural identity and reluctance to ignite conflicts and controversies when different political, cultural and social aspects need to be addressed.

Many of the resistances centered on the objects and questions concerning what should be the basis of topics, collections to be displayed and who makes editorial decisions. The museum director suggested that the museum was an institution which is diverse and should represent goals, civic and social missions representing the traditional values. This made the museums to be more informed about civic, social, cultural moment of the history.

Both museums – the National Museum of Australia and the Smithsonian Institution – face a rigorous criticism in terms of their narrow policy of the presentation of the history, which is often viewed through the prism of national concerns (Morgan, 2002). Therefore, the museum policies are often assessed as politically motivated ones.

Hence, according to Morgan (2002), the museum can be considered as “ideologically driven by a council minority with ministerial access” (p. 15). The main contradiction, thus, consists in the idea that the museum put an excessive emphasis on indigenous history as if politicizing and popularizing culture and ethnicity of the country.

Despite the pressure from the government and the panel, the director of the museum, Dawn Casey, justifies his narrow outlook on history by the necessity to develop the national cultural and ethnical awareness.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Australian Museum Preview by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, he insists on the idea that cultural identity should carefully treated and the role of museum is preserve the tradition and custom through disclosing and popularizing among contemporary society. Therefore, it is hard to call this approach as an ideological stressed because it is more focused on self-preservation of cultural and national history (Morgan, 2003).

In addition, although the panel accepts that history should reveal the national and national origins, but it should not present Australian people as a multiple identity that appeared as a result of the British colonization. The accentuation of this fact can negatively influence the political relations at the international level (McGrath, 2003).

Aside from the negative appraisals of the Australian museum’s policy, there is also the reverse of the medal. In particular, much attention should be paid to the contributions that the museum made for the introduction and enhancement of cultural identity.

Much criticism has been received by the Smithsonian Institution, particularly by its exhibition called Enola Gay dedicated to the actions happened during the period of the Second War. In particular, the debates were centered on the ambiguity in displaying the atomic bomber as reason for celebrating the atomic bombing of Hiroshima (Doyle, 2003).

According to the critics, such a controversial depiction of the history can lead to the international and political conflict with Japan. In this regard, the failure to meets the goals of the concerned groups, the cancellation of the exhibition was a reasonable actions aimed at preventing misconception between the parties (Kohn, 1997).

According to Kohn (1997), the initial aim of the exhibition was not associated with mere presentation of the historic past. Rater, bomber displaying was aimed at advertising the achievements of the American people in the sphere of technology.

Factually, this museum’s exhibition could also be treated a real threat to political frictions between the former rivals in the Cold War. Arising from this, the critics criticize the museum for irrelevant use of historic evidence for their own purposes (Korn, 1997, p. 143). Instead, they insist on the idea of displaying the historical heritage in the objective light.

Conclusion In conclusion, it should be stressed that museums have a considerable influence on shaping social and cultural attitudes. Such establishments are also aimed at showing how history affects and influences us in our lives. Museums are a source of belonging, ownership, history and identity.

Museums should represent the live of a people and what is associated with national communities. In the light of conflicts, it is still necessary to be politically correct concerning what should be displayed in museums and what methods should used to sustain national concerns. The paper shows the importance and roles of museums, namely, the Australian museum and the Smithsonian institution, in society and why more people should actively participate in museums’ activities.

Reference List Doyle, D. 2003. Historians Protest New Enola Gay Exhibit, American Historical Association Perspectives, pp. 19-20

Kohn, R. H. 1997.History at Risk: The Case of the Enola Gay, in History Wars: The Enola Gay and Other Battles for the American Past ed. E.T. Linenthal


Comparative Theories of Migration Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

In the 21st century, migration has become a critical political subject in most countries. Partially, migration is caused by the widening difference between the first and third world countries but other factors such as agricultural revolution, climatic change, rural-urban migration, unemployment, insecurity, and human rights violations still play a big role. Researchers have also observed that migration flow among various nations revolve around economic and technological reforms (Routledge 1).

According to the United Nations (UN), the volume of human migration across the globe has doubled over the past forty years or so and now it is estimated that about 200 million people live in foreign countries (Routledge 1).

Migration has in the past been perceived by developed nations as a big social annoyance, but a great economic necessity and the subject has therefore induced a lot of debates on the same parameters. In a belated manner, many researchers, both political and social, have identified the need for research in this field and related literature has therefore advanced in this regard.

This study therefore establishes comparative migration theories identified as the theories of international relations. These include the Liberalist, Realist, Neo Liberalist, Neo Realist, Marxist, Neo Marxist and other political theories. Analytically, we will dissect these theories with a special emphasis on economic development, culture and security. Comprehensively, this will advance the research on migration as well as the inclusion of political perspectives and the dynamics associated with human migration.

Economic Aspects of Migration Most immigration theories encompassing economic development through immigrant workers are based on the demand and supply of labor which characterizes the free world. Most of these theories are therefore analyzed and developed on the same principles.

Neo Liberalist Theory Across the globe, there has been an increasing trend where immigrant workers from developing nations move to developed nations to provide their services as a result of economic motivations (Chae 59). This trend has largely been encompassed by the neo liberalist theory. It has therefore led to the presence of transnational workers across many fields of service provision in wealthy nations such as teaching, nursing, construction and other services of a similar nature.

The principles advanced by the neo liberalist theory together with existing national policies have greatly impacted on the way migration trends have taken shape in both the global North and South. Practically, neoliberal theories have restructured the provision of labor in wealthy nations to systems which could easily pass as unjust for most human rights activists because blue collar workers (for example) have been noted to offer their services in developed nations for a rudimentary pay.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Also, from the inadequacies caused by many immigrant policies in wealthy nations, there has been an increased illegal trade in immigrant workers across many national borders. These observations cannot only be comprehended from a political aspect only, because a large part of it is economic as well (Herzig 46).

According to the neo liberalist theory, capitalistic tendencies evidenced the world over has contributed to the increased mobility of workers across many wealthy and poor nations.

Essentially, capitalism has increased divisions in economic development, such that many immigrant workers move to wealthy nations because of better economic prospects, as opposed to their own countries which are usually coupled by high levels of poverty. In turn, capitalistic tendencies have locked a great deal of wealth in most wealthy nations and increased the gap for economic developments in wealthy and poor nations.

A key indicator of this trend has been in the care sector where many immigrant workers have since time immemorial been providing care for the sick, elderly, disabled and children, together with other domestic services of a similar nature (Misra 3). Capitalistic tendencies have also increased segregation on the basis of nationality, race, class, gender and other parameters of social division, such that there is an increasing concern of which nationality of race does work, more often with stereotypical tendencies.

The Neo liberalist theory advances the fact that labor intensive work has especially been one of the biggest drivers to social divisions in the society, such that there is a clear-cut difference in who is to provide labor and who is to receive it.

For example, there is a big division in gender work across labor intensive industries giving where there has been a common perception that men should provide this work. However, human rights advocates have disputed such stereotypes and advanced the fact that women have been socially taught to think in such manner, but such roles (labor intensive work) have never been exclusively designed for them (Misra 3).

Research studies point out that most employers do not necessarily know that their homes are a common workplace for many immigrant workers because unknown to them, many immigrant workers leave their home countries to work in the households of wealthy families in host nations. This trend is largely brought about by class differentials as observed by the neo liberal view. Economic resources are the biggest determinant of immigrant work across many nations since the advent of the industrial revolution (Misra 4).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Comparative Theories of Migration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, many immigrant workers are observed to provide their services in many service oriented industries like construction work and the likes, in form of unskilled labor. Economic differences have even gone as far as who provides services and the determination of the quality of such services as well.

The obvious differences between employers and workers are the leading drive of immigrant workers and indeed,

“a crucial determinant of the extent of employment in paid domestic labor in a given location” (Misra 4).

Interestingly, this has contributed to the obvious variations in immigrant work and influenced the positions held by many of these immigrant workers. Class differentials have prehistorically been associated with many gender differentials; many workers are therefore sometimes forced to go out of their way to cater for the needs of their employers while suppressing their own but employers do not necessarily go the extra mile to reciprocate the same effort.

Marxist and Neo Marxist Theories The Marxist theory has a slightly different view of migration when compared to the Neo liberalist theory. Although some elements of neo liberalist theory are closely related to Marxist principles (like Marxist theory advances the fact that economic inequalities and class differentials determine immigration policies by a large extent), Marxist principles exclusively imply that immigrant workers act like an army of reservists incase a labor crisis ever arises. This is therefore an advancement of international labor division and a supporter of major capitalistic principles in the society.

The Marxist principle essentially has many facets but key among them is the fact that immigration is part of a wider capitalistic movement whereby the ruling and elite class are always exerting a strong downward pressure on the poor. Marxist principles therefore support immigration of human labor from poor nations to developed nations as a fragment of capitalistic development with an implication that capitalism is expected to increase in the coming years.

Thus, immigration will also increase. A similar principle advanced by the Marxist theory is that in the short term, immigration will always be supported by the differences in economic empowerment together with high unemployment levels in poor nations. During periods of economic recession, many regimes have the liberty to review their economic principles so that they may avert any capitalistic related crisis.

Another principle advanced by the Marxist theory is the varying differences of interests by the elite class in a capitalistic society regarding whether immigrant workers fall into a unified capitalistic society or a difference in preference of immigrant policies so that many immigrant workers can be available for exploitation even during periods of high unemployment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparative Theories of Migration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the principles advanced by the Marxist theory, there exists two kinds of people on this world; the first group is largely composed of capitalists while the second group is the working class. The category by which people fall into should therefore be evaluated with regards to ones relationship with the factors of production. According to Marxist principles therefore, immigration comes about from the

“submission of the worker to the organization of the means of production dictated by capital” (Myers 1248).

Comprehensively, it is observed that immigration does not only seek to change the labor needs in a particular economy but also defines the structural characteristic of the monopolistic capitalistic economy. Therefore, the short-term changes in immigrant labor can be depicted through the levels of immigrant labor but the long-term effects can be manifested through the projected increase in immigration trends across the globe.

The Marxist principles therefore states that immigration serves the interests of capitalism in a number of ways including reducing worker wages, increased supply of labor force to boost the process of accumulating capital, counteracting the decrease in profits, counteracting a decrease in inflationary tendencies (in a structural manner) and dividing the working class (Myers 1248).

The elite in the society achieve a division of working class through influencing perceptions in social media and through changing education policies to suit their interests.

This system has also been observed to perpetrate racist principles in the society. The same factors have also been observed between the Irish and English divide which has enabled the capitalistic elite to maintain control and power over economic resources. Racism therefore leads to the development of class differentials in the society by dividing people into different groups, and classifying them according to their relationship with the factors of production.

The Marxist theory also amplifies that immigrant workers decrease social conflicts and civil unrests because wherever they go, they enter the system in the lowest socioeconomic level. In the same regard, they have also helped elevate native manual laborers to supervisory positions or jobs that do not require manual labor all together.

Most Marxist writers observe that despite immigrants being a very useful economic group in the conventional capitalistic economy, some developed economies tighten economic policies regarding immigrants, or even in extreme cases, expel immigrants during times of recessions and overproduction (Myers 1249).

However, immigrants have on other fronts been identified as the classical solution to most capitalistic problems because they help expansionary efforts especially in their initial stages of migration; it is easy to isolate their influence during times of overproduction or recession and their effects are usually observed on a small scale and so inflationary pressures are easily controlled (Myers 1249).

Neo Marxist principles have been advanced from the Marxist principles but they largely deal with immigration as regards the global market. In other words, they majorly relate to free market forces that determine immigration as opposed to capitalistic forces advanced by Marxist principles.

The world market therefore provides us with a perfect explanation as to why immigrant systems are they way they are in the present world (Betts 37). Proponents of the Neo Marxist theory on the side of the receiving nation tend to incline more towards the Marxist approach but those that analyze nations where immigrants come from, rely more on the neo Marxist approach.

Cultural Aspects to Immigration Culture is an important analysis element in immigration because immigrants usually migrate into other cultures which are more dominant than theirs. Depending on the theories discussed, different nations either assimilate minority cultures or are very protective of their cultures to wade off any immigrant influence.

The Marxists theory is one such theory which will be later analyzed as one that advances cultural differentials. The realist theory however purports an acculturation system where the influence of the dominant culture supersedes minority cultures. The liberal culture however accommodates minority culture even under the influence of the majority culture. These theories are further explained below:

Marxist Theory The Marxist theory identifies that capitalism brings about social differentials. Notably, many employers have in the past-developed different racial preferences for workers in different types of jobs; primarily based on work stereotypes associated with racial groups.

For instance, many employers have always expected Latina women to have a good knowledge on how to cook, take care of children and clean the house while British workers have only been noted to specialize in one of the above (Misra 5). Social differentials have not only led to the development of class, gender, racial and ethnic differentials because the same trend has also been noted on the basis of nationality. Such differentials have been observed in wages and remunerations.

For example, many employers have been observed to pay immigrant workers less than native workers because they assume that immigrant workers live in much deplorable conditions back in their home countries. These sentiments are firmly supported by the Marxist theory which advances the fact that capitalists take advantage of class and economic inequalities to bring about cultural differentials and to exert a downward pressure on wage differentials so that they can increase their own profits (Fitzgerald 42).

Realist Approach With regard to cultural factors of immigration, the realist theory advances the fact that cultural superiority of host nations always has a firm influence over immigration. In other words, the realist approach exerts cultural superiority over the interests of immigrants. From this base, the realist approach identifies that man is usually self centered, quire rigid and rarely flexible to immigration. In this regard the realist approach proposes that dominant cultures will always have their way as regards immigration policies.

Liberalist Theory The liberalist theory is quite different from the realist theory. In fact, it is the direct opposite of it because it accommodates human rights and is a deviation from traditional cultural views of immigration, culture and religion. The liberalist theory is therefore more flexible on immigrants and much accommodative to cultural influences from immigrants and the host’s nation as well. America’s divergent culture exposes such a society that is explained by the liberalist theory

National Identity Approach The national identity approach exposes cultural and national aspects to immigration in more ways than one. Myer identifies that the national identity approach

“…argues that the unique history of each country, its conceptions of citizenship and nationality, as well as debates over national identity and social conflicts within it, shape its immigration policies” (1251).

Compared to other theories of a similar nature, it is evidently clear that the national approach includes all other aspects to immigration except for external and situational elements.

This approach has been advanced from careful consideration of political and social ideologies already advanced from previous studies. Myer outlines such factors as

“national identity, nation building, prejudice, alienation and social closure” (1251).

National identity approach also focuses on a number of factors observed from historical interaction of immigrants among different countries. This approach further goes on to conceptualize the different histories and traditions of each country; like the past perception of American spirit against immigrants which slowly shaped up to be the accommodative spirit of immigrants in America today.

In the same regard, the perceptions many citizens of a receiving nation hold and the existent immigrant policies in many nations are developed from long experiences of immigration during the First World War and beyond (Myer 1251).

The interests of different states with regard to immigration are therefore not necessarily immediately developed from demographical or economic factors but from historical experiences on the same (Paul 108). Self-understanding as a result of cultural acceptance through general idioms, from different perceptions about patriotism and nationhood therefore surface as important in the establishment of immigration policies and perceptions in any given country.

For example, the open immigration policies of the French can be backdated to periods of open assimilation policies of the French which have built over time to create flexible immigrant policies. On the contrary, Germany has often had a problem with its immigration policies, dating back to periods of nationhood which exposes the unresolved issues between the ideas advanced by the Nation-State and those advanced by human rights activists supporting universal principles (Inthorn 82). Indeed, Herbert (cited in Meyer 1252) notes that:

“Policy toward foreign labor … is not only a question of the liberalism or economic strength of these governments but quite clearly also is bound up with the traditions – evolved over generations – within these societies in dealing with foreigners more generally and with foreign workers entering the host country in search of employment in particular”.

Herbert therefore advances the fact that it is wrong to analyze immigration solely on the basis of the phenomenon associated with immigration policies because this approach excludes the important factor of analyzing how the general society would perceive immigrants in the event of a massive employment of foreign workers in their homeland, because immigrants are likely to contravene on the traditions and values.

That said the national approach theory does not totally disregard economic or demographic factors because it acknowledges that there are important short-term factors that influence immigration tendencies.

Without doubt, this approach acknowledges the fact that external factors like economic elements shape immigration but it proposes that there are other factors which affect external elements thereby inducing their effects in the first place. In this regard, the approach advances the fact that immigration is not only affected by structural factors but by ideological factors as well.

It is therefore interesting to observe how economic and cultural factors all play out to determine the politics associated with immigration. The national identity approach therefore tries to deduce the relationship between periods of social unrests and the resultant effect on immigration tendencies (Kurthen 115).

A serious social crisis is definitely bound to induce some form of change and an increase in nationalistic tendencies is bound to increase the level of nativism in any given country. The theory of national identity therefore brings to fore the significant differences in immigration policies across the globe, based on the differences in the levels of nationalism with the previous example of Germany and France. These social differences can be explained on three fronts.

The first frontier is between states or societies that are proponents for large-scale migration and ethnic societies that are firmly against immigration, thereby imposing strict immigration policies. To explain the difference of immigration perspectives within various societies, Meissner cited in (Myer 1254) makes an example of several states by explaining that:

“For Europeans, membership in their societies is tied to shared ethnicity and nationality. In asserting that they are non-immigrant nations, European states reject ethnic diversity as a positive societal value. Immigration, therefore, is seen as a fundamental threat to national unity and the common good.”

Freeman cited in (Myer 1254) is also of the same opinion because he argues that

“divergent immigration histories moulds popular attitudes toward migration and ethnic heterogeneity and affect the institutionalization of migration policy and politics.”

Reference is made of societies that were predominantly English speaking and European countries which observed huge migration trends soon after the end of the Second World War.

The second frontier of the national identity approach identifies that countries which have an ethnically homogenous society have a less likelihood of accommodating trends of permanent immigration. This is often observed if the foreigners are of a dissimilar ethnic background when compared to the existing predominant population. It is therefore obvious that the challenge of accepting foreigners of a different culture when different countries are faced with the same situation primarily depends on the culture of the host society.

Homogenous cultures which have a largely predominant religion and those that are formed from years of little ethnic diversity have posted trends of very minimal immigration due to strict immigration policies. This is in contrast to a country predominantly characterized by a society that is largely founded on political principles as opposed to ethnic.

The third frontier specifically makes reference to citizenship policies especially those to do with birth in relation to the two previous categorizations such as the way the US (which is largely a heterogeneous society) adopted the principle of citizenship by birth and large scale permanent immigration as opposed to Japan and many European states which adopted the principle of citizenship by parentage, thereby enabling them to preserve their national ethnic mix (Zaman 36).


Security is usually an important state concern especially in the advent of an increase in immigration. States have therefore gone ahead to enforce their border controls to safeguard national security interests especially in today’s age of terrorism. Countries therefore enforce border controls to regulate not only illegal immigrants but also legal migrants as a security measure.

However, such operations depend on the country that undertakes them because commonly, states intensify border controls on nationals and borders with certain countries because of their perceived threat to national security. The intensity of border controls is therefore determined by the stakes in security concerns of a given nation. Nonetheless, the following theories explain such actions:

Marxist Theory

The Marxist Theory advances the fact that states will intensify border controls as a security measure especially to safeguard the economic interests in the pretexts of national security.

Bluntly, the theory purports that states will always intensify border controls as a capitalistic measure to ensure their capitalistic interests are properly safeguarded through a control of immigration. The Marxist theory therefore purports that states will intensify security operations as a form of domination by the wealthy nations to maintain their position in the capitalistic pyramid of power.

Neo Marxist

The Neo Marxist theory exemplifies the inequalities that Marxist approach advances of states and why they undertake security measures on immigrants. The Neo Marxist theory therefore identifies more than one factor for ensuring border controls as opposed to the Marxists approach which advances the fact that states will intensify border controls to safeguard their economic security.

The Neo Marxist theory therefore advances the fact that states undertake security controls to regulate human movements not only for economic security but also for social and status control.

Institutional Approach The role of the state in institutionalizing immigration policies is basically explained in the institutional approach. Some Australian scholars have pointed out that the state has never taken a passive role in implementing immigration policies across many states but has on the contrary been marshalling support from the general public on its goal of increasing the population to a significant level.

For example, in Canada, bureaucrats have had a significant role to play in formulating the country’s refugee and immigration policies in the past.

A pure form of the institutional approach identifies that the state can often influence policies related to immigration in an autonomous manner that transcends the pressures of human rights groups or organizations of a similar nature. Policies that are created out of these structures develop and give birth to institutions which later entrench and uphold the same values. The institutional approach has many facets but it is dependant on the level of autonomy the state has from the societal and human rights pressures.

Some scholars are of the opinion that the state would majorly serve to uphold its own values and serve selfish interests while other scholars point out that considering the nature of the state as a constituent of many agencies, it is bound to serve societal interests related to the mandate of the agencies.

For example, the department of commerce would specifically serve commercial interests. Scholars have however in the past differed on this principle, with some noting that the state acts in a monolithic manner while others noting that the state acts according to the different interests of its agencies. Studies done in Canada during the cold war era noted that the state was a near autonomous entity because it had the ability to conceal important security information from the general public, the legislature and even the media in general.

Nonetheless, many scholars perceive the state as less autonomous than is previously perceived. Myer (1261) is of the opinion that “the state and the institutions that make it, have their own interests and periodically enjoy substantial autonomy, but also from the literature on federal agencies that describes the interactions between state agencies and their “clienteles.” She bases her opinion from theories based on the state done across the globe.

Brettell (155) advances the fact that “the state has a significantly independent agenda, which includes the pursuit of economic security, a rational bureaucratic agenda, and continued legitimacy”. In the same regard, they advance the theory that immigration policies are influenced by many factors such as the factors of production, cultural preferences and geographical or political units.

Structural studies analyzing periods of state dominance in immigration policies advance the opinion that the state is relatively monolithic while scholars in the US advance the theory that the state is basically divided because the agenda of state agents is relatively different from immigration policies. Most of this conflict is observed in the department of labor which may have conflicting policies regarding immigration and adopted by the federal government or the legislature.

The institutional approach is observed to have different variables because on one hand, there are strong states that can easily wade off any societal pressures or pressures coming from human rights groups while there are those states that are relatively weak and often cave in under the pressures of the society and human rights activism.

For instance the UK and the US are classic examples of weak states that often cave in under societal pressures; meaning that their policies regarding trade, industrial development and indeed those of immigration are easily affected. On the contrary, states such as Iran, Japan, Germany and France are strong states and societal pressures are unlikely to affect them.

Hollohied cited in (Myer 1261) advances the fact that “the statist and administrative approach to immigration in France has contributed to the politicization of the issue of immigration; whereas in the United States the federal nature of the political system, the stability of the party system, and the pluralist approach to legislation have helped to fragment the issue and keep it off the national agenda for most of the postwar period. Despite the eminent differences in this fact, it is clear that both the US and France have adopted flexible immigration policies in the past.

The concentration of state power is therefore quite variable when the US is analyzed in isolation because state power is quite assertive when it comes to policies about refugees and people in exile; quite flexible with regard to policies on formal immigration and weakest with regard to illegal immigrants and migrations of similar nature. The different types of policy clusters have their own network of policies with their own influencers and players who rarely contravene each other’s fields.

Realism and Neorealism Realism and neo realism are two important theories important in the analysis of international relations because they represent international relations as a conflict between the interests of various groups. Kurthen (24) analyzes the two theories by identifying that

“Realism is based on four key assumptions. First, states are the principal or most important actors and represent the key unit of analysis. Second, the state is viewed as a unitary actor, which faces the outside world as an integrated unit. Third, the state is essentially a rational actor. And fourth, national security issues are the most important ones on the international agenda”.

Realism in isolation therefore analyzes the perceived and potential threat of conflict between nations of different premises.

Matters of a high strategic importance are sometimes analyzed as high-level politics between states while social and cultural politics such as those advanced by the national identity theory are often perceived as low stake political issues. Despite the fact that some proponents of the realist approach to immigration acknowledge the fact that economic matters affect how states interact with each other and the formulation of immigration policies, they also acknowledge the fact that all this happens in the context of a political struggle between the state and other players.

This observation is quite important in the understanding of immigration trends across the globe because even perceived conflicts among states (including those of a military nature) influence immigration policies.

More specifically, such conflicts have made states adopt more rigid immigration policies such as the case witnessed in America during the literacy test where there was a strict immigration policy which stressed the need for immigrants to have passports and visas when entering different states. However, on the contrary, many studies have identified that potential threat between various nations may also trigger nations to be more flexible on immigration policies.

For example, after the end of the Second World War, after the French suffered many fatalities, France felt very vulnerable to further German invasion and decided to loosen its immigration policies to accommodate more Spaniards and citizens from Portugal and Italy to boost its national population. The invasion by Japan in Australia also manifests the same trend because the Australian government felt that its population was too scarce to repel further invasion from any Asian country.

Across continents, Israel also exhibited the same security concerns against the Arab world and they therefore encouraged more Jews to come into their country to increase Israel’s numbers. Also during the cold war, many Western powers such as US and Britain encouraged the immigration of people from the wider communist block to express their sentiments against their anti communism stand (Kurthen 56).

Many realists did not however focus their studies regarding the effects of the theory on immigration because more focus was centered on national security and military conquests, together with the perceived threat accompanying it.

The realist approach has also influenced the perceptions held on the impact of immigration policies on immigration trends but none of the new views advanced are a pure form of the realist approach. The US specifically bears a lot of importance on immigration policies because it affects its national security, economic progress and ideological formation. It is therefore important to note that state actions or a lack of it determines how states relate and this in turn affects the stand of different countries regarding the entry and exit of immigrants.

Some scholars have also noted that the accumulation of immigrants in any given state is bound to increase military power and indeed the security of a given state (Kurthen 57). Other scholars have also noted that in the past few decades, many policies regarding foreign relations made in the US have had a direct relation to the number of refugees in America at present.

On a much broader perspective, it is important to note that the realist and the neorealist approaches are closely related because the neo realist approach is founded on principles of the classical realist approach.

Comparatively, the two approaches (realist and neo realist approach) share common principles; like they are both centered on the power of the state in determining immigration policies; both theories advance the fact that states can rationally explain their behavior and that states are always seeking power through the safeguard of their interests.

The neorealist theory analyzes states with regard to the power they hold which determines the relationship with other political entities (Brettell 155). The difference with classical realism theory is that relationships between states can be analyzed through the system or pattern developed by various players in a structured system of an anarchical nature. Waltz cited in (Özçel_K 92) advances the fact that the structural patterns has there facets: “first, it is defined as an international system that characterizes as an anarchic one.

Second, it is an interaction among units with similar functions. Finally, structure is defined by the distribution of capabilities across states in the system”. According to this assumption, it is evidently clear that structure bears a lot of importance to the neorealist approach because it determines the outcome of how various states handle immigration issues (Renshon 137).

Liberal Theory Liberal scholars take a more positive approach to immigration as opposed to the stand taken by realists and neo realists. They are of the opinion that the economic independence held by major world powers, the influence of nations with other nations and the wide spread of democracy has a direct relation to the way nations interact with a potential possibility of fostering understanding between nations.

As opposed to the principle held by many realist scholars, liberalists hold the view that many actors at a non-state level have a significant impact in the way nations relate. They are also of the opinion that issues of an economic or social nature are equally as important as issues of a military nature (Brettell 168). Some facets of the liberal theory have also had an insignificant impact on policies of immigration although other facets of the same theory have been observed to have a significant influence on immigration policies.

Such factors are like neo liberalism of an institutional nature and theories that advance the effect of globalization in state interaction. Insignificant factors advanced by Myer are like “economic liberalism, interdependence liberalism and republican liberalism” (1266).

Neoliberal Theory The neoliberal approach identifies that non state actors and international organizations boost state interaction and also help in conflict resolution especially on matters that deal with issues of a common interest. Such organizations are like the NATO, GAAT, EU and such like organizations.

In some respects, these organizations have little effect on immigration policies but with the exception of the European Union which has a significant impact on immigration policies of most European states (Myer 1266). The diminished impact international organizations have on international policies is partly caused by the high political stakes associated with immigration.

Also significant is the complexity of every stakeholder enjoying the benefits accruing from immigration. Finally, research has noted that the high supply of labor to host countries and more especially wealthy nations has exempted many developed countries from collaborating with the sending countries. The success of the European Union in removing barriers of immigration has proved that the neo liberal approach can be practical.

Globalization Theory The globalization theory advances the fact that states can achieve economic success, stability and security from going global. These observations have kick-started a series of studies which have seen the decline of state control on major immigration policies. Sassen (cited in Myer 1267) argues that “we must accept the possibility that sovereignty itself has been transformed, and that exclusive territoriality – a distinctive feature of the modern state – is being undermined by economic globalization”.

At present, there are many factors that influence the previous state of sovereignty many states used to enjoy. According to Myer, such factors include “emergence of de-facto regimes on human rights and the circulation of capital, as well as ethnic lobbies, ECIEU institutions, unintended consequences of immigration policies and other lunds of policies and economic internationalization” (1267).

The autonomy most states used to enjoy have now greatly diminished especially as many countries position themselves to enjoy the benefits of globalization. Globalization can never be isolated from human mobility if nations expect to gain from globalization because globalization majorly encompasses the free movement of capital and free exchange of ideas (International Organization for Migration 1).

Practically, not many factors affecting immigration have been properly analyzed because over the past decade and beyond, immigration theories have been majorly influenced by issues to do with citizenship and not enough to do with immigration (Papastergiadis 92). In fact, many factors such as human rights concerns, international migratory trends and such like variables currently affect immigration policies and influence the sovereignty of many nations.

Some scholars have often tried to point out the difference between immigration policies and citizenry policies. Evidently, they advance the fact that it is difficult maintaining two types of regimes when dealing with immigrant policies because of the complexity in separating trade policies and immigrant policies.

There is therefore a big dilemma many states face with regards to border control because there is a pressing need to control immigrants at the border but at the same time, there is a need to make the border open to trade with other nations (Moses 222). Such dilemmas have been observed in trade agreements such as that of NAFTA and FATT because they provide an eminent circulation of workers within participating states but at the same time, these workers increase trade within the same states.

The same scholars who advance this theory also note that globalization unfortunately or fortunate enough has a limited influence in the immigration policies of various countries. This notion is still held among various states as well but it is obviously clear that labor circulation is a form of human migration though many analysts prefer to look at the same issue from an economic angle only.

However, the European Union is the only visible body which has managed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the economic and human immigration aspects to such events (Messina 111). Essentially it has been able to merge capitalistic, trade and labor aspects to determine how a state should control its borders for economic and social gains.

The globalization theory has not only been seen to define the above factors because it is also identified to compliment the national approach theory by identifying specific social elements with regard to immigration policies. Scholars have in the past observed that globalization tendencies especially accruing from the period after industrialization exert tremendous pressure on nationality and also influence policies to do with citizenship.

European countries have manifested the conflict associated with nation states with regard to immigration because there is an increased interplay of sub national pressures including the constitutional conflict relating to the prosperity of Europe and state interests, viz a viz the need for Europe to integrate in the world economy. Such pressures are bound to have a negative effect on immigration policies, in that they are bound to make states formulate more rigid policies.

This has in turn led to a crisis of integration of many states that often cave under such pressures when analyzing their integration approach in today’s society that is characterized by globalization. In another front, there is an increased level of insecurity by most states especially brought about by globalization and the increased immigration that follows it; thereby prompting many nations to adopt stricter immigrant policies.

Many scholars have identified that globalization may potentially be the last frontier of capitalism in a global context and it greatly diminishes the control of the state because states can no longer dictate how the economy operates (Rex 257). In the same regard, the society as conceptualized in the post industrial era has caused a deep division in many contemporary societies across the globe when compared to the industrial period (Thieme 37).

Potentially, there is bound to be an increased sense of fragmentation in the society, courtesy of capitalistic tendencies. In turn, there is bound to be a decline of traditional politics because new opportunities are bound to be created through globalization and probably, it will lead to the progression of parties that ride on anti immigrant policies.

Conclusion Even though there are huge volumes of literature about immigration policies, there needs to be more research merging the different schools of thought advanced by the numerous theories on immigration. This study has by and large, highlighted these theories and provided comparisons on each. The main theories highlighted broaden our conceptualization of existing immigration policies across the globe.

The realism theory for example is analyzed as the basic theory that defines policies to do with refugees while the Marxist and neo Marxist approach sheds some light on immigrant workers under the context of economic and capitalistic policies. Neo liberalism has been used to expose the factors that prevail in the European Union with regards to immigration and existing legislations regarding movement of labor within the wider European block.

Comprehensively, the globalization theory advances the fact that states can achieve economic success, stability and security from going global. The neoliberal approach identifies that non state actors and international organizations boost state interaction and also help in conflict resolution especially on matters that deal with issues of common interests.

The liberals are however of the opinion that the economic independence held by major world powers, the influence of nations with other nations and the wide spread of democracy has a direct relation to the way nations interact; with a potential possibility of fostering understanding between nations.

In a broader understanding of the realist and neo realist approaches, it is important to note that the two theories are closely related because the neorealist approach is founded on principles of the classical realist approach.

Comparatively, the two approaches (realist and neo realist approach) share common principles; like they are both centered on the power of the state in determining immigration policies, both theories advance the fact that states can rationally explain their behavior and that states are always seeking power through the safeguard of their interests.

On the other hand, the Institutional approach identifies that the state can often influence policies relating to immigration in an autonomous manner that transcends the pressures of human rights groups and organizations of a similar nature. Finally, the national approach theory includes all other aspects to immigration except for external and situational elements.

Development and economic concerns are therefore set to increase immigration as advanced by the Marxists approach but security and cultural interests still stand to impede human migration. Theories that relate to culture and domestic matters within the state are observed to expound more on our understanding of immigration policies because most of these immigration theories rely more on highlighting how nations interact as opposed to the policies they formulate.

These theories also expand our understanding on how immigration affects different functions of the state like the sovereignty and ethnic composition of a nation as opposed to the commercial or economic influence.

Works Cited Betts, Alexander. Forced Migration and Global Politics. London: John Wiley and Sons, 2009. Print.

Brettell, Caroline. Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines. London: Routledge, 2000. Print.

Chae, Youngsuk. Politicizing Asian American Literature: Towards A Critical Multiculturalism. London: Routledge, 2008. Print.

Fitzgerald, Keith. The Face of the Nation: Immigration, the State, and the National Identity. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996. Print.

Herzig, Pascale. South Asians in Kenya: Gender, Generation and Changing Identities In Diaspora. New Delhi: LIT Verlag Münster, 2006. Print.

International Organization for Migration. World Migration 2003: Managing Migration Challenges and Responses for People on the Move. Washington: International Org. for Migration, 2003. Print.

Inthorn, Sanna. German Media and National Identity. New York: Cambria Press, 2007.

Kurthen, Hermann. Immigration, Citizenship, and the Welfare State in Germany And The United States: Welfare Policies and Immigrants’ Citizenship. New York: Emerald Group Publishing, 1998. Print.

Messina, Anthony. West European Immigration and Immigrant Policy in the New Century. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002. Print.

Misra, Joya. Neoliberalism, Globalization, and the International Division of Care. Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts, 2010. Print.

Moses, Jonathon. International Migration: Globalization’s Last Frontier. New York: Zed Books, 2006. Print.

Myers, Eytan. “Theories of International Immigration Policy-A Comparative Analysis”. International Migration Review 34. 4 (2000): 1245-1282. Özçel_K, Sezai. “Neorealist and Neo-Gramscian Hegemony in International Relations

And Conflict Resolution During The 1990’s”. Ekonomik Ve Sosyal Arastırmalar Dergisi, Güz 1 (2005): 88-114.

Paul, Ellen. Morality and Politics, Volume 21. Oxford: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.

Papastergiadis, Nikos. The Turbulence of Migration: Globalization, Deterritorialization, And Hybridity. London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2000. Print.

Renshon, Stanley. The 50% American: Immigration and National Identity in an Age Of Terror. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2005. Print.

Rex, John. The Ethnicity Reader: Nationalism, Multiculturalism, and Migration. London: Wiley-Blackwell, 1997. Print.

Routledge. Migration. Berlin Max Planck Institute, 2009. Print.

Thieme, Susan. Social Networks and Migration: Far West Nepalese Labour Migrants In Dehli. New Delhi: LIT Verlag Münster, 2006. Print.

Zaman, Habiba. Breaking the Iron Wall: Decommodification and Immigrant Women’s Labor


Poverty in the United States Essay best college essay help

The poverty threshold of the United States (U.S) indicates that an approximate of (13-17) percentage of the United States’ population fall below the poverty line. This translates to 39.1 million poor people. Those living in the rural areas are poorer compared to those in suburban areas.

It has been found that the poverty is a cyclic process varying with time. The level goes up and down regardless of age, region, or family size. It is ironical that as poor as the country is, it registers the highest number of immigrants per annum. Inadequate fundamental learning, a wide gap between the incomes of the o-level learners and the professionals, among others, are some of the cited causes of the poverty, but lack of employment is the root cause.

According to Adams, the United States has failed to create enough jobs for its people (2001). A large number of its population is unemployed. It is from a job where the Americans ought to obtain their income, which in turn develops the country starting from the family level.

One can choose to create his/her own job or otherwise opt to be employed. In U.S, very few have their own jobs to absorb the jobless, and this affects much the American youth. The young people are much energetic and innovative and given the opportunity, they can develop and change the situation of a country. Since the reverse is the reverse is the case in U.S, unemployment remains the root cause of its poverty.

If a country could manage to provide basic education to more than half its people, poverty could appear nowhere in the country. Bradley says that a large number of the children in United States lack the elemental knowledge (2003). There exist a positive correlation between education and employment, which in turn correlates with poverty. It appears like a culture in America where children get the mandate to choose between leisure and education.

Majority prefer the former to the latter. Any employer focuses much on the educational background of a willing employee before giving him/her the job. In the case of U.S, countless never qualify for the jobs even if the opportunity arises because of their poor learning backgrounds. This brings the reason as to why learned strangers are ever securing the few jobs leaving the American redundant. Once they secure them, they expand their own countries rather than U.S and hence its high poverty levels.

Another problem associated with poverty in the U.S is the high government taxes. Majority of the employed people in U.S are foreigners and not citizens of the country. As it is the case for any employed person, he/she is liable of taxation by the government. The few employed U.S citizens suffer the high taxes though their salaries are equally high.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Hacker, they are unable to, not only develop their country, but also themselves (2006). The remaining category of employed non-citizens experiences a double taxation. They pay taxes for both U.S and their countries giving them not even a chance to uplift U.S, which is left poorer than before.

In conclusion, it is often mistaken that adequate food and good heath facilities can eliminate poverty. This is not the case because in U.S, these are there but poverty still prevails. Efforts have been made to improve the academic facilities of the country but foreigners only enjoy these services and in turn secure the available jobs rendering the American unemployed. This unemployment makes the United States a poor country.

Reference List Adams, J.,


International Cooperation can only be materialized through International Institutions Term Paper custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Competition Law

International Trade and Terms of Trade

Trade Agreements

WTO and International Cooperation

International Cooperation in Reducing Global Nuclear Danger


Works Cited

Introduction International relation is the study of relationships that exist between countries and the role played by governmental and non governmental bodies. It is a branch of political science that deals with analyzing and formulating foreign policy between different states. International relations also try to explain the kind of cooperation that exists between nations and how they achieve set objectives.

It also relates the effects of globalization to the performance of different nations. The world is changing drastically in terms of economics, ecology, and politics and there is need to study how different nations are doing to accommodate such changes. We all understand that a state can not perform efficiently without interacting with other states in the global world.

International cooperation can trigger the achievement of national economic objectives. Through it, governments are able to attain their social, economic, and political objectives. International cooperation mainly addresses issues related to security, peace, human rights, and poverty eradication. This is more reflected in international trade where nations from many parts of the world exchange their goods and services, technical advice, expertise as well as aids.

However, this cannot be possible without the assistance of international institutions. These are institutions formed by members from different states to address issues of politics, economy, and peace in the respective member countries. This paper will give an in-depth analysis on how international institutions assist international cooperation in achieving some of its political, social, and economical objectives.

Competition Law It is common for most business to extent their activities across national borders. This is done in the form of exports, investment, or transfer of technology for the purpose of earning profits. These activities improve economic performance of the trading nations and this was the main objective for the formation of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Today, the international organizations have increased and we now have the World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and the World Bank. Every country has objectives and competition law that differs from one nation to the other. This often creates disputes among the trading nations which can create an unstable environment for investors who want to invest in the concerned nations.

These differences can even cause competitive disparities that can either make it easy or hard for trading nations to access the national market. For instance, if one country’s competition law (lets say country A) does not allow any foreign products but its products are allowed in another country (lets say country B) entrepreneurs in country B are likely to have a greater competitive advantage than those in country A.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because entrepreneurs from country B are in a position to keep out foreign rival products with impunity while those from country A cannot. This shows that international cooperation among trading nations with regard to the implementation of competition law and policy is necessary.

The establishment of international competition policies by use of competition law has been one of the pressing issues addressed by policymakers such as GATT, WTO, and, UNCTAD. Globalization also calls for increased international cooperation among the trading nations in relation to policies and competition law.

International cooperation occurs in many forms for instance, we have bilateral agreements, multilateral agreements, and regional agreements. There exist many bilateral agreements than other forms of agreement for example the agreement between Canada and the United States, European Union and the United States, and Australia and New Zealand.

Multilateral agreement on competition policy does not exist but we have regional and bilateral agreements. Bilateral agreements exist in form of soft laws that specify cooperation in matters related to exchanges of information, investigation, and positive and negative comity (Martin 71). The provisions in these agreements normally do not necessitate changes in the parties’ domestic laws and leave judgment to each party as to whether to take action underneath the agreement or not.

For instance, the Australia-New Zealand Agreement grants that each party should exchange information because it would support in the enforcement of competition laws. However, neither Australia nor New Zealand is required to surrender the information that it believes it should not surrender. Off the record information is expressly barred from the coverage of this agreement (Martin 120).

International Trade and Terms of Trade There are three main reasons why countries enter into international trade, these are: to achieve a balanced terms-of-trade, commitment to policies, and political reasons. By forming cooperation with one another, nations can be able to make themselves better off by avoiding destructive trade policy vengeance, and failure to cooperate worsens the situation.

For instance, if a government from a big country decides to impose taxes on its imports, the price of the good in question will increase thereby reducing its demand in the domestic market (Hans 52).

We will write a custom Term Paper on International Cooperation can only be materialized through International Institutions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This effect would be felt in the global market resulting in a reduction of the world price of the good concerned. This effect will flow back to the importing country where the price of imports will be relatively lower to the price of exports (the terms of trade) consequently resulting in an increase in national income at the expense of another country.

The same effect would be felt if the country decided to impose a tax on its export since the world price of the taxed good would go up (Hans 60). This example shows that, if countries decide to retaliate against each other by imposing trade restrictions, the world national income would be reduced. International Organizations such as GATT were established to address such issues and ensure that the weaker nations are not exploited by the stronger ones.

Trade Agreements Thus international cooperation can only be achieved through the formation of trade agreements. This is best solution for restraining retaliating behaviors among counties. Government policy must be made logical through international cooperation.

Through multinational bargaining, countries are able to attain deeper trade liberalization as compared to bilateral negotiations. Trade negotiation is a market where nations from different parts converge with others to exchange trade concessions and this can not possible in a bilateral bargaining because the market is segmented (Hans 62).

Governments enter into international organizations such as GATT and WTO not only to achieve a favorable terms of trade but also to address other political economy reasons. For instance, GATT does not in any way prevent governments from imposing taxes on their exports neither does it prevent the governments in large countries from using trade policy to improve their terms of trade.

International agreement is formed to address issues related to political externalities. These externalities relate to the supposition that governments depend on political support from different interest groups and thus need to balance the interests of exporters and Import-competing industries and workers employed in these industries.

International policy overruns are an example of an externality that may impose international cooperation to act on it efficiently. The intensity of international cooperation on environmental problems has developed extremely for the last few decades (Fergusson, 20). There are now a huge number of international ecological agreements, addressing such issues as climate change, depletion of the ozone layer, biodiversity, marine and coastal areas, and unrelenting organic pollutants.

Several key procedures have made this development possible, as well as the growth in scientific perceptive of environmental problems, better global public alertness and concern about environmental issues and greater acknowledgment by national governments of the need for environmental action (Center for International Cooperation 27).

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Cooperation can only be materialized through International Institutions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More WTO and International Cooperation WTO has been working with World Bank, IMF, and UNICTAD for trade-related technological assistance with the purpose of building capacity in the policy of trade. WTO has five main functions, namely provision of rules for conducting international trade, provision of a forum for trade negotiation, dispute settlement, and supporting transparency and coherence in the global economy.

WTO is one of the international organizations that can be considered as a public good because it is formed by governments which are ready and willing to maintain it. WTO has had an extensive involvement in eradicating terms of trade deficits (Fergusson, 20).

Trade measures carry a meticulous attraction in international economic relations as an instrument of enforcement of international commitments and, possibly, of influencing in circumstances where perspectives disagree as to the nature of suitable international obligations.

Again, devoid of endeavoring into an analysis that would challenge whether meticulous international agreements are attractive, or whether the WTO would be the right place for such agreements, a point should be made about the general implications of how international cooperation is defined.

If the WTO were to become a place where trade procedures could be used by members on the base of unshared definitions of allowable policy behavior, the system would be damaged. International cooperation can only lead to rational policy results in the WTO and in another place, including in terms of enforcement, if it is based on a pre-commitment to systems by all the parties involved.

Once that pre-commitment to a communal policy standard and responsibility has been tenable, the question whether trade measures are used as an instrument of enforcement, or whether agreements are smack in the WTO or elsewhere, become much less significant and less system-threatening (Center for International Cooperation 2).

International Cooperation in Reducing Global Nuclear Danger Today, the greatest security threat all over the world is that of terrorists using nuclear weapons. However, the probability of such an event occurring remains low but with the advancement in technology we can never be sure of what will happen tomorrow. If it does occur, the consequences would be detrimental and world altering.

Keeping such a weapon out of reach by terrorist should be given the utmost priority in all the agendas of the 21st century. It includes the key facts of global security (Curtis 1). Today, a terrorist nuclear attack is the greatest threat, and international cooperation is the only sensible means of overcoming that threat.

Leaders all over the world (especially those from the White House), the congress and in the community have realized the need of fighting against the use of nuclear weapons by terrorists. For instance, it is estimated that, if a ten Kiloton nuclear weapon is used on any of the biggest cities in the world; it would kill thousands of people instantly. This would not only lead to lose of life, but it would result in economic depression with the weakest economies being damaged the most.

It would interfere with the global level of investing and spending (which has gone up) and it would take decades to recover. These effects would even be adverse if there is threat of a second weapon being used in the same country or in another. Today, the use of nuclear weapons seems more feasible than before and can only be reduced if states are willing to form international institutions where they are able to work together.

To address this problem certain things have to be put in place:

reducing the global supply of nuclear weapons by preventing the inventories in nuclear power

limiting the spreading of technology related to nuclear weapons

securing all materials used in making nuclear

forming agreements on and implementing a multi-state

The United States has joined hands with other members from the international community through a series of bilateral, multilateral, and unilateral means to do part of the things that need to be addressed urgently.

At the moment, this might prove to be difficult for the U.S. to lead the world given that it has already earned a reputation for spurning international cooperation and it has been supporting the idea of American exceptionalism (Curtis 5). It will first be required to prove its credibility and readiness to work as a country for the common good of the world at large.

It will have to discard its guiding principle on international agreement regimes and institutions, and work to strengthen them. It must work through the United Nations to restructure its international regimes for reducing terrorism and other international organizations. Working through international institutions is vital to restoring confidence in the United States as a global associate that will enable it to work in a more efficient leadership.

Conclusion International cooperation is a situation where different countries come together for the common good of the world at large. Through international cooperation, countries are able to trade with one another, to improve their security situations and to regain peace.

This is only possible through international institutions such as WTO, GATT, IMF, World Bank, to name but a few. International trade involves the exchange of goods and services, technical advice, and transfer of technology for monetary gain. Countries earn a competitive advantage in the goods they are able to produce effectively and with minimum costs.

Governments enter into international organizations such as GATT and WTO not only to achieve a favorable terms of trade but also to address other political economy reasons. This is done in a market known as trade negotiations. This is a market where nations from different parts converge with others to exchange trade concessions and this cannot be possible in a bilateral bargaining because the market is segmented.

The establishment of international competition policies by use of competition law has been one of the pressing issues addressed by policymakers such as GATT, WTO, and, UNCTAD. The intensity of international cooperation on environmental problems has developed extremely for the last few decades.

Works Cited Center for International Cooperation. Managing Global Insecurity: The UN, the U.S. and international cooperation – what’s on the horizon? Web.

Curtis, Charles B. Reducing the global nuclear danger: international cooperation- the indispensable security imperative, 2010. Web. https://www.nti.org/analysis/speeches/reduce-global-nuclear-danger-ccurtis/

Fergusson, Ian F. “World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda” (PDF). Congressional Research Service, 2008. Web. https://nationalaglawcenter.org/

Hans, Kochler. Democracy and the International Rule of Law. Vienna/New York: Springer, 1995.

Martin, Lisa L. and Simmons Beth A. International institutions: an international organization reader. New York: MIT Press, 2001.


When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts Essay essay help free: essay help free

On August 29, 2005 the world watched in horror as Hurricane Katrina slammed into New Orleans, Louisiana. As with so many others who were mortified, American director/producer Spike Lee felt compelled to tell this story and the fruit of his labour resulted in his third feature-length collaborative documentary with HBO entitled When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts.

The impact of documentaries is that they address the realities of the world. Documenting history/reality, they are comprised of real people, world events, places, and social conditions. When the Levees Broke truly reveals that Lee was driven by the issues this tragedy addressed and incorporates all of the characteristics that distinguish his film style – consciousness, talent, and passion.

The documentary’s down to earth reportage gives it a home movie affect thereby making it more personal and relatable. Close to 100 people representing a wide range of opinions and from diverse backgrounds were interviewed. Each act depicts various phases of the events that preceded and followed Katrina’s catastrophic course through New Orleans.

Hurricane Katrina was one of six of the deadliest hurricanes to hit the United States as well as the most costly. Over 1,836 people died with New Orleans experiencing the severest loss of life and property damage.

When the Levees Broke gave Hurricane Katrina a human face and depicts it for what it truly was – a human tragedy, a modern American tragedy, a national disgrace. In the case of New Orleans, it was not so much the intensity of the hurricane that contributed to such cataclysmic loss but rather the failed infrastructure of the city’s levee system built by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).

Scores of articles and reports (Congressional, etc.) purport that the levees were destined to fail from the onset. Yet despite sole responsibility for the levee failure and flooding laid squarely at the feet USACE, the Flood Control Act of 1928 provides the federal agency sovereign immunity from financial accountability.

The haunting images linger – scores of people jammed packed in the Louisiana Superdome (26,000 people plus), floating dead bodies, men, women, and children frantically pleading for help on roof tops as helicopters repeatedly flew by. Inept local / state /national government response and assistance were synonymous with this tragedy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lee’s objectivity is revealed via the array of viewpoints presented. He has personal connection, however, in that those mostly affected were African Americans as is he. Along with host of others, especially those in the documentary, he felt the government blatantly ignored the plight of African Americans– treating the displaced victims like refugees.

This is his premise from the onset and he uses the documentary to defend his point as opposed to coming to this conclusion afterwards. Lee simple informs and presents the issues. When the Levees Broke is a tribute to the Katrina victims, especially African Americans; but it also was an indictment of city and state government agencies, but particularly at the federal level.

Hurricane Katrina tragically exposed widespread loss of life caused by inhumane, gross negligence and most importantly how treatment/response based on race and economic status remains entrenched in American culture.

How do you or for that matter why would you build a doomed infrastructure? With the lives of so many people at stake how could and why would anyone respond so incompetently? If this were Burbank, CA, Martha’s Vineyard, or any other affluent U.S. community, etc. would such gross negligence and incompetence take place? The answer is absolutely not because people of colour and the underprivileged do not predominately reside in those areas. Hurricane Katrina was a natural disaster.

The essence of its true catastrophic nature however, lies in the social injustice inflicted upon people of colour, the poor, the homeless, elderly, and disabled at the hands of the very government that is supposed to protect and serve them. All praises to Spike Lee and When the Levees Broke exposing this horrifying reality.


Barriers in Business Communication Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Communication Barriers


Poor Timing



Reference List

Communication is essentially the process by which information is transferred from the source to the desired actual recipient(s) through a medium. The medium is the route by which the message is transmitted. Once the receiver of the information gets the message they are bound to give a feedback or act to the message given.

There are various forms of communication within a work place and each organization will use the form of communication that suits them best. Whichever form of communication used is not an issue so long as the information gets to the right recipient and at the correct time.

Business communication is therefore an important tool in the workplace. This is because of the fact that organizations are essentially made up of people who have to communicate to each other so as to ensure smooth running of the operations and fulfillment of organizational goals and objectives. Due to this, communication is among the top management principles of any organization (Kondrat, 2009, p.1).

Through communication all the other systems of the organization can be well monitored and run. It is true to say that communication is the backbone of any organization since without communication the top management will not be able to delegate duties, the workers will not be in a position to know what they are obliged to do in time, changes in the organization will not be known and also the organization will not be able to know what their competitors are doing.

Communication Barriers The workplace environment is made up of a range of factors some of which affect the communication systems in an organization. These factors include personal factors of an individual, those that bring visual problems by hindering the message and last but not least the auditory factors.

Visual factors will comprise of distance, lightening, weather conditions, the visibility and the angle of viewing. A clear example is when there is not enough lighting in a room, the people inside will not be able to communicate effectively. Auditory factors will involve factors such as noise, echoing or the distance between the sender and receiver. A good example is people working in factories that produce a lot of noise during their operations. Other barriers of communication in the work place include;

Conflict In cases where the superiors are not in good terms with the subordinates then communication becomes a problem. The workers will not be ready to listen to whatever is being said since they have conflicted in other grounds. When this happens it is always advisable that peace is made as early as possible so as not to affect the operations of the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Poor Timing Good timing of the message to be communicated is always very important. In cases where the message reaches the recipients earlier or later than desired it may not be well perceived. For example if the top management issues a notice whose deadline is very near, the workers may not welcome it as they may not have adequate time to achieve it because of their duties.

Attitude The attitude or behavior of either the giver or receiver of the information may affect communication (Kondrat, 2009, p.1). If the receiver of the massage is not willing to receive the message then communication will not take place. In the same way the sender of the message may not be willing to send the message, for example if the workers are not ready to voice out their side of the story then the management may not be able to know their problems hence ineffective communication.

Conclusion From the above discussion, communication is thus very essential in the organization and should be properly managed if at all the organization is to be successful. The main objective of communication is to make sure that the information is correctly delivered and feedback given.

By understanding the possible factors that may affect communication in an organization, it is possible to take measures to counteract them hence making communication effective. Since in most cases in an organization the senders of the messages are the top management they should therefore make sure that the information they send will be well received by the employees. They should get appropriate channels of communication and also good timing of the message.

For example calling a parade just before the employees have had their lunch will be a waste of time as no one will be ready to listen to you. In such a case the management ought to be clever enough such that the give incentives just before communicating to their subordinates as way of encouraging them to listen. It is for the same reason that the sitting allowance is given for meetings.

Reference List Kondrat, A. (2009). Effective Communication in the Workplace. Web.


The Effects of the Global Nature of Consumption Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Colonial Korea

Korea under US and USSR Occupation

Contemporary Korea

Works Cited

Introduction One of the main roles of culture is the consumption of goods. In a way, consumption leads to capitalism that people produce and sell their goods for progress and prosperity. In most cases, the more people produce and sell, the richer they become. Thus, a prosperous society is the one that produces and consumes more.

The gross national product (GNP) measures the economic growth of a particular country realized through production and selling of goods and services. GDP measures how successful a society has become through consumerism. Nevertheless, in order to produce, develop and consume goods, people must extract natural resources; then construct factories and industrial complexes.

These factories will then produce goods for consumption. Research shows that the cultural context of a society defines its consumption. Perhaps this is the reason why consumption patterns of people do not change. Notably, consumption patterns form part of people’s lives hence, to overhaul it, people must be willing to leave their cultural practices including economic disarticulation. For example, when consumption drops, countries experience economic recession coupled with massive unemployment.

The paper examines the effect of consumption in Korea from the colonial era to the contemporary era. The economic growth of Korea has a long history due to the shift of regimes. Each regime had its own culture of consumption hence, economic growth. It is imperative to note that consumption leads to economic growth.

In Korea, regime shifts divides its economic growth in three phases: Malthusian stagnation period that ended in 1910 when Japan took control of Korea; the colonial era that saw Korea board on its economic growth; and the contemporary period where consumption increased thus raising the living standards of many South Koreans. On the other hand, the contemporary period characterize North Korea with low consumption rates leading to diseases and starvation (Cha, 731-741).

Colonial Korea The Chosồn dynasty ruled the colonial Korea between 1392 and 1910. During this period, Koreans trailed on commercialized peasant market, capitalistic in nature, through its imposition of taxes on various consumable products. In addition, the dynasty forced people to enter into labour in order to offer service to the dynasty.

Nonetheless, the dawn of the seventeenth century became instrumental in terms of changing the culture of consumption in Korea. The invasion of Korea by armies from Japan and China opened a new era of consumption in Korea by shattering the dominant command system and instead, replaced it with market economy where people produce and sell commodities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rice and cotton were the main commodities consumed by Koreans. Therefore, the fallen bureaucracy resorted to taxation of these commodities and as time went by, they started minting copper coins paramount in trade. Ironically, this war led to slavery where the regime forced labour on the citizenry hence, the inception of labour markets (Cha, 748-754).

However, it took a long time for markets to integrate fully. For example, there was low consumption of grain commodities in Korea than in China or Japan. As a sign of relieve to agricultural markets, the population in Korea increased fast notwithstanding the war. Unfortunately, this trend in demographics came to a halt due to increased mortality. There came the nineteenth century when capitalism slowly started to usher in Korea.

While the rich increased their profits and investments, the poor Koreans shrank in abject poverty forcing then to relocate to northern China. Due to low wages and expanded government deficits, living standards worsened. Nevertheless, slowly by slowly, the trends of capitalism were opening the new gates to homogenization where people all over the world can use the same consumerist goods such as cars, airplanes and technological equipments. Nevertheless, many people do not subscribe to homogenization due to cultural pluralism.

The increased population growth meant that consumption would increase. In fact, there was rapid deforestation in Korea as many people destroyed forest reserves to grow crops for sustainability. Consequently, there arose many adverse effects, the intensity of flooding increased tremendously destroying the crops in the farm.

The rich peasant farmers continued in their individualism and forfeited any act of repairing damages caused by floods. Instead, they relied on the dynasty government to retrieve the condition. Eventually, capitalism ensued. The rich landed families liaised with local leaders to manage and control resources. Soon, the state became a tool of exploiting the poor while serving the rich.

For instance, the provincial administrators took bribes from rich merchants and assigned then land on fertile reservoirs to practice their farming. The poor peasants remained in their unfertile and flood-affected zones reaping low yields. At times, there came periods of drought. Since peasant farmers relied on rice production, the situation disallowed further progress. They therefore had to seek new modalities of producing rice, maybe through irrigation or planting drought resistant rice variety (Ban, 95-118).

A sinister scenario occurred in 1894 when provincial administrators imposed taxation to farmers using waterways to irrigate their rice farms. These peasant farmers were the one who constructed these reservoirs and any intention to impose fees on them was likely to meet rebellion. Gradually, there ensued uprising between farmers and provincial administrators.

We will write a custom Essay on The Effects of the Global Nature of Consumption specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The uprising grew into a nationwide mutiny forcing the dynasty government to seek military support from China and Japan aimed at quelling the chaos. The rebellion did not end without consequences. Although the combatant troops from China and Japan managed to quell the chaos, the two countries fought on the Korea soil (Sino-Japanese war) aimed at introducing capitalistic policies in this foreign land. Nevertheless, Japan triumphed over China and eventually took control of power in Korea.

They culture of consumption in the colonial Korea forced farmers to engage in other farming activities, as the drought could not support their paddy lands. Some people abandoned their farms and instead resorted to handicraft and commerce. The era of proto-industrialization was creping in slowly thus abhorring the colonial culture. As noted earlier, consumption changes only by adopting new culture (Haggard, 857-881).

Korea under US and USSR Occupation The increase in the global nature of consumption leads to economic development and capitalism. Japan was now controlling economic affairs of Korea. For instance, in 1876, Japan liberalized trade in Korea. The fight for supremacy over Korea did not stop here. This was happening during the time when USSR dominated many sectors of the world economy.

However, the war between Japan and Russia in 1905 saw Japan triumph over Russia and annex Korea. Later on, they established a developmental sate to replace the rapacious bureaucracy of the Choson dynasty. The new developmental state-Meiji- aimed to introduce new measures on consumption aimed at modernizing Korea. The very first thing done by the new regime was to improve infrastructure by constructing railway lines and building roads and highways for easier communication.

This improved the delivery of goods into national and international markets thus setting the path for globalization. It is important to note that the development of infrastructure, media and communications lead to globalization. Furthermore, the rapidity of movement of people and goods both nationally and internationally marks a step towards globalization where consumerism is dominant.

When everything becomes global, then societies are approaching homogenization, of course through consumption. Nevertheless, some societies fear globalisation due to its influence on economic and cultural life, habitually shored up by political intrigues. For instance, when it comes to globalisation of liberal capitalism and modernisation of culture, debate ensues on its importance and practicability. The involvement of United States and USSR on Korea occupation had everything to do with globalisation.

Immediately after the end of the Second World War, two fronts surfaced in the Korea peninsula, one supported by United States and the other by Russia (USSR). At this point, there were two regions in Korea: north and south. The military government of United States took control on southern Korea, while the USSR captured the northern half of Korea.

This de-colonisation and political dissection of Korea had serious negative trade impact. For instance, trade ties between Korea and Japan broke up leading to a serious economic downturn. On the other hand, it was not easy for the two regimes to control the chaos on the ground even by economic support. In the southern Korea, the United States military government took over all properties initially possessed by the government of Japan.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effects of the Global Nature of Consumption by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Two countries had emerged from the colonial Korea: South Korea and North Korea. The USSR favoured communism, while United States supported capitalism. These two ideologies determined the level of success of these two countries. Nevertheless, as witnessed later, South Korea became prosperous leaving North Korea to limp in poverty, diseases and economic depression for a long time (Eckert, 8-32).

In 1948, the U.S military government allowed South Korea to establish its own independent regime. This regime went ahead to ensure egalitarianism exists through fair distribution of resources like land. Nevertheless, two years later, war broke out between South Korea and North Korea where over 1.5 million people lost their lives and property worth billions of dollars destroyed and economies humbled to the ground. However, this did not stop South Korean policymakers form seeking other mechanisms to jumpstart the economy.

For example, these policy makers resorted to reinstate the culture of consumption by investing in industrial firms. Additionally, the government established financial institutions to buy foreign currencies, and enable investors to borrow money from them at lower interest rates. In order to promote local consumption of goods and services, the government imposed heavy tariffs on imported goods. In a way, this promoted local manufacturing industries and increased the consumption of local goods.

However, this Republic never lived to see her polices reach fruition. In particular, one of its policies, import-substitution industrialisation (ISI), caused its downfall. Some entrepreneurs resorted to dubious moneymaking methods like (DUP), which later led to economic stagnation (Haggard, Byung-kook and Chung-In, 850-873).

In May 1961, a military coup led by General Park Chung Hee took over from the first Republic, and based its strategy of economic growth on exporting, export promotion (EP). Nevertheless, this regime never derelict the ISI strategy commenced the first government. EP appeared to be more efficient in tackling consumption than ISI as many firms increased their productivity to compete in the expansive global market.

Research shows that the consumption rates of Korea increased by 50 percent, resulting to the increase in per capita income. In 1970, there came a fresh test for the second republic regime. The U.S troops had withdrawn form Vietnam following its controversial involvement (Kang, 98-110).

South Korea had established itself as a strong government able to protect its citizenry amid threats from the communist regime of North Korea. At this instant, Park Chung decides to reduce the reliance of U.S military to fight the communist government.

He instead proposed a policy that would see South Korea produce ammunitions for its protection by resorting to ISI, and build heavy chemical industries (HCI). To support the project, financial banks had to offer money for the construction of these industries. Sadly, economic repression, soaring debts hit the country leading to financial crisis and fall of the regime (Kimura, 69-86).

Contemporary Korea The assassination of Park Chung marked the end of the second republic regime, and yet the commencement of the third one that promised trade liberalization in order to spearhead consumption and foster economic growth. Since that period, the economic growth of South Korea has increased rapidly making it one of the developed countries in the world. This is because many South Koreans consume local productive inputs as per their culture.

The South Koreans embarked in production of their natural resources into finished commodities thus reducing the dependency ratio. The contemporary South Korea is a prosperous country idealistically as symbolized by its fast economic growth, accumulated human capital and low mortality (Noland, 16-36).

On the other hand, the contemporary North Korea characterizes with low consumption rates hence, poor economic growth. This is because after the Korean War, the regime elites resorted to a strategy of forcing the citizenry to save, but never worked out. Furthermore, people who wanted to invest failed to do so as the little money they have would not sustain the desired productivity. Consequently, there is a status quo on consumption. Communism had also dealt a blow to capitalism paramount to homogenization of culture.

For instance, its isolation from the international community has made it difficult to acquire the necessary technologies imperative in production. Additionally, this has left out North Korea from participating in international trade and foreign investment. On the other hand, the current North Korea regime had made serious economic errors for example, diverting national resources into despotic and militaristic emancipation, while leaving its citizenry languishing in poverty (Young, 641-680).

Following the disintegration of USSR, the contemporary world has become politically unfriendly, where United States controls everything from culture to politics to military. For example, both North and South Koreans now consume the Western movies. The South Koreans can access Hollywood documentaries and in exchange, sell theirs in Western markets.

Some brands from South Africa, United States and Europe form part of the Korean consumerist culture. Even as communities identify themselves with consumer cultures (multiculturalism), people ought to understand how capitalism plays a role in shaping cultural and social backgrounds and produce a homogeneous society.

In North Korea and South Korea, USSR and Unites States instilled State Capitalism, where resources belonged to the government on behalf of the citizenry. Importantly, people cannot consume products minus producing them. In order to produce goods, people ought to invest capital and then expect profit. However, the misuse of capitalism leads to oppression where few people control the economy of countries.

Some dynamics of capitalism appear similar to homogenization in that the power of consumption determines where the rich or poor shop consumer goods. Here, people will find other alternatives of consumer metrics and integrate them into their own life. Nevertheless, people cling to their cultural and religious backgrounds so that they do not become mere consumers homogenized by consumer goods. Thus, geographical rootedness and multiculturalism are the biggest barriers to homogenization (Amaladoss, p.1).

Works Cited Amaladoss, Michael. Global homogenization: can local cultures survive? 2010. Web.

Ban, Sung. Agricultural Growth in Korea: In Agricultural Growth in Japan, Taiwan, Korea and the Philippines. (2nd ed.). Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii. 1979. Print.

Cha, Myung. Imperial Policy or World Price Shocks? Explaining Interwar Korean Consumption Trend. Journal of Economic History 58(3), 1998, 731-754.

Eckert, Carter. Offspring of Empire: The Koch’ang Kims and the Colonial Origins of Korean Capitalism, 1876-1945. Seattle: Washington University Press. 1991. Print.

Haggard, Stephan, Byung-kook, Kim and Chung-in, Moon. The Transition to Export-led Growth in South Korea: 1954-1966. Journal of Asian Studies, 50(4), 1991, 850-873.

Haggard, Stephan. Japanese Colonialism and Korean Development: A Critique. World Development, 25, 1997, 867-881.

Kang, Kenneth. Why Did Koreans Save So Little and Why Do They Now Save So Much? International Economic Journal, 8, 1994, 99-111.

Kimura, Mitsuhiko. From Fascism to Communism: Continuity and Development of Collectivist Economic Policy in North Korea. Economic History Review, 52 (1), 1999, 69-86.

Noland, Marcus. Avoiding the Apocalypse: The Future of the Two Koreas. Washington: Institute for International Economics. 2000. Print.

Young, Alwyn. The Tyranny of Numbers: Confronting the Statistical Realities of the East Asian Growth Experience. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110 (3), 1995, 641-680.


Critical analysis of Cy Twomblys work Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction This paper is an exploration of the work of Cy Twombly. It is based on the critical evaluation of his work by different authors like Bataille, Krauss, Mallarme and others. There is much detailed focus on how his work was perceived by many and the reception that it enjoyed.

The work of Twombly has fallen out to be the centerpiece for quite some debate in the theoretical world concerning his nature and the writings posed. On key focus will be the period between 1950 and 1970 where there are two major paintings, that is the Olympia (1957) and the Herodiade (1960), where he articulated scripting as an art that incorporates lassitude instead of violence.

Analysis His imposing eminence has an atmosphere of myth and uncertainty, for rationales that have to a certain extent concerned with the indistinctness of the artist himself, but further to do with the spectacle of his artwork.

Twombly first came to fame in the anon 1950s. This was when his graffiti-like pencil-work materialized to challenge “Abstract Expressionism”. Yet he subsequently sustained “painterly” notion through a moment in the 1960’s when the descriptions of group culture and also the certainties of abstract geometry gave the impression intended to kill it off.

While associated by generational attachment and acquaintance to Robert Rauschenberg also to Jasper Johns, he at the same time has endured from the verity that different from their work, his work tells slight in replica, and also provides no suitable access into Pop-art. The fundamentals of ironic pragmatism in their respective artwork have been well thought-out to be progressive and accustomed with postmodern responsiveness (Barthes 181) (a).

Twombly’s exclusive combinations of exposed astringency and physical indulgence have gone ahead to prove harder to impound within such orderly generalizations. He has then auxiliary distanced his name from his colleagues by taking on the classical history and realization for epic plot in an epoch when such kinds of models came into view as wholly abandoned.

In accumulation, his vocation has time and again sought after its individual poetics by appealing to the legacy of writing, during a lengthy period in which the term “literary” was viewed as a kind of condemnation. These various commitments, and their creators, have never established a ready position in the books of the evolution of art ever since 1950 (Barthes 91) (b).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The countless books, magazines and catalogues that have been seen to canonize the line of artists ranging from people like the famous Pollock to others like Warhol as the conventional of American art’s pre-eminence have characteristically neglected Twombly more willingly than argue with the ways his enclosure might interrupt that story’s surge. Some artists have been heard saying that Twombly has a problem with his originality and being himself tot an extent that he seems not to fit in the current time but way out of it.

That appraisal cannot suit: no individual has such sovereignty, and obviously, Twombly’s art is exclusively contemporary. Increasing efforts to tie him to the artwork of his occasion have left many; however, with a mysteriously piecemeal structure of interpretations – some which only appears to be pretentious of enough span and concentration to enfold the intricate achievements of the vocation itself.

For over more or less three decades, he has been over and over again “re-discovered” by American reviewers, in a variety of ways. The white-on-grey paintings that he made in the delayed 1960s were hailed to have had an anti sensual, intellectual sparseness that allied them to Minimalism-and-Conceptual art; and the appeal to linguistic representations of criticism paying special attention to the participation of markings, writings, and graphical figurations in his toil.

Then, more significant, American attentiveness of European modern art prolonged: in the 1970s a brighter focal point on the art of one artist, Joseph Beuys vexed with imposing myths and history, but in addition esoterically delicate and tied to a corporal animism commenced a re-orientation that privileged Twombly in a variety of other ways; and the initiation of a new-fangled painterly-expressionism in the 1970s, in artists who were as different as Anselm Kiefer and also some like Francesco Clemente, additionally catalyzed a spanking new evaluation of the importance of Twombly.

Most recently, a weighed down apprehension with sexuality has become visible among modern-day artists whose anti official expressivity and openness in relation to the body has unlocked still an additional opportunity into Twombly’s multifaceted achievement.

There are some frames of indication which were erstwhile used in the past which could give a good impression of what he artist was doing. Some of such frames include abstract and neo expressionism and minimal. Also in the same field we have conceptual artworks and neo data among others.

Taken in succession, nevertheless, all these fundamentals has had a propensity to leave out or in other different terms ignore the rest, and not a bit accounts for the charisma contained by Twombly’s art of all, and further, conflicting ambiance of emotion. casual impetuosity and compulsive systems; the taint urge towards what is the base and also the corresponding adoration for lyrical poetry and also the magnificent heritage of lofty Western culture; in print words, as well as systems, ideographic signs, geometry, and conceptual finger-work with smear all solicit to be implicit in performance.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Critical analysis of Cy Twomblys work specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In that intricacy, this art has demonstrated influential amongst artists, off-putting to loads of critics, and truculently complicated not only for a wide public, but also for stylish set off of post-war art too.

It will more or less certainly carry on to resist ready reception by a wide addressees, as its meticulous impact depends in a so strong manner on the kind of undeviating response to material presence that is opposed to expression and unwelcoming to analysis. In the wide-ranging prose on Twombly, many susceptible writers and finely tuned theoreticians have by now struggled with that complexity, in efforts to take into custody poetically the appealing force of his job, and to also to analyze its remarkable artistic structure.

Twombly’s work in this case bears closer similarity to the Athenian “ostraka”, or in a way to the archaeological collection of disconnected inscriptions, or yet to the philological effort of reinstating textual wreckage, such as the exertion of the Greek humorist dramatist Menander, to a large extent of which lived to tell the tale as papyrus linings found in Egyptian sarcophagi.

In a way, Twombly’s labor points to the reality that work of art and “deconstruction,” as it was supposed to be are all integral to each another. For Twombly this is a question of communications of assemblage more willingly than a surface consequence of sense or visual (even “anti-artistic”) spectacles- hence the complicatedness with indulgence of this effort in terms plainly of what Krauss terms as “graffiti” (Louis 231).

For Krauss, Twombly’s painting can on the other hand be comprehended primarily as a re-coding of Jackson Pollock’s words. To hold up the claim of this subordination (one does speculate how such phrases come to be relevant in particular to Pollock’s floor paintings), Krauss fits into place in textual examination, focusing in the lead of another of Twombly’s conventional references, Mars, the Roman god of combat: “the performative, operational logic of scatology also comes to operate in Twombly’s work upon the clean and proper idea of the whole body [whose?]. And even on the clean and proper idea of the proper name.”

In a poetic twist which takes us from the Duchamp/Pollock partnership, Krauss brings to a close: “The attractiveness of Twombly’s exterior … brings into play the lingo of flowers’ as it as well initiates the depressing game.”

The rationale for the poetic twist may merely be, on the other hand, that subsequent to M / ARS, Krauss had deplete his classical references found in Twombly’s efforts that could hence be bowed to the tune-up of school courtyard obscenity. It may be, in spite of everything that what Twombly made it in lowering, is the serious guard of confident present-day art theorists who are too eager to enroll him to the grounds of one significant archetype or another.

Krauss, time and again a perceptive writer on structural design and cinematography, stumbles deficiently when attempting to deal with “painting,” for the most part because of a profession built in the lead of the ruling out of “Abstract Expressionism” and “painting” as to be from the progressive representation of art intricate as a shift towards the post modern.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Critical analysis of Cy Twomblys work by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More That is to articulate, an artwork, which seems to exemplify a “technological advancement,” from Futurism, Cubism, and also Constructivism, to the beginning of digital art as well as virtual art (Krauss 250).

The political fundamentals of Krauss’s job mean that recognizing the technical aspects of Twombly’s “painting” turns out to be a virtually impracticable task, being the root for it to be abridged instead to an excellent form of quality of sound or entropy. In fact, a depressing end point of work of art per se.

This gives the impression to be the reason Krauss and Bois are searching for in their learning of the “formless,” a decisive paradigm that shall at once put forward painting to an up to standard theoretical machinery (Bataille here), and to picture it to a outward appearance of auto critique in opposition to which no prospect claims for work of art, in a positivistic logic, would be probable (Bastian 45).

Far from providing credibility to such a development, Twombly’s work terminally arouses problems to it by way of a subtle incursion of techniques and also to discursivity. These issues which are under the semblance of a discomfited neo classicism usually affects a counter fraud in which the significant “paradigms” of Krauss and Bois get fascinated ahead of some instance, falling casualty to their individual bluff.

Conclusion Concluding the above discussion, it is worth o note that the work of Twombly remains to be vested on paintering with a textual origin and some technological impact. And while we might profitably outlook Twombly’s unrestrained organization of work in retrospect, there tends to be little or no proceeds to be put on from essaying a very last remark on the connotation of his artwork, or yet that of his ARS (Varnedoe 27).

Works Cited Barthes, Roland (a). ‘The Wisdom of Art’, in Cy Twombly: Paintings and Drawings1954-1977, Whitney Museum of American Art, 1979. print.

Barthes, Roland (b). ‘Cy Twombly: Works on Paper’ and ‘The Wisdom of Art,’ in

Howard, Richard. The Responsibility of Forms: Critical Essays on Music, Art and Representation. Berkeley: California University Press, 1985. print.

Bastian, Heiner. Cy Twombly: Poems to the Sea. New York: Dia Center for the Arts, 1990. print.

Krauss, Rosalind. The Optical Unconscious. London: MIT Press, 1996. print.

Louis, Armand, Fifty Years of Works on Paper – Cy Twombly. Munich: Pinakothek der Moderne, 2004. print.

Varnedoe, Kirk. Cy Twombly: A Retrospective. New York: MoMA, 1994. print.


Carlsen’s Norrkoping Project Report writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background information

Commisioning of the Norrkoping plant

Importance of the ‘Monster’

Risks encountered by ‘pursuing focus’

Relevance of the self-managed team approach

Role of Staffing as a Supply Chain Component

List of References

Introduction The Norrkoping project was a serious undertaking by Carlsen company. This company had two other stores, in Stockholm and Copenhagen and looked to open a third as part of their expansion strategy. Findings of their research identified photo resist image processing as an under developed sector of the market. The availability of market for their goods as was presented by Argsten also influenced them into pursuing the move (Slack, 2001).

The major undoing for Carlsen in their quest for dominance was their inexperience. Lack of prior knowledge in the intricacies of management, coupled with the magnitude of operations posed enormous challenges. In addition to, this, most of the people the newly assembled workforce lacked requisite experience in the field. Most of them had left other employment avenues in order to pursue a new one, as was stated by the management (Slack, 2001).

It was crucial for the persons safeguarding the process to come up with the requisite strategies to ensure that issues progressed in reference to the stated objectives. In the event that this could not be achieved then, the intricacies of management would have taken centrestage consequently diminishing the process capacity (Slack, 2001).

Background information It has been stated by scholars that supply chain management refers to a business model, which is a necessity for survival of the business and requires the involvement of all employees. Supply chain management should not be defined like business function (Douglas, 2010).

The modern-day culture requires environmental and social responsibility, due to the abundance of risks and increasing customer pressure. In addition to, these factors, the management is expected to steer the firm to profitability, by increasing revenue growth and market share (Lambert 2008). This makes it imperative for management to realize that success is pegged on the ability to integrate business relationship to benefit both the organization and the clientele.

Dominion over this network is referred to as supply chain management, and it requires cross functional amalgamation across all firms that constitute the network (Stadtler and Kilger 2008). Understanding their execution ensures managers appreciate the importance of larger chains and the roles they play in increasing shareholder value in addition, to a sustainable competitive advantage.

It assimilates logistics to the manufacturing schedule to ensure raw materials are received, and finished products are dispatched efficiently. This also ensures time and cost effectiveness is integrated into the process (Gattorna, Ogulin,


Comparing online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Defining ‘Organizational Learning’ and ‘Learning Organizations’

Comparing and Contrasting the Concepts


List of References

Introduction In the face of escalating global competition, convergence of technology, and an exponential explosion of knowledge, organizations endeavoring to sustain their competitive advantage in the marketplace must strengthen their capacity to position and exploit their tangible and intangible assets to the fullest (Yeung et al, 2010).

Increasingly, the capability of an organization to achieve and maintain a competitive edge inarguably depends on its commitment and success in managing such intangible resources as manpower skills, organizational adaptability, flexibility, propensity to experiment, knowledge bases, and many other strengths that are unique to the organization, and which other competitors cannot provide (Argyris, 2004).

Many business analysts and other theorists are firm on the assertion that in the knowledge-based economy witnessed in the 21st century, organizational learning, ability to adapt to change, and innovation are the most fundamental intangible assets that any organization needs to obtain and exploit to attain maximum organizational performance, effectiveness, and growth (Chiva


How Newark Became Newark Report college application essay help

Newark is one of America’s most fascinating cities with a rich history of prosperity, downfall and finally rising within ranks once more. Before the war, Newark was a prosperous industrial hub with prominence and great wealth. After the war however, the situation changed tremendously for the city. Corruption infected the political class, industries were abandoned, the white community fled the city, crime, poverty, and racial conflict set in.

In the early 1900, reformers considered that municipal governments were part of the woes that inflicted cities including “partisan politics, corruption, wasteful spending, and all manner of vice and immorality” (Tuttle 89). Galveston’s government for example was accused of political corruption in preceding years.

A group of its businessmen then, “suggested creating an orderly, corporate board-style commission to oversee rebuilding task” (Tuttle 90). This commission type of governance was then adapted by other cities as it was thought to be the solution to problems afflicting cities (Tuttle 90). The commissions comprised of five officials holding execute and legislative powers of the city collectively but one holding the mayor’s position.

At this time, a committee set up in Newark found out that the level of “prostitution, casual sex, gambling, drug abuse, and intermingling of races” (Tuttle 92) had risen sharply and they blamed the degeneration of the Newark moral code “lack of supervision of young women, the influx of immigrants, and corrupt or lazy policemen who refused to enforce the law” (Tuttle 93). To curb these vices, reformist business leaders and clergymen welcomed the Prohibition Act that was hence enforced throughout the era.

Newark adapted the national trend of adopting the commission government but some led by the mayor, Thomas Raymond opposed the commission out of fear that it could not root out corruption (Tuttle 92). However, the system was adopted and seemed to work in the initial years until it proved to be unsustainable for the city. Of the five commissioners that served Newark at that time, Commissioner Benn enchanted the majority of Newark residents with his unpartisan style of leadership.

The Prohibition law created more menace than was originally anticipated because it led to breaking of law and “underworld” corruption with cooperation of police and government officials.

This gave way to political connections and smuggling as beer was smuggled into Newark (Tuttle 97). It was risky business for smugglers because they faced frequent hijackings and arrests. One such audacious smuggler was Longy Zwillman and Reinfeld who were recognized as serious about their business (Tuttle 99). They sold “only top-notch whisky” unlike the other bootleggers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They learned how, when and who to bribe to remain in business and as such, Zwillman was a target for the New York drug barons who wanted to expand their underworld business. Ruggiero Boiardo was an example who came to Newark to build his empire (Tuttle 102). All this while, there was prosperity in Newark as was characterized by the building of skyscrapers, flashy suburbs, and one of the busiest airports in the world.

By the elections held in 1929, everything was rosy and the “incumbent commissioners ran for reelection in May 1929 under the joint slogan ‘continued prosperity’” (Tuttle 104). All the commissioners were reelected but the stock market nose-dived after six months which led to the Great Depression. “Employment dropped in Newark by 25 percent between January and November of 1930” (Tuttle 104).

African Americans suffered the most but were finally accorded jobs in factories to meet the manufacturing demands but were categorized as unskilled labor. Although the number of African- American immigrants to Newark increased by 7,000, employment among the community dropped considerably (Tuttle 106).

Even in the midst of the Great Depression, the Newark airport broke the world record by the number of passengers in 1933. At this time, the political class including the commissioners grabbed land near the airport and was indicted of conspiracy to defraud the city (Tuttle 111). Apart from corruption and misuse of public property, there were also assassinations perpetuated by the underworld operatives.

Newark flourished under the commission style of government. The industrial boom brought a lot of prosperity and wealth but that was until when corruption in the government and crime changed the fortunes of Newark.

Work Cited Tuttle, Brad.”How Newark Became Newark: the rise, fall, and rebirth of the American City.” New York: Rutgers University Press, 2009.Print.


Real Estate Marketing and Advertising Research Paper college admissions essay help

Introduction: Real Estate Marketing and Its Importance Marketing for the real estate

Contemporary society is a well-organized group of people with some needs and ways of reaching certain goals. It is natural that some individuals are more informed about the benefits of certain sectors and devices than others. In this respect, information plays one of the major roles in the process of shaping a person’s database in terms of information available from the media and other people reached, approached and used in various ways.

Real estate is one of the components of a contemporary person’s life. This sector has its features as well as all other business areas including production of goods and entertaining services. Marketing is important for the real estate business due to sellers and buyers, and intermediaries that help some transactions made via brokers and specific agencies.

Advertising as the most recognizable aspect of marketing

Advertising is one of the most recognizable aspects of marketing which can be used in the sector of real estate. Moreover, this area empowers real estate agents to facilitate the transactions, promote their personal image of independent agents or of their companies, develop their networks related to other professionals from this area. In other words, advertising is a way to inform buyers and sellers about the goods to be sold or purchased, about yourself, and the quality of services provided by you/the company you work for.

Why People Buy Real Estate: What a Client Wants Buyers and sellers

While talking about the real estate business, you should remember that there is more than one party concerned and your job is to show yourself. The advertising involves all parties that are interested into the sector of real estate marketing because sellers need to sell whereas buyers need to buy and a link is the advertising as it provides sellers with an opportunity to attract more clients that are able to pay as much as the real estate costs and the buyers can learn about some appealing options to consider.

As suggested by Lipman, “You may want to use the classified sections for recruitment purposes and to increase listings, the lifeblood of the real estate business” (15). Thus, the author offers several options why people read classified sections of various newspapers and how real estate agents can use this information and benefit from exploring the ways of influencing people’s tastes and decisions.

An agent, irrespectively of the independent activity or work in a company with other professionals, should seek for a more effective performance. So, it is necessary to learn habits and features of sellers and buyers.

In addition, you have to learn the reasons for buying real estate (for instance, change in lifestyle or other possible events) and address those categories of people having the information that they can be searching for real estate due to a particular reason (Lipman 23). Besides, the real estate business requires large portions of information to be processed because an individual that possesses some helpful data can use it and enjoy the results of a transaction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Real estate salespeople

The more you are qualified, the more effective you can be in terms of your professional activity because salespeople are expected to be aware of many other things than human psychology. Effective advertising, self-promotion, being easily located at a necessary place makes involved into the real estate sector highly professional and more competitive.

Moreover, salespeople should be able to write ads by themselves so that it was easier to sell some property (Lipman 223). Advertising created by professional advertisers will influence the cost of the real estate and the competitiveness of a sales agent because all costs spent during advertising and marketing campaign are related to the final transaction and can make salespeople ‘outsiders’ in case when the strategy is not well planned.

Controlling the budget and having a well-organized plan make you a competitive professional and increases you chances to make a bargain prior to your competitors. Lipman gives some helpful hints on the ways to control your budget while advertising the property and organizing the transaction (224).

Besides, you can be sure to be involved into the business because “A large proportion of housing transactions are carried out with the help of realtors” (Hendel, Nevo, and Ortalo-Magné 1878). Most people read classifieds for leisure whereas salespeople can analyze the preferences of potential buyers and offer some appropriate options to consider.

A Beginner in the Real Estate Business Starting with self-promotion

As a rule, people address those agencies that are more or less known in public. A new sales agent should familiarize the potential clientele with his/her opportunities and the manner of making business. In other words, advertising is the way to tell people about yourself as a sales agent with good reputation and a talent to satisfy the taste and needs of the most hard-to-please customers.

You can use the Internet to inform potential sellers and buyers that can apply for your services about the property you want to advertise. “…the Internet offers a cheaper and potentially more effective platform that facilitates direct (by owner) marketing” (Hendel, Nevo, and Ortalo-Magné 1878).

A sphere of influence (S.O.I.) is another helpful hint that can be used for you self-promotion as a new sales agent. When a sales agent meets some people, this person should mention the position and the sector of activity he/she is engaged into; a business card is an important aspect of a successful sales agent because it helps to communicate with the public.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Real Estate Marketing and Advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More So, you can develop your sphere of influence using the simplest rules and applying theory into practice (Arvizu 159). As suggested by McCrea (146), professional development is not the same as the process of developing professionally because the position of a sales agent may require certain training but you should choose the most appropriate courses so that you acquired the knowledge and gained skills that can be applied in your professional area.

Effective advertising

Effective advertising is one of the most important aspects while being engaged into the real estate business because you can tell potential customers about your talent and make them change the perception of you with the help of certain strategic planning.

As “Homeowners wishing to sell their homes contract with a real estate agent (the listing agent) offering the agent exclusivity for a limited period, usually 6 months, and agreeing to pay a commission, of usually 6% of the sale price, if the house is sold during the contract period” (DOJ, as cited in Hendel, Nevo, and Ortalo-Magné 1884), you can become a part of the real estate business by advertising your services and approaching each customer in an appropriate manner. Besides, it is important to cover different layers of population in terms of certain income level groups, positions, and status.

As reported by McCrea, you can use the web advertising as a part of the marketing campaign (109). So, different strategies and tactics used while promoting your image of a reliable sales agent can help in the process of establishing your image in the sector of real estate. A sales agent should use different approaches to address different customers and different levels of the world information space.

The value of information

As information is one of the most important aspects of successful advertising, a sales agent should be aware of the latest changes in the real estate business including marketing strategies, price rates, an overall income level of the population and social tendencies that take place in the contemporary society. The more you know, the more adequate decisions you can take towards the advertising strategies and certain methods used to attract more customers and offer them more appropriate options.

You should offer more complete information about certain projects and make readers interested in the offer with the help of an adequate advertising strategy (Lipman 112). Besides, if you choose a strategy that differs greatly from the one applied by the competitors, you can benefit because alternative options and approaches are usually considered before making the final decision.

You need to search for customers that know what they want and can trust you and the offer you make. However, you should make them trust you beforehand. An image of a successful sales agent can be created via successful advertising; thus, you have to provide the potential clientele with the adequate and helpful information.

As suggested by McCrea, you can take different ways to inform customers about available options (58).every customer has some preferences in terms of the way of presenting the information and would appreciate if you show yourself as an experienced psychologist while searching for the most appropriate way of providing your customers with adequate and helpful information.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Real Estate Marketing and Advertising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Important concepts of the real estate marketing strategy

There are many different options that should be taken into account while searching for the most appropriate marketing strategy that can be applied in the real estate business. In addition, you have to successfully combine different concepts used for promoting a product or a service.

In this respect, advertising is one of the most recognizable aspects of real estate marketing. As soon as customers learn about a sales agent, they can compare his/her approach to other agents and companies. However, a customer can choose to be engaged into the business without intermediaries.

Advertising as the fastest way to get a client

The most successful and productive way to inform people about something is the announcement while an announcement made in a specific way can be truly beneficial; it is called advertising. As a rule, sales agents are expected to make advertisings by themselves and do it more professionally due to certain training courses. In other words, a sales agent should have a few identities and be able to combine those in a successful way and address the customers in an appropriate manner as well as make advertisings

Works Cited Arvizu, Carlos. How to Sell Real Estate: A Guide for Real Estate Rookies (and Non-Rookies, Too!) Bloomington: AuthorHouse, 2009. Print.

Hendel, Igal, Aviv Nevo, and François Ortalo-Magné. “The Relative Performance of Real Estate Marketing Platforms: MLS versus FSBOMadison.com.” American Economic Review 99.5 (2009): 1878-1898. Print.

Lipman, Linda. Real Estate Advertising That Works! United States of America: Argyle Press, Inc., 1992. Print.

McCrea, Bridget. The Real Estate Agent’s Business Planner: Practical Strategies for Maximizing Your Success. New York: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, 2005. Print.


General Motors’ Decline Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

One of the vital business processes that resulted in the constrained growth of General Motors (GM) was the fact that it lagged behind in technology because it had not embraced the modern market gists. Most importantly, alternative-hybrid inclination has already taken effect on the market, but GM had not yet taken advantage of this new technology.

Some minor processes were altered as a result of the changes; similarly, the new CEO is paying attention to different modalities of transforming the information technology services in the company (Motavalli, 2010). It is noteworthy that general motors has abolished the traditional IT system and has employed the use of numerous IT providers.

The company has designed a modern IT system to boost its business growth. As a result, this has ensured smooth running of the company plants with the elimination of the frequent stalling of machines in its plants. Essentially, GM has embarked on the project of building an electric car (Opel) to be tested in Germany. These changes mainly took place in the ICT and production segments of the business (Motavalli, 2010).

The other business process that led to GM’s decline was the company’s organizational structure which was vertically integrated; as a result, there was inadequate communication amongst employees. Hence, the various projects could not be completed, and new regulations were not being implemented in time. Further more; there was a disjointed communication process in the company resulting from the disunity among various departments.

This resulted in declined profits since the production process was not smooth. For instance, the company was spending a lot time in the production of one car. As a result, it led to the replacement of the top executives of the company. Thus, leading to a new system in the management hierarchy that enhanced improved communication through out the company. This process belongs to the administrative function of the business, and it is considered as the most important for any business to succeed (Jordi, 157).

General motors employed a poor market strategy by primarily exploiting the US market. As a result, its profitability was under pressure despite its vast size. This was because of rise in competition, in US market. Alteration of the process came in when the company focused more on the global market so as to overcome this competition.

Lately, the company has embraced expansion by increasing its production in the Chinese automobile market. This was a strategy to expand its market and cope with the current competition. This was a significant process in the production and operation function of the business (Cryiac, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Key among the business factors, which have constrained the growth of general motors, is their financing program, the General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC) financing. Thus, the company failed to administer innovative ideas as a get way to register profit; instead, it mainly depended on the GMAC financing.

This meant that it did not introduce new brands neither did it restructure output and subsequently concentrate on improving their current lines. Currently there is an alteration of minor processes as the company is considering reducing its number of brands. For example, it is taking in to account pawning off the “Hummer” brand to any interested company. This mainly concerned the research and development function of the business (Welch, 2010).

References Canals, Jordi, Managing corporate growth, New York, Oxford University Press, 2000. 157.

Motavalli, Jim, G.M. Building Electric Opels for Vehicle-to-Grid test in Germany, the New York Times. Web.

Thomas, Cyriac, General motors strategic analysis, Motors analysis, 2009. Web.

Welch, David, GM’s Brand Dilemma, Bloomberg Businessweek, 2008. Web.


Reagan and the Arms Race Essay (Critical Writing) essay help

Ronald Reagan, the 40th president (1981-1989) of the United States of America, is `one of the highly recognized presidents especially for his policies. Reagan was a staunch advocate for control of money supply which would result to reduction in inflation and an increase in economic growth through tax reduction.

During his two terms in the presidency, he was mainly focused on restructuring the foreign matters, which this paper is going to dwell on and the U.S economy. Against this background, I would like to make a research about his political and economic initiatives dubbed ‘Reganomics’ (Busch 45; Hudson and Gareth 156).

Reagan was an anti-communist and publicly called the Soviet Union an ‘evil empire’ and showed his distaste by providing support for anti-communist activities worldwide. We will focus on the strategies he employed such as the strategy of détente where he ordered considerable buildup of military in the arms race against the Soviet Union.

The paper will also look into and discuss the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) of 1987 signed by him and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union, which was to address purging of both intermediate and short range missiles in both countries (Kengor 67).

The Cold War (1979-1985) was a major contributing factor to shaping Reagan’s policies on arms and his subsequent action in building up America’s military in anticipation of a war breaking out between the U.S and the Soviet Union, therefore this paper is going to focus on this and bring out the reasons behind the arms race (Marples 63; Langley 154).

Reagan was a critic of arms control and termed the arms race as a cold war symptom thus resulting to a race in buildup of arms arguing that arms control negotiations could not end the deadlock, he was concerned with how the Soviet Union was way ahead of the United States in the nuclear race and becoming vulnerable to Soviet attack (Hilton 208).

Form this, the paper will try and explain how this situation affected Reagan’s political career, campaigns, and decisions. Consequently, we will look at the role he played in bringing an end to the Cold War, and the Iran-Contra affair revelation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We will also look at the treaty Reagan signed before he left office which was a contrast to what he believed in and campaigned on. The paper will also determine whether the diplomatic ties initiated by Reagan are still in place and whether the INF treaty signed in 1987 was effective and if yes, to what extent. If not, then what are the consequences? (Smith, Gwendolyn and USAF Institute for National Security Studies 82; Reagan 64).

The research paper will use both primary and secondary sources of data. The secondary sources will include books on Ronald Reagan to determine his policies and ideologies and what shaped them.

We will also use books on the Soviet Union to try and link the fall of the soviet with Reagan’s military buildup in the U.S. a list has been provided at the end of this memo detailing the specific sources of references that will be used in this research paper. Apart from books other resources will include scholarly publications, and internet sources (Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (b) 106; Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (a) 136).

In conclusion, the main purpose of this research paper will to be to find out and shed light on Ronald Reagan’s ideologies, perceptions, thoughts, and legacies especially where they bordered on politics, the cold war and the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union and optimistically all this issues will be addressed.

Works Cited Busch, Andrew. Ronald Reagan and the politics of freedom, New York: Rowman


The Fast-Food Industry and Legal Accountability for Obesity Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents The ethical issue

Application of ethical principal

How the ethical principal applies to the facts


The ethical issue In general, ethics refers to the accepted virtues or norms that are moral and acceptable as good in a particular society. Ethics are thus aimed at promoting positive actions and general respect to humanity and its surroundings.

In this case, the ethical issue is promotion of obesity as a result of the ever growing fast food industries. Obesity is as a result of consumption of too much fat that generally leads to increased fat level in the human body, its consequences are fatal and most victims suffer from cardiovascular problems and other heart associated complications.

Application of ethical principal Ethical principles are generally guidelines or rather viewpoints which are essential in good or accepted decision making process in a society.

Ethical principles are closely associated with ethical theories since they intertwine to create sound ethical analysis. In this case, the ethical principle or rule that is evident is the principle of least harm. This principle aims at mitigating or completely eliminating human actions that can cause harm to people. In this situation, the fast food industry ought to be sensitive to the consequences of using trans fats in their preparation of fast food products.

How the ethical principal applies to the facts The principle of least harm in ethics is closely associated with the fast food industry; this is mainly because of the basic fact that fast food increases chances of obesity to its consumers. In Europe and the U.S. one of the major crises in the health segment is the increase of fast food consumption which leads to obesity and other fat related complications such as cardiovascular disease.

It is unethical for the fast food industry to continue with their business without considering the consequence of their actions to their consumers. The use of trans fat cooking oil in the industry is one of the major cause of obesity.

Most American children are already addicted to consumption of fast foods; their advertisement is usually targeted to young children who have less knowledge on the consequences of such foods. In essence, children and teens are considered one of the major independent consumer segments of the fast food industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the current statistics, more and more advertisements are placed strategic in order to capture the attention of young children and teens. This is unethical of the fast food industry; the principle of least harm is naturally violated by such unethical actions of the fast food industries. This is mainly because of the consequences of these foods consumptions. It is the responsibility of every industry in the country to closely consider the consequences of their actions to the environment and humanity.

The unethical behaviors of the fast food industry which has led to increased cases of obesity cannot be over-emphasized. If the rule of least harm had been applied, there could have been less if no cases of obesity in the country as currently witnessed. It is therefore the duty of fast food industry to incorporate the principle least harm in order to reduce cases of obesity and other fat related complications.

Conclusion The presented question in this case is the legal responsibility of the fast food industry to the increased obesity especially in the U.S. It has been clearly discussed that the low regard to ethical principles and particularly the principle of least harm has made the fast food industry one of the major contributors of health problems in Europe and the United States. The ignorance and less regards to these ethical concerns should be rectified in order to improve health standards through appreciation of ethics and its underlying principles.


Pride and Prejudice Film Critical Analysis Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Pride and Prejudice, directed by Joe Wright, is a 2005 movie adapted from Jane Austen’s classic tale bearing the same name. The movie, rated PG for some mild thematic elements, was produced by a British film production company called Working Title Films and written by Deborah Moggach. It has a running time of one hundred and twenty-eight minutes.

The romantic film was released in September 2005 in the United Kingdom and two months later in the United States. Some of the main characters in the film include Keira Knightley (Elizabeth Bennet), Mathew Macfadyen (Mr. Darcy), Talulah Riley (Mary Bennet), and Brenda Blethyn (Mrs. Bennet). Although the film version is short, it is persuasive, witty, powerful, and entertaining that makes it to be far superior to the novel.

The movie illustrates the lives of the Bennet sisters. They consist of five young women who are looking for suitable husbands. Their overbearing mother aids them in this process. However, the father seems to be unaware of the unfolding drama. Elizabeth, the second of the five sisters, prevails in the movie. The main plot of the story depicts the relationship between Elizabeth and Mr. Fitzwilliam Darcy who is the affluent owner of the pompous family estate of Permberley in Derbyshire (Austen, 2009).

More about This Topic What is Mr. Pride vs. Miss Prejudice about? 5 91 What is the role of the rain scene in Pride


The Zip Car Company Transformation and Economy Essay (Article) best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Overhaul Process

The managers’ Objectives

Success Story

Applied Techniques


Introduction A decade ago, two women came up with an environmentally friendly idea to deliver rental cars within the neighborhood at affordable costs. Years later and still run by the founders, the ZipCar realized it needed a new face to salvage it to profits. This paper is on how that new face transformed a company that was coping with the economy, to one that the economy coped with.

The Overhaul Process Scott Griffith first took time to analyze demographic data on the industry. He believed in numbers, ratios and performance metrics. ZipCar had them. He detailed problems facing the company, halting all scheduled expansion plans. Available resources were directed to zones created within the cities. Using financial models he’d drawn up, ‘Pods’ of Zipcars were availed to the required number.

An upgrade of ZipCar’s system was also prompted to catch up with the new development. The target group was then expanded to include high end members with the addition of BMWs and four-wheel-drives. “The big breakthrough came when he put city managers in charge of their own profit and loss, and encouraged them to approach their cities as they saw fit” (Clifford, 2008). Managers now competed to prove who was best among them. It worked in favor of the company.

While the managers locked horns, Griffith targeted the risky under 21 group by striking deals with schools. He struck gold. During this success period, Benchmark Capital offered $10 million in venture capital, which Griffith used to expand to Toronto. Scale being good for business, ZipCar acquired rival Flexcar. Now valued at $100 million, from a meager $2 million back in 2003, with a new target of $1 billion, ZipCar puts Griffith in shoes akin to those he started with, a fact he acknowledges and strives to achieve.

The managers’ Objectives Now under new management, ZipCar managers expected a new form of administration in the company, though they were unsure what shape it would take. They first had to take on their managerial roles and avoid involving in responsibilities delegated to low end employees i.e. taking of customer-service calls by the Vice President of marketing.

They were then mandated the task of managing their own Profit and Loss accounts in accordance to their zones’ status as long as it brought returns at the end of the day. They risked losing their respect from fellow managers, funding from the company and losing out on the bonuses set for those who attained set goals.

Success Story Scott Griffith is a success to ZipCar for his role in the growth of a neighborhood company that was wallowing in losses before he joined it, to a multimillion dollar international company with global ambitions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Applied Techniques As he entered the company, Scott Griffith had an advantage as it already had recognition in 3 major states. Data mining helped in conducting deep research on the industry he was about to plunge into. Decision analysis brought about the zoning idea and growing outwards from there.

Probability and statistics enabled him to venture into the new target groups that included the top brass and students respectively. Revenues from those moves prompted him to use his project management skills in optimizing on his global ambitions, which led to his choice of Toronto, Vancouver and London.

References Clifford, S. (2008). How Fast Can This Thing Go, Anyway? INC Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.inc.com/magazine/20080301/how-fast-can-this-thing-go-anyway.html


Importance of Acting Stylistics Theatre and Film Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Acting stylistics is an important aspect in the study of theatre and film. Choosing the right acting style is imperative for representation of a character in any sort of acting performance. Acting stylistics involves studying the body language, vocal quality, expressions etc. Successful acting includes the exercise of proper techniques and knowledge about the character which is going to be sketch through acting performance.

In order to illustrate the necessity of acting stylistics, we shall discuss acting style of Jake Gyllenhaal and Russell Ira Crowe from the movies the prince of Persia and Robin Hood respectively. The paper aims to compare and contrast the two positions to evaluate acting styles.

Expressions are considered as the most important aspect of the acting style without which performance cannot succeed. Active acting depends upon the quality of expressions. The significance of expression can be understood by considering an animated movie without sounds. In such a movie, expressions will be the only way to portray the desired message (Butler). Similarly, body language, style of dialogue delivery, psychological complexity, simplicity, physicality and vocal quality are also important aspects of an acting style (Rauch and Carr).

The Oscar award winner and renowned Hollywood actor, Russell Ira Crowe successfully portrayed a lion hearted peasant masquerading as a nobleman in his recent movie Robin Hood. His performance was praised by many but on the whole disliked by critics. Despite the fact, that he looks quite bored, burly, grizzly, and has a public image similar to that of Ernest Hemingway, Crowe is known for his ability to portray complex emotions using his body language however this subtle physicality is missing in the movie.

The main thing that pleases critics regarding Crowe is his body language. Crowe is renowned due his body language, especially in films such as: L.A. Confidential, The Insider, A Beautiful Mind, Master


Health Care Policies Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Legalization of Abortion

Obesity bill 2010

Criminal Law on HIV transmission


Reference List


Introduction Having a good health is a dream of every person and many governments all over the world are developing policies targeted at ensuring that its population enjoys good health; when a country has healthy individuals then its production rises. To maintain good health, there is need for both government and individual intervention. Everybody is responsible for his/her own health, but beyond what he or she cannot provide, the government intervenes.

Managing an individual’s and a country’s health is thus a deliberate action taken by all the parties involved. In simple terms, good health can be defined as a proper functioning of all the body parts leading to the general good of the entire body; when one is healthy, he is free from diseases. Health takes the form of psychological health, physical health, and mental health.

Maintaining good health is one of the sole objectives of good governance; when a country is healthy, its productivity is more likely to be high than a nation with sick people. A health care policy is a system put in place for the purpose of meeting the health care problems of a specific population group.

The term “health care” has replaced the term “medicine” that has been in use for quite some time. Health care policies are used for the protection of the society. A healthy population is the greatest asset that a country has. Health care policies should be established in such a way that they are affordable and accessible to the entire population. They should be available as either private insurance policies or government sponsored programs that aim at providing this service to the greatest number of people.

Legalization of Abortion Abortion is the elimination of a pregnancy before it is ready. It is the removal of a fetus or embryo from the uterus thus causing its death. Abortion can either be induced or can occur because of pregnancy complications in other words referred to as spontaneous abortion. It can be induced if the health of the pregnant female is at risk or due to other reasons. Miscarriage is spontaneous abortion. In most cases, abortion is used to refer to induced abortion and not miscarriage.

It has been practiced for a very long period and various methods used. Some of the ancient methods include use of sharp objects and other traditional methods that were practiced by medicine men, which posed threat to the health of the woman. Today, health care policies have been established to replace the traditional method; most practitioners use medicine and surgical procedures (Naden, 2007)[1].

Some nations have gone to the extent of legalizing abortion, allowing its citizen to perform it freely. However, most nations believe that it is an illegal procedure, unethical, and unreligious. Most Christian and Muslim nations believe that everyone has the right to live and should not be denied this right. They argue that abortion amounts to murder (Lee, 2003). With the increase in the availability of family planning awareness and use of contraceptives, abortion rates have gone down worldwide.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, in the United States, abortion is one of the commonly practiced medical procedures that is performed daily. Over forty percent of all pregnant women end their pregnancy through abortion. This is most common among young Americans, the poor, unmarried, and women more than 40 years. It was legalized in 1973 and since then abortion rates have increased.

According to Dailard (1999)[2], abortion conducted under legal circumstances is usually safe and is performed by a qualified medical provider. It is performed at the early stages of the pregnancy when there are few chances of developing complications. It involves the use of surgical procedures in a clean environment.

On the other hand, illegal abortions are usually performed in unsafe environments and one can easily develop complications. When the policy makers in the US legalized abortion, they did so to reduce the mortality rate that was being caused by abortion. Death rates as a result of abortion are higher in developing countries where abortion is illegal than in the countries that have legalized it.

Today, policy makers in the United States are having controversial issues in dealing with abortion. Most individuals have different perceptions regarding abortion which is determined by their morality, religion, human rights, and the woman’s position in society.

This is not a problem that is being experienced in the US only; but it has become a contentious problem in many nations. Policy makers are confronted with issues related to reduction of abortion rates. In most nations abortion has been legalized whereas others are yet to realize the importance of legalizing it.

The advantages accrued from legalized abortion are more than the disadvantages. For instance, when abortion was legalized in the United States, the mortality rate of pregnant women went down and the aborting mothers were assured of sound health even after aborting. It also leads to a decrease in the number of unplanned babies and families only get the number of babies they are willing and able to care for.

Obesity bill 2010 Poor nutrition leads to obesity which in turn causes illness or even death. According to American Medical Association (AMA), the increase in health related diseases and illnesses have been caused by the increase in obesity and overweight rates. Some of these diseases include: diabetes, cancer, insomnia, heart diseases, and cardiovascular disease.

We will write a custom Essay on Health Care Policies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research has found that, about 20% of adults suffer from obesity having a BMI of 30 or more. More than 30% are overweight with a BMI of 25 to 29.9. There is therefore a strong call for government involvement to perk up diet and health in order to curb the illnesses associated with poor nutrition (Sturm, 2005)[3].

Today eating habits have changed; the kind of food that people are taking is leading to obesity. It is feared that the number of years that the young generation is likely to live will be go down if they do not change their eating habits. Health is of great importance to the duration of time that someone lives in this world.

Realizing this, September was regarded as the world children’s obesity month. The month is set aside and supported by world food program such as, World Health Organization (WHO), to teach people on good eating habits. This program was launched because business people have taken the advantage of an increased population and at almost every corner in a street there is a fast food restaurant that has a list of choices that one need to make. In the menu, the greatest number of foods is not healthy to young children.

There is a health policy bill on child obesity which is expected to take effect once it is legalized. The bill is called “Obesity bill 2010”. The bill will be passed by congress parliament in United States of America. Current president of United States of America President Barrack Obama will sign the bill into law (Anon. “Ohio Legislators pass Questionable” 2010)[4]

The themes of the legislation will be;

1. Sensitizing parents on good feeding process to their children; this will be offended in pregnancy clinic where feeding mechanisms of a child before birth and after both will be advocated.

2. Creating awareness on the dangers brought about by being obese, to both children and adults

3. Develop guiding brochures to be given alongside birth notification certificate to new born. The brochures will advise the parent on right feeding process that he should adopt.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Health Care Policies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 4. Incorporate obesity cases in health insurance policies

To attain the above objectives, there is need for corporation among all stake holders involved. Parents should be given the mandate of ensuring that their children are fed in the right way, they should ensure that children eat the right food at all times.

In line with the proposed policy, WHO has introduced a wide range of programs and interventions that promotes the intake of fruits and vegetables in adults and children. Out of all the studies that have been done, none has demonstrated a disadvantageous effect of the intrusions on the consumption of fruits and vegetables.

However, the projects to promote fruit and vegetable intake should be based on scientific evidence for them to be successful. They should be evaluated to ascertain what works best and what does not work. This helps in reducing the amount of money used that would other wise be wasted in doing things that do not work. Messages that are specific of country and culture have to be integrated into guidelines together with other diet messages.

Criminal Law on HIV transmission The number of criminal cases of HIV patients involving themselves in acts that transmit HIV has increased. This forced the United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to enact a criminal law on HIV transmission (Elliott, 2002)[5].

Some of these cases carry harsh penalties because they are aimed at reducing the spread of HIV virus. Some jurisdictions have moved to enact or amend legislation explicitly to address such conduct. This has not only received public attention but also has been a significant issue in academic commentary.

A number of issues have to be taken into consideration when addressing the criminal law policy regarding HIV/AIDS. The first consideration is the functions of the criminal law, and the extent to which this policy will help in reducing or preventing HIV transmission. Before implementing the policy, governments must consider other public policy factors that might hinder the use of criminal sanctions. The criminal law policy on HIV has four main functions.

First, it is implemented for the purpose of weakening the offenders from harming other people while servicing their imprisonment. The second function is rehabilitation of the offender before he is taken back to the society. The third is to punish the offender for the wrong done as a way of warning him against a repeat of the same wrong. The last but not the least function of this criminal law is to discourage the individual wrongdoer and others from engaging in the forbidden conduct in the future.

Before applying the criminal law, policy makers, at least should be able to answer some of the critical questions which help in determining the parameters of criminalization.

For instance, should the HIV criminal law replace other general offences, which acts attract a criminal prohibition? And, what degree of mental uprightness is required before judgment is passed? Enacting HIV criminal laws removes the ambiguities that courts have to deal with in deciding which offences apply to HIV transmission, and they also reduce the chances of inappropriate application of law related to HIV transmission by courts.

In circumstances where criminalization is considered to be an alternative, in defining the behavior that might be illegally forbidden, it is logical to aim at the conduct that creates a danger of transmission, to a certain extent than just in cases where transmission actually occurs. The criminal law also outlines the degree of risk of HIV transmission that should be criminalized; only conducts that are assumed to carry a significant risk of HIV transmission may legally be criminalized (Elliott, 2002).

To determine what to regard as significant risk, sound data regarding the risk levels of various activities should be sought. These should then be ranked from the highest to the lowest and the acts that are assumed to carry the highest risk should be criminalized while those with negligible risks should be ignored. Some of the conducts that can be considered to carry high risks of the transmission of HIV are rape, or stabbing with a needle or a sharp object; these are coercive acts.

Other acts include sharing injection equipment or consensual sex. However, many questions arises as to whether activities where the participants consents ostensibly should be treated as the same as the coercive activities (Elliott, 2002). Since bodily assault act is criminal in itself, not considering whether it bears any risk of HIV infection, the HIV status of the criminal is extraneous in determining whether or not a crime has been committed.

If the lawbreaker’s HIV-positive status is to be taken as an infuriating factor because there was an added risk of harm, then this ought to be based on concrete proof that such an additional momentous risk subsisted. More serious charges and harsher penalties cannot be based exclusively on the fact that an accused is HIV- positive. In the lack of any such proof, this would amount to unwarrantable discrimination.

Conclusion A health care policy is enacted by the government for the purpose of maintaining a healthy nation. This is because, once individuals are healthy, they are able to increase their performance thereby increasing the overall level of production.

Most of these health care policies are implemented for the purpose of protecting citizen from being affected by their own actions or that of others. One example of a health policy (as discussed above) is legalization of abortion. This policy was first passed in the United States in 1973 in order to ensure that abortions were performed by qualified medical practitioners.

Before the bill was enacted, the mortality rate resulting from abortion was alarming and the government had to look for ways of curbing this rate. It was successful because, the mortality rate dropped gradually. Other nations followed suit although there are others that still hold that abortion is illegal and should never be legalized. But the truth of the matter is, whether abortion is legalized or not, people will still go for it.

The disadvantage of illegalizing it is that, people will perform it in hiding where there are high risks of developing complications. It is also performed by unqualified practitioners and can result in death of the pregnant woman. This reduces the overall economic performance of the nation and therefore I would advocate for all nations to adopt the policy because, it will not only guarantee them of a healthy nation, but also one that is productive.

The other policy covered in this paper is the obesity bill 2010. This bill is in the process of becoming law in the United States. The main objective behind this health care policy is to ensure that children live and eat healthily. It is the responsibility of both the parent and the community to ensure that, children are protected from unhealthy eating so that they are able to fight diseases. Apparently, the rate of obese to healthy children is rising at an alarming rate and this calls for government intervention.

The government of the United States is working in collaboration with WHO to ensure that healthy eating is promoted in all homesteads. From research, WHO has realized that daily intake of fruits and vegetables does not only give us a perfect skin but also helps in fighting illnesses. Research has also shown that, fruit and vegetable intake can help to cure not only obesity, but also other diseases related to obesity such as heart disease and other chronic diseases.

Criminal law on the transmission of HIV is a new policy that has received world wide acceptance in major nations. It has been observed that, some patients acquire the HIV virus not only through their careless behavior; but because of other people’s actions.

Many cases have been testified in which people living with HIV have been criminally charged for a diversity of acts that transmit the HIV virus or even risk its transmission. In some of these cases, accuses have been laid for conduct that is simply alleged as risking transmission, and which in most cases attracts very cruel penalties.

These conducts include stubbing with a needle or sharp object or rape. However, if a physical assault act is criminal in itself, not considering whether it bears any risk of HIV infection, the HIV status of the criminal is irrelevant in determining whether or not a crime has been committed. If the offence is to be considered as containing additional risks of harm on the victim, it has to be proved with solid evidence.

Out of all the three health policies discussed above, I would prefer the obesity bill 2010 because its benefit the entire public. Healthy eating is the answer to all health related illness such as heart disease, typhoid, among other. Healthy eating is a preventative approach which, if adopted, can help in reducing illnesses and increasing wellness.

It also helps one to participate more in social interaction and relationships because of the reduced rate of illness. The benefits achieved from healthy eating enable one to spread awareness to other members of the community thus encouraging socialization. The other two policies are also significant because they protect individuals from being victims of other people’s action.

Reference List Anon. (2010). Ohio Legislators pass Questionable Obesity Bill. Web.

Dailard, C. (1999). Abortion in Context: United States and Worldwide. Web.

Elliott, R. (2002). Criminal law, Public Health and HIV Transmission. Geneva, Switzerland. Web.

Naden, C. (2007). Abortion: Open for Debate – Group 4. New York: Marshall Cavendish.

Sturm, R. (2005). Childhood obesity- what we can learn from existing data on societal trends, part 1. Public health research, practice, and policy. Web.

Footnotes Naden, C. (2007). Abortion: Open for Debate – Group 4. New York: Marshall Cavendish

Dailard, C. (1999). Abortion in Context: United States and Worldwide.

Sturm, R. (2005). Childhood obesity- what we can learn from existing data on societal trends, part 1. Public health research, practice, and policy.

Anon. (2010). Ohio Legislators pass Questionable Obesity Bill.

Elliott, R. (2002). Criminal law, Public Health and HIV Transmission. Geneva, Switzerland.


Management Functions: Planning, Leading, Organizing and Controlling Report writing essay help

Introduction As part of this assignment, the group members conducted an interview at Sakamoto Cables Incorporation to come up with different management strategies carried out at the company.

The members of the group interviewed human resources manager to identify and capture management aspects used in the daily activities. The human resources manager of the company was chosen because he was the only senior personnel who could respond our questions. The interview took place on September 30, 2010; 11.00 am at the human resources manager’s office.

Sakamoto Cables is a company that deals with railway transport and is located in Japan. There are several employees employed at the railway station and this requires a comprehensive management of human resources. The railway industry has become importance especially as governments seek strategies to decongest major cities. To enhance successful management of companies in this industry requires managers to understand their employees and customers.

Findings from the interview After conducting an interview on the manager, the group recorded that the manager plans his workday depending on the situation; that is according to the number of staff, the chores / stocks available and the time scheduled for each activity. The manager plans 5-6 years in future for his job roles.

To plan for his career, the manager said that he keeps in contact with wholesalers, companies and clients. In addition, he said that he does not need to think about his career in the future. The task of performing upland deliveries was identified as the factor that makes his job difficult to achieve goals. On the other hand, the manager was of the opinion that storage of stock makes his job difficult since at the company everything comes together and he is required to work extra hard.

The manager motivates his subordinates by being nice, listening to them, being compassionate and talking to them pleasantly by using a mature approach. However, he exercises authority when addressing his subordinates. There is no specific set style of managing employees. In addition, the manager allows employees to take their holidays as a way of motivating them.

To undertake the task of leading others, the manager allows subordinates provide their opinions, he delegates tasks, there is no specific set of organization for performing jobs, and he centralizes decisions. The manager sees his boss as a mentor. On the other hand, young workers look up to the manager as a mentor and he delegates work without bias as a way of mentoring them. To achieve goals, the manager plans out the day and manages time properly.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conflicts within groups are solved by reprimanding or firing employees. Conflicts between managers are solved by talking issues out to reach for an agreement. Ethical issues facing the manager at his place of work involve workers showing lack of respect, fights between managers or intense arguments with staff. Workplace diversity gives the company a competitive advantage. This has been achieved by making sure that all people feel comfortable and happy to work at the company.

Comparison between observations of the interview and relevant theory Time management is important in management since it allows managers to come up with better strategies of achieving goals of the organization. Mancini (2007) explains that every minute counts and good managers should plan time properly to avoid delays.

According to McCorry (2005), a manager is required to plan in advance for all activities to be done in a day. Managers have many obligations to fulfill and must possess skills of multitasking. Planning for future is an important skill that managers must posses since it reduces conflicts, stress and helps accomplish all required tasks.

Sterling Publishers Pvt., (2006) provides that motivating employees is a very important skill that managers should have to enhance success. This can be achieved by creating proper work environment, adequate communication, and engaging employees in decision making among others. Leadership has been explained by Northouse (2009) as the process of influencing others to contribute willingly to the goals and objectives of an organization.

Leaders have the obligation of guiding their subordinates and should enhance commitment towards achievement of teamwork. Northouse (2009) further explains that leaders should be mentors to their subordinates. They are required to act as examples to those they lead. Leaders also seek mentorship from other leaders.

Dreu (2008) is of the opinion that conflicts within the organization have a negative impact on performance. Managers have a great obligation of resolving conflicts among subordinates and among other managers. Managing conflicts within the organization requires understanding the source of conflicts first and discussing with the affected parties. Conflicts among workers should be resolved by the upper management to ensure performance is not affected (Collins


Marketing analysis – Victoria’s Secret Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Victoria’s secret is one of the most popular and exclusive brand of lingerie, fragrances and beauty products in United States, Canada and other countries. Leslie Wexner the founder of Victoria Secret started this brand in 1982 by purchasing a small chain of lingerie products in San Francisco. He made the merchandize to look good and the products were easy to buy and made the environment look relaxed and attractive (Durbin 2002).

Current Marketing Strategy Victoria’s Secret has implemented a 360 degree marketing strategy. 360 degree is basically creating an exclusive brand philosophy. It is more engaged into customer based media strategy (Gupta 2009). As the company is managing the retail outlets, the web stores and catalogues at the same time and fulfilling the customer’s needs at their best level.

Leslie Wexner has made Victoria’s secret the top class brand throughout all channels, catalogues, stores and internet he always said “The same products are launched at the same time, in exactly the same way, with the same quality, and same positioning” (Durbin 2002). From the very first day the company has tried to have a full control on their distribution point.

In addition to that Victoria’s Secret has divided their consumers from demographic point of view and they provide specific messages throughout the campaign with the help of emails. As mentioned by Weil “Our goal is to provide the same message to the same customer at the same time, For instance, a customer whose purchase history indicated a preference for swimwear would receive an e-mail promoting a swimsuit sale and would get the most recent swimwear catalogue” (Durbin 2002).

Targeted Customers Victoria secret is basically targeting girls aged 13-29 years and women aged 30-50 years. Due to wide range of products whenever we think of Victoria’s secret the target market always vary with the age. As if the lady is a mother or grandmother of heavy weight she would obliviously go for the body products and fragrances. Where as a young girl or a mother who is in good shape will prefer Victoria’s secrets lingerie and swimwear. And their new brand Victoria’s Pink is basically targeting the young adults of high school and college.


Victoria’s secret core products are women’s lingerie, sleep wear, swim wear, women’s clothing, women’s shoes, beauty products and fragrances (Victoria’s Secret 2010). Its expected products include a wide range of men’s undergarments.


Pricing plays a significant role in the market mix as it basically helps to generate revenues. Victoria’s Secret is an inspirational brand and is known for its premium pricing strategy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Placement

Its distribution system includes Victoria secrets apparel outlets which are more than 1000 worldwide, and then they are selling the products through Victoria’s secret catalogues and through internet. They are also using the multi channel synergy (Durbin 2002).


One of Victoria’s secret strength is its highly flourished advertising campaign. They are targeting their customers through really bold and attractive advertisements, through printed ads in magazines and newspapers, its targeted magazines are Allure, In Style, Glamour and Cosmopolitan.

They are also doing marketing through television and internet, their catalogues which are highly creative and through yearly fashion shows (Chang 2004). Victoria’s secret has the utmost brand loyalty providing prestige products to their customers who are mainly influenced by its style (Durbin 2002). Victoria’s Secret products are always symbolizing fantasy, fun, passion and love all in one. The consumers really fall in love with its products. And that is the best message they are conveying to their consumers.

List of References Chang, C. C., 2004. The Silky Strategy of Victoria’s Secret. Case Study. Burbank CA: R. Preseton McAfee.

Durbin, T., 2002. Victoria’s Secret. Case study. Dartmouth: Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth.

Gupta, S. D., 2009. 360 degree Mareting. Web.

Victoria’s Secret, 2010. Victoria’s Secret. Web.

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Barnes and Noble-Strategy Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Barnes and Noble Company

Barnes and Noble capabilities and competitive advantage

Barnes and Noble’s strategy



Abstract Strategic Management is a concept that is turning to be a key blue print in the management of many companies today. As it can be seen from realities of globalization, rapid changes in technology, increasing competition, changing market and economic conditions and decline in resources are all contributing to the complexity of modern management and thus, necessitating the need for effective strategy policies. Barnes and Noble is one of the leading companies in the book retail industry.

For some time, the company’s growth has been slowed down by entry of key competitors such as Amazon.com, a scenario that has prompted the company to evaluate and re-design its strategic policy. Therefore, this essay will evaluate Barnes and Noble Company, its market position, its capabilities and competitive advantages and strategies it has placed to increase its competitive opportunities in the book market. Key aspect will be on the analysis of strategic management concept.

The world is in a constant state of change, an aspect that is going to persist for a long time. Nevertheless, this state of constant changes affects and influences strategic management whereby strategic planning is required to make decisions that can be utilized now, and in the process guides the organization’s future directions.

Many companies are developing visions for the future and the visions are stimulated by the company’s concerns for survival (Betz, 2002); and to ensure long-term survival, a company needs to possess and demonstrate two strategic capabilities: the ability to prosper and the ability to change (Steele, 1989 cited in Betz, 2002). Betz (2002) defines strategy as ideas about the long-term future involving company’s objectives and leadership.

Worth (2000) observes that “strategic visioning, communicating vision, recruiting and motivating good people, obtaining feedback and taking action that creates shareholder prosperity constitute essential elements in corporate leadership” (cited in Betz, 2002).

According to Schmidt, there are three key aspects for effective and successful corporate leadership, which he identifies as, “setting a strategic vision that is implementable, recruiting, and leading great human beings and worrying about shareholder value” (cited in Betz, 2002). Further, the question that investors need to ask is whether the company’s leadership has the strategy that can win.

Barnes and Noble Company Barnes and Noble Company started its full operation under the name in early 1970s, having first been established in 1960s as Student Book Exchange by Leonard Riggio while attending New York University (Barnes and Noble, n.d).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1974, Barnes and Noble became the first bookseller company to run its advertisements on the American television (Barnes and Noble, n.d). In 1975, in a move that was characterized to be bold, the company became first to offer discounted books, an aspect that prompted the company to expand on the idea by opening a 40,000-square-foot sale store (Barnes and Noble).

Exploiting on the new acquired opportunities, the company expanded and ventured into New York and Boston markets where it established smaller discount bookstores; and at the same time, it acquired BookMasters and Marboro Books to add on its discount chains (Barnes and Noble, n.d).

In 1987, the company in another bold move that left players in field amazed acquired B. Dalton Bookseller from Dayton Hudson, an acquisition that resulted into Barnes and Noble adding 797 retail bookstores a situation that turned the company into a leading national wide retailer and as the second largest bookseller in America.

Early 1990s saw Barnes and Noble greatly modify its concept of superstore and build reputable modern generation of Barnes and Noble superstores that today account for 96 per cent of all retail sales (Barnes and Noble, n.d).

Before mid-1980s, Barnes and Noble sold its books directly through its famous mail-order catalogue but towards late 1980s, the company started experimenting the idea of selling books online where it created Trintex in conjunction with Sears and IBM (Barnes and Noble, n.d). Expanding on the idea, the company in mid-1990s transacted its books through CompuServe before deciding later to establish a full-fledged book superstore online in 1997 (Barnes and Noble, n.d).

Through its online retailing, the company has graduated as one of the largest stores, giving its customers the opportunity to order books at any time and from any part of the world. Toda, the company’s online retailing has been regarded as the largest inventory bookseller online.

During the 2010 EquiTrend Brand Study for the seventh year, the company was identified as the nation’s top brand in bookselling. At the same time, the report ranked Barnes and Noble as the overall brand in bookstore with regard to, “equity, familiarity, quality, and purchase intend” (Business Wire, 2010, p.1).

We will write a custom Essay on Barnes and Noble-Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In accordance to trust, the company was ranked at the second position for the third year running. Currently, the company constitutes the biggest e-commerce location that contains hundred of thousands of titles giving customers a chance to make purchases and read books online (Business Wire, 2010, p.1).

Barnes and Noble capabilities and competitive advantage The company is endowed with relatively enough resources on which it has established its competitive advantage. Barnes and Noble Company have an established brick and mortar, which has further been enhanced by the recent online development. As a result of development of an online site, consumers have been provided with diverse sale opportunities while at the same time providing the necessary flexibility among the company’s customers (Modi, Durkin, Kass, and Ulin, 2000).

Further, the company has established a strong inventory, giving the company’s procurement and logistics necessary strengths. As part of leveraging its competitive advantages, the company has strong brand recognition as compared to its competitors (Modi, Durkin, Kass, and Ulin, 2000).

Further, the company has put much emphasis on books published by small and independent publishers an opportunity that has enabled the company to develop and build a strong customer loyalty. Moreover, Barnes and Noble have efficient and competent operations, which have resulted into the company to continue enjoy market dominance.

Barnes and Noble’s strategy The company, in its established strategy roadmap, is seeking to grow its share of consumer book market while at the same time its increase the size of the market. To achieve this, the company visions to increase the customer base and in a quick move extend its brand while remaining closer to its customers.

Additionally, the company is strategically positioned to design its stores and locate them near consumers where extended hours will be adopted. Further, the company has strategically invested in enhancing and improving the aspects of online browsing and shopping for its consumers, which the company envisions to make the whole experience more pleasurable and easy.

To pursue the strategy, the company is positioning the online bookstore as a location for its wide range of products including books, knowledge, information, education, and entertainment. The effort for the strategy is to see further continuous planning aimed at improving the design, layout, and navigation of the online site.

Lastly, the company has laid strategies of establishing, strengthening, and expanding strategic alliances with specific related third-party websites and content providers in order to make more attraction and increase consumer base to its online stores. Today, this strategy is generating fruits since web portal, content site companies such as America Online (AOL), Microsoft, and Lycos have collaborated with Barnes and Noble, and more consumers are being recruited.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Barnes and Noble-Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The book retail industry is expanding at a faster rate that calls for productive strategies to be developed by companies in the field. Barnes and Noble Company is one of the companies that have realized that, for future survival and continuity, key strategic development is important.

The company has developed strategies that are aimed at improving the company’s position in terms of competitive advantage. Overall, the company’s strategy has put more emphasis on the company’s re-design, market growth, expansion, innovation, and customer service. These key areas have become critical areas for the survival of the company and other companies in the field.

References Barnes and Noble Company. Barnes and Noble History. Web.

Betz, F. (2002). Executive Strategy: Strategic Management and Information Technology. MA, John Wiley and Sons. Web.

Business Wire. (2010). Barnes


A Gas Leak Incident in Bhopal in 1984 Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Summary The three articles are entirely based on events surrounding a gas leak incident in Bhopal, India on the third of December, 1984. However, the structuring of each individual story is in such a way that the three articles end up documenting different aspects of the happenings of the day.

The article Bhopal disaster, 25 years in and the poisoning continues by the Bhopal Medical Appeal explains the effects of the 1984 incident on the residents of the area (Bhopal disaster N.p.). It tells of the stories of how the children born a short while after the gas leak accident came out with serious malformations and how the older residents of the region still have to struggle with the poisoning effects of the gas.

The article titled The Incident, Response and Settlement by the Bhopal Information Center briefly explains the circumstances surrounding the accident and then goes ahead to explain the necessary steps that were taken by the company in question, particularly in regards to investigations on the cause of the leak (The incident N.p.). The last section of the article reveals the compensatory actions taken by Union Carbide India Limited as well as the measures taken to alleviate the suffering of the victims.

The article titled Decades later, toxic sludge torments Bhopal by the Global Sisterhood Network reveals the effects of the gas leak incident particularly on the environment years after the accident itself (Sengupta N.p.). The article then goes ahead to list the woes of the residents of the regions especially because they cannot access clean and safe drinking water, occasioned by the fact that the leakage of toxic material contaminated all the underground water sources.

Semiotic analysis The assemblage of signs on signifies the pain and suffering of the residents of Bhopal in the shadows of an inefficient and neglectful ruling class. The gas leak itself denotes the lack of disregard for human life that the owners of companies producing such dangerous chemicals have. This is clearly illustrated by the fact that the Union Carbide India Limited failed to take the necessary precautions to ensure that the people living in the region surrounding the factory were protected from such a predictable incident.

The gas leak also denotes poor construction and assemblage of production facilities. This is well illustrated by the sheer fact that there could not have been such an accident if the people in charge of setting up and maintaining the factory took time to ensure that a regular and thorough inspection of the systems was carried out to ensure that such an incident was averted well in time.

The malformations of the children in the region have the connotative meaning of ridicule, rejection, stigma and self pity. These are just some the societal challenges that such children will have to go through occasioned by an incident that they had little or nothing to do with in the first place.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As far as oppositions are concerned, all the articles distinctly present the clash between the rich and the poor. This is shown by the information that the individuals who suffered and still continue to suffer the damaging effects of the recklessness of the societal bourgeois are people who cannot even afford basic medical care.

The articles also show the contrast between the joy of life in a clean environment and the sorrows of living in a polluted area. This is evidenced by the illustration that the residents of Bhopal have to grapple with making a living in an environment still laden with toxic wastes when they had a somewhat fresh and comfortable livelihood before the incident.

The basic organization of a combination of the three articles can basically be summarized into three basic parts. These are the pre-incident, the incident and the post incident. The pre-incident shows the lives of the residents of Bhopal in the time before the leak happened.

The incident part shows the actual leaking of the gas while the post-incident shows the challenges in the lives of the residents of Bhopal in the time after the leak happened. All the three parts have correspondence with each other in the sense that none can happen without the other two and that whichever direction the effects of the incident takes place will always be analyzed in relation to the time before and during the leak.

The three articles have to a great extent elaborated the social contexts in which the story can be placed. First is the illustration that in any society, the individuals with the necessary resources will always use them to make profit even if it means endangering the lives of those without financial authority.

Secondly is the presentation of the fact that the poor will always be on their own and will go to all extents even if it means working in sub-human conditions in order to earn a basic living. Finally, and still going in line with the preceding point is that the poor will almost always blame their woes on the ruling and political class while the latter will tend to ignore the cries of the former.

Works Cited “Bhopal disaster, 25 years in and the poisoning continues.” Bhopal medical appeal. 2009. BMA. Web.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on A Gas Leak Incident in Bhopal in 1984 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sengupta, Sonni. “Decades Later, Toxic Sludge Torments Bhopal”. Global Sisterhood Network. 2010. GBN. Web.

“The Incident, Response, and Settlement”. Bhopal Information Center. 2010. BIC. Web.


World War II as the Most Devastating War in World History Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

United States and the Japan in the World War II

Critical Analysis


World War II was the most devastating war in world history. The war resulted in horrific property damage as well as about 17 million military deaths and even more civilian deaths. The devastation of the war was mainly due to the advanced military weapons used, from the infantry on the front line to the ships in the sea and the planes in the sky, these weapons destroyed lives and property in nearly every part of the world. In 1939 the United States became involved in the war.

Introduction As the “greatest generation” (Sledge 1990) fades, it is most significant to appreciate the important role they played in the shaping of our country today. Buried deep in the hearts and minds of every veteran are their many unforgettable memories.

From these memories veterans can reflect and realize what precious treasures they have gained as they endured the many experiences World War II has offered them. The efforts of these veterans will never be forgotten as the stories of these heroes are passed from generation to generation. To fully appreciate the sacrifices of these veterans, it is important to pay close attention to what knowledge they have to share.

We can learn from their mistakes or follow in their footsteps but either way we must take interest before it is too late. Without the help of these important veterans, our view of World War II might not be what it should have been. The same mistakes could just have easily been made and another world war could have surfaced. The American soldiers and veterans who had fought foreign wars formed together but most of the people preferred new Am vets.

The first convention of American veterans of World War II later who served the US military was held in Chicago in October 1945. Even the smaller groups of veterans formed together to support them mutually in organization such as American Veterans Committee (Schneider and Schneider 2003). To these heroes we owe every aspect of our life. These veterans came from all over the nation to defend and honor our country.

United States and the Japan in the World War II The American said this war as the good war as the America entered World War II for good reasons. They had to defend their allies in the European continent. Friendly European nations were losing the battle against the Axis forces and needed the United States’ forces assistance (Sledge 1990).

The U.S. had the much needed military power the Allies needed to win. (Elson 1043) Since the European nations being attacked were allies and foreign trade partners, it was in the best interest of the United States to assist them. Many people felt it was the duty of the United States to travel overseas and defend them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The U.S. had to prevent the war from reaching home. Attacks on U.S. soil would be very dangerous to the security of the nation. If the war reached North America, it surely would have meant the Axis would be victorious. This is one reason the U.S. entered the war when they did; they had to keep the war overseas. When there was an attack within U.S. borders, immediate action was taken.

On December 7, 1941, Japanese planes bombed Pearl Harbor, a military base in Hawaii. The results were devastating. 19 ships were sunk, 150 planes destroyed, 2403 were killed, and 1178 wounded. This attack threatened both the United State’s pride and security. Since “part of this government is based on pride, action had to be taken to defend the United States of America. Only one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, war was declared by the U.S. on Japan (Sloan 2007).

When the declaration of war was voted upon, the results were astonishing. In the Senate, the vote was a unanimous 82 yeas to 0 nays. The House of Representatives voted 388 yeas to 1 nay. The lone vote against the war was from pacifist Jeanette Rankin. It seemed everyone felt the same way toward the idea of war. The government was concerned for the nation’s defense.

Pearl Harbor was the point of no return. The United States was attacked, and now it had to join the war to protect itself. The event riled up the citizens to support their country. Many men joined the military to fight for their country. People in the U.S. never felt as safe as they had prior to the attack. Every ethnic Japanese citizen was seen as a hazard. Americans were fearful that all Japanese-Americans had the same feelings of support for Japan.

Americans became paranoid of the Japanese. Song requests on radio stations were banned from being played by the National Association of Broadcasters. They believed it may allow the Japanese to send coded messages. Weather reports were cancelled for fear enemy fliers would use them to plan bombing raids on American cities. Man-on-the-street interviews were stopped because of the possibility that a national secret might be revealed.

This fear of the Japanese race kept growing and affecting American life. The Japanese paranoia grew so great, a 1941 issue of Time even taught its subscribers how to distinguish between our Chinese friends and the hated Japs, who were, presumably, lurking around every corner. The differences were almost comical. The magazine said the Chinese were not as hairy and more kindly and open. On the other hand the Japanese were uncertain and panicky and “laughed out loud at the wrong time” (Yang 2003).

The government, fearing for national security, took steps to minimize, if not eliminate, the threat the Japanese could pose (Yang 2003). To deal with the problem of the Japanese Americans, the United States set up internment camps for the Japanese to be sent to. Persons with as little as 1/16 Japanese blood were told to go to internment camps (Sloan 2007).

We will write a custom Essay on World War II as the Most Devastating War in World History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Japanese people that were sent to these camps were allowed to bring only a bedroll and what they could carry. The internment camps were not nice places to be. They were surrounded with barbed wire and armed guards. The internees were sent to the camps only because of their ethnicity; they did not commit any crimes.

The most controversial part of the internment included American-born children and youth who had both U.S. and Japanese citizenship. Nevertheless, they were sent to the internment camps just in case. The United States could make no exceptions to their policy on the grounds that they could be allowing the enemy to walk freely in their boundaries. Some of the internees were still loyal to the United States and wanted to fight for it.

Critical Analysis There were many shortages of critical materials during World War II. Even so, civilian consumption rose about 22% during the war. Production on many civilian products sharply declined or stopped altogether. This decline in production of these products led to shortages. There were shortages of materials such as leather, metal, and rubber. To solve the problem of these shortages, many items were rationed (Sloan 2007).

The rationing of products occurred from 1942 through 1943. In 1942, coffee and gasoline were rationed. Shoes, meats, fats, and cheese were placed under rationing in 1943. A point-rationing system for processed foods was also introduced in 1943. 1944 marked the end of rationing with the end of meat rationing with the exception of various choice cuts of beef. In 1945, shoes, all meats, butter, and tires were no longer rationed.

During this period of rationing goods, coupons were needed to purchase these items (Dickson 2008). Schools set up rationing stations to distribute coupons. Every person, no matter their age, received the same type of coupons. To purchase an item, three things were needed: the store must have the item, the buyer needed the cash to buy the item, and the appropriate coupon had to be used for the item.

With these restrictions on purchasing products, black and grey market activity arose. Black market activity was the selling of ration coupons for a personal profit. Grey market activity was the trading of coupons among friends, family, or neighbors. Both were illegal (Elson 1945). This system of rationing was used until the end of World War II

After the war, the economy was on the rise. There was a boom in housing because of the easily affordable mortgages for the returning military veterans. From this growth in the economy came a growing middle class. People migrated from cities to suburbs and businesses were involved in consolidation phase.

By 1956, most people held white-collar jobs. Labor unions were able to gain long term employment contracts and associated benefits for their members. Farmers, though, were still facing hard times. Farming continued to decline for many years. Besides the economy, there were improvements to the United States elsewhere.

Not sure if you can write a paper on World War II as the Most Devastating War in World History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The military started allowing African Americans equal treatment. Nearly 500,000 African Americans had fought in World War II, most of which were confined to cheaper, segregated quarters. Despite their unequal treatment, the African Americans had fought well in the war and the military acknowledged that. The President’s Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Service was established specifically to study this matter. The armed services would never treat African Americans differently again (Elson 1945).

After World War II, the United States had more respect as a world power than they ever had before. It made a great change in American societies. The people of America gained self-Confidence and believed what they were capable of, they had a victory as a nation and the individuals found themselves capable of doing what they can do (Schneider and Schneider 2003).

They were seen as a world power prior to 1945, but not like they were after the war. World War II was the first real time the United States chose to exert its true power. The U.S. has dominated the affairs of the world since 1945 (Dickson 2008). Since then, the United States has been considered one of, if not the most, powerful country in the world.

Bibliography Dickson, Keith D. World War Two almanac. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2008.

Elson, Henry W. History of the United States of America. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1945.

Schneider, Carl J., and Dorothy Schneider. World War II. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2003.

Sledge, E. B. With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Sloan, Bill. The Ultimate Battle: Okinawa 1945–The Last Epic Struggle of World War II. New York: Simon


Designated Persons Ashore Problem Solution Essay college application essay help

Introduction Before the advent of the designated person ashore (DPA), the mortality rate of victims, who were seriously injured in accidents, was significantly high due to the lack of trained and efficient personnel to perform certain critical advanced technical and managerial tasks that facilitated the smooth running of operations within vessels like ships and boats (Donavan).

The International Maritime Organization states that the role played by highly trained DPAs in marine operations has led to an increase in efficiency and accountability in this industry (78).

DPAs have significantly contributed in the reduction of accidents and other errors brought about by human factors. These statistics highlight the vital role played by the DPAs and their significant role in human factor management in the marine industry. In the early days, all marine operations were handled by the pilot, captains and other crew members.

However, there were constant problems relating to poor communication between the vessels and the onshore operators due to inadequate coordination efforts as well as inabilities to. The UK delegation to IMO introduced the DPA concept with an aim of understanding the causes of the Herald of Free Enterprise disaster in 1987.

Moens describes a DPA as a person who has direct access to the top management and is tasked with the duties of ensuring that all safety codes are followed (159). In addition, they provide a link between the ship and the shipping company. The DPA is expected to look into all aspects of the ship and ensure smooth running of all operations. However, the human factor in the shipping companies plays a pivotal role which in essence, determines the success or failure of all shipping operations.

There is need to come up with the ways and means of alleviating the problem and thereby leading to better physical well being of the crew which will result in optimal performance in the field.

Fatigue among the bridge crew members is among the leading factor that has led to the interruption of efficient practices in most shipping companies. As the DPA, it is my duty to analyze this issue from all angles and come up with viable solutions that can be employed to mitigate the effects of fatigue thereby ensuring that safety and effective coordination is preserved.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Problem Statement In the last half a century, efforts made by the shipping companies have been directed towards the improvement of ship structure as well as the reliability of their systems.

Fayle claims that the main aim of these improvements has been to reduce the ever increasing casualties in the shipping industry all the while increasing efficiency as well as productivity (17). Maritime environment undergoes a considerable number of human factors problems like fatigue among bridge team members, constant marine pollution, or inabilities to provide safe navigation in time and indentify true causes of causalities which happen with seamen.

The number of accidents and casualties in the shipping industry is still very high (Weintrit 21). The question that is left wanting is all about the reasons of why all those risks and accidents could not be reduced or, at least, prevented, even after all considerable improvements are made.

It is because the ship structure and its reliability are just a small proportion of the general equation as regarding to safety. The efficiency of these systems depends mainly on human labor and manmade errors that contribute highly in most of the casualties situations. To ensure that such occurrences are reduced, it is a worthwhile endeavor to focus on the human factor that leads to most of these casualties and accidents.

Description Factors Which Influence Marine Environment There are four main factors which may influence maritime environment, and the successful identification of these factors may considerably improve the conditions under which seamen have to work and the consequences of such work.

These factors are observed from several perspective of maritime work: the factor of fatigue among bridge team members that is based on human health conditions and working abilities; the factor of marine environment and human direct participation; the factor of safe navigation and people’s inabilities to organize it properly; and finally, failures to identify the reasons of causalities in the sea.

Marine pollution is characterized by a number of harmful effects which influence human work. A number of toxic elements as well as extreme noise and waste are considered to be crucial for seamen and serve as the main reason of fatigue born in people (Ellis 4).

We will write a custom Essay on Designated Persons Ashore specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fatigue can be described as a state whereby a person experiences a diminished capacity to perform either physiologically and/or psychologically (Florence 35). There are many symptoms of fatigues which may be observed in seamen, and each point should be considered because “contact with water and humidity is the main parameter which governs the environmental behavior of the material and this can affect the fatigue and long term performance” (Harris 711).

If a shipping company wants to improve the conditions of marine work, it is obligatory to pay more attention to the workers who cannot perform multitasks in time and in a good way, who demonstrate poor judgments or suffer from memory loss.

In spite of the fact that statistics proves the contribution of fatigue in maritime accidents are overwhelming (Weintrit 47), many shipping companies still cannot define the reasons and basics of causalities which happen at sea. They fail to present safe navigation and provide employees with satisfied conditions.

This is why the definition of fatigue and the reasons of why is crucial for shipping companies because a better understanding of all these aspects may help them come up with viable measures that would in essence minimize or mitigate fatigue related incidences within the industry.

Human Physiology and Anthropometry Human physiology as described by Abernethy refers to the biological science related to the “mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health and their organs (27).” The various factors that may enhance efficient performance are addressed in this field of study as well as those that may affect the same. Anthropometry refers to the field of study that focuses on the measurements of the human body for anthropological and comparison use.

The human factors which influence cooperation at sea and seafarers’ productivity have been mentioned above. They are marine fatigue and a number of factors which influence the development of this fatigue: marine pollution, lack of safe navigation, and inabilities to predict and define risk causalities. Considering human physiology, it is obligatory to think about a design with the help of which reduction of seafarers’ fatigue is possible and promotion of appropriate conditions like rest, adaptable ships, and marine environment is supported.

To succeed in the chosen activity, a shipping company has to set a number of goals and make sure they are achieved. First, it is possible to develop good and safe courses where marine pollution will not be a problem for seamen to deal with. In case the reduction of pollution is possible, the rates of seafarers’ fatigue may be reduced as well.

Another important step in the development of a plan is connected with the conditions under which seamen have to work: shipping companies should take care of appropriate rooms for rest and consider healthy eating. It is not that expensive to find people who are responsible for doing up a ship and food preparing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Designated Persons Ashore by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, a design of a program that may reduce fatigue rates should be supplemented with proper medical care. Professionals on the board should follow healthy conditions of seafarers and prevent the development of disease as soon as it is possible.

Information Processing and Cognition Communication is arguably the corner stone on which successful relationships are built. The importance of effective communication is universally acknowledged and as Greene and Burleson demonstrate, a lot of research has been taken on the subject and numerous books written so as to help people improve their skills so as to make them more effective in their communication efforts (8). There exist different communication styles and the one that an individual adopts may be as a result of personality, socialization or training.

Some symptoms of fatigue include short-term memory loss, fixation, anxiety and poor concentration (Harris 10). When crew members start suffering from fatigue, they face difficulties with understanding commands and orders.

In addition, the likelihood of information distortion is very high due to the memory loss. Lancaster asserts that if a person is fatigued, it becomes very difficult for them to perform accordingly (77). This he claims is due to the fact that human’s cognitive skills and information processing abilities depend on their level of physical and psychological well being. If these aspects are in poor conditions, then the occurrence of mishaps is inevitable.

Occupational Stressors People face a number of various physical and emotional challenges. This is why it is very important to define the reason of stress and be able to overcome the challenges appeared. In case the identification of stress is failed, a threat to the mental and physical well being is possible.

The long-term exposure to stress is disruptive to most of the body’s process. As such many health problems including: high blood pressure, heart attacks, digestive problems and obesity are seen to have stress as their root cause. Gibson claims that the shipping industry is among the most stressful sectors in the world (15).

Occupational stressors in this industry include overworking, lack of personal time and disconnection of family ties due to the fact that crew members spend long periods of time at sea. Bust, further asserts that stress and fatigue are interconnected (64). Therefore, if the crew members are stressed, they show most of the fatigue symptoms. This invariably affects their ability to concentrate and perform effectively.

Change, Leadership and Culture All crew members are bound by a number of certain rules and regulations that govern how seafarers should go about their duties. They are always expected to show a high level of professionalism and etiquette while doing their jobs so that they provide quality services. Majority of the population is greatly dissatisfied with the current maritime systems provided (Dallmeyer 198).

While an effective system is one those which is efficient, acceptable, and, at the same time, equitable, the current system has been observed to be lacking in these attributes (International Maritime Organization 75). As such, leaders in the shipping industry are under much pressure to enforce positive change in the various modes of operations. To do this, they have to push the crew members beyond their limits and this consequently leads to fatigue among the members.

One of the most evident examples to be used may be observed in the movie about the Captain Jack Sparrow in Pirates of the Caribbean. It did not matter what kind of crew he could have, he was able to attract the attention, demonstrate his best qualities as a leader, and, what is more important, take care of himself. Such challenges as fatigue or unsafe navigation should not influence sailors’ work, and Sparrow is ready to help his team to cope any kind of fatigue.

Human Errors Ehlers and Lagoni assert that human errors contribute to an average of 75-96% of all maritime casualties (39). In a recent study conducted by the U.S. coast guard, it was documented that there are many areas within the shipping industry where safety and performance could be improved through the application of some human factor principles.

During the study, the most prevalent problems were fatigue which contributed to 16% of the casualties experienced within the vessels and 33% of total injuries. The other problems attributed to human errors included but were not limited to lack of proper communication and coordination between the pilot and the bridge crew, inadequate technical skills among the crew, poor decision making and poor maintenance practices among others. However, these human errors have their basis on fatigue as the leading cause.

In the design offered in this paper that considers a number of factors inherent to maritime environment, it is possible to observe several errors caused by human not readiness to evaluate a number of factors at the same as well as be involved into the project to its full extent. As it has been mentioned before, one of the significant steps to be taken is connected with appropriate safe navigation and conditions under which fatigue cannot be developed in seafarers.

One of the possible human errors in this plan is connected to inabilities evaluate the current conditions on the chosen course in time. Even the professional developers may face challenges with unrespectable conditions of the sea. This is why a design should also consider some unforeseen circumstances and provide people with an additional plan to overcome healthy problems which influence productivity.

Risks Assessment and Management Risk is often referred to as the presence of potential or actual threats or opportunities that influence the objectives of a project. Risk as explained by The Institute of Risk Management is a combination of measures that are put in place to prevent hazards and contain risks (2).

As such, risk is often referred to as the presence of potential or actual threats or opportunities that influence the objectives of a project. All projects have their potential consequences that can be regarded as benefits or threats to success. Risk Management is normally ignored since most project managers deem it as unnecessary paperwork. This notion leads to firefighting approaches to dealing with problems that appear in the life of the project.

Project risk. All maritime projects involve some measure of risk. Risks arise as a result of the uncertainties that are inherent in each project. One of the things which make risk management hard in biotechnological projects is that there is no standardized approach to dealing with risks and there is no definite method that can be used to predict the occurrences of risks (Norris, Perry


Contemporary Environmental Challenges Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Abstract Contemporary environmental challenges concerning current state of the environment lack clear solutions or elucidation. Arguably, majority of the collective proposals or resolutions have some link to economically associated struggles between companies or are from personal perspectives thus lack any scientifically related basis. There is an urgent need to find proper alternatives of managing waste. Waste disposal is the main pollutant that causes radical and alarming environmental changes.

Introduction According to Jandt, (2009) UN research indicates that one person for every six in the world lacks access to clean water (6). The UN prediction is that by the year 2025, two thirds of the worlds’ populace will not have access to adequate clean drinking water. The effect is already underway in some areas where people search relentlessly for the commodity they now commonly refer to as the “blue gold”.

The study indicates that only a ninth of the used plastic bottles are recycled. The rest face dumping into the woods, roadsides, seascapes, streams or rivers. These decay resistant materials clog the landfills thus causing intoxication through leaching. Poor dumping styles are therefore the biggest global environmental challenge.

This paper will form an overview analysis of the factors that cause chaotic and un-harmonized inferences regarding environmental protection. This paper will examine the real consequences of waste to environmental degradation. The analysis also focuses on the intellectual behaviour of people regarding the environmental effects of waste.

Sources of Contemporary Environmental Challenges Most people have a mentality of engaging recycling as the best and most suitable way of managing waste. Scientifically landfills might be a more viable method of disposal compared to burning or recycling depending on the type of waste, situation at hand, cost/benefit exploration and risk valuation (Bruins and Heberling, 2005, p.76).

It is economically benefiting to consider recycling aluminium cans or foils, while the same option would not be economically viable for paper and glass. Recycling paper consumes more water compared to new production from wood pulp. During paper recycling procedure, there is worse depletion of water resources and scientific discoveries indicate that water is becoming a non-renewable commodity.

Paper recycling also creates more environmental pollution due to ink removal procedures among other factors. For this reasons, there is need to consider the environmental and economic expenses of recycling before engagement. Risk assessment involves analysing the amount and rate of intoxication. The problem lies on lacks of enough prove that secondary production/recycling of most products comprises more pollution than primary production.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The food industry also suffers from various overstretched landfills-related implications from the media. Scientific research ought to be the only viable means of providing information that can guide people on the choice of environmentally friendly procedures. The big debate about the plastic and paper cups in the food industry is very easy to settle.

Scientific research shows that more wood pulp is required to produce a cup compared to polystyrene for plastic cups. Production of paper cups would therefore require more steam, electric energy, cooling water and furthermore there is more waste production. More contaminants are present in the wastewater from wood pulp processing compared to polythene. This indicates that if people would follow the cost analysis and risk assessment of recycling against construction of landfills, then polythene usage would prevail.

The widely overstated allegations regarding landfills are obnoxious since very little space can and will only be required for properly managed disposals, over a long period. This is a clear indication of why the contemporary environmental challenges are termed “Wicked problems”. Leaders such as at the resent Copen Hagen meeting lack proper guidance to choose the appropriate methods for people to follow. Individuals are practicing what they think is right but environmental problems are persisting.

Global View of Waste Management Leaders have been under pressure especially from non-governmental organizations to implement bills that enhance measures to control recycling. While the demand for recycling plastics remains very high, there is very low rate of recycling.

Engagement of global campaigns is a good indication of concern by many people especially environmentalists. Are we suggesting the right mechanism or making the situation worse? Leaders may be pushing waste management regulations and various states have seen the outcome of these ‘producer responsibility laws’ with at least one in every five plastic bottles being recycled.

The common methods for enhancing recycling today are through awareness campaigns over the impact of the plastics to the environment. Such methods are creating responsiveness among consumers with regard to home or business recycling initiative. However, there is lack of appropriate programs to provide consumers with the latest news over recycling methods or right procedures to deal with wastes (Keegan and Schlegelmilch, 2001, p.15).

With scientific analysis terming recycling as an expensive and an environment-threatening procedure, there is lack of vital guidance. Other than having a debate that supports recycling blindly, a reflection on the bright side of the outcome would lead to campaigns for litter-free environments and other environment-friendly measures. The depository laws that govern people’s reactivity to plastics would work better if the public were aware of the scientific results (Keegan and Schlegelmilch, 2001, p.15).

We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary Environmental Challenges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Today the society focuses on happiness, health and better lives, therefore other suggestions revolve around use of biodegradable materials. The issue of biodegradation comes about because of poor response over need for proper waste management styles or recycling. The questions depicted regarding production of biodegradable products focuses on risk evaluation, safety and health.

There is very low response towards educating the public on issues regarding environmental effects of recycling. Arguably, majority of the consumers are aware of the dangers, but prefer it due to exposed scenarios of poor damping. The awareness campaigns ought to focus on proper ways of getting rid of waste based on the cost/benefit analysis as well as evaluation of pollution risks. The choice must depend on effects and cost.

Human Ecology in Relation to Environmental Challenges Various economists of ecology present very adverse imagery of the future by referencing the past and comparing it to the contemporary situation. Doom or more wicked problems have been the predictions all along. According to Burman (2007), the problem has a link to human adoptability to the environment. The population is rapidly increasing, but people fail to meet the hasty demands to adapt to the surroundings in accordance with the situations (27).

The past indicates that human species had little struggles adapting to the environment. Population was very little in comparison to availability of resources. Human kind alters the environment frequently to accommodate population growths. Demand for higher living standards of current lifestyles calls for changes. People have varying views and outrageously predicting Global catastrophes due to mismanagement of resources.

The predictions date back to the historical eras but it is easy to contain the situation by adoptability to nature. If people agree on the best way forwards and strictly adhere to the scientifically proved facts, then human adoptability is the only way to prosperous future regardless of the population growth. People should thus depend on Human ecology for basic explanations and guidance through human environmental facts.

Case Analysis of the Contemporary Environmental Challenges Environmentally it would be very difficult to argue against the fact that waste management has become an eminent factor of consideration in the whole world. The development of land is occurring at an alarming rate while the rates of recycling, scarce usage and proper waste disposing mechanisms remain dismally very low. Considering the water industry, the amount of plastic bottles discarded by users exacerbates various environmental problems.

In line with McKinney et al, (2007) bottled water has escalated today with a worldwide production of billions of litres yearly (9). The transportation energy required to distribute this water is a great drain to the limited fossil fuels. The significant environmental strains are thus inclined to the unregulated use of limited variable resources, involved in manufacture of billions of synthetic containers as well as pollution due to improper discards.

Environmental Effects of Waste Industries waste may be causing a lot of strain to the environment, but the proposed solutions seem to go against the standards of living, thus creating a tug of war between concerns of environmental damage and issues relating to compromised quality of life. Today the world is faced with problems related to global warming as a result if emissions or presence of high intoxicants in the atmosphere.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary Environmental Challenges by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most fuel emissions of green house gases such as carbon dioxide poses global challenges of finding ways of limiting such pollutions. To date, the global meetings still lack proper achievements, since the main cause of heated debate concerns quality of life, other than incentives of reducing environmental degradation.

Background Study of Environmental Waste Oils and natural gases facilitate plastics manufactory. The classification of these sources of energy falls under the non-renewable sources of energy. Yearly manufactory of plastic containers or polythene bags indicates a figure of million tons. The problem does not concern manufacturing but the industrial procedures and depository methods.

The plastic bottles are made of substances that require less energy and thus industries release fewer emissions to the surroundings during the recycle process compared to metals or glass and this is the main reason why people should take the advantage of plastics. The process used to making plastics is however toxic and causes severe effluence to the atmosphere and human health, especially when the safety measures lack proper enhancements (Keegan and Schlegelmilch, 2001, p.17).

Today, the environment is facing serious challenges when plastics and polythene bags are not properly disposed or recycled and instead they face haphazard dumping. Plastics remain at the dumping sites for hundreds of years due to the slow rate of breakdown, thus the reason why we need a controlled mechanism.

Considering the scientific reveals mentioned in this analysis, it would be better to recycle other than keep producing and dump haphazardly. A major concern is that, issues of environmental degradation are not solvable through abandoning one pollutant for the other (Kutz, 2005, p.165).

Conclusion There is lack of strong basis for scientific findings and current guidance is causing the environmental challenges to become “wicked problems”. The merits of contemporary claims require full assessment over sufficient timelines and viable data, in order to filter out the heavily popularized ambiguous claims from mare thoughtful concepts.

If people would consider the effects of recycling to the environment compared to fresh manufactory as revealed earlier in this paper, then the issue of campaigning for need to recycle would never rise. This means that people would never compromise on waste management techniques and therefore contemporary challenges would never exist.

References Bruins, R. and Heberling, M. (2005). Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment. Florida, FL: CRC Press. Print.

Burman, S. (2007). “The State of the American Empire: How the USA shapes the World”. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

Jandt, F. E. (2009). “An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community” (sixth Ed.), New York NY: Sage

Keegan, W. and Schlegelmilch, B. (2001) “Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective.” New York, NY: Pearson Education Press. Print.

Kutz, M. (2005). Handbook of environmental degradation of materials, Volume 0, Issue 8155. Norwich, NY: William Andrew Publishers, Print.

McKinney, M., Schoch, R. and Yanavjak, L. (2007). “Environmental Science: System and Solutions” (fourth Ed). Sudbury, MA: Jones


Effects of the September 11th attack on the geopolitics of the US Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction The geographical structure in global politics has been greatly challenged by various issues such as new technology like the internet, globalization, environmental degradation, and terrorism. This paper will seek to explain how the geo politics of the USA were affected by the terrorism attack of September 11th 2001. It will also discuss the effect of the “New map” by Barnet and how it has been used to visualize the worldview by The USA.

Effects of the September 11th attack on the geopolitics of the US The terrorist September 11 assail on the United States has distorted the geopolitical scenery in major ways. U.S. reaction to the attacks has provoked it to create new premeditated relationships and take on new military schemes that have had an effect on old alliances and associations. This shifting setting of global relations will have considerable consequences for the geopolitics of oil and other major resources in the imminent decades.

Already, the terror assault and also the realization of the ensuing U.S. “War-on-Terror” has unnerved a focus on the innate risks allied with heavy dependence on oil provisions from the Middle East. At the same time, as tactical policies are evaluated, many countries, like the U.S. as well as other European, and Latin-American powers, are re-evaluating their energy safety policies (Department of Defense 2008).

The budge in geopolitical relations that is mounting as the U.S. acts in response to the attacks on its people is already pressurizing oil trades and supplies relationships and also changing ways can be anticipated in the coming years. Almost suddenly, Russia publicized its willingness to lend a hand to the West in order to diversify its oil basis to comprise a growing torrent of Russian crude oil.

The war in Iraq that resulted from the September 11 attacks resulted to a reconfiguration of the geopolitical landscape globally in very many ways. Some of this ways may not be noticeable for quite some years or even some long time to come.

The effect has had an alteration of the relationship between the United States and other countries in the Middle East and Iraq. However, its blow goes well further than this. More than everything else, the warfare discloses that the new-fangled central turn of world antagonism is the south central region of Eurasia (Department of Defense 2008).

The expression “geopolitics” seems to come on or after another epoch, from the tardy nineteenth century. By geo-politics or geo-political antagonism, this paper means the conflict between immense powers and wannabe great-powers for management over territories, resources, and also important physical positions, for instance ports and at times harbors, river systems, canals, and other causes of prosperity and authority.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Looking back, you will discover that this sort of contest has been the motivating force in world and global politics and in particular world disagreement in much of the precedent few centuries. Geopolitics was very popular in the 19th century and grew in the same trend towards the beginning of the 20th century.

It is imperative to make a note that this is a course of action that began ahead of 9/11. September 11 speeded up the progression and gave it a fashionable authorization, but this was utterly unanticipated from a point of view of U.S. thinkers. President bill Clinton is well remembered to have built strong links with some countries of the Arabian origin and made the arbitration of the Persian Gulf a reality. The U.S. triumph in Iraq was not a win of Wolfowitz and Rumsfeld; this was Clinton’s labor that prepared this conquest possible.

The war in opposition to Iraq was wished-for to endow the United States with a dominant place in the Persian Gulf/ Caspian Sea area, and to serve up as a launch pad for further take-over and declaration of power in that region. To add on this, the war was also meant to show countries such as Russia, China, and Europe the US mighty power. It is part of a larger process of emphasizing overriding U.S. power in the south central Eurasia, in the exceptionally heartland of this mega continent.

The main question is the reason behind this region. In fraction, this is so for the reason that this is where the majority of the world’s residual oil is located where it has approximately 70% of recognized petroleum reserves. The major reason as to why oil has been the contentious issue is because it is a source of power above being just a source of fuel. As U.S. strategists see it, the one who controls Persian Gulf oil reins the world’s financial system and, consequently, has the definitive lever over all contending powers (Graham 2006).

Dick Cheney, the former US secretary of data forewarned the senate that it was dangerous for Sadam Hussein to capture the Kuwait and other Middle East oil territories as this would enable him to have control over the global economy. This was the most important rationale, he confirmed, why United States was obliged to send armed forces to the area and keep at bay Hussein’s forces.

It is however very clear that the United States has to retain a strong hold on the world’s economy by scheming this area. This is also as imperative, in the administration’s point view, as keeping hold of the America’s benefit in military machinery (Kaplan 2008).

Ten years from this time, China is also expected to be entirely reliant on the Persian Gulf and also dependent on the Caspian Sea locale for the oil that it will require to maintain its economic expansion.

We will write a custom Essay on Effects of the September 11th attack on the geopolitics of the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Japan and South Korea and also Europe are bound to have quite some good deal if they were to be in similar conditions. Utter control over oil faucet may be to some extent a very funny image, but it is an illustration that has aggravated U.S. course of action since the closing stages of the Cold War and has vehemently gained even more distinction in the Bush-Cheney government.

This expanse is also the solitary area in the whole world wherever the interests of the supposed great powers smash together. In the Caspian Sea region which is the bones of contention, major powers are tending to have more increasing powers. They include the United States, china and Russia.

There is utterly no other region in the world which is like this. They are under pressure with one another deliberately and enthusiastically The Bush government is determined to control this region and to subsidiary these two prospective challengers and avert them from figuring a common frontage against the United States.

What then are the insinuations of this immense repositioning of U.S. geo-political strategy made potential by the Cold War overwhelm of the then Soviet Union?

It is apparently much too premature to draw any ultimate conclusions on this delicate matter; nevertheless, some things can be retaliated on. First, Iraq is presently the commencements of a U.S. take into this region. It is possible that people will see further additions and appearances of U.S. authority in the area.

This will tend to bring forth ripples between the United States and other regimes who are contending for dominancy. However, the United States will most likely also become entangled in confined conflicts that were there even long before America’s participation in the area (Connolly 2006).

For instance, the disagreement amid Armenia and Azerbaijan, and also the one stuck between Abkhazia and Georgia, both of which are known to have quite a long history will draw closer to brunt on U.S. defense as the United States gets dependent on some newly constructed trans Caucasian pipeline for transporting oil. In all such disagreements there is a possibility of tortuous or straight, stealthy or obvious interventions by the United States and most likely from the other contending supremacies (Campbell 1998).

The new map: the visualizations The Pentagon’s New Map by Barnett is a cutting edge advance to globalization, which combines security, financial, opinionated, and intellectual factors which above other things predict and gives details on the environment of war and that of peace in the 21st century. The map makes a straightforward distinction where it divides the globe into two parts: the first part is “the functioning-core” and the other part being the “non-integrated-gap.”

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of the September 11th attack on the geopolitics of the US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The core comprises of economically sophisticated or emergent countries that are associated to the global-economy and bound to rule sets of worldwide trade. The remaining part of the world is the non integrated-gap exterior to the global economy, and is not bound to those rule sets of the international trade,”

According to Bartlett disconnection is not only a problem which is handled by these societies only: “In this century, it is disconnectedness that defines danger. Disconnectedness allows bad actors to flourish by keeping entire societies detached from the global community and under their control. Eradicating disconnectedness, therefore, becomes the defining security task of our age” (Barnett 2004).

Disconnection from the international community as Roberts et al. (2003) states, the global economy also conveys with it extrication from the ‘‘rule-sets’’ which are concerned with the governing of proper international behavior: “enunciating that rule set is the most immediate task in this global war on terrorism, and promoting the global spread of that security rule set through our use of military force overseas (e.g. pre-emptive war against regimes that openly transgress the rule set) is our most important long-term goal in this struggle” (Barnett 2005).

As noted in the preceding statements, the American’s role in the articulation of a fresh global rule-set has turned out to be the guiding concern of the scheme for the “New American Century” from the time of its inception: a concern which has been made visible contained by a quantity of the National-Security strategies. It is far a bit far from the selfish tasks, however; Barnett asserts that it is America’s moral responsibility to make sure that it shares the rule-set.

America seeks to sell abroad this new defense rule-set called preventative war, we should then be very careful in making certain this tactical concept is in the approved manner understood. In short, preemptive warfare is not a gizmo for re-ordering the Core’s safety structure as some might fear. Rather, it is a gadget through which the centerpiece hereby being referred as the Core should as groups seek out to expand its stable defense rule-set into the fundamentally lawless Gap (Barnett 2004).

With the above arguments in place, it is therefore worthwhile o note with conviction that the assertions made Barnett in his book are correct visualizations of the current worldview by the USA. This is further supported by the variety of ways in which he has invoked the integration concept which is more or less way much similar to the current policies of both domestic administration and also foreign administration (Agnew 2003).

Conclusion In the after effects of September the 11th, it has evidently become usual to argue that the world over has essentially changed in various ways. President Bush asserted as much during the time he declared the assaults of that day preordained “the doctrine of containment just doesn’t hold any water” and the premeditated vision of the United States had to shift considerably (Bush 2003).

As a consequence, incorporation into a westernized and American values and a modus operandi has come out to be the new tactical concept. Dissimilar from the shallow binaries of the erstwhile Cold War, incorporation nonetheless engages its own exclusions sets, with structures of violence in anticipation of those who are maybe reluctant or incapable to be incorporated.

References Agnew, J. (2003) Geopolitics: Re-visioning world politics. London: Routledge.

Barnett, T. P. M. (2004) The Pentagon’s new map: War and peace in the twenty- first century. London: Putnam Publishing Group.

Barnett, T. P. M. (2005) Blueprint for action: A future worth creating. New York: G.P. Putnam’s and Sons.

Bush, G.W. (2003) President Bush meets with Prime Minister Blair, January 31st. Web.

Campbell, D. (1998) National deconstruction: Violence, identity and justice in Bosnia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Connolly, W. (2005) The evangelical-capitalist resonance machine. Political Theory, 33(6), 869-886.

Department of Defense. (2008) Strategy for homeland defense and support. Washington D.C.: Department of Defense. Available at: https://www.defense.gov/

Graham, S. (2006) Cities and the ‘war on terror’. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30(2), 255-276.

Kaplan, A. (2008) Homeland insecurities: reflections on language and space. Radical History Review, 85, 82-93.


Important Virtues in Human Life: Plato’s Protagoras and Hesiod’s Works and Days Essay college essay help

The world of Greek and Roman mythology is rich and amazing indeed. Each author made his own attempt to demonstrate his understanding of the world and the virtues which had their own meanings and impacts on human lives. It is always interesting to investigate how different authors tried to evaluate the same aspects of life and define its strong and weak points.

The works by Ancient Greeks captivates the reader due to writers’ possibility to underline the essence of life and prove the effectiveness of their ideas through the story of Prometheus. Hesiod’s Works and Days was created around 700 BC, and Plato’s Protagoras was created around 450 BC. More than 400 years divide these two works; however, there are so many common ideas and suggestions offered by the poets as well as many captivating differences.

Plato and Hesiod tried to evaluate the ideas of justice in their worlds and the ways of how people prefer to use their possibilities and knowledge using the story of Prometheus; Plato focused on the confrontations between sophists and Socrates and the discussions about how virtues may be taught and how fair or unfair the action of Prometheus was; and Hesiod, in his turn, defined the truth of labor in Greece, the way of how people depend on each other, and how Prometheus tried to improve human life; in spite of different approaches chosen, Plato and Hesiod introduced the idea of person’s dependence on different factors of life.

It is possible to tell that these two works may supplement each other by means of evaluation Prometheus actions. The works by Plato and Hesiod are similar to each other because the main subject is still a human life and human dependence. “The gods never have let on how humans might make a living” (Hesiod, Works and Days, 162).

By Hesiod, the role of gods is crucial indeed, and people can hardly resist their powers and their wishes. So, Prometheus is a symbol by means of which people had to become free. The same thing is described by Plato but in other words: “a time when there were gods but no mortals creatures” so that gods made a decision “to create them… using the combination of earth, fire, and matter” (Plato, Protagoras, 362).

The thing that makes these works different is the approaches, the ways, chosen by the authors to disclose the essence of the message: Plato relied on the history of human creation and virtues that are crucial for all people; and Hesiod focused on labor and the conditions under which people had to live.

Details by Plato seem to be rather powerful: he admitted that “a man received a portion of the divine” and a chance to worship gods (Plato, Protagoras, 363). People are able to create clothes, statues, shoes, furniture, and other important for living items; but still all this is necessary just in order to appreciate gods’ powers and impacts on their lives. Prometheus tried to assist people and decrease the power of god; as a result, he was punished.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The detail chosen by Hesiod is about the five ages which people should pass through: the Golden, Silver, Bronze, Heroic, and Iron ages. Each age has its own ruler, and people should find the necessary ways to meet rulers’ demands. Another successful detail is the one connected with Pandora. Hesiod raised the theme of gender inequality and women’s desire to gain recognition and power over men: “nobody likes her, but everybody honors her” (Hesiod, Works and Days, 161).

Intentions of the authors seem to be similar from the very beginning: people are in need of important lessons and helpful ideas and they should know how to achieve a kind of perfection in this life. Plato aimed at defining the differences between the doctrines of Socrates and sophists and defining the truth by means of comparison.

And Hesiod made everything possible to describe the living conditions use personal experience and requirements set for people. Evaluation of details helps both authors to explain that people are not satisfied with the conditions they have to live under. The only point is that Plato did not want to concentrate on clear facts and feelings but on the arguments and discussions which are integral in human life. Hesiod chose another way with the help of which he demonstrated how perfect his ideas and his beliefs could be.

Talking about the effectiveness of the works under consideration, it is necessary to admit that both authors had one and the same purpose – to improve human understanding of the life, its virtues, and rules to follow or neglect using the example of Prometheus. People are not free to choose the conditions, they have to adapt to the already set rules: they “roam all over the land, shrouded in mist, tending to justice, repaying criminal acts and dispensing wealth” (Hesiod, Works and Days, 165).

The ideas chosen by Hesiod seem to powerful indeed: his desire to consider different aspects of life from gender differences to human responsibilities are rather persuading and clear.

Plato’s attention to history and Greek myths (like the one of Prometheus) demonstrates his choice’s correctness and his certain attention to details. This is why it is hard to define the most effective work but still it is correct to believe that both works seem to be good opportunities to grasp the ideas of the Ancient Greece, the style Greek life, and the virtues which were in demand.

Works Cited Hesiod. “Works and Days”. Anthology of Classical Myth: Primary Sources in Translation. Ed. Stephen Trzaskoma, Scott Smith, and Stephen Brunet. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company Inc., 2004. 160 – 167. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Important Virtues in Human Life: Plato’s Protagoras and Hesiod’s Works and Days specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Plato. “Protagoras”. Anthology of Classical Myth: Primary Sources in Translation. Ed. Stephen Trzaskoma, Scott Smith, and Stephen Brunet. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company Inc., 2004. 361 – 363. Print.


Concept of McDonaldization in Fast-Food Industry Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

McDonaldization is a concept used to refer to the modes adopted in the world pertaining to fast foods (Ritzer, 2009, pp.2). The fast-food model that the McDonald chains of stores use has formed the basis of numerous societal structures. McDonaldization is anchored by the four chief principles of competence, calculability, predictability and control.

The theory of bureaucracy and large rationalization process of Max Weber are underlying factors to McDonaldization success. The Max theory aims at reducing inefficiency, uncertainty, unpredictability and irrationality within the organization as Ritzer too puts it.

Application of unity of command, job specification, qualifications and other characteristic of bureaucracy, lead to rationalization. McDonaldization therefore builds on the principles of Weber’s argument to extend rationalization. People have become more responsible and understand their responsibilities, hence the realization of contemporary paradigm in the fast food restaurant. In summary, McDonaldization borrows a lot from concepts posited by Weber.

Efficiency refers to the most cost effectual means of reaching an end product while incurring the least possible cost. The determination of an efficient mode should be based on team work and concerted effort.

The underlying benefits lie in being specific to the interest of the business while marketing it as a benefit to the consumer (Smart, 1999, pp 100). This is due to a decrease in the staffing while rendering precise service to customers. In so doing, a business stands to cut on the costs while maximizing on the sales that will translate to optimal proceeds.

Calculability puts more prominence on capacity rather than quality. In this case, the amount of the product is considered not considering the quality. Appraisal is more subjective on the end product rather than the process to acquire it. During service delivery, it is more of how quick the service is rendered rather than how well it is done.

A case in point is the production of large burgers while reducing on its ingredients, which results, in reduced quality. The business in this case endeavors to convince the consumer that they are getting vast amounts of goods or quick services at relatively low sums of money.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Predictability as a standard of McDonaldization entails standardizing of all the outlets in terms of goods and service delivery (Ritzer, 2009, p.224). The business configuration and outline across all the McDonaldized stores is similar and uniform. This gives the purchaser the same customer familiarity across all the business outlets.

The employees are also indicted into the organization in a similar manner that will enhance uniformity across the organization. The layout in malls and chain supermarkets shows an embrace of the concept of predictability. The color, layout and arrangement of goods are similar which gives the customer an ample time during purchase at various outlets. Predictability goes a long way in retaining the existing customers as they know the routine which helps in saving time.

Control as a pillar of McDonaldization entails the replacement of human manpower with machines or deskilling of the human resource. The predictable service rendered by human beings gets boring to customers as time goes by (Dustin, 2009, p.21). This necessitates the introduction of a different customer experience through the introduction of machines.

The human mind also tends to become weary with time in organizations involving high-order thinking. For instance aero planes are under operations of computers while the flight engineer and pilots only oversee their working. Automation of the services will help sustain the quality of the services by reducing on the variability that accustoms the human mind.

McDonaldization has proved a welcome addition to the daily operations in life. It has significantly improved operations in the communal, monetary and cultural fronts of life. Its rationality makes it mutually beneficial to both the business organization and the consumer. The consumer gets the maximum attainable delivery of goods and services from the commerce. In return, the business benefits from augmented sales and subsequent profits.

List of References Dustin, D 2009, The McDonaldization of Social Work, Ashgate, London. Pp 21

Ritzer, G 2009, McDonaldization, 3rd edition, Pine Forge Press, pp 2

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of McDonaldization in Fast-Food Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Smart, B 1999, Resisting McDonaldization, California, Sage, pp 100


Important Virtues in Human Life: Plato’s Protagoras and Hesiod’s Works and Days Essay college essay help near me

The world of Greek and Roman mythology is rich and amazing indeed. Each author made his own attempt to demonstrate his understanding of the world and the virtues which had their own meanings and impacts on human lives. It is always interesting to investigate how different authors tried to evaluate the same aspects of life and define its strong and weak points.

The works by Ancient Greeks captivates the reader due to writers’ possibility to underline the essence of life and prove the effectiveness of their ideas through the story of Prometheus. Hesiod’s Works and Days was created around 700 BC, and Plato’s Protagoras was created around 450 BC. More than 400 years divide these two works; however, there are so many common ideas and suggestions offered by the poets as well as many captivating differences.

Plato and Hesiod tried to evaluate the ideas of justice in their worlds and the ways of how people prefer to use their possibilities and knowledge using the story of Prometheus; Plato focused on the confrontations between sophists and Socrates and the discussions about how virtues may be taught and how fair or unfair the action of Prometheus was; and Hesiod, in his turn, defined the truth of labor in Greece, the way of how people depend on each other, and how Prometheus tried to improve human life; in spite of different approaches chosen, Plato and Hesiod introduced the idea of person’s dependence on different factors of life.

It is possible to tell that these two works may supplement each other by means of evaluation Prometheus actions. The works by Plato and Hesiod are similar to each other because the main subject is still a human life and human dependence. “The gods never have let on how humans might make a living” (Hesiod, Works and Days, 162).

By Hesiod, the role of gods is crucial indeed, and people can hardly resist their powers and their wishes. So, Prometheus is a symbol by means of which people had to become free. The same thing is described by Plato but in other words: “a time when there were gods but no mortals creatures” so that gods made a decision “to create them… using the combination of earth, fire, and matter” (Plato, Protagoras, 362).

The thing that makes these works different is the approaches, the ways, chosen by the authors to disclose the essence of the message: Plato relied on the history of human creation and virtues that are crucial for all people; and Hesiod focused on labor and the conditions under which people had to live.

Details by Plato seem to be rather powerful: he admitted that “a man received a portion of the divine” and a chance to worship gods (Plato, Protagoras, 363). People are able to create clothes, statues, shoes, furniture, and other important for living items; but still all this is necessary just in order to appreciate gods’ powers and impacts on their lives. Prometheus tried to assist people and decrease the power of god; as a result, he was punished.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The detail chosen by Hesiod is about the five ages which people should pass through: the Golden, Silver, Bronze, Heroic, and Iron ages. Each age has its own ruler, and people should find the necessary ways to meet rulers’ demands. Another successful detail is the one connected with Pandora. Hesiod raised the theme of gender inequality and women’s desire to gain recognition and power over men: “nobody likes her, but everybody honors her” (Hesiod, Works and Days, 161).

Intentions of the authors seem to be similar from the very beginning: people are in need of important lessons and helpful ideas and they should know how to achieve a kind of perfection in this life. Plato aimed at defining the differences between the doctrines of Socrates and sophists and defining the truth by means of comparison.

And Hesiod made everything possible to describe the living conditions use personal experience and requirements set for people. Evaluation of details helps both authors to explain that people are not satisfied with the conditions they have to live under. The only point is that Plato did not want to concentrate on clear facts and feelings but on the arguments and discussions which are integral in human life. Hesiod chose another way with the help of which he demonstrated how perfect his ideas and his beliefs could be.

Talking about the effectiveness of the works under consideration, it is necessary to admit that both authors had one and the same purpose – to improve human understanding of the life, its virtues, and rules to follow or neglect using the example of Prometheus. People are not free to choose the conditions, they have to adapt to the already set rules: they “roam all over the land, shrouded in mist, tending to justice, repaying criminal acts and dispensing wealth” (Hesiod, Works and Days, 165).

The ideas chosen by Hesiod seem to powerful indeed: his desire to consider different aspects of life from gender differences to human responsibilities are rather persuading and clear.

Plato’s attention to history and Greek myths (like the one of Prometheus) demonstrates his choice’s correctness and his certain attention to details. This is why it is hard to define the most effective work but still it is correct to believe that both works seem to be good opportunities to grasp the ideas of the Ancient Greece, the style Greek life, and the virtues which were in demand.

Works Cited Hesiod. “Works and Days”. Anthology of Classical Myth: Primary Sources in Translation. Ed. Stephen Trzaskoma, Scott Smith, and Stephen Brunet. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company Inc., 2004. 160 – 167. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Important Virtues in Human Life: Plato’s Protagoras and Hesiod’s Works and Days specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Plato. “Protagoras”. Anthology of Classical Myth: Primary Sources in Translation. Ed. Stephen Trzaskoma, Scott Smith, and Stephen Brunet. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company Inc., 2004. 361 – 363. Print.


Moses History Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Moses (Mosheh in Hebrew) is recognized in the Old Testament as a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet and he is best known for rescuing the Israelites from slavery in Egypt. He is the most influential prophet in Judaism. Other major world religions, such as Christianity and Islam, recognize him as well. The Book of Exodus records that Moses was born during the period of Jewish enslavement in Egypt. At his birth, the Egyptian Pharaoh issued a decree that all male Hebrew infants were to be thrown into the river Nile.

However, Moses’ mother, Jochebed, desperate to save the life of his son, floated him in a basket in the Nile, and he ended up being adopted into the Egyptian royal family (Exodus 2:1-10). Growing up in the Egyptian palace made him to develop, the pride, vision, and courage necessary for liberating the Jews from slavery. These significant personal changes could not have been possible if he lived as a Hebrew slave. The life of Moses is full of several unique aspects.

At one time, he killed an Egyptian slave-master who was oppressive to his people, the Children of Israel. Thereafter, afraid that Pharaoh could kill him, he escaped across the Red Sea to Midian. Here, he looked after the flocks of Jethro, his father-in-law, the priest of Midian, on the slopes of Mt. Horeb until one day God appeared to him on a burning bush. Tending the flocks of his father-in-law for forty years made Moses to develop other significant personal changes in leadership for delivering his people from slavery.

Consequently, he set out on a mission to liberate his people from slavery. Following the Ten Plagues that fell on Egypt, he led the Israelites out of the nation and across the Red Sea. Thereafter, they gathered around Mt. Sinai and compassed the boundaries of Edom. In spite of living up to the age of one hundred and twenty years, he passed on before reaching the Promised Land.

Besides his major accomplishment of delivering the Israelites from slavery, he also had other achievements. Through him, God gave the Israelites the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:1-17) at Mt. Sinai. This achievement has made him to be called the “The Lawgiver.” He also wrote other moral laws that are still being followed by the Judaists.

Moses also wrote the first five books of the bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. In addition, no other prophet, save Moses, had the experience of talking to God “face to face”: “But this is not true of my servant Moses; he is faithful in all my house. With him I speak face to face, clearly and not in riddles; he sees the form of the Lord. Why then were you not afraid to speak against my servant Moses?” (Numbers 12:7-8, New International Version).

The life of Moses has tremendous effects on the society today. The religion of Judaism is based on the Torah (written law) and Mishnah (oral law) whose authorship is ascribed to Moses. These two forms of law shape the practices of the Jewish people today. In Christianity, Moses is viewed as a representation of the holy law of God.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The life and the teachings of Jesus Christ emphasize and expound this in the New Testament. In Islam, he is a symbol of “great importance” as he is mentioned and described more than any other prophet in the Qur’an. Generally, he is portrayed in ways that parallel the prophet Muhammad.

Sigmund Freud, a committed atheist, gave a psychoanalytical view of the life of Moses putting forward that he was an Egyptian nobleman who followed the monotheism of Akhenaten (Freud


Authors’ Thesis on Economics Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Empirical Evidence

International Trade


Charles Harvie and Hyun-Hoon Lee wanted to show that South Korea experienced a remarkable economic transformation and yet at the same time they were unwilling to say with confidence that indeed it is an economic miracle that needs to be copied by others.

On the other hand the pair also emphasized the idea that what happened to South Korea, in the aftermath of the Korean War and the significant increase in GDP that changed the status of this country from impoverished to that of a newly industrialized nation is something that should not be underestimated.

In other words the authors have this ambivalence regarding the economic growth of South Korea between the years 1962 to 1989. They were both impressed and at the same time they have their reservations because they believe that South Korea’s economic recovery was forced and not a result of a market-driven economy.

The authors pointed to policies that resulted in an outward-oriented, industry led strategy. They pointed to the chaebols a Korean slang for large-scale industrial conglomerates that led to the attainment of economies of scale and the creation of technology that enabled the nation to compete internationally.

However, the same chaebols also became a problem for South Korea because as these conglomerates expanded and became profitable it amassed such power and influence that it prevented small scale firms from rising up – the same small scale industries required to sustain economic growth.

The authors strengthened their argument by showing that South Korea went through a period of crisis and yet in spite of shortages and bottlenecks, the chaebols continued to grow. It was a major goal of the South Korean government to focus on exports and to bring South Korea to the forefront of international trade and by pouring resources into these conglomerates. When South Korea shifted gears to become a market-driven economy things began to change for the better.

Empirical Evidence In order to support their claim the authors presented South Korea’s GDP in billions of US$ and it was indeed impressive. From a GDP of US$ 2 billion in 1960 it grew to US$ 220.7 billion after twenty nine years. Savings were a mere 0.8% in 1960 and twenty nine years later it was 35.4.8% and yet in the same fourteen year period one can also observe a fluctuation in GDP growth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There was a steep increase in between the years 1960 to 1964; and then all of a sudden it plummeted and then it grew once again and then nose dived and on and on there was no stability in growth up until the late 1980s.

In the crisis of 1980 the GDP even went down as far as -2.1% and yet it cannot be denied that exports grew significantly from a mere US$ 33 million to an astounding US$ 61.4 billion in 1989. Aside from all the economic factors that says South Korea was on its way to becoming one of the top economies in Asia the authors used economic data to point out the structural transformation that occurred within the country.

For instance there was significant decrease in the share of agriculture in GDP from 39.9% in 1960 to only 10.8% in 1987. On the other hand the share of the non-agricultural sector in GDP increased even further from 60.1% to 89.2% a testament indeed to the export orientated strategy of South Korea.

The empirical evidence used proved conclusively what the authors were trying to say from the very beginning. These statistics allow the readers to see the economy of South Korea not just the GDP and the increase in exports and the amount of money coming in but also in how the success of a few conglomerates allowed for the concentration of markets while at the same time stifling the growth of small firms.

The authors were also able to use statistics to show why they believe that between the years 1960 to 1989 South Korea was able to pull away from other Asia countries in terms of economic transformation and yet at the same time there is much room for improvement and it is imperative for the South Korean economy to move away from the chaebols and into a market-driven economy.

International Trade The story of South Korea – how it was able to rise from the ashes of war – from a poor country into a highly industrialized nation is a good case study with regards to the importance of balancing exports and imports. Based on the data given by authors Charles Harvie and Hyun-Hoon Lee, one can easily understand that South Korea built a strong economy with an orientation towards exports.

nd yet at the same time they knew that these products that they were selling could never be completed without the use of importation. It is only through imports that they can have access to raw materials to manufacture their good and offer services to the outside world.

We will write a custom Report on Authors’ Thesis on Economics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another insight also on international trade is the importance of having a strong domestic base especially with regards to small firms and entrepreneurs considered as the backbone of the economy. An induced economy such as South Korea may look good in the beginning phase and but it cannot be sustained by the help of the government alone. It must be a market-driven economy where everyone contributes and not just the chaebols who used to dominate the economic landscape of the country.

In order to survive in a globally competitive economy the government really has to take a firm stand against the influence and power of South Korea’s conglomerates. They must not be allowed to control the country for it is counterproductive in the long run.

This was easier said than done in South Korea considering that these corporate leaders of these chaebols were seen as heroes who paved the way for this war torn country to rise up once again and provide opportunities to thousands of South Koreans looking for employment. Nevertheless, government officials were willing to do the right thing and they never regretted it.

References Harvie, C.


Susie Guillory Phipps and Racial Identity in Modern Day America Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Wall of Prejudice

A Hundred Years Later

Precedence and Other Legal Aspects

Brown vs. Wade

Interracial Marriage

The Case of Mrs. Phipps



In 1865 the U.S. Civil War was ended after the forces of General Lee surrendered to General Grant. The war was not only important because it was fought for the future of the Union but also because of a side-story, the abolition of slavery in America. For centuries, when the British Crown was still the undisputed ruler of the American colonies, a steady stream of African-American slaves was brought to this country. They were treated as if they were mere objects.

They were the properties of their masters and most of the plantation owners in the South who used slaves as one would use a beast of burden. It is easy to understand why they were oppressed and why no white man would like to be associated with them. But in 1865 there was hope for change, and yet in 1983, Susie Guillory Phipps sued Louisiana because the state considers her a Negro when she believes that she is Caucasian. America may have abolished slavery, but the specter of racism remains.

Introduction The New World was sustained by the blood and sweat of African slaves. In the Age of Reason, Americans believed that they have the right to own slaves, human beings just like them but different only in the color of their skin. This belief allowed them to trade for slaves as if they are merely trading for cattle, spices or other commodities.

Even when America was victorious against their British overlords, they continue to believe that there is no connection between the oppressive rule of the Royal Crown and the way they treated Negro slaves. It was impossible for them to understand that they are doing something immoral and downright despicable.

American citizens and their leaders even created a Constitution, a symbolic document that asserts man’s equality in the eyes of God but even after doing so they were blind to their sins and continue to believe that there is an exception to what they call as the inalienable right of every person to be free. The Negro slaves were never considered citizens of America, and therefore they do not deserve human rights.

The heroes of the American Revolution – the successful War for Independence against British hegemony – went into the battlefield fighting for freedom and equality but after the war, they would go back to their plantations and will never feel the slightest discomfort upon seeing a Negro slave staggering from the weight of his labor.

In the South, there is an abundance of arable land making it a suitable place to establish plantations. After America was liberated from the clutches of the British Empire, these plantations became an essential aspect of the new economy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Northern states were the first to understand the inconsistency of savoring American freedom and yet maintaining a coterie of slaves in their backyard. The Southern states, on the other hand, cannot afford to feel the slightest tinge of guilt.

One has to understand that while the Northern states can continue to make money through their factories and other industries, the Southern states had to rely only on their plantations. And without the muscle power and talents of Negro slaves – men, women, and children – it would be impossible to maintain an agriculture-based economy on the strength of a few hired men alone.

In the years after the American Revolution, the children of white men get to interact with the children of black folks. But they would never play and socialize as equals. Therefore, the impressionable minds young white boys and girls were conditioned to believe that this is the reality of life.

They are the masters, and when they grow up, they will have black men and women who will scurry about their domain serving them as if they are born royalty. It required little to create a society governed by unspoken rules and an imaginary wall that separates the white from the black. There were two social classes, and they will not mix.

As mentioned earlier, slavery was the side-story to the Civil War, but soon after the conflict, it became a significant issue especially when the South was devastated by a rampaging army coming in from the North. Union soldiers invaded the South and wreaked havoc transforming what was tranquil and postcard-perfect scenery into scenes of mayhem and carnage.

The Southern states paid a dear price for opposing the Union. They paid dearly the blood of their sons and property destroyed by cannons, rifles, and the boots of angry soldiers. The proud Southerners were humiliated and at a loss on how to pick up the pieces and begin to build from the ashes of war.

But more than that they something valuable was taken from them, and it is the right to own and trade slaves. The first few months felt surreal for many of them. But they were not alone in feeling strange about their new circumstances; the newly freed Negro slaves were also at a loss on how to move on from there.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Susie Guillory Phipps and Racial Identity in Modern Day America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Millions of Negro slaves were emancipated but what can a person who was born and raised a slave do after suddenly given freedom, not just freedom of movement like a prisoner set free from jail but freedom to do everything – be in love, buy property, relocate, etc. Because of this newfound freedom, they have to learn to co-exist with their former masters, to share in the same land where they once toiled, and yet they are no longer required to help the white man make money or clean his house.

But that was the only thing they had when it comes to material possessions they had nothing. Nobody in the Northern states, nobody in Washington – the seat of the U.S. government – anticipated the outcome of the Civil War especially when it comes to Negro slaves who were never educated and knew nothing except to work in the fields.

They were free, but they do not know how to survive in a transformed society, in an in American South that was as clueless as them when it comes to former slaves that all of a sudden has been given the full rights of citizens of the United States of America. The whites and the blacks had to learn to live as equals, but many could not accept the implications of these changes. As a result, the whites and the blacks share the same space, but they will never commingle in the same way that oil will never be able to combine with water.

The Wall of Prejudice One reaction to the emancipation of Negro slaves was segregation. For the Federal Government all blacks were free from slavery, and they no longer had to answer to any master. But from the perspective of many Southerners, the South still belongs to them, and if the Federal Government insists on giving some rights to African-Americans, then it has to be done their way.

They created new norms and ordinances that will limit the interaction between whites and blacks. They heavily regulated the places that the Negroes can enter and the establishments that are strictly forbidden for them. There are also public facilities no black man, woman or child can use because these were made exclusive for white folks.

There were public schools for white children, and there were public schools for black children. Some restaurants will only allow white patrons and strictly enforce the rule that says no Negro allowed inside. There were water fountains that only white people can use and off-limits to the members of the Negro race.

The same thing is true for public transportation. There were train cars and buses that were off-limits to blacks. In buses where whites and blacks can use, it was understood that the Negroes should occupy the seats in the rear. It may look and feel strange to have these laws put in effect in the South, but for many whites, it was an attempt to create order out of chaos because it was disorienting for many to meet and greet former slaves, former properties walking around the cities of Mississippi or Louisiana as free men.

The second facet of the wall of prejudice is the strict abhorrence to biracial marriages, and as a result, there were laws and other unspoken rules regarding the union of white and blacks. Nevertheless, it is impossible to prevent such kinds of union. Furthermore, even before the abolition of slavery white plantation owners found nothing wrong with the idea of taking in a black mistress producing illegitimate children in the process.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Susie Guillory Phipps and Racial Identity in Modern Day America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Aside from that, it is not uncommon for some of them to rape black female slaves. Thus, there were many “half-breed” children in the South. The wall of prejudice was constructed higher and higher and yet it became more and more challenging to separate blacks and whites. On the other hand, why is there a need to separate humans from each other?

A Hundred Years Later In 1977, Susie Guillory Phipps, the wife of an affluent seafood importer decided to apply for a passport and so the first thing she did was to get a copy of her birth certificate (White et al., 1997). When she finally got hold of an official copy of the said document she discovered that in 1934 the Louisiana Division of Vital Records had issued a birth certificate for her and it says that Phipps is “colored” or black (Bird, 2009).

Now, there is one problem because Susie Guillory Phipps looks like and talks like a member of the white race. According to one commentator, “Mrs. Phipps claimed she was ‘shocked’ that this classification was listed since she had always thought she was white, had lived as white and twice married someone of the white race” (Bird, 2009).

All her life she never knew that the State of Louisiana had already classified her racially as belonging to the Negro race (Trillin, 1986). She looked and behaved like an ordinary white person and more than that her brothers and sisters were all fair-skinned and some even had blue eyes (Davis, 1991). It was unthinkable for anyone to suggest that Phipps was black.

She challenged this pigeonholing tactic to classify her as a member of the Negro race for obvious reasons, aesthetically speaking and culturally speaking there was no trace of her being black, and so she can see herself being classified as one.

No doubt there it was a significant social stigma for a white woman, especially someone as affluent as her, to be labeled as such. She had no black friends she does not know how to live within a black community, and so there was nothing else to do but challenge the classification system used by the state of Louisiana.

H.M. Westholts, who was back then the chief of the New Orleans section of the General Counsel of the Louisiana Department of Health and Human Resources, decided to dig a little deeper and was able to prove that there was nothing wrong with the details of the said birth certificate (Trillin, 1986). H.M. Westholts hired a genealogist to ascertain his claim.

With the full resources of the state backing him up, he discovered that in 1770 a French planter named Jean Gregoire Guillory took a black mistress named Margarita and two centuries later he had a great-great-great-great-granddaughter named Susie (Davis, 1991). It did not matter that the children of plantation owner married white people the single drop of Negro blood in her veins made her black according to the law.

The story did not end there. Mrs. Phipps decided to pursue her passport application, and in the form where one has to declare one’s race she checked the box next to “white” when her birth certificate says she is “colored” (Bird, 2009). This was a serious misrepresentation, and thus she was denied her passport. This did go well with her and so in 1982 Phipps sued the state (White et al., 1997).

This was her premise according to one historian: “She challenged the bureau’s practice because race-mixing allegedly was so extensive in Louisiana that the entire native-born population would be considered black under its stringent definition (Moran, 2001). It was known in legal circles as Susie Phipps, 470 So. 2d 369, 1970 Lawsuit La. Rev. Stat 42.267 (Bird, 2009). It is also known only as Jane Doe v. the State of Louisiana (Davis, 1991). She was soundly defeated in the courts.

Precedence and Other Legal Aspects There are at least four legal landmarks – if one is allowed to call it as such – that will help explain the significance of the Susie Guillory Phipps case. And these are:

The law against interracial marriage;

The government census defining what makes a person black or white;

The Plessy vs. Ferguson case;

The Brown vs. Wade case.

After an overview of these cases and various legalese relating to this problem, one will have a clear understanding as to why Susie Guillory Phipps had to go through what she had to go through and why the United States had a hard time dealing with the issue.

There were laws concerning public transportation and how blacks should behave when using buses or trains. There were also laws meant to separate black and white children, and thus provisions were made to have a public school for the “colored” students and another one for the whites. And if this was not enough interracial marriage was forbidden. A black man can be castigated for courting a white girl, and he can go to jail if he marries her. Imagine the consequence if a man is in the same predicament as Mrs. Phipps.

In the State of Louisiana, one of the most significant laws that were passed regarding segregation is the Separate Car Act (Elliot, 2006). Those who are colored were forced to take a separate car if they choose to travel via the railways. Some cars were for whites, and there were cars for blacks.

The NAACP was one of the major organizations that were committed to the Civil Rights movement and fighting on behalf of the black man so that they can live in an egalitarian society. The NAACP devised a way to exploit the weakness of the said law, and at the same time force, the government acknowledges that it is morally wrong to separate blacks and whites. And make the Federal Government admit that the Separate Car Act was unconstitutional.

It was an elaborate plan that requires the help of a man named Homer Plessy. The reason that they chose Plessy for the mission was simple. Plessy was the male version of Mrs. Phipps. By law, he is a Negro but based on physical appearance he was a member of the white race. By boarding the segregated trains, Plessy will create a moral dilemma for the management and then for the whole of American society.

When he boarded the train, he went straight to the compartment designated for the white people, and he breezed through security checks and all of the protocols.

Everyone thought that this was just an ordinary passenger anxious to take the train home. But after a short, while later, when everybody was settled down, Plessy announced to the crowd that he has one-eighth Negro blood and therefore the State has to declare him black. As a result, the train official had to force him out and transfer him to the compartment that he was supposed to occupy. Plessy refused to heed that command.

Plessy broke the law, and he had to be charged. He had to pay for his actions. A judge found him guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. What he did was a significant violation of Louisiana law, and he was offender according to the state. Believe it or not, Plessy was arrested by the authorities. However, he was out on bail. And he waited for his arraignment (Elliot, 2006). The NAACP realized that it was time to move in and so they filed a case in court, and it was known in U.S. legal history as the Plessy vs. Ferguson case.

The significance of the Plessy vs. Ferguson case to that of Mrs. Phipps can be seen in two distinguishing aspects of the case. First of all the litigation was made in 1896 (Davis,1991). This means that the problem of racism was already dealt with at the turn of the 20th century. In other words, there was no need for Mrs. Phipps to suffer the same problem all over again.

Secondly, Plessy was just like Mrs. Phipps; they were the evidence that says a drop of Negro blood makes one a member of the Negro race but for those who are not aware of this fact they will treat the person as a member of the white race. This means that segregation and classification of people into groups and sub-species is just not right.

Brown vs. Wade The NAACP lost the legal battle in the Plessy vs. Ferguson case. However, the NAACP never gave up and continued to find ways to show the unconstitutionality of the segregation laws. Another opportunity came their way when they assisted in another landmark case; it was the struggle of the black community against segregated schools in the South.

It was Oliver Brown et al. against the Board of Education in Topeka, Kansas (Balkin, 2002). Oliver Brown argued that he should have been able to enroll her children to a public school nearest to their home. There is such a school, a few blocks away from their home.

However, when he went to enroll her children at Monroe Elementary School at Topeka, Kansas, he was told that he could not enter her child because it was the law that public schools in the State were segregated. Those who belong to the “colored” race had to enroll their child to a public school that is for blacks and not for whites. There is only one problem his daughter, Linda Brown had to walk a long distance from her house to be able to board a bus that will take her to her school.

Oliver Brown protested the irrationality and the blatant demonstration of discrimination. The parents of other black kids joined in the complaint and argued in the same line of thinking – they could not understand why their children had to walk long distances and then travel to a school situated miles away from home if there is a public school nearby.

It was not a fight against a specific law but a struggle against a doctrine that came out as a result of the Plessy vs. Ferguson case debacle. Plessy and his lawyers made arguments using the principles found in the Fourteenth Amendment state that all people are created equal. The Supreme Court struck down this case by saying that whites and blacks can be equal in the eyes of the Law and yet segregated.

In other, local and state officials believed that although the black kids in Topeka, Kansas had to endure a longer commute to attend a public school far away from home, they could not and should not complain because that particular is of the same standards as the one nearby. This case is an important source of legal information in understanding the complaint filed by Mrs. Phipps because in this instance the Supreme Court acted in favor of the black race.

It also sheds light on the mindset regarding the desperate need to separate blacks and whites. The insanity is spending an excessive amount of money on building two-high quality schools just so a Negro’s child could not sit in the same classroom as the child of a Caucasian.

And finally, the importance of this case is seen in the reasoning used by the Supreme Court as to why it awarded victory to Oliver Brown and company. In 1954 the Supreme Court ruled that separating blacks and whites are not good for black children and can even be harmful because they were prevented from co-mingling with white children (Balkin, 2002).

The separation will plant in their minds the idea that they are inferior to the white children and can negatively affect them for life. So the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the black community in Topeka, Kansas and all over America. Starting that year all public schools were desegregated.

The same argument can be extended to the Phipps case. Why is there a need for classification? It can only lead to segregation. Furthermore, the Supreme Court made a ruling in 1954 while Mrs. Phipps sued the State of Louisiana in 1982. Twenty-eight years had passed, and many were still unable to grasp the essence of this case. It is not good to erect a wall of prejudice.

Interracial Marriage Aside from segregation laws – the need to separate whites from blacks – there is also the problem of interracial marriage and how it was viewed by society was the determining factor why in the 1970s there were still regulations regarding the classification of American citizens into black or white. In other words, Mrs. Phipps had to endure ridicule because the primary reason of state laws was to discourage whites from intermarrying with blacks.

There is a concept called contamination (Abernathy


Outsourcing in China Report essay help: essay help

The Gap, Inc. Company is a San Francisco, California based retail clothing and accessories company. It was founded by Donald G. Fisher and his wife Doris. Over the years, it has evolved into a major retail company specializing in casual style and urban chic clothing for all sexes and ages all over United States, Canada, Japan, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Outsourcing as a force in business continues to remain the main point of discussion in most boardrooms in most corporations.

Companies want to utilize modern infrastructure and focus on their core strengths while other professional firms handle their other business processes (Eltschinger, 2007: 2).The textile industry has been a fundamental driving force in China’s economy for many years. Outsourcing production to the Chinese manufacturers has become popular among other foreign firms in the recent past (Earnshaw, 2006: 362).

This is especially because the textile industry is a labour intensive industry and firms prefer to outsource in China since it has large pool of cheap labour. The World Bank report of 2006 indicated some of the most suitable locations to invest in china which are; the south east Coastal provinces, the Pearl river delta province of Guangdong, all special economic zones and the province of Fujian (Yuang, 2008: 20).

Pestle analysis is a technique used to assist corporations in understanding the external environment in which they operate in the present and future. It helps an organization to assess the macroeconomic conditions surrounding it in order to make a business decision. It works more efficiently when used in conjunction with risk analysis, SWOT analysis, and urgency grid. Expert knowledge of the organization and its external surrounding is also important in pestle analysis.

The word PESTLE was coined from political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, legal, and environment factors that affect an organization. The main aim of conducting PESTLE analysis is to help in the analysis of the external environment and its effect on the organization (Institute of leadership


Watching Horror Films Essay (Article) scholarship essay help

It sometimes raises so many questions as to why a human being with a sane mind can sit before a screen and watch horrendous scenes being displayed. Is it that the sight of blood excites all these people? Are people so heartless to sit glued in cinema theaters anticipating seeing bizarre scenes? These are some of the things that I shall endeavor to explore as I take you through the world of watching horror feelings and some of the mortals enjoy by so doing.

People watch horror films to be frightened in their minds. The thrill that comes with watching this movie is just too intense to be ignored (Murray). Human beings naturally enjoy such situations that will tend to raise their adrenaline levels and make them drift from reality.

In so doing, the horror serves as an outlet for tension and anxiety levels that arise in our day to day lives. The regular release of tension and anxiety from the body is critical in ensuring its optimum working levels and maintaining proper health. Watching of horror movies is in this case essential in sustaining the body.

The watching of these kinds of movies also provides an opportunity to explore social virtues and vices from a different perspective. Most horror movies involve high-order thinking by extremely brilliant script writers, producers, directors and actors. In so doing, the outcome becomes highly personalized and keenly intertwined with the day to day occurrences in society.

This is, however, done indirectly by mostly applying supernatural powers in the use of the nonexistent monsters and vampires. The arm chair position, that we assume, enables us to see the effects of the various societal norms from a third person perspective. This goes a long way in instilling critical values in an individual’s life and interaction with others.

Horror movie watching is a recurrence of what most of us started in our childhood. The art of reading horror stories in our early developmental stages in life makes it easy to watch horror movies (Murray).

In addition to that, as children we all watched cartoons many of which were a light version of horror movies. These movies are, however, not all destructive to these children. They help them come to terms with some harsh realities in life, for instance death. Death is a key highlight of most horror movies making them accept it as an occurrence that we have no control over.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The taste of horror movies across the genders slightly varies. Males tend to enjoy more hard core horror movies than the females (Murray). Adolescent boys will tend to be more inclined towards to films offering extreme violence and sex as their key themes.

On the contrary, these types of films will not appeal to their opposite members as they mostly depict the antifeminist idea and insult the institution of womanhood. Horror movies offering psychological puzzles will mostly appeal to the ladies. These types of horror films are more engaging to the mind and offers higher levels of suspense. In addition to that, they are more realistic in trying to capture societal occurrences.

Horror films, therefore, provide a testimony of how people have endeavored to find ways to suit their lives. The various reasons for watching horror movies that I have highlighted prove that society no longer just views things from the surface, but it goes ahead to internalizes each and every bit.

These master creations of art and literature, therefore, play a critical role in the lives of individuals across both genders and all the age brackets. We should not only look at them myopically as agents of propagating vices in society but also envisage their positive contribution in life.

Reference Murray S., Why do people watch horror? Bella Online. Web.


Public administration and Private business Term Paper best essay help

Introduction Public administration is concerned with the advancement of policies and the necessary management to allow governments to function effectively. On the other hand, we could also define public administration as the act of managing public programs. It is mainly meant to ensure that politics are translated into a reality that citizens expect to see in their day to day lives. Public administration ensures the process of decision making by the government is well understood by its citizens (Sheffrin 8).

In addition, it is necessary to have a good analysis of the established policies. This includes the various inputs aimed at producing the desired policies. On the other hand, it should also include other inputs that will produce alternative policies. Public administration is also concerned with the conduct of public officials while executing their roles and duties (Sheffrin 12). This is done in relation to government programs and policies that will be formally responsible for their conduct in different perspectives.

What this means is that most unelected public officers can in fact be considered as public administrators. They might include police officers, city managers, cabinet secretaries, and analysts, amongst others. These administrators work in public agencies and departments at the various levels of the government. There has been an argument that public administration is multidisciplinary in character (Sheffrin 15).

The scope of public administration is so large that it has not been easy to understand and this has been left to individual interpretations depending on one’s general overview. It therefore means that public administration can be both a field of study and an occupation. There is an argument as to whether it can still be referred to as a discipline because of its complexity (Denhardt 11).

A private business is mostly concerned with enterprises that are owned by investors and shareholders. In this case, the business can be owned jointly or it can still be owned by an individual. This is in contrast to other publicly owned businesses or enterprises that are run by government through the mandate of its citizens. These businesses exist with profit motives other than ensuring that the people get essential services or products.

In other words, a private business is a legally recognized institution that is expected to enhance the provision of services and goods in exchange for money. Private businesses are predominant in capitalist economies where they are formed with profit motives and with a view to increasing the wealth of its owners (Denhardt 15). This means that the owners expect returns after engaging in a risk as far as their business is concerned.

A private business can be widely accepted as a state of being busy either as a society or as an individual while doing commercially viable work that will lead to profits. This can be an activity of continuity in the supply of essential goods and services that are in demand by customers and the public at large (Denhardt 18). As far as private business is concerned, there are various forms of ownership that are generally accepted and this might depend on the different countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that forms of business organizations will vary in relation to the jurisdiction. Although this is expected in a normal society, there some common forms of business ownership. They include; sole proprietorship, partnerships, corporations and cooperatives (Denhardt 21). This therefore means that there are various classifications of private business depending on their motives.

Discussion Contrasts

As far as public administration and private business are concerned, there is a difference in the organizational goals and principles of the two entities. Private business has always had a definite mission.

This is mainly in pursuit of stability, profit, and growth of returns. The only way to achieve this is by ensuring that there is quality provision of goods and services. On the hand, public administration has ambiguous plans and purposes (Aucoin 17). The essence of public administration is to ensure that the public or citizens are well served and attended to, in line with their expectations.

It can be explained that private business and public administration derive their mandate from different people. This therefore demands that they provide what they are expected to. On the other hand, the ambiguity of purposes in public administration is complicated by many inoperable and unnecessary agencies (Aucoin 19). Their purpose and aim has been complicated by bloated and overlapping bureaucracies.

There is an argument that the main aim of public administration is to enact public policies while the aim of private business is to ensure that owners and shareholders increase their wealth and net worth. It is undeniable that there is a lot of vagueness in the enforcement of public administration policies. This is due to overlapping and ambiguity in these policies (Aucoin 22). On the other hand, private business has not witnessed any overlapping tendencies in their policies because of achievable business goals.

The fact that public administration is not concerned with profit motives should not be confused or used as a way of deviating from the normal operation tendencies. This means that just as private business managers are more concerned with financial matters, the same should also apply to public administration (Aucoin 23). In fact, good public administration managers have always ensured that they carry out their financial matters in an open and efficient way that will guarantee sustainability.

Private businesses are always guaranteed of funding from their owners and shareholders while public administrators have to fight for funding from the government. In as much as public organizations or units may fight for funding and influence, this should not be misused. There are cases whereby public administration has been biased depending on the priorities that the government has.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Public administration and Private business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are differences with respect to the issue of decision making in both public administration and private business. In public administration, decision making is mostly pluralist. This means that decisions are supposed to please the majority even if they are poor. There is a common practice in which key decisions are made in a politicized environment (Kettl and Fessler 12).

This allows for open debate, maximum participation and multiple veto points. In the long run, there is a hierarchy that needs to be followed to ensure that consensus is reached. The main aim of doing this is to come up with an informed decision.

Private business decision making is simple in nature as it does not involve a lot of people, like in public administration. In other words, it is almost monopolistic or in some instances, duopolistic (Aucoin 28). This decision making avoids a lot of conflicts in interests. The long term effect has always been a clearly defined goal that will suit the organization in enhancing its operations.

Visibility is another notable difference between public administration and private business. Managers in private business can work in an environment of relative obscurity as they are only answerable to the shareholders (Aucoin 29). This is not the case with public managers or administrators who will always work under the watchful eye of the public.

Their actions or moves are always subjected to a lot of public scrutiny to see if they are advancing their interests. This means that a public administrator or manager will always respond to diverse demands in the course of carrying out a public policy. Such demands have ended up creating an inevitable tension (Aucoin 32). This is in relation to efficiency and responsiveness. It implies that a public manager will be forced to manage effectively and respond to public concerns.

Because of this pressure, public organizations are often left in a no-win situation. This is because the public demands a lot of effective service delivery. Most of them pay taxes and this explains why they are always interested in what mangers are doing. On the other hand, they also demand accountability and an assurance that those in charge will not act irresponsibly.

There is a difference in unity analysis as far as private business and public administration are concerned. Most public institutions or organizations are a chain of command and control and this makes it hard to draw a line between different parts of the systems. As a matter of fact, existing frameworks might provide little help in this scenario. It therefore means that investment and strategic decisions will be made by this chain of command.

Public organizations and institutions have a complex system of organization with distinct demanding tasks. This is the main reason why most of them have been inefficient. Private businesses on the other hand don’t have a lot of bureaucracies that will complicate their management and operations. This means that there are no bloated bureaucracies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Public administration and Private business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A political aspect can be witnessed in both public administration and private business but it is prevalent in public administration. It should be noted that politics affects the policy direction that these companies will take either directly or indirectly (Aucoin 40). This is through regulation, laws and financial support. In addition, the public sector is controlled by elected politicians who might be out of touch with the realities on the ground.

Private businesses might not witness a lot of politicking because of their ownership and control. In this case, the board of directors will be involved in governance dimensions and funding. This explains why public administration is concerned with developing and structuring organizations by the government while private business is concerned with developing institutions and organizations on an individual basis.

Public administration oversees government programs that can not be tasked to the private sector. Private businesses on the other hand go into business because of their own motives that will guarantee returns and profits (Aucoin 42). Although they might be having different motives, they are not supposed exploit or mistreat people in any way.

As much as public administration and private business might be having different motives in their operational goals, partnerships should be encouraged for efficiency that will ensure that all the stakeholders are satisfied. These partnerships can be encouraged in technological or innovation ways.


Public administration and private business are both incorporated and as a matter of fact, there is the expectation that they will provide whatever they are expected to provide as per their liability. This means that they have separate legal entities as per their owners. It therefore implies that the owners will get real value for what they have invested in. This should be done as they execute their operations without contravening any laws (Denhardt 29).

For public administration and private businesses to achieve their expectations, there is need to have an effective and efficient management. This will enhance their operations and in the process ensure that they are more efficient. The management has to be inclusive and ensure that all aspects are well covered (Denhardt 31). This might include human resource management, production management, operation management, financial and service management which are important for proper functioning.

As far as their operations are concerned, there is need to ensure that assets are well managed to enhance returns. This is because without these assets, public administration and private businesses will not achieve their goals and aims.

This seems to be one feature that they share in their day to day running. Although they might be established for different reasons best known to shareholders, the essence of being operational is to ensure that people are well attended to (Denhardt 35). This is as far as the provision of goods and services is concerned in a broad way.

As far as these aspects are concerned, there is a common way by which they are organized and regulated. Legal jurisdictions come up with a way by which regulation will be done in both public administration and private business (Denhardt 41). This will depend on various factors that guide how businesses are organized. It is obvious that public administration might not be having profit motives like private businesses but the fact remains that they need to be regulated for efficiency and accountability.

Public administration and private business have to perform as per their expectations because of their essence and necessity in the society at large. This means that there is interdependence as afar as their operations are concerned which is necessary for sustainability (Sheffrin 23). Sustainability should be emphasized as there is no way a customer and the public can do without goods and services they are used to.

Proper policy formulation is the strength behind public administration and private business. This has always been enforced by involving all concerned parties. It is evident that many organizations (be it private or public) will only be successful with a good policy framework that will define and give a good direction to be followed (Sheffrin 27).

Public administration and private business needs funds to ensure that they operate well. This means that they should incur costs in their day to day operations. Without these funds, they will not be in a good position to enhance service delivery. Although their operations might not be the same, the fact remains that they need enough funds to discharge their duties well (Sheffrin 32). There will be no needs for them to continue being in operation if they don’t provide good and services.

Accountability is necessary in both private business and public administration. This has always ensured that their actions and operations are not questionable. The only way that an organization can be successful is to ensure that they are accountable to the public, shareholders, owners and all interested stakeholders (Sheffrin 36). There are various measures that are employed by both (private and public) to enhance accountability.

Public administration and private business have thrived because of a good organization framework. An organization framework ensures that good policies and aspirations are put in place. In the process, it is easy to delegate roles.

These well defined roles will ensure that activities and operations are not grounded. All of them have ensured that they first of all craft a good organizational framework that will guide their operations (Sheffrin 45). This is the only way that they can evaluate themselves and know how to enhance their expectations and aims.

Decision making is always enhanced and adhered to in both public administration and private business. This is the only they can make good strategic moves that have ended up enhancing their sustainability and operations. Decision making is essential for operational efficiency and it is common in both scenarios of public administration and private business. This is the reason why they have put in place the right frameworks that will guide the way they make decisions (Sheffrin 56).

It is quite clear that both of them (public administration and private business) have some good similarities that guide their day to day operations. This is because they share some commonalities as far as their goals and aims are concerned. Although they might not be same, the fact remains that public administration and private business play an important role in the society. This means that there should be no contradictions as far as their existence and operations are concerned.

Conclusion The scope of public administration is so large that it has not been easy to understand and this has been left to individual interpretations depending on ones general overview (Aucoin 32). It therefore means that public administration can be a field of study and also on the other hand an occupation. There is an argument as to whether it can still be referred to as a discipline because of its complexity.

It therefore implies that most unelected public officers will be considered as public administrators. They might include police officers, city managers, cabinet secretaries, analysts etc. These administrators work in public agencies and departments which should be at all levels of the government. There has been an argument that public administration is multidisciplinary in character.

A private business is a legally recognized institution that is expected to enhance the provision of services and goods in exchange for money. They are mostly predominant in capitalist economies where they are formed with profit motives and on the other hand with an aim increasing the wealth of its owners (Aucoin 32). This means that owners expect returns after engaging in a risk as far as their business is concerned.

This can be an activity of continuity in the supply of essential good and services that will be demanded by customers and the public at large. As far as private business is concerned, there are various forms of ownership that are generally accepted and this might depend on different countries (Sheffrin 15). This means that forms of business organizations will vary in relation to the jurisdiction. Although this is expected in a normal society, there some common forms of business ownership.

There is an argument that the main aim of public administration is to enact public policies while the aim of private business is to ensure that owners and shareholders increase their wealth and net worth. It is undeniable that there is a lot of vagueness in the enforcement of public administration policies (Aucoin 54). This is due to overlapping and the ambiguity in these policies. On the other hand, private business has not witnessed any overlapping tendencies in their policies because of good business goals.

Works Cited Aucoin, Peter. New Public Management and the Quality of Government: Coping with the New Political Governance in Canada. Sweden: University of Gothenburg, 2008. Print

Denhardt, Robert. Public Administration: An Action Orientation. Belmont CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2009. Print.

Kettl, Donald and Fessler, James. The Politics of the Administrative Process. Washington D.C.: CQ Press, 2009. Print.

Sheffrin, Steven. Economics: Principles in action. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hal, 2003. Print.


World Trade Organization Regulations Term Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Overview

Doha Development Agenda

WTO and Globalization

Electronic Commerce

Reference List

Overview World trade organization (WTO) was established in 1995 for the purpose of overseeing international trade. It has 153 members and its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. WTO members use three official languages: French, English, and Spanish. It replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade which was in force since 1947.

It regulates trade between the trading countries and forms a basis for negations and formation of trade agreements. It resolves dispute between the trading nations by ensuring their compliance to the WTO‘s agreement. These agreements are usually signed by the representatives of the different countries whereas the parliament ratifies them (World Trade Organization 2010).

WTO is the sole (international) association known to incorporate rules (trade) among nations. It was introduced for the purpose of assisting producers in the productions of goods and services to be traded across borders. It also assists importers and exporters in carrying out their businesses.

WTO is headed by a ministerial conference that converges after every two years to discuss crucial issues concerning international trade. The first ministerial conference was held in 1996 at Singapore and since then the organization has been holding subsequent meetings. During the first conference, many contradicting issues were raised some of which have not been solved up to date. WTO is administered through a general council, which implements made decisions.

Doha Development Agenda This is a trade negotiation that was commenced in 2001 with the aim of boosting participation by third word countries. This has received disagreements from countries which rely on export from agricultural products in a bid to protect their farmers from heavy imports. At the moment the future of this Agenda is not clear.

The Doha agenda has been discussed in subsequent conferences but it is yet to receive recognition by majority of the members. If this happens, poor nations will be able to participate in the global market where they have been faced out. Doha agenda aims at protecting these poor nations from exploitation by the developed nations. It aims at abolishing all trade barriers imposed on the poor nations as a way of encouraging them to participate in the global market.

WTO and Globalization Today almost all nations depend on the global economy. Governments are finding it difficult to respond to their domestic issues as their used to do. WTO influences the performance of member countries and puts restrictions on the use of their monetary policies. These governments have to rely on the international monetary fund for regulations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Poor nations are becoming poorer day in day out because of the low comparative advantage they have in the international trade. They have to rely on the World Bank for aids and grants for development. For this reason, the Doha Development Agenda was proposed but it has to yet been accepted. Unless it is accepted, the poor nationals will continue to suffer at the expense of the rich nations which have developed economies and comparative advantage in terms of trade.

The fundamental purpose of WTO is to help developing, least developed and poor nations. It gives them trade assistance and helps them to adjust to the rules of WTO regarding trade policies. As we have earlier, WTO is the only international organization that has rules restricting the conduct of member countries.

For instance, member countries are required to publish their trade regulations and to abide by them. WTO is propagating trade and industrial standardization of products, market access, and national treatment for all the products and services produced either within or outside any member countries.

Electronic Commerce Electronic commerce is a new area in global trade that involves trading of goods and services across borders electronically. It is the use of telecommunication networks to produce, advertise, or sell goods and services. With the advancement in technology, electronic commerce has been growing drastically calling for the attention of WTO. In 1998, WTO members adopted a declaration on global electronic commerce during a conference held at Geneva (World Trade Organization 2010).

According to the declaration, the general council was required to set up an inclusive work program that would be used to scrutinize all electronic commerce trade issues and present a report at WTO’s conference. The declaration also incorporated a cessation that required all WTO members to abolish any customs duties imposed on all electronic transmission. The work program was later adopted at the third conference held at Seattle in 1999.

At the fourth WTO conference that was held in Doha, members decided to carry on with the work program and to continue the practice of not imposing custom duties on electronic commerce. After wards, members engaged in various conferences where they could discuss in depth the crucial issues that would affect growth and development of e-commerce.

Such issues included competition among others. The WTO’s general council main agenda include working on the relationship between trade, finance, and debt among the member countries (World Trade Organization 2010). It works to strengthen international trade especially e-commerce since it is easy and consumes a less period of time to finish a transaction. The council is working to solve the problem of indebtedness in the less developed countries.

We will write a custom Term Paper on World Trade Organization Regulations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List World Trade Organization (2010). Electronic commerce. Retrieved from https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/ecom_e/ecom_e.htm


The Problem of Nuclear Weaponization between India and Pakistan Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Nuclear war between India and Pakistan

The proliferation

Nuclear deterrence

Who benefits from nuclear deterrence?


Reference List

Introduction Today, the greatest security threat all over the world is that of terrorist using nuclear weapons. However, the probability of such an event occurring remains low but with the advancement in technology we can never be sure of what will happen tomorrow. If it does occur, the consequences would be detrimental and world altering. Keeping such a weapon out of reach of terrorist should be given the utmost priority in all the agendas of the 21st century.

It includes the key facts of global security. Leaders all over the world (especially those from the White House), the congress and in the community have realized the need of fighting against the use of nuclear weapons by terrorists. For instance, it is estimated that, if a ten Kiloton nuclear weapon is used on any of the biggest cities in the world; it would kill thousands of people instantly. This would not only lead to lose of life, but it would result in economic depression with the weakest economies being damaged the most.

It would interfere with the global level of investing and spending (which has gone up) and it would take decades to recover. These effects would even be adverse if there is threat of a second weapon being used in the same country or in another. However, optimists argue that, nuclear weapons can be used to deter the chances of war between two nations. This paper will elucidate this view as it tries to explain how the use of nuclear weapons by India can deter Pakistan from engaging in nuclear war.

Nuclear war between India and Pakistan The explosions that occurred in 1998 between Indian and Pakistani reopened the debate on the probability of nuclear weapons being used by terrorists. This was the first violent war to occur after the cold war. Propagation optimists argue that nuclear weapons have an alleviating effect in international and regional relations because they prevent predictable wars while pessimists challenge that claim.

Pragmatist scholars elucidate the nuclear tests of May 1998 in security terms. The standard pragmatist elucidation is that India needs nuclear weapons to dissuade the conventional and nuclear military threat coming from China and the nuclear threat from Pakistan, provoked by Chinese assistance to the Pakistani nuclear weapons program.

On the other hand, other scholars affirm that, the 1998 Pakistan nuclear force was necessary in countering the superiority in Indian military with a small nuclear force (Mohammed, 1999:60). They go further to explain that, the use of nuclear weapons is the greatest equalizer in international relations; the only way for Pakistan to deter an Indian conventional attack is the threat of using nuclear weapons in war.

These scholars conclude that, India and Pakistan became more secure after the nuclear explosions that occurred in May 1998 based on the assumption that nuclear weapons can be used to restore peace because their devastating destructiveness stabilizes international relations and restore power regionally. Presently, there are many arguments about the utility of nuclear weapons in restoring peace after the cold war.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Post-test Indo-Pakistani nuclear relations give a prospect to re-examine the question of deterrence stability in a regional perspective. The issue is important because there is dormant conformist war going on between the two countries in Kashmir, and the danger of acceleration from conformist to nuclear war is very authentic.

Prime ministers from the two countries met in 1999 to discuss the strategies to use in order to control the extent to which nuclear arms were being used. However, they did not make any genuine progress even though they signed some agreements that seemed to have long good intentions although they contained short details (Narang, 2010:5).

They promised to alert each other in case there was risk of any devastating nuclear war. They also promised to carry on with their affirmed suspension on further nuclear trails, and agreed to announce in advance any testing of ballistic missiles. However, this did not seem to be enough considering that past attempts had failed in implementing confidence and security between the two countries.

The proliferation The central precept behind propagation optimisms is that, the main impact of the use of nuclear weapons is to dissuade war between their possessors. Nuclear propagation is assumed to have a stabilizing effect because even a small nuclear arsenal can deter potential enemies from attacking the proliferators.

Deterrence is essential because the risk of vengeance by even a small number of nuclear weapons overshadows any probable gain of a military attack. Optimists also argue that new proliferators are least expected to suffer the same domination and to have power over problems as the powers used during the cold war (Barry, 1999:1).

On the other hand, pessimists hold that nuclear disarmament is much better that nuclear deterrence because the later one can fail or lead to regional nuclear war. They also challenge the rational behind the deterrence theory; organizational deficiencies may force new nuclear nations to create insufficient forces which might be susceptible to anticipatory military strikes.

This is because some organizational behaviours are likely to result in deterrence failures consequently leading to accidental war. For instance, budgetary constraints may force a nation to take ineffective measures for protecting a small nuclear arsenal. Before the May 1998 nuclear tests, explosion optimists asserted that the sheer continuation of Indian and Pakistani abilities to fabricate nuclear weapons on short notice dissuaded them from fighting an all-out conformist war for fear of acceleration to the nuclear level.

We will write a custom Essay on The Problem of Nuclear Weaponization between India and Pakistan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The outcome of the two crises between India and Pakistan (1987 and 1990) is a clear indication that even non-weaponized deterrence works. The 1987 India’s Brasstacks and the accelerating problems in Kashmir in 1990 resulted in a crises that would have resulted into war although it did not. This shows that, it is not only the use of nuclear weapons that can deter nations from engaging in wars, peace can be restored through mutual agreements (Walker, 1998: 518).

Nuclear deterrence Nuclear deterrence is a strategy used by states where by a nuclear warhead in inserted in operational delivery systems to deploy a given number of nuclear weapons necessary to impose intolerable damage on its opponent. The state of affairs between India and Pakistan can be compared to that in Israel where a full-fledged small nuclear force with an advanced degree of weaponization was developed.

In spite of the oratory accompanied by the 1998 nuclear tests, India and Pakistan are yet to deploy nuclear weapons, even though the latest missile tests make the deployment more feasible (Devin, 1996:114). In November 2008, a group which was supported by Pakistan (Lashkar-e-Taiba) raided Mumbai for three days and killed more than 163 people.

Instead of India mobilizing its military forces to strike back against the terrorist, it restrained. They have adopted the declared minimum deterrent postures and have taken nuclear weapons out of the closet and seem to be moving into another game. The missile test explosions results that accepted nuclear deterrence were significantly different from the view of the Indian nuclear doctrine developed by the Prime Minister, Nehru, who had rejected the use of nuclear weapons for deterrence since it contrasted with Indian security policy.

By acting in response to the Indian nuclear tests, Pakistan missed the chance of having, for their first time, self-governing nuclear international relations. prior to the test explosions, Pakistan had made a number of nuclear arms control suggestions, together with a nuclear-weapon free zone for south Asia, that were all the time cast off by India on the grounds that they did not reflect some factors (Carranza, 1998:118).

Who benefits from nuclear deterrence? Nuclear weapons have at all times been seen as an immense equalizer in intercontinental relations. One may dispute that India would not be dissuaded from using unadventurous weapons to meet a predictable Pakistani assault to free Kashmir, from following Kashmiri rebels into Pakistani region.

The great equalizer debate cuts both ways that is the Pakistan and India. In reference to this elucidation, the Pakistani test explosions have not gotten rid of India’s intrinsic strategic dominance, since in any nuclear stability that emerges in South Asia; India will be considerably more influential than Pakistan by a factor of not less than three or four in numbers of warheads and bombs (Francine, 1995:70).

This disparity will be exaggerated by Pakistan’s deficiency in a tactical depth, which induces it to come up with ballistic missile expertise to counteract the susceptibility of its air force to Indian conservative counterforce attacks.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problem of Nuclear Weaponization between India and Pakistan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Before setting up its nuclear dominance, India will have to entirely develop a considerable nuclear force at the threat of becoming economically insolvent, like the former Soviet Union.

India may even be enticed to create a nuclear arms contest to reinstate her tactical prevalence on the subcontinent, while elongating the Pakistani financial system to its limit. On the other hand, Pakistan does not essentially have to go on board on a nuclear arms contest with India, and could implement a policy of asymmetric avoidance, comparable to that of France.

Conclusion As discussed above, many optimists believe that, the use of nuclear weapons by India can deter or escalate the chances of nuclear war between India and Pakistan. However, pessimists hold that deterrence balances are not intrinsically constant. The sagacity dilemmas shaped by nuclear deterrence circumstances are aggravated at the local level because local powers are short of the refined technology that kept the tranquillity throughout the Cold War.

Reference List Carranza, M. 1998, “Dangerous Optimism: Non-Weaponized Deterrence and Regional Peace in South Asia,” International Politics 35 p. 118.

Barry, B. 1999, “India Promises, with Pakistan, to Seek Peace,” New York Times, p .1.

Devin, H. 1996, “Nuclear Deterrence in South Asia: The 1990 Indo-Pakistani Crisis,” International Security 20 p. 114.

Francine, F. 1995, Bridging the Non-Proliferation Divide.(Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Mohammed, A. 1999, “Nuclear India and Indian-American Relations,” Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs 43 p. 59-74.

Narang, V. 2010, Pakistan’s nuclear posture: Implications for South Asian Stability. Web.

Walker, W. 1998, “International Nuclear Relations after the Indian and Pakistani Test Explosions,” International Affairs 44 p. 518.


What Does Marxism Tell Us About Economic Globalisation Today? Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Marxism view of economic globalisation


Reference List

Introduction Of late, there has been a significant rise of interactions between countries. They are interacting mostly in terms of trade and technology. It is rare to get a country that has no trade link with others. This is because there is none that has enough resources to cater entirely for its requirements. This then brings the issue of globalisation, viewed as the process by which countries “share” what they produce, buy, or sell, with others around the globe.

This is no more than trade, and hence economic globalisation, which result to the establishment of global markets. Though economic globalisation has been there before, its today’s rate of occurrence is a bit higher. Many views have been given concerning it and among them, are the Marxism views. Marxism pictures today’s economic globalisation as being destructive, unstable, among others.

Marxism view of economic globalisation “The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, establish connexions everywhere.” (Marx 1975). According to this quote, economic globalisation in the unseen nature of capitalism, is spreading at an alarming rate and soon it will be everywhere around the globe.

Marxists points that this globalisation is depriving the world of its heritage and traditions and owing to the crises therein, the whole world is seen to be approaching a permanent disaster. Marxism mentions capitalism pointing out a number of capitalist continents, Asia, Africa, not sparing Antarctica.

Though, crises are known to be more in the developed countries of today, Marxism reckons a time, based on today’s observations of capitalism, when the globe will be industrialised, a situation that will render the world economy unstable. Marxism predicts that as this unfolds, the world will slowly be approaching a depression. Marxism movement bases its arguments on the entire globe criticising the rising capitalism.

Besides this, Marxism has presented a precise view of the misuse of labour as well as the changes arising in the field of politics. Marxist economic analysis shows that currently, the United States leads in capitalism posing that it is experiencing a high competition from Japan, among others.

In the near future, not far from today, Marxism presents the view that, these capitalist countries will be many and their oppression to the working class will be on the peak covering virtually the entire globe. This is why Marxism posits that the economic globalisation of today carries with it the destruction of the globe.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Though it was highly criticised, virtually all the predictions made by Marxism are evident in today’s economic globalisation. Mass redundancy, world capitalist calamity, introduction of technology that would bring about the reduction of working hours, world-wide fall of profit levels, the rising living standards, not sparing the third-world war, to mention a few, were among the issues Marxism pointed.

It stands out that almost all are being experienced today in the whole world. It is deducible that Marxism had the picture of the state of the global economy as possessing the aforementioned characteristics, which are evident today.

Reference List Marx, K (1975), Manifesto of the Communist Party, Moscow, Progress Publishers.


Marketing the Wireless Robotic Car Report (Assessment) college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Potential Applications of the Robotic Car

Target Market for the Robotic Car




Competitor Analysis

Future Direction

Reference List

The marketing of a new product presents numerous challenges. Levinson, Levinson and Levinson [1] state that, “marketing is a very slow process”. The efficacy of a product may not save it from shoddy marketing. In fact, an inferior product may perform better if it is marketed better. In the field of robotics, the challenge increases significantly because of the various limitations robots have including the learning process normally required of the operator to deploy them effectively.

The robotic car designed in this project is a simple system having basic components and is ideal for simple uses. It holds a lot of promise for adaptation for various uses, but is ready to use for certain applications. Its major service offering for a client is that it can provide visual information from areas that are not easily accessible since it has a camera, which can also operate in dark locations on night mode. In other words, it is able to ‘see’on behalf of the operator, who watches from a safe distance.

Potential Applications of the Robotic Car In its current design, the robotic car has many potential primary and secondary applications, which in the same stroke simplifies and complicates its commercialization. Shanklin and Ryans [2] point out that a “new product tends to be extremely complex and often has a number of potential applications”. The robotic car’s primary applications will involve using its features as currently designed without further modification, which will primarily be to collect visual information about a target area.

Secondary applications will involve using it as a carrier of separate specialised equipment for the collection of other forms of data. With modifications, it can be equiped with equipment sets such as probes, scoops, and drills to undertake some operations in remote locations. Multiple applications mean a wide range of potential clients, but it also means widely varying needs.

One of the significant applications of robotic cars of this nature is, “sending them where humans cannot or should not go” [3]. Examples of such places include harzardous areas where chemical polution has occurred, buildings engulfed in fire and smoke, hostage situations, minefields or the diffusion of bombs planted in buildings. In fact, space vehicles for exploration of distant planets use robotic cars. The design in this project satisfies investigative needs on terrestiral motorable surfaces.

By sending the robotic car to a chemical hazard, it is possible to determine the extent of spillage of a liquid or a solid pollutant. It can also work for gaseous pollutants if they are visible. The robotic car is able to collect vital information while the operator is at a safe distance. The car is able to collect information from a hostage situation without putting any law enforcement officer in danger.

Another possible application of the robotic car is for routine operations in industries. These operations include cleaning harzadous areas and collecting information such as temparature in areas, which are not easily accessible, or may pose some threat to man. The car can provide access to environments whose safety is in doubt, or can change without warning, such as inside collapsed buildings and unstable mine shafts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third category of applications for the robotic car is for sports and entertainment. Robotic car enthusiasts use them to race for sports or for playing ball games for entertainment. As steffoff [4] observes, ‘toy robots and sports robots offer various forms of entertainment”. The thrill of controlling a real robotic car provides a different experience compared to playing the more available virtual games. Such games serve to expand the interest in robotics by the players and spectators.

Target Market for the Robotic Car The robotic car has potential customers in research laboratories, fire and rescue brigades, chemical plants and factories, police departments, bomb squads, mines and robotic sports enthusiasts. Kachroo and Mellodge [3] state that, “the usefulness of these little machines is only limited by your imagination”.

Each of these potential clients represents a different market segment, which has unique needs. The basic product design applies to each of these unique needs but specialised applications differentiate them. To develop the required robotic car for the needs of each segment, the four P’s of marketing, “product, price, place (distribution), and promotion” as presented by Shanklin and Ryans [2], provides the basis for consideration.

Product The prototype needs further development and rigorous testing to eleminate all possible design flaws in order to present a high quality product to potential customers. The prototype has a lot of room for improvement to include other design considerations including interfacing controls to use a joystick instead of the current computer controls.

It also requires the design of a fail-safe system that can allow for retieval of the unit should it experience an adverse operating environment that may cause it to malfunction. Such environments include areas with radio interference and locations with extreme temparatures.

Potential clients can help meet the cost of R


The Impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance Essay best college essay help

Introduction Human Resource Management (HRM) is a unit within an organization responsible for recruitment, hiring, induction, training, compensating and management of staff working in a firm. It is the link between the employees and the top management. Management is the process by which a corporative group directs actions towards a common goal, that is, the process of getting things done by others and through others for the purpose of achieving organization’s effectiveness and efficiency (Combs et al., 2006).

Human resource is a series of integrated decisions about employment relationships that influence the effectiveness of employee and organization. It is the function of the human resource manager to synchronize the employees’ goals and those of the firm in order to achieve the organizations mission and objectives effectively (Boxall


Causes and Effects of Teenage Suicide in Canada Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Research question

Rationale of the Research

Literature review

Limitations to the research



Introduction Suicide rate among young people has increased in the 21st century. Statistics reveal that over five thousand youths commit suicide each year within the USA only. Suicide is revealed as one of the most common cause of death for people as compared to other causes like accidents and homicide.

The question now lies on how the governments together with the society can counter these unnecessary suicidal deaths. However most of the governments rely only on medical approach since they lack incentives for traditional healing practices. In the Canadian communities where cultural practices are maintained the responses towards social roles produce positive results amongst the youths. Most of the negative responses are attributed to social disintegration and marginalization of the young people (White and Jodoin, 2007).

There in need for each community to be accountable for its young people. This can be enhanced through different sustainable programs that respond appropriately to community needs. Spiritual intervention can also be an important way of reducing suicidal effects within the community; it provides a lot of knowledge concerning one’s respect and relationship with others. Also upgrading of residential schools is one of the vital projects that should be focused upon.

These are some of the projects that help the young people to see beyond present troubles that they encounter and maintain focus of getting better in times ahead. It makes provides them with opportunities to participate in recreational activities which form part of mental health and development (White and Jodoin, 2007; Hawton and James, 2005).

There is major concern about the progress of the general health of native youths in Canada. Majority of the research conducted have not yet revealed on the various people’s health needs. This is especially on children based on geographical location, culture and socio-economic status.

Suicides amongst the Canadian youth have been found to be growing at an alarming rate, statistic show that the rate of occurrence amongst the Canadians is higher than that of non-Canadian youths. Suicide has been documented as one of the major cause of death amongst the youth accounting for almost 38% of all youth deaths (Viner and Barker, 2005). Girls or ladies are prone to die easily from suicide as compared to their male counterparts; this puts a very high risk on the survival of this generation.

Higher percentage of all deadly accidents within the youth community is linked to suicide (White and Jodoin, 2007). Youth Suicide rates in Canada is well documented in view of the efforts made to conserve and promote Canadian culture and taking control over key issues of life within the Society. This problem can better be described in various social ways such as psychological and socio-cultural.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research question Why are suicide rates high amongst the Canadian young citizens as compared to the rest of the youths from other countries of the world? The issue of suicide is of national concern since it has led to the death of young and innocent ones and this presents a threat to the strength of the future generation.

The youth suicide problem amongst Canada’s youth society is the main focus of the research. It is of importance to individuals and groups that are ready to take the initiative of developing and putting into practice suicide prevention programs.

Rationale of the Research The issue in this research is to identify the major causes of Suicide amongst the Canadian youths and the consequent result to the society. There have been increased incidences of suicide in the recent past with the youths being the most affected.

The research was conducted amongst a number of youths who were allowed to participate in focus groups and educational presentations. This prepared their ability to respond to surveys carried and make accurate responses. The research was conducted based on age and the status (White and Jodoin, 2007).

The research is relevant to Canadian youths in that it helps them focus on the important issues within the society and how to avoid unnecessary socio-cultural conflicts that may lead them to commit suicide. It provides the various avenues that can be used and applied by the government to ensure proper youth lifestyles are restored within respective communities.

The paper also identifies one of the major causes of suicide which is influence brought by drugs and alcohol. This research identifies the ways on which youth’s identity can be improved, enhancement of their self-esteem and behaviors.

There is need to provide interventions that virtually supports the moral ethics within the community amongst the youth. This fosters healing of traumas from past social evils and develops strategies on how to link the youths with values that will enable them live healthy lives. Despite the increase in the number of suicide this issue is preventable through innovative processes and socially sensitive initiatives (White, 2005).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Causes and Effects of Teenage Suicide in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature review Review of available literature shows that the rate of suicide within the Canadian community has increased in recent times. This rate was very low before the culture interaction between Europeans and Canadians. The rate is currently higher amongst native youths than the immigrants. However not every community within Canada experiences high rate of suicide amongst the youths.

The rate appears to be different based on respective regions and provinces, however the degree of occurrence is assumed to be higher than what is shown through the statistics. The data provided on the rates of suicide excludes the non-registered natives who might be living elsewhere; hence the actual number is under-estimated. There is also the probability that a number of suicidal deaths go un-reported and are often considered normal accidents, hence incorrectly reported (White and Jodoin, 2007).

There was need to include all other issues associated with suicide like thoughts about committing suicide and attempts towards suicide. All these present some psychological and social impacts amongst the Canadian youth community. It is also of importance to analyze the whole issue based on population characteristics. Most of the natives who commit suicide are found to be young and most likely unmarried.

The degree of suicide is determined by the kind of weapon used to commit it i.e. use of guns, drugs, or hanging ropes. It is also noted that a series of suicides from a particular location might be attributed to a suicide committed by one young person of the same peer group (Viner and Barker, 2005).

There are certain factors and characteristics that are associated with those who commit suicide, these factors might be environmental or emotional. This is largely dependent on family background and peer influence, this might be as result of economic ability or breach on cultural values.

These factors show clearly the reasons as to why suicide is so prevalent amongst the young men. Therefore there is need to develop strategies to counter the most vulnerable factors. Most of the young people are brought up in rural communities where they seem to be far away from vital information concerning their social lives. The stressful living conditions need to be changed through community development initiatives that aim at securing better lives for the young generation (White and Jodoin, 2007).

Previous research shows that suicide amongst the youth takes place under the influence of interaction between several factors. Each factor presents potential risk to the general response of Canadian youths. Study of the American culture revealed that more protective initiatives taken to prevent suicide produced positive results.

According to centre for Suicide Prevention report (2007), preventive measures should be given first priority to enable success of other measures used within the hospitals. Early intervention should be done immediately after detecting abnormal behavior on particular groups (White, 2005).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Causes and Effects of Teenage Suicide in Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The effect of cultural intervention is for the purposes of preventing some commonly known risk factors within specific communities. This helps in restoring cultural identity to the youths and also makes them accept the challenges they might face from youths of other cultures. The strong sense of belonging and values are important in the process of preventing suicide. Programs on the skills of living amongst the youths are encouraged to help in eliminating life-threatening behaviors.

The environments that are frequently visited by youths should be restructured to offer necessary support to the youths. Several themes are developed when undertaking such a study, these include; the availability of upgraded medical care, the use of culturally driven measures, the need of making youths aware of the importance of culture, value and identity (Viner and Barker, 2005).

Difficult situations lead to teenage suicides, these tough emotional states are also experienced by the adults whose reactions tend to be different from that of young people. Researches have shown that proper emotional support from family members or peer groups can act as a good preventive measure for extreme emotional feelings.

Beside normal pressure there are those specific circumstances that can contribute to youth suicides, these include; parental divorce, sexual abuse, domestic violence and parental neglect. Depression contributes the highest percentage of committed suicide amongst the young people since it causes apathy within them. Easy access to firearms provides them with an easy way to end their lives (Mignone and O’Neil, 2005).

Limitations to the research There are poor responses during data collection due to the fact that most youths fear sharing their personal experiences. The cross-cultural differences amongst Canadian communities also contribute to poor data collection due to communication barrier. There is heterogeneity within the sample groups that further complicates the process of data interpretation.

Conclusion There is need for expansive research in this area in order to establish different solutions necessary to overcome suicide amongst the youth. The various studies are yet to come up with appropriate prevention measures that can be used in this field. The values attributed to youthful stages evolve rapidly hence require close attention by the elders within the society. They need necessary resources and space to participate in the building of the society.

Suicides have direct negative effect on the community members and may involve victims who are closely related. The existing healthcare services seem very inadequate to counter the increasing rate of suicide within the communities. The healthcare services should be integrated to cater for expansive social network. Cultural renewal and identity should be revived as a way of encouraging the young people to hold on to the good values.

References Hawton, K.,


Global Financial Crisis Impact on Australian and World Economies Cause and Effect Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Roots of the global financial crisis

Why it evolved into a world crisis

Impact on Australian and world economies

GDP and real net national disposable income

USD Per Australian Dollar Currency Exchange Rate

The future for Australia’s economy

Reference List

Roots of the global financial crisis The current global financial crisis traces its roots to the United States of America. It partly started with the collapse of the US sub-prime mortgage market (Williams 2010, p. 5). The Federal Reserve sought to cut lending rates leading to inflation in the housing bubble. The sub-prime mortgage crisis emanated from financial instruments like securitization. This is where banks pooled different loans into sellable assets. In the process, there was a tendency of offloading risky loans.

Because banks could easily earn millions from these loans, they turned them into securities. In the process, banks borrowed more to lend out to the market. Some banks could not rely on savers. A bad loan was considered a problem to the borrower. This made other banks to get into loans with an aim of selling them. After running out on people to lend, banks turned to sub primes (Tett 2009, p. 13).

As a matter of fact, self-certified loans became very popular making banks to buy securities from others. Because of this, Collateralized Debt Obligations were very complicated. As a result of this, they often hid bad loans.

On the other hand, investment banks ended up in the business of mortgages and loans without the right controls and frameworks. This exposed banks to huge risks.

As problems were manifested, lending slowed down. This was as a result of low confidence in loans. Owing to loss in value of assets, lenders were already demanding for a refund of the money they had invested (Tett 2009, p. 18). On the other hand, the market experienced a lot of credit defaults. Credit default swaps were meant to tell if one could pay a loan or not but the market was over speculative.

Banks had little deposits and hence could not meet lenders demand for money. In the process, some of them collapsed drastically. Most banks did not have capital reserves (Atwood 2008, p. 9). The end result was that businesses and individuals that relied on credit could not get cash which led to massive financial problems.

Why it evolved into a world crisis After affecting the banking and credit sectors in the US, the global crisis slowly crept to other countries and in the process became a world crisis. It became a world crisis by verging on a systematic crisis approach. This was because of the domino effect and other psychological contagions (Williams 2010, p. 13). As a result of this, it was able to spread to other economic and financial areas worldwide.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This can be traced from financial markets because it eventually degenerated to become a market crash. On the other hand, equity funds fell short of cash which made them to get rid of their assets. In addition, there was a large impact on public finance because most financial institutions had to be bailed out to continue with their operations (Atwood 2008, p. 16). Insurance firms and pensions firms could not meet their financial commitments because they did not have enough cash to cater for these.

There was also a problem in Forex because the USD is used as a global currency. This affected various currencies in Europe and Latin America. One of the first causalities outside the US was Northern Rock (a major bank in Britain).The crisis later on entered an acute stage with the collapse of banks and financial institutions both in America and Europe( Cohan 2009, p. 19). Other countries had problems because their currencies lost value. In the process, they could not make payments on loans.

Impact on Australian and world economies Because of the global financial crisis, Australia has had a lot of current account deficits. This has been mostly on its transactions with the rest of the world. It can be explained from the fact that the country has been financing its deficits from overseas borrowings (Cohan 2009, p. 21). This means that foreign banks that are currently controlled by their governments will not be willing to lend to Australia.

It also implies that Australian banks don’t have the necessary capacity to replace previous lending. Australia’s exports have been affected because of deep recessions (as a result of the global crisis) on its major trading partners. Business and household finances have fallen because of a drop in the country’s share prices (Haigh 2009, p. 28).

On the other hand, business confidence has fallen drastically because of bad news from abroad as a result of the global financial crisis. Although the global economic crisis has affected Australia, there is good outlook from the economic indicators.

GDP and real net national disposable income Chain volume measures, Trend – Quarterly % change

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Global Financial Crisis Impact on Australian and World Economies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the graph, GDP and real disposable income are slowly picking up. Foster group is Australia’s leading brewer and as matter of fact it, has been greatly affected by the global economic crisis. The groups wine business has continued to struggle as a result of exchange rate movements and US market conditions (Chappell 2009, p. 4). On the other hand, the global financial crisis has affected the group through a sluggish demand that has created an oversupply.

Sales in Australia have also dropped because people do not have enough disposable income to spend on its products. This means that wine consumers have been switching to less expensive brands as a result of the economic downturn. On the other hand, global wine sales have also drooped by 5.3% (Chappell 2009, p. 7).

Unfavorable exchange rates are expected to reduce the groups earning in both frontiers. A 9¢ increase in exchange rates with the US dollar will affect profits because the dollar is used globally as far as exchange rates are concerned.

USD Per Australian Dollar Currency Exchange Rate Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. Web.

A strong Australian dollar will continue eating into the groups profits (Chappell 2009, p. 8). In addition, poor economic conditions are expected to affect sales volumes in both markets (local and global).

As a result of the global economic crisis, many world economies are likely to initiate a banking shake out. This means that interest rates will have to be reduced for sustainability. Economies have witnessed a significant drop in their economic growth leading to a downward trend in their forecasts (Haigh 2009, p. 28). This is because there is a drop in trade and commodity prices. As a matter of fact, most economies have seen a drop in remittances from abroad.

The future for Australia’s economy It is evident that regional growth variations will vary as resource boom states come back to life (Ferguson 2008, p. 9). As much as there has been lot of down falls in different economies, Australia’s banking sector is still in good shape. The government has initiated good monetary policies that have worked effectively. This is because interest rates have fallen drastically.

Markets have lost confidence because of the global economic crisis. As a matter of fact, the government needs to initiate good policies in relation to growth theories. For instance, it needs to stimulate aggregate demand in a bid to increase consumer spending (Goodman 2008, p. 23). According to the Keynesian theory, when consumers experience an increased aggregate demand, they will create an excitement in the economy. This creates a good environment for economic growth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Financial Crisis Impact on Australian and World Economies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, there is need to focus on the three building blocks of economic growth. These include; the saving function, production function and the labor function (Goodman 2008, p. 27). For these to be attained, the Australian economy needs good and strategic fiscal policies. On the other hand, retail property yields have increased by 50-100 points.

According to the Harold Domar theory, growth will depend on national saving ratios. Savings will only increase after an upsurge in economic growth. Australian banks have not been greatly affected by the global financial crisis like other banks in Europe and America (Ferguson 2008, p. 14). This means that banks can still lend to spur growth that will increase consumer spending.

The multiplier theory can also be used to stimulate economic growth. This will be done by increasing the marginal propensity to consume. These will later on increase equilibrium income in these economies. On the other hand, autonomous consumption will increase by large margin.

There is need to enhance the supply of credit and craft good mechanisms that will increase demand for such. Some foreign banks are withdrawing their operations from Australia and this will put pressure on the availability of credit. Because of this, there is need to increase investments in the financial sector (Williams 2010, p. 32). Export prices and commodities are expected to fall in coming months and good measures should be put in place to revert this.

Reference List Atwood, M., 2008. Payback: Debt and the Shadow Side of Wealth. Toronto: House of Anansi.

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. Australian Economic Indicators. Web.

Chappell, T., 2009. Oversupply and GFC hits Foster’s Group wine sales. Web.

Cohan, W, D., 2009. House of Cards. Tale of Hubris and Wretched Excess on Wall Street. New York: Doubleday.

Ferguson, N., 2008. The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World. London: Allen Lane.

Goodman, P, S., 2008. Credit Enters a Lockdown. New York: The New York Times. McGraw-Hill.

Haigh, G., 2009. Stupid Money. Queensland: Griffith University.

Tett, G., 2009. Fool’s Gold: How Unrestrained Greed Corrupted a Dream, Shattered Global Markets and Unleashed a Catastrophe. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Williams, M. T., 2010. Uncontrolled Risk: The Lessons of Lehman Brothers and How Systemic Risk Can Still Bring Down the World Financial System. New York: McGraw Hill.


Analysis of Language in Relation to Cognition Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Language and Lexicon

Features of Language

Levels of Language Structure and Processing

The Role of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology


Reference List

Introduction Language is important in daily interactions among people. This is especially so for communication purpose which plays a key role in the cognitive development and psychology. The definition of language is affected by the fact that language is generally associated with culture and the languages that are spoken such as English, French and Chinese among others.

The need for the definition of a clearer meaning of language and lexicon is necessary. Additionally, the evaluation has to involve the analysis of the features as well as levels of language together with the role that language plays in cognitive psychology.

Language and Lexicon Language definition is generally associated with the main objective of acting as a communication means (Willingham, 2007). The definition of language has been associated with systems and the joint definition with lexicon with more emphasis on the spoken word (Gibbon, Moore


What Can Lawyers Learn From ‘Othello’? Essay essay help free: essay help free

Written by William Shakespeare, Othello is a fascinating story, whose setting is on a street in the provincial capital of Veneto, Venice. Shakespeare has employed one of the literature elements by using major characters like, Othello, a hero and the head of armies, Desdemona, Othello’s covert wife, Michael Cassio, Othello’s deputy, Lago, ranked below the lieutenant, among others. Following Cassio’s promotion by Othello, Lago has not been in his terms because, according to him, he deserved the promotion.

He declares his hate to his boss, Othello, and secretly manipulates a way of bringing Cassio down from that rank. Cassio later gets the demotion! This story is rich in lessons for all people, but Shakespeare seems to have dedicated it to lawyers. In his works, Shakespeare likens Lago to a lawyer. Shakespeare wanted them to learn that manipulation, as expounded below, is a vice, and ought to appear nowhere in their services to people.

Othello’s secret wife, known to be more than a friend, is compassionate enough to assist in whichever situation one is in, provided she is able to. Lago’s plan to have Cassio demoted succeeds. Cassio is demoted, not because he has offended anybody, neither is it based on his job performance.

However, he is demoted anyway! Lago is a fox, whose words seem well organised and sensitive as if they are true, but hardly are they. “This is a key Lago tactic. One of the ways he is so successful at controlling others is by leveraging their positive qualities to serve his own ends” (Maslanka October 7, 2010). Lago intentionally approaches Othello’s wife and owing to her sympathetic attribute, he convinces her that if she raises Cassio’s issue of demotion before her husband, he (Cassio), will be restored.

This happens, a case that induces questions to Othello, who wants to know why his wife should be the one talking on behalf of Cassio. He imagines an underway relationship between the two, a situation that forces him to kill his wife. In this case, Lago is responsible for the death of the innocent Desdemona, because of his manipulative trait. It is a lesson to lawyers who bear the same character that whatever they do, will affect them at some point.

In addition, the issue of rationality, as portrayed by many lawyers, is quite sensitive. They ought to apply it with a lot if vigilance. Many people, driven by their ill motives, end up creating stories that favour them on the expense of others. Lago has been tirelessly looking for a promotion, which he never gets. He approaches Othello and raises the issue of the unfaithfulness of Desdemona. He posits that she has been having affairs with Cassio, though it is a lie.

Othello accepts the lie, even without consulting his wife to confirm the validity of the act, showing how rational he is. He ends up depriving her of her life even after others like Emilia rise to support Desdemona’s faithfulness. Shakespeare is addressing the lawyers who, based on invalid excuses from their clients, end up applying the trait of rationality wrongly. They ought to investigate matters first, before declaring sentences to those claimed guilty by others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, Lawyers ought to be wise when tackling the subject of promotion or demotion of employees. A demotion can carry with it productive results. It can also be a disaster to them.

From the story, it stands out clear that if Lago were offered the promotion, instead of Cassio, the death of Desdemona would not have occurred. Othello, who is now likened to a lawyer, ought to have considered the possible repercussions of Cassio’s promotion. If this were the case, he would have realised its effects on others like Lago and probably conflicts therein, as it was evident.

In conclusion, though Shakespeare is dead and forgotten, he speaks volumes today through his works. Othello is a story, whose lessons form the basis of arguments for lawyers, not only of today, but also of generations to come. For the upcoming lawyers, Othello is a recommendable book, which can equip them with the knowledge that, they need a good deal of vigilance when interacting with their clients, failure to which they will suffer the consequences.

Works Cited Maslanka, Michael. “What Can Lawyers Learn From ‘Othello’?” Web.


Depression in Older Adults Expository Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Abstract


Depression in Older Adults


Works Cited

Abstract This paper examines depression amongst the old adult population in the world with specific references to the United States of America. It gives a background on what depression is and discusses situation under which it develops in older adult population.

Besides, it examines depression in older adult population in relation to such factors as gender where females are found to be more prone to depression than their male counterparts, it also considers sexual orientations in which it discusses how lesbians and gays are more likely to have stress than heterosexuals and it finally compares how race and culture play a role in depression amongst the elderly in society.

With respect to homosexuality, the paper examines the various ways through which older adult population get discriminated by the members of the society who are anti-homosexuality and institutions that do not recognize both lesbianism and gay as a form of lifestyle that should be accepted as in existence.

Introduction Depression is a condition that mostly affects the cognition of a human being. It means different thing to different people; it can be symptomatic as when an individual says he or she is feeling depressed, it also be a sign as when someone observes that another person is depressed or at the same time it can be a disorder that is clinically diagnosed.

When a clinical diagnosis of depression is done, it implies a disorder which has a significant length of time and having particularly observable signs and symptoms, that significantly interferes with an individual’s functioning or that causes great personal distress or both (Jefferson 10).

But one may ask “What are the causes of depression?” depression has varied causes amongst the whole of the human race regardless of age or gender. It is almost always caused by a combination of factors. Such factors are inheritance or genetic predisposition, developmental factors such as early loss of parents, cognitive factors such as intense grief reaction and stress such as coping with unemployment and or physical illnesses; these two combine to result into a common pathway for inducement of depression.

Research has indicated that each individual has a pattern of genetic, developmental, environmental, social, personality and physiological factors that coalesce to permit or protect against depression at any point in time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The understanding and modification of the contributions of these factors is the ultimate goal of the clinicians who engage in the treatment of depression. This paper examines depressions in older adults. It will deal with how depression occurs in older adult population; besides, it will also discuss the main causes of depression in older adulthood and how it affects them (Jefferson 10).

Depression in Older Adults Depression is the most common mental disorder found amongst older adults in the parts of the world, but it should not be seen as part of the aging process; in fact a good number of older adults . It is one of the most disabling conditions among the older adult population. In the United States alone it is approximated that over six million adults aged 65 and above experience clinical depression; the adult population represents about 15% of the adult population above 65 years of age in the United States.

Prevalence estimates in older adults range from 5% in community samples to about 20% in nursing home residents and close to 30% of the older adults witnessed in primary care setting. Research has also indicated that approximately 50% of the adults who are admitted in hospitals experience clinical depression (Williams 59).

It is important to note that depression in older adults is caused by varied numerous factors and may be different from the causative factors leading to depression in the younger people. In addition to the biological etiology of depression in the older adults, there are vividly cognitively contributing factors.

The adult’s life events and the interpretation and response to event contribute to the risk of developing depression. The predominant life events that place older adults at risks for depression as well as contribute to the experience by older adults and receptiveness to treatment for depression are medical illnesses, bereavement or death of a son, daughter or any other significant other, disability, impaired social support and or trauma.

These factors do not necessarily exclusively lead to depression, but may combine with other factors in a chain of events ultimately leading to depression in older adults. Research findings have indicated that the risk factors combined with behavioral, psychodynamic and negative thoughts surrounding the events of life seem to have substantial contribution to depression that comes in late life periods.

For example, older adults may have an perception about their lives that no matter what they attempt to achieve, negative things continue to happen and perpetually continue to experience losses in their lives hence they assume a hopelessness position. It has also been found out through research that older adults may not easily adapt to the physical changes they are experiencing as a result of aging and hence may have some unrealistic expectation and have a feeling or perception of that they are likely to continue in failure as an adult.

We will write a custom Essay on Depression in Older Adults specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Majority of older adults fall into one or more at-risk groups for depression. Nonetheless, many are not aware of their symptoms of depression and hence do not make a request or seek evaluation. Besides, research indicates that many older adults have resistance towards seeking medical attention due to stigma labeled against mental illnesses.

According to several research activities that have been conducted, it has been found that black older adults are more likely to suffer depression as compared to their white counterparts (Bernal 403). Besides, other research also indicate that races with the majority of low income earners like blacks, Hispanics are more vulnerable to issues of depression than the white counterparts.

Given racial and ethnic discriminations, it is important to state that races that are subject or victims of racial discrimination are more likely to suffer depression; the older elders may resign into perception where they feel inferior to the perceived superior whites and hence cause them hopelessness and depression, especially when they see their loved ones or fellow race members being discriminated against.

Taking the case for Western and other developed nations where slavery was practiced, it is crucial recognize that those who come from races that experienced slavery are highly likely to experience depression than those within former slave masters.

Some of the depression symptoms appearing some adults may be traces of depression during childhood with which the adult might have lived to his or her old age; this is coupled by inferiority complex. Meanwhile, ethnicity has also been found to have effects on depression amongst the older adult population (Bernal 327).

Gender also plays a significant role in depression. There are a number of research that have been done on how gender influence experience of depression. The research findings have been compiled from data collected in most countries of the world. According to the findings, women have higher chances of experiencing depression than men.

Even though it is not clear what really accounts for this, but researchers acknowledge the contribution of several factors which entails impact of estrogen on stress hormones, the common victimization of women through rape and domestic violence and cortisol (Fredén 163).

Other research findings reveal that both men and women share depression to a certain proportion; however, what also contributes to the difference is the fact that both men and women express their depression in gender specific ways. According to available literature, men are known to mask their depression through various forms like excessive drinking. This implies that the differentiation of the rate of depression between men and women is just done by way of illusion (Fredén 167).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Depression in Older Adults by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many studies have been conducted within cultures and also cross-culture with the aim of identifying symptoms of depression in both men and women. It is argued that women are twice as likely as men to be diagnosed of major depression.

Even though this difference is great, it is because older women are mostly likely to seek professional assistance as compared to their men counterparts; the implication here is that even though men may suffer equal measure of depression as women, they are less likely to seek the services of a profession to help them handle their depression.

Culturally, in some regions of the world, men are encultured not to express their sadness, stress or depression in public; in fact, men who do so are mostly likely to be considered as having feminine behavior, so they choose to endure depression within them. On the side, women share their grief with friends and expose publicly their depression; this makes it easy to notice. Moreover, men who suffer from depression are associated with mental illness and as has been discussed earlier, feminine (Fredén 167).

Other research has also attempted to link the rate of depression with sexual orientation. Even though older adults are highly likely to have low sexual performance, their sexual orientation has been found to play a significant role in contributing to their depression statuses. Research indicates that lesbians are more depressed than their heterosexual counterparts.

Moreover, even though much study have not been done, older adult population is very common with lesbians. In fact, this may be accounted for by the fact that it cannot be expected that when gays and lesbians get old, they should switch their sexual orientation to heterosexuals.

There are a number of older lesbians and gays and this part of the aging population suffer a lot of stigma from anti-lesbians and anti-gays. It is therefore not unusual to here of depressed and isolated older adults in the society. Due to stigma associated with lesbianism and gay sexual orientation, many of the lesbian and gay older adults suffer depression as not so many people want to identify with them (Melillo, et al 10).

Since the older adults are almost entirely dependent on others for livelihood and medical care, the lesbians and gays suffer from lack of concern, especially from the healthcare departments as they do not recognize the existence of lesbians and they are unresponsive to the fact that being lesbian and gay is also a form of lifestyle that should not be used as a point of individual discrimination.

Due to this, old adults who are heterosexuals are the ones who have greatly benefited from healthcare plans in most countries, particularly in the United States of America. The implication of this is that the lesbians and gays are left out in terms of medical care plans and hence are subjected to depression as they ponder about their heath and how to get medical services (Melillo, et al 10).

One fact is than most lesbian and gay partners live together, but when it comes to old age, one partner is not legally allowed to participate in healthcare decisions of another partner and this even include being barred from funeral arrangement in cases of death of one of the partner. This also subjects them to depression which may aggravate due to poor adjustment to aging situations.

Again gays and lesbians are greatly concerned about their housing; they always wish to live in communities that dominated by homosexuals or at least a community in which people recognize existence and the needs of lesbians and gays. The problem is that these groups of people tend be isolated and may further be far removed from children and the young people who are feared by the society may get influenced by these lesbians and gays.

Contrarily, heterosexual older adults are not likely to suffer any depression arising from any of these factors. Instead, they are well recognized by the society and may not suffer much depression as their homosexual counterparts.

The fact that is that homosexuality is the universally accepted sexual orientation in the world and hence forms a larger society than the lesbian and gay community. The heterosexuals are mostly likely to get consolations from groups like Christians groups which make them cope easily with depression (Melillo, et al 23).

Conclusion Depression is a condition that mostly affects the cognition of a human being. It means different thing to different people; it can be symptomatic as when an individual says he or she is feeling depressed, it also be a sign as when someone observes that another person is depressed or at the same time it can be a disorder that is clinically diagnosed.

Research has indicated that each individual has a pattern of genetic, developmental, environmental, social, personality and physiological factors that coalesce to permit or protect against depression at any point in time. Depression is one of the most disabling conditions among the older adult population in the world today. Depression in older adults is caused by varied numerous factors and may be different from the causative factors leading to depression in the younger people.

In addition to the biological etiology of depression in the older adults, there are vividly cognitively contributing factors. Research has found that race plays a significant role depression amongst older adults; black older adults are more likely to suffer depression as compared to their white counterparts.

Given racial and ethnic discriminations, it is important to state that races that are subject or victims of racial discrimination are more likely to suffer depression; the older elders may resign into perception where they feel inferior to the perceived superior whites and hence cause them hopelessness and depression, especially when they see their loved ones or fellow race members being discriminated against.

Gender also plays a significant role in depression. According to the findings, women have higher chances of experiencing depression than men (Fredén 167). Even though it is not clear what really accounts for this, but researchers acknowledge the contribution of several factors which entails impact of estrogen on stress hormones, the common victimization of women through rape and domestic violence and cortisol.

Other research has also attempted to link the rate of depression with sexual orientation. Even though older adults are highly likely to have low sexual performance, their sexual orientation has been found to play a significant role in contributing to their depression statuses.

Research indicates that lesbians are more depressed than their heterosexual counterparts (Melillo, et al 23). Conversely, heterosexual older adults are likely to get assistances from the general members of the society as they do not engage in what the members of the society may describe as anti-social. Due to this, they are less likely to suffer depression as compared to their lesbian and gay counterparts.

Works Cited Bernal, Guillermo. Handbook of racial and ethnic minority psychology. New York: SAGE, 2003.

Fredén, Lars. Psychosocial aspects of depression: no way out? New York: Wiley, 1982.

Jefferson, James. Depression and its treatment. New York: American Psychiatric Pub, 1992.

Melillo, Karen et al. Geropsychiatric and mental health nursing. New Jersey: ones


Industry Analysis of Car industry Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction The automobile industry is a major contributor to the economy of the United States. The industry requires diversified supply of raw materials from different parts of the world (Zino, 2010, p. 1). Technological advancements have been of great importance in the automobile industry, because they have helped promote the introduction of new models and contribute to the differentiation of the existing ones.

The global economic recession that was experienced in 2007-2009 adversely affected the automobile industry, because it leads to China overtaking the United States in terms of sales growth (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2010, p. 11). The main players in the automobile industry in the United States are Ford Motors, General Motors Company, Chrysler, Toyota and Honda (Carfreaks, 2010, p. 1).

Dominant Economic Characteristics of the Industry There are many customers for automobile products in the global markets, which makes this industry very attractive to many investors. Customers in this industry include individuals, organizations and governments. There is an increasing need for automobile products in the world, especially with the increases in urbanization, industrialization and civilization.

It is notable that the automobile industry has been very profitable, which is another reason that has attracted many investors. Because the cost of raw materials for manufacturing cars is very high, companies in this industry focus on economies of scale. As such, manufacturing many products gives profits to the existing companies in the market.

Barriers of entry to the automobile industry include high capital requirements and legal restrictions. In addition, establishing a good product image in the global markets is important, and this requires operating in the market for many years. New companies find it difficult to overcome stiff competition in the market, because the existing companies have built a strong customer loyalty and brand image for their products.

The learning curve effect explains the causes of this dominance by the existing companies in the industry, because new companies require a lot of time to learn the market trends and establish a solid background about the existing customers (Feenstra, 1989, p. 103). Most of the existing companies in the US automobile industry have established a strong foundation about their position, making it very hard for new firms to penetrate the market.

The pace of technological change is increasing and new technologies are being developed to reduce cost of production and produce better products. It is important to note that new car models are continuously being invented, because most of adoption of innovative technologies by many existing automobile companies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Efficient and effective manufacturing processes are also continuously being developed, which is reducing the cost of production and minimizing losses (House of Representatives, 2002, p. 29). An example of this is Lean manufacturing, which is a process of innovation that is being adopted by companies in the automobile industry, that are aimed at reducing the losses incurred in production, while improving efficiency in production (Fukuyama, Shulsky, United States Army, and Center, 1997, 24).

Five Forces Model based Industry Analysis Threat of new entrants

Threats of new firms entering the market are low, because there are many barriers of entry. The initial costs of establishing an automobile company are very high, and they restrict many investors from entering the industry. The existing companies in the industry have established a good product image in the international market, which makes it almost impossible for new companies to enter the industry.

Because the automobile industry requires companies to sell products to many customers all over the world, creating a good product image takes time. Customers in the global markets have become loyal to certain products which they have known for many years, and this hinders new firms from entering the market (Carfreaks, 2010, p. 1).

New companies also find it difficult to work with the existing channels of distribution, which is another major barrier of entry into this industry. These barriers to entry, help the current companies within the industry, because it reduces the possibility of more competition, and increases their potential profitability.

Bargaining Power of the Buyers

Buyers in the industry have a low level of bargaining power. In the United States there are a small amount of companies manufacturing cars that are supplying to the larger amounts of customers in the market.

As such, the customers have no control over the activities of these companies, because they cannot manufacture cars themselves (Carfreaks, 2010, p. 1). Many customers purchase in small units, and there is no single buyer with exclusive control over the industry. The industry experiences intense product differentiation hence, there are a variety of products in this industry, giving the customer even less power.

Products in the automobile industry are not standardized, because different car models are manufactured by different companies and are appealing to different buyers. Customers can purchase from several sellers and the cost of switching from one brand to another is minimal. Although the cost of switching is minimized for the customer, the profit the company retains by holding the power of the pricing of their automobiles is another reason that it is an appealing industry.

We will write a custom Report on Industry Analysis of Car industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bargaining Power of the Suppliers

The bargaining power of suppliers is average . Suppliers in the industry cannot make cars, and this limits their control over the automobile companies in the market. In fact, suppliers in this industry have total reliance on the automobile companies. Raw materials required to manufacture automobile products are sold in packages, and there is no particular supplier who can supply many materials to an extent that they can control the decisions made by the automobile companies in the industry.

There few suppliers to these companies, which provides them with some power to control car manufacturers (Carfreaks, 2010, p. 1). The suppliers also have to keep up with new entrants into their industry, which can cause their prices to fluctuate. If many suppliers are available, the car companies in the industry have more power to get a lower price. But if there are few, the suppliers hold more power because they know there are few competitors that these companies can turn to.

Threat of Substitute Products

The industry encounters a major threat from substitute products, because there are many substitutes in the foreign market. Customers in the United States also have the opportunity to buy cars from other companies around the world, and the costs involved when switching from the US-made cars to foreign cars are small.

This provides them with the opportunity to purchase cars from the dealers with the possibility of more appealing products and/or prices. Another factor that threatens the market, is that there are other means of transportation like trains, bicycles, and air transport (Carfreaks, 2010, p. 1).

All of these substitutes are easily and readily available to customers, which can make it harder to gain and retain buyers. The companies within the industry have to make an impression with potential buyers, as to why they should buy American made cars. An example of this can be seen in the advertising of US car companies, which relate buying an American-made car to being patriotic.

Competitive rivalry between incumbent firms

Rivalry among competitors is very high, because the industry is not a monopoly and opportunities to differentiate products are minimal. Rivalry among companies in this industry is high, because there are minimal opportunities of differentiating products or introducing new products in the market (Carfreaks, 2010, p. 1).

The major automobile company in the industry is General Motors, but other companies still compete for market share in the United States and in other foreign markets. Intense rivalry and competition in the industry has caused poor performance for companies such as Chrysler and Ford, which lead to the of the federal government to help stop them from closing (Axson, 2010, p. 127).

There are dealerships for all US companies located in all areas of the country. It is extremely easy for a buyer to browse easily at multiple domestic companies, especially when most dealerships are usually located in the same areas as one another. Companies must come up with ways to differentiate themselves from domestic competitors, which is usually done through technology, brand association, and even pricing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Industry Analysis of Car industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion From the above analysis, it is observed that there are many challenges and rewards in the automobile industry in the United States. There are many barriers of entry which can make investors hesitant, but the amount of profits that existing companies are making can be very appealing.

Rivalry among existing companies in the industry is very high, and there exists many substitutes, which can make it difficult to be profitable. The bargaining power of the buyers is low while the bargaining power of suppliers is moderate, both of which show that the companies within the industry hold almost all of the power.

If one has the large amounts of capital required, and can successfully enter the market, and keep up with advances in automobiles, they have the chance to be very profitable. It would not be an easy or fast transition, because there would be a lot of learning involved with starting out in the industry. In the end, the barriers to the market, as well as high competition between rivals, make it even less attractive.

Works Cited Axson, David A. J. Best Practices in Planning and Performance Management: Radically Rethinking Management for a Volatile World. John Wiley and Sons, 2010. ISBN 0470539798, 9780470539798.

Carfreaks. Porter’s Five Forces Analysis – GM. 16 March, 2009. Web.

Feenstra, Robert C. Trade policies for international competitiveness. University of Chicago Press, 1989. ISBN 0226239497, 9780226239491.

Fukuyama, F., Shulsky, Abram N., United States. Army, and Center, Arroyo. The “virtual corporation” and army organization. Rand Corporation, 1997. ISBN 0833025325, 9780833025326.

House of Representatives. Proceedings and debates of the 107th congress second session, Congressional Record, March 11, 2002; Vol. 148, part 3.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Trends in the Transport Sector 2010. OECD Publishing, 2010. ISBN 9282102718, 9789282102718

Zino, K.U.S. Automobile Industry Makes $500 Billion Dollar Contribution to the Economy. TheDetroitbureau. Apr.22, 2010


Epistemology and Materialism Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Real Life Applications



Introduction In philosophical terms, the concept of matter advances the fact that all things are made up of matter and all thoughts are created as a result of the interaction of matter. Conventionally, materialism argues that matter is the only substance in existence. There are currently many schools in philosophy that explain materialism although evidently, materialism can be equated to idealism and at the same time, materialism theories can be contrasted with idealism and neutral monism (Stalin,1938).

However, these concepts relate to their views on reality and the specific answers they give towards perplexing questions in philosophy. Materialism can be best comprehended through its interaction with other theories of immaterialism because it purports that matter is the primary substance of human thought and it builds on itself. This study will further analyze this concept and identify its contributions and applications.

History Materialism developed from several views developed in possibly different geographical locations. Inherently, the first level of concept development started in the axial age which was largely characterized by the works of Karl Jaspers (George, 1979).

In Indian philosophical circles, materialism developed from the works of Ajita Kesakambali, Payasi and Kanada; in China, it developed from the works of Xun Zi, Yang Xiong and Wang Chong while in Greece, it developed from the works of Anaxagoras, Epicurus and Democritus and Lucretius (George, 1979, p 11).

Earlier principles of materialism were developed from the principles that there was no way something could be built out of nothing and equally, “nothing” could have the effect of touch. These concepts were developed from epistemological studies that majorly concentrated on the train of thought and the nature and scope of knowledge.

Epistemological studies sought to determine what human beings know, the nature of knowledge, the acquisition of knowledge, and if human beings comprehend what they know. Most studies advanced from this school of thought sought to determine what people now term as their beliefs, the truth and the justification that makes concepts truthful. Deeper analyses determined how knowledge is produced and how different claims sum up what we now term as knowledge.

From this school of thought (epistemology) materialism developed because it sought to explain how knowledge is acquired. Materialism therefore came in to identify that matter builds on knowledge. Further, materialism explained that a person can only know material objects through constant mediation in the human mind which is facilitated by how the brain is structured. Baruss (1993) affirms that:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Everything objective, extended, active, and hence everything material, is regarded by materialism as so solid a basis for its explanations that a reduction to this (especially if it should ultimately result in thrust and counter-thrust) can leave nothing to be desired. But all this is something that is given only very indirectly and conditionally” (pp. 254-55)

Real Life Applications All substances in the world regardless of whether they are in solid, liquid or gaseous forms often consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons which are components that mediate fields of different substances. Currently, it is believed that about 5% of the universe is made up of such matter and most universal components are composed of material matter, but there is little agreement regarding what constitutes this matter (Sadoulet, 2007, p. 61).

The Darwin theory is also a real life application of the concept of materialism because it identifies that what we know as organic matter today (with regard to the nature of plants, animals and man) was developed from decades of progressive development. This severely dented concepts advanced by the epistemological stand on nature.

The materialist concept can also be analyzed in form of a quantitative to a qualitative process. For example, when water is at room temperature, it has no effects in its present state but a change in temperature causes a shift in the nature of matter to either gas or liquid.

Another example is that, in order for a platinum wire to glow, a significant amount of matter change needs to be observed in form of heat that changes the state of matter of the platinum wire, enabling it to glow. Every matter can therefore be changed through a shift in the nature of matter as can be seen through the illustration of liquid water which changes to gaseous form and at the same time, it can revert back to liquid form. Stalin (1938) affirms that

“What are known as the constants of physics (the point at which one state passes into another – J. St.) are in most cases nothing but designations for the nodal points at which a quantitative (change) increase or decrease of movement causes a qualitative change in the state of the given body, and at which, consequently, quantity is transformed into quality” (pp. 30).

Real life applications can also be found in the field of chemistry whereby qualitative changes arise as a result of a shift in the quantitative composition of matter. For example, when analyzing the components of oxygen, it involves two atoms but if it were to contain three, we would obtain a new qualitative component: ozone.

We will write a custom Essay on Epistemology and Materialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This will be a totally new component which if contrasted with the original oxygen; is distinctively different in terms of odor while its reaction is also totally different. In the same regard, we can also obtain a totally different substance if we react oxygen with sulphur or nitrogen (two matters mixing) because we will obtain a different substance that also has a totally different matter composition from the parent substances.

Conclusion Contrary to most concepts that purport a different view other than the materialistic view (like the idealistic view), materialism observes that matter is a realistic thing and not a cognitive sensation as is asserted by the epistemological view (Baruss, 1993, p. 254).

Matter is therefore quite distinct from our thoughts while consciousness is a secondary form that comes from an interaction of matter. Human thought is therefore reflective of matter and it is also a reflection of a high level interaction of matter that occurs in the brain. Materialism therefore asserts that thought is a direct product of matter and that trying to differentiate the two would be a wrong thing. Stalin (1938) affirms that:

“The material, sensuously perceptible world to which we ourselves belong is the only reality…. Our consciousness and thinking, however supra-sensuous they may seem, are the product of a material, bodily organ, the brain. Matter is not a product of mind, but mind itself is merely the highest product of matter” (p. 27).

In a way, we can deduce the fact that materialism was a development of epistemology because it sought to answer important questions of epistemology asking: How do we know what we know? And what is knowledge? Bluntly, materialism answers this questions by affirming that human beings know what they know as a result of interaction of matter and knowledge is a product of a high level of matter interaction in a most sophisticated level of brain development.

References Baruss, I. (1993). Can We Consider Matter As Ultimate Reality? Some Fundamental.

Problems with a Materialist Interpretation of Reality. Ultimate Reality and Meaning: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Philosophy of Understanding, 16(3-4), 245–254.

George, N. (1979). The Origins of Materialism. New York: Pathfinder Press.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Epistemology and Materialism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sadoulet, B. (2007). Particle Dark Matter in the Universe: At the Brink of Discovery? Science, 315(5808), 61–63.

Stalin, J. (1938). Dialectical and Historical Materialism. Retrieved from https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1938/09.htm


Concept of Distance Learning in Modern Education System Essay writing essay help

Introduction Distance learning is defined as a program or course offered by a university or school that provides educational opportunities and is to be completed remotely.

Other terms defining distance learning include online learning, E-learning and distance education. In the modern world, majority of distant learning are conducted online by accessing a computer equipped with the internet services. In spite of this distance learning being a broad term, it also involves traditional correspondence courses that are completed through the mail (wiseGEEK, 2010).

Factors affecting distance learning Accessibility: Technology is a vital element in distant learning. The accessibility of the distance learning courses mainly depend on the awareness of the instructor to the accessibility issues and how the instructor can best handle the course with consideration of accessibility (Cook and Harniss, 2007). Difficulties in accessibility arise when the distance learning concerns people with disabilities e.g. the blind. Moreover, physical accessibility is successfully tackled by distance learning where one does not need to go to class for a lecture (college guide, 2010).

Opportunities: Opportunities unveiled by the distance learning are numerous. Apart from completing 100% of the course via the internet, one can attain knowledge and skills for field choices from the distance learning due to constant updating of the programs (Lloyd, 2007). in addition, opportunities provided by distance learning are not equal after all mainly due to lack of consideration of the disabled people by the educational institutions while selecting features of courseware packages that will suit their instructors and students (Cook and Harniss, 2007).

Barriers: Tipton (2007) cites Language and time differences as the main barriers, which affect the distance learning. This is because the internet has made the world a global neighborhood.

Advantages of distance learning

There are a number of merits associated with distance learning. First, there is no commuting, which means that the distance learning saves time and resources that can otherwise be put into better use. Second, in distance learning majority of the classes are asynchronous; that means it is not compulsory for one to attend a lecture at a stipulated time (college guide, 2010). Third, there is self-paced learning whereby, fast and slow learners are both considered in distance learning, where one can study at a convenient pace (college guide, 2010).

Disadvantages of distance learning

Despite gaining popularity in modern times, distance learning is constrained the following factors among others. First, the program is relatively complex and costly whereby, the program is facilitated by modern technical facilities, which are usually costly (college guide, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, there is social isolation whereby, majority of the students undertake the distance learning individually, thus making them feel isolated from the rest of the society (college guide, 2010).

The gap between “Haves” and “have nots”

In one way or the other, distance learning has contributed to increasing the gap between the “haves” and “have nots”. The high cost involved in enrolling and undertaking the distance learning discriminates the “have nots” from enrolling in the distance learning courses. In addition to this, the modern equipments used in distance learning may not be affordable to all, thus increasing the gap.

Conclusion Despite the barriers and the disadvantages associated with distance learning, the world has embraced distance learning as one of the major component in the modern education system. Advancement of technology has also aided in advancing distance learning globally.

References Cook, D., Harniss, M. (2007). Accessibility and distance learning: An overview. Web.

College guide. (2010). Advantage and disadvantage of distance learning. Web.

Lloyd, B. C. (2007). Distance learning. Web.

Tipton, J. (2007). What’s The Difference between Distance Learning and American Public Schools? Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Distance Learning in Modern Education System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More WiseGEEK. (2010). What is distance learning. Web.


Demand in Health Care Economics Essay essay help online: essay help online

Similar to most goods, the demand of services increases with the increase of income among consumers. It also depends on the quality of the stated services and thus better services are demanded more than poor services. Health care services are no exception. Their demand rise and fall in response to price changes and consumer income changes. The health care market is also influenced by the accessibility of information and the precision between the general practitioner, who is the supplier and the patient-consumer.

Another major determinant of demand for both private and public health care is the insurance premiums rates. The insurance companies, therefore, form a major element in health care economics since they play the role of offering guarantee to the prices charged by medical practitioners.

This however poses a problem in that the medical professionals operates aiming at attaining a certain amount of compensation while all that the insurance companies need is to make profit and as long as they are profitable, then they are contented. The need to provide quality healthcare is not their duty. This is the reason why both medical expenses and insurance premiums keep escalating while the quality of healthcare decreases leaving no space for the genuine delivery of services (Mankiw, 2009, p. 1).

This can actually be solved by getting rid of the insurance companies leaving the medical profession to deal with the customers directly. Otherwise, the government can seriously regulate all the factors that affect health care and ensure consumers of healthcare services are not exploited. This is achievement by making the necessary legislation for proper control of health provision.

Change of behavior is also an exemplary intervention in the health sector and the key to good health. It can be achieved by formally or informally educating people on healthy ways of living or by practicing simple personal behavior such as: washing hands, seeking treatment in time, managing tuberculosis by carefully observing treatment, avoiding HIV infection.

The main idea of behavior change and communication is to provide the public with the necessary information that will enable the people to access good quality health services with little regulations. It also aims at providing people with information on the necessary issues, such as treatment guidelines on regular diseases, proper use of over-the-counter drugs (Cardoso, 2008, p. 9).

As highlighted in the above discussion, appropriate legislation is necessary in order to stabilize the demand of healthcare services. This will also ensure that consumers of health care services are provided with high quality services. It is also necessary to powerfully advocate for cooperation between governments and international organizations and financial institutions. This will ensure that all stakeholders in provision of healthcare services are involved in policy formulation and implementation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human rights approaches have lately been emphasized in the health sector to help increase the demand of health care services. These fundamental rights give citizens certain rights such as freedom from discrimination based on the sex of an individual, torture, slavery, etc. These rights are a precondition to a healthy living; they protect citizens from manipulation.

The health rights which are provided by constitutional laws gives an individual the right to claim any form of treatment or health care at any particular time. These rights have thus advocated for better services and, consequently, more healthcare services are demanded (Cardoso, 2008, p. 7).

Reference List Cardoso, C. (2008). Health Economics or Health Care Economics. Web.

Mankiw, G. (2009). Supply, Demand, and Healthcare Reform. Retrieved from http://gregmankiw.blogspot.com/2009/11/supply-demand-and-healthcare-reform.html


Why Chinese Culture Leads to High Plagiarism Rate in Chinese Universities Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature Review

Research Methodology

Expected Outcome


Cost and Expenses


Introduction The issue of plagiarism in China and other Asian countries has worried scholars from the west and the rest of the world for centuries. The scholars live in constant fear of being denied the rightful ownership of their academic work.

The communism ideals in China dictate that all property (including ideas) is owned by the community and should therefore remain a property of the community. This makes it hard for university students to give credit to an individual for something that rightfully belongs to the community. It is important to look where this notion came from in order to look for effective ways of fighting the vice. Given its magnitude, the problem in Chinese universities cannot be solved overnight.

There is need for patience and overhaul of the existing education system that is itself a byproduct of plagiarism. By having the right mindset, we can succeed in identifying the underlying causes of the problem and effectively solve it. This will be the main goal of the research paper. Although this is hard to attain, the research has an objective of proposing small steps to be taken towards achieving the main goal. (Altbach, 2010)

Literature Review The large amount of literature that has been dedicated to plagiarism in Chinese universities emphasizes the impact that culture has on the issue. This chapter will give a review of the secondary literature available on the subject. With the world having become a global village, education systems have to be harmonized to provide a fair playing ground for students from every part of the world. Different theories are appraised according to their role and significance to the present topic, that is, the rate of plagiarism in Chinese universities.

According to Martin (1994), high-ranking officials perpetuate plagiarism when they use junior staff to write their speeches and later on fail to acknowledge them. Yusof (2009) upholds this claim by inferring that this trend moves down to the lower officials and finally to students making it even more complex. Yusof (2009) further claims that the idea of plagiarism is foreign to students especially from Chinese setting.

According to Gill (2008), having insight in the Chinese cultural dimensions is the first step toward tackling this dynamic problem. Altbach (2010) identifies China’s academic culture as a key issue hindering the plagiarism fight in Chinese universities. According to Friedma


Othello and Desdemona: Emotional Strangers Essay writing essay help

In William Shakespeare’s play Othello, the main character is a man named Othello. He is a Moor, a man with dark skin, who has earned his way to the rank of commanding general in Venice. The play opens with Othello, appearing in nightclothes before an angry mob, trying to defend himself against the accusation that he has shamed the daughter of a wealthy Venetian merchant by joining her in bed.

Iago, another character, helps to incite the mob, but Desdemona appears next to Othello, telling them that she is absolutely devoted to Othello and the two of them are married. It is one of the things that Shakespeare is praised for that these two characters are able to demonstrate such strong emotion.

Their love for each other is seen in their unwavering devotion in this first test of their relationship as they face down the town. However, even this intense emotion, perhaps especially this sort of intense emotion, can easily work against itself. This is demonstrated throughout the play as Iago carefully manipulates Othello’s perceptions, playing off of his insecurities and enflaming his jealousies to the point of violence.

Unaware of what is happening, Desdemona continues to show her fierce devotion to her husband which both blinds her to the truth of Othello’s murderous emotions and feeds them. In the end, both Desdemona and Othello are blinded by their emotions, preventing them from seeing reality which leads to their deaths.

Even before Desdemona appears in the play, it is clear to the audience that she loves Othello beyond all reason. Although much of this idea is perhaps lost on a modern audience, Shakespeare’s audience would have been shocked at the idea that a young girl of good breeding would think to marry someone without her father’s approval or knowledge and that she would marry a man of a different race at a time when that was rare.

She is not a bad girl, though, as she shows her father sincere devotion as soon as she comes on stage. She tells him, “To you I am bound for life and education; / My life and education both do learn me / How to respect you: you are the lord of duty; / I am hitherto your daughter” (I, iii, 182-85). In these lines, she recognizes the care and devotion he’s given her, acknowledges the gifts he’s bestowed upon her and admits that up to this point, she belonged entirely to him.

However, she then says that her duty has been transferred to Othello, who she has taken as her husband. If it is thought that perhaps race didn’t mean anything to the people back then, Desdemona’s father’s reaction to her marriage removes any doubt. This is something Desdemona apparently doesn’t feel is important even though it will limit her social circle. These considerations continue to illustrate the degree of dedication Desdemona feels for Othello.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As Othello begins to express his jealousy, Desdemona does nothing to condemn his behavior. Instead, she agonizes trying to figure out what she might have done to upset him. She never thinks perhaps he is acting unjustly, irrationally or improperly nor does she think that her promises to Cassio might have a role in Othello’s strange behavior. Because her love for Othello is so strong, it doesn’t occur to her to consider he might suspect her intentions regarding Cassio.

Knowing him to be a just man and a capable leader, she cannot believe he would think such things of her or of his once-favorite. This strong emotion for him coupled with her puzzlement over his recent behavior makes it impossible for her to realize the dangerous state of Othello’s emotions or their nature. However, even in the final moments before she dies, Desdemona continues to express love for her husband and satisfaction at her choice for marriage.

Unlike Desdemona, who seems to have a pure and innocent nature, Othello allows jealousy and suspicion to rule him throughout most of the play despite his own innate innocence. In the opening scene, Othello shows why he was able to achieve his high rank even though he was a stranger to the Venice society.

He is a strong adherent to the military code of honor. This code of honor meant strong adherence to a specific set of expected behaviors which included honorable combat among matched foes, adherence to home society laws, fundamental trust of fellow soldiers and an action-oriented approach to life.

In defending Desdemona and his marriage, Othello shows his appreciation for this code in his willingness to argue and defend his position while refusing to take up arms against a man vastly inferior in fighting ability and family by marriage. The higher a person’s rank, the more he is expected to honor the code and, as seems the case with Othello, the harder it is for him to conceive of someone else breaking it.

Whereas Desdemona starts the play arguing for their love, Othello receives the first blow to his faith in his wife. This blow comes from her father as he expresses his own fit of rage. He warns Othello, “Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see: / She has deceived her father, and may thee” (I, iii, 292-93). Iago exploits Othello’s soldier’s code after hearing the father’s word as he talks about Othello’s “free and open nature / That thinks men honest that but seem to be so; / And will as tenderly be led by th’ nose / As asses are” (I, iii, 393-96). Thus, Iago uses this moment of doubt and suspicion and his own knowledge of Othello’s inner beliefs and insecurities as a means of poisoning the newlyweds.

Rather than understanding Desdemona’s attempts to reunite him to his friend for what they were, Othello hears the ideas that Iago has put in his head about a possible relationship between Desdemona and Cassio. When he sees Desdemona talking earnestly with Cassio, he assumes the worst even though her words, “Do not doubt, Cassio, / But I will have my lord and you again / As friendly as you were” (III, iii, 5-7), reveal her pure intentions and Othello’s central role in their minds.

We will write a custom Essay on Othello and Desdemona: Emotional Strangers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the nobility and command Othello demonstrates at the beginning of the play, his emotions regarding Desdemona are too overpowering for him to see clearly. Not until his rage is worked out in action does Othello calm down enough to start thinking again. As he learns of her true innocence and his own foolishness, he understands that he cannot live with the tremendous guilt at having killed his love and he runs himself through with his sword.

Both Desdemona and Othello are too blinded by their emotions to be able to see truth. Desdemona tries to demonstrate through her words and actions that she loves Othello and only Othello, but she is unable to see that her attempts at reassurance are only making the misunderstanding deeper. Othello, because of the way in which Iago has painted the scene, is only capable of seeing the ugliness that Iago has suggested.

He accepts it because he has survived by listening to his men before anyone and believing Iago has the same fierce loyalty to his captain that Othello feels for his superior. Had Desdemona not been blind to Othello’s doubts of her love, she might have found a way to reach him. Had Othello not been blinded by his complicated emotions forcing him to fall back on his soldier’s code, he would not have reached the point of violence

Works Cited Shakespeare, William. “Othello.” The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. Alfred Harbage (Ed.). New York: Penguin Books, 1969.


Difficult Gospel Term Paper online essay help: online essay help

The gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ renews our thinking and re-directs our ways in the knowledge that there is nothing we can ever do in our own strength that will be sufficient to earn us peace. Jacob tried various ways and means to reconcile himself back to his uncle and his brother Esau, he tried every form of bribery which proved unsuccessful.

Esau brushed away all the offered luxuries and accepted Jacob unconditionally with lots of favour. This act brought new dawn into Jacob’s life which made him recognize the likeness of God the father (Highton 2004, 15). The consequent results of deceitfulness often make us think that we can always negotiate ourselves back to freedom and acceptance. The divine scope of God’s love is revealed through the lifestyle of Jesus Christ (Highton 2004, 28-30).

It is difficult for transformation to take place when life’s foundation is built on the principles of defensiveness. Gospel is all about unconditional love that accepts us irrespective of our background. The love of God spells out freedom that disorganizes our self defensive mechanisms and presents us with the reality of life.

“It saps the deep belief that our place in the world is something to be ‘laboriously perfected, precariously possessed and violently defended” (Highton 2004, 17).

Despite all forms of competition that we face in every dimension of our lives, we need not operate on assumptions but know that on our own we’ve got limited control; there is freedom in the gospel. William says;

“The Gospel frees us from fear and fantasy… it is the great enemy of self-indulgent fantasy” (Highton 2004, 25).

The love from the gospel upholds us with such concern that enables us recognize our true selves in the hands of God. We have to pass through discipline processes to be able to accept all these and be justified (Highton 2004, 18). Gospel is not a private matter since it teaches us on how to relate with others, it breaks all boundaries and make one to realise how important his/her life is to others, just as Jesus said;

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the son of Man has nowhere to lay his head” (Highton 2004, 21-31).

God is the supreme authority and does not take pleasure in the death of his people. People have taken God’s absolute love for mankind for granted and sometimes tried to manipulate things to suite their own desires other than God’s. The use of theology in understanding the love of God can sometimes be insufficient. God’s love is well defined through the life of Jesus of Nazareth; it triumphs over power and judgement (Highton 2004, 39). This is reflected by the answer to the question of objector

“In what court could we possibly bring God’s arbitrary power to trial?” (Highton 2004, 39)

The answer is only in the Gospel. The central theme of Christian life should revolve around the revelation brought by the life of Jesus of Nazareth. All the power and authority that controls mankind should be drawn from life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Highton 2004, 40).

It is in the power of the Gospel to shape the behaviour and thinking of Christians. Theology needs to be restructured to reveal more about the true love of God that triumph over power (Highton 2004, 41-42). Christian theology should portray God as one who is not limited by space and time

“There is nowhere we can go in God, no extra we can think about or point to, no reservation, no sanctuary in which God is not engaged, involved, loving and relational” (Highton 2004, 42).

Man should not direct God instead it should be vice-versa. All creation should depend on their creator’s principles for survival. Man must realise that God is all we need to discover ourselves and to shape up our destinies. God is omnipresent and hence cannot be confined as an idol; His presence through Jesus Christ is beyond comprehension (Highton 2004, 49).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Difficult Gospel specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lack of knowledge about who God is in our lives prevents us from enjoying and accessing the divine glory. The way of the cross though seem unpleasant, is the only avenue in which our hearts can grow to accommodate the fullness of God. We should live a life of total radical surrender to God.

The Gospel is first heard before it can be proclaimed; one must first be taught the basics underlying the Gospel. It is through teaching that one can understand God’s love through Jesus and the Christian faith that proclaims it. God’s love is clearly revealed through biblical history which contains reality about God.

This implies that the scriptures should be studied with deep understanding since true witness about God is shown through the scripture texts. People have devised several ways on how to avoid scripture truths. They are used to ways that they can easily twist to satisfy their insatiable desires. The roughness of the scripture requires sober study and understanding while acknowledging the fact that it takes time to unfold the meaning of the whole text (Highton 2004, 64).

Studying the scriptures should not in any way involve ignoring some parts that seem bitter. It should be studied in its entirety since there are lessons that should be learnt even in the scriptures that look uncomfortable.

“The bible is not a human record from the distant past, full of a mixture of inspiring and not-so-inspiring stories or thoughts; nor is it a sort of magical oracle, dictated by God. It is rather the utterances and records of human beings who have been employed by God to witness to his action in the world, now given to us by God so that we may learn who he is and what he does; and the ‘giving’ by God is by means of the resurrection of Jesus.

The risen Jesus takes hold of the history of God’s people from its remotest beginnings, lifts it out of death by bringing it to completeness, and presents it to us as his word, his communication to us here and now” (Highton 2004, 67).

God uses different kinds of people to teach us lessons through the bible. The church is used as an instrument in teaching the Gospel and pointing the right way to the society (Highton 2004, 68 -69). The church is however not the bearer of complete righteousness that it spread to others, only Jesus Christ presents the complete righteousness.

The revelation on this Gospel comes through continual learning process (Highton 2004, 75). The language of the Gospel should be learnt by every Christian to permit faithful operations and to avoid church doctrines that may bring unnecessary confusion (Highton 2004, 87).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Difficult Gospel by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Gospel is a source of nourishment that makes Christians to grow spiritually from immaturity to maturity. Adulthood maturity enables one to be receptive to the word and at the same time able to teach it out. Mature Christian living encompasses a life of giving and receiving brought about as a result of spiritual nourishment.

Everybody grows by the grace that God has abundantly given us. Maturity comes with the realization that we are in control of our environments, have choices to make and must exercise self-control. The level of what we have received determines the extent to which we can perform. This is mostly influenced by the kind of teachings we receive and the environment where we have been brought up (Highton 2004, 89-93).

“My actions have had effects and meanings I never foresaw or intended; even the meanings I did intend have become involved with the speech and the story of other lives” (Highton 2004, 94).

However, there is need we realise that all we have is as a result of acceptance by a Supreme Being. There is a call for complete trust and dependence upon God who enables us to live in this material world with absolute control and without any form of resentment. The Christian life can only find peace after being inhabited by the word of God.

The scripture do not in anyway grants us away of escape from the world but shows us how to relate with it. There is hope for redemption from the Scriptures hence Christians should strive to live meaningful lives in the world. The journey towards perfection is long and tedious but rewarding in the long run (Highton 2004, 98). The journey leads towards godliness and requires great patience and attentiveness.

There is need for harmony amongst every group of individuals within the society. God is the creator of diversity and also peace and justice. Human beings are all headed towards a common destination; this should grant us the visibility to see the need of living together in peace.

This can only be achieved when Jesus Christ, the prince of peace, forms the central theme of our lives. This is what will make us loose our differences and earthly desires. Jesus showed us through his own lifestyle how we can live our lives for God. He deals with individual lives and transforms them into his likeness through the work of the Holy Spirit (Highton 2004, 116).

Different religions have different teachings administered to their followers which in-turn influences the way they behave privately and publicly. Christians should bear Christ-like nature everywhere they go so as to give an example to other religions on what it means to have the peace and the love Jesus within the heart (Highton 2004, 121).

The vision of achieving peace within the world only comes when we undergo difficult situations that enable us not only to give but to receive much. Christ through the Gospel has the ability to transform any life. For people to co-exist and relate in harmony they must first understand the fact that they belong to each other as William says

“Christians will believe that we are all held in God’s loving regard, and called to a common future, and that means that whether our disagreements are resolved or prove intractable, we simply can’t dispense with one another; we can’t avoid one another” (Highton 2004, 124).

This means that individuals within a society must dialogue to cooperate and learn from one another’s inefficiencies .This is what is referred to as politics; it helps in discovering unity within the diversity. Despite all these, revealing the character of God should be the ultimate goal for all Christians (Highton 2004, 134).

Making moral decisions seem demanding but is necessary for the fulfilment of a life committed to God. Atkins diet morality states that

“we see ourselves as consumers faced with a supermarket shelf of possibilities; we check our rule book to see which ones we are not allowed, and then happily and without deliberation are able to do whatever we like with the items that remain” (Highton 2004, 135).

This suggests that life is full of several choices upon which we have the authority to decide on which principle or choice to follow (Highton 2004, 136). Making the right choices with ultimate goal of revealing God’s character is far much demanding. All our actions should focus on the mutual edification of the body of Christ. Before making any decision in life Christians should seek help from God through prayer.

Answer to moral dilemmas lies in careful study of the scriptures and putting into practice what the Gospel teaches. Sexual desire is one of the strongest emotions, it leads to exposing ourselves to others in order to be desired, loved and held (Highton 2004, 143).

This means that sexual relationship can be used in such a way as to edify the body of Christ. Sexual relationships should not be used as a means of reducing others as mere objects of perversion. The kind of sexual practices that are in line with the Scriptures are those that are led and insired by the spirit.

Conclusion God’s true love to mankind is revealed throughout the scriptures. God so loved the world through the experiences of Jesus Christ’s crucifixion and resurrection. The spirit of the Lord is responsible for the work of shaping the lives believers into godly lives. Christians should allow the fullness of God to control their day to day living. Christian faith is born out of belief and full trust in the word of God, out of this there is assurance of eternal joy and peace in the Holy Ghost.

Reference List Highton, Mike. 2004. Difficult Gospel: The Theology of Rowan Williams, 14-152. New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.


Parents Need Help: Restricting Access to Video Games Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help

The latest generations of games are facilities complex and emergent interaction using elements of Artificial Intelligent (AI) technology within new social and cultural worlds.

These environments helps students learn by demanding integration of higher-order thinking skills, social engagement, and technology within a challenging, learner-centered instructional setting, although some of them have adverse negative effects. The effort to develop games is not merely an attempt to create relevance for today’s tech-savvy students, but rather it is a movement to invigorate the social studies with the wonderful educative power of technology (Conrad, 2010).

For along time, people have held the perspective that, it is the responsibility of parents to look after their children. To some extent, this is true although the results may not be that good. The society too has a responsibility of looking after these children especially now that the world is going through many changes socially, economically, and technologically. Parents can not be able to solely look after their children because they may not be able to educate them in some issues.

With the advancement in technology, many things have changed and communication has become easy. Almost every one (including the children) can access the internet which is have now become a necessity in many homes? Some of these games can be accessed over the internet (Roddel, 2009). Some children are even smarter than their parents and can be able to access much information from the internet more than the parents can think of.

It is clear that, these children need other people who can guide then in shunning away from such behaviors. The society is an agent of socialization and through it children are able to learn and appreciate who they are. It is through this socialization that children make friends (some good and some bad). A parent may not be in a position to know who the child meets once he is out of the house and therefore needs the help of the society (Whitehead, 2005).

Video games have become popular in many parts of the world and children like playing them. However, not all these games are good for the development of the children. Some of these games contain pornographic content which may be detrimental to the children. As far as the society may be willing to lend a hand in protecting these children in accessing such materials, the parent has a greater role to play. For instance, children like emulating what is done in the house because they think it is good.

If a parent watches video games in the presence of the children, he can not be able to restrict the children from doing the same. Parents are in a position to control what the child does in the house. First he has to earn the child’s respect if he is to succeed in bringing him up. He has to avoid watching or involving himself in some activities which he believes are bad. It is the work of the parent to control or dictate what should be watched and at what time and what should not be watched at all.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The parents should scrutinize what the child takes into the house before he uses it; he has to read the contents of each video game before allowing the child to watch. If he finds something questionable about the game, he has a right stop the child from watching it and instead of being harsh towards the child; he can buy him something educative and advice him on the dangers of watching bad video games.

It is the work of the parent to ensure that children get the right information from what they watch. This can be done through taking a thorough preview of the games that are to be viewed by kids. Also a parent can take his/her time to preview the websites that are friendly to the kids then encourage the kids to view them.

This will reduce the chances of the kid viewing pornographic content because kid friendly sites rarely show pornographic content (Olson, 2007). Much of the money used by these kids to buy video games comes from the parents. It is the work of the parent to ensure that, the child gets only what is important for him and should avoid giving him unnecessary monies.

Teachers should work in collaboration with the parents in bringing up the children. When a parent takes the children to school, it does not mean that he is incapable of bringing them up but because the children have to be educated and taught some of the things the parent may be ignorant about. Teachers should not only educate the children to fulfill their responsibility as the curriculum dictates, but should take the responsibility of instilling discipline in these children (Baek, 2008).

Video games can be used in schools for both entertainment and education. Presently, there has been the raising debate on the use serious games in schools. These are games used by the teachers to teach children issues that would rather take time or be boring if taught in class. These games have some entertainment and also some educative aspect in them. Serous games have a precise and cautiously spelt-out educational purpose and are not in any way intended for entertainment (Zyda, 2007).

According to Kremers (2009), serious games are used in the education sector primarily for solving problems. He observes that just like other games, serious games are entertaining although they are designed for the purpose of training, investigating, and/ or advertising. They do not form part of a game genre but they are a specific category of games used for solving different problems. By watching serous games, children develop the yearning to learn more from then, and this decreases the chances of the child watching bad video games.

Children develop listening and communications skills through plays and socialization, right from tender age they are involved in a number of games, which may be manipulated to form an artificial setting aimed at developing certain skills in the child. Instead of letting child watch video games and the like, the teachers together with the principals and educational administrators should set aside a day or some few minutes every day when children are allowed to be creative and act in games (Singell, 1971).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Parents Need Help: Restricting Access to Video Games specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People in daily life constantly invent and reinvent situations in order to learn from them. Yet too often people fail to recognize that reinventing a situation in which one has been an actor and perhaps reliving or revising decisions made is, in effect, to play a game.

According to Wyld (2009), the abstract representation of real life in game form does not render the game any less capable of teaching “true” knowledge. He observes that, one does not have to be Shakespeare to understand his plays, but acting in the plays can yield a more vivid and lasting view of Shakespeare than would a teacher’s reading of the plays to a class.

The government too has a role to play in ensuring that, children do not access video games. Laws should be put in place that restricts the sale of video games to children under the age of 18 years. However some kids are smarter than we would think and may ask other people to buy them on their behalf or even bribe to get these games. It therefore remains the primary role of the parent since he is the only one in a position to restrict what is taken into the house and where the child goes.

Reference List Baek, Y. (2008). What hinders teachers in using computer and video games in the classroom? Exploring factors inhibiting the uptake of computer and video games. Cyber psychology


Strategic Management: Culture and Planning Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The aim of this research is to critically evaluate two schools of thoughts of Strategic Management, culture and planning. The role of culture and planning has been increased in the productivity, developments and then perfection of the national as well as the multinational organisation in this globalization world. In this respect, this study will initially consider the origin and the basic principles of each of the school of thought.

This paper will also present a critique of each school of thought, in addition with the example of an organisation that has either successfully or unsuccessfully pursued this cultural and planning observation.

Origin of each SoT (Cultural and Planning Culture is the outcome of widespread knowledge and backgrounds that really drives the culture in its essence-are the wise, distributed, taken-for-granted assumptions on which persons groundwork their every day behaviour. Culture is the outcome of mutual knowledge and backgrounds.

It works out one-by-one demeanour, collective demeanour, and the procedures of seeing, concern patterns and values (Zammunto and Krakower, 2001, 83-114.). The source of the formation of culture is a highly pragmatic, junction discovering method over time where a certain set about was taken to overwhelm a difficulty, to deal with a kind of connection or to fit into the organisation’s natural environment and the outcome was successful.

There is a possibility that rapid advances could be implemented wrongly with incorrect credible sourcing. It had been observed and noted to happened previously. The bias should habitually be to outlook your culture as power, because it is a composite of the seen determinants to which past achievements are attributed.

Culture builds up a specific society’s behaviour. Business organizations, like communal schemes need a very fast and productive connection scheme method in alignment to effectively come to their targets. In the Citigroup organisation, the enterprise culture is personal to the demeanour of each one-by-one employee (Jenkins and Collier, 2007, 1-7).

The enterprise tends to “overemphasize interior determinants and underemphasize external causes”. According to the research by Quinn and Spreitzer (2001), Culture is the addition total of all the distributed, taken-for-granted, often subconscious assumptions that an assembly has wise all through its history. “Its evolution can be traced all the way back to the organisation’s initial “reason for being” or raison d’etre and the one-by-one culture of the founder” (Quinn


International Marketing Tervis Tumbler product Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Product Description

Cultural Influences

Product and promotional emphasis

Works Cited

Product Description Tervis Tumblers, a family owned company produces the ultra sonically sealed indestructible tumblers, which come in six different sizes together with a 2.5qt ice bucket.

The company makes use of double walled technology in producing the tumblers as well as the ice buckets and this greatly aids in insulation properties as well as personalized design. The fact that Tervis tumblers bear specific logos, words, or pictures as per the customer’s request has greatly promoted the products. It is also worth noting that customers get a lifetime guarantee on the Tervis tumblers that they buy; this means that if the products are damaged during normal usage, a replacement is guaranteed.

In the year 2006, the company’s sales grew by 38% through September, and in the same year, Tervis Tumblers was named the company of the year by the Sarasota County Economic Development Corporation in the United States (Anon Para 1).

Tervis Tumblers currently has the headquarters in North Venice, Florida and most of its products are sold in the United States. Bearing in mind the quality of the products it is imperative to think of how well the product would sell internationally. Moreover, according to Lynn (Para. 3), most of the tervis tumblers cost between US $10 and US $14 whereas the ice buckets go for US $40 in the market.

Cultural Influences Tervis tumblers have been widely marketed in many parts of the world but hardly in Africa. In Africa, one of the countries with the most stable economies and very high purchasing power is South Africa. In 2009, the country had an annual GDP purchasing power parity of US $ 488.6 and its Per capita GDP is US$ 10000; and according to UNICEF (2008) statistics, South Africa has an adult literacy rate of 88%. Due to these reasons, South Africa is an ideal candidate for international marketing of Tervis tumblers.

In addition, South Africa has one of the most diverse and culturally rich societies in the world. Moreover, South Africans are very hospitable and the country is actually home a variety of cultures including the black people, whites, colored, and Indians among others (South Africa – Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette Para 1).

South Africans have very close family ties and they largely operate on mutual trust in their relationships. Those who live in rural regions are more culturally conservative than the urban dwellers and as such, city dwellers are often materialistic and live on the fast lane. Therefore, the immediate target market for the products should be the city dwellers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this will greatly depend on the specific ethnic group the company will be dealing with putting in mind that each of the three main ethnic communities – British, Boers, and native Africans – has unique cultural heritage and purchasing behavior (Ahlstrom and Bruton 228).

South Africans highly value the creative arts, with many musicians, movie stars, and authors being highly acclaimed all over the world. Arts galleries are held all over the country, most of which cater for tourists.

The South Africans’ love for arts is one aspect that would highly be exploited for Tervin tumblers’ marketing purposes considering that the tumblers are embossed with the customer’s design/artwork of choice. South Africans also love the national colors, especially because they value their cultural heritage. Indeed, a product containing or colored in the national colors would be highly marketable.

Product and promotional emphasis This being a new product in South Africa, importing it from the United States to cut down on the colossal costs of setting up a manufacturing plant will be more appealing. In South Africa, many goods, especially industrial inputs are imported duty free and where duty is applied, the rates are always competitive (Guide to importing into South Africa Para. 5).

Moreover, the country has become one of the prime market targets for many global producers of various products in the recent years, thus Tervis Tumblers will have to move fast to exploit this attractive market (Wilson, Abiola and World Bank 248). This therefore means that the product will not end up being too expensive because of transport costs, taxes, and customs duty.

Through proper correspondence with the Tervis Tumblers headquarters in Florida, some of the products will be embossed with artworks that show South African heritage.

This will enable South Africans to identify with the tumblers. The company will need to engage an agent to help with the distribution as the study of the market and the strategies used by the competitors continues. The agent will also help in selling to the established wholesalers and dealers as well as departmental stores and retailers such as Abtech, Corporate Gifts, and Glow Sticks among others.

We will write a custom Research Paper on International Marketing Tervis Tumbler product specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most populous cities in the country that include Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, East Rand and Pretoria will be the primary target markets because they offer a higher probability of reaching the masses. in addition, the rich mass media industry will provide a ample avenue for advertising, thus making it easier to market the products.

Moreover, considering that South Africa has a high adult literacy rate, the company will have to market the product by placing advertisements in the popular Newspapers as well as websites such as www.alibaba.com.

As a good marketing strategy, there will be need to carefully cultivate good customer relations, learning of the changing demographic and buyer patterns as well as getting to know the emerging, neglected and poorly served markets for tumblers in the country (Parley 10).

In order to counter the challenges that arise from marketing through the traditional media, the company will also do conversation marketing, which involves dialoguing with the target markets and getting feedback from potential customers (Lurie 9). The internet is a very good means of conversation marketing as it allows a marketer to respond to comments posted by customers or interested buyers in the particular website.

Works Cited Ahlstrom, David and Bruton, Garry D. International Management: Strategy and Culture in the Emerging World. Cengage Learning. 2009.

Anon. Tervis Tumbler marks 60 years with strong sales, awards and recognitions. 2010. Web.

Lynn, Janet. Tervis No Sweat Tumblers – Lifetime Guarantee. 2010. Web.

“South Africa – Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette.” kwintessential. 2010. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Marketing Tervis Tumbler product by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “Guide to Importing into South Africa.” Guide to Importing into South Africa. 2010. Web.

Parley Norton. The Manager’s Guide to Competitive Marketing Strategies. London, Thorogood. 2005. Web.

Lurie Ian. Conversation Marketing; Internet Marketing Strategies. Washington, Potent Interactive Inc. 2006. Web.

UNICEF. Statistics: South Africa. 2008. Web.

Wilson, John S., Abiola, Victor O. and World Bank. Standards and global trade: a voice for Africa. World Bank Publications. 2003. Web.


The psychological explanation of terrorism Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The advantages of the psychology of terrorism

Limitations of the psychology of terrorism


Reference List

Introduction Terrorism can be defined as an act of violence, terror, or aggression whose objective is to achieve coercion and fear in non-violent individuals. However, there is no generally accepted definition of terrorism because of its broad and extensive application in different circumstances and behaviors.

Therefore, according to the constitutional meaning given in the Terrorism Act of 2000 in the United Kingdom, terrorism entails those actions carried out by non-state individuals with the aim of influencing the government’s policies and decisions besides intimidating the general public (Randy 2004, p. 9). These terrorist actions include violence against individuals, damage to property, engaging in activities that endanger or threaten the security of other people, and the use of firearms to threaten the State or its citizens.

On the other hand, terrorism can be sub-divided into several categories, which include terrorist activities carried out by regimes and governments; non-state terrorism, national terrorism, and international terrorism (Moghadam 2006, p. 18). Moreover, terrorism as a whole can be categorized into corrigible and incorrigible terrorist acts.

Under corrigible terrorism, there is always a way of reaching a compromise between the two conflicting parties, thus ending violence and aggression. However, under incorrigible terrorism, the terrorist group employs maximalist approaches in attacking their target and the only solution to stopping their activities is to use force in containing violence and aggression (Schmid


Holden Ltd Automaker Company International Business Report college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

National business environment of Vietnam

Cultural issues

What the government can do to promote Foreign Direct Investment

Reference List

Introduction Holden Ltd is an automaker company that engineers, designs and manufactures engines and vehicles (Grant 2004, P. 6). These products are produced for Australian domestic sales and other export markets. Holden Ltd is a subsidiary company of General Motors (a US based company). As a matter of fact, the company is in charge of GM brands in New Zealand and Australia (Grant 2004, P. 15). The company is a significant commercial enterprise because it produces more that 691 vehicles in a single day.

On the other hand, it has developed and maintained good standards to make work and business as a whole more efficient (Blackburn 2010, p. 15). In recent years, there has been a decline in sales of large cars in Australia and this has forced the company to venture in international markets (McDonald 2009, p. 12). This is aimed at increasing profitability. It’s against this backdrop that the company has considered doing business in Vietnam. This will be done by opening a new branch in the country.

National business environment of Vietnam The county’s business environment has been becoming friendlier as time goes by. This can be demonstrated by various efforts that the government has initiated to improve its business environment and attract investments. For instance, the government has been promoting the emergence of a strong private sector to enhance growth and development (Vision 2010, p. 9).

Many investment climate reforms have been instituted and this has seen authorities and companies compete to attract investments in the country. Generally speaking, the country’s business environment is characterized by various aspects. These include a lot of rent seeking, unstable property rights and on the other hand high levels of informality (Vision 2010, p.159). The country has had a good industrial policy aimed at increasing foreign investments.

Vietnam has a good economic climate. This is because its economic growth rates can only be rivaled by China in the region. Poverty reduction has been successful as time goes by and now stands at 16% of the population. For instance, its economic growth rate has quickened to 6.5% in 2010 (General statistics office of Vietnam 2010, p. 14). This has been aided by the fact they the county is switching from agriculture to full industrialization. The economy has been expanding because of high industrial output and a vibrant service sector.

It will therefore be wise for the company to invest in the county because of the governments’ goodwill to increase investments (Gover 2009, p. 13). On the other hand, the economy is growing significantly and needs to be taped into as the country moves to industrialization. Increased industrialization means that there will be a lot of commercial activities and this implies that the company can make more sales.

As much as the country might exhibit positive economic aspects, there is need to enhance its infrastructure framework for sustainability. As a matter of fact, the company will be forced to more cautious as it expands to areas other than major urban centers (HSBC 2010, p. 17). Although this is a reality, the government is in a major drive to attract investments in infrastructure and this is expected to improve as time goes by.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The political environment plays an important role in determining a country’s investment and business climate (Do 2006, p. 3). There is a new political leadership that is determined to come up with good market reforms that will stabilize the business environment. In recent years, the country has had a stable political environment. The current administration is business friendly and on the other hand determined to encourage investments in the country coupled with good policy making (HSBC 2010, p. 17).

So long as the political environment is stable, there will be no threats to the continuity of the country’s economical policies. The county’s foreign policy is aimed at encouraging more friendly partnerships in business and investments. This implies that the company will be safe from any political instability threats. As far as this environment is concerned, there are no negative implications to company’s continuity and operations (Gover 2009, p. 13).

The country has a very unique social business environment that needs to be well mastered for effective and efficient business operations. For instance, it has a reasonably well educated population. On the other hand, the country has a relatively cheap labor force. This means that the company will not incur a lot of labor costs (this is economical in a business perspective).

Housing space and accommodation are also well guaranteed and supplied. Most buildings have met international standards and are available for rent at cheap prices (Vision 2010, p. 9).

This means that as far as housing is concerned, the company should not worry as this will be taken care of. International and local travel is well developed as there are a large number of airlines with business operations in the country (Brown 2010, p. 21). As for land travel, there are a large number of buses and trains that are mostly used within the country. This means that the company will not have problems navigating and advancing its operations in the country (Brown 2010, p. 26).

On the other hand, the country’s communication network has been advanced to cater for increased market demand. Electronic and English communication is common in the country. By mastering this, the company will be able to understand the market well and carry out its operations without any problems (Vision 2010, p. 28).

Vietnam is said to have an incomplete legal system that needs to be reviewed. After seeing this as a hindrance to the success of businesses and investments in the country, the government is currently reviewing its legal system to make it more effective. For instance, the legal process is slow and might not attend to pressing issues with urgency (Vision 2010, p. 28).

We will write a custom Report on Holden Ltd Automaker Company International Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is a general policy that all businesses go through state administration and this might be compromised with vested interests. In addition, there are a lot of bureaucratic barriers that need to be looked at (HSBC 2010, p. 17). This will be tricky for the company as it will need partnerships for sustainability. This is necessary because the company will have to pass through legal processes in the course of doing business in the country.

As far as environmental factors are concerned, the government has put in place tight environmental measures to protect and conserve the country’s environment. All companies are therefore expected to comply as far as environmental conservation is concerned. On the other hand, the country’s climate is as complex as its topography (Vision 2010, p. 28).

There are also a number of environmental issues in relation to pollution that need to be addressed. To be on the safe side, the company must come up with environmentally friendly products. On the other hand, the country needs to come up with environmentally friendly requirements that will improve market accessibility.

Cultural issues Australia has a highly skilled and multilingual workforce that the company is used to. The society on the other hand does not like any form of differentiation. This means that mutual respect is highly preferred in any case. People don’t pay much attention to academic qualifications or business success (Cybolink 2008, p. 31). There is a high preference for privacy which demands a lot of caution when dealing with different people. In Australia, people value openness. This is in relation to how business and daily lives are conducted.

Punctuality is highly valued when conducting any business meeting (Cybolink 2008, p. 34). In addition, business appointments must be scheduled one month in advance. People value space when conversing as one is not supposed to be close to the other person. These are some of the cultural issues that guide the way business operations are carried out in Australia. Since the company is expanding its operations to Vietnam, it is important to understand various cultural aspects that guide the way business is conducted in the country.

In Vietnam, presents are highly appreciated especially during holidays and this is not a common practice in Australia. This means that the company will be forced to adhere to such expectations from employees and business partners to create a good working relationship (Vision 2010, p. 28).

There is a lot of corruption in Vietnam and business partners are not always straightforward. The company needs to be prepared for such as this is the direct opposite of doing things in Australia where openness is highly advocated for as far as business is concerned.

Greetings are mostly done by shaking hands and this should at times consider the age. It implies that the company should always ensure that such issues are taken into consideration (Do 2006, p. 11). Business cards are highly valued in Vietnam (as a way of introducing an individual). In Australia, privacy is highly valued and things like business cards are not a necessity. Vietnamese workers believe in Superstition and symbols and need to be understood for a good working relationship (Do 2006, p. 13).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Holden Ltd Automaker Company International Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More People do not show their feelings but they keep on smiling and this might be misunderstood unlike in Australia where openness is advocated for. This is enforced by a belief that one is not supposed to show any anger or aggression. The company might be used to scenarios where issues are negotiated in an open and direct manner and needs to adopt to this culture. This is because cultural issues shape the way an organization conducts its business (Cybolink 2008, p. 31).

What the government can do to promote Foreign Direct Investment The government needs to come up with a vibrant foreign investment reform. In this case, it should be able to see beyond its protectionist beliefs that have continued to discourage foreign direct investments in the country. There is need to educate the population to change its perceptions about foreigners who come to invest in the country. Since there is poor infrastructure development in other towns apart from major urban centers, the government needs to increase investments in such areas.

This will attract direct foreign investments in other parts of the country. The country’s legal process should be completed and enhanced. In addition, bureaucratic processes are supposed to be reduced to give investors more confidence. The country has burdensome tariffs that can end up making production more expensive. The government should further reduce the profit remittance tax to encourage more investors.

More deregulation of banks should be enhanced to ensure that foreign investors have quick access to banks as a source of capital. There are some land clearance difficulties that need to be dealt with. This is because land is a factor of production and will determine the way investors rate a country. As much as the country is moving in the right direction to review its legal system, it should enhance the pace of promulgating legal documents.

Reference List Blackburn, R., 2010. Holden appoints new boss. Australia: Fairfax Media.

Brown, N., 2010. The long road to reform: An analysis of foreign investment reform in Vietnam. Web.

Cybolink., 2008. Australia: Australian business etiquette, manners, cross- cultural communication and Geert Hofstede Analysis. Web.

Do, Q, D., 2006. Business environment in Vietnam. Web.

General statistics office of Vietnam., 2010. Monthly statistical information. Web.

Gover, P., 2009. Pontiac pays the price. UK: Herald.

Grant, T., 2004. Holden Ltd. Michigan: Thomas Gale.

HSBC., 2010. Vietnam builds on economic growth. Web.

McDonald, N., 2009. Holden posts $70m loss in Australia. Melbourne: The Sun-Herald.

Vision., 2010. Doing business in Vietnam. Web.


Concept of ‘structure’ used by Levi-Strauss and concepts of ‘structure’ and ‘function’ used by Durkheim, Radcliffe-Brown and Malinowsky Essay custom essay help

The definition of concepts of structure and function is important for explaining various anthropological phenomena. The anthropologist’s choice between the structuralist and functionalist methods has a significant impact on further development of his/her theories. Besides the concept of ‘structure’ used by Levi-Strauss, the concept of ‘function’ was implemented by Radcliffe-Brown, Durkheim, and Malinowski.

Raising a question of similarity of myths throughout the world, Levi-Strauss offered a method of structural analysis for establishing the relation between this cultural phenomena and peculiarities of human thinking.

Using Saussure’s distinction between langue and parole for drawing a line between the structural and statistical aspects of the language, Levi-Strauss emphasized the importance of specific structural patterns used in the majority of myths. He describes how relationships are built and sustained within communities where people have different behaviors.

The anthropologist further sought to show how cultural transformations lead to impact on an individual, concluding that people have always been thinking equally well, these are only new spheres for implementation of knowledge that became the reason for the progress. “The kind of logic in mythical thought is as rigorous as that of modern science, and the difference lies, not in the quality of the intellectual process, but in the nature of the things to which it is applied” (Levi-Strauss 231).

Emile Malinowski’s research of the local traditions and myths of the population of Kula may become a brilliant example for supporting Levi-Strauss’s statement that the processes of human thinking remain the same disregarding the time and space parameters.

Social involvement includes different stages where individuals participate in the different stages of life. Malinowsky describes the structure of a society to have interactions, spread of new knowledge, movements and participation of those within a society. He argued human interaction was kept more alive by face to face interactions therefore need to find social functions that bring people together.

“Owing to their [Kula] magical knowledge they were able to escape dangers, to conquer their enemies, to surmount obstacles, and by their feats they established many a precedent which is now closely followed by tribal custom” (Malinowski 102). Malinowski’s research has proven that notwithstanding the level of development of the community, it implements the existing knowledge, using the traditional structure in the frames of the laws of logical thinking, functioning as an effective mean for meeting the demands of the social organism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Durkheim, the father of anthropology, defined structuralism as that which bring and keeps a society together such as having similar cultures, from fragmenting away. Drawing the parallels between social and organic life, Durkheim defined the concept of ‘function’ as “the correspondence between it [a social institution] and the needs of the social organism” (Radcliff-Brown 394).

The anthropologist put emphasis on the concept of function, defining the social act as “any way of acting, whether fixed or not, capable of exerting over the individual an external constraint, which is general over the whole of a given society whilst having an existence of its own, independent of its individual manifestations” (Durkheim 59). Durkheim and Radcliff-Brown considered the concept of ‘function’ to be significant for explaining the anthropological processes and phenomena.

As opposed to Levy-Strauss’s theory concerning the significance of the laws of human thinking and structure, Radcliffe-Brown, Durkheim, and Malinowski used the concept of function in their works, emphasizing its importance.

Works Cited Durkheim, Émile. The Rules of Sociological Method. Trans. Sarah Solovay and John H. Mueller, and ed. George E. G. Catlin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1895. Print.

Levi-Strauss, Claude. Structural Anthropology. Trans. Claire Jacobson and Brooke Schoepf. New York: Basic Books Publishers, 1963. Print.

Malinowski, Bronislav. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York: Routledge. 1932. Print.

Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred. “On the Concept of Function in Social Science.” American Anthropologist. 1935. vol. 37, (1935): 394-402. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of ‘structure’ used by Levi-Strauss and concepts of ‘structure’ and ‘function’ used by Durkheim, Radcliffe-Brown and Malinowsky specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Solving the Ethical Dilemmas Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help

With the shift to employees-centered policies within the majority of organizations, the issues of ethical behavior and both individual and organizational responsibility require special consideration.

At present, a number of firms have vacancies for communication specialists who could train employees to behave ethically in both formal and informal settings. Ethical training has impact on employees’ judgments as to wrongness or rightness of their actions in working environment but the final decisions depend upon their personal views and priorities.

Facing moral dilemmas, employees often hesitate before making a choice between their egoistic inclinations and altruistic values, following ethical norms or their own life views.

The problem of these inner conflicts is rooted in mismatches between the ethical standards within a particular organization and individual’s system of values. “Value congruence (the similarity between individual and organizational values) between employees and their organizations has a significant effect on organizational commitment” (Shockley-Zalabak, 2009, p. 105).

Obtaining a profound knowledge of ethical norms, an individual still can hesitate, deciding on a particular principle for finding the appropriate way out. Considering the issues of basic moral rights for solving particular problems, an employee notices that they can overlap and contradict one another, giving rise to people’s doubts. For this reason, these are personal values that become the assessment criteria of wrongness or rightness of one’s own actions and behavior of others.

Weighing all pros and cons of a particular moral choice, an individual should set the priorities and view the situation from various perspectives before proceeding to actions. For example, interpersonal relationships between employees can become the reason for controversial situations in which workers will have to decide between ethical standards and their individual values.

In a situation when a person overhears a conversation between managers concerning the refuse of promotion for his/her best friend and hesitates if it is admissible to inform a friend on it or keep silent unwilling to hurt a friend and because of the manner in which the information was received.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is the topic of the conversation and peculiarities of the situation that matter in this individual case. According to the norms of professional ethics, I should have kept silent. However, evaluating the situation critically and considering the fact that a friend would lose an interesting job offer from another department without my interference, I would disclose the secret. However, this choice would be more problematic if there were no offer from another department.

Then this information would be useless for the friend and could only frustrate him/her. Sharing information that has no any impact on reality is close to spreading rumors. In this case the principles of basic rights for privacy and free will overlap and the choice between them depends upon the employees’ personal priorities.

The human factor has a significant impact on the effectiveness of the working process. Besides the professional qualities, the importance of issues of psychological compatibility of the members of a team and their ability to cooperate should not be underestimated.

The working atmosphere and general mood of a team are significant for enhancing the effectiveness of the collaborative process. “Executives reported that they waste 7.8 hours per week, or 2.3 months per year, in unnecessary meetings” (Messmer, 2001, “Conducting effective meetings”).

For this reason, rating time at its true value, employees should plan their meetings beforehand, putting special emphasis on meeting the targets. In a situation when a member of a project team developing a training program for customer support representatives observes reluctance of two members of a team to make a contribution to the project and gets to know that they spread rumors about his/her lack of proficiency, a person faces a moral dilemma.

On the one hand, the behavior of these employees is unprofessional and inadmissible. On the other hand, making particular decisions, an individual should consider the ethical norms and consider the consequences of one’s choices, bearing in mind the success of the program.

In this situation I would follow the norms of ethical conduct directly, asking these members to make more efforts, pointing at the objective reasons of my dissatisfaction without mentioning any rumors or other unreliable sources of information. “The value of communication is equal to the costs plus the efforts of what you’re communicating to the power of perception” (Sierra, 2003, “Sierra’s theory of communicativity”).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Solving the Ethical Dilemmas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Disregarding the importance of the atmosphere within a team, business should not be sacrificed to discussing the interpersonal relationships. Even if other employees do not implement principles of corporative ethics, it does not mean that an individual should put them in their own coin.

Ensuring the basic rights for their employees and considering the ethical training while planning the company’s programs is expected to enhance the effectiveness of its working processes. The human factor and similarity between individual and organizational systems of values play an important role in company’s success. Evaluating the rightness or wrongness of a particular action, employees implement ethical principles only after adapting them to their personal views.

Reference List Messmer, M. (2001, June). Conducting effective meetings. Strategic Finance, 82(12), 8–9.

Shockley-Zalabak, P. (2009). Fundamentals of organizational communication knowledge, sensitivity, skills, values (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

Sierra, L. (2003, June/July). Sierra’s theory of communicativity. Communication World, 20(4).


How Director is Able to Yield Higher Productivity of the Artists? Essay online essay help: online essay help

Directors have a very major and important role to play when it comes to processing of a project or art. Previously, directors had more responsibilities to perform comparatively. In the modern age directors have more technologies to work with. Despite advancement in the technology, the role of director still remains crucial and imperative. This paper aims to propose the ways through which directors would be able to yield desired productivity from the artists.

Directors can impact the overall productivity of artists by actually going through a profound thought process. It is very imperative for the directors to understand the need of performing effective thought process. A director is actually a person who already pictures each and every act of a character in the mind.

A successful directing is thus only possible in case the director is capable of having a deep and thorough thought process. Being aware of each and every action to be taken on sets would automatically result in increased productivity of actors. In other words it could be said that only an informed director would be able to yield productivity out of artists because he will exactly know the objectives of the file, theatre or drama (Goodridge, 2002).

Another most important thing that a director is supposed to do for impacting the overall productivity of the artist is to inquire. A director is one who is highly knowledgeable about art and who sees society from a different perspective unlike other individuals. This could be regarded as a distinctive quality of the director (Goodridge, 2002).

A director should inquire and carefully research if the actors are able to deliver the desired action or not. A director is more like a base of a movie who is able to take decisions for the film from selecting the type of wardrobe of the first scene to the emotional mellow drama of the final cut.

A director would be able to impact the productivity and creativity of an artist when he exactly understands the role. Director’s thinking goes beyond the thinking of any other official in arts. An art director is supposed to look at a scenario from all direction (Goodridge, 2002).

The word directing itself defines the way how the overall productivity of artists could be achieved. A director can impact the production of creativity of artists by actually looking into the matters which could be problematic in the long run. A director needs to take care of all the fallacies and risks which are associated with the project. A change that could affect the creativity of artists must be completely omitted.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Directors are able to understand the fallacies by observing situations. It is first and foremost responsibility of a director in the current age and success years (Goodridge, 2002). Artists and other team professionals might be busy with the processing of their tasks and therefore be not able to understand the small errors that could result in the complications ahead. In such a situation, a director can play an avid role by actually observing, planning and then halting errors.

Through the above analysis it could be said that through effective thought-process, observation and thorough planning, a director is able to yield higher productivity of the directors. Directors in the modern age have more technologies but the fact remains the same that a director is the basis and indirectly responsible for all the processes of a project.

Reference Goodridge, M. (2002). Directing. Oxford: Focal Press.


Returning TARDIS to Profitability Report essay help

HoKTok, through TARDIS currently operates five thousand call boxes around Australia, which has a “small population spread across vast areas” (The Communication Law Centre, p. 2). It offers untimed calls at a fixed rate of $0.40c. This popular service, unfortunately, is no longer profitable. The key to TARDIS’s popularity is its fixed charge on untimed calls.

Changing this fixed price could negatively affect consumer choice. As part of the Australian telecoms industry, TARDIS must endeavor to provide services that, “best meet the social, industrial, and commercial needs of the people of Australia” (Bolton et al, 1993, p. 32). It is recognized that telecommunication technology “continually shapes the very fabric of our global society” (Hill Associates, 2002, p. xvii).

The basic strategy for returning TARDIS to profitability requires either, a reduction in overheads while maintaining current revenues or increase in revenues while maintaining overheads at the current levels. To attain profitability, Howard advices that, “you must first wake up to the internal rules you are currently playing by and expand you field of possibilities” (2004, p. xvii)

Increasing revenues is a better way of assuring profitability compared to reducing overheads. This is because other parties set the cost of most overheads and these costs will continue to rise, eating into HoKTok’s margin. HoKTok cannot pay less for the services it consumes to run TARDIS, but will actually pay more in the future.

Similarly, it cannot reduce its workforce in order to spend less on the wage bill because this may compromise service delivery and may actually end up risking the current revenues. In addition, it cannot reduce the workers’ wages without precipitating labor unrest. Baker warns that. “Labor will not permit a reduction in the standard of living” (2009, p. 5).

Katz adds that many companies struggle with “how to reduce labor costs while retaining employee commitment and an appropriate skill base” (1997, p.3). While HokTok must continue to “implement various measures to lower cost” (Suzue, 2002, p. 1), it cannot rely on them to regain profitability. This should not encourage HoKTok to make cost discipline, “an incidental reaction to events” (Institute of Management and Administration, 2006, p. 3)

TARDIS can return to profitability by introduction of prepaid cards, optimization of profitable segments of the market and introducing a service for call centers and telemarketing companies. Introduction of prepaid cards will secure revenue. It will lock our clients in the network and it will mean they will always have to find a TARDIS call box from which they can make their calls. The idea of being locked-in may not be very attractive to clients, and will require a careful marketing campaign to ensure acceptance of the cards.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Optimization of the profitable market segments means that HokTok increases the number of call boxes located in areas where clients naturally call for shorter periods such as airports, train stations, and bus stops and reduces the call boxes near schools, restaurants, and residential areas where callers talk for longer.

The third option is introducing TARDIS to new clientele such as call centers and telemarketing firms whose business depend on volume of calls. Since they aim at making the most number of calls per unit time, they will provide a larger revenue base for TARDIS. In fact, it is possible to offer them lower call rates per call and break even on the assured call volumes. However, we must take into account Retske’s insight that, if prices are “set too low, profit opportunities will be missed” (2002, p. 172).

On a priority basis, I recommend that we pursue optimization of profitable market segments. This will see TARDIS increasing the number of call boxes in areas where callers take a shorter time per call, while reducing the number of call boxes where callers take longer. No substantial investment is required to move some of the call boxes from high cost market segments to low cost market segments. We must act quickly ahead of our competitors because in the telecommunication industry, services “spring up and quickly” (Peterson, 2000, p.9).

References Baker, RS 2009, The new industrial unrest: reasons and remedies. Cornell University Press, New York.

Bolton et al 1993, The communication service: Negotiating structural and technological change. International Labor Organization, Geneva.

Hill Associates 2002, Telecommunications: A beginner’s guide. McGraw-Hill/Osborne, California.

Howard, C 2004, Turning passions into profits: Three steps to wealth and power. John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey.

We will write a custom Report on Returning TARDIS to Profitability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Institute of Management and Administration 2006, Cost reduction and control best practices: The best ways for a financial manager to save money. John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey.

Katz, HC 1997, Telecommunications: Restructuring work and employment relations worldwide. Cornell University Press, New York.

Peterson, KD 2000, Business telecoms systems: A guide to choosing the best technologies and services. CMP Books, New York

Retske, G 2002, A guide to competitive international telecommunications. CMP Books, New York.

Suzue, T 2002, Cost half: The method for radical cost reduction. Productivity Press, New York.

The Communication Law Centre 2004, Australian telecommunications regulation. University of South Wales press Ltd, Sydney.


Role and Powers of Presidents Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents ‘Great’ presidents

Presidential Leadership

What it Takes for a Candidate to be Elected

Works Cited

The president is supposed to exercise the powers which are granted to him or her by the Federal Constitution or the Congress act in the interest of the public. However there have been divergent arguments among the people holding this presidential office arising from different references and reasoning.

All the arguments insist that each is function best for the public welfare (Cronin and Genovese 43). In the above view, the president has the responsibility to act in the interest of the public, ensure all situations are right for the interest of his people and make right judgments because they directly affect the lives of the ruled.

The president can at any time withdraw any entry into U.S’ public lands and put aside part for forestry, for irrigation purposes and water resources. Jackson Lincoln held the view that the president must be capable of forming judgments for himself and his juniors (Cronin and Genovese 45).

Today’s presidency has both informal and formal leverage to command decisions at any time. They can certainly come up with personal initiatives and decide on whichever matters. Additionally, the role of presidents has seemingly become that of main agenda setters in the making of policies at federal level. The president is also surrounded with a bureaucracy that further extends his mandate and powers.

In the modern days, presidents have the capacity to drive political systems in the way they wish because they are the main actors in the systems hence obscuring the role of their subordinates (Fine and Waterman 25).

The president also has the power to take significant measures that can have dynamic implications on the nation. For example, the president can deploy tactical nuclear weapons. The impact of this executive power is magnified by the fact that their decisions have direct impacts on the general public understanding (Cronin and Genovese 54).

The different views held come from the ambiguity in defining the role of the president. For many years now, presidential practices have varied. Roosevelt for example fostered palace politics, Kennedy concentrated on collegial informality, and Eisenhower assumed the role of building his staff. The ambiguity in defining presidential roles makes it easy for the office holders to shape their roles on personal basis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ‘Great’ presidents Both presidents that have succeeded and those who have failed are considered as great leaders. For example, most scholars claim that President Lyndon Johnson’s extraordinary legislative system has a record in success. Despite his success, scholars argue that Johnson highly contributed in the disastrous war in Vietnam.

Additionally, Dwight Eisenhower is a president that most scholars consider passive during his reign. However, history credits him with very few significant accomplishments. It is in fact argued that it was during his time that Korea went into war and corruption cases within his administration increased. Woodrow Wilson is also one of America’s presidents that is remembered for the Senate’s dismissal of Versailles Treaty (Pfiffner 25).

These are some of presidents known as great although with remarkable failures during their administrations. A survey conducted in 2000 that ranked 10 different categories of leadership indicated that the public and politicians have different views on what presidents should have and be like.

One expectation that makes one a great president is the ability to function more than just managerial or party leaders. Studies indicate that a president must demonstrate great leadership capabilities because they represent the nation at large. The rating in this context falls between being a weak or a strong president.

This is the view that most presidential candidates rise to power with. However, the divergent views of a successful or a failed president must be defined in consideration of different contexts. To meet this expectation from the public, presidents must function ahead of their times.

There are different political times that presidents function well and avoid getting ahead of their time including reconstruction, articulation and disjuncture periods. In this regard, presidents need to know the expectations accompanying their type of leadership. Studies show that there are further different political period that different presidencies have taken place in America (Pfiffner 35).

The patrician period that occurred between 1789-1832, the partisan time occurring between 1832-1900,the pluralist period (1900-1972), and 1972- to date plebiscitary period. Considering the first period, Americans great presidents Thomas Jefferson and George Washington exhibited great interpersonal skills during their political views with legislators. Additionally, James Madison and John Adams proved weak leaders when gauged against the first political period.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Role and Powers of Presidents specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Jackson, who led national partisan movements, functioned under the second political period hence relatively advantaged. With the centralization of the economy, American presidency was expected to have strong leadership strengths with much emphasis on economy. This was at the pluralist period and effective confrontation of foreign policy.

This was a further consideration in rating whether a president was great or a failure. More so, the presidents in this period must exert full responsibility for national issues by establishing an expansive bureaucracy. In the present plebiscitary period, the presidents sometimes rely less on political organizations and have less capability to bargain as it was seen in the past regimes. With such considerations, the presidents are therefore expected to directly persuade the public (Fine and Waterman 47).

Most scholars believe that presidential power is the ability to persuade the public, Congress members and other political actors in order to reap positive outcome. However, it argues that a president is not considered powerful on the merit of his/her presidency. It says that cultural, constitutional and political factors also empower these individuals to become successful presidential leaders.

However, political power differs among presidency holders mainly because of the diversity in strategic challenges and political resources available to them. Most of America’s presidents have ruled with the belief that the ability to persuade the public, political actors and Congress members determines whether one is a successful president or a failure (Cronin and Genovese 21).

Presidential Leadership Scholars argue that the definition of leadership must encompass good leadership. But good leadership does not always result into positive results. There are times when poor leadership has yielded positive outcomes. Leadership is therefore the ability to successfully use one’s political skills and the leverage exposed to an individual to yield satisfactory outcomes.

President’s performance is influenced by various factors that expose them to particular challenges. For example, a good economy contributes to high ratings of successful leaders.

The vice versa is also true. If on the other hand, a president has restricted power to influence the economy, scholars question as to whether such presidents should be termed as failures or successful (Cronin and Genovese 22). Ideally, presidential leadership means persuading other political actors to act for their own interests. This is because a leader is supposed to inspires others to do as they desire hence influencing their behaviors.

The challenge that presidential leaders face while convincing the other political actors is the fact that different situations and contexts call for different qualities and skills. Scholars argue that some personal skills can be useful at certain circumstances while others are not (Waterman and Rockman 23).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Role and Powers of Presidents by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this regard, different presidents encounter dissimilar political scenarios on coming to office, because the circumstances change with time hence the different political leverage during the different terms. More so, successful presidents are measured by the ability to respond and manage political outcomes. The important thing is that which the president is interested in and the personal capability to accomplish it.

Presidential leaders are limited by the resources, tools and political capital present to them. The tools include external political supporters in Congress, economical state, the political stability of the nation and the overall international political mood. With such factors, presidential skills as well as political powers are vital in accomplishing their political ambitions (Cronin and Genovese 23).

Presidents have got copious resources, tools and political capital within their reach. This therefore describes the extent of their ability to structure, slant and adapt organizational functions towards favorable angles that match their political and policy interests.

With the constitutional powers presidents can considerably control presidential appointments to advance their political interests. Another leverage tool is their ability to shape and influence the bureaucratic agencies budget. This is because the federal budget often goes with what the Congress passes.

Therefore, when the Congress is controlled by the party’s president, he or she can shape the budget too fit his preferences. Presidents can also use the veto to shape the final legislature’s budget. Studies show that in the 20th century, presidents have used this executive power to gain control over particular institutions that are significant to their presidential leadership (Cronin and Genovese 36).

Most people have no demarcation between leadership and its outcomes but scholars argue that there are possibilities of having good leadership systems resulting in poor performances. Scholars argue that personal leadership skills must be differentiated from the outcomes. In an example, if one has a team of ball players that frequently loses in games; this has little to do with the manager’s skills, the fact is that the team’s quality is poor.

This therefore indicates that it is very possible to have good leadership but on the other hand have poor results. This further illustrates that between the outcome and skills, quality is an intervening variable that must not be ignored. The manager can however influence the outcome through his skills hence maximizing on his leverage.

If a president takes over from a recessed economy, the president has limited tools through which he can influence outcomes in his/her leadership. Therefore there are chances of being unelected back to power. Some may argue that the individual failed to demonstrate presidential leadership skills (Waterman and Rockman 15). However scholars argue that no matter the extent of skills and abilities, it is impossible to achieve the desired outcomes.

If the president inherits an economically stable nation but has limited knowledge, then it can be said that the leader was a bad one, however if the economy was stable yet with minimal leadership knowledge, positive outcomes can still be manifested. Therefore, it is important to consider such factors as to why and how the results were achieved.

At some times, a president may be having personal political skills that results into effective policy or political outcomes. Whereas at other times the president may be having no skills yet there are positive results. Additionally, a president may display skills yet the results turn out negative, at other times, a president may be having no skills but the results become unsuccessful (Waterman and Rockman 18). Leverage is an intervening variable in the first and second case that determines the outcomes.

Historic periods and economy state are also intervening factors that determine the success of a presidential leader. Leaders that rule during pacific times have fewer chances of being termed successful leaders than those who rule during periods of change. Therefore if all these factors are combined with the leverage that a president exerts in his/her governing, then the relationship between leadership and success is clearly manifested.

The Indiana Jones Model depicts a scenario whereby the president has considerable skills, but at the same time has no or minimal leverage, yet the outcomes are significantly great. Although the president may seem gifted, the context doest not provide chances for any positive results. However the president just prevails as a result of luck. This is therefore independent of the president’s leverage or skills. At certain times, it is possible to have positive results with no president’s persuasion and skills.

On the Pseudo-leadership model, the president may be having no skills, has leverage then successful results. This is a case that occurred with President Eisenhower. In this case, leaders in Congress contributed in the passing of significant legislations. The president paid little attention to the issues but much credit went to him. The president displayed no skills (Cronin and Genovese 26).

At other times there are chances of good fortune accompanying the outcomes. For example, Calvin Coolidge appeared a lucky president; it was a matter of being at the right place, at an appropriate time. The president enjoyed a very stable economy that left praises for his name yet he demonstrated no skills and had no leverage within his reach in which to exert influence. It was just his lucky period.

On the other hand a president may have skills and much leverage at his disposal but gets no positive outcomes. In the case of Johnson and the Vietnam War, even if he had substantive public support and extensive Democratic support from both houses, chances of successful outcomes were thin.

More so, recent tapes have shown Johnson mourning because he knows that going to the war provides no chance of winning the battle, however, he also knows that if he does not, he will forever be blamed for the Vietnam defeat. This is a no-win situation in which leadership success is independent of the president.

At another scenario, the president demonstrates leadership skills and is exposed to a considerable leverage that gives him/her significant success. This is a common Neustadt’s case of presidential leadership. Franklin Delano Roosevelt maximized on his extra-ordinary political wit and leverage during the economic recession and World War 11 era to design policies for the New Deal hence the positive war efforts. In this scenario, the president’s success was dependent on his skills (Cronin and Genovese 27).

What it Takes for a Candidate to be Elected For a candidate to be elected as the president in a federal office, the individual must have attained the age of thirty five years, must be a resident for a minimum of fourteen years. The Electoral College has the provisions that the two houses of Congress and the state participates in electing the president. The state chooses the electors (Electoral College) who eventually elects the president. The candidate that garners majority votes of the electors becomes the president.

If none of the candidates attains majority voles, the House chooses the president while the Senate selects the vice president, each state delegate therefore votes once. However, members of Electoral College can be elected from party states and themselves vote for their fellow party nominees hence influencing the strategies of presidential candidates. This will definitely change the conduct and nature of electing a president (Edwards 34).

Critics of the Electoral College system argue that it is often flawed and that the runner up candidates must not become president, this is because the candidate that garners most votes becomes the president. This perspective, they argue, inflicts a serious burden on the minority leader according to the evolving U.S’ democratic values.

However, they argue that America was initially never expected to have pure democracy and neither was it thought that U.S will be guided by the notion of majority rule (Edwards 31). They say that government institution was meant to be a republic with people’s representative in the government. More so, the separation of powers that has checks and balances was supposed to curb hindrances of change.

In this context, Bill of Rights is implemented to regulate majority’s will from going against citizen’s rights. The explanation given for the president to be elected from direct citizens’ votes is because the president and his vice wholly represent the people amongst al the nationals. And that it is the people’s best chosen candidate. However, the critiques argue that it is not enough to say that people’s will must be the only determining factor for the nationally voted government officials.

They therefore argue that because the president must be voted for by the majority of the population does not mean every other element of the government must be popularly elected (Cronin and Genovese 24). The powers of the modern president are the results of initiatives and patterns that have formed over centuries as far as presidential history is concerned. This is inclusive of crises political realignments, economic depression and institutional changes.

The powers of the president, as Thomas E. Cronin says is very powerful but always inadequate. He argues that at certain times it is weak and limited while at other times it is profound and abused. The public is ambivalent about the powers of presidents. They sometimes enjoy seeing this power reduced and their presidents humbled but at the same time desire to have heroic presidents who have the ability to attain Americans dream (Cronin and Genovese 5).

Opponents of the Electoral College argue that in this system the ballots cast are not equal because different states have varying populations.

They argue that this benefits the small states. In their propositions they argue that the automatic plan would significantly do away with faithless electors voting by automatically enabling state’s electors to vote for the most pluralist in the state (Edwards 45). The strength in this process is that individual electors will not vote in person hence minimal probability of votes being cast in unintended directions.

The district plan would grant one electoral vote the popular plurality’s votes within the state in a congressional district. It says that this plan will allow Electoral College vote be specific in popular vote. However the weakness is that the district plan will not completely eliminate chances of runner-up from becoming the president. The national bonus strategy would preserve constitutional and state’s roles in the process of electing a president (Pfiffner 56).

The Electoral College system also proposes amendments to the Constitution so as to allow for direct populace voting for a president. However the objection to this proposal is that popular election would demean the federal nature of U.S government. More so critics argue that direct popular election will reduce the common endless frauds and recounts.

Those who advocate for direct election of presidents argue that federalism is rather necessary but the electoral votes within small states does not command active campaigns of the main candidate in the party. Significantly, the larger states contests will only take place in the case of massive votes being either ways.

Direct popular election will mean that all votes would be required for the candidate to win presidency. More so, minor political actors will also have an opportunity to vie for presidency hence a multiparty system scenario. This will mean that in a contested election a candidate will have to persuade the public to vote for him or her hence garnering majority populace votes.

Critics of the Electoral College are justified in the sense that for a democratic nation there is always the need for checks and balances in order to control excessiveness of power and responsibility. The critics argue that the reforms are meant to benefit the public in their representation in government offices (Cronin and Genovese 25).

Works Cited Cronin, Thomas and Genovese, Michael. The Paradoxes of the American Presidency (3rd Ed.). Oxford, Mass: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

Edwards, George C. Presidential selection: the flawed foundations of the Electoral College. Texas: A


Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction to Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches Human society is one of the most complicated aspects of the analysis regarding the relations between individuals, groups of individuals, and other entities that can be allocated in terms of resources of influence. Sociology of power emphasises the power relations between different communities and identifies the real influencing aspects that can alter a situation and the governance as well as the process of rule making.

In this respect, it is necessary to dwell on the principles of rule making and different approaches to this process as related to the political rule and social power that can be considered the most important factors while assessing the influence of certain resources on the power, governing power, and resulting in the political regime.

Different theories of power distribution can be analysed with regard to the power of influence and the amount of resources to influence others or situation. Though history saw many examples of both approaches, pluralist and power elite, it is necessary to enlarge on the principles of power distribution in society in different periods of human civilization’s activity with regard to the economic situation and social movements.

Moreover, the political power and the power of influence cannot be analysed as a single and the only aspect for the political regime establishment; these two concepts can be even opposed to each other or exist at the same period making one of those principles more important than other.

In other words, the distribution of power in society cannot always be analysed in terms of theories of political rule making. Besides, the power to make political decisions does not always arise from the real objective interests and can be characterised by the interests and preferences of the political participants (Lukes 2005: 29).

The pluralist approach is largely opposed to the power elite one in terms of ‘the business of rule’ and the process of rule making due to discrepancies in the regime’s strengths and the overall theoretical advantages of a definite approach. In other words, the pluralism approach highlights the equality of influencing powers regardless its real situation whereas the power of elite approach enables the most influential individuals to make rules.

So, the main idea of the current paper consists in analysing and assessing the contradictions between the pluralist and power elite approaches taking into account the distribution of power in society and allocation of resources compared to the political power and the process of rule making.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theories of Political Rule and Social Power Theories and the power elite approach.The power elite approach is mostly referred to as the one existing in the era before the French Revolution and is largely opposed to the democracy of the contemporary United States of America (Bull 2002: 8-9).

However, it is necessary to note that the concept of state and the problem of rule making are closely connected to the distribution of power because the power exist in a certain society while a society has certain rules and common interests.

In this respect, some states can exist regardless of a definite territory or a restriction of rules to a certain territory because the main concept of power distribution happens among individuals and groups that can be situated within the territory (Bull 2002: 9).

Nevertheless, though political power is spread over the population, it is often limited to a certain territory and can change regarding the interests of the same nation and preferences existing in various regions of the same state.

The main theory of power elite approach in rule making concerns the command as the way to allocate the process of distribution of power in society; however, it is necessary to emphasise the principle when the interests or rules are characterised as good or legal contrasted to the objective principles or unification of preferences that is typical of a power elite approach (Poggi 1978: 2-5).

In additions, the existence of visible diversity and other so-called advantages of the pluralist approach can be considered irrelevant because these concepts do not guarantee the appropriateness of political power or genuine equality in the power allocation principles (Lukes 2005: 47).

State and society are approached in different ways in by a power elite principle whereas the process of unification is more obvious taking into account the principles typical of the pluralist approach. So, the theory of differentiation is the core of the power elite approach because it enables a single leader to make decisions and make laws (often in association with another part of social elite) and there is no necessity to fight for political power as the main concept of influence is the command.

We will write a custom Essay on Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Theories and the pluralist approach. The pluralist approach to the rule making process makes the United States of America the most prominent example of this principle in action.

Though there is a number of irrefutable evidence of this method’s inappropriateness and secrecy (regardless of the observable openness), its benefits are largely promoted and supported by the global community and international society. Collective behaviour tradition can be considered the core concept for the pluralist approach to the process of rule making (Gamson 1975: 131).

This causes the unification of the relations between individuals, groups, and individual-group/group-individual relations in society. As social relations are commonly unified in accordance with the pluralist approach, inequality arises from the democracy as it appears in a contemporary society because interests are unified as well as preferences though the resources of influence can differ greatly which can result in relocation of political power and, hence, the change of the principles of rule making.

The main theories of the pluralist approach include the inferiority of the social preferences compared to the preferences and interests of the political power. As a rule, the pluralist approach is aimed at meeting the requirements of the democracy regardless the genuine principles of power allocation and the amount of resources of influence.

Thus, collective goals unify the social interests and make common rules serves the reaching of those goals; the political behaviour can be analysed with regard to the goals of a community opposed to personal interests and preferences (Gamson 1975: 138).

Benefits of the pluralist approach can be neutralized with the differentiating nature of the contemporary policy in the international society opposed to the principles of unification brought about by other communities that popularize the differentiation concepts. As the core aspect of the pluralist approach to the rule making is the unification, this theory can fail to address all existing interests and preferences topical for the current members of a society.

Distribution of Power in Society Discussing the contradictions of the pluralist and power elite theories is incomplete with the consideration of the distribution of power in society.

In particular, these issues matter when applied to common analysis of presented theories either approving or disapproving the leading role of society in forming the power relations. Another difficulty arises when dealing with the problem of democracy and inequality. In this case, there is the necessity to make an emphasis on the character of the leading power and the triggering principle of power relations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The major controversy appears when considering distribution of power in society in terms of pluralist views. Due to the fact that this approach is based on meeting the needs of democracies, social power is distributed according to the principle of equal impact on the government.

The problem is that equal distribution of power among physical entities is not always possible because of irrational resources allocation presented by material object, social status, and ethical considerations (Dahl 1961:3). In response to this problem, the necessity to introduce the elite power approach to social order is inevitable due to the rigid inequality of property, knowledge and social position, and publicity between the members of society (Dahl 1961:6).

In order to reconcile the needs of power elite and the constellations of influenced groups, it is necessary to consider power distribution with reference to institutional arrangement and command. These two concepts presented by Poggi (1978:3) seem to be quite reasonable from the perspective of political order and legitimacy.

Indeed, favorable distribution of resources on the basis of command is more effective that that based on custom and exchange. This is explained by the ideas that the body of custom end exchange cannot sustain the exploration and mobilization of new resources and values. In addition, it does not allow society to prevent various contingencies enabling the members to choose the most appropriate patterns to act (Poggi 1978:4).

Arising from everything mentioned above, the main principle of power allocation should be based on unanimous legitimate arrangement on the two-polar power system. Therefore, society should be directed by one or a specific set of goals that would encompass social and political order. Alternatively, the disposition of views and approaches, which is typical of pluralistic order, will lead to appearance of different values and beliefs (Bull 2002:4).

Bull’s approach to the distribution of power is predominantly based on monopolistic views that exclude the pluralist techniques for the decision-making process. Therefore, the introduction of democratic approaches will strike the balance within the domain of social and political dimensions (Emerson 1962:32).

Comparative Assessment of the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Pluralism and Elite Power Approaches Highlighting the strengths of the pluralist and elite power approaches. Each of the approaches under consideration has some strong sides due to their great contributions to the arrangement of social and political order.

Considering the pluralist theory, the positive side of pluralist approach implementation consists in its focus on social relation as the leading factor of power formation. In particular, the main underpinning of social power is not the leading actor, but the relation itself (Emerson, 1962: 33). The leaders possess power only when they have a specific group to impose power on.

In addition to this, the pluralist approach is more effective as far as a decision-making process is concerned. Lukes (2005:17), thus, places an emphasis on the social behavior as the triggering factor of social relations and as an indicator of power. Consistent and successful process of decision making generates a healthy competition that, in its turn, positively contributes to social, economical, and political development of a state.

In contrast, the main merit of the elite power approach in the process of rule making is also valuable. According to this theory, the social relations are governed by one purpose where all decisions are made with regard to this purpose.

The success of such monopolistic approach is possible in case the state is headed by the leader who has sufficient resources and who is able to allocate them within society in a reasonable way. The governing of one leader fosters the accomplishment of the established goals and decreases the possibility of disagreement within society (Bull 2002: 9). More importantly, the elite power theory contributes to the formation of social and political integrity.

Considering the elite theory of power through the prism of social order, this approach is more efficient in arranging rules and orders within a state, particularly if the flow of social activities is based on the principle of command (Poggi, 1978:5). Indeed, the exploration and advancement will be considerably facilitated under the auspices of a monopolistic power.

Highlighting the weaknesses of the pluralist and elite power approaches. Although the pluralist approach to the process of rule-making is more productive for meeting the needs of society, it encounters the difficulties when dealing with the equal allocation of sources (Dahl 1961:5). In particular, excessive democracy dictating equal participation in governing can lead to greater discrepancies between communities.

Discussing pluralism from the point of view of order formation, this method of rule making is irrelevant, because the social order cannot be based on the divergent positions. What is more important is mixed views cannot satisfy legal, moral, and economic aspect of decision making as the essence of political decision consist in the necessity to promote specific goals.

The problem of decision making arises when dealing with elite power approach to the process of rule making. By promoting the leaders’ rules and preferences, the government deprives society of political significance and minimizing its role in providing viable solutions.

In other words, the suppression of political role decreases the importance of social relations (Emerson: 1962: 32). As a result, the government can lose the object of power and, therefore, it cannot be considered to owner of the power itself. In addition, the concentration of power can even lead to great inequality of resources distribution.

Conclusion The pluralist and elite power approaches constitute opposite sides of a two-polar system with regard to the process of rule making. This is primarily predetermined by opposite focus on the political systems and conceptual priorities of both approaches.

Hence, the pluralist approach is more concerned with influencing powers and social relations whereas the power of elite approach argues the necessity to establish a unanimous goal to pursue. On the one hand, a pluralistic approach considers social relations as the underpinning of governing and resources allocation.

It also strives to establish the equality in the process of decision-making. On the other hand, elite power concept is more effective in reaching the policy of unification where the international order is subjected to the prevailing superiority-inferiority relations. Taking into consideration all strengths and weaknesses, both approaches simultaneously provide viable solutions and serious controversies when applied to the distribution of power in society.

Works Cited Bull, Hedley. The Concept of Order in World Politics. The Anarchical Society. A Study of Order in World Politics. UK: Palgrave, 2002, Print.

Dahl, Robert A. Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Emerson, Richard M. “Power-Dependence Relations”. American Sociological Review. 27.1. (1962): 31-41. Print.

Gamson, William A. “the limits of Pluralism.” The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood: The Dorsey Press, 1975. Print.

Lukes, Steven. Power: a Radical View. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print.

Poggi, Gianfranco. Introduction: The Business of Rule. The Development of the Modern State. California: Stanford University Press, 1978, Print.


Soft System and Social Technical Approaches Report a level english language essay help

Abstract Scientific research has been evolving at an increasingly alarming rate. This has been triggered by the requirement of research community to provide significant answers to what seems as complex and disorderly world problematic situations.

In this effect, scientists feel obligated to conduct an interdisciplinary research project aimed at increasing knowledge in all the disciplines (Bandura 2002). Such research projects are aimed at attending to the challenges the globalizations and advancement in technology present to the users and consumers of information.

The accuracy, integrity, and accessibility of information have become one of the fundamental issues that such research aims at addressing. The issues of integrity of information usage and the security of information is becoming an essentiality.

The design of the information system should be able to address the challenges such as the ethical issues that have become a major headache to the researchers in the information and technology field. The ability to present a system that addressed such challenges will be an enormous milestone in addressing the challenges of the time and age.

Introduction With various factors contributing to any issues in the current world, such variations make the world more complex and disorganized. There is need for an amicable approach in addressing and resolving such issues. It is never straightforward the case of identifying the root cause of the problem or diagnosing the problem instantly. With so much confusion often-surrounding problems, it may seem impossible to determine an appropriate solution.

In order to resolve such issues, a problem-solving approach is paramount. Moreover, the approaches should be able to take various dimensions of the issue into account. This may entail the clearly understanding what is happening and strategies or brainstorm of the possible mechanism of addressing the issue or improving the situation. Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is one of the approaches (Bandura 2002).

Soft system methodolgy

Soft Systems Methodology is a product of the continuing Action Research of Prof Peter Checkland, Brian Wilson plus other researchers. It is a guideline tool to problem-solving. The effort was in recognition of the fact that not all problems are obvious and neither do they have a predictable solution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Common misunderstandings have emerged where the method has been viewed as planned to solve soft problems such as problems involving the social and cultural aspects. On the contrary, the concept applies to both hard and soft problems. The methodology, however adopts a different approach in every problematic situation.

The ‘hardness’ or ‘softness’ is not n innate characteristic of the perceived problem, instead it relates to how the problem is viewed by those involved in seeking the solution (Checkland 1985). Each and every problematic situation comprise of both soft and hard aspects. A problem becomes a problem boy the virtue of being viewed as such by human beings. This can be equated to such a saying that “one man’s poison is another man’s meat”.

Current explanations and issues relating to soft system Developed in 1970 by Peter Checkland with his colleagues, Soft systems methodology (SSM) was designed to provide interventions in the challenges experienced in management, organizational and policy contexts. The methodology comes in handy especially where neither the problems nor the answers are obvious.

It is closely related to the engineering system approaches. However, unlike the engineering system, it recognizes the central importance of perspective or world-view in social situations. The approach is different from the ‘systems science’ approaches that was advanced in the 1960s, and reflects more on action research in its philosophy and approach.

SSM is different from approaches of hard systems through its mode of dealing with the system concept. According to hard system approach, a ‘system’ is regarded as ontological entity-entities or objects that exist in the real world.

For instance, when one talks of objects such as computer system or transport system, they mean physical things which can be described officially as well as structured to meet a certain need. SSM, on the other hand, regards the concept of ‘system’ as an epistemological entity and not ontological entity- a construction of the mind that aids in human understanding.

When we are looking at an organization as a system, for instance, the things that come in our minds include the activities that take place within that company. We think of the process of converting some raw materials into given finished products; we also think of the efforts to make profits; we also get a mental picture of a number of employees as holders of different positions within the organization. As for the case for the unemployed young graduates, they would look at the organization as a potential employer.

We will write a custom Report on Soft System and Social Technical Approaches specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In essence, different people will have varied perceptions over a given organization. It is not possible for us to provide a given single instruction as either right or wrong while there are other different to understand what is going on in the environment. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the perceptions and values of different individuals to get a clear picture of what concerns them within a given system.

While trying to understand a production company, as a system, for example, we are conscious of the process of conversion of raw materials into the product. The system would therefore be composed of such stakeholders as suppliers of raw material, sugar-cane farmers, for example. We would also have customers to purchase the manufactured products.

When looking at an organization whose sole objective is to create jobs for the locals, the system would constitute a different set of elements. In this case we would be interested in the infrastructure such as improved market infrastructures to enable farmers sell their farm produce.

Improved transport system would also be of importance to allow for easy movement of people and the goods. A reliable communication network to allow timely flow of information would also be of significance. Boundary lines that are different have been drawn basing on different perceptions of people on what they perceive as the system.

The development of SSM was influenced by the need to find solutions to complex situations where the problem to be solved is not clear; and the affected group of people hold different understanding of what constitutes the problem and the possible solution.

For instance how to improve farm productivity by intensifying the use of chemical fertilizers at the same time conserving the environment; also how to realize industrialization without adversely affecting the environment in terms of pollution. A society may also be faced with a challenge of how to deal with youth gangs, who pose a threat to the community or drug abusers.

The approach to solving such challenges may take many dimensions. However, instead of solving the problem, some proposed option may actually worsen the situation. There is need to take a close look at the wider situation and the likely consequences of choosing any given approach.

This is so because, some situations are intertwined; changing one element may have knock-on effects on other aspects. A comprehensive understanding of the relationships that exist amongst situations is paramount. The role of SSM is to offer users with a guideline in developing an improved understanding of the complexity of situations’.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Soft System and Social Technical Approaches by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Processes

SSM is characterized by seven stages as follows: 1) Identification of the problematic situation that requires intervention. 2). Conducting a comprehensive research so to capture the bigger picture. 3) Perspective selection and a construction of root definitions (the major processes that need to occur within the desired system). 4) Conceptualization of a change system model. 5) Comparison of the model with the real-world situation. 6) Definitions of the changes to be made.

Review of literature It is necessary to integrate our understanding and modeling over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales in order to address complex societal and environmental Challenges. This calls for an increase in the level of societal meaningful Science (Lubchenco 2008).

System based approaches have been critical in trying to understand humanity and our interactions with the external environment. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy is recognized for his major breakthrough in systems based approaches in the early twentieth century (Lubchenco 2008).

Ludwig Von (Biologist) together with Kenneth Boulding (economist), Ralph Gerard (biologist), and Anatol Rapoport (mathematician) further developed a ‘General systems theory’ aimed at addressing the requirement for a more integrated approach to solving societal problems. This led to the birth of Society for General Systems Research in 1954 whose name later changed to the “International Society for Systems Science (Sage 1992).

According to Checkland, in using a “Participative Approach” stakeholders are most likely to reach accommodations – a common understanding on how to address a given problematic situation. Through such approach, the company can adopt changes that are agreeable to all the stakeholders.

The model of allowing all idea(accommodation) is not same as agreement. “Consensus involves a complete agreement among the stakeholders that the proposed changes best serve all of their needs. The notion of accommodation on the other hand, recognizes that this is an uncommon state of affairs” (Schlager 1956, p. 54), and consequently values that a lot of time different people requires can only be to some extent met by cooperative schemes.

SSM Approach Vs CATWO

Checkland proposed a 7-step learning methodology approach. However this was superseded by the CATWO model, developed by Action Research conducted at Lancaster. Despite this, the methodology is still widely used because of its step-wise approach which makes it easy to be taught. In addition, the model has a barrier which runs across it to draw a difference among the 3 stages i.e.between the Real World, above the line, and Systems Thinking.

“CATWO, formulated by The Lancaster team proposes several criteria that should be specified to in order to provide a comprehensive and rigorous root definition” (Schlager 1956, p.54).

Clients – Who are gainers or losers of this particular system? (Who would gain or lose as a result its operations?)

Actors – all those staff members accountable for putting in practice the systems developed.

Transformation – this is quantified based on advancement and changes that the implemented system brings in the organization(What are the contribution essentials and to which extend or in other words what sort of revolution do these input elements undergo before measureable output can be seen).

Weltanschauung–also, know as worldview. What explicit worldview offers the rationalization to the being of this structure or system?

Owner – Whose mandate is to change this system or review its overall performance

Environmental constraints – what are the external constraints that should be considered?

This type of analysis elucidates the objectives of the user of the methodology. By clearly recognizing these viewpoints, the client of the technique is required to mull over the effects of any anticipated transformations on the group concerned.” Following limitations of ‘hard’ systems including operations research and systems dynamics, Peter Checkland and colleagues developed ‘soft’ system approaches to counteract limitations associated with technical assessments” (Checkland 1985, p. 34).


System approach allows participation by all the relevant actors take part in the problem situation and interact with the analyst.

The approach teases out the problem situation, which offers a good ground for creative problem solving. Some problems in real life are not well defined and cannot be solved using scientific methods hence the system approach helps in addressing them.

The system approach allows for an iterative process, which allows the analyst to learn about the system and hence know how to go about it.


The system approach often ignores power in the organization and this may create in the daily operations. The system relies too much on individuals’ perception and as such, it is fuzzy and cannot be easily applied in practice. Quite often, the system approach may neglect some of the forces that interact in society, such as Social constraints and group norms.

The future of integrative systems based studies There is increasing pressure for scientists and policy makers to adopt more integrated and holistic approaches to understanding how we manage systems from the local to global scale. These include 1) advancement in Systems modeling approaches from systems biology to earth systems science. This involves qualitative network models as well as quantitative process/kinetics based approaches (Borgatti, 2009). It is the network models that have the potential to link systems biology, socio-ecological systems, and earth systems science.

2) There has been a continued improvement in data sharing between individual projects and disciplines. This has been easier by introduction of data and meta-data models To increase the sharing of data between individual projects and between disciplines. Examples of these advancements include markup languages e.g. system biology markup language

ISO 27001 Current Explanation and Issues Relating to ISO 27001

IT Governance and information security

Board corporate governance requirements have in the recent years become increasingly more defined and specific. With information technology becoming pervasive, underpinning and supporting almost every aspect of the organization, manipulation and storing of information on which the organization depends for its survival, the role of IT in corporate governance has become more clearly defined and IT governance getting to be more recognized as a crucial area for board and corporate attention.

IT governance is specifically concerned with the protection of the information. protection of this information is critical as the organization’s decision is heavily pegged on its availability, confidentiality and integrity.

As a result, parallel international standards related to information security have emerged and have become one of the cornerstones of an effective IT governance framework.

The information security standards

British standard Institution came up with BS7799 in 1995 as a standard to guide the development and implementation of an Information Security Management System (ISMS). On the outset, BS7799 was considered, as a technology-neutral, vendor-neutral management system. It was intended that, if accurately implemented, it would guarantee an organization’s management of effective information security measures (Hall 1962).

Those rallying for the BS7799 measures aim at addressing the challenges associated with availability, the integrity aspect and also the confidentiality of the information in an organization.. Protection covers those threats that the organization considers relevant and only to the extent that is justified financially and commercially through a risk assessment.

The Code of Practice (which uses words like ‘may’ and which deals with controls, not with Information Security Management Systems), is now recognized under the dual numbers of ISO17799 and BS7799-1 .

The basis for certification schemes is specification and ISO 27001 mandates the use of ISO 17799 as the source of guidance for the selection and implementation of the controls mandated by ISO 27001.

The most recent version of the Code of Practice, and the one which must be used, is ISO/IEC 17799:2005. BS7799-2:2002 has also undergone revision and internationalization, and was replaced in November 2005 by ISO/IEC 27001:2005. The best way to keep in touch with the changes to the standards is to subscribe to 24743, the free information security newsletter that provides regularly updated FAQs on the new standards, as well as other ISMS information.

The information security and regulatory environments

ISO 27001 refers to a standard containing requirements for a company to implement an information security management system.

There are two main reasons explaining the growing interest in certification to ISO 2700. These are: 1) the proliferation of threats to information this is aimed at curbing the possibility of the information landing on the wrong place or unauthorized persons having access to such information. Such incidences can have elemental effects to the institutions or the organizational functions. In addition, 2) the growth in the lawful and constitutional needs that are associated with information authenticity and protection.

This is mostly useful when dealing with secure information. Such applications are used in the security sector, banks and credit cards etc where the transfer of information is through the protected channels accessible to few authorized individuals. This is aimed at minimizing compromising situation s that may results when the public or unauthorized persons access the information.

Information security and technology

Securing data or protecting computers from threats is normally undertaken by people with IT knowledge. This is done by assigning the users with log in credentials that regulate the person accessing the information.

The ability of regulating who accesses what information also enables the It team to monitor and regulate the information flow and also be able to audit the information access and distribution in the system (Bennett, 2009). The computer user makes decisions about which threats to be protect the system from and what trade-offs between security and flexibility he or she is prepared to accept.

The usage of the computers vary and various experts do various tasks based on the [powers that the computers or the specifications of the job to be done. The variations in the usage rights also enables only certified people to access some classified information. Some of the information in the system can be very confidential and only the qualified personnel should be allowed to have access and possibly distribute such information(Schlager 1956).

Advantages of ISO 27001

The benefits of ISO 27001 emanates from its principles. These are confidentiality, integrity, accuracy, completeness, and availability. The confidentiality allows the clients to have faith in the system and trust using the system for their day-to-day business. The integrity concepts emanates from the fact that the system is able to carry out the specified instructions or transactions pertaining a given action or command instructed. The accuracy assures the users that they will not be overcharged or underpaid thus ensuring that the information validity is not compromised.

The availability of the appropriate information to the right person at the right time. ISO 27001 ensures confidentiality that is information may not be made availed or disclosed for people, entities, or processes without permission.

ISO 27001 ensures integrity. The information is protected from unauthorized changes.

Conclusions Advances in a wide range of systems focused disciplines have increased our ability understand and model socio-ecological systems from the sub-cellular to global scale.

These can be classed as ‘hard’, ‘soft’ approaches, and both are required when you are studying systems across multiple spatial and organizational levels.

Here I suggest that diagramming, network theory combined with markup languages based on data and metadata standards within an analytical-deliberative framework can lead to learning and greater integration across these disparate systems based approaches. I am not suggesting that one approach or framework will address all situations, but highlighting the commonalities that will enable us to integrate across situations.

References Bandura, A 2002, Social Learning Theory, General Learning Press- New York, New York.

Bennett, E, Peterson G


How have ethic and age distribution changed in the British Columbia region of the last 50 years and why? Term Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction British Columbia is found at the far east of Canada and is the sixth Canadian province. The country is known of its natural beauty and strategic positioning for functions like tourist and sporting activities. Its capital city is Victoria, which happens to be the fifteenth largest metropolitan region. The city according to census of 2008 had a total population of approximately 4,419,974 and its current head of state is Premier Gordon Campbell (Belanger, 2009).

The province has undergone massive improvement in different areas with the most notable one being the area of technology in all its processes. The provinces have well-structured infrastructures which have assisted in economic and social growth of the area. This paper looks into how ethic has changed over the past five years and how age distribution has changed over time.

Ethics In the context of a country, ethics refers to respect of peoples fundamental rights and freedom. It means government measure that ensures that it can be held accountable by its people in the way it administers the country. Before the Second World War, countries were not concerned about the need for collaboration and integration to ensure that there is an economic development attained for the entire world.

After the Second World War; politicians engaged themselves in vigorous planning which were aimed at breaking trade hindrances and to promote interdependence which in turn reduces the possibility of future wars. This led to increase in international trade. British Columbia was not left behind but worked in collaboration with other countries to develop an international market. This led to globalization, which in turn increases the enlightenment of people.

In British Columbia people have been enlightened and are aware of their fundamental rights. In recognition of these rights, the government has developed measures aimed at this move. Secondly, to have an enhanced international trading, the company has embarked on massive infrastructure development where it has built road networks, railways, and ports. This is both to facilitate international and local trade (Kluckner, 2003).

Enlightened people have brought about the need for ethical conduct and management of the country. All persons in society, whether in private or public sector, product or services industry are concerned with ethics; Ethics is defined as the discipline dealing with what is good or bad and with moral duty and obligation. Thus, personal ethics has been referred to as the rules by which an individual lives his/her personal life.

Business ethics is concerned with truth, consultant’s fairness, and justice


The Battle of Tropical Islam: struggle for an Islamic Identity in Indonesia Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Islam Identity in Indonesia: The escapade

Attempts to solve the Conflict

Beyond the obvious

The Bombshell

Reference List

Introduction Indonesia is ranked fourth in the world among the most populous Muslim nations. The spread of Muslim faith in Indonesia can be graded as “moderate” with the country being strategically positioned along the sea lines, which appropriately connect to the energy resources of the Middle East (Vaughn, 2009).

Many peace consultants look at Indonesia as being the most critical partner in waging a struggle against radical Islamist Militants in South East Asia. Over time, Indonesia has continued to persue democracy and develop the realms of civil society and law under new reforms by the current president, Susilo. Nevertheless, there exist unhealed wounds caused by the abuse of human rights with the major culprit’s being the military under the reign of former President Suharto for three decades.

Islam Identity in Indonesia: The escapade Indonesia started as a secular state and managed to survive as one (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). This is because Islam in Indonesia has integrated or adapted with ancient local customs and beliefs that emanate from a moderate and benign version of Islam. The majority of Muslims in Indonesia are traditionalists; a tendency that incorporates strong elements of Sufi mysticism and pre-Islamic Javanese traditions (Haseman and Rabasa, 2002).

They follow the local based law called “adat” which takes precedence over strict Islamic custom (Gocher and Vatikiotis, 2006). Additionally, Indonesia originally faced a peaceful spread of Islam that was not accompanied by force; instead, winds of Islamic reform had reached Indonesia from the Middle East gracefully uniting with the local beliefs (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). This is why rigid adherence to Islamic shariah law is found to be an unfruitful venture due to the strong mismatching foundations.

During the early part of the twentieth century two different views of Islam in Indonesia started to emerge that caused a split emerged between the modernists and the more conservatives (Paris and Schwarz 1999). The modernist could not accept the integration of Islam with local customs, but demanded that Javanese Islam be purged of its non-Islamic superstitions.

This division was greatly highlighted during the early years of Indonesia’s independence. This occurrence shows that even with the different ideologists about Islam that exist within Islam, there is an internal fight on superiority; each strain would want others to declare them as the true faith of Muslim.

There exists the most basic fact here: Indonesia as a Muslim country has been faced with a lot of political unrest over time, with Muslim being the salient factor Indonesian Politics (Bull and Woodward, 2009). Nevertheless, after the democratic transition, many Islamist groups both in Indonesia and the Middle East have risen up and gotten very active, some being violent and others with an approach of Islam social norms.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The irony in this happening is that Islamist groups that would otherwise have been outlawed by today’s democratic rule are being allowed to exist as active political players. The most worrying issue as far as a conflict in the minds of Muslim radicals is concerned is that war cannot be won without being fought (Peters, 2002). The idea here is that this tiff has spread to a national level, eminent before an international platform.

Transnational terrorism was made active mostly after the occurrences of September 11. That very date has since then left an unforgettable mark on the whole world. Relations between different states faced a lot of tiffs with little or no benign subsequent relations whatsoever (Kadir, 2002). September 11 twisted the idea of international relations to take another course; there became a general picture of the abundance of a grudge between the extremist Islam and the Liberal, capitalist and the Christian West.

Kadir (2002) explains that after the tragic occurrence, leaders of the Islamic communities in Indonesia distanced themselves from the radical Muslim faiths that would encourage terrorism, terming them as deviant faiths. The leaders of Muslim faith and the government leaders in Indonesia and South East Asia refuted to have such radical versions of Islam to spread to their countries. Nonetheless, their hopes can be seen as denial of the past political Muslim experiences of the country.

This is basically because, Indonesia faced many years of Islamist military oppression where violence was clear and pronounced (Vaugh, 2009). In the same case, it is the same occurrences, which left nearly 500, 000 Indonesian dead during the “new order” rule of President Suharto. The association of such actions with radical Muslim faith have resulted to the Indonesian Muslim leaders to have a distant attitude towards Radical Muslim faith.

On the other hand, there exists a number of Radical or “fundamentalist” Muslims within Indonesia especially during periods of both Sukarno and Suharto where several attempts to establish an Islamic state in Indonesia were made (Indonesia Backgrounder, 2004). Their jubilance has been given so much media attention in recent years, which has created a misconception that Indonesian Islam, is radical.

According to Fox (2004), there arose a new Islamic movement called “Hitbut Tahrir” that had foundations outside Indonesia. This group sought to revamp and attain the inclusion of global fundamentality in the Indonesian national landscape, against nationalism and state power (Fox, 2004). This notion has overshadowed the truth about Indonesian Islam, which is actually accommodating and moderate as compared to other fundamentalist Muslim traits (Jones, 2007).

Indonesia is composed of a diverse set of communities spread across thousands of islands. It is because of this that during the early years, the focus of the government was to strengthen nationalism and independence. It was during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia that Islam officially recognized (Gocher and Vatikiotis, 2006). This was a first step that would ensure future pressure on the government to accommodate Islamic political aspirations.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Battle of Tropical Islam: struggle for an Islamic Identity in Indonesia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There eventually arose two major opposing Islamic parties (Masjumi and Hisbullah), which always had heated constitutional debates about the form that new Indonesia state was to take.

On one hand, the Masjumi demanded that Islam be declared the state religion, while other groups demanded for the adoption of an Islamic state that is purely based on the Sharia law (Marshall, 2005). It was here that the government decided to marginalize those advocating the movement for an Islamic state in Indonesia because there was fear that the idea of an Islamic state would destroy Indonesia even before Independence (Paris and Schwarz, 1999).

According to Geocher and Vatikiotis (2006), so as to tone-down the tension between the government and the Muslim community, there was an introduced state philosophy which insisted that the state was to be based on a single belief of a “one supreme God”.

Additionally, it was also made clear that God applied not specifically only to Islam, but rather of the five known official religions: Protestantism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Catholic and Islam (Marshall, 2005). This unclear idea about the superiority and clarity of Islam created high tension between the Muslim community and the new independent government, of which it had helped install during the fight for independence.

During the “New Order” regime, Islam was greatly marginalized through the oppressive centralized government at the time. The new regime was determined to establish the military as the primary broker in Indonesia.

With the defeat of the communists, Muslims groups expected to be rewarded for helping the army, instead the “New Order” acted promptly to rollback abuse to the camp of the Muslims (Gocher and Vatikiotis, 2006). The Muslim were the only religious group left who had the numbers and organizational strength to compete for power with the army.

Consequent events saw Suharto acting quickly to more drastically kill the Influence of Islamic idioms in to the government policies (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). In 1973, Suharto forced the merger of Muslim groups, as an attempt to kill the upcoming unrest.

As a result, Islamists viewed this as a potential policy that sought to view Islam as lacking the viability to influence the government policies or participate it Indonesia’s political landscape (Marshall, 2005). This was followed by an even greater blow to Muslim interests; the government’s decision to require all political and social organizations to adopt “Pancasila” as their sole ideological basis.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Battle of Tropical Islam: struggle for an Islamic Identity in Indonesia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There was a general belief by the Muslims that Pancasila sought to place man over “Allah” and that the idea was heretical (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). Gocher and Vatikiotis, (2006) summed up the New Order’s primary social achievement; Delivering Indonesia from the tangles of the vigorous tides that had sweeping the world as from the late 1970s. Nevertheless, there are critics who believe that the attempt the curb Islam in Indonesia, has made Indonesia Islamic.

There are a number of forces for Islamic revivalism that has re-introduced debates on whether or not Indonesia should be an Islamic state. First, international influences from Islamic revolutions in countries like Iran have spurred up Indonesian interest in Islam (Paris and Schwarz, 1999).

Additionally, the spread of Islam in campuses and the growing Islamic intellectual influences on the attitudes towards national, social and economic developments have directed such views on the basis of Islam. This force to Islamic revivalism were especially evident in the younger generation, who are seen to be more vigilant in making Muslim faith to be more applicable to life in the modern world than it already is.

Lastly, political dynamics where Suharto was losing his power base as he encountered greater opposition within the ranks of the military; occurrences that twisted his arm and got him to break-ice and coincide with the Muslim groups so as to ensure that the relationship with the military stayed alive.

The most alarming thing about this whole Muslim revival issue is that, on the occurrence of the Asian crisis in the late 1997, there was no shift. More concern and precedence was given to the reviving of relations with the Muslims. This event lead to the fall of the “New order” regime that eventually saw Suharto’s thirty two years of rule come to an end. The result was a major power gap that was space enough for the Radical Islamists to step in (Marshall, 2005).

According to Marshall (2005) the unexpected occurrence has brought about the resurgence of earlier Islamists ideologies and aspirations. More critical is the drastic proclamation of Indonesia as a state of Islamic religion as a defiance to Suharto’s Pancasila regime.

This is proven by attempts by Muslim groups to reintroduce the “Jakarta Charter” which would allow the application of shariah law and transform Indonesia into an Islamic state. For now, they have been kept democratically at bay as the “People’s Consultative Assembly” avoided a direct vote on the issue, rebuffing the Islamic parties in favor of maintaining the original, more pluralist phrasing.

Although the New Order has made it compulsory in the past, a number of parties have recently adopted Islam as their ideological basis instead of Pancasila. Increased freedoms in the post-Suharto period have radical strains of Muslim groups after years of being marginalized politically and socially.

There has also been increase infiltration by radical international Islamist groups seeking to spread their beliefs into Indonesia. The traditional threat of shariah law in Indonesia is now back stronger than ever, and it is important to further strengthen democratic elements among mainstream Indonesian Muslims.

Attempts to solve the Conflict There are basically three models of government that Indonesia can preside in; a democratic regime, a religious regime, and a democratic religious government. These different models lie in the ancient argument between the compatibility of democracy and political Islam (Berger, 1999).

The traditional school of thought holds that democracy and political Islam are not compatible. It is a radical belief, that the “institutionalization of shura and ijma provides the state, which expresses the general will, with a normative role in making basic choices in people’s lives” (Safi, 2003).

The idea that the state is now responsible for our salvation is now brought about as a result. As Safi (2003), explains “individual religiosity is transformed by the radicals into a communal public will, itself transformed into state control, both moral and political. This model involves the implementation of Shariah law and the transformation of an Islamic state.

Scholars argue that this model is inherently inconsistent with the divine sources as Islam can only be understood through human reason; “the institution that emerges from that combination is not a theocratic state” (Berger 1999). This is an absolute model that demands exclusivity which stops short of a pluralistic understanding of Islam.

It is the revisionist school of thought that believes that democracy and Islam are only compatible in an oppressive or despotic form of government. This is happens because in most countries in the Muslim world, democracy is only practiced as the giver of proper legality (Safi, 2003).

So while these countries have democratic institutions, in reality none of these processes is really observed. This was evident in the New Order regime, where Suharto was at the apex of politics in Indonesia. It is in fact these forms of regimes that push people away from such institutions to a more radical form of a complete unity between state and religion; an Islamic state.

The post-revisionist school of thought now holds that there are in fact two different ways to articulate Islam and democratic regime forms without transforming into an Islamic state. This view holds that the relationship between Islam and politics was “never premised on the so-called Islamic state or the comprehensive application of the Sharia” (Berger, 1999).

It rejects exclusive reliance on the religious laws in order to confirm whether or not democratic religiosity is wrong (Sadri, Sadri and Soroush, 2002). This school of thought believes that the underlying choice should be made based on the society; because in a religious society an innocently secular government would be against democracy (Sadri, Sadri and Soroush, 2002).

This school of thought, believes that the success of each models depend on whether the majority is a secular or a religious one. According to Berger (1999), the former believes in the European way of keeping political authority at bay from Islam while the latter calls for clarify the relations between Muslim and politics instead of either commenting the unity or totally fragmenting them.

The first model believes in a secular democratic regime, whereby there is a clear separation between religion and the state. This is a valid model basically because many people believe that a democratic religious government will lack the humility to be accountable to people (Sadri, Sadri and Soroush, 2002).

According to Berger (1999), Oppositions to the first model claim that “advocates of secularism will appear to be calling on their own societies to abandon their Islamic cultural and religious foundations.” They also believe that secularism came to “Islamic societies in the dubious company of Western colonialism and post-colonial hegemony.” (Berger 1999).

On the other hand, the second model demands the clarification and specification of the relationship between Islam and political authority on the basis of an Islamic approach to secularism. In this model, the “protection of basic human rights, especially freedom of belief, expression, and association, is an Islamic imperative and not merely a requirement of international treaties.” (Berger 1999)

One cannot forget that in democratic societies, religious tolerance is practiced, as “the path of examined religiosity is more open and inviting” (Sadri, Sadi and Soroush, 2002). Either way, one must understand that in order for both these models to work, democracy cannot adjust to religious understanding; it is religious understanding that should adjust itself to democracy.

Beyond the obvious The description of constant unrests in Indonesia has always been rotating around one issue: Muslim religion. As stated earlier, the problem from a single religious unit has grown to be the most difficult puzzle that not even the smartest person in the country with his well thought- out and profound intelligent ideas can solve. This bid dilemma calls for a more rationalized, out of the norm idea so as to solve the rationalized and unprecedented turmoil that lingers in the lives of the world’s most populous Muslim country.

I suggest that is time for us to change gears and look at the issue with an open mind; Indonesia as a country is in deep trouble as far as National democracy is concerned and, the USA is the world’s strongest country as far as democracy, economy and internal liberty is concerned. I the itching query about this should be: what does the USA have to with Indonesia? My idea is not at all based on the lines of Indonesia having to solicit for military assistance or any other donations of some kind from the world’s strongest country, no.

If we take another direction and look at the current president to the United Sates of America, president Obama, we will discover that his connection to Indonesia is deep! As a matter of fact, Barack spent part of his childhood in Indonesia and, yes he was born to an Indonesian mother. Needless to mention, he previously had an Indonesian name; Barry Soetero. I think Barry Soetero was the guardian angel given to Indonesia so as to bring its deepest problems to an end.

It is a fact that President Obama is also known as “Hussein”. This tells us that he has a Muslim background. Both Barry Soetero and Indonesia need not to be told that there is a clear indication of an easy way to solve the problem here.

The Bombshell President Barack Hussein Obama is of an Indonesian Background. He also has a Muslim background. Currently is the president of the World’s strongest country ruling without any problems arising from religious clashes. Barack is a modernized Muslim ruling in a country with no Muslim backgrounds.

President Barack Obama should therefore finish his term in the USA, then head back to his roots, apply for citizenship of which I am pretty sure he will get basing on his current friendly relations with Indonesia. Ultimately, he should plunge himself in to the Indonesian political landscape and vie for presidency.

Basing on his roots being from Indonesia and him having a Muslim background coupled with good speech and a likable character he should win. Eventually o attainting presidency, he should channel American ideas that will help Indonesia attain a “super-power level” of democracy.

In this regard, Muslim will be a peaceful religion, as peaceful as a second middle name (Hussein). The Islamic Identity in Indonesia will therefore have gotten its place without any bloodshed, and with the most suited ambassador of them all.

Reference List Berger. L., P. (1999). The desecularization of the world: resurgent religion and world politics. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.

Fox, J., J. (2004). Currents in Contemporary Islam in Indonesia. Web.

Gocher, J.,


Race in United States Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Research questions

Literature Review

Relevance of the Study


Empirical Analysis

Works Cited

Introduction United States has stood to be one of the world’s economic power houses. The country has been recognized as one of the nations with more than enough resources that could fully support its citizens. This however, resulted in some negative effects which include ecological destruction and racial discrimination.

Though considered as having some of the best environmental laws, the communities within the country are not given equal treatment. The policies safeguarding the environment have not fully addressed some equal benefits to all members of the society since some communities are generally overlooked when it comes to usage of land and agriculture (Schelhas 7).

Access to arable land has been a difficult task for the minority blacks who live in the USA. Large chunks of land and other natural assets have been dominated by the wealthy, majority of which are whites. The less privileged have been denied access to these natural resources and also used as damping sites for environmental wastes. This calls for the importance of including asset-building in the democratic strategy in order to account for sustainability and most importantly empowering the community (West 13).

Research questions The research will seek to answer the following questions;

To what extent do public policies contribute in reducing or increasing the cases of racial inequality in agricultural and environmental affairs?

What brings about the unequal exposure to environmental protection?

What policies can help reduce racism, raise productivity and increase employment opportunities?

Literature Review According to Collin and Robin (13) political and logistical problems are the main barriers to environmental and agricultural justice. There is no fixed relationship, between agricultural development and environmental stress. Both are determined by national policies and by investments that seek to increase research capacity and the knowledge needed to move from racial based society to a liberal society which treats human being with equal rights (Collin and Robin 13).

Studies have revealed that agricultural work is crucial in the economy of a nation, and much attention should be given to both the rate and pattern of its development. Non-farm activities and policies that affect interactions between agriculture and industry are also important determinants of the level of employment and social status (West 13).

According to Pefia (6), “there is a direct relationship between the persistence of environmental racism in farm work and the political, legal and economic conditions that maintain farm workers in a state of labor repression.” This was an implication that unequal trends in the environmental protection as well as unequal exposure to the environmental dangers emanated from the collective effects of several conditions and these conditions were more of economical, political and legal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government’s public policies and laws that were put in place to give support to the farm labor contractor system gave limitations on legal grounds that could enable farm workers to organize themselves for the protection of their rights (West 13). According to Majka, immigrant status which has not been documented of a large number of farm workers weakened even more the farmer’s capacity to deal with the injustice challenge that face them in the agricultural place of work.

The absence of the legal frameworks or the frameworks that are weak for organizing unions, attaining collaborative rights for bargaining, and the right to protest, presented greatest grave barriers to the achievement of the environmental justice for these workers (Majka and Majka). Basically, this implied that as long as the farm workers were still defenseless and unorganized, they still had limited ability to deal with the environmental racism in their work places as well as in the places they live.

There existed some level of discrimination in US Department of Agriculture (USDA) loan, credit and subsidy program (Schelhas 7). Unequal treatment of farmers of color as well as discrimination imposed by the United States Department of Agriculture engaged a well documented legacy of institutionalized racism. There was acceptance by the internal report made by the Civil Rights Action Team of lack of success of the United States Department of Agriculture to go in line with the laws of federal civil rights.

In the United States of America, Racial discrimination in USDA was left greatly unchecked at a time when Reagan administration came to an end. This was brought back by the Clinton administration in the year 1996 but the destruction had been done and the civil rights enforcement complaints were still eminent all through the 1990s (Swanston, 82).

Global environmental study shows that there are so many environmental issues around the world that people have to contend with irrespective of their race or color. Amongst these environmental hazards include; dirty water, polluted air, waste treatment areas, municipal dumping sites, and government or industrial disposal facilities amongst others.

However, researches have revealed that within the United States these environmental hazards have been worsened by the practice of racism. The existing environmental policies and practices are of great disadvantage to some individual communities of the same race.

These policies have brought about environmental racism which has really benefited northern counties as opposed to Southern counties. According to Majka and Majka, environmental discrimination can be likened to institutional discrimination which is defines as “actions or practices carried out by members of dominant racial or ethnic groups that have differential and negative impact on members of subordinate, racial and ethnic, groups.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Race in United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These policies brought about extreme exploitation of arable land and the natural environment in favor of the native population. Those who form the numerical minority in politics and in any other sector were subjected to policy discrimination (Majka and Majka).

The country under its current policies placed numerous strains on the environments associated with the under-privileged within the society mostly people of different race. This is seen in industries dealing with massive mining and extraction of resources. Globalization has made it easier for international companies to occupy places that have least environmental rules and regulations, cheap labor and good consumer base.

Relevance of the Study This research tends to champion for the restoration and non-discriminating use of natural assets. It brings to the realization that natural assets are not limited but comprise variety of things such as land, clean air and water. The study seeks to show the necessity of utilizing agricultural land and environment with equality in mind.

This focuses on reducing poverty level alongside building of financial wealth amongst the communities. The study will seek to identify give clear effects of public policies on natural resources and their effects on both rich and poor (West 13). The report will seek to find out why minority farmers have lost significant amounts of land and potential farm income as a result of discrimination by Farm Service Agency programs and the programs by its predecessor agencies (Schelhas 7)

Methodology Both quantitative and qualitative methods of study will be applied in this case. Literature survey study on the uses and challenges of environmental policies on agriculture and racism will form the basis of the study. The risks, challenges and benefits of Environmental policies will be identified and accounted for by use of examples.

Part of the data will be obtained from the primary sources which provide explicit information on inequality brought about by poor government policies. Questionnaires will be prepared for use during structured interviews respondents being community members and environmental officials

Qualitative method helps in easier understanding of data since it emphasizes on direct information from people’s words and actions. Qualitative method has the characteristic that it should gather information on acquired data, based on quantitative methods. The task of understanding and presenting qualitative research proved to be very demanding as statistics.

Empirical Analysis Inductive coding will be used to reveal how consistent the research is with the information given. The data will be broken down and re-organized to achieve the intended objective. The grouped data will then be categorized for the purposes of comparison that will help in providing practical reality of the research (Straus and Corbin). For quantitative analysis Chi-square analysis test will be utilized. The critical alpha level that will be used to measure discrepancies is 0.05.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Race in United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Empirical research design is developed in order to help in exploring the theory discussed in this paper. Individual calculations will be measured based on the interviews conducted and previous data collected statistically analyzed. Available database having track details on the nature of the effect of public policies on agricultural land and environment based on race will be analyzed.

Meta analysis will be conducted to include all the effects of public policies on racial inequality down the previous years. This research seeks to establish an understanding between the research objectives and findings from the interview (Strauss and Corbin).

This research employ the use of Grounded theory which will be used for the purposes of interpreting the data collected. Collecting, interpreting and understanding of data will be done best in grounded theory, where the collection of data, its analysis and theory are closely related bringing some relevance to the research undertaken (Strauss and Corbin).

There is the utilization of peer debriefing which ensures that the required consistency is achieved. For the purposes of coding, the interview scripts are scrutinized to ensure identification of similar or different opinions, the similar ideas are identified substantiated and all the comments highlighted within the transcript margins.

Two different evaluators are used each making his own coding frame for sampling the sub-transcripts (sub-sample used n=2). The different findings will then be compared to ensure accuracy of the coded data. From this a coding frame is produced that is appropriately utilized on the whole data collected. The data will then be thoroughly compared and analysed to tally with the requirements as per grounded theory approach.

Data collection will also be followed by the process whereby the data is grouped into themes which assist in detailed description of the research based on the social and environmental settings. The validity of the research will be based on transparency and viability of message conveyed. Individual narrative interviews are conducted concurrently with the process of transcription and coding of data which is later concentrated and categorized for analysis (Strauss and Corbin).

Works Cited Collin, Robert


The Merits and Pitfalls of using Memoir or Biography as Evidence for Past Events Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction The historical recordings of past events are very important in the understanding of the actual happenings, analysis of the flow of past events, understanding the factors influencing past occurrences, explanations of the effects of such events, linking the present and future to the past as well as the decision making based on such events.

The actual recording of past events however utilizes every manner of evidence to be able to adequately support the assertions made. Historians and other analysts are in agreement on the need to use the evidence that creates reality and is supportive, but are divided on the relevance of such evidence as from primary sources which they assert are at the heart of history recording and interpretation, yet still creates subjectivity and questions the fairness and truth of such historical recording.

It is worth noting that personal narratives and records of events and discussions forms part of memoirs. Despite the division on the role of personal narratives in recording of history, their relevance from their nature and role in history cannot be overlooked.

This forms the basis for this essay, that is, the analysis of the merits and pitfalls of personal narratives based on the war memory. It is worth appreciating that the authors to be analyzed, Naruo and Sachiko, present their own personal narratives or historical accounts of the occurrences of the war in Japan based on where they were their feelings and perceptions of war as well as their own descriptions of the happenings of the war.

This presents their characters, beliefs, values, interpretation of events and explanations for actions taken. These narratives form the foundations for the explanation of the merits and pitfalls of memoirs in the recording of the historical events. This analysis focuses on the merits and pitfalls of the use of such the personal narratives as primary sources of history and also on their background and factors that could have influenced the writers to write them.

Background study: The role of memoirs or biographies in history Personal narratives are very important in the recording of past events. They are basically personal recordings of the individual events and happenings that act as a trace of the life of such an individual.[1] Naruo in his narrative of “Doesn’t seem too bad”, focuses on the account around his life in the spring of 1945 in which Japan was in war.[2]

He writes as a fifty two year old man, about the events of war in his life as a 6th grade young boy. Sachiko writes her narrative when she is fifty seven years and in her narrative “When I made Balloon bombs”, focuses on her work at the Kokura munitions factory in February of 1945 as a young girl in her fourth year class in high school where together with her classmates had been mobilized to work in the plant in the production of balloon bombs.[3]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The authors are very much related in that they were both in school although Sachiko was in high school while Naruo was in 6th grade. This raises the fact that they were knowledgeable of writing and reading though Sachiko being older presents a clearer understanding of the war happenings as compared to Naruo. Basically, Sachiko is a young girl or lady while Naruo is a young boy although both of them write these narratives in their fifties with Naruo being fifty two while Sachiko is fifty seven.

These narratives are very relevant in providing historical information on the war from different perspectives in terms of gender and age since Naruo is around twelve years as a young boy child and Sachiko around seventeen years as a female teenager about to get to adulthood especially out of the great memories of the war in Japan whose effect is relevant even to date.[4]

Further, these accounts present the historical accounts from different locations where Sachiko was in Kokura munitions plant working in the making of balloon bombs, while Naruo has his account on his journey from Hiroshima to north eastern Japan. This analyses focuses on the justifying the reasons relevant for their use in history recording based on their merits and pitfalls in relation to records of history.

Factors that influenced the writing of the memoirs and their use in the recording of past events The war period elicited different feelings and reactions. In the period of 1945, Japan had been in war with China which had started back in 1937 and with America and its allies. The war took the direction of bombings and massive destruction of cities and towns and much later into nuclear bombings.[5]

These personal narratives represent the experiences of the authors with war. The experiences and memories that were so significant motivated them to write them down.[6] Sachiko has the rare experience of making balloon bombs which were used in war, while Naruo travels and sees a burned town to which the psychological state of meeting a person who perceives the situation as bad despite the feeling of fear elicits suspicion on him

It is worth noting that since both writers were in school during that period, the ability to read and write facilitated their writing of their historical accounts.

The magnitude of psychological impact the war had on the authors seemed to have motivated their writing.[7] This is revealed in the fact that Sachiko presents the shock and feelings of surprise at the fact that she actually made a balloon bomb and goes on to describe this process. Naruo on the other hand, has great surprise that despite his lack of much understanding on the war, the man he spoke to creates fear and suspicion to him and causes him to think much about his perception of the war and his statement of not being too bad.

We will write a custom Essay on The Merits and Pitfalls of using Memoir or Biography as Evidence for Past Events specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The age of the authors also seems to have been a motivation for their personal narratives with the shock and overwhelming nature of the war more than they could bear in their age. It is also worth noting that the issues raised are the involvement of children in war, psychological effects of war, conditions at the munitions plants and the role of gender in the war.[8]

Merits of using memoirs in recording of history The use of memoirs in history recording is based on justified reasons, which form the merits of such memoirs basically with the influence of their nature, degree of reliability and relationship with other sources of evidence.[9] Personal narratives as memoirs have the advantage of being useful in various fields other than just the records of history. This includes in the analysis of the issues surrounding the writing of such narratives.

For instance in “When I made Balloon bombs”, there is evidence of information regarding the war, the issues in the munitions plants during the war period, the education basis, gender influences in war as well as the science and art in the making of such bombs. In so doing, Sachiko presents information useful on the history on education, use of girls in munitions plants, the living conditions at the time and the aspects of disease and death as is applicable in the health sector as well as the issues of casualties after the war.[10]

Naruo presents information on a journey in a train with conversation with the neighbour and the creation of suspicion.[11] This is applicable in the learning of transport of the time, communication, education and the protection of children in war. These narratives can also be used in literature learning.

Personal narratives are also advantageous in providing the actual chronological order of events and the differences in geographical locations with actual explanations limited to a specific place.[12] Sachiko focuses on her life in the Kokura munitions plant proving information on the munitions plants in terms of conditions, workers, working environment and their role in history.

Naruo presents information on his journey from Hiroshima to the north eastern Japan raising the importance of Hiroshima as a target area for war hence the eviction of children. They both present the actual dates of the happenings of the war as the end of February in 1945 for Sochika and during the spring of the same year for Norua raising the ability to verify the reliability of the information in comparison with other records of war.

The fact that memoirs are primary sources of evidence increases the validity of history sources since such recordings are not based on any secondary interpretations of information which increases their truth.[13] Personal narratives are personally written with clear indications of the writer to be able to gauge the value of such information and get the perspective from the person. Sochika clearly specifies that she was in fourth class in high school and had been mobilized with her classmates to work in the munitions plants during the war.

Norua on his part presents his journey from Hiroshima and the suspicions from his neighbour in the journey raising the psychological interpretations and effects of the war. Both Norua and Sochika present their narratives in a way that is truly personal since some things such as actual feelings and interpretations cannot be done by somebody else conclusively. This increases their reliability as primary sources of evidence and as such their advantage in records of history.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Merits and Pitfalls of using Memoir or Biography as Evidence for Past Events by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Memoirs also are necessary in history recording especially where there are limited sources of evidence hence can be used to record such events while they provide historical data from different perspectives and based on different events which increases the value and content of history.[14]

This is very relevant due to limited nature of information especially in events of increasing the scope of research and getting to understand a subject from different perspectives.

Sochika presents information of the life at the Kokura munitions plant as a high school girl which may not have been written by somebody else in her position. Norua presents an account of a young boy’s interpretation of the war raising the influence on children who despite their limited understanding of the war had the ability of interpreting what was happening around them due to the magnitude of the impact of the war.[15]

The reliability of personal narratives also lies in their use of feelings and personal expressions to express the meaning increasing the reality of the event. For instance, Norua expresses his shock on seeing the burnt town of Akashi with clear description of the scene and then raises his words of expression “Doesn’t seem too bad” despite his shock.[16]

This increases his suspicion of the man next to him who seems to have heard raising his feelings of discomfort and thoughts of him being a spy. Sochika raises the expressions that were evident with the fact that they were free to go home some silence and shock. Her expression of the responses raises the understanding of the actual condition at the plants and the lack of expectations of release.[17]

Further, personal narratives are very necessary in increasing the fields of application of historical research such as political, philosophical, language, social, economic and cultural interpretations increasing the use of historical data.[18]

This is evident in the narratives of Sochika and Norua that can be used in political understanding of the times from the perspective of the authors, economic status from the nature of the work environment at the munitions plants and the food shortages in Hiroshima, social influences of gender in war, language at the time, philosophical interpretations of such narratives as well as psychological understanding of the war effects such as diseases, frustrations, fear and suspicion as well as the health issues.

Pitfalls of Personal Narratives Firstly, memoirs are individualized and as such reliance on them would provide a biased viewpoint especially where varying perspectives of different memoirs are used.[19] For instance, despite the age difference between Norua and Sochika, both can be considered as children.

However, Sochika is heavily involved in the munitions plant of Kokura in making balloon bombs, while Norua is part of the children that are evicted from Hiroshima to north eastern parts to protect them. This limits the understanding of the influence of the war on the children in terms of their involvement.

Memoirs also are just recordings of such events as the writer deems necessary. This means that the prior events that the author does not see of necessity are ignored thus making it difficult to follow up history. For instance, Sachiko presents information on her making of balloon bombs and the conditions at the plants.[20]

She does not specify on the reasons why they were allowed to leave, the length they had worked and the events after leaving the plant. Norua also considers his journey and his meeting the neighbour.[21] He does not clearly present the conditions at Hiroshima or the destination area limiting their reliability and follow up.

It is worth considering that memoirs are subject to loss of clarity of the flow of events especially due to loss of memory of the event.[22] This can lead to confusion and hence the lack of the actual presentation of the event. The personal narratives of Sochika and Norua are written in their fifties yet they represents the happening of event during the childhood and teenage.

This is subject to memory loss, exaggerations and the failure to remember the main significant issues or history. This however is debatable due to the magnitude of the war that elicited memories which have remained in Japan especially the effects of the bombings meaning that the authors could have clearly remembered the actual war events.[23]

Historians have been criticized of trying to establish the causes of actions, which are limited by memoirs due to the individual differences. Further, history based on emotions is not stable enough to stand the test of time. This is because memoirs are based on expression of the feelings of an individual, which are influenced by different factors. For instance, the feelings of Sochika are more of shock out of being released and frustration from working at the firm and death of the classmates while Norua mainly bases his narration on fear and suspicion.

It is worth appreciating that the characteristics of the writer of historical records have a role in influencing the reliability of such information.[24] Sochika is a young girl who understands what is happening even with her involvement in the making of bombs. This is not the case for Norua who is a young boy and in fact expresses his lack of understanding of the war and as such limits the application of his work in explanation of war perspectives.

Conclusion This analysis has focused on the merits and pitfalls of the use of such the personal narratives as primary sources of history and also on their background and factors that could have influenced the writers to write them. The narratives that have been used are “Doesn’t seem too bad” by Norua and “When I made balloon bombs” by Sochika. The emphasis has been on their merits and pitfalls as sources of historical records and information based on their nature degree of reliability and relationship with other sources of evidence.

Bibliography Fowale, Tongkeh. Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, 9- 23.

Hicks, George L. Japan’s war memories: amnesia or concealment? California: Ashgate Publishers, The University of California, 1997, 13-33.

McCullagh, Behan. “Language and the Truth of History.” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441- 455.

Naruo, Shirai. “Doesn’t seem too bad.” Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun. New York: Sharpe, 1995, 206-207.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the advantages and disadvantages of history for life. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1980, 6-25.

Sachiko, Takamizawa. “When I made Balloon Bombs.” Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun. New York: Sharpe, 1995, 181-182.

Seaton, Philip. Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II. London: Routledge, 2007, 23-45.

Seraphim, Franzika. War Memory and Social politics in Japan, 1945-2005. Social Science Japan Journal 11.1 (2008): 140-143.

Southgate, Beverley. What is History for? New York: Routledge, 2005, 12.

Trefalt, Beatrice. Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950-1975. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, 13-24.

Footnotes Tongkeh Fowale, Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 11.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 206.

Takamizawa Sachiko, “When I made Balloon Bombs”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 182.

Philip Seaton, Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II (London: Routledge, 2007), 24.

Franzika Seraphim, “War Memory and Social politics in Japan, 1945- 2005,” Social Science Japan Journal 11.1 (2008): 140-143, 140.

Beatrice Trefalt, Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950-1975 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 20.

Philip Seaton, Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II (London: Routledge, 2007), 30.

Beatrice Trefalt, Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950- 1975 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 14.

Behan McCullagh, “Language and the Truth of History,” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441-455, 442.

Beatrice Trefalt, Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950-1975 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 15.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 207.

Friedrich Nietzsche, On the advantages and disadvantages of history for life (Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1980), 15.

Beverley Southgate, What is History for? (New York: Routledge, 2005), 12.

Tongkeh Fowale, Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 19.

Franzika Seraphim, “War Memory and Social politics in Japan, 1945- 2005,” Social Science Japan Journal 11.1 (2008): 140-143, 142.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 206.

Takamizawa Sachiko, “When I made Balloon Bombs”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 182.

Tongkeh Fowale, Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 20.

Friedrich Nietzsche, On the advantages and disadvantages of history for life (Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1980), 23.

Takamizawa Sachiko, “When I made Balloon Bombs”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 182.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 206.

Behan McCullagh, “Language and the Truth of History,” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441-455, 448.

Philip Seaton, Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II (London: Routledge, 2007), 39.

Behan McCullagh, “Language and the Truth of History,” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441-455, 452.


Economic analysis and competition in oligopolistic firms Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Economic analysis

Economic feasiblity analysis

The economic impact analysis


Effects of competition in oligopolies


Reference List

Introduction In the world of business, there are various structures that are used to organize the various establishments according to the extents of their involvement. Oligopolies are one such classification and these are well present in countries all over the world. This essay seeks to illustrate how elements of economic analysis can be used to explain the competitive aspects of business entities that take the form of oligopolies.

To this end, a description of the term economic analysis and what it entails shall be provided alongside a complete detailing of all aspects of oligopolies. A section of the paper shall be dedicated to explore the possible impacts of long term strategic commitments on the competitive position of an oligopolistic firm. Finally a conclusion shall be provided and which shall serve as a summation of the arguments presented.

Economic analysis Because of the scarcity of resources, the basic human needs and desires tend to be limited by a number of factors including the purchasing power and the pricing of commodities and services. Economic analysis is the process of assessing the supply and demand patterns as well as the options which customers are exposed to and the incentives that drive them to make certain purchases (Boulding 1966).

This is therefore an analysis of how resources are utilized by a certain group of people. The field of economic analysis is divided into two main categories. These are economic feasibility analysis and economic impact analysis. These two are briefly explained below:

Economic feasiblity analysis Business establishments and state organisations tend to go through periods of uncertainty where great risk-taking measures are required particularly when it comes to the decision making process regarding long-term strategies such as the introduction of new products (Schermerhorn 1978). For a proper economic feasibility analysis to be carried out, it is imperative that the individuals involved in conducting the study commit themselves to ensuring accuracy in the prediction of demand.

To this end, it is necessary that the economic patterns as well as the purchasing power of consumers be taken into account (Schermerhorn 1978). Once the demand aspects have been dealt with, then the supply requirements can be studied and in this regard the firs have to find out which resources would be required for them to achieve their objectives. The feasibility study must also include an analysis of competitors and their basic business strategies.

The economic impact analysis This refers to intense research processes carried out with an aim of providing an estimation of the economic impact of a business establishment to the region in which it is based (Pleeter 1980). The consequence of an economic occurence is a total of the cumulative direct and indirect effects on the population. These effects are estimated by studying the levels of taxation rates, spending chains and saving patterns. These are elements that can only be analysied through scientific surveys in the target populations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Oligopoly An oligopoly is a type of market structure where a number of large enterprises exercise dominance in the market (Friedman 1983). The business establishments in this type of market are usually big companies which have a lot of resources for investment and which generally tend to command larger market values.

Such companies are also very well known in the world market because they tend to spend a huge percentage of their profits on marketing and advertising. There are two main types of oligopolies. These are the impure oligopoly and the pure oligopoly (Peeples 1989). The impure oligopoly mainly deals in a variety of products or services while the pure oligopoly mainly deals in the type of product that has no major difference from those produced by other companies in the same line of business (Friedman 1983).

Such homogeneous products include the likes of steel and wheat. In an oligopoly, there are very few sellers gunning for the biggest share of the market and this is primarily because they tend to invest a lot of resources in their daily operations. On average, most oligopolies tend to have between three and four key players (Baye 1999).

The primary feature that characterizes oligopolies is the aspect of interdependence between the companies involved. A basic oligopoly will tend to be made up of very few large enterprises (Friedman 1983). Each player in the oligopoly plays a very distinct role such that any of its actions will have a significant impact on the market conditions. Economic analysis comes in handy to explain the influences of various companies in the oligopoly especially in the view of the fact that the other companies in competition are fully aware of their rivals’ market actions (Peeples 1989). This means that in order for an enterprise to pursue a particular market action, the institution has to consider all the possible counter-reactions by each and every member of the oligopoly.

This sort of strategization likens decision making in an oligopoly to a chess game in which an player has to analyze all the possible moves and countermoves by his/her opponent before establishing a plan for attaining his/her objectives. For instance a company intending to reduce its pricing structure in order to woo more clients has to take into consideration that competitors in the same market might counter the move by reducing the prices even further.

A good example is the ongoing price war between the largest mobile telephony providers in the East African country o Kenya (Zain and Safaricom) where Zain out of nowhere cut all calling rates by 50%, a situation that forced their rivals, Safaricom to cut down their charges as well. This kind of interdependent competition has the negative effect of reducing the price to ruinous levels. Economic analysis helps understand the difference between oligopolies and monopolies in this respect of interdependence.

Economic analysis helps provides an understanding of profit maximization strategies. In oligopoly markets the companies involved are generally fully aware of their competitors’ weak points. As such, the enterprises in competition will tend to exploit such weaknesses to their own advantage regardless of the fact that such actions could spark instances of unfair competitive practices.

We will write a custom Essay on Economic analysis and competition in oligopolistic firms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic analysis helps scholars understand is aspect of competition by illustrating how oligopolies raise their profit levels by ensuring production happens at the point where marginal costs and expenditures intersect (Baye 1999). It is also through market analysis that it is easy to understand that oligopolies are able to sustain great profits by the companies acting as price setters as opposed to price takers.

In some instances, firms in an oligopoly can join forces in a secret association that would see them control the market and retain the prices at an all time high (Hirschey 2009). Such cartels result in consequences similar to those of monopolies since they tend to discourage competitive tendencies (Hirschey 2009). Economic analysis comes through to provide explanations to how certain companies in the cartels conduct themselves especially since disagreements in such arragements can result in price wars breaking out.

Once an oligopoly has been well established, it assumes the form of an elitist club where new entrants have to go to extensive lengths to prove their worth (Puu and Shusko 2002). In other words there are very many barriers to entry. Economic analysis helps further understand this aspect of entry by laying emphasis on the primary barriers which include economies of scale and idea licensing.

Similarly, concepts of economic analysis will contribute to understanding further why the enterprises that have already established ground in the oligopoly will make all necessary efforts to ensure that nascent companies are discouraged or destroyed.

In this regard, the incumbent firms can easily maintain long-run large profits by ensuring that no sideline companies enter the market to cause a split in the profits. For the sake of economic security, governments have also been known to deny some companies entry into certain lucrative business ventures. Economic analysis also explains that consumers generally tend to have limited information as regards the pricing structure and therefore will fall victims to the oppressive prices established by oligopolies (Baumol and Blinder 2008).

Leaving the market is equally as challenging as the entry and from the principles of economic analysis it has been established that this is due to the fact that such an exit can end up causing a lot of economic challenges for the economy of the country where the firm is located (Puu and Shusko 2002).

Effects of competition in oligopolies The primary effect of competition by oligopolies is unending rivalry among the companies involved (Puu and Shusko 2002). This rivalry mainly arises from price wars necessitated by firms cutting down prices with an aim of getting an unfair advantage on their competitors.

However, their are other forms of competition which dont necessarily involve the pricing structures, top on the list being advertising and differentiation (Hirschey 2009). Big companies tend to invest huge amounts of money in promotional campaigns which tend to work in their advantage mainly because they already have secured their own portions of the market.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic analysis and competition in oligopolistic firms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is however easier for companies to lose this portion of the market than to gain bigger portions and this is the main reason why firms have to constantly make the consumer aware of their presence. Advertising remains the primary way for established companies to maintain their competitive lead. In the field of economic analysis non-price competition is considered to be one of the key oligopoly models and this is because of the benefiting effects that it gives companies (Fudenberg and Tirole 2002).

As far as the price wars are concerned, one economic analysis model that can be used to explain market phenomena is the kinked demand curve model (Fudenberg and Tirole). This model is based on the fact that oligopolists tend to appreciate that when one firm lowers its prices, other enterprises will follow suit for fear of losing their market share (McEachern 2008).

When prices are decreased by a relatively large percentage, the effect is a comparatively small rise in sales; a phenomena known as inelastic demand (Baumol and Blinder 2008). However, when one firm decides to raises its prices, other firms will generally tend to ignore this and hope that the can take advantage of the situation to attract customers who will basically tend to go for the lower prices. A relatively small rise in price will come with a sharp decline in sales; a condition referred to as elastic demand (Baumol and Blinder 2008).

Even in the most competitive oligopolies, their tends to be one company that commands the biggest share of the market and as such tends to set the price for the rest of the market. This aspect is explained by an economic analysis model called price leadership where the rest of the companies in the circle have to wait for the dominant firm to set the price for them to follow (Fudenberg and Tirole 2002).

This is a very common model because companies generally have the tendency to match prices with the largest enterprise in the business. As such when this large player decides to drop the prices to ridiculous levels, the other enterprises have no option but to drop theirs as well.

As far as long term strategic commitments on the competitive position of an oligopolistic firm are concerned, there are two basic outcomes that can be arrived at. First, is that the market will gradually align itself to accord such companies superseded advantage over their competitors (Baye 1999). For instance, if a company decides to suddenly reduce the prices of its products by 40%, there is a chance that the competing oligopolies will reduce their prices to match this figure or to an even lower figure.

However, due to the fact that the reduction is of high proportions, other companies may not have the financial potential to drop their prices to such extents and consequently the firm that dropped its prices will gradually gain in terms of customer drain from competitors and will hope to retain these customers in the long-term. The other effect of long term strategic commitments is that the desired effect may not be attained and the company ends up losing heavily (McEachern 2008).

Drawing from the above example of a 40% price reduction, customers may not be interested in shifting their loyalty from the other competitors in the oligopoly because of the quality of service they have been getting. Under these circumstances, the company which dropped its prices may not be in a position to break even and because of pride issues, the company will not be in a position to raise its prices once its plan backfires.

Conclusion This essay has extensively analysed the importance of economic analysis in explaining certain behaviours of oligopolies. Various analytical models have been used to provide logical explanations as to the behaviours of companies in this business structure. Aside from this, a section of the presentation has been used to elaborate on the impact of strategic commitments on the competitive positions of companies.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that oligopoly is a very common market structure which tends to come with difficulties in evaluation. With companies getting bigger and acquiring more power and with the world becoming a global village on a daily basis it is almost guaranteed that this structure will in the coming years be the basic market structure.

Reference List Baumol, W.J.


The Analysis of Economics Essay college essay help: college essay help

In this paper, we intend to analyze three articles, published in New York Times, The Economist and Newsweek. Each of them focuses on such topic as the development of the US economy and its struggle against the ongoing recession. Our main task is to evaluate the arguments, put forward by the authors and determine whether there they are evidence-based and objective.

The first article to be discussed is called Across the US, Long Recovery Looks Like Recession. It was written by Michael Powell and Motoko Rich and was issued in New York Times on the twelfth of October[1]. The authors argue that the US economy will not be able to recover from the recession in the near future. In particular, they say that the aftereffects of the crisis can be overcome in at least nine years. Their prognosis is based on the fact that current rate of job creation is rather slow (Powell


Stresses of being a student Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Psychology and health

Sources of student stress

Positive and negative stress

Implications of stress

Coping with stress

Institutional interventions against student stress


Reference List

Introduction Many young people find it quite demanding to move from home to go and stay in college. This is due to the fact that at home they normally have ample time with parental guidance and support (Keil, 2004, p.659). On the other hand, in college they are on their own.

They have to balance out between all the activities they need to engage in. Personal organization turns out to be quite tricky and most of them get their priorities wrong. At the end of the day such like individuals end up in difficult situations as they struggle to keep up with what is expected of them.

Moving away from home also means one has to leave behind his or her family and other close friends. This turns out to be stressful, especially before one gets to form new friends and other forms of support in the new environment (Keil, 2004, p.659).

Stress refers any state of affairs that stirs up depressing thoughts and stances in an individual. Its symptoms include a condition of anxiety and adrenaline production, short-range resistance as a survival means, fatigue, bad temper and lack of ability to concentrate (Schore, 2003, p. 7). There are also other physiological effects like headaches and increased heartbeat.

Psychology and health These two terms refer to the understanding of how conduct and societal circumstance affect the general well-being of an individual. Psychologists work with other medical experts to explain various behavioral characteristics of people (Tsigos


The Kurdish Conflict in the Middle East Essay college essay help near me

Terrorism is not a new word to many of us. This word has so many definitions but according to the government of the United States, it refers to threats of the people, manipulation of the state policy by force or fear, or trying to alter the government by either kidnapping or assassination. This act is dangerous for it can take up to five years while planning and finally causing a disaster to the affected. (Kenny, 2009)

To start with, the Kurdish conflict is not an exemption but is among the most famous conflicts in the Middle East, which involves many states and non-state competitors. It is believed that roughly 30 million Kurdish people live in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran. This tribe has its own way of living and language, but has no its own state.

It is said that most of the Kurds are Sunni Islam’s although they hold close to other religions including Christianity and Judaism. It is also said that the Kurds lived independently both nationally and ethnically in Kurdistan their historical motherland. (The Odyssey, 2000)

The Kurds are seen to be undeserving of their own state because they are illiterate. This cannot make them go far since the illiteracy level will make them not see far in life. In addition, advanced infant mortality is another reason that shows slow growth leading to few people those cannot stand by their own. The way they are scarcely populated cannot make them own a nation since where there is scarcity there is no unity and without unity, it is hard to make something strong. (Berkey, 2009)

On its part, the AlQaeda was stared by Osama bin Laden in 1988 to combine the global network he organized during the Afghan war. His main aim was to advance the Islamic revolutions during the Muslim world and resisting strange links in the Middle East.

Bin laden befell in the battle beside the Soviet Union’s invasion and occupation from 1979 to 1988 ending up with a defeat under the supervision of the international militias of Muslim troop sponsored by the U.S., Pakistan and Arabia. By the help of Abdullah Azzam the leader of Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood, Bin laden had different views on how to work with the network they had recognized.

It is during this time when he decided to find AlQaeda based on personal affiliations formed during the fight in Afghanistan also on his own international network, status and admission to a big sum of money. In this process, Azzam was assassinated and after the war ended, the Afghan-Arabs who were the organizers of the war were known and they could not go back home due to the state of the country .

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This benefited AlQaeda’s global reach and finally assisted in refining the second and third generation of AlQaeda terrorists. Bin laden had some key issues, which probably made him have all the knowledge he used in his operations. His family had wealth that gave him admission to the elite Al Thagher model school were he learned Islamic which in turn changed him to become what he is today. In the early 80,s, he worked with the mujahideen in Afghanistan, which finally taught him how to fight. (Zalman, n.d.)

The AlQaeda had carried out many attacks, which cost both lives and properties worthy many dollars. In 1993, the Al Qaeda was reported to have shot down U.S helicopter killing U.S peacekeeper in Somalia while they were patrolling to restore hope.

In 1998, the Al Qaeda attacked the Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar-Es-Salam, Tanzania by bombing the U.S Embassies, which left more than 300 people dead, and at least 5000 people injured. Two years later on 12 Oct 2000 the Al Qaeda was also reported to have attacked the USS Cole in Yemen killing around 17 U.S. Navy and more than 39 injured. All these among others are some of the attacks that the Al Qaeda made. (Cronin, n.d.)

In order to fight all this terror towards Americans, I have been thinking of ways in which they could win the fight. First, they should be organized and preventive. By doing this, they will have tight security that will enable them decipher any plan the terrorism will be deciding to do and by so doing to prevent the damage that would have been caused. In addition, they should be intelligent.

By doing this the terrorism will never get access due to the fear of FBI coordination, which will lead to the penetration of the attackers. They should also redefine law enforcement. This will give the attackers fear of facing reprisals under that firm law. Funding the terrorists should also be stopped. Anybody got funding the terrorists should be dealt with accordingly.

This will help a lot in reducing the terrorism. Stern border protection should be adhered to if the borders will be guarded properly this will reduce the terrorism. This reduction will result since there would be no mingling which brings about peer pressure, which can result in doing the harm. This among others should be done in order to fight the terrorism in the world (Hamilton, 2002)

Conclusion Terrorism has been a great disaster to the world since it has caused so much harm to the affected. It is due to this that many countries are living under fear of the terrorists. Secondly, the Kurdish conflict is not an exemption but is among the most famous conflicts in the Middle East, which involves many states and non-state competitors.

We will write a custom Essay on The Kurdish Conflict in the Middle East specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is a nation, which cannot stand by it self due to some failures. Finally, the AlQaeda and Osama bin Laden have played a great role in destroying and pulling back the economy of many countries by the attacks they have been doing. We should all preach peace in order to stop all this from happening.

References Berkey, J. (2009). Preventing conflict over Kurdistan. Web.

Cronin, A. Terrorist Attack by Al Qaeda. Web.

Hamilton, L. (2002). Combating Terrorism and Protecting Our Homeland. Web.

Kenny, J. (2009). What is Terrorism? Web.

The Odyssey. (2000). Speak your mind the Kurdish Conflict. Web.

Zalman, A. Profile: Osama bin Laden. Web.


No title Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

You are to answer the following questions.. According to Blauner, what are some of the similarities between people of color in the U.S. and colonized people around the world (p. 303)?  What does he mean by the “colonial labor principle” (p. 305)?

Answer all questions.

In a discussion form not essay.


Scramble for Africa Report best essay help

The lecture on the scramble for Africa is both informative and educative. It draws its main strength from the fact that it goes back to the late 1880s to provide a clear review of how things have changed in the period that colonialists entered the continent.

This lecture divides into various aspects of the scramble by providing categorical analysis of the forms of rule adopted by the colonialists and there spheres of influence. The appreciation of Africa as a continent with a wide array of natural resources helps provide a clear understanding of why other individuals felt the need to abandon their countries and continents to come set base in Africa.

The theory on neo-colonialism has been well elaborated help create an understanding of the colonial elements that still remain in the continent and. The section that has been given extensive coverage (and appropriately so) is the detailing of the mining and exportation of oil from some African countries. Other aspects that have made Africa so highly cherished by individuals from other continents include the extensive prospects for Agribusiness.

However, it is also worth noting that from the lecture the moral issues surrounding the move by the Western nations wanting to take over all the good things in Africa have been given mention. The section on the unequal struggle by Africans fighting for the control of resources that they should have unchallenged control over serves to offer the entire lecture some sense of balance.

This is because most of the discussion was structured to show the happening of events from the point of view of the ‘offenders’ and it only takes an analysis of the retaliation by the ‘victims’ to make an argument credible.