Table of Contents Introduction
Culture at Sony and Human Resource Policy
Introduction Sony is a Japanese company that specializes in consumer electronics, which accounts for about six percent of the market share. The company also operates in foreign countries like the Japan, Spain, United Kingdom and Canada.
The company has numerous stores in the United States, Spain, United Kingdom and Canada. It has in the past decade experienced significant growth, enabling it to maintain its position in the competitive market.
The company has a large and diversified team of workers who are drawn from all walks of life.
Culture at Sony and Human Resource Policy Sony as a company stands on a very strong foundation, which has its roots from the organizational culture. The company is actually strong in terms of its objectives, principles, policies and values that are widely held; whereby all of them are clear, in addition, it is held strongly by its members, particularly the founders.
Consequently, this defines the success story of the organization, which keeps on burning in the heart of every worker. The workers are encouraged to participate sufficiently and work together.
The employees are free to bring out their ideas. Nevertheless, it is in this state that the company is in a position of regenerating, thus facilitating or enhancing its effectiveness.
The development of human resources is one of the most important parts of the human resource policy in the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The human resource development policy of Sony is to develop its employees by ensuring that they are properly trained so as to keep them acquainted with the latest technology and skills in order to make them competent in meeting the current market demands (Karmar, p.92).
Local Training Each and every factory of the company has its own residential training programs whereby the employees are trained in order to be able to meet their particular needs.
The biggest part or percentage of the employees at the company receive local training in their respective countries, whereby the training programs are designed specifically to meet the set standards as well as the demands of the particular countries.
The programs run every years and the duration taken by an employee in completing his or her training program depends on the course that he or she is taking.
In addition, we find that it is the responsibility of the institution to ensure that programs and policies help in the continuing of staff.
The workers in the organization should take the initiative of assessing interests and skills and seek activities of development that are compatible with their needs; they should work together to establish development and training objectivities.
Many programs of employee training and development fall under the categories of Career Development; Professional Skills; Management Development; Basic Skills and Supervisory Skills.
We will write a custom Essay on Sony Company’s Human Resource Development Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More International Training Even though the company mainly prefers local training as the best way of developing the expertise and proficiency of its employees, we find that this has been substantially enhanced by the International Training Center that is located in the corporate headquarters of the company in Tokyo, Japan.
Since its inception, the International Training center has always brought together managers and aspiring managers, providing them with training that meets the international standards of the profession.
Perhaps this is what has enabled the company to grow to the level it is currently, since the managers of all the branches in different countries across the world have sufficient knowledge and expertise that is not only limited to their respective or particular regions, but of internal and general standards.
The employees attend classes in accordance with the manager’s wishes, even though their qualifications also matter. A typical class is composed of twenty to thirty nationalities. There are several courses provided which can be divided into two broad groups:
Management Courses take about sixty percent at the training center. Those who take these courses must be within the company for a period of no less than five years time, whereby they are trained in appreciating the real values of the company together with business approaches.
Executive courses are classes that usually have individuals who attended management courses about five to ten years before. Here, they are trained on how to be in a position of representing the company internationally and working with foreigners, whereby they stress on the analysis of the industry (Fleetwood,
The No Child Left Behind: the Social Concern and Problem Proposal essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction The legislation under consideration is the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. It was passed in 2001, and has stirred a lot of controversy in educational circles.
In order to place this debate in context, one must understand the history behind the policy as well as the relative effectiveness of the goals.
The social concern and problem to be addressed The social concern to be addressed is low educational quality. In the United States, this problem is defined in terms of time, content, expectations and teaching methods used.
Time in the field of education centers on how students use their school day or year. This parameter can become a problem when schools use it ineffectively or when students fail to spend adequate time doing school work. Content revolves around the curriculum.
A curriculum that lacks a main goal or one that is easily diluted is a serious problem. Expectations revolve around the skills and knowledge that students ought to have after completion of their education.
Lastly, concerns in teaching involve teacher shortages and inadequate teacher preparation (US Department of Education, 2003b).
One may define and frame the education problem in several alternative ways; for instance, its ability to make market-oriented products. An education system may be deemed unsuccessful if it does not nurture the creativity of its participants.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Stakeholders expect tertiary institutions to yield innovative solutions to society’s problems. Conversely, one may frame this problem on the basis of research and development from tertiary education institutions.
Examples include development in AIDS treatment drugs, genetic engineering or space travel. One may also define the educational problem on the basis of the number of students who graduate or reach a certain level of education such as college.
Other people can think of this issue in terms of its affordability hence its accessibility to the masses. Furthermore, education quality may also be analyzed through its ability to promote equality or reduce marginalization of students from low income households.
In the United States, the challenge of education quality can be seen through content issues. Several students lack foundational knowledge in the curriculum. Additionally, problems in expectations exist as seen through the lack of challenging materials in academics.
Time-related problems include the ineffective use of school days as well as poor management of time at home when doing homework. With regard to teaching, the US has a shortage of teachers in science-related fields. Those who exist are not as fully prepared as they should be.
This social problem is expressed differently in a third world country like Nigeria. In this country, the curriculum does not address man power or market needs adequately.
As a result, many of these individuals may complete university education but fail to secure jobs (Adeyinka, 2002). Additionally, the nation has unstable teaching staff as many consider the profession a stepping stone to other careers.
We will write a custom Proposal on The No Child Left Behind: the Social Concern and Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The latter state lacks funding for curriculum development or training of professionals. Issues of low standards in certain educational institutions are pervasive in Nigeria. The issue of ill-equipped classrooms, laboratories and libraries is also a serious matter there.
Inadequate classroom capacity may also be seen as another way in which low educational quality is manifested there. Lastly, the prohibitive cost of academic materials or books is another hurdle in Nigeria.
How the US has responded to this problem In the past, the US has responded through a series of educational reforms. Initially, this was manifested through an increase in funding of educational programs.
However, in subsequent times, the country tried to establish academic standards. During the 1980s, authorities gave all states the mandate of establishing academic standards for schools (Jogernsen, 2005). Later on, in the 90s, legislators introduced the notion of performance standards in schools as seen through the 1994 IASA Act (Improving America’s Schools Act).
Schools would be held accountable for the performance of the students. They needed to demonstrate yearly progress among the participants.
Perhaps one of the most significant moves in the education industry is the instatement of a unitary assessment system in the country. Changes have also been made in content standards for core subjects such as mathematics and the languages.
Legislation The primary piece of legislation that provides federal and state funding to address this problem is the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. The legislation was passed during former President George Bush’s tenure as president.
He regarded education as one of the priority issues in his policy agenda. Many legislators welcomed the Act and demonstrated bipartisan support for it.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The No Child Left Behind: the Social Concern and Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although there were some differences during its passing, most members of congress and the senate went beyond their differences in order to pass this bill into law. By December 2001, legislators had completed the final version of the report.
NCLB is a policy whose goal is to increase achievement or proficiency in education by 2013 to 2014. Five major parameters will assist schools to achieve this goal.
These include standards and assessment, parental involvement, adequate yearly progress (AYP), corrective action, and staff qualifications. Standards and assessments require schools to adopt universal academic standards that must be challenging in nature.
Schools must also have concrete standards about what children should be able to carry out at the end of their education. Here, an institution ought to describe the various levels of achievement that children should attain; they may be advanced, basic and proficient.
Curriculum content standards should be placed in three particular subjects: math, language and reading. Schools were given only 6 months from the passing of the legislation to achieve this. They also got 3-4 years to make standards for science subjects.
In the area of assessments, schools were expected to have yearly assessments in language arts, reading, mathematics and science. However, schools were given a window period of three to five years from the instatement of the legislation to make these assessments.
Annual English proficiency assessments must also be administered to students with limited English proficiency (US Department of Education, 2003a).
The second aspect of the legislation was accountability as seen through the adequate yearly progress (AYP) system. Institutions are expected to follow universal minimum improvement level.
Percentages were determined for proficiency in math and language arts for various years. Students who fall under the AYP program are special needs children, those with limited English proficiency, the economically disadvantaged as well as ethnic minorities
Corrective actions emanate from failures in AYP; institutions that record failures for two consecutive years will be eligible for corrective action. Families have the option of transferring their children to another public school in their chosen district.
Districts have the responsibility of paying for transport with priorities given to low income groups. If failures are recorded for three consecutive years, then one can use supplemental services.
Schools that consistently fail to meet the AYP criteria, that is, those that demonstrate poor results for a period of five tears will be restructured.
Staff qualification is yet another area that the NCLB Act covers. Teachers are expected to get state certification for core subjects. Alternatively, they can receive qualifying scores on content tests.
Paraprofessionals need two years worth of higher education, an associate degree or a state assessment. They must also engage in professional development.
Parental involvement in the Act encompasses getting information about children’s or school performance. Parents have the right to ask for teachers’ credentials. They should receive notice when their children are placed in language instructions programs.
If they wish, most of them can opt out of a language instruction class. Families have the right to know about unqualified teachers if their children have been taught for a period of four weeks or more by them.
Program The AYP program is the main manifestation of the NCLB Act. Its goal is to make all public schools accountable by providing a minimum improvement level for schools annually.
The program has boosted federal education funding by different states substantially. In fact, statistics demonstrate that these numbers have increased from the time the legislation was passed.
Schools must also contend with greater sanctions or penalties. Institutions are now held to account for their actions. Additionally, they are expected to increase their level of testing. Those who fail to engage in the above may be penalized through closure or reopening as a private entity.
Alternatively, schools may be required to change their curriculum or lengthen school years. They may also be subjected to restructures if they fail to produce satisfactory results. Institutions must ensure that their teachers are well qualified. Failure to meet these criteria can lead to the replacement of school personnel.
How the services are organized and delivered The services in NCLB are organized on the basis of assessment. This was designed to boost America’s international rankings in particular subjects such as math and science.
Schools are expected to administer these tests and an analysis of their improvement done on an annual basis. These tests are organized on a state by state basis since states are responsible for establishment of standards.
States also determine the minimum requirements for skills and knowledge when developing curriculum content. Teachers must abide by these requirements if they want their students to succeed.
The Act also places high stakes for failing to meet certain criteria. Teachers play a vital role in this policy because they are responsible for constantly improving their capabilities.
Educators must learn about curriculum content and the effects of failing to implement them. Poor professional development can lead to severe consequences to teachers and schools, as well.
Therefore, state panels determine whether a school will be restructured or punished after continual underperformance.
How eligibility is determined In order to qualify for AYP under the No Child Left Behind Act, a child should belong to the four sub groups mentioned in the policy description phase. The subgroups include special needs, racial minorities, economically disadvantaged and limited English proficiency students.
All states reserve the right to establish the number of students who will be eligible as a subgroup. In order for a family to qualify as a low income group, it must provide information about all its sources of income.
Some of these may be formal such as salaries or wages. Alternatively, they may be unconventional like insurance, alimony, pensions or child support.
School eligibility is determined through administration of the assessments among at least 95% of the student population. States have been mandated to develop measurable objectives for math and reading. Most of them require 35% p in math and 45% p in reading.
Additionally, states must establish another factor for eligibility and this may include high school graduation rates or attendance rates in middle school.
Schools may also be eligible for AYP if they demonstrate a 10% improvement in non proficiency and meet the requirements for the state-specific requirements.
Evidence that the policy has been effective in achieving the social welfare goals The NCLB policy places a lot of emphasis on standardized student testing scores. Analyses indicate that personal human judgment is prone to error in test development.
Therefore, large scale tests are more rigorous and make their administration more dependable than other types of assessments. An international study done among 29 developed nations found that when standardized tests were dropped, academic standards diminished.
Furthermore, students were less motivated to study while curriculum content became incomprehensible. In the United States, test scores have improved dramatically since 2002 when the Act became effective.
Additionally, minority students’ performance in these scores has gone up substantially. It is essential for test scores to improve as American students have demonstrated mediocre results in international analyses in the past.
Aside from improvement of test scores, the Act has bridged the gap between minority students and the white majority. Achievement gaps between 2001 and 2005 have improved dramatically.
This stems directly from the creation of subgroups, which include minorities and students with limited English proficiency. It also emanates from the fact low income groups are given precedence when transferring their children to another public school.
No Child Left Behind has also improved the quality of teaching in public schools. Statistics indicate that the number of students taught by qualified personnel has increased to 90%.
Teachers are required by the Act to pursue professional development so this has improved their quality. Furthermore, the involvement of parents in their children’s education has also brought about these results.
Parents who demand to know about the credentials of teachers who handle their children have also caused many of them to improve.
Since schools have a lot to lose when they keep engaging unqualified teachers, then many of them choose not to compromise on this parameter.
Given that the policy also leaves room for supplemental educational services, then a number of students have been able to access them. Educational experts realize that student capabilities can never be equal, but when minimal test requirements exist, then educators can work out a way of improving these outcomes.
Those children who appear to be falling behind have the right to access free tutors, and thus meet the national criteria. Children from low income households who may not have afforded tutoring services can now boast of significant outcomes. Regular testing causes schools to know those students that need extra assistance.
Schools have also been improving their educational strategies time after time. Following the increase of school options for parents within certain districts, schools have a lot more to loose if they apply ineffective strategies.
As a result, many of them have opted to alter strategies that may make them loose students. All schools that require improvement have been identified promptly and restructured accordingly.
Lastly, estimates indicate that the numbers of schools that meet AYP requirements have increased dramatically; this means that the nation is well on its way to achieve proficiency in reading and mathematics.
In fact, funding in these crucial subjects has increased drastically. Although other subjects such as social studies are receiving less attention, it is generally agreed upon that science and math performance directly affects a nation’s innovativeness.
Innovative proposal The policy or program that can respond effectively to the needs of the population is the Academic Partnerships Lead Us to Success Act or A-PLUS act. Unlike the NCLB Act which increases the role of the federal government in the educational setting, this piece of legislation places power back in the hands of parents.
The Act gives states the mandate to get funding for educational problems. However, their role is restricted to consolidation rather than direct involvement in school matters.
The Act will be organized and delivered by states, teachers and parents. States will redirect resources in order to increase accountability as well as raise standards.
Although the NCLB Act was initially instated in order to increase accountability in education, this is no longer a tenable goal among the groups concerned. Most of the funds provided in NCLB were controlled by the central authority (Department of Education).
Schools could only spend them on the programs that the central authority selected. However, in the A-PLUS Act, local leaders will decide how to distribute funds. They will consider local needs in various institutions so as to make them accountable.
Furthermore, student progress will be measured by state bodies, so no focus will be given to the national large scale assessment program. The biggest difference between A-PLUS and NCLB is that it moves away from the one size fits all approach advocated for in NCLB (Wang et al., 2006).
State officials have the responsibility of deciding the transparency of fund use in simple implementation processes.
Teachers and parents will have the responsibility of determining the educational path that a particular child will follow as each student is unique.
This would minimize bureaucracy from Washington DC. Teachers would be accountable to those individuals who relate directly to students.
They would administer tests and submit results to taxpayers annually. Instead of dwelling on a national pass mark, this policy will cause teachers to focus on progress and meeting parental expectations.
The evaluation process will be twofold. First, it will consider college admissions. Since tertiary education is the culmination of the education process, then favorable results reported in college should indicate success in A-PLUS.
Additionally, evaluation will be done through improvements in science and aptitude tests. These will be tailor-made by teachers and focus will be on improvement rather than test scores.
The main idea in instating A-PLUS is to create lifelong learning through local leaders. Its aim would be to foster cooperation between teachers and parents, and also to reduce bureaucracy in education.
Emphasis should not be on paperwork or passing tests in educational policy; it should foster continual progress instead.
References Adeyinka, A. (2002). Current problems of educational development in Nigeria. Web.
Jogernsen, M. (2005). History of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. NY: Pearson Education Publishers.
US Department of Education (2003a). No Child Left Behind: A parent’s guide. Washington DC: Department of Education.
US Department of Education (2003b). A nation at risk. Web.
Wang, L., Beckett, G.
Sex Roles among Men Essay best essay help
Gender roles and sex roles can be discussed as interconnected notions which can influence each other significantly.
If the connection and interdependence of gender and sex roles in the context of heterosexual relations are rather obvious, the connection and the impact of the notions on each other from the perspective of homosexual or bisexual relations require their further investigation.
From this point, the discussion of anal sex roles among men is important for revealing and analyzing the correlation between the male gender role and the anal sex roles of men in their homosexual relations.
It is significant to answer the question about the impact of masculinity as the male characteristic on the men’s sex roles and possible impact of sex preferences on the man’s everyday behavior0.
In addition to these points, the topic about anal sex roles among men was chosen because of the current interest of the public in the questions of homosexuality which is observed with the help of examining contemporary movies, books, and shows’ themes.
Thus, there are a lot of prejudice associated with the topic which should be discussed from the point of homosexual men’s gender and sex roles and their interdependence.
Although much prejudice is connected with homosexual relations, those men who have sex with the other men are also characterized by such feature as masculinity and its components as responsibility and bravery, but the level of masculinity in a man’s nature can influence his preference according to anal sex roles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Today people are inclined to develop definite stereotypes about homosexuality and provide common assumptions the main idea of which is that homosexual men are rather sensitive, tender, acquire certain female features in their behavior and actions, and unable to do the work which is considered as appropriate for men according to the visions of male and female gender roles.
The public’s opinions on the problem of homosexuality can be divided into tolerant and quite aggressive. This point is still discussed as controversial in society. That is why the issues depicted in the movie Brokeback Mountain (2005) directed by Ang Lee provoked the great discussion of the question of homosexual relations.
Ennis Del Mar and Jack Twist, the main characters of the movie, are two men from the American West who discover their homosexual preferences and fall in love with each other.
The story develops during the period between the 1960s and the 1980s, and it concentrates on the detailed depiction of the romantic and intimate relations between these two men.
The controversy associated with the issues discussed in the movie depends on the history of the question of homosexual relations and the public’s attitude to this phenomenon.
It is possible to say that today the people’s vision of the relations of this kind is rather progressive, but biases still exist. Several decades ago the level of prejudice was extremely higher.
Nevertheless, this phenomenon is known for people since the period of Ancient Greece when homosexual relations were discussed as the part of Zeus’s religious cult and the necessary aspect of the military service.
We will write a custom Essay on Sex Roles among Men specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, in spite of the fact these relations are depicted in many pieces of art, there was not a single vision of the issue. Homosexual relations developed and were the common aspect of the personal life, but they were also criticized.
The situation which is described in the movie also presents many aspects of the problem. Ennis Del Mar is portrayed as a man with highly developed masculine qualities.
He is strong, in a good physical form, and hard-working. Ennis tries to resist his feeling of deep love toward another man when he becomes aware of his homosexuality. Jack Twist is more passionate and emotional, his masculine features are not as developed as Ennis’s ones, and he actively admits his homosexuality.
According to Wei and Raymond, homosexual men can identify their sex roles strictly or they can change their preferences, thus, they can be ‘versatiles’ (Wei
Laughter is the best medicine Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Kristine Nyhout writes about the importance of laughter to the health of the human body. She argues that instead of trying to exercise more or eating healthy foods in order to stay healthy, people should try laughing more.
She argues that many health professionals are now resorting on the use of laughter as an alternative medicine in the cure of diseases.
Although the argument somewhat discredits the usefulness of exercise, proper foods and supplements (vitamins), she sounds convincing as she quotes research that supports her arguments.
It is obvious that exercise is vital for ensuring health. This helps in various ways including maintaining the body weight at healthy levels (normal body weight).
Without exercise, the body weight might reach the overweight, obese or extremely obese mark and this could be very dangerous since it may be associated with various diseases and complications. Exercise keeps the person fit and decreases the risks of diseases.
When exercise is coupled with the choice of proper and healthy foods, the human health is almost guaranteed to improve.
Supplements also play a critical role of increasing the levels of some vital minerals and nutrients when they are insufficient in the body. This helps keep the immune system in a good condition and keep many diseases at bay.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the writer was fast to discredit the need of the three (exercise, healthy food and vitamins) arguing that laughter could do better. This may be unrealistic since the exact role of laughter in ensuring health is not clear.
However, she mentions an incident where a patient in pain used laughter successfully to reduce the pain caused by the arthritis-like disease. The usefulness of laughter has also been realised by Joy Van Herwaarde.
She resorted to clowning and has seen its benefits. Herwaarde argues that laughter helps to take the person’s mind off pain and relieves one from loneliness. Her expertise in this area has seen her services being relied upon by old persons who are on their deathbeds.
The author also argues that some scientists have discovered that it helps reduce stress and may affect the production of hormones. The writer’s argument here is based on facts and the views of other health personnel.
Therefore, the argument is convincing enough. Many professionals are studying humour in order to understand its usefulness in ensuring health. Some are also using it to fend off panic attacks in patients.
Nyhout also suggests that laughter boosts creativity and productivity. She believes that hospitals will soon introduce clowns and humour specialists who are trained to make people laugh.
She sees the possibility of such exercises being brought into the workplace wellness seminars. She did not provide any literature that supports her arguments, therefore, it is not convincing. This probably explains why she says that it ‘apparently’ boosts creativity.
We will write a custom Essay on Laughter is the best medicine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The writer provides evidence of the use of laughter in the cure of disease. She provides an example of a cancer patient, Catherine Ripplinger Fenwick, who survived cancer as she incorporated laughter for therapy.
This discovery (by the patient) led her to see the need to share that knowledge with the government employees and other relevant persons.
This argument sounds convincing since it is based on a person’s experience with a deadly disease. She took up clowning during treatment and experienced the difference as her health stabilised.
Nyhout explains the importance of humour in defusing the patients’ anxiety and changing their attitudes. She provides the case of a particular nurse, Dee Preikschas, who resorted to humour as the tool to provide healing.
She managed to defuse anxiety and change the attitude of a 10-year-old boy who had resisted treatment. The boy had resisted the IV treatment and the nurse decided to use humour.
A ‘magic’ hammer was enough to change all that. It produced some smashing noise at the IV and made the boy laugh. This made him more cooperative and he became cooperative.
The author also explores the use of laughter (humour) in manipulating some physical aspects in order to fend off illnesses. She argues that laughter may help lower the heart rate and the blood pressure, as argued by Barbara Wetmore-Patel.
She also argues that this leads to the increase in T-cell activity that is crucial in the avoidance of diseases. Improved digestion also comes as a result of the power of laughter. This argument is not very convincing since it almost appears as a personal view rather than a scientific (proven) fact.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Laughter is the best medicine by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More No statistics or literature supports this allegation. However, she claims that Wetmore-Patel has used it successfully to improve health of the retired persons. In addition, laughter (as she claims) causes the release of endorphins, which are hormones that helps to take away the feeling of pain.
The author argues that laughter may be used as an immunisation. She claims that it may be useful as a preventative measure since it helps keep someone from getting sick. This is made possible with the antibody referred to as ‘immunoglobulin A’.
Apparently, these antibody travel to the salivary glands and prevent viruses from entering. This has been explained to be the usual port of entry. The author uses literature to provide support for this argument. She uses the research by Lefcourt to explain the effects of laughter on the levels of ‘immunoglobulin A’.
The research argues that the levels of this antibody in the saliva differ between those who use humour in a daily basis as compared to those who do not. The levels are higher in those who use humour more.
Normally, the body’s immune system is suppressed when it undergoes a stressful situation. However, the research suggests that humour arouses this state and enables the immune system to continue working effectively.
This argument is convincing because the author quotes the work of Lefcourt, which employs sound research to investigate the effect of laughter in the levels of ‘immunoglobulin A’.
If laughter actually increases the levels of this antibody, then laughter would be a good remedy when it comes to the prevention of disease (viral diseases).
The author also introduces another benefit of laughter in the way it helps to increase the efficiency of breathing and cause the muscles to relax. This information is retrieved from the works of a physiologist in the University of New South Wales.
This shows the authenticity of the information. Therefore, the argument is convincing. The work of this physiologist (David Garlick) also complements the work of Barbara Wetmore-Patel since the physiologist argues that laughter helps decrease heart rate and blood pressure since the muscles are relaxed.
Since the same idea is supported by two professionals, this means that the information is authentic. In conclusion, laughter may be seen to be beneficial to the human health in various respects. However, further research is needed to explain the mechanism that laugher uses to improve health.
Mixed methods research in strategic management: Impact and applications Essay (Article) essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of past related literature
Introduction Mixed methodology study is turning out to be gradually more common approach in various subjects, and it has long been utilized as a concept to provide an improved understanding of study issues.
However, no evaluations have been carried out to determine whether mixed methods study, which may be appropriate and costly, has more impact on strategic management area (Aguinis et al., 2009).
The objective of the article was that of determining whether the utilization of both quantitative and qualitative approaches in one research is an indication of article impact in respect to citation frequency.
Summary of past related literature Following a thorough investigation of the already published articles, the author found that developments were the key purposes, unlike instead of similar design types were the most popular kind of precedence, and systematic approvals were common (Bryman
Stress and Burnout in Organizations Research Paper college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Problems of Stress and Burnout on Employees
Problems of Stress and Burnout to the Organization
Introduction The term stress was predominantly applicable in the ancient centuries to imply hardship, difficulty, strain as well as affliction. In the growing centuries, the term has been used interchangeably.
However, the core meaning has always remained poignant in all its definitions. Stress may refer to a state of psychological and physical discomfort of an individual, which is derivative of the interaction of external and biological factors (Antoniou
Meaning about California in Various Posters Essay online essay help: online essay help
California History: Hollywood Movie Posters The California state is known for its luxurious and beautiful lifestyle, but questions arise of what lies behind all that beauty. Generally it is known as a state with a stable economy, a lot of laxity and prosperity.
However, the state has a dark enigma lying behind it. Indeed, defining California’s lifestyle can be a diverse topic ranging from adventure to violence.
Looking at some of the posters, from my opinion California is portrayed as a state full of fun and adventure. Take for example the poster of American Graffiti; there seem to be a mood of freedom, happiness and lots of fun.
Blowing of a trumpet, while in the middle of such a big crowd, displays freedom of entertainment, and couples relating and cruising all around shows the adventure in mingling with different kinds of persons.
The poster of Fast Times at Ridgemont High shows two free young ladies, which might be interpreted to show the carefree life of California. People having fun in all ways they want, with the attitude of “this life is short”.
Other posters such as the Black Dahlia, Pulp Fiction and Heat display people with very serious and daring faces. This brings out California as a city with people willing to venture into very risky missions yet with no fear of any consequences.
Some of the posters, like There will be blood, Crash and Heat, are very dark showing that they are things taking place in the night.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This portrays California as a state with mysteries, adventures, jeopardies and undertakings that are only unleashed in the night.
From the posters we also get a reflection of a violent state. To begin with, guns are all over. Looking at the posters, one can conclude that, in California, guns are not a big deal; one can use them wherever and whenever they want.
This of course might not be the case. A poster like that of The Maltese Falcon displays a person who is willing to finish another’s life to get what he wants.
Take that of the Pulp Fiction, it presents California as state where use of violence is the only way to solve things. The face of the woman on the poster can also be interpreted as saying things can only go her way, with no negotiations or otherwise the pistol does its work.
From the California Conquest poster we also get to see that it is not only guns which can be used for defense but also swords. Other titles also like There Will Be Blood bring out the picture of violence in California.
The poster of Die Hard also displays a serious cop using a gun against twelve terrorists. This can be an indication of the varsity of criminal activities in California.
This draws our attention to the fact that people might be forced to own guns for self defense. In Lethal Weapon poster, we also see two serious men with one holding a gun; again we see violence being exhibited.
We will write a custom Essay on Meaning about California in Various Posters specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Judging from the facial expressions we can conclude that it is a city where people are not shaken or scared easily. In my opinion, California appears to be a city where violence and bloodshed are such an easy and small thing to do.
The movie posters also display California as state with beautiful and sexy women. Most of the women are also shown to be aware of the beauty they possess and they are not afraid to display it.
The poster of Psycho, Fast Times at Ridgemont High and Kalifornia display women who are beautiful and sexy in terms of their body figure. This shows that charm and elegance is a notable feature among California women.
Other posters like that of The Black Dahlia, The Maltese Falcon and California Outpost portray class, polish and refinement of the women, judging from their mode of dressing.
The poster of The Graduate also shows the beauty of California women is not only in dressing but in their body parts.
In California, there seems to be Heroism fight for justice. We have always seen in movies people showing bravery and boldness to defend what is just and fair. From the posters it might be a true characteristic of California.
From Heat, The Maltese Falcon and California Conquest, we see features of bravery, fearlessness and fortitude. Men are courageous enough to defend what to their opinion is just and right.
The state has also built its own heroes through their nobility towards the state and its people. This is shown from the poster of Die Hard, where we see from the writings on the poster, a cop is fighting twelve terrorists alone.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Meaning about California in Various Posters by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This shows how California has a strong belief that such heroic nature can exist, a cop boldly willing to risk his life to fight for the people. Such as cop of course will be a hero for bringing justice to the state and for displaying such gallantry
In conclusion, in my opinion California appears to be a state where freedom is vast. People have freedom to live and enjoy lavish lives and to almost make what seems unreal, real.
The subject of violence is also a notable issue. In my opinion fire arms are not a thing to display or use anywhere anyhow. And also murder to me is also not alight issue. Finishing off someone’s life to achieve justice and fairness might also not appear heroic to me.
Because there are other ways that justice can be obtained other than through bloodshed. About women, it is true that California women are really beautiful and sexy, but they might reconsider displaying some parts to everyone anyhow.
The Role of the Internet in Business Essay essay help free
The introduction Some basic points
While discussing the role of the Internet in business, some fundamentals on computer use must be considered.
First of all, it is necessary to point out that computer technologies have inevitably changed people’s mode of life. In our days the new technological devices provide people with numerous opportunities.
The thesis statement
The role of the Internet in business cannot be neglected, as the World Wide Web can be regarded as one of the most powerful and effective tools for conducting business.
The body The Internet and its impact on business
Nobody will deny the fact that the Internet facilitates people’s work. For those, who are engaged in various business activities, the Internet seems to be of vital importance, as it allows communication with suppliers, customers, etc.
As far as the Internet saves customers’ time, postage, mailing expenses, etc. its advantages are undisputable. The Internet help employees seek and use information as well as meet a company’s information requirements.
The Internet and strategic decision making
It is not a secret that for business – strategic decision making is of particular importance. For this reason, using information technologies is considered to be the key step employees are to follow.
Thus, gathering external information is one of the most effective ways organizations are to rely on, in order to succeed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The most common activities, which companies use to collect certain information, are based on the so-called business intelligence.
In other words, taking into account information the Internet provides various organizations with, one can conclude that companies’ demands for business intelligence have been increased (Pawar
Enron Company’s Unethical Business Research Practices Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
The issue of ethics has been taken for granted for so many years. In the real sense of it, it is indeed paramount and significant for many reasons in the world’s organizations.
This means that institutions have to make sure that they conform to the greatest degree of ethics in all their undertakings (Cooper
Film Review: “The Shawshank Redemption” Essay (Movie Review) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Conception of Andy’s Hope
Hope in Prison
Introduction This movie, The Shawshank Redemption, starring Tim Robbins and Morgan Freeman, is an American prison drama. It is based on a novella by Stephen King. It portrays the story of a successful banker who evidences the cruelties and abuses held in prisons.
Andy Drusfene, an innocent man, has been convicted of murdering his spouse and her lover following his (Andy’s) discovery of the affair. Shawshank is a prison, and the name redemption is used to capture the hope in the movie.
Hope sheds light in Andy’s life, and he struggles for two decades knowing that he will escape from prison and become successful. Andy tirelessly waits, and he does not lose hope in the whole of his prison life. In fact, Andy instills hope in his fellow inmates, and his hope earns him trust with the prison authorities.
At its beginning, the film involves some scenes of the night of the murder by providing a recreation of events throughout the trial being held in a court room. The movie is presented as a relating of Andy’s life in prison being told by Ellis Redding- “Red”, a felon inmate, who becomes Andy’s true companion and loyal friend.
Conception of Andy’s Hope Andy is convinced of his innocence, and he knows that, one day, he will be set free. Andy says that he loved his wife; he did not kill her. However, circumstantial evidence act on his downfall and Andy is imprisoned for double murder. He keeps on referring to life outside the prison, and some inmates feel that Andy ought to stop thinking about freedom.
Andy believes that the prison can deny him freedom, but prison can not deny him hope; in fact, hope is the only thing that cannot be taken from someone. For instance, Andy tells Red that he listens to Mozart in his head. He tells Red that some places are not built with stone, and the mind is one of these places; hope restores one’s faith in life.
He does not get discouraged when Red tells him that hope is a dangerous thing. He believes in the opposite of what Red says. He also tells Heywood and Red that they will like a book, The Count of Monte Crisco, since it is about prison break. This shows that Andy has hope of escaping prison at all costs. In fact, this acts as a premonition of Andy’s later escape from prison.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hope in Prison The Shawshank prison is an institution of cruelty where inmates are beaten, starved and abused. The wardens do this in an attempt to obscure the redemptive power of hope from the minds of inmates. This method is successful, and a lot of prisoners, in Shawshank, are hopeless.
Andy manages to fit in this setting by providing fiscal favors to the prison warden and the prison guards. This slow tale of cruelty and abuse summarizes the theme of the trail lived through the movie. This trail is characterized by the marketing slogan held for the film; fear can hold one captive, but hope can set one free.
Andy, a crafty ex-banker, knows more about money than anyone in the prison. He is also able to identify the weaknesses in people and make use of these weaknesses to his benefit. Andy, through his crafty means, wins the trust of prison wardens; he is taken from the laundry department to the library.
In the library, Andy has some privileges denied to other prisoners. He manages the prison’s financial affairs, and he is used (by some wardens) to advance some corrupt deals on their behalf. However, Andy is not foolish, and he makes sure he makes enough loopholes that make the wardens, at one time in future, caught.
A moment of great hope comes when Tommy, a fellow inmate, comes with a tale of innocence that could set Andy free. However, the corrupt prison authorities are not done with Andy yet; they want to continue laundering money. Therefore, the Warden has Tommy killed with escape being used as a cover. This is done to kill Andy’s hope, but this does not break Andy’s will of escape; the prison could not take hope away from him.
Andy hopes to live in a famous Pacific coastal town, in Mexico. He knows he will escape from prison, and, at one time, he tells Red that he is very hopeful for this dream. However, Red sees the dream as unrealistic. Eventually, this dream comes to be, and Red, after his release, goes to seek help from Andy in the named Mexican town.
Andy’s Escape Andy’s great reserve of patience and fortitude helps him succeed. By escaping Mr. Norton’s word of abuse and corruption, he claims redemption, but not before he manages to unveil the cruelties, abuse and corrupt business being held within Shawshank.
We will write a custom Essay on Film Review: “The Shawshank Redemption” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To do so, Andy goes from being an honest, moral man to a crook who used all his knowledge and skills as a mechanism of defense. The protagonist manages to gain Norton’s and the institutional guard’s respect; thus, he contributes to the progress of inmates and plays a key role in the prison community.
Andy uses a rock hammer (procured by Red) to dig a tunnel through which he escapes. In fact, this part shows the culmination of Andy’s hope. This is because he has dug the tunnel for close to two decades; this is a very ambitious escapade.
By this time, Andy has accumulated enough money to help him start a new life. He also has information that reveals the state of oppression in Shawshank. This information leads to the arrest of Hadley, but Norton commits suicide.
Critical Standpoint The movie takes the viewer through a point of self discovery in that it shows a man who refuses to lose hope. The movie shows the unfairness of the justice system; instead of being the beacon of justice, the system leads in breaking the law.
The viewer gets a view of life beyond prison walls, and the viewer also questions the authenticity of justice in such conditions. However, hope stands out in this movie, and the viewer feels that there is some hope that the situation can be altered.
Conclusion Andy’s hope sees him through prison life. This hope leads Andy to do lots of things, and lastly, escapes prison; he waits for two decades to make his move, and when he does, he moves from prison as a successful man. He uses his financial intellect to make things work for him. In fact, he also restores hope in other prisoners.
Are we living the clash of civilizations, as some authors claim? Research Paper college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
How civilizations clash
Introduction Authors, such as Samuel Huntington, claim that cultural differences in the world will lead to greater conflict in the future. This assertion is becoming a reality today owing to increased global interactions, which perpetuate civilization consciousness and stoke cultural animosities. The evidence is particularly conspicuous when Christian and Islamic civilizations conflict.
How civilizations clash Huntington (23) defines civilizations as cultural identities. These are levels of identities to which people relate. Some of them may be religious, regional, ethnic, or national. Clashes between civilizations may be a serious problem today because intercultural differences are real and quite distinct. They stem from people’s history and traditions, so it is difficult to eliminate them.
Some of the most prolonged conflicts in the world stem from intercultural or interreligious tensions (Huntington 25). Globalization is also perpetuating this trend because more diverse communities are coming into contact with one another and becoming conscious of their civilizations. Differences between these groups can spark animosities between them.
Various countries are undergoing radical political and economic change, so most citizens are losing their commitment to national identities. Religion is filling this gap through fundamentalist movements. Previously unconventional groups, such as college students, are at the forefront of the un-secularization of their societies. Consequently, this sharpens the divide between persons that belong to one religion over the other.
Non western countries want to resist domination by the West, so a number of them are embracing their own civilizations even more strongly. Economic regionalism also perpetuates the divisions between civilizations because the survival of these groups depends upon the similarities between their cultures.
It is difficult to erase the differences that exist between cultures, so this leads to a clash between the groups (Huntington 26).
The above author is the pioneer of the class of civilizations, but there are several incidences that prove his assertions. Tribal or religious fundamentalism is one such occurrence. Ethnic or religious hatred is a reality in several countries of the world today.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This nature of thinking manifested itself during the nine-eleven bombings and several other acts of terror against the West. Such radical actions have occurred owing to reactions from local populations. When global capitalists enter into different cultures, their presence may threaten the natives, who may respond by counteracting those sources of capitalism.
In most cases, such persons will give their tribes or religions a sacred quality that causes them to engage in radical acts (Barber 230). Many of these fundamentalists consider the West as the source of those global forces, thus explaining why they confront them violently.
Lewis (19) explains that one of the most distinct cultural clashes that have ever occurred is between Muslims and Christians. It should not be assumed that all Islamic countries reject the West or that opposition to the West is distinct to this region; however, some of the most alarming incidences of hatred have occurred in these areas.
American, foreign policy has revolved around several Islamic states and has thus necessitated the presence of combatants in these countries. Recent examples include Libya and Iran. The American presence has perpetuated an increase in animosity and hatred against America and its allies. This instance of disdain goes beyond mere dislike of the Americans.
Several of these nations have altered their national policies in order to counter American interests; a typical example is Iranian policy. Several Iranian leaders have called Americans enemies of God, and made political decisions that go against this perceived enemy. The dualistic ideal of the moral and evil is quite inherent in Islam, and this explains why Iran took confrontational stances against the West.
Several Middle Easterners experienced tumultuous periods in history when western-based political institutions led to dictatorships. Even economic styles from the West did not lead to prosperity, but poverty. Besides this, a number of locals became casualties of wars that Westerners initiated in their land. Therefore, it became appealing to these individuals to return to their original faith.
Islamic ways became their only source of salvation, hence explaining why many fundamentals regard modernism and secularism as the main enemies of the Islamic faith. They teach followers that modernism has destroyed their dignity, beliefs and livelihood; consequently, followers have experienced a re-ignition of dignity and hope. However, during tumultuous times, these sentiments may sometimes become explosive (Lewis 24).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Are we living the clash of civilizations, as some authors claim? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A number of clashes are also occurring in subtler forms owing to mass immigration of certain cultures. One such incident exists in France, where Islamic North Africans are forming subcultures, which dramatically counter French values. These immigrants are asking for the right to access Sharia laws, yet the rest of the French population feels that Islamic laws contradict their own.
The struggle to maintain western style secularization has undermined relationships between the North Africans and the native French population as seen through a number of laws. The lawmakers designed them to prohibit religious expression in public, especially through adornment of Islamic dressing.
These reactions from the French majority have sparked serious opposition from the Islamic population and thus perpetuated tensions between the two groups.
In order to understand how serious the clash between the Muslim and Christian civilizations is, one needs to look at some of the manifestations of these tensions with regard to the entire Middle Eastern region. Discontentment and opposition to western ideologies is prevalent in pan Islamic organizations such as Hizb – ut –Tahrir. This is a political organization a Palestinian judge created as far back as 1953.
It has members from forty countries and about one million supporters. It does not exist in the Middle East alone, as its members are quite active in Central Asia and the United Kingdom, as well. The major aim of this political party is to set up or institutionalize Sharia laws throughout the world.
Members believe that it is necessary for Muslims to have such laws in order to gain stability and safety. It also calls for the preaching of Islam to all corners of the world. While ideas about spreading one’s beliefs are common in other religions, what makes this entity unique is the anti-Zionist stance it possesses.
The movement’s leaders maintain that Israel is an illegal nation and has no right to exist. Such strong positions have led to serious tensions between Palestine and Israel over the years (Taji-Farouki 105).
The notion of antizionism does not just revolve around Israel and Palestine; it also encapsulates the Muslim members of Hizb – ut -Tahrir. Although the latter organization has not explicitly stated that it will fight Israel, it has mentioned that it will support a one-state solution between these two conflicting nations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Are we living the clash of civilizations, as some authors claim? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nonetheless, the unitary state it refers to is not a secular one in which Muslims and Jews live together; it is one in which all members adhere to Sharia law. This has perpetuated increased tensions between the non Islamic and Islamic civilizations in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Members of the above radical group have uttered a number of anti-Semitic sentiments during the recent past. In 2007, the head of the movement told attendants of its annual conference that they must wage a war against the Jews (Taji-Farouki 54). In fact, several countries have banned this organization because of endorsing racist propaganda. In 2003 Germany banned the organization by asserting that it collaborated with neo-Nazis.
In other countries, such as Denmark, authorities have arrested members of this movement and imprisoned them for their racial stances against Jews. These reactions stem from the problems between Israel and Palestine.
The members of the movement claim that theirs is not a racial attack against Israel but a call to Palestine to defend itself. Whatever the reasons are for these differences, it is clear that a clash of civilizations does exist between Islamic groups and Jewish-dominated Israel.
Conclusion A clash of civilizations is present today as witnessed through various occurrences around the world. The surge of anti-American sentiments in countries such as Iran and Libya is indicative of this trend. Perceptions of Americans as enemies inspire policies in these countries.
Additionally, immigrant populations in western nations also clash with locals. A case in point is the internal conflict between North African immigrants and French citizens. Lastly, the phenomenon is prevalent in para-muslim organizations such as Hizb- ut -Tahrir, which have perpetuated the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Works Cited Barber, Benjamin. Jihad vs. McWorld. Chicago: Ballantine Books, 1995. Print.
Huntington, Samuel. “The clash of civilizations?” Foreign Affairs Journal 72.3(1993): 22-40. Print.
Lewis, Bernard. “The roots of Muslim rage” Atlantic Magazine Sept. 1990: 19-24. Print.
Taji-Farouki, Shaker. A fundamental quest: Hizb – ut – Tahir
The Leadership Styles of Grant and Hitler Term Paper online essay help: online essay help
The leadership styles used by Grant and Hitler resemble and differ in several ways. In this essay, I will first discuss the differences followed by similarities. First, Grant‘s leadership style becomes demonstrated as unheroic while Hitler’s style becomes demonstrated as false heroic.
Second, Grant was a strategist who wanted the best out of himself and his soldiers while Hitler did not mind much about the well being of his soldiers and most of his strategies involved murder. Lastly, Grant’s style of leadership was humble and democratic, while Hitler’s style of leadership was that of dictatorship.
On the other hand, both leaders led to loss of lives during the attacks and the strategies they employed became influenced by earlier experiences. Considering the styles of leadership by the two leaders, Grant was more heroic than Hitler, as he gave his troop autonomy to do what they deem best, as opposed to Hitler who ruled by the supreme command.
Differences between Grant and Hitler According to Keegan, Grant used unheroic style of leadership because he resisted leading from the front (18). Grant’s ability to embrace new and creative methods of fighting in the war and his down to earth attitude of taking himself like a mere soldier or commander while still leading his soldiers into places that would result to losses of lives is what makes Grant the symbol of an unheroic hero (Keegan 168).
Other traits that made Grant seem unheroic include his appearance and mode of dressing. Grant did not appear to have power, from the outside look. He was, also, not handsome as he paid less attention to his physical appearance and he wore cluttered clothes.
Besides, Grant watched over the soldiers in the vanguard and often assisted soldiers who found themselves in trouble. Grant ensured that his troops did not surrender through encouraging them and providing reinforcements.
Conversely, Keegan demonstrates Hitler’s leadership style as false heroic (154). He uses the fact that Germany finally lost the battle to support his argument. He further argues that Hitler, at some point, lacked the confidence and aptitude to carryout operations on a daily basis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hitler did not embrace new fighting techniques from his soldiers, as he solely formulated strategies and made vital decisions with no consultation from his fellow army men. This implies that the troop had to abide by all Hitler’s military ventures despite the fact that some of these ventures were not viable.
Keegan, also, demonstrates Grant as a committed strategist who wanted the best out of himself and his soldiers as he quotes him saying “I finally decided to have (no communications) – to cut loose altogether from my base and move my whole force without a rear link.” (18). In other words, Grant preferred not to address his troops as he regarded it as needless, and he always listened to their views.
Grant was, as well, tactical in planning the last attack in the story. He felt that there was no need for his army to establish a permanent base in a war of people against people and a dispersed land. He planned how military supplies could be drawn by railroad and river. Grant advocated for hard work, discipline and faith, in his strategies.
Conversely, Hitler frequently addressed his troops, as he gave them all the orders. He did not also listen to them as he was the supreme commander. In addition, most of Hitler’s strategies involved practices of suicide as an equivalent of death in the appearance of an enemy. Only a few suicides become heroic, and Hitler’s strategies of suicide did not earn the heroic status.
Grant’s style of leadership was humble, and he believed that his soldiers could lead, as well. Conversely, Hitler’s style of leadership was that of dictatorship, despite the fact that his soldiers had more knowledge and experience in wars than him.
Similarities between Grant and Hitler Both leaders killed people, during the combat, although Grant’s butcher method had lots of shortcomings. Grant loved his soldiers and did not want to lose any one of them. However, this did not stop him from commanding them to slaughter opponents during assaults like Petersburg and the Cold Harbor, whereby he lost over 60, 000 men.
Although Grant regrets that he steered the battle, Keegan explains that it is this battle that taught Grant to conquer his moral struggles of sending his soldiers to death (162). The battle, also, shaped his skills as a leader on the combat zone at Shiloh.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Leadership Styles of Grant and Hitler specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also, both leaders had prior experience in wars and these experiences had an effect on their strategies. Hitler gained experience during the Western Front and the beginning of the Second World War, and he, also, learnt much about trench maps during the First World War. Grant, also, obtained military experience during his early years.
In conclusion, several similarities and differences can be noted in the leadership styles of Hitler and Grant. Grant’s style of leadership was humble, and he accepted the views of his soldiers. Conversely, Hitler led his soldiers to war and ruled by the supreme command.
Also, Hitler did not care about the loss of his own soldiers while Grant did not want to lose his own. On the other hand, both Grant and Hitler’s attacks led to loss of lives. Besides, the strategies they employed became influenced by earlier experiences.
Works Cited Keegan, John. The Mask of Command, New York: Penguin, 1989.Print.
Inventory is a necessary element for customer service. However, it implies an additional cost that can become unsustainable for writing essay help
Inventory is a necessary element for customer service. However, it implies an additional cost that can become unsustainable for an organization.
Read the article Inventory-Driven Costs and answer the following questions:
Is HP’s focus on minimizing inventory costs is feasible for a company operating in a market where delivery speed is an order-winning factor?
Would you pay a premium for a product or service price for an earlier delivery? For which type of products or services?
In the discussion forum, you are expected to participate often and engage in deep levels of discourse. Please post your initial response as early as possible and continue to participate throughout the unit. You are required to post an initial response to the question/issue presented in the Forum and then respond to at least 3 of your classmates’ initial posts. You should also respond to anyone who has responded to you.
Calloni, G., de Montgros, X., Slagmulder, R., Van Wassenhove, L., Wright, L. (2005). Inventory-Driven Costs. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2005/03/inventory-driven-costs
Reflective Entry: “Notes of a Native Son” by James Baldwin Essay college essay help online
Reading the “Notes of a Native Son” from a non-fiction book Notes of a Native Son by James Baldwin, it becomes obvious that the author tries to dwell upon many different points devoted to his father to make sure that if he speaks about the problem, if he splashes his feelings hatred and despair in relation to his father is going to disappear.
Even though these son’s relation to father is explained through the whole chapter, the main purpose of the discussion is the attempt of James Baldwin to understand the role of black people in formation of America as the country which we are able to see it now.
The chapter presents the story of a boy who was brought up in a society of black people and who was driven to New Jersey to get education. Reading some passages, it seemed impossible for people to behave that way. However, looking at the modern society when some people seem to be higher in range just because they think so, it is obvious that the history is really important.
James Baldwin tells about the cases when he came to New Jersey with the purpose to get education and where he could never think he would be treated as a slave who was unable to do what he wanted, who was unable to visit the places he wanted and who was banished for that society.
James Baldwin writes that no matter where he came he “was always being forced to leave, silently, or with mutual imprecations” (Baldwin, 1955, p. 93). The author says that such position of affairs affected him greatly and in some time he became afraid of walking in the street. Then, after being fired for several times, he began to think that there was something wrong with him particularly.
Returning to the problem of the place of the Afro-Americans in the life of America, it may be stated that the white supremacy during the 1940-1950 played an important role in the formation of the country. Many black people who wanted to study and wanted to work were rejected just because they were of different color.
The prejudiced relation to black people caused many African-American become “bitter” (Baldwin, 1955, p. 89). An attentive reader may notice that this word is repeated for several times. The author uses this word when he described the character of his father.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it may be concluded that Baldwin’s father became that irritated, angry and bitter, as his son identifies him because he managed to come though all that attitude as his son experienced.
The theme of the chapter is the son’s remembering of his father, his actions and behavior, however, the main idea the author wants to deliver is hidden. The author wants to ask whether the role of the black people in American society that great that most of people still preoccupied with personal significance and others feel personal nonentity.
The question which should be asked is what is the place of African-Americans in the formation of the country? What would be if during the 1940-1950 black people were not discriminated? How would black and white live now if the process of white superiority were not completed? These are the questions which arose in mind while reading the chapter “Notes of a Native Son” by James Baldwin.
Reference List Baldwin, J. (1955). Notes of a Native Son. In J. Baldwin, Notes of a Native Son (pp. 85-114). Boston: The Beacon Press.
The Concept of Ego Depletion in Psychology Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Apart from healing time, younger people are not overwhelmed by emotional fatigue which can be another name of ego depletion. Admittedly, the concept of ego depletion can confirm that younger people can better cope with such ordeal as the loss of a close one. However, it is necessary to take a closer look at the notion of ego depletion to understand its effects on people’s behavior.
Notably, Freud mentioned concepts similar to the concept of ego depletion (Baumeister et al., 1998). He claimed that ego was like a rider who was trying to control his horse (i.e. id), which is sometimes impossible. He also believed that there were certain limits to people’s capacity to control their nature (Baumeister et al., 1998).
Now researchers have more specific ideas on the matter. For instance, Baumeister and Vohs (2007, p. 117) define ego depletion as “a state in which the self does not have all the resources it has normally”.
Vohs et al. (2011, p. 166) provide a more precise definition stating that “[e]arlier engagements in self-regulation lead to later self-regulation failures, a hangover effect”. It is important to note that researchers quite agree upon the definitions, but they have different views on one important point.
Thus, some researchers suggest that self-regulation is unlimited and motivation can diminish ego depletion (Job et al., 2010; Vohs et al., 2012).
However, it is necessary to add that Vohs et al. (2012) admit that this is true when it comes to some everyday self-control scenarios, whereas ego depletion increases in such cases as death of a close one, severe health problems experiences, etc. Schmeichel et al. (2003) provide valuable data which verify these assumptions.
Though the researchers focuse on cognitive operations, it is obvious that more complex psychological processes lead to higher levels of ego depletion (be it reasoning or experiencing emotional traumas).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the same time, a lot of researchers argue that self-regulation is indeed limited. Various surveys and experiments confirm such assumptions. For instance, Job et al. (2011) state that the availability of information on limited or unlimited self-regulation resources only affects people’s perception on the matter, but have no effect on actual level of ego depletion.
In other words, even though people start believing they can cope with a variety of problems irrespective of their previous experiences, this does not affect their actual ability to handle this or that issue. Interestingly, Heatherton and Wagner (2011) focus on neurological aspect of the issue. Their study also confirms that people have different capacities to regulate their emotions with the course of time.
The researchers also claim that the more self-regulation people have to exert the higher level of ego depletion will occur. Leary and Tangney (2012) state that people try to improve their lives with the help of self-control. Self-control helps people fit the society, which, in its turn, helps them feel better.
Therefore, various surveys confirm that younger people have more capacity to overcome such psychological traumas as the loss of close people. When a young individual faces the issue for the first time, he/she feels distress and anxiety. However, young people find strength to exert self-control.
They may or may not be assisted. In other words, their friends, relatives or psychologists can help them find ways to cope with the problem. Thus, young people who experience such psychological traumas can accept the loss and move on.
Certain time later people have to experience similar feelings as the loss of relatives and close people is inevitable. Facing such problems, young people already have specific behavioral patterns to follow. They can exert self-control.
When it comes to older people, their capacity is coming to an end as each loss diminishes self-control capacity. Older people experience numerous sad events which make them grow weaker, so-to-speak. Updegraff and Taylor (2000) claim that people’s mastery diminishes each time they have to exert self-control.
We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of Ego Depletion in Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Admittedly, elderly people are especially vulnerable as they exert self-control throughout their lives. Many elderly people have to live through the death of their child which is one of the most serious psychological traumas (Ryan, 2012).
Thus, the loss of a partner at eighty is more difficult to handle compared to the loss of a partner at thirty. In the latter case the individual has almost full capacity of self-control. However, the elderly individual has already spent considerable amount of his/her capacity while coping with various sad experiences during his/her lifetime. The level of ego depletion is high since this person has had to exert self-control previously.
There have been many associations with the concept of ego depletion. One of the easiest associations is as follows: holding a 7-kilo package can seem quite difficult at the beginning. However, this package can seem simply intolerable after holding it for a couple of hours.
Likewise, when exerting self-control for the first time, it is difficult, but in the course of time this task can seem unbearable. Therefore, the concept of ego depletion does confirm that older people regulate their emotions worse or even much worse than younger people.
Reference List Baumeister, R.F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M.
Service Encounter: Service Enquiry Desk in a Library Report best college essay help
Executive Summary A service encounter is an essential aspect for any organization. This is because, it gives the definition of the direct interaction exhibited between service firms and their clients. A service encounter is the foundation of building trust in customers with regard to service offering of an organization. In addition to this, a service encounter serves as the basis in which customer satisfaction is realized.
Without service encounters, a business cannot realize its targets. Service encounter links up the business with the clients through interaction. Further, it is through service encounters that a firm can realize its position in the competitive market.
Precisely, it is through service encounters that the extent of market share an organization is associated with will be determined. The desirability as well as the quality of the service encounter are vital elements and as such, a firm should consider sufficiently when making decisions regarding the most viable service encounter that should be undertaken.
Introduction Foremost, a service represents the action of executing or performing something for something or even someone. Usually, a service is intangible.
Therefore, a service context has involved the creation of a series of challenges for the manager assigned to the duties of marketing for; he has the responsibility of communicating the benefits of a certain service. He does this by drawing parallels while incorporating imagery as well as the ideas, which not only can they be identified but are also tangible (Hoffman, Kelley
Brazil Offset Program Essay essay help: essay help
The term offset is an English word that is used to mean compensate or the act of counterbalancing. Offsetting is used in various fields depending on the different scenarios.
For instance, it can be used in the business world when a person settles a debt. In this report however, offsetting will be discussed in the line of military, whereby a comparison between the Brazilian and UAE offset programs in the defense system will be made.
In defense, an offset program is initialized with the aim of compensating the local industry with that from the foreign countries. In simple terms, an offset program entails getting defensive support from foreign contractors. “Offsetting provides an opportunity for purchasing governments to impose compulsory inward investment obligations on foreign suppliers” (Dempsey, 2011, p.1).
Among the many nations that have the offset programs is Brazil, which is located in South America. Despite the fact that Brazil is a peaceful nation, it has been able to dominate armed forces from America (Mitra, 2009, p.1). “The underlying policy by the Brazilian government is that the nation should be able to provide enough security for its citizens without having to deploy security personnel from other nations” (Mitra, 2009, p.1).
In a bid to achieve this goal, the Brazilian government has put in place funds to ensure that they purchase the latest military technologies from the foreign and expert countries like Japan. Research indicates that Brazil has been able to acquire the technologies “through such methods as licensed production, co-production and joint ventures although it has formally articulated its offsets policy quite recently” (Dempsey, 2011, p.1).
In all the aforementioned methods of technology acquisition, transfer has been the main mode of acquiring the offset program in Brazil. The major aeronautic company known as Embraer Corporation having been established in the year 1969 has proved to be the best offsetting program in the military industrialization.
This can be supported by the fact that Embraer has effectively absorbed and indigenized the foreign technologies as a way of offsetting the foreign deals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to this, Brazil has proved to significantly participate in the offsetting program through its importation of ammunition and the small arms that have been licensed in Italy, Britain, and Belgium among others. At the same time, Brazil is slowly becoming one of the leading manufacturers of firearms although it has not been given the authority to license them, hence using other nations that have the authority to do so.
On the other hand, the UAE has also established an offset program that is deemed to have been founded in 1992. Just like in Brazil, the offset program is aimed at establishing joint ventures at the local sector with those from international contractors and or members.
Research done indicates that a high percentage of the UAE citizens have been able to become shareholders the public joint stock companies. This has in turn led to increased power in the offset programs of the UAE. The main achievement of the UAE offset program is the ability of the government to be able to easily purchase and supply goods and or services through the aid of the local agents within the region.
With the main objective of the UAE Offset program being to diversify the economy of the UAE; this has been effectively achieved through enabling the ease and access of market and technology within the region and from abroad (Offset Program Bureau, 2011, p.1). As such, this has in turn created employment opportunities among the nationals of the UAE.
Reference List Dempsey, A. (2011). Don’t Fear the Offset. Web.
Mitra, A. (2009). A Survey of Successful Offset Experiences Worldwide. Journal of Defence Studies 3(1), 1-3. Web.
Offset Program Bureau. (2011). Defense Contractor: Offset Guidelines. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Brazil Offset Program specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Formation of Self Identity Term Paper college essay help: college essay help
Formation of self identity is the growth of distinct character of a person. The process is usually termed as enduring entity since it happens during the specific period of human life when an individual possesses characteristics which he/she is recognized with.
During that period of time in human life, they establish a reputation which they are identified with. Formation of self identity defines a person; who he is and how people see him (Dupre 8).
Individual’s entity includes logic of uniqueness, logic of continuity and logic of affiliation. Many issues are usually developed by identity formation and they include distinctness and individual identity whereby a person can comprehend who he or she is as a separate and distinct being.
Humans usually experience this through individuation when they apt to become unique. This paper mainly traces the theme of formation of self identity through the readings such as various liberal arts and my own experience as an individual.
A student may decide to major in philosophy but before he or she begins to study, he must be fully aware of benefits of the course. Recognizing a field of study is self identity since a person becomes aware of what he/she wants to obtain in the end.
Parents usually invest financially on their children when they take them to college and that is why they always have the desire to know benefits to them. Parents will invest as much money as they can in educating their children if they know that it will secure their future.
Those students who have chosen to major in the field of sociology, philosophy, anthropology or art history study liberal arts. There exists broad and versatile learning in liberal arts that forces students to immerse in studies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is a unique element of American higher education and a foundation of vitality. Today, many students have decided to major in different careers and ignore liberal arts. This is because the curriculum allows students to specialize in what they want and feel comfortable with.
A student is allowed to choose a goal that is practical and most students believe that liberal arts are not practical. Administrators and faculty members have neglected to offer advice to students on the values of studying liberal arts.
Most students and families, however, do not think the same with administrators and faculty members. They believe that it is not worth sacrificing money and time on liberal arts since they will not get any practical return on their investment.
They believe that it is valueless to study liberal arts since the return is apparent.
Understanding the meaning of liberal arts and its purposes is what can make a person like this field of study. Many education institutions have failed to award undergraduate degree to liberal arts students.
In United States, 60 percent of undergraduate degrees offered by education institutions are in technical and pre-professional fields. Business courses account for 21% of the awards.
In 2006 report on improving American higher education, the special commission totally ignored the field of liberal arts and education and finished his speech without mention either of them.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Formation of Self Identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In developing countries, the situation is even worse; many new institutions of higher learning only offer education on subjects which they view as practical which include: science, technology or business.
This is a common practice in China and Uganda; the government only gives scholarship awards to those students whom have pursed courses that are practical such as science, technology and engineering.
Students should understand that liberal arts comprise sciences and arts. Liberal arts can be contrasted with vocational education. Those students who major in liberal arts study psychology, history or biology.
They do not cover applied fields like criminal justice, journalism or agriculture. Having a clear understanding and knowledge of what liberal arts is comprise of, will enable students to make right choices.
For students to become successful, they require intensive intellectual dialogue between them and the faculty on diverse spheres of highest human values and concerns (Hallman 6).
Liberal arts education involves students in formal dimensions of discussions which make students active since they are engaged in different discussion groups. Based on Socrates thoughts, students learn more effectively if they are involved in a discussion or given a question to pursue on their own.
This is what is called active learning where students are involved in asking questions and they are being asked questions. Elusive answers are received after dialoging with their fellow students.
Students will determine who they are and what their thoughts are concerning significant issues in life if they are involved in meaningful discussions which are challenging and require them to ask questions and think harder.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Formation of Self Identity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Students will also learn more about who they are if they are engaged in active learning where they can come up with their own questions and answers. This is what is termed as substantial learning.
Liberal arts students do more of substantial learning as compared to other field of education (Roche 12). Most of the times, liberal classes comprise peer discussions, independent research projects and service learning.
Essay examination, tutorials and oral examinations are some of the modes of which liberal arts learning is being fostered.
Students who participate actively during the learning process, who know how to connect the earlier knowledge to what they find meaningful are much brighter as compared to other students.
Being engaged outside the classroom substantive topics will make students enjoy their experience while in college. The more a student is involved in classroom, the greater their chances of learning deeply and developing personally.
This clearly shows that narrow education is not enough to enable students to identify what they want in life. The key to success in the global economic world today is liberal education.
This is because it introduces students to develop multiple perspectives on their own making them independent in such a way that they can make their personal judgment.
Liberal education enables students to acquire broad knowledge and it gives them multiple opportunities to gain real life skills that they can use in the outside world, for example, in identifying that internet is everything in today’s world since it provides us with all the answers that we need (Naughton 7).
Those students with broad knowledge are able to recognize that technology is what drives photography. They will also be able to give reasons why this is so by viewing at what photography is made of. Photography is surrounded by machines and that is what it is built of.
A bright student will be able to identify if the quality of an image has gone up or it has a sharper focus or the lighting in the camera is better or much higher or if the color has lushes. A student who is not bright will assume and believe that all cameras are designed that way.
Liberal students have skills that they can apply in many fields in today’s global economic world. This is because these students are curious and have the passion to know more and identify why certain things occur in life.
Only a bright student will be able to identify why there is war in the world and what can be done to overcome it. Some will see war as a natural thing which existed since Stone Age period.
Human beings are able to identify what is sacred because it shows and manifests itself. It is also totally diverse with profane. Something sacred is something unique which does not belong to this world; it may be an object or a stone which is different from natural ones that exist in the world.
Something that humans have identified as sacred is not adored in their form instead they are worshipped due to their hierophanies nature since they show something beyond their natural form.
Anything that has been identified as sacred by humans will change their form to something else yet it still retains itself since it continues to perform its cosmic milieu in the surrounding where it is located.
For example, a sacred tree will continue being a tree, nothing will distinguish it from all the other trees. Only those whom the tree reveals itself to be sacred will see it differently. They will consider it as a supernatural thing.
Those people who live in archaic societies tend to live a sacred life because they believe that it is power and reality itself. Their sacredness is saturated in their being human.
Archaic societies believe that everything is real and at the same time they value life and believe that it is worth enduring. This explains why religious people such as archaic have great desires for mortality, to join in reality and to be power saturated.
Sacred people usually believe that the world is not homogenous since they can undergo interruptions, break through it to some other space such as mass (Eliade 8).
Sacred people also believe in sacred spaces. They value these places more despite the fact that they are surrounded by other grounds. Non-homogeneity experience of religious people can be termed as primordial experience since it proceeds all outside world reflection.
To them it reveals the central axis and the fixed point for the future. Homogeneity of a space will break if a sacred place manifests in hierophany. It also reveals reality as compared to non-reality of the surrounding.
The world was found on the sacred ontologically manifestation. Sacred people believe that the world is nonaligned and homogeneous; it cannot be qualitatively differentiated or wrecked into various elements.
They, however, believe that geometrical space can be delimited and cut in all directions but cannot be differentiated qualitatively. It requires no orientation by virtue of its structural inherent.
It will be much easier to acquire orientation and obtain a fixed point in homogeneity chaos if sacred space is reveled. The world will be found and the people will have real sense about it.
Identification of sacred is a vast subject which concerns not only historians of religions but also sociologists, social historians, politicians, psychologist, ethnologists and philosophers.
These people have enabled us to understand the state of sacredness as assumed by religious people. They have made us understand the universe and the spiritual world. They have also enabled us to identify the characteristic mode of the world existence.
They have made us understand why sacred people believe in sacred life and the main reason being that it has a sacred origin. Human existence in the world therefore brings out the reality in life as believed by religious people.
Sacred people believe that man was created by the gods in the world while the cultural heroes are responsible for completion of creation. They believe that the history of existence of semi-divine and divine works is not reality but myths.
Devine behaviors possessed by man that keeps them closer to their gods are imitations induced by re-actualized sacred history. Non-religious people, however, have different views on the world. Non-religious people do not believe in transcendence while they acknowledge the concept of reality.
They do not also believe in the meaning of reality of life. Non-religious people are responsible for the development of western culture in the world. Modern non-religious people regard themselves as agents and subjects of history but they do not believe in transcendence.
Nonreligious beings do not recognize any humanity form that exists outside humans since they view it as an historical state. Nonreligious people believe that “Man makes himself, and he only makes himself completely in proportion as he desacralizes himself and the world (Eliade 18).”
They believe that sacredness is a great obstacle to human freedom since it bounds them to one belief. They also believe that after totally demystifying themselves they will become free people. Nonreligious individuals also believe that killing the last god is the only way to gaining their freedom in the world.
Works Cited Dupre, Ben. 50 Philosophy Ideas You Really Need To Know. New York: Quercus Books, 2007. Print.
Eliade, Mircea. The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion. New York: Harcourt Publishers, 1959. Print.
Hallman, Max. Traversing Philosophical Boundaries. New York: Thomson/Wadsworth Publishers, 2007. Print.
Naughton, John. From Gutenberg To Zuckerberg: What You Really Need To Know About The Internet. New York: Quercus Books, 2012. Print.
Roche, Mark. Why Choose The Liberal Arts? Indiana: University Of Notre Dame Press, 2010. Print.
What Exactly Does It Mean To Be A Behaviorist? Essay custom essay help
In this book, the concept of a person being a behaviorist is critically observed. The influences of the behaviorist’s environment on the observations made by the same person are also under scrutiny.
This is because the behaviorist is also a part of the society and cultural structure. In addition, the ideal perception of a behaviorist while making important observations is discussed.
All conclusions made by a behaviorist are based on the characteristics that are physically observed alone, and do not include influences of beliefs and culture (Hallman 108).
A behaviorist has to observe the actions of an individual or a group of individuals in a relationship among themselves or other people. Behaviorism is closely related to study of organisms’ response to each other’s action.
This means that the behaviorist has to observe the behavior of two organisms while he or she is a subject to influences of experience in the society.
This experience significantly influences the manner in which behavior of the individual under observation is understood (Hallman109). The behaviorist has to make observations free of the influence of culture.
Since the behaviorist is obviously under influence of culture that has nurtured him or her, objectivity is required to accomplish the task of observation. Behavior of an organism has to be observed within a specific cultural context.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The study of human behavior involves objective observation without invoking the theory of the supernatural or the unknown. A human being is an organism in a behaviorist’s perception.
This way, the behaviorist is able to observe free of cross-cultural influence (Hallman 108). To a behaviorist, a human being is an organism that reacts to the changes in its environment, and is not guided by any other external influence other than biological factors (Hallman 110).
Why Does Mead Claim That A Multiple Personality Is In A Certain Sense Normal? Mead’s theory of self explores the concept of personality. He explains that people do not have a single personality. To mead, multiple personality is a common phenomenon among members of the society.
Multiple personality means that a person will assume the personality he or she thinks is the best for a particular situation at any moment.
A person’s behavior is modified by the impression he or she wants to make on other people with whom he or she interacts.
Depending on the impression an individual wants to make on another, one will assume different versions of self. Self means the personality of the individual whose behaviour is under scrutiny of the party on whom the impression is being made.
Since every individual wants to make different impressions on different people, every person will subconsciously assume a different personality while he or she is under observation from the party of interest.
We will write a custom Essay on What Exactly Does It Mean To Be A Behaviorist? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This assumption of different selves is not an action aimed at deceiving the other party, but is a subconscious action where one seeks to modify other people’s perception of their character.
The personality that is assumed by a person depends on the role of the particular individual in the relationship that he or she wants to make an impression on (Hallman 113).
Individuals in a society often observe multiple personality where the behaviour of another person towards them seems different from the behaviour of the same person towards a different party to whom there is a different relationship.
The person under observation does not intend to be observed by the two parties at the same time, but certain preferable people are the target of the present behaviour (Hallman 115).
This multiple personality is normal since individuals will always seek to modify the reaction of the environment to their behavior. People with whom they have different relationships will observe a single individual as having different personalities.
Works Cited Hallman, Max O.. Traversing philosophical boundaries. 4th ed. Australia: Wadsworth Pub Co, 2011. Print.
Financial Strategies of the Confederacy vs. Union Governments’ Economic Choices Essay essay help online: essay help online
While explaining the economic reality of the Confederacy in times of the Civil War, some fundamentals on the financial strategies of the Confederate and Union governments must be considered.
One of the major points, which is to be taken into account, is the Confederacy’s inflation financing. Thus, one is to keep in mind that there is a direct interdependence between the economic strategies of the Confederacy and their military failure.
On the other hand, effective financial choices of the Union are mostly associated with the so-called policy of combination. In other words, summing up loans, taxes and notes determined the success of Union governments’ military engagements.
The Thesis Statement The analysis of the economic policy of the Confederacy in times of the Civil War gives us an opportunity to understand how the government’s ability to secure resources to mobilize military forces influences the success of military engagement.
The Body Raising Funds As The Government’s Most Important Step To Succeed
As far as Southerners’ economic choices were mostly conditional, one can probably conclude that the major mistake of the Confederacy was that they failed in aggrandizement of federal power, when such opportunity was available.
Taking into account the fact that the Confederate governments were mostly focused on states’ rights and slavery, one can suppose that their financial strategies were not static.
It seems to be obvious that the government’s ability to raise funds, in order to support military strategies development as well as to reinforce administrative capabilities is extremely important for the war effort.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Of course, political incentives cannot be neglected, as they also influence financial choices.
The Economic Choices Of The Confederacy And The Union
The political basis of the Confederacy and the Union concerning war financing gives us an opportunity to trace back the interdependence between economic choices and military outcomes.
One of the most important issues, which cannot be ignored, is that “the key decision-makers on both sides knew each other well from previous experience in Washington; and the military and financial strategies that had been employed throughout the ante-bellum period were common knowledge” (Razaghian 2).
In other words, one can make a conclusion that the economic policies of the both sides had to be somewhat similar. In reality, the assumption, however, does not make any sense.
It is necessary to remember that the success of the Union can be explained by the government’s right decision to adopt long-term financial strategies.
The Confederacy, in their turn, lost time in effortless contemplation. It is a well-known fact that the Confederate government decided to leverage tax power, when such actions were not already necessary.
According to Razaghian, the major mistake of the Confederacy was that “they relied on loans and non-interest bearing notes” (3), while the success of the North can be explained by its government’s decision to collect taxes.
We will write a custom Essay on Financial Strategies of the Confederacy vs. Union Governments’ Economic Choices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Importance Of The Key Political Interpretations
Generally, there are many opinions on the reasons of the Confederacy’s failure. For instance, the viewpoint that “the Confederacy lost because of disagreements between Jeffersonian governors and an increasingly centralized regime in Richmond” (Beringer et al. par. 2) is criticized by many historians, as the key political interpretations seems to be omitted.
Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation And Its Meaning
Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation is also to be highlighted, as it increased the chances of Union military victory.
Thus, one is to keep in mind that the impact of proclamation was mostly positive, as the Union gained the support of the masses, including the African-American population.
Moreover, it should also be pointed out that the inhaitants of both unoccupied and occupied territories provided the North with support.
The Demands Of The War
So, taking into consideration the financial policies of the sides, one can conclude that taxation can be regarded as the most appropriate strategy to succeed. However, there is a need to state that the demands of the war must be controlled.
In other words, as far as the demands can be changed, the government is to react immediately. Thus, new demands require new financial policies to be adopted. For the Confederacy, the understanding that taxes had to be increased came too late.
Thus, one of the members of the Confederate government stated: “We have been compelled to issue a large quantity of Treasury notes, when, perhaps, it would have been more to the true interest of the country to have resorted at first to high taxation” (“Southern Historical Society Papers” 458-459).
The Conclusion Finally, it is necessary to point out that irrational and short-term economic choices of the Confederacy led to their failure in the Civil War.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Financial Strategies of the Confederacy vs. Union Governments’ Economic Choices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Immediate mobilization of military resources and reconsideration of certain economic requirements, however, cannot be regarded to be saving, as the North’s resources were more powerful.
If the Confederate governments relied on taxation in time, the only effect they could achieve is to limit the resources of the North; although military success could not been gained anyway.
It is the interdependence between political incentives and economic choices, which is of primary importance; as the incentives determine military outcomes.
Works Cited Beringer, Richard, Herman, Hattaway, Archer, Jones and William N. Still, Jr. Why the South Lost the Civil War. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1986. Print.
Razaghian, Rose. Financing the Civil War: The Confederacy’s Financial Strategy, 2004.
“Southern Historical Society Papers.” New Number Series, 13 (1958):51. Print.
Investment Opportunity in American Fried Chicken Restaurant Essay essay help online
Introduction The company will focus on determining the profitability of investing $500,000 in the fried chicken restaurant business. The purpose of the research is to persuade the investors to infuse funds into the proposed fried chicken restaurant business for five years. The New York entity name is “American Fried Chicken”.
The researcher authorizes the administration to include this paper in the current registered academic program. Placing one’s scarce cash resources in the fried chicken business will profitably benefit the investors. BODY. Marketing strategy will ensure the investment fills the growing needs of fried chicken clients (Schlosser, 2012, p. 52). First, the company will produce quality Chicken products.
The chicken products will contain 12 secret herbs and spices. The current and prospective customers of the company will prefer to continually return for another fried chicken meal. Next, the company will advertise the benefits of buying the company’s fried chicken products. The company will spend $25,000 for advertising and promotion activities.
The company will take advantage of advertising its products using the television, newspaper, and radio alternatives. The company will set up the fast food restaurant chain in New York City. With the huge population, the company will be able to generate revenues and net profits. Lastly, the company will price the fried chicken products at reasonable prices.
The company will mimic the average price of the company’s biggest competitor, Kentucky Fried Chicken fast food chain. The company will also strive to sell competing fried chicken menu choices.
The menu choices are based on the popular Kentucky Fried Chicken menu choices. The food choices include the breakfast meal, the bucket meal, menu containing six fried chicken pieces, and menu containing two fried chicken pieces (Wenderoth, 2009, p. 7).
With the $500,000 investment, the entity will generate favorable investment reports (Stickney, 2009, p. 904). The first quarter financial performance projection, as shown in Appendix A, vividly indicates the company is projected to generate $300,000 revenues. The company is projected to generate $ 160,000 gross profit. The company is projected to produce a $70,000 net profit.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the investment, the company’s generate higher financial performances. Appendix B shows the entity’s projected revenue amount is $360,000. The company is projected to generate a higher $ 198,000 gross profit. The company is projected to produce a higher $88,000 net profit.
The investors will surely generate dividend income from their $500,000 investment. Investors will be happy to see the company pay investor dividends (Bernstein, 2010, p. 4). Dividends crop up only if the company generates net income.
During 2013, appendix C shows that the $500,000 investment will generate $70,000 net income during the months of January, February, and March. The company should strive to increase its net profits during the next quarter, April to June. Appendix C shows the company’s first quarter financial reports will generate return on investment amounting to 14 percent financial statement analysis ratio.
The first quarter ratio will persuade the investors to invest more funds into the fried chicken business. If the company generates a net loss financial operating performance, the investors will be forced to divest their fried chicken investments. The company’s second quarter return on investment, as shown in Appendix D, shows that the same $500,000 investor fund will produce $88,000 net income during the months of April, May, and June.
The company should continue to increase its revenues further up the revenue trend line. The company must focus on advertising its products in order to increase its net profits during the next three months of July, August, and September.
Appendix D shows the company’s second quarter financial operating reports indicate that the company will generate a return on investment amounting to the higher 18 percent financial statement analysis ratio.
The second quarter ratio will significantly encourage the fried chicken company’s investors to invest additional funds into the fried chicken business. Because of the favorable ratio, more investors will be enticed to invest their scarce financial resources into the New York-based fried chicken business.
We will write a custom Essay on Investment Opportunity in American Fried Chicken Restaurant specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Concluding the above discussion, the company will focus on determining the feasibility of generating increasing profits in the fried chicken restaurant market segment. Advertising the restaurant’s fried chicken products will persuade current and prospective customers to visit the restaurant.
The advertisement will help increase the company’s current month’s revenues. In turn, the revenue increase will augment the company’s net profit amount. The research shows that the financial reports generate favorable business operation outcomes. Establishing a food store in New York will meet the local residents’ demand for high quality fried chicken food products.
The store will supply the high quality fried chicken menu choices to current and prospective New York customers. The net profit results will translate to returns on the investors’ funds.
In turn, the business outcome will encourage the current and prospective investors to pour more financial assets into the proposed fried chicken restaurant business, “American Fried Chicken”. Indeed, the New York-based fried chicken company will be established to ensure the investors will get their five year return on investment amounts.
References Bernstein, W. (2010). The Four Pillars of Investing: Lessonsfor Building a Winning Portfolio. New York: McGraw-Hill Press.
Schlosser, E. (2012). Fast Food Nation. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Press.
Stickney, C. (2009). Financial Accounting. New York: Cengage Learning Press.
Wenderoth, M. (2009). Particularities in the Marketing Mix for Service Operations. New York: Grin Press.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Investment Opportunity in American Fried Chicken Restaurant by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Appendix Appendix A
Appendix C. First Quarter’s return on investment
Appendix D. Second Quarter’s return on investment
Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy Development Report college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Corporate Strategy
Introduction The business world is getting more sensitive and very competitive. Given the definition of a company, it would be right to say that a business unit is an entity, a person who can be viewed independently as a member of the society.
It therefore has an obligation to ensure that it participates in the normal developmental projects that other members of the society are involved in. The manufacturing companies are the leading polluters of the environment. The retail stores are also adding to this pollution.
Wal-Mart for instances, wraps its products with plastic papers which are poorly disposed and turn into menace in our environments. Many of the manufacturing firms emit the greenhouse gases into the environment, causing massive pollution (Keinert, 2008).
They therefore have great responsibility to the society. It takes away a very important item which it must find a way of compensating in order to ensure success.
There are a number of ways through which a firm can give back to the society. Corporate Social Responsibility is one of the most important activities for most of the corporate businesses in giving back to the society.
It is a kind way of appreciating the fact that the community is important. It is a fine way of telling the society that the firm appreciates its support. This way, the society will come to the realization that it is acknowledged by the firm.
This would create trust and a close tie between the community and the firm. It is one of the best ways of making a firm part and parcel of the community. This way, the community would not view the business as just a simple business unit out for pure gains in profits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They will see the firm as one of their own and therefore will feel obliged not only to offer it any assistance and protection it may require, but would naturally be turned into a pool of loyal customers.
Asongu (2007) says that corporate social responsibility cannot be avoided by any firm that hopes to succeed in the market.
Coming up with an appropriate corporate social responsibility is one of the biggest challenges in the twenty first century. The cultures of societies around the world are varied.
For a firm with an international outlook, there is a serious need to develop a strategy through which this process can be made a success. Corporate social responsibility can be taken from many fronts.
There are different activities that a firm can do as a corporate social responsibility. However, what may be appreciated by the American society may not be the same thing that the people of the United Arabs Emirates appreciate.
This is not only because of the cultural difference between the two countries but also the difference in economic status. The United States is a developed country. Some of the activities that a firm may do in this country may fail to make any significant impact to the country’s population, but may mean a lot in another country.
The biggest huddle will be for a firm to precisely determine what would be needed in each society. This would call for a deep understanding of the society not just from the economic terms, but also the socio-cultural and political fronts.
We will write a custom Report on Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This paper seeks to develop corporate social responsibility strategy that would enable this firm be seen in a new perspective as a listening and caring partner to the society members within its areas of operations
The Corporate Strategy The world is getting increasingly competitive. As the chief executive of the Dubai Electronics, the researcher has come to the realization that the business world has gotten more competitive.
The suppliers are getting more and more assertive in this country, not because they have the monopolistic power, but because they have managed to cut the direct link between the manufactures and the large scale retailers like this firm.
They have formed a pool amongst themselves, making them speak with one voice, giving them greater bargaining power. On the other hand, customers are getting increasingly knowledgeable because of the constant exposure to information through the social and mass media.
Large retailers like Dubai Electronics have to face a further challenge of stiff and unhealthy competition amongst themselves, making it difficult for a firm to survive.
Given such an environment, a firm may not be in a position to prosper unless it develops a strategy to attract the customers and controls the suppliers.
One of the best ways of appealing to both parties is through developing an appropriate corporate social responsibility that would make it be seen as a firm that is beyond personal gains of making the profits.
Both the customers and the suppliers would see the firm as a member of the society who is concerned with a positive transformation of the society. Kline (2010) says that a diligently executed corporate social responsibility will act as a special way of creating awareness of the firm.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It will also go beyond in convincing the society that this firm is a part of the society. This would generate reputation for the firm within the society.
As stated above, there is a need to have a deep understanding of the society before coming up with an activity to conduct as a social responsibility.
Given that this firm is an affiliate to the American firm which is actually the parent country, the head office most likely have strategies that have worked well in the home country.
Given the difference in the social context of the two countries, the strategy may not be as successful as it was in the home country here in United Arabs Emirates.
There is therefore a need to develop a new strategy that would be successful here in United Arabs Emirates.
Bird (1977) says that in developing a business strategy, it is important that a firm understands the problems that bedevil the society. It may be in the financial, environmental or social end.
Financial Responsibility United Arabs Emirates is one of the leading economies in the Middle East. However, it is very important to note that this wealth is held by the few members of the society.
A good number of the citizens of this country are poor. When developing a corporate social responsibility, it is very important that this firm brings in the factor that it may be financially responsible for this society.
There are various activities that this firm can undertake to demonstrate its financial responsibility. One factor that is gaining a lot of public attention is the need to ensure that both male and female members of the society get equal opportunities in the society.
This country has its majority population professing Islam as their religious group. For a long time, the Islamic society had not given a lot of emphasis on the importance of taking the girl child to school just like the boys.
However, due to the massive international pressure from various world organizations and the rapid change of the societal structure caused by the emerging technologies, the society has come to embrace the need to educate both male and female children.
Many firms have gotten into this wave and are sponsoring several girls at different levels of education. Some of the main rivals of this firm have been very vocal in advocating for the need to ensure that the girls of this society go to school.
They have committed themselves financially to get involved in the process of educating these children. It is important that this firm also gets involved in this activity because of the publicity that it has.
However, it is important that this firm takes a different approach from that taken by other firms. While the other firms have been moved by the euphoria and the wave that is keen to ensure that the girl child is given her rightful position in the society, the boy child is increasingly getting neglected.
A survey by Majer (2011) demonstrates that male members of the society are by far more enthusiastic about electronics than the female members of the society. By posing as a crusader for the female members of the society at the expense of male, the firm risks the loss of this important segment of the market.
As such, the researcher proposes that this firm must take a common ground that would be viewed as neutral by all the members of the society.
The firm may commit itself to financially help bright students in their education, irrespective of their gender. This way, the firm will be able to strike-off as a gender sensitive organization that does not discriminate any member of the society on the basis of gender or otherwise.
According to Urip (2010), getting financially involved in the education of needy children in the society is one of the most effective ways of conducting corporate social responsibility.
This is because it leaves a permanent mark to the people involved. It also makes the other members of the society feel that this firm is taking parental responsibility because it feels like one of the parents in the society. This will help the firm develop a base of loyal customers.
The customers would easily be evangelists of the firm because they would develop personal ties with it. In this case, this firm would be going for double benefits.
While it will receive the reputation as a firm that cares for the education of bright children of this society just as other rival firms would, it shall cut across both genders and it would be seen as a firm that appreciates both genders in equal measure. This would make it retain the male customers, and appeal to the female customers.
There are other ways of getting financially responsible to the society. The researcher proposes that a given amount of money should be set aside by this firm to enable it help the society members in case of a calamity.
This fund can be kept to wait for such a time that this society has a calamity such as fire tragedy or other forms of accidents. It can then chip in to offer financial assistance to the affected members by paying their hospital bills or giving any other financial aid that would be within the budget for this task.
It is important to note that this process should not be misinterpreted. The society should be able to appreciate that this firm is determined to help when there is a pressing need for the same, and not that it is a prophet of doom.
Environmental Responsibility Environmental conservation has been synonymous to corporate social responsibility. Whenever a firm mentions the need to conduct a corporate social responsibility, what comes to mind is environmental conservation.
In the world over, there is the need to conserve the environment. The Kyoto protocol was developed when the nations around the world came to the realization that the world was losing its forests at an alarming rate. The emission of greenhouse gases was also on the rise.
Many of the manufacturing firms have been accused of emitting poisonous gases into the environment. Such gases are not only poisonous to people when they are inhaled directly, but also cause an adverse effect to the natural environment.
They affect the ozone layer and also interfere with other natural aspects of the environment hence causing a complete disruption in the pattern of weather. It is even worse that the forest cover is getting eliminated at an equally alarming rate.
It is the forests that can be in a position to counter the effects of the manufacturers’ emissions. However, if the very forest is being destroyed, then it becomes a big challenge to help the natural environment.
Large retail stores like the Dubai Electronics have not gone without blame either. The Greenbelt Movement has accused most of the retailing stores of worsening the situation that has already been made bad by the manufacturers.
They claim that it is the retail stores that contribute to the pollution of environment with the non-biodegradable plastic bags which they use to wrap their products. As a retailer, the researcher proposes that this firm gets involved in the environmental conservation of this nation.
There are various fronts in which this firm can undertake this social responsibility to the environment. The first approach is to ensure that its own wastes are well taken care of, given the fact that it is located in the heart of Dubai city.
This firm may consider changing its wrappers. Instead of using the non-biodegradable plastic papers, this firm can develop paper wrappers or better still, reduce the wrapping and encourage the use of permanent bags that can be reused when one goes shopping.
This way, the firm would be in a position to reduce the level of pollution within this city. The researcher also proposes that the firm should consider the process of planting trees and flowers within its compound besides the fences and the lighting system.
The firm can also sponsor tree planting activities within the city and its environs. This would boost the forest cover of this nation, making it easy for carbon in the air to be eliminated hence enhances purification of air.
The researcher also proposes that this firm should sponsor a television and radio advertisement on the importance of environmental conservation and the role each member can play in order to ensure that the environment remains unaffected by the effect of industrial revolution taking place in the United Arabs Emirates and other neighboring countries.
Social Responsibility The other important aspect of corporate social responsibility is the social aspect of the environment. Within the society, there are some social issues that warrant the attention of the members of the society.
One issue that has been a real cause of concern in this society in social sphere is the child trafficking and forced labor. There has been an international outcry that this country has been one of the destinations of kidnapped children.
According to Weiss (2011), children who are kidnapped find their way to this country as home workers or industrial laborers. This firm has the responsibility to sensitize the society against engaging in such acts. This scholar notes that this trend has negative effect both to the kidnapped individuals and the hosts.
There are numerous occasions where some of these foreigners who are abducted from other countries have engaged in serious criminal activities just to ensure they get back to their home countries.
As a concerned firm, the researcher proposes the Dubai Electronics launch a campaign against child trafficking through road shows and other such social forums.
Another issue that this firm should consider is the labor laws. The United Arabs Emirates has been petitioned severally over the issue of contravening the labor laws. There are claims that many firms in this country do not respect their employees.
This firm has the responsibility to ensure that the social welfare of its members is well taken care of. They should not be put under any inhumane working conditions while within this firm.
The employees in various stores of this retail market should always be allocated time off-work, so that they may have some good time with their families.
To the customers, this firm has the responsibility of ensuring that they are caring and ready to listen to any customer who may need their attention at any time.
They also have the right to get correct information from the firm in regard to the stock of the firm and the services they offer.
Conclusion Corporate Social Responsibility is one the most current strategies of marketing a firm. The market is so competitive that any misstep by a firm would lead to its automatic fall.
Corporate social responsibility comes in as a way through a firm can show its concern to the society’s well being. In such competitive markets, it is very important that this firm comes with strategy that would make the firm stand out among the rest, as the preferred firm that is able to understand the needs of the society.
As stated above, this firm has three approaches to its corporate social responsibility. The first front is the financial aspect. The firm can engage in various charitable activities in the society that may involve giving out financial support to the members of the society.
Environmentally, the firm may get involved in such activities that would ensure it is seen as an agent of pollution-free environment.
Socially, the firm should not only ensure that its employees working conditions are bearable, but also make the society appreciate the importance of respecting the rights and freedom of every member of the society.
References Asongu, J. (2007). Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility in Practice. Lawrenceville: Greenview Publishing Co.
Bird, A. (1977). Team structure and success as related to cohesiveness and leadership. Journal of Social Psychology, 103(2), 217-223.
Keinert, C. (2008). Corporate Social Responsibility as an International Strategy. Heidelberg: Springer.
Kline, J. (2010). Ethics for International Business: Decision-Making in a Global Political Economy. New York: Routledge.
Majer, C. (2011). The silent killers of productivity and profit. T D, 65(2), 62.
Urip, S. (2010). CSR Strategies: Corporate Social Responsibility for a Competitive Edge in Emerging Markets. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Weiss, W. H. (2011). Building morale, motivating, and empowering employees. Supervision, 72(9), 23.
Marketing Research: BP Oil Company Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction BP is an organization involved in oil and gas industry globally, its headquarters are in London, Britain. BP is one of the largest global companies and is involved in activities such as exploration, refining of crude oil, distributing, generating power and production of renewable energy among other roles.
The company operates in over 80 nations across the globe and manages more than 22,400 gas outlets globally (Cheremisinoff and Davletshin 443). The United States division is the largest outlet for BP and thus plays a huge role to the organization as far as revenue generation is concerned.
Current Business Problem With the division in the US being the most important for the company, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill has had many negative effects to the company. The oil spill led to deaths of 11 people, loss of trust in the company, destruction of the surrounding ecosystem and a bad reputation for the organization (Farrell 43).
Tourism, marine life and the ecology were enormously affected in the coast by the oils spillage. BP has already spent over $3.12 billion on the spillage on actions such as containing the spillage, responding to the disaster, drilling the well, payment of grants to the states affected by the spillage, payment of claims and costs to the federal government (Cheremisinoff and Davletshin 443).
The spill was the largest oil disaster in the history of the industry in regards to off shore drilling in the United States. The problem is identifying the challenges the company is facing in the United States after the oil spillage and the impact of this event by applying ethical perspectives.
BP Competition BP is a global company that faces huge competition from other organizations that deal with oil, gas, and petrochemicals. There exist huge competition within the industry as well as in other industries in regards to the supply of gas, fuel and meeting other needs of the energy sector, commerce, industrial, and for home use (Hitt et al. 50-54).
There is need by organizations to cut costs and management of BP to focus on efficiency and gaining support of the market. Some of the main competitors of BP include Total, ExxonMobil Corporation, Chevron Corporation, Schlumberger Limited, and ConocoPhillips among others (Hitt et al. 65). These companies are involved in the energy sector in the United States.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Population Sample The sample population shall be 150 individuals from the areas affected by the Gulf of Mexico oil spill as well as staff of BP. The geographical area shall be mainly in the Louisiana Coast and shall include organizations and individuals in the region. To be eligible as a respondent, one must be a resident of the area.
Steps in the Research Process The research shall involve the development of the survey, which includes the various stages that shall be applied in conducting the research. This will include use of questionnaires. The descriptive data analysis shall include the presenting of the results after the profile of each respondent has been analyzed and the information recorded.
The measurement scale analysis will evaluate the measurement scale analysis that shall be employed in the analysis of the information. The assessment section assesses the results after the analysis and is essential in determining the recommendations and developing a conclusion for the study. The recommendations and conclusion shall be necessary to the management in the future determination of BP’s path.
BP is one of the most outstanding oil and gas world companies. Despite the power and success of this company it is impossible to appeal to every representative of the world market that is why most popular companies focus on the target market or subsets of the overall markets. Identifying the target market is one of the most important methods to have a success at the world market.
It is necessary to know the customer in order to satisfy their demands. Different factors about target market such as population, interests, the level of life and the level of business activity should be taken into account. There are a lot of questions that should be put during identifying the target market:
How large is your target market now? How large has it been? How large can it become in the near future?
What are the geographical boundaries of your target market?
How many people use your products? What do you know about these people?
How sensitive is your target market to price changes?
What are the trends in your market?
How mature is your market (shrinking, growing, and stable)? (Griffin 33).
The target market of BP has been broadened from its foundation. The products of BP are sold in Europe, Africa, Asia, the North and South America and Australasia (Maharg-Bravo, Swann and Cox 39). The market is growing now and it will be broader in the near future. First of all, the company should focus on the potential customer itself.
It is necessary to know why these people are your customers and how they use your products. BP takes into account different groups of consumers and they seek to satisfy all their demands. For example, in October 2005 BP produced a new fuel including three separate products: BP Ultimate 102 Unleaded, BP Ultimate Unleaded and BP Ultimate Diesel satisfying the demands of different groups of consumers (BP in Business 78). Each consumer may choose the necessary fuel.
We will write a custom Assessment on Marketing Research: BP Oil Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More BP resorts to the use of primary and secondary researches firstly to find out what segments the market is divided into and secondly to assess the particular product requirements for each of them. The main aim of primary research is to find new information that has not been already researched. For example, BP asked their customers about their points of view about the new BP Ultimate range.
Questionnaires, personal interviews, postal surveys, telephone interviews, focus groups are used in primary researches to obtain the necessary information. Secondary research is based on the results that have been achieved in previous studies. For example, BP uses information about the predictions of customers’ future demands.
A proper sampling technique should be used in a good market research. It is impossible to ask every customer about his/her point of view and demands. That is why it is necessary to choose the representatives from different groups from the target market to take into account the changes of their demands.
‘Sampling’ is the process of deciding who takes part in the primary research namely whose point of view should be taken into account. There are a lot of ways to do it namely quota, random, cluster or stratifying sampling. Factually, primary research is used to define the target market namely its personality traits, interests and lifestyles.
BP target market is known as mainly medium-sized businessmen (Amanjeev 47). They are people who use their automobiles nearly every day and the quality of petroleum is very important for them.
It should be noted that there are successful businessmen who can afford themselves a high-priced gasoline and the beginners who do not spend a lot of money and have to save their money buying cheap gasoline. That is why there are different categories of fuel produced by BP catering for all these groups.
The main interest of the consumers is to have a qualitative fuel paying for it not a lot of money. There are a lot of cases when consumers complain to the fuel that spoils their transport. The quality is one of the basic aims for BP that is why this company has become popular among consumers appreciating it.
From the above said, we may conclude that identifying the target market which is made with the help of primary research with the use of different ways of questionnaires is very important at developing and broadening the popularity of the company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Research: BP Oil Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More BP has a success as far as it has always focused on the demands of its consumers and done all their best to satisfy these demands from its foundation. The interests of consumers are at the top of BP’s basic aims. The quality is very important to a consumer that is why ‘what’ BP does is as important as ‘how’ they do it (Research and Markets 34).
It should be noted that BP Company is developing now and more and more consumers use their products that makes this company take into account the demands of different groups of their consumers. Target market is a potential client influencing the success of the company.
Marketing Research In the designing of this study, 19 to 40 year olds will be the sample upon which an approximate 300 will be interviewed or supplied with questionnaires. The purpose of choosing this age bracket is to obtain as many BP users as possible and to make sure that they are informed about the company’s operations as well as problems that have been surrounding the company.
For one to qualify as a participant, the audience will be asked to produce their licenses or recite their license numbers. This will not be indicated in any phase of the study to observe ethics of the study. The purpose of the study is to establish the marketing characteristics of BP through the observation of users’ experience.
The objective of the study will be to investigate the business strategies of BP under their operational model and to compare the current model with the previous. The study is dedicated to any subject interested in venturing into business (shareholders mostly) with BP.
Choosing the Audience The audience of the study is focused only to grownups with licenses and with experience in the using of BP products. The reasons that youths and unlicensed persons are not included in this study or are not considered the right audience is due to their status, both financially and take on responsibilities.
Users of products are the best target groups when reviewing or investigating on the producers of a product (Benoit 37). In this case, it will give them an insight of the company they secure products and services. Considering the use of BP’s products, licensed people who drive regularly and with active schedules are intended to be the audience of this study.
This is because they connect with the services of the company as well as its products. “On the other hand, investors make a better audience because they take interest in finding out the operational models of the company they invest in as well as its strategic solution to some present problems or plans – reason to cover both groups” (Silverstein
Marketing and Its Importance for Modern Organizations Definition Essay essay help site:edu
Modern companies make substantial investments in marketing; in fact, this set of activities is usually essential for their sustainability. This is why it is necessary to define marketing and explain its importance for modern organizations. In my opinion, this term can be understood as every activity that is aimed at creating an extra value for the customers and ensuring that the company’s products or services appeal to the buyers.
This is one of the possible explanations of this concept. But there are other definitions. For instance, Julian Gaspar says that marketing is “the determination of the needs and desires of markets so that products and services can be developed, prices, promoted, and distributed” (2005, p. 276).
This interpretation focuses on specific activities that are involved in marketing. Other scholars emphasize the role customers and their needs. For example, Alan Fyall and Brian Garrod argue that marketing consists in determining the needs of target markets or finding ways of satisfying these needs (2005, p. 7). Thus, one can say that this term can be discussed from different perspectives.
Overall, these definitions show that marketing plays a vital role in many organizations. First of all, it is important for understanding what clients actually want or what they expect from products or services of companies. This is why a great number of businesses conduct customer surveys in order to determine what kind of things buyers value most of all.
For instance, software developers usually encourage users to test their products long before they are released. In this way, they can better users’ needs and eliminate the defects of products. Thus, marketing is essential for increasing customers’ satisfaction.
Additionally, marketing is important for increasing customers’ awareness about their products. Without it, companies can hardly hope for substantial revenues. This is why they develop strategies for spreading the information about their offerings.
As a rule, they spend much time determining what kind of media is most suitable for them. For instance, they can choose television, radio, or internet. Their choice may depend on their product or the lifestyles of clients. These examples show that marketing strategies can be effective only if they take into account the behavior of clients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, marketing is important for retaining customers and differentiating the company among its competitors. This task is crucial for retaining strong positions in the market. Therefore, organizations develop different strategies for achieving this goal. For example, some of them attempt to win the clients’ loyalty by setting lower prices for their products or offering some bonuses.
However, many organizations pay more attention to the quality of their products or services. For instance, some producers increase the guarantee period while others attempt to customize their products and services. For instance, car manufacturers can design vehicles according to customers’ requirements.
This is how they try to appeal to the clients. These activities are aimed gaining the loyalty of clients, and they are closely related to marketing. People, who develop marketing strategies, have to find ways of differentiating their products or services among others.
On the whole, these examples demonstrate that marketing is closely related to many activities of a company such as product development, advertisement, after-sales services, pricing and so forth. Moreover, marketing should be based on the in-depth knowledge of customers, products, competitors, and the industry, in general; otherwise it can hardly achieve its goals.
Reference List Fyall, A.
The Problem of Codes of Ethics Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The relations between people within society are traditionally regulated by definite norms and principles which are often discussed as ethical canons or rules. From this point, ethical principles and rules are based on the concept of morality which is considered as the universal notion.
Thus, the development of all the persons’ interactions should depend on the principles of morality. Ethical norms exist within society without their fixing as laws, but they are realized with references to the moral development of this or that individual.
People clearly understand what is morally good and what is bad. However, there are a lot of codes of ethics which are worked out for different professions. According to these codes, the ethical norms and principles are fixed and should be followed strictly.
This fact provokes the discussion about the significance of the codes for professions and their difference from the traditional non-fixed ethical principles used in society.
In his article “The Quest for a Code of Professional Ethics: An Intellectual and Moral Confusion”, John Ladd argues that ethical codes are absurd and unnecessary because ethical norms cannot be organized as it is given in codes.
In this case, ethical norms acquire the features of laws, and this fact contradicts to the idea of ethical principles.
Although the position of John Ladd is rather controversial and has some problematic issues to be discussed, the researcher’s vision is quite reliable and based on a lot of arguments. Thus, his critique has both strengths and weaknesses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The representatives of different professions should communicate and cooperate with their colleagues and clients according to the definite code of ethics. Nevertheless, Ladd states that an organized professional ethics can be discussed as a kind of absurdity because of confusing the principles of ethics with corporate laws (Ladd).
It is possible to agree with the author’s point of view that ethics is based on the principles of openness and reflectivity.
Moreover, persons are autonomous that is why their moral behavior can depend only on the personal visions of moral or immoral actions and behaviors (Ladd).
Thus, the attempts to determine the ethical norms as rules which are necessary to follow according to the standards of the profession or organizations’ activity can be discussed as opposite to the fundaments of ethics.
From this point, it is important to distinguish between the code of ethics and the code of conduct.
If the code of ethics includes those principles which can be considered as the code of conduct in the context of the definite profession, the notion of the code of ethics becomes meaningless.
Therefore, Ladd’s opinion on the fact that the code of ethics begins to be developed as the disciplinary code is credible. The author logically develops his argument and continues the discussion of the controversial points of the question with accentuating the idea that ethics is the same for everyone.
We will write a custom Essay on The Problem of Codes of Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That is why it is impossible to speak about the specific ethical norms for different professions (Ladd). According to Ladd, ethical issues can also be presented as the objects of macro-ethics and micro-ethics.
When the representatives of one profession are discussed as the social group their ethical or non-ethical behavior can influence as the whole society as individuals within it, and it is a problem of macro-ethics.
The aspects of this field are more controversial in comparison with the aspects of micro-ethics which is associated with personal relations (Ladd).
However, Ladd does not pay much attention to this or that category, and it is possible to disagree with his position depending on Luegenbiehl’s point of view that “the adoption of a code is significant for the professionalization of an occupational group, because it is one of the external hallmarks testifying to the claim that the group recognizes an obligation to society that transcends mere economic self-interest” (Luegenbiehl 138).
John Ladd develops his argument with emphasizing the idea that ethical norms and rules cannot be imposed authoritatively because their realization is connected with definite procedures and laws which are worked out as a result of decision making process, and this fact contradicts to the principles of ethics in its association with morality.
Ladd’s approach can be discussed as argumentative, but quite logical. The main concepts which are presented in codes of ethics for different professions reflect the universally adopted visions of the ethical behavior that is why the representatives of definite professions behave according to the general ethical norms which are expanded in the context of this or that profession.
In this case, the code of ethics is the collection of well-known ethical principles and rules according to which people regulate their behavior every day. Thus, is it necessary to develop different codes of ethics for a lot of professions, if their basics are the same and depend on accepted visions of ethical and non-ethical behavior?
John Ladd states that the development of codes of ethics is the meaningless process because of its uselessness (Ladd).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problem of Codes of Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, people can disagree with the author’s opinion with references to the groups of representatives of professions as collectives and their definite obligations according to the peculiarities of their activities.
Nevertheless, these peculiarities can be described in the codes of conduct without discussing them as the codes of ethics.
According to Ladd, the development of codes of ethics has definite objectives, and it is possible to determine benefits and negative aspects of this process (Ladd). Such an approach to the discussion of the problem provides the readers of the article with the opportunity to agree on many ideas presented by the author.
It is rather difficult to indicate the specific objectives of using the codes of ethics which could refer to definite professions. Thus, the norms which are provided in the codes of ethics can be analyzed as the significant rules of the ethical behavior for the specialists.
Ladd states that such rules can inspire the professionals and remind them about the necessity to act ethically, especially in those situations which are listed in the code (Ladd). Nevertheless, this statement can be discussed as contradictory to the point that it is meaningless to organize specific codes of ethics.
Thus, there are a lot of persons which can behave and act unethically and without any reference to the principles of morality.
From this point, the code of ethics is not only the collection of the rules, but the factor of limiting the possibilities for the professional’s unethical behavior in relation to colleagues, clients, or any group of people within the society.
However, it is only one side of the problem. Codes of ethics cannot include all the controversial aspects which are important for professionals to avoid or follow. They can only be used as the collection of the useful points.
Moreover, it is interesting to refer to Luegenbiehl’s opinion that moral conflicts should be solved effectively, but codes of ethics do not provide employees and managers with the necessary base for overcoming conflicts and ethically problematic situations (Luegenbiehl).
When these codes can be used for resolving conflicts, they are relevant to the disciplinary codes in which the professionals’ possible risks and responsibilities are given.
Discussing the code of ethics for the definite professions as the way to regulate the relations between the employers, employees, and clients, it is possible to speak about the domination of the micro-ethical problems (Ladd).
However, this approach also accentuates the facts that there are no extremely significant differences between the ethical norms and principles for different professions because they are based on the single vision of morality as the category, and the confusion between the code of ethics and the code of conduct leads to the wrong usage of the notion of the code of ethics.
Moral norms and rules cannot be imposed on people authoritatively as the part of the certain procedure because it is a human right to choose or not to act according to the canons of morality.
To support this idea, Ladd proposes the notions of suppression and tyranny in order to emphasize the difference between the code of conduct and ethical norms which should be followed without any pressure.
Ladd concludes that it is impossible to codify ethics as the special collection of norms for this or that profession because of the impossibility to use the fixed norms in relation to the phenomenon of morality (Ladd).
However, in spite of the position of such researchers as Ladd and Luegenbiehl according to the necessity of working out the codes of ethics for different professions, these codes are still developed and actively used.
What is their role in regulating the relations within organizations? It is possible to speak about the defense of the interests of the representatives of certain professions and about the increase of the status of these professions.
People are inclined to trust those persons who act in relation to some limits and regulations even in connection with the questions of morality. From this point, the code of ethics can be discussed as a kind of guarantee for people to get the qualified service or cooperate effectively.
Nevertheless, the real situations provide the evidences for supporting the idea that codes of ethics are ineffective for resolving conflicts which are based on the misunderstandings associated with moral issues.
Having analyzed John Ladd’s vision of the problem of codes of ethics presented in his work “The Quest for a Code of Professional Ethics: An Intellectual and Moral Confusion”, it is necessary to conclude that the notions of the code of ethics and the code of conduct should not be confused.
Thus, codes of ethics are ineffective for overcoming the conflicts between professionals which are based on ethical or moral issues.
However, well-developed codes of conduct can be used as the effective means to resolve the conflicts and regulate the problematic situations because these norms can be imposed authoritatively, and employers and managers can require their absolute following when principles of ethics depend on the person’s free choice.
Works Cited Ladd, John. “The Quest for a Code of Professional Ethics: An Intellectual and Moral Confusion”. Ethical Issues in Engineering. Ed. Deborah G. Johnson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991. 130-136. Print.
Luegenbiehl, Heinz C. “Codes of Ethics and the Moral Education of Engineers”. Ethical Issues in Engineering. Ed. Deborah G. Johnson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991. 137-154. Print.
Globalization Impact on Modern World Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Gradually, the world’s population is becoming integrated in to one community. Interaction between people from various continents and countries is bringing people together such that the national boundaries and racial differences are becoming of little significance. This process has been facilitated by the growing entertainment industry.
Prior to the modern communication and the internet, the major mode of interaction between people of different races from different geographical locations was through trade. Missionary work was also a significant contributor to this phenomenon. However, the recent developments in communication have elicited interest in different races in terms of cultural and social interaction. The major factors in this interaction are the internet and mobile telephony (Crothers, 2007).
One unique development that is a result of globalization is the popularity of the pop culture. Beginning with pop music, which has been in the market for a significant period, the pop lifestyle has become embedded into the lives of the majority of young Americans.
This culture has been promoted primarily by globalization of economy. Global entertainment industry is doing remarkably well due to the adoption of the culture in other countries (Bertho, 2008). The growing importance of the industry through globalization has a serious effect on the American youth.
Most of the prominent figures in the entertainment industry have grown immensely rich due to their worldwide sales. Consequently, the perception of the American people towards entertainment industry is overwhelmingly positive.
While the American customs are becoming more popular around the world, pop culture emerges as the most popular aspect of the said social customs. In turn, the American youth is becoming more inclined to emulating the leading proponents of the culture (Bertho, 2008).
The popular trend is enhanced by the concept of free trade that is being increasingly adopted by the world economies, with the United States being the chief campaigner for the liberalization of trade. American entertainment services dominate the European entertainment markets, and are also dominant in the developing nations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the entertainment industry is an important sector of the economy, the United States government does not regulate its trend even with the increasing social concerns. Canadian media is also dominated by United States’ entertainment and information services such that the Canadian media is indistinguishable from United States’ broadcasts (Dunn, 1995).
The picture painted by the entertainment industry is not accurate. Entertainment art relies on exaggerated drama and fiction, which is primarily an imaginative field. However, the American youth seems to be indifferent to the fictitious natures of this illusion.
Although this industry has a positive effect on the economy, there is a growing concern that it is overwhelming other important areas of knowledge. Most children and young adults have been absorbed by the popularity of the American culture so that they have abandoned most of the important realms of knowledge that are crucial to the stability and wellbeing of future generations.
For example, rock music, which has preoccupied most young Americans due to its popularity around the world, advocates for abandoning of the concept of tradition, and adopting a more liberal approach to life (Crothers, 2007). This perception is more pervasive than helpful to the American people.
There is also fear that homogenization of the economy and the entertainment industry will eventually erode the American culture and identity.
Furthermore, the cultures of the world society are speculated to merge into one homogenous culture in the future. This way, the distinct identities of different cultures will be dissolved. Moreover, this has started manifesting in the adoption of a single pop culture in the entertainment industry.
References Bertho, M. (2008). The impact of globalization on the United States. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
We will write a custom Essay on Globalization Impact on Modern World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Crothers, L. (2007). Globalization and American popular culture. Lanham, Md.: Rowman
The Code of Ethics for Engineers Essay best college essay help
One of the main conditions of the modern society’s successful development is its dependence on the moral principles and canons which are worked out and accepted by the society in order to regulate the character of relations within it. Moral principles belong to the field of ethics which influences all the aspects of the people’s life.
Thus, people are oriented to following the moral norms which are developed to control the elements of their personal life and interpersonal relations, and there are also moral codes and canons which can be successfully used for realizing business activities and business relations.
These principles are in the field of the business ethics. Moreover, each profession has its own code of ethics according to which the relations within the definite industry or company are realized. It is important that the codes of ethics for different professions as the aspects of the people’s life depend on the traditional approaches to moral norms and principles which were argued by such philosophers as Aristotle, Kant, and Bentham.
Thus, the canons, rules of practice, and professional obligations for engineers are based on the elements of the ethics developed by these philosophers in the context of the person’s voluntary nature to perform this or that action, with dependence on his or her moral duty for this action, or on discussing this action according to its right or wrong consequences.
It is stated in the preamble to the code of ethics for engineers that “the services provided by engineers require honesty, impartiality, fairness, and equity, and must be dedicated to the protection of the public health, safety, and welfare” (“NSPE Code of Ethics”). Thus, the activity of engineers as professionals is oriented to those moral concepts which are also accentuated as influential ones in the persons’ everyday life.
Furthermore, these concepts are also associated with the group of moral virtues such as truthfulness, forgiveness, and integrity which were determined by Aristotle. Shrader-Frechette indicates with references to Aristotle that “one can deliberate only about what is within one’s power to do” (Shrader-Frechette 187).
That is why engineers should focus on their specific responsibilities with paying attention to their code of ethics which regulates the moral aspect of the relations between the employers, employees, partners, and clients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The code of ethics for engineers is based on a range of the fundamental canons in relation to which the rules of practice and professional obligations are stated. Thus, engineers should “hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public” (“NSPE Code of Ethics”).
That is why engineers should orient to the necessities of the public, and one of the engineers’ professional obligations is based on this principle, and it is formulated in such a way that “engineers shall at all times strive to serve the public interest” (“NSPE Code of Ethics”).
In this case, Bentham’s ideas about the benefits of the actions are met, and Kant’s categories of the universal law and the moral duty are realized according to which a person uses his or her will and control the actions in order to address the interests of the society (Birks; Velasquez).
These notions are addressed in the context of engineers’ rules of practice in which the main accents are made on the justice, legitimacy, and truthfulness. The mentioned principles are also associated with the canon according to which engineers should “issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner” (“NSPE Code of Ethics”).
Thus, objectivity and truthfulness as the representations of Aristotle’s moral virtues become the main aspects of the positive atmosphere of the professional communication.
One of the rules of practice for engineers states that they “shall perform services only in the areas of their competence” (“NSPE Code of Ethics”). Why is this rule so significant with references to the ethical canons? A person should be always responsible for his or her actions.
The person’s actions should be supported by the sincere desire of realizing the good action and motivation to do it in relation to the highest good to which it is aimed. Thus, Aristotle indicates that there are many goods which depend not only on the virtues and the balance between the extremes but also on the human voluntary nature and the person’s intention to reach the happiness in the life (Curzer).
We will write a custom Essay on The Code of Ethics for Engineers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If Aristotle accentuates the human voluntary nature, Bentham develops this notion and indicates that people in their actions should orient to the benefits which could satisfy a number of persons. That is why these actions should be not only good but also competent.
Moreover, the person’s actions should be so good that they could be perceived as addressed to the universal laws and that is why, according to Kant, they should form the categorical imperative. Thus, not to make harm to those people who are involved in the process, engineers should be competent in their actions and be responsible for their performing.
Engineers’ professional obligations also include such a point according to which engineers should “adhere to the principles of sustainable development in order to protect the environment for future generations” (“NSPE Code of Ethics”).
The problem of the technological sustainability is closely connected with the possible technological risks which can be the results of the industry’s activity. Shrader-Frechette argues the fringe between the advantages of those technologies which are risky and the moral obligation of those persons who are involved in their producing (Shrader-Frechette).
If the person’s moral task is to orient to the benefits for the people, is it possible to realize the hazardous technologies which can be harmful for the public and nature?
According to the ideas of Utilitarianism, these technologies have both the right and wrong consequences for various people and different aspects of life (Birks). However, according to Kant’s principles such a situation is morally wrong because it is not universally good (Velasquez).
To present the universally good actions, a person should not be influenced by any other opinions or visions of this or that issue. From this point, Aristotle emphasizes the necessity of the personal self-control and liberality as one of the influential virtues (Curzer).
To be satisfied and happy without the inclination to experience the impact of the other people’s ideas on the morality, an individual should be independent and should not concentrate on his or her financial state and as a result, betray the moral principles. However, one of the main risks for the person is the orientation to the pleasure which is accentuated as an important concept by Aristotle and Bentham.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Code of Ethics for Engineers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More People can also strive to reach the pleasure with references to immoral or wrong actions. That is why it is mentioned in the list of the engineers’ professional obligations that they “shall not be influenced in their professional duties by conflicting interests” (“NSPE Code of Ethics”). This obligation is associated with the problem of the person’s moral choice.
In spite of the fact the majority of people are inclined to admit the necessity of following the life according to the moral virtues proclaimed by Aristotle and according to the principles stated by Kant and Bentham, a person always tries to find the most beneficial approach for his or her, and this approach can be based on any bad factors which can lead to the negative consequences.
Thus, the origins of the person’s morality and the person’s own code of ethics are in his voluntary nature which forms motivation and in his will and duty. To follow the universal moral laws or live according to the moral virtues are not an easy task, but according to the philosophers, it is a single way to the happy life full of pleasures which is in harmony with the laws of nature.
That is why people develop the codes of ethics in relation to which it is possible to regulate the aspects of life in society and also use these principles in the organization of their professional activity.
Any company functions as a group of people which are in constant relations, and to guarantee the development of the company with a minimum of negative and conflict situations, it is necessary to work out the code of ethics according to which the interactions are regulated and controlled.
Moreover, many professions have their specific features which should be also reflected in the code. That is why the code of ethics for engineers which depends on the main moral principles is significant for the profession’s development.
Works Cited Birks, Thomas Rawson. Modern Utilitarianism; or, the Systems of Paley, Bentham, and Mill Examined and Compared. USA: Nabu Press, 2010. Print.
Curzer, Howard. Aristotle and the virtues. USA: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers 2006. Web. .
Shrader-Frechette, Kristin. “Technology and Ethics”. Philosophy of technology. Eds. Robert Scharff and Val Dusek. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. 187-190. Print.
Velasquez, Manuel. “Moral Reasoning”. The Blackwell Guide to Business Ethics. Ed. Norman E. Bowie. USA: Blackwell, 2002. 102-116. Print.
National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Codes of Conducts Essay essay help free: essay help free
Introduction Codes of conduct are significant in shaping the standards of any given profession. They allow professionals to fulfil their roles and duties in an ethical manner. For engineers, codes of conduct are critical because of the fact that their work has a direct influence on people’s everyday life.
Engineers work activities help in shaping the present and future life aspects of people as they are involved in creating and supporting new technical processes. Hence, the role of code of conducts cannot be underestimated in this case; they serve as a guiding principle while commissioning their duties.
This paper seeks to find out whether the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) codes of conducts are supported by the moral ethics of Aristotle, Kant and Bentham. In achieving this goal, the writer points out some of the NSPE practices that are in- line with the perspectives of Aristotle, Kant and Bentham moral reasoning. Through deep analysis, the writer affirms that Aristotle, Kant and Bentham moral reasoning support some of the NSPE code of standards.
Discussion National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) has outlined fundamental practices which are essential for an engineering profession. NSPE points out some canons which guide an engineer as; an engineer should be a person who holds paramount safety, health and welfare of the public, performs competently in services where he/she is capable, carry themselves ethically, responsibly and honorably, and avoids deceptive acts among others (NSPE).
Additionally, on rules of practice, the NSPE outlines that engineers should uphold honesty and integrity, strive to serve the public, act for each employer in faith as trustees, and avoid all conducts which deceives the public among others (NSPE).
Lastly, on professional obligations, NSPE appoints that engineers should personally accept responsibility for their professional activities, give credit for engineering work to those whom credit is due, and avoid unprofessional engagement by using untruthful means among other acts.
NSPE: Engineers should uphold safety, health and welfare of the public
Kant terms humans as independent. Thus, they are privileged to have a coherent ability which is important for decision making, aptitude to take execute action sensibly and they are important for compelling an action (Kant 75).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, as instruments for prompting an action, humans execute an action with full knowledge, reasoning and ability aimed at upholding generosity. Kant moral reasoning are duty bound because he views humans have a duty to execute some actions which can have impact on others.
The NSPE code of conduct, engineers should uphold safety, health and welfare of the public resonate well with Kant’s reasoning (NSPE). In this case, engineers should primarily be concerned with the safety and welfare of the public. On Kant’s approach, it would be unethical to execute an ‘action’ which fails to address the safety, health and welfare of other human beings.
Bentham, in his ethical reasoning claims the goal of every action is to provide the greatest balance of ‘good’ over ‘bad’ (Harrison 66). This is a core principle of every action.
Bentham supports this claim. In his ethical reasoning, he opines the idea of an individual aiming for happiness cannot be affirmed ‘right’ because such an individual quest can perpetuate more pain and less pleasure for him/her, and the society (Harrison 98). Thus, on Bentham perspective, the health, safety and welfare of all people should be considered equal.
Equally, Aristotle is simple on issues about moral ethics. He asserts a virtue is an approach of choosing the right decision (Aristotle 37). Hence, in a favourable condition, a virtue blended with rational assessment of situation fixes a justified course of action that guarantee’s safety, health and welfare of the public
NSPE: Engineers should aim in increasing public knowledge and appreciating engineering achievement
The NSPE also draws that engineers should aim in increasing public knowledge and recognising engineering achievements. This code of conduct shows value in augmenting the image of engineering profession as well as the safety of the public (NSPE).
This virtue appoints the natural habit of what professional should aim for; he/she should share his knowledge and skills with others. Bentham might approve this code of conduct because it is consistent with addressing the needs of the greatest number in a given situation (Harrison 83).
We will write a custom Essay on National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Codes of Conducts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, he might not support it by asserting it is in contrast with the best interests of an engineer and his/her immediate environment.
On Aristotle, reasoning is limited to enlightening human to embrace virtues if they have been raised with correct habits. Aristotle view learning is critical in upholding virtues (Aristotle 58). Hence, a virtuous being is naturally prone to a fitting behaviour in any situations without pleasing to maxims.
This code, therefore, advances Aristotle’s thinking because consistency in acquiring knowledge and achievement fixes or creates new experiences and encounters, thus, forming new habit.
NSPE: Engineers should avoid deceptive acts
NSPE illustrates that engineers should avoid deceptive acts (NSPE). This code of standards would be embraced by Aristotle, Kant and Bentham. Being deceptive in achieving ‘something’ is not certainly a positive character trait.
An engineer who achieves ‘something’ through deceptive means, he/she is possibly not competent in the area. Hence, inept practice of an engineer is something that can hurt many people besides contradicting Bentham moral ethics, because a deceptive act does not respect the rights of other people.
Kant draws that at the center of ethics lies a moral obligation to obey the dictates of rationale. Humans can understand the reasons that support moral and intuition (Kant 89). Hence, the categorical imperative, which illustrates that moral actions are consistent with the moral standing that humans would want others to emulate, maybe violated.
Kant cites lying is a vice because a rational human would like the same vice to replicate on others. He opines that ‘by lying a person throws away….his dignity as a person’ (Kant 92). Kant wants humans to be truthful in all situations. His perspective is respect for others is critical; hence it’s wrong to exploit others.
On Bentham view, a ‘good’ goal of ethics is the one which produces happiness, good and pleasure, hence, the best action is one which creates or produces the greatest possible happiness for the greatest number (Harrison 73).
Not sure if you can write a paper on National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Codes of Conducts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Behaviours are not always immoral or moral; rather, morality is based on specific variables which are unique to each context. To Bentham, deceptive acts such as lying might fix overall good than telling the truth, however, in other situation, telling the truth would produce more good.
Aristotle illustrates that pleasures which deprive or restrict ones happiness can cause more pains. To be guaranteed of happiness human beings should abstain from pain causing pleasures (Aristotle 193). This is because pleasures cause pain.
Therefore, on engineers should avoid deceptive acts, Aristotle claim that involving oneself in deceptive acts is morally wrong because they cause ‘pain’ and thwarts the efforts of happiness.
NSPE: Engineers should perform services in areas of their expertise and carry themselves ethically
NSPE holds that engineers should perform services in areas of their expertise and carry themselves ethically. This practice asserts Aristotle’s view on how intellectual virtues are acquired and put into practice.
The thinking of Aristotle does suggest that professionals should embrace moral ethics because they become a habit out of them. Basing on Aristotle’s approach, a virtuous being is naturally inclined on fitting behaviours in any situations without pleasing to maxims.
Aristotle, for instance, says a man is not intended by nature to live a solitary life, but rather seeks the good life with his parents, wife, fellow citizens and friends, ‘since man is born for citizenship’ (Aristotle 10). Hence, the NSPE provide a constructive insight for engineers and cultivate integrity.
Kant asserts that an action is morally right if it is done with intentions which every rational person would approve. The NSPE practices entails that an engineer should be a person of honesty and integrity. Although Kant’s assertion on this intention is good, it is successful in capturing good intention as a feature of morally right action, there are some challenges with it.
Conclusion Aristotle, Kant and Bentham support the NSPE code of conducts. By applying their standpoints, engineers are easy to find a reliable defense for issues such as safety, health and welfare of the public which they encounter daily in line of their duties. When their perspectives are properly embraced by engineers, they will help them fix a course of action and how to act.
Works Cited Aristotle. The Nicomachean Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Harrison, Ross. Bentham. New York: Taylor
Life Cycle and Permanent Income Hypothesis Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
LCH and PIH
Introduction Consumption patterns follow a logical pattern that the life cycle / permanent income hypothesis attempts to demystify. It is derived from the assumption that people prefer temperance to excesses.
LCH and PIH In the life cycle hypothesis, one assumes that people will try to maintain smooth consumption patterns. If a person had a choice between three consistent meals and six unpredictable meals, he or she would prefer the first option over the second one. Many workers have irregular incomes, so they need to decide how to spend their earnings rationally.
Adherents of this school of thought assume that a person will save a certain part of his or her income in order to cushion himself during low seasons (Friedman 44). Alternatively, one may borrow during periods of low earnings and pay back the borrowed amount during periods of high earnings.
The theory is based on the assumption that people live longer than they earn; consequently, they need to accumulate assets or savings to sustain them during retirement, or when incomes cease. For instance, if a person starts working at 25, and expects to retire at 65, with an annual income of $40,000, he will earn a total of $1,600, 000 over his lifetime.
If the person expects to live for 75 years, then he will need to maintain an annual expenditure of $32,000. The person will need to set aside $ 8,000 annually so that he can have $320,000 during retirement. He may achieve this by asset acquisition or direct savings.
On the other hand, if the person had inherited assets worth $400,000, he will have a sum of $ 2,000,000 to spend throughout his lifetime. He can afford to spend $40,000 annually until his death at 75 years. In this regard, wealth becomes an important factor in determining consumption patterns.
The permanent income hypothesis (PIH) assumes that people’s expenditure patterns depend on their goal of maintaining a certain standard of living. People will ignore fluctuations in income if they believe that the changes are temporary.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will be manifested as a constant spending pattern. For instance, increases in consumer tax may not alter consumption patterns immediately. However, if a change in income is perceived as permanent, such as the outsourcing of industries (customer care centers), or replacement of human resources with technology, then this may affect consumption patterns.
A person will reduce his or her expenditure patterns once he or she anticipates lower future earnings. The chief premise of the permanent income hypothesis is that people will make consumption decisions depending on what they expect to earn in the future. They may save or use up their savings in order to smoothen alterations in their income.
Both theories attempt to explain consumption. Additionally, both schools of thought are based on the premise that people will smoothen consumption patterns in the midst of fluctuating incomes. The LCH assumes that changes in income occur systematically across one’s lifetime.
Conversely, PIH assumes that current income varies randomly throughout one’s lifetime. In the life cycle theory, changes in population demographics will not alter income patterns, but this is not true in the PIH.
If the number of young people increases, then consumption will reduce and savings will increase. LCH also accounts for income inequality as savings are usually much higher in wealthy households than poor or middle-income households.
Conclusion The two theories may differ in terms of consumption and saving patterns but the overall direction of these effects is the same. LCH and PIH are not the same models, but they complement each other. The combination of LCPIH considers an individual’s current income as well as his or her lifetime wealth.
Works Cited Friedman, Milton. The life-cycle permanent income hypothesis: how we spend. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Life Cycle and Permanent Income Hypothesis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
CSR in the Telecommunications Industry Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Definition of CSR
Brief Background of CSR Practices
Approaches to CSR Practices
Importance/Advantages of CSR Practice
Demerits, Challenges and Limitations of CSR Practices
Definition of CSR According to Baker (2004), corporate social responsibility (also known as corporate citizenship, corporate conscience, sustainable responsible business, or social performance) simply refers to “how companies manage the business processes to produce an overall positive impact on society.”
In this definition, Baker emphasizes that companies need to fundamentally answer to two major aspects of their operations. Firstly, they must be answerable about the quality of their management and secondly, they must answer about the nature of their operations and the impact to the society.
Different regions have their own customized understanding of CSR based on the differences in occurrences and endeavors in their areas. For example, in USA, CSR is mostly viewed in terms of a “philanthropic model” where companies conduct their businesses with the aim of making profits and contributing to charitable causes as a showing that they are responsible in the corporate world (Baker, 2004).
In Europe, the concept of the ‘end justifying the means” allegedly opined in USA’s CSR practices, is replaced by the exact opposite where “the means justifies the end” (Lattemann et al., 2009). Studies in Africa and Australia are still inconclusive because only a handful of researches have been done (Idemudia, 2011).
In UAE and Asia, however, studies show that there is a hybrid of the US and European Models thus different countries in these regions viewing CSR differently (Ihlen et al., 2011).
Notably, all these definitions assert that stakeholders and shareholders play a vital role in CSR practices of any industry. It is with this in mind that the CSR practices in the telecommunications industry (especially in the UAE region) will be discussed.
Brief Background of CSR Practices Just like in most industries, CSR in the telecommunications industry can be historically categorized into two factions which are traditional CSR and modern CSR.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Jamali (2007), in the traditional era, a scholar named Carol l asserted that industries showed their corporate social responsibility to stakeholders and shareholders by conducting their businesses in ways that were economically, legally, ethically, and discretionarily viable to their industries.
However, as time went by, Jamali says that the traditional perception of CSR was replaced with a modern one where CSR was majorly viewed economically with companies using it to impose their dominance while their customers using it as a ladder into the economic benefits from these companies.
More specifically, Schutter (2008) says “although its roots are of course older, the concept of CSR emerged in the recent official EU discourse with the Conclusions of the Lisbon European Council of March 2000.”
The CSR era that began in the mid 1990’s and evolved to a formidable venture in the early 21st century (starting with this EU meeting) is what most researchers refer to as the modern CSR era (Jamali, 2007).
Today, CSR has undergone several changes with the terms being used variably, as was earlier mentioned. In the telecommunication Industry, especially in UAE, CSR encompasses activities such as supporting education, raising awareness on various issues such as sicknesses and environment conservation, and supporting the needy people in communities (Schutter, 2008).
Approaches to CSR Practices Theoretically, there are several ways in which scholars approach CSR practices. However, in the industrial world, Tang and Li (2009) say that there are “three distinctive approaches to CSR: CSR as ad hoc philanthropy, CSR as strategic philanthropy, and CSR as ethical business conduct.”
These approaches are the ones that relevantly apply to CSR in the telecommunication industry in UAE and thus will be our main focus.
We will write a custom Essay on CSR in the Telecommunications Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As an ad hoc philanthropy, emphasis on CSR is laid on “discretionary rationality, i.e. corporations need to contribute to the welfare of society” (Tang
An Academic Analysis of Zhang Yimou’s Award Winning Debut Feature “Red Sorghum” Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Red sorghum is a 1988 film whose theme revolves around the life of woman. The woman lives a life full of misfortunes with liquor playing a major role in the whole film. In this film, the man’s son narrates the story of a man’s mother. The man is the protagonist, while the film illustrates the effect of circumstances and the presence of liquor on the life of the man’s mother (Chien
How Rio Tinto is Support Sustainable Mining Essay a level english language essay help
Executive summary For the recent past, Rio Tinto has adopted sustainable mining practices. The need for sustainable practices in Rio Tinto and the mining industry has been driven by the climate change. This is because climate change has presented a big challenge in the business all over the world.
Rio Tinto has always found it crucial to take action now, rather than wait for the worst to happen later. To achieve these objectives, Rio Tinto has charted out scores of policies, for example, those centered on operating and investing in long-term, large, and cost-competitive business and mines.
Its strategies are based on the need to provide an economic value, while running the business in a socially and ethically accountable approach, as well as sticking to lasting and sustainable development.
Introduction For the last 2 decades, Rio Tinto has been on the global frontline in championing practices of sustainable mining. The need for sustainable practices in Rio Tinto and the mining industry has been driven by the climate change. This is because climate change has presented a big challenge in businesses across the world.
Rio Tinto has always found it important to take action now, rather than wait for the worst to happen in the future. Furthermore, it has been known that the risk landscape as well as the opportunity in the mining industry could be potentially changed by the climate change. This paper seeks to analyze Rio Tinto’s key developments that support its sustainable mining practices.
Global Mining Imitative (GMI) Rio Tinto has taken urgent actions in order to enhance its understanding of the underlying problems, and come up with ways of addressing the issues of greenhouse gas emissions abatement and the manner in which energy is used across the world.
Rio Tinto tries to take urgent actions to avoid adapting to inevitable climate change (Walsh 2009). In the Global Mining Initiative (GMI) that was held by chief executives of top mining companies, Sir Wilson Robert, the then Rio Tinto Chairman outlined the following proposition as the company’s guidelines for sustainable mining:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Economic growth, the essential condition of sustainable development, depends on the products of the mining industry. It is our responsibility to meet the demands whilst simultaneously addressing the environmental and social implications of our actions. We need to minimize the physical footprint of our activities and mitigate adverse environmental effects (Wilson, 2002, p.4).
The GMI kicked off in 1999 and focused on the following comparable aspects:
A seminar bringing together the stakeholders and industry to chart the way forward.
Review and analysis of challenges of the activities of the mining industry, together with proposals on how these problems could be solved.
Instituting a global watchdog to steer the results forward, and get involved in continuous discussions with the community.
Mining and Minerals Sustainable Development and competitive advantage The GMI was driven by the Mining and Minerals Sustainable Development project (MMSD), which aimed at reviewing the problems that the mining industry was undergoing. The landscape of the industry was changed in 2002, when MMSD presented its report.
One of its most outstanding findings was that it was critical for miners to ensure participation in a transition towards a sustainable global society. In a bid to support GMI, Rio Tinto alongside likeminded companies backed the formation of the “International Council on Mining and Materials (ICMM) (Marr, 2012, p. 609).
This council was commissioned to lead the industry in adopting sustainable practices, with the reasoning that failure of a single company would affect the entire industry.
When Rio Tinto plc was amalgamated with Rio Tinto Ltd, the group’s objective was “to maximize total shareholders return by sustainably finding, developing, mining and processing natural resources” (Annual Reports, 2007, p. 1).
To achieve these objectives, Rio Tinto formulated a strategy that was centered on operating and investing in long-term, large, cost-competitive business and mines, driven by the quality of each opening rather than choice of commodity (ICMM 2009).
We will write a custom Essay on How Rio Tinto is Support Sustainable Mining specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This strategy was based on the need to provide an economic value while running business in a socially and ethically accountable approach, and sticking to lasting and sustainable development. Rio Tinto focused on increasingly seeking out competitive advantage, and tried as much as possible to integrate them within the structure of the business in a manner that the competitors could not easily imitate (Porter 1980).
Rio Tinto’s long-term investments made it possible to plan, implement and present sustainable gains to the society, through environmental agencies and economic success based on the well-built authority systems (ICMM 2009). The company has mastered the use of Porters Five Forces Model in edging out competitors. The following factors are used to differentiate the company from its competitors (Porter 1986).
improved risk management
better proceeds for the shareholders
increased business opportunities
reduced operating costs
Retaining and attracting skillful employees (Kinicki
Legalizing Gay Marriage Essay college essay help: college essay help
The topic on gay marriage whether it should be legalized or not has been a huge topic all over the world. There are those people who view gay marriage as sin hence strongly against it.
There are those people who however believe that marriage is all about love and support hence should not depend on gender and that is why they support gay marriages.
This shows that everyone has their own different view on same sex marriage which makes it hard to come up with a solution on whether to legalize it or not leaving many people on dilemma.
There are those people who believe that denying gay marriage will violate religious freedom. Religious beliefs of a person is protected by First Amendment of United States Constitution hence it will be wrong to deny gay marriage based on the fact that religions view same sex marriage as sin.
Denying same sex marriage is a way of discriminating the minority in the society. America is a nation that was found on the concept of majority rules and protection of minorities which are clearly stated on the Bill of Rights (Gerstmann 2011).
Denying same sex marriage is more like disagreeing with Hispanic couples marriage. Other people believe that marriage should be about love hence two people who love each other should not be denied the chance to live happily together.
Gay people should be given legal contracts, financial benefits and similar living wills as other normal couples since they all fit in the society. Same sex marriage should not hurt anyone or the society since marriage is a union and a relationship between two people who love each other.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Those people who are not involved in the union should not be hurt in any way. This is because same sex marriage is a personal commitment which should not bother anyone or the society itself. The society and the church should not dictate other people’s decisions and choices.
Homosexuality is viewed by religions as sin hence unacceptable in the society. Gay marriages are offensive and robs religion its freedom. These are some of the reasons why Christians do not advocate for gay marriages.
If gay marriage is legalized in the society, it will weaken the respect and definition of marriage. Marriage is an institution which is sacred hence should not be joked with.
The society considers marriage to be between man and woman (Jean 2006). A marriage between a man and a woman makes biological sense since the two can pro-create.
The issue of adopting children especially by gay couples draws a bad picture to the children. It in fact confuses them concerning gender roles and what to expect in the society when they grow up (Robert
Reflective Entry: “Push” by Sapphire Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Precious’s Invisibility to the World
Introduction Push is a novel by Sapphire, and it covers the socio-economic plight of the people. Precious, a school girl, is pregnant, and she has been chased away from her former school (because of her pregnancy).
Therefore, precious has to get a new life in the new school which does not have the facilities she enjoyed in her former school. Precious and her people are invisible in the society. Things that they do are not recognized, and Precious goes through a lot of suffering because of this.
Precious’s Invisibility to the World A person becomes invisible to the world when that person is not recognized. Therefore, Precious and her family are invisible since they are not recognized. The needs of Precious families go unnoticed, and this contributes to a lot of suffering (Sapphire 103).
Precious examines the situation of her family, and she says that her family is invisible to the world. This happens when Tesses paints a picture of a girl without a brain.
Precious believes that the sketch is that of her and her family, and she is much troubled. This is because the situation of life that Precious’s family lead is a reflection of poverty and social and economic abuse. Therefore, Precious feels that the image is directed at her.
Precious also gets pregnant, and she is kicked from her school. She has to change school so that she does not disgrace her former school; she is not given a fair hearing. The authorities are just following rules, and they can not let a pregnant girl stay in school (Sapphire 117).
In addition, Precious has to keep the fact that she has another kid secret. This is because she can not get employment when the authorities know of this fact. However, Precious reveals this during her second birth, and this has dire consequences; her mother loses her social security, and consequently, her mother sends her away from home.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Precious’s Oppression Precious invisibility to the world leads to a lot of oppression on her part. This is because the authorities do not care much about lowly people. In fact, poor people are oppressed by authorities, and they oppress each other. For instance, the school sends Precious to anther school simply because precious is pregnant. This shows that the authorities are oppressing poor girls who are unlucky to get pregnant (Sapphire 126).
Precious is also faced with traumatic experiences since she has been abused sexually by her father. In fact, the pregnancy is as a result of sexual abuse by the father.
This is a great oppression since it is a crime for a father to sleep with his daughter; this is sexual abuse and harassment. However, nothing has been done, this is a traumatic experience, and the school authority should have counseled precious instead of chasing her.
When the authorities realize that Precious has another child, they stop the social security funds for Precious family. The authorities discontinue this funding, but in the real sense, they should have increased funding as a result of the added child. This shows that Precious’s family is invincible to the world (Sapphire 135).
Precious’s oppression also leads to a traumatic experience; she has been infected with HIV from her father. This shows that things should not be allowed to move out of hand; the authorities should act to end this oppression.
Conclusion The novel seems to tell people that they can make new beginnings despite the situations. Precious, though HIV positive, leads a normal life helping other people; she does not despair.
Discussion Question What effects does the cutting of social security have on Precious? Is it justified?
We will write a custom Essay on Reflective Entry: “Push” by Sapphire specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Sapphire, S. Push: A Novel. New York: Vintage Contemporaries, 2009. Print.
Job Analysis of Public Information Officer Term Paper writing essay help
Introduction The position of a public information officer working for a police precinct entails a combination of journalism, communication and police work in order to properly disseminate information to the general public which can consist of a variety of important announcements that may impact their safety in the near future.
It is based on this that this paper will examine what is necessary to hold such a position, what its necessary methods of evaluation and what can be done in order to encourage employee performance.
While proper training can create an adequate employee, however, it is methods of organization development that will create a satisfied employee that will do their job spectacularly.
Job Description The general duty of a public information officer is to communicate information deemed relevant by the department to the general public especially in cases involving special incidents (i.e. natural disasters, terrorism, or a serial killer on the loose).
The following are a list of the general duties associated with this particular type of job:
Conducts publicity and informational activities (Clapper, 2010)
Assists with community training and education activities (Clapper, 2010)
Assists with the coordination of the district’s use of community service volunteers (Intercity, 3)
Regularly reports to the district manager and fire chief (Clapper, 2010)
Follows district ordinances and policies
As for the number of hours required for this particular position it must be noted that events never truly stop and that they can happen at any time (Education Portal, N.A.).
Due to this, a public information officer has to be ready to immediately work 24 hours a day/ 7 days a week.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand the job does entail normal working hours (9 to 5) and as such can be considered average in terms of the degree of time pressure levied on people within this particular job type.
History of the career In terms of the relative “age” of this particular career choice it must be noted that it was only created within the past few decades as a response towards the necessity of interacting with the general public and the media regarding various cases and aspects of police work.
As such, this particular career type is specialized to the extent that its capacity is one where accuracy of the information given must be taken into consideration on a daily basis while at the same time applying sufficient prudence in terms of giving only what’s appropriate (i.e. not starting a panic within the general population).
Recruiting Plan On average there is approximately 1 public relations officer for each precinct and as such the number of people currently employed in this particular career field can be approximated by the number of police precincts currently in operation within the U.S.
Of particular interest is the fact that various reports examining job growth for this particular type of career path have emphasized that the number of public information officers is expected to grow by at least 24% within the upcoming years and as such is indicative of the relative importance of the position.
When it comes to the qualifications of workers for this particular job it must be noted that there is no precise sex, age, or physical requirement rather individuals who pursue this particular career path merely have to have a bachelors degree in an appropriate field such public relations, journalism or marketing (Frederick, 1).
Thus a recruiting plan for this particular strategy would consist of an initial internal evaluation of officers within a particular precinct in order to determine whether any had previous media related experience or had taken up a journalism/communications/media related course while in college.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Job Analysis of Public Information Officer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If I find that the local precinct lacks candidates an external search of other precincts will be accomplished to see whether they may possess the type of candidate I am look for.
In the instance that such a search yields no viable candidates, it is only then that an external method of recruitment will be implemented wherein the usual ads placed in classifieds or online job listings will be utilized.
In order to get the right kind of candidate for the job the classified ads will specify that only candidates who prior experience in media/public relations will be accepted in conjunction with an education profile that suits the needs of the job.
Furthermore, the job description will indicate the rigors that the candidates will encounter on the job which should help to discourage all but the most adamant workers for the position.
Selection Strategy The selection strategy will consist of examining which of the applications received show candidates with the right amount of experience and education for this particular type of position.
Ideally the candidate should have 3 years prior experience in public relations/communications or a media related position where they have to process and disseminate important information on a daily basis.
Furthermore the candidate must have a college degree that emphasizes some level of public communication, this can be waived though if the candidate shows that they have accumulated enough relevant experience in public communications to be able to the job as needed.
Once a select group of candidates has been determined from the number of the applications they will all be invited for preliminary interviews in order to determine their overall level of compatibility for the job.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Job Analysis of Public Information Officer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During the interview what will be examined is their communication skills, their ability to properly create detailed explanations with limited data as well as their interpersonal relation skills.
This is to weed out individuals that may have the necessary knowledge and experience to the job but lack the necessary skills to be able to carry it out to the degree that is necessary.
After the preliminary interview has been concluded, the candidates that have passed the first stage will be asked to come in for a test to confirm the skills noted in their resume.
This will consist of a series of written and case based examinations meant to determine how they work under pressure and the methods they would utilize in order to do the job properly.
It is expected that after going through the various interview and testing procedures a viable candidate should emerge that will be able to do the job adequately.
Job Performance Evaluation One of the bet methods of evaluating an individual’s performance is to utilize solid data and metrics to determine whether they are accomplishing the job in the way that they are meant to.
While a public information specialist position may appear to have relatively few instances where metrics can be applied this is not necessarily so. The first metric to be applied in this particular type of position would be the rate of information dissemination.
This takes the form of how long it takes for information sent to the employee to be edited, reviewed and then sent to the necessary parties in order for the information to be properly communicated.
What you have to understand is that the information that normally passes through this position normally consists of emergency broadcasts, crucial updates, announcements regarding criminals within the vicinity as well as a plethora of other types of information deemed important to the public at large.
The longer the information is retained the more likely that the lives of local residents will be adversely impacted and as such it is important to process and distribute the information as fast as possible. The second metric that will be necessary for this particular position is the overall level of responsiveness of the employee.
This takes the form of his/her ability to be on call during the weekends, being able to get to work on time and ensuring that all work backlogs are completed as necessary.
Without this level of responsiveness to the job it is possible that information backlogs may occur, if this does happen information that is vital towards public safety my not be transmitted at all resulting in possible civilian deaths.
The last metric for this job involves compliance to district ordinances and policies regarding methods of information dissemination.
This is both the easiest yet the most important of the metrics since compliance to the various rules and regulations is an absolute necessity for this particular type of position.
It must be noted though that given the right amount of training this particular type of metric can easily be met.
Training Necessity of Ethics Training
Aside from ordinary methods of training an employee, it must also be noted that ethics training is an important component in the training solutions implemented by any organization due to the proliferation of decidedly unethical actions within corporations and a variety of organizations.
The article “Ethics Training and Businesspersons’ Perceptions of Organizational Ethics” by Sean Valentine and Gary Fleischman is an investigation into the influences of corporate culture, ethical codes of conduct and ethics training into the level of job satisfaction, performance and ethical practices that employees bring to the workplace (Valentine
Universal Health Systems Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Executive summary During the year 2008, the government of Jamaica decided to remove the fees on the health sector for the users, which has increased the rate of demand on the healthcare services by the citizens.
The ministry of health in Jamaica is also trying to restructure the processes within the health sector to improve its services to the citizens, enhance service delivery and increase the accessibility as well as accountability in the management system of the health services.
The use of electronic medical record (EMR) also known as electronic healthcare record (EHR) is a data collection document that records the digital data of medical reports for the patients.
In addition, it shares the information with other healthcare doctors as well as providing personal health reports for patients to present to their doctors when required. This technology of recording the patient’s information is seen as a way of improving the services offered in healthcare facilities.
This has been adopted by countries like United States and others are on the process of implementing it. Jamaica is one of the countries, which has also planned to implement the technology to improve the health services.
Introduction Jamaica is the largest English-speaking Caribbean Island in its advanced stages to improve the health system, which is reflected by a decreased fertility and mortality rates in the country.
The maternal mortality rate in Jamaica has been high due to high rate of abortion done by girls and due to poor services in the maternal section but government has tried to improve its operations to curb the situation (Planning Institute of Jamaica, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The National Health Services Act in Jamaica divided the country into four health regions whereby each region is governed by the regional health authority. The regional authority has the mandate of ensuring that public health services are delivered to the citizens within the region.
The delivery of the health services is availed through the network of the secondary or tertiary care facilities and the primary care facilities, which are managed by the regional authorities in the country (Jamaica Ministry of Health, 2005).
The main aim of the research is to discuss the deficiencies in the health system of Jamaica and the benefits the country will achieve in adopting the EMR/EHR in operating its healthcare facilities.
The study tackles the challenges related to handling health information, medical products and technology, service delivery, health workforce, health financing and leadership and governance.
The research looks at the benefits that the country is likely to achieve in implementing the electronic medical record in the health system as well as some of the challenges the country might face in implementing the technology (Planning Institute of Jamaica, 2010).
Health information The health information system in Jamaica is fragmented that there is no policy on health information system to govern the communication processes within the health system.
The country has always lacked data to carry out the statistical analysis in the health sector that it has always used the 1993 data to estimate the vital statistics in the subsequent years in preparing the health reports (Ministry of health, 2008).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Universal Health Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the year 2005 audit of the vital statistics, it was noted that in the health sector there was lack of communication and coordination between the government and the health agencies, which has made it hard for the government to plan accurately on how to improve the health system.
The government should therefore strengthen its national regulatory bodies governing the sharing of the health information between the public and the private sectors (World Health Organization, 2006).
Medical products and technology Drug production in Jamaica proves to be limited due to the limited raw material imported for the production of the drugs. The country therefore depends heavily on the imported drugs and this increases the prices especially to the end user.
The government has therefore experienced increased costs in the health sector especially in the pharmaceutical service, which is the most utilized section and regularly accessed by the public due to the removal of the user fee in the health system (Ministers of Health of the Americas, 2007).
Service delivery The authority in the four regions within the country monitors the delivery of services in Jamaica. The health services are therefore provided through a network between the primary care facilities and the secondary/tertiary care facilities within the region.
The distribution of services is high in urban areas as compared to rural areas where the healthcare facilities are few. The public sector in the country provides 95% of the services to the citizens.
The private sector provides the 5% and its services are rendered by the professionals in the public sector who own the private health facilities (Ross, 2009).
The quality assurance in Jamaica is under the various departments within the ministry of health and this result to a fragmented process. The country has therefore a goal for the year 2015 where it plans to achieve effective operations in the clinical processes within the four regions of operation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Universal Health Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The government needs to improve the delivery of services in the regions as well as develop a policy to guide its implementation (Planning Institute of Jamaica, 2007).
Health workforce The study shows that the human resource in the health sector is not sufficient to serve the public. It was therefore noted that the distribution of the workforce in the regions is not equal because some regions are poorly served.
The study indicates that the dentists, doctors, midwives and nurses in the public sector are very few that the ratio at which they serve the public is 12.1/10,000 populations approximately.
In additional to this kind of shortage there is also inadequate number of rehabilitation experts in the occupational therapy and in speech (Ministry of health, 2008).
Leadership and governance In the year 1997, the government channeled most of its energy in reforming the health sector by decentralizing the healthcare services to its four regions within the country and strengthening the ministry of health to be steering the four regions.
In the year 2003 evaluation, it was revealed that the government had not achieved its targets fully in health planning, transparency, service delivery, community involvement and accountability by the management (Ministers of Health of the Americas, 2007).
In the year 2009, the country had achieved some of its targets but still there are some weaknesses in areas of communication, service delivery and quality assurance.
The government is therefore trying to involve the society in the health planning as well as the delivery of services since there are greater opportunities the government is likely to gain.
The involvement of the church in educating the public about some of the diseases like HIV or any other chronic disease will help in improving the lifestyles of the citizens (World Health Organization, 2006).
Health financing Research shows that the human resource expenditure in the year 2004/2005 increased to 82.6% of the total expenditure of the regional health authorities as compared to the previous expenditure, which was 79.3%.
The health financing programs by the government of Jamaica has not been successful due to poor performance in the economic sector, which is greatly affected by the fiscal constraints ((World Health Organization, 2001).
As much as the government has tried to settle the public debts, it has still not managed to maintain or expand the resources allocated to the health sector. In the analysis the expenditure incurred by the government in the health sector in the years 1992 to 2006 fluctuated by $70 per capital, which is equal to 2.3% GDP.
Research shows that due to the abolition of the user fee in the healthcare system the government is likely to incur an increased expenditure, which is estimated as US$44 million though at a constant rate.
The government is therefore expected to meet 52% of the expenditures as the remaining amount is collected from the revenues from the granting of casino licenses.
The study shows that the government is still unable to meet the expenses in the health sector as planned in the year 2015 target (United Nations, 2006).
Electronic medical records The government of Jamaica is likely to implement the use of modern technology devices in its health system as planned in the year 2030 strategic plan. The electronic medical records have proved to be beneficial to the patients, healthcare providers as well as the government of the country that uses the EMR.
As compared to the paper records electronic medical records proves to be having many benefits such as security, privacy, easy accessibility of the files, financial benefits, accuracy in the clinical processes and administration as well as management benefits (Hayden, Maccurtain, Richards, Roche
Kudler Fine Foods Virtual Organization Essay a level english language essay help
Kudler Fine Foods is a retailer dealing with food products. The retailer deals with local products and foodstuffs from other countries. Kudler Fine Foods is located in San Diego, and owns three stores within the environs of the city.
The company has been doing well in the sale of food products in the geographical area it operates. In addition, Kudler Fine Foods has developed a new marketing plan in an effort establish innovative marketing.
For the marketing strategy to succeed, the company has been doing research on their customers in order to realize success of its marketing projects.
In the light of the success of the methodologies used by Kudler Fine Foods, research has proved to be an important tool in developing any sales promotion plan. In the following discussion, the importance of research in marketing strategies and tactics is highlighted with Kudler Fine Foods in focus.
In order for an organization to succeed in marketing its products, a significant change is needed in the methods or approaches used in marketing. In this essence, marketing strategies and tactics involve change of the current methods.
This change is accomplished by implementing the recommendations of a market research project. In market research, information about the customer is obtained and recorded.
In addition, the methods used by competitors in marketing and the nature of the market are examined, and the data obtained is analyzed to help the managers of a company decided on the counteractive measures to be implemented.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research helps a business organization to identify and explore new markets by attracting new customers. The organization in question has to identify the customers and categorize them in order of their importance.
This way, the managers of the organization are able to focus marketing power on the most important customers.
Researchers at Kudler Fine Foods suggested that the company should adopt new methods to emerge as a powerful competitor in the market. Their recommendations were that since the company dealt with expensive food, it could hold demonstrations of how to prepare some of the products for a meal.
Apart from familiarizing the customer with their products, Kudler Fine Foods was able to acquaint potential customers to the stores. This strategy would help the company make the customers keep in mind the particular store when they go about shopping for food.
To develop interest in customers, Kudler Fine Foods demonstrated the culinary procedures of preparing foreign food products. Furthermore, acclaimed food experts were present and were used to demonstrate the procedures.
People attending the parties organized by the company were encouraged to bring others such as friends along for the experience.
Apart from the innovation of holding educative parties at Kudler Fine Foods, other methods were recommended after examinations of research findings.
We will write a custom Essay on Kudler Fine Foods Virtual Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Researchers found out that the operating hours of the stores in a day were best suited for the company staff rather than for the customer. A survey indicated that more people did not approve the set operating hours at Kudler Fine Foods.
Presentation of the food products at the food stores was also not attractive to the customers according to the survey. While the customers judged that the quality of the food products was fair, they disagreed on the presentation of the same products.
The research also revealed that some workers at the stores lacked courtesy while dealing with customers. An examination of the reports presented by the survey reveals that the customers were generally of the opinion that the services and commodities offered at Kudler Fine Foods were of good quality.
However, the customers expressed concern that the company was selling their products at exorbitant prices. Although the quality was good enough for the customers, there was a feeling among them that the prices were too high.
Another finding of the survey is that the company did not focus in individual groups of customers. Researchers found out that the company did little to offer specific products for different groups of customers. The company implemented corrective measures based on the results of research on general customer population.
For the company to outdo its competitors, its research and planned solutions to marketing problems must be kept as intelligence information. This will enable the retailer to enjoy the fruits of its innovation long before competitors become aware of the new tactics.
While Kudler Fine Foods has done extensive research and put itself on the course of reform, there is necessity to keep the reasons for its changes secret. Much of the information on the research the company conducted and the solutions that were formulated for the emerging issue has become available to the public, workers and competitors.
While it is important for the customers to know that the retailer is working to improve its services to the public, it is also important for Kudler Fine Foods to keep the details of its intentions from the competitors.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Kudler Fine Foods Virtual Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If competitors get information regarding the strategies that Kudler fine foods is intending to implement, a war for customers and customer loyalty could ensue. Such a competition may divert the efforts of the company from keeping a balance between profit and customer loyalty to engaging in costly wars.
In this essence, the company and its competitors may enter into a price war and a costly sales promotion competition. Thus, competitive intelligence is important for the company to make use of its findings in research.
For some of the sales promotion plans such as the introduction of tickets to encourage customers to attend parties may not be suitable for classification as secret information.
However, internal changes to the type of stock on retail should not be announced before the actual changes take place. Customers can be informed of the new products after implementation of the changes. This will prevent competitors from stocking identical commodities.
There are other areas that the company could have investigated and streamlined as a part of the effort to increase its sales and expand customer base. An investigation of the various customer groups should have been conducted to establish the type of distribution channel suitable for the respective customer groups.
This means that the company would modify its food products to make them suitable according to the variation of customer groups. In addition, the culture of stereotyping the customers could be avoided.
This is evident from the fact that the company did not recognize the variation of customer preferences while it did its research. The researchers looked at the market as a homogenous entity instead of treating it as a composition of various groups.
The company has established a significant level of popularity for its commodities and services among customers. However, to implement changes to the methods of operation and tactics in marketing and distribution, the company must conduct an analysis of the market, and separate the customer population into distinct groups.
The company failed to implement this aspect of market research. In the analysis, customers can be separated into various groups or classes that can be dealt with separately.
This will enhance customer satisfaction in relation to products sold by Kudler Fine Foods and services offered at the stores.