Sometime In April: Summary And Analysis Of The Movie Essay A Level English Language Essay Help

Sometime in April is a film that narrates about events that took place in Rwanda during the 1994 genocide. Rwanda is a small country in Africa that has two tribes, Hutus and Tutsis. When the Belgians left Rwanda, power was left to the Hutus who were the majority. When the Belgians were in this country, they preferred working with the minority Tutsis to the majority Hutu. Leadership positions were given to the Tutsis. This created a great hatred between the two tribes.

The Hutus took over power determined to exert their power over the Tutsis. When the world intervened, a section of the elite Hutus organized one of the worst massacres that has ever been witnessed in the world history. While the president of this country was signing agreement between the Hutus and Tutsis that was necessitated by the United Nation, a group of army generals were busy preparing the military and the militants for a secret mission that would result in a mass massacre.

When the president left the meeting, his plane was short down by unknown assailants. Both sides blamed each other for this massacre. Tutsis blamed the Hutus for taking away the life of a president who was a liberal, while the Hutus blamed the Tutsis for killing the president by virtue of his tribe. This sparked the war.

Soon after bringing down the president’s plane, a group of Hutus attacked then the prime minister’s house and killed her and some members of her family. Other massacres sprung out spontaneously in various parts of the country. The military generals were majorly the Hutus.

The majority of foot soldiers were also Hutus. In a manner that showed some planning, the military split into two. The Hutu soldiers killed their Tutsi counterparts. Because they were the minority, they could not do much. During the first day of the war, over eight thousand people, majorly Tutsis, were killed.

The country completely lost sanity as the two tribes viewed each other as enemies. The majority Hutu took control of the country completely. The mission of the Hutu military and the militants was to eliminate all the Tutsis. Through radio broadcasts, Hutus were encouraged to eliminate the Tutsis using crude weapons. The presenters would refer to the Tutsis as ‘inyenzi’, which is translated as “cockroach”.

They would urge the Hutu militants to use machetes on them other than wasting bullets. The militants were supplied with machetes and other forms of crude weapon. The war spread very quickly. To ensure that the Tutsis could not escape to other neighboring countries, the roads were blocked very fast by both the militants and the soldiers. They inspected all travelers and if anyone were identified as a Tutsi or a Tutsi sympathizer, he or she would be eliminated on the spot.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The decision to watch this movie came out of the desire to know what transpired in Rwanda during the genocide. The movie brings out the whole scenario in a much clear and elaborate manner. This movie is a direct criticism of the international society. The international society did not take any serious action to end this madness.

The United Nations sent troops to release the whites who were trapped in this scuffle. With very strict instructions to follow, the soldiers rescued the whites, not attempting at all to rescue the Tutsis whose lives were more at danger than the Hutus. This clearly indicated that the International society failed to see the need to save the Tutsis from an eminent elimination.

The marauding youths and soldiers would go to schools and churches eliminating any Tutsi or their sympathizers who sought refuge in such places. This was happening while the international society watched from a distance.

Augustine, the main character who narrates the story, lost his wife who happened to be a Tutsi, his daughter Ann and two sons. This was important to bring out the impact of the catastrophe. By killing the entire family of the main character, the producers created a scenario, which allowed viewers to sympathize with those who lost their families.

Analysis of the Movie Sometime in April presents us with an intriguing scenario. The war between the two tribes, as revealed in the movie, was inevitable. The producers keenly brought out this to reflect the real incidents that took place in Rwanda. There was a deeply rooted mistrust and hatred between the two tribes.

Whereas the Hutus viewed the Tutsis as traitors who were used by the colonial government to frustrate the majority Hutus, the Tutsis viewed Hutu as greedy individuals who were keen on ensuring that they remain in power and deprive the Tutsis of their hard-earned wealth. Because of their strength in numbers, the Hutus ensured that they controlled the government with an iron fist against the Tutsis. The war started at a pace that was very alarming. According to the movie, over eight thousand people died each day.

To an extent, the producers used liberty to make the movie more interesting. When the movie begins, we are left guessing who could have been responsible for bringing down the plane. In as much as one might believe that Tutsi rebels wanted to create tension so that they could get the reason to start the war, there is much more than has been brought to the eye. The army generals, who were Hutus, were not taken aback by this incident.

We will write a custom Essay on Sometime in April: Summary and Analysis of the Movie specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the contrary, they were keen on what to do next. The pattern of killing during this genocide showed a clearly planned massacre by both sides. The army generals were critical of the president for making many concessions. Although the movie does not categorically state which of the two sides was responsible, all signs point out to the possibility that those responsible were Hutu hardliners who were displeased with the president for giving in to the pressures of the international society.

The producers have given both sides of the story a proper presentation. This was purely an ethnic war, pitting the Hutus against the Tutsis. The war was an internal affair of Rwanda as a state. However, the response of the world powers was very poor.

The United Nations was established to ensure that there is peace in the world and it has the mandate to intervene in case there is a case of mass murder in a country, irrespective of weather the country is sovereign or not (Rikhof 67). However, the soldiers sent by the United Nations were keen to rescue the whites only.

As it can be seen from the movie, the target was not the whites. There is no specific point when any side of the warring parties attacked the whites. Although it was justified to remove them from the country that was in flames, the main issue was to rescue the Tutsis who were dying in large numbers. To send troops to rescue whites was therefore a sign of lack of concern by the global society.

In a high profile meeting organized by the US officials, one of the delegates wanted to know what the US would gain if it could send its troops to this country.

It is a fact that the US, just like any other sovereign country in the world, has the capacity to determine which war to join and which one to avoid, depending on the relevance of the war. However, by virtue of being the sole superpower, this country had a direct responsibility to ensure that humanity is protected. Letting things get out of control was a decision that would earn some degree of criticism.

The film is a reflection of what took place in Rwanda. It has employed fiction to bring out the realities of the Rwandan genocide. The filmmakers were keen to bring out a very appealing movie with characters and flow of the story. This has made the movie to be very interesting. I therefore enjoyed watching it and would recommend it to others because it is educative. Because of this, I would keep it on the supplemental films list.

Conclusion The movie ‘Sometime in April’ is a very captivating and poignant film. It narrates what took place during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. It captures the mass killings of the Tutsis by the majority Hutus. It also brings to light the role of the media in the massacre.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sometime in April: Summary and Analysis of the Movie by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although one of the US officials said that radio stations do not kill, it is evident from the movie that radio stations were more dangerous than the swords and the bullets. They spread hate speech, which literally encouraged the Hutus to kill the Tutsis irrespective of age or gender.

To ensure that the listeners could be motivated for this task, the radio stations reminded the Hutus that it was the Tutsis who were used by the Belgian government to suppress the Hutus. The movie is articulately presented. It elicits emotions as it focuses on the murders that took place during this time. It is done in a way that makes it real.

Works Cited Rikhof, Joseph. “Hate speech and international criminal law, the Mugesera decision by the Supreme Court of Canada”. JIC, 3.1, 2005, 1121-1133.

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Gifford Pinchot: The First Chief of the United States Forest Service Research Paper essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Pinchot as Forest Service man

Pinchot as a politician

Pinchot as Governor

Pinchot’s Legacy

Conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction Gifford Pinchot was born in August of the year 1865, to a wealthy family in Connecticut. Gifford Pinchot’s life was centered on religion before he decided to join the field of conservation. He used to engage in widespread evangelism and read widely on religious classics in Protestantism.

He taught Sunday school, and was the class deacon at Yale who was trusted with conducting activities related to religion. From the readings in religion, Pinchot would later combine this moral perspective to institute the development of the greatest conservation movement in America. Gifford Pinchot rallied America to the heights of modern capitalism and democracy through political patronage. As a young man, he loved the woods which would later become his passion and career.

In the history of the United States, he stands out as the first man to be trained in forest management and conservation. After completing his studies at Yale, he went to engage in selective use of forests study in France. Later, he would join politics and ascend to the governorship in Pennsylvania where he acted to bring many changes that are still effective today[1].

This paper will look at Gifford’s impact on modern capitalism and his major contributions that have affected America in one way or the other. As a progressive individual, he persuaded America into the path of conservation and management of resources through scientific means that he strongly believed were profitable in the long run.

In his tactics, he used the market economy ideas to illustrate that the government had a role in determining how resources could be used for the benefit of the nation. He also sought for the delicate balance between use of resources and management. This was in contradiction to people like John Muir who advocated for whole conservation. This is best illustrated in his support for the Hetch Hecthy dam where he supported its construction.

American Capitalism

The years between 1865 and 1920 characterized the height of American dominance in the capitalistic world. These years were characterized by large extensions of industrial prowess, military might, and advanced science. The American profits at this time grew by leaps and bounds, and the government and business almost became one.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Businessmen and managers who owned large shares in industries were often elected as mayors and chairmen of government committees. As a result, the business world went unregulated since the private hands used the political power to their own advantage. This was because there were no checks.

This would catapult American economy to the highest heights of capitalism beating the United Kingdom in industrial progress. The era was characterized by heavy monopolistic ventures that arose to curb the serious price-cutting tactics embraced by competing industries. The effect of the 1873-1879 depression had fizzled out leaving the competitive economy booming[2].

The investment bankers exercised enormous control on the economy, as well life insurance industry characterized by political interventions. The economy was essentially macro economic where heavy mechanization and the monopolistic measures led to earnings that were triple of the invested capital.

The capitalistic ventures at all levels of government, as a domination of the whole economy, could not present any advantage to the environment physically and in all aspects. The lumber mining industries consumed forests as a source of fuel and reinforcement to the mining developments. The capitalistic economy led to air pollution from smelting and mining[3].

The contamination of water occurred as a result of massive dumping of industrial effluents. This led to destruction of vegetation and occurrence of wide spread erosion. The environment was littered with debris that accumulated from mining machineries and thus the need for conservation could not have come at a better time than this period.

This environmental degradation had serious effects on some counties like California. Thus, the rise of Gifford Pinchot was a relief to the environment since his efforts and focus was directed to management. His other works in the public domain were through active political activities and engagement. It has to be noted that he also was the first individual to envision environmental conservation.

Therefore, these roles will be analyzed effectively in this paper. What stands out is his influence to capitalism and government. This is well characterized in the historical and economic aspects[4].

We will write a custom Research Paper on Gifford Pinchot: The First Chief of the United States Forest Service specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pinchot as Forest Service man Pinchot was a great friend of President Roosevelt and thus his ascension to politics and major impact to American economy and thinking cannot be under-emphasized. In 1898, Pinchot rose to become the Chief of the Forestry Division of US Department of Agriculture.

This department later became to be known as the Bureau and much later, it changed to “Forest Service”. Under his leadership and due to his close connection to the President in the Republican politics, the Bureau gained national control of the forest reserves, and this led to the name Forest Service.

In his work as a leader, he taught the value of diligence and a sense of mission, and thus he laid grounds for his political career at this early period. Pinchot and Roosevelt saw the same great need to use resources wisely in the environment. Therefore, they were both concerned with advancing strategies that would see that the resources helped the future generations of the American people[5].

In this effort, they coined the term “conservation” to mean the use and the movement advocating for management of the resources. In his tenure, America gained knowledge in non-exploitative use of forests, and as a fact, the acreage rose to millions in favor of national forest that were controlled and their use regulated by the government. However, this was a success under Roosevelt’s Presidency because things changed course when Roosevelt was defeated in the elections. This heralded a new era in Pinchot’s life, that of politics[6].

Pinchot as a politician As mentioned above, Gifford was a friend of Roosevelt, and a supporter of the Republican Party. Roosevelt struggled with Taft on the issue of the government owning land meant for forest reserves of which he was a supporter. This led to his breaking away to form the Progressive Party that Pinchot became a staunch supporter.

The party advocated for land reforms among other changes in the American society that were considered radical at the time. These issues included the regulation of child labor, the presence of a minimum wage for women, and the introduction of employment insurance in America. This led to Roosevelt’s defeat and thus Pinchot remained as the man who strived to keep the party moving.

As a mature politician, Pinchot ran for the seat of Senator in 1914 against Boies Penrose of the Republican Party. In his campaign, he advocated for radical changes such as the right of women to participate in a political process; a graduated income tax; and prohibition of alcoholic beverages, and other radical ideas that had been unheard of. However, he was not successful in the end as the progressive members returned to their old party[7]. Although Pinchot joined the Republicans reluctantly, he was in severe opposition to the President.

Despite his loss, it is worth to note that he got married to Cornelia Bryce, a lady who equaled her husband in energy and spirit. She supported him in his campaigns and elections to Congress three times, and once as governor; all which he failed. After this period of loss in his life, Pinchot turned his attention to state politics away from national limelight. This was largely due to his opposition to President Wilson’s neutrality to the European in 1916.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gifford Pinchot: The First Chief of the United States Forest Service by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, when Wilson was re-elected, Pinchot became a state politics sensation. Pinchot was thus one of early supporters of America entering into war. Gifford, a man of much knowledge and experience, gained a position a Commissioner of Forestry after being appointed by Governor Sproul.

In this position, he had gained an effective strategy to be elected as Governor and thus his administrative genius could not rest. Therefore, he believed that by promoting new administrative changes and by refusing to give political patronage, he would achieve his goal[8].

As a result, in his 1922 campaigns, he concentrated on reforms that stirred the greatest support from voters. These reforms would later lead to reorganization of the government and the economy. Also, these reforms prompted the implementation of injunctions and guidelines on public utilities. In his political experience, he toned down his earlier proposals on reform in order to win the support of the President of Pennsylvania Manufacturers Association who had political power in the State.

He won this election closely partly due to the internal succession wrangles of Republican Party after the death of Boies Penrose. After attaining this position, Pinchot dropped his campaign strategy and went full throttle to implement his radical reform agendas. This set him apart from his superiors and supporters since they considered him as having betrayed them[9].

Pinchot as Governor Gifford started his reign with some notable changes in the administration just as he had done during his tenure in the Forestry Service offices. He changed this by putting measures that saw that the spending budget of the state was completely controlled. He used his political persuasion tactics to bring the assembly to pass an administrative code that sought to standardize salaries. These codes also gave the Governor power to reorganize the executive branch of the government.

This process oversaw the establishment of fifteen departments and only three commissions in order to address the problem presented by the close to forty agencies that had duplicated functions. Pinchot ensured the introduction of a pension system that was run by funds from the state, as well as employees[10].

By now, Gifford had garnered enough public support and thus he was ready to push for increased reforms just as he had promised in the campaign for Senate position. He advanced another proposal seeking to prohibit alcohol consumption. In the reforms, only one bill passed, and it had to get funding from Women’s Christian Temperance Union.

This was because the Legislature was not in a position to give the required funding. In his macro-economic target plans to reduce the cost of electricity for the user and prohibit monopolies, he urged the government to pass a Bill that would achieve this. However, his bills were unsuccessful after a big defeat blow came from the utility lobbyists. He sought for a situation where the State would take a firm grip of connected electric companies with combined facilities.

As a man who had enough experience in diplomacy, he managed to solve strike situations in 1923 and 1925. The workers who mined anthracite coal had gone on strike in 1923. Pinchot used decisive arbitration to calm down the workers. The strike lasted only one week as compared to the second strike that lasted for six months. In the second strike, he forcefully mediated between the passive Coolidge government and the striking workers to gain an effective solution that ended the stalemate amicably.

This characterized the culmination of his first term tenure as a Governor. Pinchot’s efforts to rally him as the leader of Republican Party of the US failed. Therefore, he was to stay out of public office until 1930 when he got re-elected. There was an improvement in the effectiveness and economic conditions of the state while he was serving his first term as Governor.

In his second term, he revived his old battles for the bills of public utilities in the Assembly. He envisioned the need of relief for the unemployed, as well as the construction of paved roads that would help the farmers get access to basic necessities. In these endeavors, he fought for two years, backed by the Assembly, to achieve only three Bills passed.

The rest were defeated since the Senate supported the utilities. In this success, the Governor had sought wide support from the people through radio, mail, and newspaper. This can be attributed to the fact that he held that those serving in public positions were to put the public interest first in everything they did unless doing so was against the established law.[11]

As an administrator, statesman, and politician, he became one of the first Governors to push for the relief package in the United States. This was especially exhibited in his personal efforts to help people who had badly been affected by the Great Depression in 1931 at Pennsylvania. He had already formed a committee on unemployment before he had taken office to cater for such needs. However, this was not enough; and since he could help everybody, he realized that State aid was not enough for the unemployed who were suffering.

Therefore, he used his political power and other measures to urge the State and the Federal Government to increase and improve the aids that would see the needy get enough help possible. Through his efforts, President Hoover and the Congress established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

This corporation formed to provide assistance to various business firms and provide direct assistance to states. The State and the Federal funds were distributed on the non-partisan basis in his state. This was done through the Pennsylvania State Emergency Relief Board. In his state, he did not tolerate discrimination and various categories of individuals served in his administration[12].

In his famous quest for the public good, he is remembered vividly in the construction of ‘Pinchot Roads.’ According to him, the need for good roads was supported by the elimination of the barrier between the farmers and consumers.

In this process, he designed plans that would see the construction of 20,000 miles of road without the necessary need of heavy machinery in order to create employment for the many who had been employed. In 1933, Pinchot, supported by President Franklin Roosevelt, forced the U.S Steel Company to recognize the striking workers of United Mine Workers union[13].

As part of his achievements, Pinchot approved a session of assembly that facilitated the repealing of the prohibition amendment. This led to the formation of the Liquor Control Board that acted as a monopoly for selling liquor. In his political role, he supported the President F.D. Roosevelt who had chosen to execute economic recovery programs as a Democrat.

This was a good effort in the eyes of the public. However, to his fellow Republicans, he gained contempt and hate from the annoyed members. This affected his third time campaign for election into US Republican Senate. His attempt for re-election to Governorship in 1938 received a severe blow from Republican voters who had been angered by his support of the Democrats[14].

Pinchot’s Legacy The years of Pinchot as political heavy weight and a pioneer in forestry management were also characterized by scientific observations and recommendations. Gifford was much influenced by his studies in Europe on conservation and democracy. He took the spirit of equality and advocated that everybody should be treated equally.

He observed that those with the capability to use the forests were few when compared to the many that did not benefit from the forest. According to Pinchot, there was no need for a few to benefit at the expense of the many. This formed his future basis on reforms that were mirrored in “new conservationism” efforts[15].

He believed that the only way a nation would become strong was through the provision of equal opportunity for all, as well as protection and preservation of human life. This would mean development of a strong and stable nation. By combining his scientific orientation and political progression, Gifford remained strongly anti-capitalistic.

This led to many of his battles with leaders in the Senate, President Howard Taft, Muir, and Ballinger. At one time, he paid for his views dearly when he was dismissed by President Howard from his position. However, he is greatly remembered for shaping the direction of capitalism in terms of public equality and management of resources[16].

Conclusion Pinchot was one of the greatest visionary Americans who helped the modern America to stand on its ground through environmental conservation. Through his efforts and determination, the concept of sustainability in the management of resources continues to characterize America ahead of many other nations. His ideas on the public good were introduced in years when the world knew nothing except exploitation at all fronts in search of personal gain and profits.

His ideals for the public utilities are issues that have concerned economists all over the world in search of balance between property and the human welfare. Pinchot’s legacy continues to live through the Grey Towers as a center for forest and environmental conservation in his home at Milford. His ideas in progressive politics and sustainability today guide the debate regarding the aspect of global warming. Therefore, Pinchot is a revolutionary hero of modern capitalistic world.

Bibliography Atack, Jeremy. “Industrial Structure and the Emergence of the Modern Industrial Corporation,” Explorations in Economic History, 22 (1985): 29-52.

Gifford, Pinchot. Breaking new ground. New York: Island Press, 1998.

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania magazine of history and biography. [Philadelphia]: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1877.

Hunter, Louis C. A history of industrial power in the United States, 1780 – 1930 2, Steam power / Louis C. Hunter. Charlottesville: Univ. Pr. of Virginia, 1985.

Koistinen, Paul, A., C. Mobilizing for Modern War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1865-1919. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997.

Livingston, James. Origins of the Federal Reserve System. Money, Class, and Corporate Capitalism, 1890-1913. California: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Marc, Tool R. Evolutionary Economics: Foundations of institutional thought Volume 2 of Evolutionary Economics. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1988.

Miller, Char. Gifford Pinchot and the making of modern environmentalism: Pioneers of Conservation. New York: Island Press, 2001.

North, Douglass, C. “Life Insurance and Investment Banking at the Time of the Armstrong Investigation of 1905-1906.” Journal of Economic History, 14, (1954), 209-28

Penick, James Jr. Progressive Politics and Conservation: The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Reich, Peter L. “Western Courts and the Privatization of Hispanic Mineral Rights Since 1850: An Alchemy of Title.” Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 23 (1998), 57–87.

Richardson, Elmo, R. Dams, Parks, and Politics: Resource Development and Preservation in the Truman-Eisenhower Era. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1973.

Richardson, Elmo, R. The Politics of Conservation: Crusades and Controversies, 1897-1913. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962.

Robbins, Williams G. Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1994.

Swain, Donald, C. Federal Conservation Policy, 1921-1933. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963.

Footnotes Char Miller. Gifford Pinchot and the making of modern environmentalism: Pioneers of Conservation (New York: Island Press, 2001), 18.

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania magazine of history and biography ([Philadelphia]: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1877), 16

Tool R. Marc. Evolutionary Economics: Foundations of institutional thought Volume 2 of Evolutionary Economics (New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1988), 325.

Pinchot Gifford. Breaking new ground (New York: Island Press, 1998), 25

Pinchot Gifford. Breaking new ground (New York: Island Press, 1998), 27.

Paul, Koistinen, A. C. Mobilizing for Modern War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1865-1919 (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997), 59.

Louis C. Hunter A history of industrial power in the United States, 1780 – 1930 2, Steam power / Louis C. Hunter (Charlottesville: Univ. Pr. of Virginia, 1985), 341

Elmo R. Richardson. The Politics of Conservation: Crusades and Controversies, 1897-1913 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962), 25

Donald C. Swain. Federal Conservation Policy, 1921-1933 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963), 27.

Peter L. Reich. “Western Courts and the Privatization of Hispanic Mineral Rights since 1850: An Alchemy of Title.” Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 23 (1998): 59.

Williams G. Robbins. Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1994), 89.

James Livingston. Origins of the Federal Reserve System. Money, Class, and Corporate Capitalism, 1890-1913 (California: Cornell University Press, 1986), 33.

Douglass, C. North. “Life Insurance and Investment Banking at the Time of the Armstrong Investigation of 1905-1906.” Journal of Economic History, 14, (1954): 211.

Jeremy Atack. “Industrial Structure and the Emergence of the Modern Industrial Corporation,” Explorations in Economic History, 22 (1985): 37.

Elmo, R. Richardson. Dams, Parks, and Politics: Resource Development and Preservation in the Truman-Eisenhower Era (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1973), 243.

James, Jr. Penick. Progressive Politics and Conservation: The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 411.

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American Africans Action in the Struggle for Equality Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

These are protests that came to prominence in the course of 1950s, which raised concern against the incessant discrimination and racial segregation experienced by the American Africans and other marginalized groups in the southern America.

Continued oppression against people of different color, race, politics, or even religion had inspired many young American Africans to join action in the struggle for equality (Chong 23). Some of the prominent figures in the Movement include Martin Luther King Jr, Malcolm X, W.E.B. Du Bois and Rosa Parks among others.

Although the civil rights mass protest was officially formalized in the 1950s and 1960s, the fight for equality in various institutions of the U.S. had started long time ago. Community leaders in various segmentations of the society had showed resistance to the white supremacy and domination against the African Americans which had been abounded in some states. ‘Everyday’s Use’ written at the peak of the transformational movement, is a perfect expression and reflection of the issue of the aspects surrounding the civil rights movement.

Set at the height of the social issue, the story is a real representation of the key aspects of the day. Here, the writer applies writing to highlight some of the main issues surrounding the Black Power Movement. Walker’s purpose on the story is achieved through the creative formation of characters who symbolize the plight of blacks and women as observed during those times.

The movement was initially facilitated by the progressive efforts of the descendants of African slaves who had always tried to resist the institution of slavery upon them. Regular protests and campaigns of resistance were some of the common characteristics associated with this movement. Civil disobedience and activities of nonviolent demonstrations and protests were also common. Sometimes, these would bear crisis scenarios between government authorities and the activists resulting to confrontations.

Although it took many years for the issues highlighted in the movement to be addressed, the protests had significant impact to the modern world. Many changes were realized owing to the pressure of the movement. For instance, the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act were introduced in the years 1964 and 1965, respectively thus granting all American citizens basic civil privileges, regardless of their race and ethnicity.

Alice Walker is a renowned female activist who was born and raised at a time when the Civil Right Movements in South U.S. was taking shape. At the height of the transitional movement, Alice, then a college student at Spelman, was lucky to meet and rub shoulders with some of the prominent players in the movement, such as Martin Luther King Jr. This inspired her to become one of the strongest female activists in the American history.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Her contribution in the struggle for human rights and equality has continued to raise strong impact to the world. According to Tuten, Alice is a woman with many records in life and her largest contribution in life can be perceived through her countless struggles against discrimination and oppression (126). ‘Everyday’s Use’ is just one of her many writings about race and gender which raised much alert in the civil rights movement.

Racism, feminism and the many issues frequently raised by young American Africans who’d tend to lose respect to the culture that gave birth to them are some of the issue that Alice explores in ‘Everyday’s Use.’

As it would be observed, the story in this essay is Walker’s response to the social discourse of the 1950s and 1960s, when the civil rights movement took place. The writer has vividly expressed some of the issues that continue to plague modern American communities, as expressed through the lives of the characters in the story (Whitsitt 448).

Economic, social, and political issues are illustrated in the story, through the family of the narrator, who is referred by the title of ‘Mama’ or Mrs. Johnson. The story strongly illustrates the big contrast between the narrator and Maggy, one of her two daughters who still share the same conservative life with her, and ‘Wangero’ or Dee, the educated daughter who scorns the culture that gave birth to her.

As observed from this story, the writer has based the two sisters on aspects constituting her own character. Whereby Maggy represents her difficult childhood, Dee remains to be a vivid reflection of her latter life which is characterized by education and success; the two aspects that would enable her to take part in the civil rights movement.

The two different positions represent the culture and the progress of the American Africans in mid-to late-twentieth-century times. The story is set in a time when the lives of American Africans were undergoing a radical transition.

These groups of people were able to gain freedom of civil rights at last, through the glory of civil rights movement, after many years of oppression and discrimination from the whites (Gianturco and Tuttle 18). The final outcome reached on the story, is a representation of the results which succeeded the movement as American Africans started gaining recognition in various segments of the American society.

We will write a custom Research Paper on American Africans Action in the Struggle for Equality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This freedom would see the emergence of a new generation that has contradicting views about crucial aspects of life. As a matter of fact, the writer has used the story to defend the legacy of her family and culture and to pay homage to the initial inhabitants of the South, where she grew up.

Works Cited Chong, Dennis. Collective action and the civil rights movement, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Print.

Gianturco, Paola, and T. Tuttle. In her hands: craftswomen changing the world, New York: PowerHouse Books, 2004. Print.

Tuten, Nancy. “Alice Walker’s Everyday Use.” The Explicator 51. 2 (1993): 125-128. Print.

Whitsitt, Sam. “In Spite of It All: A Reading of Alice Walker’s Everyday Use.” African American Review 34. 3 (2000): 443-459. Print.

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Ramord Stockwell Case Study essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The problem

Recommendations

References

Introduction The Benson Metal Company has been a producer of steel in the world for many years now and they have curved out a sizeable amount of the specialized steel market for themselves.

They have for a long time specialized in the innovative and creative management, production and marking strategies to maintain their competitive edge in the market. The company has for some time been identified to have a leadership that invests in vertical sources of power (Jones, 2007).

The bureaucratic nature of their management structures may be identified as an advantage to the managers in regard to their particular authority in the company, but this may be detrimental to the motivation of line managers especially in an industry that relies so much on innovation as well as creativity in almost all aspects of its production and market structures (Thompson

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Everything Tastes Like Liquorice Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction In the world we live in there are many things which happen and eventually change the course of life. These things happen in our day to day lives and have a great bearing on the direction which we take. These occurrences have come to be mentioned by authors and writers as they try to bring to the fore the issues which face the human beings.

One of the renowned authors is Hemmingway. In 1927, Hemingway skillfully brought to light issues which affected and still affect relationships. In his book Hills Like White Elephants, Hemingway utilized the setting to enable the reader to understand the theme and the character behind the story. During this time, Spain was a country which was considered to be religious.

This was characterized by many catholic churches which stood to represent the moral arm of the society. It is this setting that Hemmingway tries to illustrate the important of morals in the society that is seemingly dwindling from the moral path, following a path that is characterized by pursing selfish and lustful desires. Symbolism This is a story which can be considered to be deceptive in its simplicity.

The couple opts to sit and drink as they wait for the train to Madrid. During this moment, they talk about issues of life. However, the talk comes to an end even before the train arrives. Yet within this quiet scene is a moral struggle, an investigation of the spiritual barrenness of modern love that is piercing its precision.

Hemingway does not cast moral judgment on the operation itself but on the narcissistic selfishness of the man, his ability to hear the young woman’s voice plea for home and family. Her surrender at the end is no less poignant than the death of a soldier on the battlefield, both because of its inevitability and the powerlessness of her morality and desire in the face of his more modern egotism.

The story opens as the man and the woman sit in the shade of the station café, discussing what to drink to cool them down from the oppressive heat. During a conversation, Jig comments that the hills resemble white elephants. In actual sense, the white elephant is a term which is used to describe or symbolize a situation or a thing which is considered to be useless. This symbol describes the kind of relationship that is exists between Jig and the American.

The man refuses to acknowledge her imaginative view, though, and an argument sparks between them. She changes the subject, asking about the words painted in the bead curtain of the café. It is the name of a drink, Anis del Toro, and after tasting it she says its licorice taste reminds her of absinthe. “Everything tastes of licorice (Hemingway). Especially all the things you have waited so long for, like absinthe.” “Oh, cut it out,” he says, and again it is unclear why they are quarrelling (Hemingway).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Only when the reader realizes that she is remarking obliquely that everything she had longed for seems the same, in that it is ruined, does the emotional intensity of the scene make sense. The river in the story reflects life. Ebro River is a river which originates in the Cantabarian Mountains. This river flows into the Mediterranean, which is 550 miles from her source. It is worth noting that the river in this play represents vitality. This notwithstanding, the river also represents time.

That is the passage of time from one era to another. The baggage that is being carried by the travelers can be associated with the issues of the past (Resseguie). The landscape is in a dry and desolate state. This state of the landscape represents death and a sense of wastefulness. On the contrary, the greenside represents newness and a sense of promise. The newness is a representation of a baby and the anticipated new beginning. Jig’s inability to face the real landscape, the brown and dry hill suggests lack of acceptance of the real life ahead.

She fails to realize that the relationship between them is deteriorating as is the case with the parallel railroads, which denotes that they are not likely to meet on the matter at hand. Unfortunately, she opts to hold on to the belief that the American man will commit. She is hopeful that the pregnancy means something to the man. Unfortunately, to the man, the relationship is nothing more than an illicit affair.

The “wind” of the hills simply defines casually and literally what an abortion is: As “the warm wind blew the bean curtain against the table,” he is quick to say, “I know you wouldn’t mind it, Jig. It’s really not anything. It’s just to let the air in. I’ll go with you….They just let the air in and then it’s perfectly natural” (Bloom 50). The rail road junction represents the decisions that have to be made by both parties. This junction is used as a symbol to represent the quagmire of whether to carry out an abortion or not.

It also brings to the fore the question of changing directions which is sought by Jig and the American. In conclusion, it is quite clear that there are many lessons which a person can pick from this story. First, is the role of men and women in intimate relationships. This is clearly captured by the way Jig and the American are relating especially in light of the pregnancy. Secondly, it brings an emphasis with regard to responsible behaviors in relationships.

This is captured when Jig conceives (Bloom). Following this eventuality it seems that the American is not willing to take full responsibility. Hemingway paints a bleak, amoral world where people are trapped by “the good times.” The story is effective because there is not only a hero, but a credible woman struggling against him, defining his shallow and selfish desire to have only Jig (but not the child) thereby authorizing the abortion as the only plausible solution.

Works Cited Bloom, Harold. Ernest Hemingway, New York: Infobase Publishing, 2002.Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Everything Tastes Like Liquorice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hemingway, Ernest. Men Without Women, New York: Scribner, 2002. Print.

Resseguie, James. Narrative criticism of the New Testament:an introduction, New York: Baker Academic, 2005. Print.

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Deliberate indifference- the case of Farmer v. Brennan Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents A brief overview of the Farmer v. Brennan case (1994)

The Supreme Court and deliberate indifference

Opinion on the ruling

Works Cited

Globally, the demand for human and civil rights by all people has intensified with time. Most social groups in society have moved to emphasize on the need to ensure that their demands are neither undermined nor overlooked as a major icon in enhancing acceptability and cohesion in the society. Sexual harassment in prisons today has been a major distressing issue that has caused massive suffering to victims and also great social disharmony.

Olsen posits that sexual harassment is a problem that affects individuals in a community as well as in prisons (199). However, deliberate indifference plays a critical role in disregarding the safety and health of inmates in prison. The latter goes against the provisions of the Eighth Amendment. This paper takes a critical look at the issue of deliberate indifference as ruled by the Supreme Court in the Farmer v. Brennan case of 1994.

Gardner posits that deliberate indifference constitutes a conscious and reckless disregard of the possible effects of an individual’s omissions or actions which can cause harm to another person (429). This lack of disregard goes beyond mere negligence. Over the years, deliberate indifference standards have been applied by law court to determine the knowledge of professionals concerning risks and their negligence of actions performed by others which may cause safety or health issues to inmates.

Gardner continues to argue that it is difficult to determine what constitutes deliberate indifference, but quickly adds that courts have identified ways like factual scenarios which they use to establish deliberate indifference (430). Some of those ways include lack of effective response to an inmate’s complaints and delaying or deliberately not supplying medical care to an injured inmate.

A brief overview of the Farmer v. Brennan case (1994) The above case concerned a male-to-female transsexual by the name Dee Farmer who having been charged with credit card fraud, was incarcerated in a prison with a general male population.

This led to Farmer going through repeated rapes and serious beatings from inmates. The consequences of the events were not only bodily harm, but also health problems as she eventually acquired HIV. In the court, Farmer made it clear that the prison administration neglected the fact that they were exposing her to the danger of sexual violence having put her among men.

The Supreme Court actually agreed by majority that the responsibility was on the prison administration terming their action as a deliberate indifference, an act that violated the Eighth Amendment. However, the prison administration was not automatically held liable to what happened to Farmer since the prison officials might not have known what was happening and abated it through reasonable measures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Supreme Court and deliberate indifference The case of Farmer v. Brennan speaks of the need for prison guards to assume the duty of protecting inmates from harm by other prisoners. However, the ruling by the Supreme Court done by Justice Scalia on the objective components that the conditions of confinement of Farmer were fair and that the deprivations of her rights were not sufficiently serious was in reality a denial of justice.

Zangwill indicates the ruling by the court that there was no sexual harassment after the knowledge that Farmer, having a feminine appearance and preoperative transsexual was left at the mercy of male inmates to be beaten and raped clearly incarcerates transsexuals as targets for sexual harassment in prisons (100).

Olsen however differs with Zangwill on the point that the court was fair in its ruling since Farmer had not informed the prison administration that he was not safe. This could have seen prison officials either segregating her from others or securing better protection (199). Deliberate indifference could have therefore arisen if the prison staff had actual knowledge of the threat Farmer faced and refused to take reasonable measures.

Opinion on the ruling The ruling by the Supreme Court on the case of Farmer was indeed unfair and I strongly disagree with it based on the fact that prison officials and professionals were well aware of the fact that sexual harassment is common in prisons.

Putting Farmer in a prison dominated by men without considering her sexual nature and appearance was a clear indication of their negligence of the harm that would befall Farmer. Reporting a threat to prison officials without a clear indication or proof of a threat does not always guarantee an inmate of security. The ruling by the court on the ground that Farmer had not reported the threat was a sure way of protecting the administration from liability.

It is common practice among many inmates not to report sexual harassment for fear that they would be called snitches. Deliberate indifferences in similar cases to that of Farmer v. Brunner will be cited in conscious negligence of prison officials in the status of an inmate. Details of inmates, physical and emotional are normally supplied to prison official, a factor that provides them with information on the various rights of an inmate that needs to be protected.

Ignorance of those details and dependence on a prisoner to report threats to violation of those rights is a deliberate indifference on the part of prison officials. It is the duty of prison officials to ensure the safety of prisoners at all times with or without reporting. Having the background of widespread sexual harassments in prisons, it is upon prisons administration to establish measures that will curb any incidences of rape and sexual assaults.

We will write a custom Essay on Deliberate indifference- the case of Farmer v. Brennan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Gardner, Martin. “Rethinking Robinson V. California in the wake of Jones V. Los Angeles: the “Demise of the Criminal Law” by attending to “punishment”.” Journal of Criminal Law

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The raise of Taxes at the United States Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Discussion

Taxation and work incentives

Taxation and the pattern of demand

Taxation and investment decisions

The Rich Should Pay More

Conclusion

References

Abstract This essay will look at the effect of a change in tax rate in an economy. Based on the current economic and financial crisis relationships with be established on taxation with work incentives, labor productivity, investment decisions, budget and the rich so as to make informed opinion.

When an economy is facing a crisis, it adjusts its tax system as policy to rectify the deficit in the economy. For instance, United States has been hardly hit by the economic crisis and is contemplating on increasing taxes for the rich. The change in taxation has both positive and negative effects.

Introduction The current economic and financial crisis has adversely affected all the countries in the world. Those that have been hard hit by the crisis include the United States of America and European countries. Other countries, especially developing countries are suffering from the spill over effects. In United States, the effects of this crisis have been evident in various sectors of the economy.

The country has been hit by high rates of employment with nearly ten million people registering for the unemployment benefits. The number of people registering in job search centers has increased, with fresh graduates taking the highest percentage. The economy has failed to create new jobs, with jobs lay off mounting by the day. Most industries are streaming their workforce since they cannot adequately meet their needs, such as paying salaries and other benefits.

The situation has rendered a high percent of the populace jobless, with most of them having difficulties in paying their bills. Those who are unable to meet their bills have resorted to pegging in streets so at least to get something to sustain them. The suffering of most Americans has not gone unnoticed, with the President Barack Obama constantly giving an account of government progress on how the crisis is being handled. The most recent announcement by the President is an increase in the rate of tax for the rich.

The tax raise among the rich will lead to an increase in national revenue that can then be used to create jobs at national levels. This move has elicited controversy, with some supporting while others attack the move as inappropriate. It is like taking from those who are rich and distributing it to those who are poor. Despite raising taxes for the rich, taxes for foreign people should be lowered.

Discussion Taxation is a fiscal policy tool that government can use in order to have a balanced fiscal budget. The government to attain certain objectives like full employment, price stability and economic growth normally uses fiscal policy. Other policy tools that can be used include printing of money, sell of fixed assets, internal or external borrowing as well as consumption of fiscal reserves.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When a government is facing huge deficits, tax revenue can be raised by increasing the tax rates. Taxation is a tool that can be used to rescue an economy facing difficult times. Proper design of a tax policy can be a panacea to the prevailing economic hard times such as unemployment. United State has sought to follow Germany’s way to rescue its economic from adverse effects of its current debt position.

Economist asserts that the only way in which an economy can reverse a crisis is using an expansionary fiscal policy. This will solve the issue of fiscal budget imbalance, unemployment and ‘crowding out’ effect.

Conversely, high taxes will look out private companies from investing in the country because of the cost of production which will translates to higher commodity prices. It will be hard for businesses to carry out business in countries with high tax rates. This is because it will render most establishments less competitive in the global market.

To encourage foreign investment tax rates should be reduced for them and sometimes coupled with tax havens, allowances and subsidies, this will encourage them to take up their new investment in the economy (Kivel, 2002).

Taxation and work incentives When there is an increase in the rate of income tax, the effect will be that the post-tax income of individuals will reduce. This is because the net income resulting from each hour of work will be lower. The move might encourage workers to increase their number of working hours to meet their target income. On the other hand, an increase in tax might be used as a disincentive to promote less work. The government normally sets a lower income tax rate for low-income employees.

This will act as an incentive for workers to do their job for long hours and earn more money. Low taxes on low-income earners serve as a tool of reducing ‘poverty trap’ risks where individuals will get high net financial benefits from their work. When tax reforms are favorable, it leads to an increase in supply of labor thus a reduction in unemployment equilibrium rate hence, the growth rate will increase.

Taxation and the pattern of demand Demand patterns for goods and services vary as indirect taxes are changed. When value added taxes (VAT) on commodities such as alcohol and cigarettes increase, it is aimed at causing a low consumption among consumers or a substitution effect. The result will be a low demand for such commodities. Indirect taxation can be applicable where there is a total market failure, as well as when the government wants to ensure equitable distribution of resources such as health care.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The raise of Taxes at the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taxation and investment decisions When the rates of business taxes and corporate tax are low, this can stimulate a business to increase its spending in fixed capital investment. An increase in investment will mean that the capital stock of a nation has increased thus an increase in capital stock of every worker employed (Mankiw, 2011).

Government can use incentives such as tax allowances to boost research and development and in encouraging new business developments. A tax regime that is favorable will attract increased inflow of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). This will be a stimulus that will benefit an economy’s aggregate supply and aggregate demand. Low rates of corporation tax will attract huge amounts of private investment.

Tax changes act as a stimulus of investment in capital assets, social infrastructure, and labor force skills as well as in technology. A good tax system will ensure an improvement in infrastructure, which is essential for economic growth through increased production and competitiveness. Government spending can be terms of development of an education system that is skills oriented and technology focused. This will ensure a steady long-term supply of human resources (Dye, 2011).

Company’s risk attitude and corporate income tax are the main factors that are considered by an organization before making an investment decisions, this is because this factors can affect the rate of return on investment. Amount of corporate tax to be paid is an important factor that is taken into consideration before making a financial investment decision. This is because low taxes will mean lower prices for goods and higher revenue generated.

The Rich Should Pay More For equal sacrifice and fairness among citizens, those individuals who benefited from favorable economic times such as boom, rescue packages among others should find it necessary to shoulder the costs that arise from a crisis. There willingness will save the economy from suffering the worst effects of a crisis that a time may spill over to drain resources of the rich. This argument looks at increasing government revenue through an increase in income as well as an increase in capital gains tax.

This was illustrated by Germany’s case after the World War II where legislation was passed which mandated financial compensation to gather for loses that arises during the war. This lead to a creation of tax on property and capital, this law was applicable to individuals who still possess substantial assets after the war. The law required them to pay half of their asset worth to a compensation fund over a period of thirty years.

In case of United States, an increase in tax has no chance any time soon. The reason being the required budget consolidation should occur on the expenditure part. This will imply a reduction in government expenditure and this will have adverse effects on the economy. On the other hand, an increase in income tax disproportionately has an effect on higher earners. The impact of high tax on the rich is minimal because large proportions of their income go to savings while minimal amounts are spent (Blinder

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Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the essay help online free: essay help online free

Today the problem of solid waste management is current for developed and developing countries because the hazardous effects of the ineffective solution of the question can lead to influencing the state of the environment and changing the ecological situation at the polluted territories. There are many models and programs developed at local, regional, and governmental levels in the USA and the European countries which are worked out for providing the effective solution to the problem of solid waste management.

To overcome the issue of solid waste management, the USA and the European countries practice the collection, transportation, recycling of the waste at the local and regional levels, with focusing on the competitiveness of the industry, with involving the other countries’ landfills, or with concentrating on the inter-municipal cooperation.

It is necessary to develop the economically advantageous project of the industry’s modernization according to which the spending costs should become lower and results higher. The inter-municipal cooperation can be considered as the most economically effective solution to the problem.

The problem of solid waste is one of the most controversial for the urban territories with the constant growth of industries which provide the highest percentage of the solid waste. Moreover, the problem of municipal domestic waste is also current. Today it is more typical for the USA to use landfills and the system of recycling as the main methods of solid waste management.

Nevertheless, different states focus on various ways of waste management with paying attention to the regional and local programs (Bel et al.). However, the main problem which can limit the effectiveness of solid waste management remains unsolved. It is the problem of the local and governmental costs spent for the management. That is why the most effective solution to the problem must be also effective from the point of its financing.

The discussion on the effectiveness of this or that solution to the problem of solid waste management is still open. If it is possible to accentuate the successfulness of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in such European countries as Spain and the Netherlands and in the USA, it is also possible to focus on the regional programs typical for the US counties with involving the citizen information programs, recycling, and depending on waste-to-energy plants, and on the cooperation between two countries (Canada and the USA) because they are used with following the standards of technology and provide definite environmental benefits.

Thus, the example of the realization of the regional program associated with solid waste management in the US counties is the system of waste management in Cheshire County. The main characteristics of the system are the usage of the citizen information programs, the waste stream reduction and recycling, the development of the network which connect the territories with the centrally located county landfill.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To support the system, many counties can use public and private partnership with the local transport companies. All these factors accentuate the fact that “municipalities are paying too much for solid waste disposal” (Monahan 7). That is why it is necessary to find the more economically effective solution to the problem.

The idea to use the landfills of the neighbor countries, for instance Canada and the USA, for realizing waste management programs can be considered as effective from the point of economy. However, it is important only for those territories which are located close to the countries’ borders. Moreover, there are many aspects connected with the problems of crossing the borders (transportation) and locating the waste in the landfills (Schaefer). That is why this solution also cannot be considered as the most successful one.

To realize the effective solution to the problem of solid waste management in the USA, it is significant to use the principles of the inter-municipal cooperation which also can involve the definite aspects of the public-private mixed policy. This system is more appropriate for the USA because of the high level of the local fragmentation in the country.

Moreover, it can be also discussed as the more developed one in comparison with the typical local and regional programs. Thus, “in the US, inter-municipal cooperation is usually not compatible with private production, although it is seen as a form of contracting out” (Bel et al. 5).

The inter-municipal cooperation allows decreasing the amount of the costs used for the collection, transportation, effective disposal, and recycling of the solid waste with sharing the responsibility for providing the necessary management. Thus, the effective inter-municipal cooperation can solve the challenges of funding and social costs. Moreover, such form of cooperation between the local authorities contributes to solving the environmental issue which is rather difficult to discuss at local levels independently.

Nevertheless, why is the inter-municipal cooperation more effective than, for instance, regional county programs? It is important to note that modern programs used in counties are predominantly based on the successful aspects of the inter-municipal cooperation which is economically beneficial.

The inter-municipal cooperation provides the opportunities to concentrate on the technological modernization of the processes, development of the transport system, to rationalize the division of the budget and involve all the necessary means with increasing the managerial capacity (Wilson and Scheinberg).

We will write a custom Essay on Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the Situation in the USA and the European Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The inter-municipal cooperation as the solution to the problem of solid waste management is based on the efficient economy balance between the country’s territories and provides the effective developed system (Bel et al.).

In spite of the fact there are many programs which are used in the world for solving the problem of solid waste management, one the most economically effective systems is the inter-municipal cooperation which can be successfully realized in the USA.

Summary Discussing possible solutions to the problem of solid waste management, Matthew Schaefer in his article “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?” pays attention to the relations between the USA and Canada, their integration in overcoming the issue of the solid waste with the help of the landfills abroad; Germa Bel and the group of researchers in their work “Similar Problems, Different solutions: Comparing Refuse Collection in the Netherlands and Spain” focus on comparison the effectiveness of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in Spain and the Netherlands; in their article “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?”

David Wilson and Anne Scheinberg concentrate on the necessity of finding the easiest variant for solving the problem which can also be appropriate for implementing in cities and countries with low incomes; Matt Monahan in his “Municipal Solid Waste Study” develops the recommendations for using regional programs in US counties.

In his article “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?”, Matthew Schaefer discusses the peculiarities of the transportation of the waste between Canada and the USA. The author states that such practice has advantages for the economy of the both countries, but it also requires the solution to the question of the open borders and the creation of definite transnational standards for reducing the waste.

Germa Bel, Elbert Dijkgraaf, Xavier Fageda, and Raymond Gradus developed the work in which they analyzed the peculiarities of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in Spain and the Netherlands with references to the experience of Great Britain and the USA. It is the most beneficial program from the point of economy for countries with the high level of the local fragmentation.

In their article “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?”, David Wilson and Anne Scheinberg discuss the findings of their prolong research which was conducted on the problem of finding the most effective and less expensive way to cope with the issue of solid waste management which could contribute to the requirements of the developed countries and developing countries.

They focus on the difference in approaches to solving the problem in big cities and low-income cities. The necessary technological modernization of the process should be supported by the authorities and political commitment. Nevertheless, it is also important to pay attention to the modernization of the economically advantageous recycling system.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the Situation in the USA and the European Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In his “Municipal Solid Waste Study”, Matt Monahan analyzes the features of waste management in the counties of the USA and concludes that the current system is not effective in relation to the level of expensiveness and requires the further development. It is necessary to implement the constant system with basing on the cooperative work of municipalities in order to monitor the process of collection, transportation, and recycling the solid waste form the territory.

The articles are similar in providing the analysis of the effectiveness of this or that program depending on the economic factor with the focus on the examination of the benefits resulted from the usage of the mixed (public and private) policy.

These examined articles are different in providing the possible solutions to the problem of solid waste management which depend on various criteria (the involvement of municipalities, governments, integration with the neighbor countries).

Works Cited Bel, Germa, Elbert Dijkgraaf, Xavier Fageda and Raymond Gradus 2006, Similar Problems, Different Solutions: Comparing Refuse Collection in the Netherlands and Spain. PDF file. Web.

Monahan, Matt 2004, Municipal Solid Waste Study. Web.

Schaefer, Matthew. “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?” Canada-United States Law Journal 28.103 (2002): 103-114. Web.

Wilson, David and Anne Scheinberg. “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?” Waste Management

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Econ of development Essay a level english language essay help

Many global investors have poured their resources in emerging market economies because of the returns accrued, which is higher compared to investments in advanced market economies. The returns are not necessarily high for the emerging market economies. External financing is always accompanied by high social costs to the countries with emerging market economies.

Moreover, volatile external financing may reduce economic growth of such countries because of some uncertainties involved. It is for this reason that government should intervene and place controls on this economic aspect. Too much intervention by the government is not productive because side effects will also arise, e.g., if a government imposes a limit to the amount of cash that can be ploughed into a country for investment, the investor may be limited to a strict budget.

This may deprive the country from gaining other benefits, e.g. infrastructure. Investors sometimes build roads and bridges for easy access and transportation of goods to the locations of investment. These remain the assets of the host country. It is very critical that the government limit their restrictions by formulating favorable policies.

Governments should issue contracts to all investors. These contracts should explain in detail the length of time that the investors will stay. In addition to this, the contracts should restrict pulling out of the investors until a certain stage in the process of market liberalization is reached.

This is better than having no contracts, and allowing investors to emerge markets at will. In so doing, the government plays an important role; they ensure that there is a constant and continuous accumulation of capital within the country. Without contracts specifying the stay of investors in a country, they may decide to pull out their resources and capital as they wish.

This is very dangerous to the economy of any country because the assets in that country may become less valued. The main reason why investors may decide to pull out of a country in the course of their stay is loss of faith in that country’s economy. Since the economic stability of most developing countries is uncertain, it is wise for them to give contracts (specifying the duration of stay, and the time to pull out) to investors.

Capital flight occurs when the capital injected by investors rapidly flows out of the country. This takes place when investors lose faith in the project or when their confidence on the economy of that country is gone. This is mostly associated with the fall in the exchange rate in the deserted country’s currency. One major way of dealing with capital flight is changing of the exchange rates of a country to values more favorable to the direct foreign investors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The investors should not lose a lot of money while converting their currencies and vice versa. There are other ways of dealing with capital flight other than adjusting the exchange rate. These methods are equally important in dealing with capital flight. One of them involves reducing the taxation rates on capital. When the government reduces the amount of tax imposed on capital, investors are more likely to stay.

This is because they end up retaining money that would have otherwise have been used as tax. Other than the two examples given, any initiative by the government in strengthening the economy of a country will ensure that investors always remain in that country. In general, it is correct to conclude that maintaining the stability of a country’s economy will win the confidence of investors thereby making them stay.

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