Simulation And Supply Chain Management Parsley Pallets Analytical Essay College Essay Help

Summary It is evident that simulation facilitates modeling of the production processes, which allows quantitative analysis of the system performances. In this paper, the Simul8 simulation model presented examines the possible benefits of adjusting the current processes at Parsley Pallets (LLC.). The Simul8 model facilitates decision-making by allowing prior assessment of the production processes. In particular, three solutions presented: (1) SMED implementation; (2) Kanban cards; and (3) line balancing.

It is clear that simulations using Simul8 give a clear picture of the situation in a company’s production processes. Graphical representations give an understanding of the existing business processes, which facilitates optimization to improve efficiency and output. Using Parsley Pallets (LLC.) as the case study, the research demonstrates that Simul8 modeling is a cheap and convenient method for investigating different scenarios in its three stations, optimizing production and finding solutions to its production problems.

Introduction In the current global economy, proper supply chain management is central to organizational success. Supply chain forms a vital component of flow of materials in any organization. A majority of organizations has developed policies aimed at promoting supply chain management.

These policies work differently in different industries. According to Chang and Makatsoris (2001), the term ‘supply chain management’ was coined in the early 90s and it entails the process where manufacturers, suppliers, warehouses, and retailers are integrated with the aim of enhancing efficiency and reducing operational costs. When trying to put up systems to be utilized in organizations, some challenges may be encountered, which may affect the operation of the final product, hence the need for a simulation.

The conventional definition of simulation is that simulation is a model of the actual system, which can be experimented with the aim of predicting the efficiency of the real system (Banks 1998). Supply chain management can be simulated to establish the likely outcomes as the various parts are reconfigured or interfered with to achieve a particular result. Simulation can currently be achieved using special software that generates the actual program, process, or product.

One of the software used for this purpose is the Simul8, which will be utilized in this model. An example of a company that will be utilized in this simulation project is Paisley Pallets (LLC.), which is a family owned business entity that has produced pallets since the beginning of the year 1965.

The company operates in more than 50 countries and it produces pallets that are vital in the logistics industry. It has continued to be the leader in the market with more than 100,000 people visiting its different outlets in a single year and more than 12,000 people working under the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has a clear supply chain management policy and thus, a simulation of its manufacturing process and supply chain management is possible. The following part is a literature review on simulation and supply chain management with a focus on the areas that simulation is applied and some of its advantages and disadvantages.

Simulation and areas of application As aforementioned, simulation is used to create a model of a part of the real world, with the aim of using this substitute to experiment or predict changes when alterations are made (Hollocks 1995).

Simulation can be applied in a number of fields to predict changes when variations are made to the normal or known operational characteristics of any system. However, according to Hollocks (1995), the most common field where simulation is applied is in the manufacturing industry. Other sectors where simulation is applied include finance, health, service, and retail sectors (Hollocks 1995).

Simulation allows firms to mitigate industrial crises and enhances the efficiency of supply chains. In the present day, global trade is a characteristic of any industry and supply chains of present day organizations run through continents and thus, simulations find wide applications in many areas.

Therefore, supply chain management has evolved to be an important component of any organizational management. The simulation of supply chains is one of the methods that are currently being utilized by organizations to improve on their efficiency and output. As Ebrahimy, AbouRizk, Fernando, and Mohamed (2011) state, there are a number of toolkits that may be utilized in the simulation of a supply chain in organizations. However, in their research, the researchers focused on construction simulation tools.

Carson (2005) describes a simulation model as a “descriptive model of a process or system that includes parameters that allow it to be configurable; that is, to represent a number of somewhat different systems or process configurations” (p. 17). Through the different configurations that are available, one can alter this model to achieve the desired results.

Khorramabady (2006) posits that a good supply chain model should have a detailed model of the project as well as a detailed upstream supply chain model, with the two constituting the two main important components. Supply chain management is reported to have improved over the last few decades and one of the contributing factors is the presence of simulation as a tool. On their part, Zee and Vorst (2005) state that simulation has become an important tool in decision-making in matters to do with supply chain management.

We will write a custom Essay on Simulation and Supply Chain Management Parsley Pallets specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The construction industry is one of the industries with complex supply chains. Thus, supply chain management is vital for firms operating in this industry. Moreover, demand variability can adversely affect logistics management in this industry. Thus, its complexity can be addressed through a stochastic simulation modeling approach (Vadalakis, Tookey


Logistics operation: Tesco and Sainsbury Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Logistics management has been the industrial success driver for a long time, and thus organisations have been investing on it over the last century. However, the current organisational supply chain management is focused on the increasing consumer expectations with regard to the choice and delivery of goods and services.

Due to the high competition brought about by globalisation across all industries, customers are in a position to demand higher quality and lower prices for goods and services. In a bid to maintain an intact client base coupled with continued profitability and viability, organisations have embarked on adopting different approaches in their logistic operations.

Therefore, this report compares and contrasts the logistics operations of two companies, viz. Tesco and Sainsbury, with regard to inventory management strategies, logistical operations, inventory management, transport mode polices, and IT systems. Conclusions and recommendations for the next five years of operation are also made for the two companies.

Logistics Elements Logistics management involves the planning, implementation, and effective and efficient control of the flow of goods and services from their point of origin to that of consumption to ensure that the customers’ requirements are met (Wang 2013). The basic elements include warehousing, storage, and handling of materials, packaging, transport, and the control of information.

Management of Logistic Operations: Tesco vs. Sainsbury Tesco

Tesco is one of the food retailers in the UK and it has thousands of stores worldwide, but over half of these stores are in the UK (Competition Commission 2010). The headquarters are located at Hertfordshire and the company offers offline and online personal finance services. The company has also been on a profit run for the last couple of years.

Tesco has recorded a significant growth over the last few years and one of the indicators of this growth is its profit before tax. Over the last financial period, the company had a growth of 14.5% in profits, which had improved from the previous year as it stood at 2.1%. However, the trend has been unsteady with the company pre-tax growing by 12.3% in 22010/2011 financial period and 8.7% in the 2009/2010 financial period.

A graph showing Tesco’s pre-tax growth between 2009 and 2013

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Logistic operations Centralisation

In the years around 1970, Tesco had a Direct to Store Delivery (DSD) where the manufacturers as wells as suppliers had the choice of delivering their goods in any store that they chose (Joseph 2013).

Centralisation was unachievable with this kind of warehousing and the product quality could not be guaranteed. In a bid to ensure that the company had control over the prices of goods, it adopted the centralised system to replace the DSD (Palmer 2004). The stores were interlinked with the head office, and stock could be obtained on time with quality guarantee.

Continuous replenishment

Tesco also adopted the continuous replenishment policy in the year 1999, which entailed a flow system and allowed multiple deliveries to be made (Wang 2013). The company also pioneered in the implementation of Factory Gate Pricing, which allowed the company to save on the prices of goods since the suppliers reduced the prices charged for transportation (Rushton et al. 2013).

Transportation Policies

Tesco is one of the companies in the UK with an efficient logistic operation. The company has traditionally been dependent on trucks on the highway to deliver the goods to the customers and the various stores, and these were utilised in the sourcing of goods from suppliers. It, however, introduced rail services late in the year 2011, and these were meant to reduce the traffic that the Lorries were creating by taking about 40,000 of them off the road.

The trains transport the goods from the company’s central depot to the distribution centres and stores, and goods from the suppliers are transported on the way back. For the purpose of this logistical venture, Tesco got into partnership with Direct Rail services and Stobart Rail (Tesco Case Study 2011). Some of the other transport modes that the company utilises in its logistic operations include shipping, air travel for regional and international centres, and vans for home delivery.

Warehousing, Storage and Packaging

The company also has a detailed logistics strategy, and this aspect is evident in the four main warehousing methods that it utilises within its supply chain. The first warehousing method applies for goods that can be stored at room temperature, and these warehouses are the regional ambient distribution centres (Tesco Case Study 2011).

These warehouses are used to store things such as groceries that are not moisture dependent or wet. The second kind of warehousing utilised is the bonded warehousing, and this form is utilised for goods that are regionally distributed. The third king of warehousing that is utilised by the company is the national distribution centres. These are spread all over the countries that the company operates, and they are used to store the goods that are deemed to be slow moving and that are durable.

We will write a custom Report on Logistics operation: Tesco and Sainsbury specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These goods include textiles and other materials such as those used in hardware and construction. The last warehousing utilised are the composite distribution centres. These centres are temperature regulated to provide optimum conditions for the mainly fresh and perishable goods that are stored here. Frozen foods are also stored in these warehouses, and temperature controlled trucks and train carriages are used to distribute them to the outlet stores and other retail stores.

Information and Technology

The company has also been a leader in the use of technological innovations in the packaging process, and some of the major breakthroughs that it has made include the invention of a new material used in packaging of fresh produce to increase their shelf life. The technology has been applied in the arioso fresh produce that it has in its stores, and has doubled the shelf life. Packaging is also utilised in other products that the company stocks in its warehouse.

Facilities are a major contributor of supply chain management and Tesco has a number of methods to ensure that this driver has an impact on its performance. In a bid to facilitate the change, the company removed some of the processes in the supply chain that were deemed inefficient and the rest of the processes were changed to be more customer focused (Benton and McHenry 2010).

Most of the outlets in the country also have gas stations and the company is considered as one of the major petrol-independent retailers in the United Kingdom. Some of the countries served include Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, the Republic of Ireland, and Slovakia (Vankateswaran and Son 2010).

Inventory management Inventory management is a significant part of any business enterprise, and Tesco has invested in this field to ensure that it stays competitive (Weele 2010).

The experience of shoppers can be subject to the availability of stock in a company and shoppers currently have the choice of different organisations from which to shop. Researchers have found that shoppers often visit other stores to shop for an item that is missing in the initial store that they shopped, and this aspect represents a loss in revenue for the company involved (Golgeci and Ponomarov 2013).

The most important aspect of supply chain in ensuring the availability of stock in industries is the management of inventory (Blackburn and Scudder 2009) and Tesco has embarked on this course. Other important factors in the logistic management include information accuracy, presence of product range, and substitution of demand (Yücela et al. 2009).

The determination of policy aimed at optimum inventory control has garnered importance over the last few decades with the company being one of the market leaders in this aspect.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Logistics operation: Tesco and Sainsbury by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the major policies adopted by Tesco is the Automated Store Ordering (ASO) system, which has ensured that the company replenishes its supplies to the customers’ convenience (Longo 2011). Automated store ordering is one of the latest developments in the supply chain management, but hitherto most industries utilised human interventions in their stores to make decisions on the availability of stocks.

The use of ASO within Tesco and its subsidiaries has allowed the improvement of efficacy and led to the development and introduction of Electronic Point of Sale (EPOS) technology (Vadalakis et al. 2011).Some researchers have described the basis of ASO as a technologically oriented service allowing the improvement of services within organisations’ supply chains (Vadalakis et al. 2011).

Other researchers have also compared ASO with other traditional approaches that were used in organisations to improve the delivery of services (Gaur et al. 2009).

In addition, ASO has ensured the improvement of availability of products and services. Tesco has utilised ASO for a number of years and it is frequently involved in the introduction of other services geared towards improving the availability of goods within its branches. In one of the researches done on Tesco’s inventory, the use of ASO was found to increase the, ‘variability of workload by 185% in the distribution centres’ (Potter et al. 2009: 5740).

The company has also been a leader in the adoption of technology in the supply chain, and it was the first to automate its checkouts in the retail stores. The company also developed the computerised stock control system in the 80s, which complemented the checkout systems already in place by then (Van Der Zee and Van Der Vorst 2010). is a major component of the company’s information sharing attempts to the customers, and it has grown to operate over 250 stores across the UK since its inception (Potter et al. 2009). The services have also become important to the company’s customers and it is reported that over a million of them use the services (Burt et al. 2011). Therefore, the company remains a market leader in the use of transportation, inventory, and information in the growth and management of its supply chain.


Sainsbury was founded in the year 1869 and for years, it was the largest food retail company ahead of Tesco and other companies in the industry (Dudbridge 2011). One of the areas that can be evaluated in the performance of the company is the bank subsidiary that it operates.

The company received £52.9 million in the last financial year, which was an improvement from the previous year’s financial performance of £40.3 million. The previous financial year’s profits also stood at £39.7 million, which was an improvement from the profits of the year 2011 that were £29.9 million (Wang 2013).

A graph showing Sainsbury’s pre-tax profits and after-tax profits in 2011 and 2012

Despite the positive performance, the company experienced challenges in competition with other companies and Tesco is one of the companies that overtook it in terms of size and performance.

The leadership has also demonstrated lesser strategy in the market over the last decade as compared to the previous years, and this aspect has forced the company to fall below other companies such as ASDA (UKPA 2010). The supply chain management has also not been adequate, and this aspect is one of the reasons that the company trails Tesco in the industry.

Logistics management The company had used the out-dated logistic system that Tesco abandoned in the 70s, until the year 2001 when it adopted the strategies of network renewal, people and culture, partnerships and replenishment policy (Joseph 2013).


Sainsbury has adopted a rather simple warehousing system and transport network. The company mainly utilises vehicles in the distribution of her goods between the distribution centres and the retail outlets. The main component of the fleet of vehicles is the long trucks that form the backbone of the transport system.

Smaller vans are also used in the transport of some other goods to and from the retailers. Some of the latest developments in the transport network that Sainsbury utilises are the Isotrack Vehicle Tracking Systems, and this aspect has enabled it to reduce fuel consumptions and carbon emissions. The other measure that Sainsbury took was to integrate its transport with the paragon software systems, and this move in combination with isotrack reduced the operational costs.


The company’s warehousing policy includes about 19 distribution centres across the UK, and these are used to store the different kinds of goods that the company distributes to the retail centres (Competition Commission 2010).

The company started construction of a central depot in the year 2012, and this depot would be connected to both a major highway and a rail network. The warehouse would cover an area estimated at about 1 million square ft, which would serve as the only major depot for the company, with the other distribution centres getting some of the goods from here.

Storage and Distribution

Sainsbury had traditionally used the centralised distribution that was also used by Tesco, and manufacturers would deliver their goods here. This system started to fail at the beginning of the millennium, and they had to adopt a different system. The latest of the storage systems used by Sainsbury is the Automated Storage and Retrieval System, and the company utilises special sortation systems and conveyors (Competition Commission 2010).

Some of the other components in the company include the primary consolidation centres, fulfilment factories, k Line depots, frozen food depots, and specialised distribution centres (Vadalakis et al. 2011). The company also outsources its logistic providers, and some of these include the Excel Logistics.

The company also embarked on expansion policies and one of the first of these policies includes the acquisition of Bells Stores, which increased its stores and profitability. The company also invested in transportation in its supply chain with the introduction of major changes and collaboration with other companies to ensure efficiency (Long et al. 2011).

Inventory Management and Technology The inventory management has also become a major concern for Sainsbury and one of the major steps that it has taken include the adoption of technology on the supply chain.

The company, even though not the first in the industry, introduced a number of online services that were meant to improve its performance on the global front (Vadalakis et al. 2011). Consumers can now shop online and engage in business transactions over this platform and this aspect, according to Terzi and Cavalieri (2010), is an effective method of ensuring better performance.

Sainsbury has developed a strong network of suppliers with assurances of fresh and quality foods. The company also has an Internet-based shopping service where customers can access various products and services throughout the day.

However, the number of stores that have adopted the service is fewer as compared to those adopted by Tesco, which stands at only 165 in number. The company has also invested in a number of services for its customers including baking services that it provides. The outlets are also known to offer a variety of services, which are mainly related to hospitality.


This essay puts Tesco as the market leader in the industry in the UK, and the company has managed to overtake Sainsbury in the last few years. The strategies that the company adopted can be considered as having put them in the leadership of the industry. The company was able to change their out dated strategies timely enough to avoid being irrelevant and remove any inefficiencies in their logistical operations.

Sainsbury, on the other hand, was relatively slower in the adoption of system upgrades and new technology in the logistics management and this is one of the reasons that it trailed the other market leaders.

However, the company has put these changes in place, and it could be competing on the global arena in the next number of years. They have replaced their traditional systems to match those of Tesco, and this has made them worthy competitors. Companies should be able to adopt changes as fast as they are available (Potter et al. 2009; DeHoratius et al. 2010).

Another important aspect of logistics management in any industry is the transportation and availability of services to customers in the right time and quality (Kayakutlu and Buyukozkan 2010). Customers also need a variety of products to be offered in the same place for convenience and organisations that are able to achieve this goal have a reported better performance.

Tesco has managed to provide varying types of services including the gas services that it provides to its customers and the different types of goods available in its stores. Sainsbury offers varying types of goods and services in its branches, but these goods and services are not as many compared to those that Tesco offers. This aspect is one of the reasons why some customers who used to frequent Sainsbury have shifted to Tesco, thus leading to its dominance in the industry.

Despite the above differences, the two companies have a well-performing supply chain that is geared towards the provision of adequate goods and services to their customers. The two companies have engaged in the promotion of the participation of all the players in their supply chains, and this aspect is considered as one of the most innovative ways of increasing performance of the supply chain.

Conclusion From the analysis of this paper, the logistic policies adopted by Tesco were important in the propulsion to the top of the industry. On the other side, Sainsbury was slow in the adoption of strategies to this effect, leading to the marked slow improvement and a fall in the industry dominance.

This aspect shows that industries should be fast in adopting technologies in their logistical operations to be in a position to compete effectively. Out-dated practices should be replaced with new one, and this should be timely enough. The companies are now competing with each other on the same platform, and the changes made by Sainsbury have made it a strong competitor of Tesco.

Recommendations A number of recommendations are possible for the two companies in the report. These companies should be in a position to make decisions in their supply chains in terms of production, inventory, location, transportation, and information. They should create master production schedules by taking in account the capacities that their stores and organisations. These production schedules should also be balanced in terms of quality, workload, and equipment available.

In the inventory, the two companies should invest adequately to ensure that they are predictable and that their supply chains are certain, which can be done through the adoption of policies aimed at increasing customer confidence. They should also invest in different parts of the country and provide goods and services that are appropriate for the target markets.

Transportation is also an important aspect of the supply chain and appropriate partnerships with the transport companies should be entered. The path taken by both companies in adoption of technology in their operations is commendable; however, they should ensure that the latest technology is available to their customers.

List of References Benton, W., and McHenry, L. (2010) Construction purchasing


Dilmah Ceylon Tea: Market development in Australia Case Study argumentative essay help

Introduction The performance level of any product in the marketplace depends on its reception by the target consumers relative to other competing brands placed in the same market. Marketing encompasses one of the noble activities adopted by any organisation in an effort to create awareness of value for its products and services. A fundamental interpretation of the marketing function in an organisation is that marketing entails the art of selling.

However, selling is only a small fraction of concerns of marketing for a product like the Dilmah Ceylon tea brand since selling is accomplished in an environment dominated by various multinational competing brands such as the Unilever tea.

Marketing products involving stiff competition in terms of both value and volume entails market research, market segmentation, setting of marketing strategies, evaluation of the marketing environment, and positioning (Kotler et al. 2009). This paper considers these aspects of marketing in the discussion of the marketing of the Dilmah Pure Ceylon Tea brand in the Australian market.

Background to Dilmah Ceylon Tea brand Ceylon (Sri Lanka) is located in the Indian Ocean and historically, the nation is famous for spices, beauty, and tea coupled with gems (Herath 2004). Natural resources coupled with the strategic location of the island made it primary area of interest for foreigners. In particular, foreign inversion by the Europeans was driven by spices coupled with the need to establish a base for control of India (Herath 2004).

The presence of the Europeans in Sri Lanka was particularly important in the development of Ceylon as an agricultural nation. According to Herath (2004, p.1), ‘by 1948, the most important export crops were tea (65%), rubber (13%), and coconut products (19%)’. Despite the size of Ceylon in the mid 1950s and 1960s, the country accounted for 20 per cent of all tea consumed across the globe. As depicted by appendix 1, tea has been an important crop grown in Ceylon between 1965 and 1998.

Although Ceylon tea was consumed in many countries since the commencement of tea exportation from Sri Lanka, the largest exportation to Australia took place between 1960s and 1970s. This exportation accounted for 70 per cent of the total tea consumed (Arambewela 2013).

Nevertheless, as Arambewela (2013, p.506) notes, ‘the Ceylon tea market share started to decline in the early 1980s, both in terms of volume and value, and an overhaul of the Ceylon tea marketing strategy was thus considered necessary to arrest this decline’. One of the adopted strategies involved rebranding Ceylon tea brand, while ensuring that the new brand continued to represent quality perceptions of the Ceylon tea brand amongst its consumers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above concern led to the creation of the Dilmah Pure Ceylon tea brand in 1984. During this period, the Australian tea market had many other competing brands at multinational and national levels. According to Arambewela (2013, p.506), these brands included ‘Lipton, Bushells, Lanchoo, Tetleys, Harris, and Twining’.

The brands had managed to establish an immense market share for tea Australia. This aspect made Dilmah Pure Ceylon Tea brand to encounter an immense threat whilst making a new entry in the market. This assertion means that marketing environment for the new brand was not welcoming. Any effort to develop a marketing strategy aimed at winning back the market share for Ceylon Tea brand established in the early 1960 to late 1970s called for scrutiny of the marketing environment for the brand.

Marketing environment for Dilmah Ceylon Tea Products are offered for sale in a market comprising of substitutes. This assertion means that various factors influence successful placement and the actual sale of products in the marketplace. At an organisational level, such factors emanate either internally within an organisation or externally.

In an attempt to develop a successful marketing plan, it is crucial to conduct a thorough analysis of internal and external factors that affect the performance of a product in the market environment. Competition entails one of the factors, which shape the marketing environment. The figure below shows various factors, which shape competition.

Factors shaping competition in a marketing environment

Source: (Keller 2004, p.71)

A number of factors influence decisions made by the marketing team for any product including the Dilmah Pure Ceylon tea brand. From the PEST EL organisational analysis approach, these factors are political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal factors (Gerry, Kevan


Advantages and Disadvantages of Working Across Boundaries Analytical Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Working across boundaries refers to working beyond the expected groupings such as international boundaries and social groups. This concept has been a topic for discussion in most forums, particularly in the field of public administration and management. Throughout these discussions, notions have emerged that continue to set the basic principles in this relatively new field. Some of the notions captured in this study include inter-sectoral, inter-organisational, and inter-jurisdictional notions (Carlile, 2002:443).

From these notions, some terms have been formulated including collaboration, collaborative government, horizontal coordination, and holistic government (Bogdanor, 2005:52). The binding notion for collaborative efforts demonstrated by the individuals is that current organisational dispensations must allow room for working across boundaries so that goals may be achieved.

The purpose of this essay is to analyse and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of working across boundaries. The analysis will be based on models that have been developed on the topic. The new models developed in management have identified working across boundaries as one of the major components. Several authors and researchers have also developed a variety of models, with working across boundaries being central in most of the policies developed by organisations.

The essay is divided into three major sections. The first section presents the advantages of working across boundaries. Because the topic is a relatively new concept, which can be attributed to globalisation and has its strengths and weaknesses, the second section will show the disadvantages of working across boundaries. As there is relatively little discussion of the concept in the literature, the last section will conclude whether the strategy of working across boundaries can be adopted for use in organisations or not.

Advantages Several authors, including Denhardt and Denhardt (2000: 550), whose model is based on shared leadership and collaborative structures, have developed newer models with the aim of promoting better collaboration between organisations and governments Osborne (2006: 378) also suggests another model that incorporates working across boundaries.

He attempts to include the notions of inter-dependence and inter-organisational management. The other researcher whose model includes working across boundaries as a key component is Halligans (2007: 218). In his model, he stipulates that integrated governance is a form of horizontal collaboration.

Delineates components and populations

Boundaries are important in delineating components and populations that are utilised in many ways to demarcate what is included from what is not in a set of things and/or populations. In organisational management, boundaries allow accountability, as organisations are able to impose their rules within their organisational boundaries. Several kinds of boundaries have been described, with the most common being geographical boundaries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the other boundaries include symbolic boundaries, which are described by Lamont and Molnar (2002: 168) as being “conceptual distinctions made by social actors to categorise objects, people, practices, and even time and space”. Social boundaries are also described as “objectified forms of social differences which create patterns of association and structure social interactions, and manifest as groupings of individuals” (Lamont and Molnar, 2002: 168).

The 21st century has seen a number of challenges. Governments and other organisations have adopted working across boundaries as their modus operandi. Coping with the challenges of the 21st century requires the collaborative efforts of people across boundaries because most of these challenges are universal and difficult to control.

Some authors propose that entities work across borders and should develop perpetual collaboration (Cortada et al., 2008:2). These researchers claim that working together across the boundaries of single agencies and government will be crucial in the better performance of these entities (Cortada et al., 2008:2).

Working across international boundaries is also important in securing cheap and available resources across these boundaries. The realisation that no single entity can exist alone is driving international collaboration. Working across boundaries also provides better chances of achieving the set goals.

Only those who work across boundaries have a better chance of success in the future (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2007: 4). There are reasons why this way of working can make organisations more successful, including the ease of getting cheap labour, wider market availability, and the presence of experts away from the traditional markets and economies.

Forms a basis for correcting problems

Another advantage to working across boundaries is that it forms a basis for correcting problems that are caused by the separation of functions in the various sectors (Ling,2002: 616). Working across these boundaries allows companies and individuals with related functions to merge and offer services and goods at a better rate compared to those that work alone in a specific field (Edwards, 2001: 79).

Ling stated that some boundaries, such as those between departments, sectors in private and public entities, are a major hindrance to the provision of goods and services, and that people should work towards abolishing these boundaries (Ling 2002: 616).

We will write a custom Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Working Across Boundaries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wilkins (2002: 105) reveals that working across boundaries is a significant part of international collaboration, and, hence, a better way of settling disputes. The reason that some areas in the world are not as successful as they ought to be is that they have not managed to build inter-organisational capacity. Working across boundaries allows for the sharing of organisational strengths while boosting areas that some entities are unable to carry out on their own.

It also allows organisations to enjoy some of the benefits that exist beyond the geographical boundaries, such as adopting policies that may exist across these boundaries. For government systems around the world, working across geographical boundaries is also beneficial because it allows for coordination between governments. This increases international collaboration, which improves the global economy.

Working across boundaries has also been fronted as a means to respond to complex situations. Some problems that are evident in public policy can only be addressed by working across boundaries. The literature proposes that it can reduce fragmentation and ensure efficient delivery of services.

Cortada et al. (2008: 2) state that some of the current trends in societies and governments are the process of globalisation, threats to security and the rapid growth of information technology. The authors confirm that the problems originating from globalisation may be mitigated through collaboration, which involves organisations, governments and individuals to work across boundaries (Cortada et al., 2008: 2).

Some other authors also emphasise the problems that governments face as some of the main reasons for why they should work across boundaries. The complexity of the problems facing the various entities within governments and organisations necessitates the need to outsource.

Wilkins reveals that the problems have no respect for social, regional, or any other boundaries but run across all of them (2002: 104). Therefore, it is important that people and organisations also work across these boundaries to ensure the best ways of overcoming the problems. Several international problems exhibit a nature of metamorphosis. Working across such borders ensures that these problems are adequately taken care of.

Organisations are able to reduce operational costs in a number of ways when they work across boundaries. Traditionally, working in one country made organisations and enterprises subjective to the existing policies, which were not necessarily favourable to their operations (Heracleous, 2004: 96). With the newer trend of working across geographic and international boundaries, organisations are able to establish the best countries to carry out some of their operations.

These places have policies that can facilitate the efficient operation and carrying out of services. Some of the factors that may be favourable include tax regimes, the prices of raw materials and labour, the availability of resources and workers, and cheaper transportation costs (Stoker, 2006: 42). The large number of companies that are currently operating across geographical boundaries can demonstrate this observation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Advantages and Disadvantages of Working Across Boundaries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A positive driver of competition Working across boundaries also drives competition. Through the experience that working in other countries provides, individuals are able to learn from the new areas or campaign for change in the original areas of their work. Individuals with the capability to institute changes also do this based on their experience in these new countries where they work.

Organisations are also able to establish large markets through working across boundaries (Cabinet Office, 2000: 1). The combined population of the areas that are served through the breaking down of boundaries is sufficient to guarantee increased and sustained markets. The strategy guarantees profitability. Another way in which this can increase profitability is by lowering the costs of operations through increases in efficiency.

Working across boundaries also has an advantage of establishing synergies when organisations, government sectors or individuals work together. One of the researchers who support this notion is Pollitt.

According to him, working across boundaries has the effect of creating synergies within a network or a specific policy area, with this goal being achieved through the collaboration of the key stakeholders (Pollitt, 2003: 35). Other researchers also support the notion that working across boundaries creates leverage for the available resources within all areas and sectors of a society (Cortada et al., 2008: 7).

Another benefit of working across boundaries is that it can increase efficiency and effectiveness in the provision of goods and services. This helps organisations remain competitive in the market. Ling states that the achievement of individual government objectives may be done using “joined-up government” (JUG), which is one of the popular descriptors of working across boundaries (2002: 616) where governments collaborate both vertically and horizontally with other governments to achieve shared goals.

Through this policy, governments and organisations are able to utilise the scarce resources in various fields, such as infrastructure, labour, and industrial raw materials, thus ensuring increased efficiency. The policy also allows room for the provision of services to citizens in their variety. Another effect is that it eliminates tension between policies and removes contradictions (Ling 2002: 616).

Assists with pooling resources Another advantage of working across boundaries is the pooling of resources. Organisations are able to generate more resources out of the collaboration generated from working across boundaries (Donahue, 2004: 31). This strategy makes the operation of organisations, societies and governments more efficient and productive (Hood, 1996: 10). The other advantage related to this way of working is the effect of reducing transaction costs in the process of collaboration.

Some of the other advantages of working across boundaries in this context include interaction between different cultures, religions, and societies. Working across boundaries enables individuals, organisations and other entities to work together and learn from each other.

Through interactions within cultures and societies, the different ideologies held by each can be shared for the benefit of the other. It is through collaboration brought about by working across boundaries that large institutions have evolved to work towards the achievement of goals for the betterment of society.

Working across boundaries has also been a significant source of innovation as more and more people get the resources they need to advance their ideas. It is easy to understand why organisations work across boundaries in outsourcing staff, technology and resources.

They find the environment more convenient on one side of the geographical border and, hence, the need to work across boundaries. Working across boundaries also has a role to play in the development of organisational culture. Where organisations work across boundaries, they are able to develop a culture that is compatible with their goals. They have a number of choices as opposed to working within a limited sector, culture or region.

Disadvantages Attracts factors that are detrimental to organisations’ existence

Despite the large number of advantages of working across boundaries, there are a number of disadvantages to the same. Working across boundaries exposes people, organisations and governments to several factors that may be unfavourable to their existence. One of these factors is a culture that may be harmful to the entity (Huxham, 1996: 42).

Organisations have a set of norms within which they work. These norms are necessary for a continued positive performance. When they start working across boundaries, some of the likely outcomes are that the organisation may adopt a culture that is not native to it and, as a result, interferes with its output.

Collaboration as a form of working across boundaries may not be beneficial to some organisations and institutions. By working across boundaries, people often assume shared responsibility. Work is neglected, as each of the partners feels it is the responsibility of the other. The result is a destructive instead of synergistic partnership.

Some governments also express reservations to working across boundaries for the same reasons (Perri, 1997: 22; Broussine, 2003: 14). Another effect of working across boundaries is loss of autonomy. Working within a limited region or society enables institutions to have autonomy and total control total control over the area in which they are dominant. If these institutions choose to work across boundaries, they will lose the autonomy that they previously enjoyed.

Working across boundaries also has the disadvantage of exposing organisations, companies and government institutions to competition, which is another unfavourable situation. Adding competition to the already competitive market attracts poor performance of the institution in comparison with those that specialise in only one sector or within one region.

The added competition also puts organisations at risk of losing their original hold on the local sector and areas. The new areas or territories may also be too expensive to operate or maintain branches in.

Threatens existing power structures and bases

Working across boundaries also serves as a threat to the existing power structures and bases. With organisations and institutions pursuing the same strategy, working across boundaries may have the effect of offsetting the existing power balance where those in power exhibit resistance to the whole idea of change (Parston


Marketing Management and Market Orientation of Coca Cola Company Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help

Executive Summary Marketing management and market orientation are essential aspects of marketing in any business organisation. In the current study, the author analyses marketing management and market orientation concepts. As a concept, market orientation is very beneficial to an organisation.

The current study highlights some of the benefits an organisation derives from the adoption of market orientation concept in its marketing management. The benefits range from improved market competitiveness to enhanced overall organisational performance.

The market orientation of a given organisation can be determined using a scholarly developed questionnaire. In addition, the same can be determined through the analysis of market orientation components in light of a given organisation. In the current study, the author performs a market orientation analysis of Coca Cola Company, a global leader in the soft drinks industry.

From the company’s market orientation, various shortcomings in relation to the concept are highlighted. To improve the market orientation of Coca Cola Company, recommendations are made in this paper. The recommendations lay the groundwork for the proposed improvement of the firm.

Introduction: Marketing Management and Market Orientation Marketing management and market orientation are vital aspects of marketing for any given organisation, whether non-profit or commercial. An organisation intent on realising its main goals and objectives must have a keen marketing strategy. Both marketing management and market orientation are driven by the marketing strategy. The combination of the two optimises the chances of a business succeeding in a given venture.

Kotler and Keller (2012) provide a working definition of the marketing concept. Kotler and Keller view this concept as the creation and exchange of value between the organisation, the customers, and the larger society. As a concept, marketing focuses on identifying and meeting both human and social needs of the businesses.

On the other hand, marketing management is defined from the perspective of creation and sustenance of markets. It is the science and art of identifying market segments and delivering goods and services to the same (Kotler


Ijtihad in Islamic Banking Essay argumentative essay help

Abstract Ijtihad has various definitions and meanings particularly drawn from the views of highly respected Muslim scholars and legal practitioners. However, the optimal individual effort in an action becomes distinct. The most important definition of Ijtihad is the optimal effort individual can put in an action.

With respect to the definition, Ijtihad is where the jurists spent optimal efforts to find a solution to rising issues that need immediate interpretation. Besides, Ijtihad majorly draws from the legal, religious and ethical values of Islam. In addition, Ijtihad must be based on the Shariah laws and principles. Moreover, Ijtihad has been practiced overtime and continuously being applied in various aspects within the Muslim society.

Further, Ijtihad is considered the most dynamic source of Islamic laws. The attribute makes Ijtihad to be the appropriate source of jurisprudence through which dynamic industries such as Islamic banking are based.

Even though Shariah principles forms the main legal foundation in which most of Islamic banking products and services are based, Ijtihad enables the flexibility of the Shariah principles to suit the changing needs of the society. In other words, Ijtihad is the source of flexibility required in meeting the changing needs of the society. The paper will be examining Ijtihad, particularly the manner in which the concept is being applied in Islamic banking.

Derived Definitions Ijtihad has various meanings within Islamic legal and practical spheres. The common applications of Ijtihad draw from the meaning of being independent reasoning. Within the Islamic legal spheres, Ijtihad means the maximum effort that an individual can put to achieve a particular result.

In other words, Ijtihad is the utmost individual effort exerted in an action. Though various definitions of the term exist, the most commonly applied is the optimum effort a person can apply in an action (Kamali, 2003). In principle, all the available meanings point to the maximum individual effort that can be applied in an action.

Besides, Ijtihad is considered as the personal effort in decision-making process within Islamic law or Shariah. Moreover, the decision-making process should be independent of any jurisprudence or school of thought. In order to have the capability of making independent decisions, Ijtihad majorly draws from the legal, religious and ethical values of Islam.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, Ijtihad majorly relies from theological knowledge, legal theories and ethical values that have been upheld within the Islamic society. Moreover, the decisions involving Ijtihad require exceptional capability of legal reasoning. Legal reasoning abilities are gained through the application of Shariah principles and values of the society (Kamali, 2003).

Appropriate Definition In simple meaning, Ijtihad is the self-exertion in any action. However, the attribute of hardship must exist in the action. In other words, Ijtihad is an effort exerted by an individual in any action. In addition, the effort put in place does not apply in physical activity rather in intellectual actions.

As such, Ijtihad is the entire outlay of endeavor of well-respected individual Islamic scholars to deduce with increased level of probability that the decision made or solution offered to the a given issues through the application of principles and rules of Shariah drawn from detailed evidence sources is accurate and can be practiced over time (Kamali, 2003). Essentially, the application of Ijtihad involves inferences from various sources, including Shariah.

In fact, Ijtihad consists of deductions that result from the probability. From this sense, Ijtihad cannot be said to be drawn from the clear texts. In addition, one cannot claim to be practicing Ijtihad by discovery of some important texts, consulting the experts of Quran or the relevant literature without exercising the individual judgment (Kamali, 2003). In other words, individual judgment is an important component of Ijtihad and remains critical in its application.

A jurist or mujtahid practices Ijtihad. In fact, one has to meet certain conditions in order to qualify as a jurist. For instance, one has to have vast knowledge and experience in Islamic laws and Shariah principles. Moreover, for one to qualify as a mujtahid, practical experience in the application of Ijtihad is highly required (Kamali, 2003). Therefore, individuals are not qualified to practice Ijtihad except the mujtahid. Further, mujtahids are highly respected Muslim scholars and legal practitioners.

Ijtihad involves the formulation of opinions, particularly drawn from personal judgments and practices. However, speculations are allowed in most of the Ijtihad practices. The occurrence of conjecture entails that the conclusion made is almost certainly accurate, while the likelihood of inaccuracy is done away with (Kamali, 2003).

Moreover, the crucial rules of Shariah are eradicated from the scope of Ijtihad. The reason why influential knowledge of Shariah is eliminated is that such knowledge is positive. In the context total expenditure of an effort, the implication is that there is deficiency of further findings besides the one the jurists have spent their efforts. In cases where the mujtahid is unsuccessful in determine what they ought to have revealed, then such substantiations are invalid (Kamali, 2003).

We will write a custom Essay on Ijtihad in Islamic Banking specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ijtihad as Source of Islamic Laws Even though Quran and Sunnah form the major sources of Islamic law, Ijtihad provides the third source that brings about the required fundamental unity. The main difference that exists between Ijtihad and other sources is that Ijtihad is dynamic and capable of changing depending on the circumstances, time and place (Kamali, 2003).

In other words, Ijtihad is continuously developing as opposed to other sources of Islamic laws that ended their legislation upon the death of the prophets. In this regard, Ijtihad remains to be the only framework through which the divine message can be construed. Moreover, the interpreted divine message is then related to the changing circumstances, time and place of the Muslim community (Kamali, 2003). In fact, Ijtihad is critical for the Muslim community, particularly in the ambitions to achieve increased truth, deliverance and impartiality.

Moreover, Ijtihad must be derived from the divine disclosure of Islamic laws and principles. Therefore, its validity is continuously measured according to the level in which it corresponds to other sources of Islamic laws (Kamali, 2003). Ijtihad is the main framework through which the level of synchronization between disclosure and explanation required in the Shariah is provided, attained and maintained.

In fact, besides Quran and Sunnah, other sources of Islamic laws are expressions of Ijtihad (Kamali, 2003). However, differences normally exist in the expressions, which are critical in the growth and development of Ijtihad.

The differences that exist in diverse expressions are the source of transformations required to suit different circumstances, times and places within the Muslim society. Moreover, the differences must be practical in disposition. Ijtihad always finds consensus on public opinion, juristic preferences and takes into consideration public interests as well as correspondence (Kamali, 2003).

The Scope of Ijtihad Ijtihad must be practiced within the Shariah laws and principles (Kamali, 2003). The reason is that Ijtihad is concerned with the practical rules of Shariah, which control the demeanor of individuals to whom the set of laws pertain. In other words, the application of Ijtihad is not only restricted to purely rational and habitual issues but to issues that are discernible to sanity.

However, Ijtihad does not deduce from proofs with unswerving connotation, or that does not necessitate further explanation, particularly from the Quran (Kamali, 2003). In other words, issues that have one correct view cannot be deduced in Ijtihad. For instance, the creation of the universe, the God’s existence, the obligatory status of the pillars of Islam as well as the existence of the prophets cannot be applied concerning Ijtihad. The reason is that such issues are evident truths of Shariah, which are exercised as they are in the texts (Kamali, 2003).

Generally, Ijtihad surmise from substantiations that are genuine but tentative in implication (Kamali, 2003). Moreover, Ijtihad draws from confirmations that have unconvinced legitimacy but have unambiguous connotation. In addition, Ijtihad draws from proofs that are exploratory in both legitimacy and denotation. In all these issues, Ijtihad will normally take the form of analogical deduction, juristic inclinations as well as the consideration of the public interests.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ijtihad in Islamic Banking by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Value of Ijtihad One of the critical aspects of Ijtihad is that it is a religious obligation. In addition, Ijtihad is a shared commitment of the qualified mujtahid in matters that need further analysis. However, mujtahid has individual responsibilities of providing guidance on issues that may arise and need further interpretation from the religious sources (Kamali, 2003).

Moreover, Ijtihad becomes critical in the event that the possibility of losing the cause of justice or truth is increased, particularly when the explanations is not provided. In most cases, Ijtihad has to be applied in issues that directly affect the society, particularly where ambiguity in meaning is present.

Moreover, Ijtihad is recommended in all cases that have no contradictions in meaning and need further elucidations of mujtahid (Kamali, 2003). However, Ijtihad is not often drawn on when contradictions in the explanation of critical set of laws of Quran exists. The conclusions that are reached under the tenets of Ijtihad have to be observed whether challenged or not since such decisions are practically the same as divine authority.

As such, any decision under Ijtihad is considered applicable irrespective of being challenged. The reason is that the challenge may arise from various periods or circumstances (Kamali, 2003). In other words, the decision reached or provided under Ijtihad is valid under prearranged circumstances.

The Practice of Ijtihad in the Modern Muslim Society Ijtihad is also considered as one of the sources of Sunni law. In most cases, respected and qualified Muslim scholars and practitioners have the task of making Ijtihad decisions. Jurists charged with making Itjihad decisions commonly known as the mujtahid must have particular qualifications or meet certain conditions.

In fact, mujtahid is highly respected Islamic scholars. Most importantly, Quran and Hadith form the basis through which the knowledge of Ijtihad is majorly drawn (Kamali, 2003). In other words, the scholars apply the Islamic principles as well as analogical reasoning to provide solutions to the problems affecting the society. In most cases, majority argues that scholars have the religious duty of applying analogical reasoning to find legal solutions to the problems affecting the society.

Ijtihad has been practiced for centuries and has offered legal solutions besides the Shariah laws. However, the relationship between the legal decisions drawn from Shariah laws and Ijtihad is diminutive (Kamali, 2003). In fact, Muslim scholars are expected to be competent while interpreting Ijtihad through the application of Shariah principles. The application of Ijtihad in the current Muslim society has been questioned.

However, most Muslim scholars argue that without Ijtihad, various decisions regarding diverse aspects of society cannot be attained by the application of Shariah laws only (Kamali, 2003). The fact is that Shariah laws and principles are static. In other words, the Shariah laws and principles are definitely distinct and need no further interpretations. Such legal matters have to be applied as definite within the Shariah laws.

Without Ijtihad, dynamic industries such as banking and finance could have not been operational. Ijtihad is the source of Islamic laws that allows flexibility. In other words, Ijtihad is applied depending on circumstances, time and place. Therefore, an argument that Ijtihad cannot be applied in the contemporary society is invalid. Essentially Ijtihad has to be applied together with Shariah in order to gain some elasticity in various decisions that require interpretation of the Islamic laws (Kamali, 2003).

Ijtihad and the Islamic Banking The majority of current legal decisions regarding financial products within the Islamic banking system borrow hugely from the principles of Ijtihad. The reason is that the principles of Ijtihad suit the changing circumstances at diverse periods and places (Kamali, 2003).

In fact, new laws governing Islamic banking processes are reached upon by acknowledging the rationale of the previous rulings as well as the significance of the derived benefits under the changing circumstances.

In the context of Islamic banking and finance, Ijtihad is used to derive governing rules drawn from the basic principles of Shariah to address the needs of the people at different times and places (Kamali, 2003). In principle, Ijtihad forms the legal basis that has increased capability of changing. In other words, Ijtihad rules are capable of changing depending on the circumstances, period and places.

Due to the adaptability, Ijtihad can be applied suitably in such areas as economics and finance that constantly change with time (Kamali, 2003). In definite context, the pecuniary set of laws derived from Ijtihad is liable to adjust in terms of the perspective of its usage.

In addition, novel financial set of laws should focus on the activities that increase the well-being of all the stakeholders. In other words, attaining the optimal benefits to the stakeholders should be the major goal of coming up with financial regulations through the application of Ijtihad within Islamic banking dealings.

The Development of Islamic Banking Products and Services As indicated, all processes of Islamic banks are controlled by Shariah laws. In other words, Shariah principles are used to control all matters of Islam, including economic, social, political and cultural aspects of society (Kamali, 2003). Ijtihad, being reasoning from qualified scholars, is one of the significant sources of Islamic laws that control the processes of Islamic banking. In fact, the current Islamic banking processes, products and services offered are developed through the application of two important concepts.

The first approach is through the identification of existing up to standard predictable products and services. The conformist products and services are then custom-made through the removal of prohibited elements in order to be compliant with Shariah principles. Secondly, Islamic laws are drawn on to aid in coming up with innovative and novel banking products and services that are acceptable to the stakeholders (Kamali, 2003). The approaches also apply Ijtihad in order to come up with products and services that endure time. In other words, products and services that changes with adjustments in time and place.

In addition, the development of the Islamic banking products and services borrows hugely from the theoretical perspectives such as human relations. In fact, such assumptions are based on the practices of Islamic laws. Ijtihad is one of the sources of Islamic laws that form the fundamental reference to the application of the theoretical perspectives (Kamali, 2003). The theory of human relations is normally applied in the development of Islamic banking products and services.

Moreover, the principle of human relations forms the basis of all the Islamic commercial laws and regulations. The principle of human relations are founded within Ijtihad and is closely related to Shariah principles that are concerned with respect for universal emancipations, social justice, impartiality, economic freedom, transparency and responsibility in all pecuniary issues (Kamali, 2003).

Besides, the Shariah principles require that the Islamic banking system operate within the acceptable limits of Shariah laws. In other words, the financial transactions and agreements should not include elements that are prohibited by law such as wrongful gains, products as well as processes that are forbidden in Islamic practices.

Ijtihad rules govern the financial transactions, agreements, products and services of Islamic banking and are in agreement with the Shariah principles (Kamali, 2003). In fact, most Islamic scholars agree that Islamic banking processes and procedures should be anchored within the Shariah principles.

Moreover, the Islamic scholars agree that the Islamic banking regulations should integrate both the religious principles and ethical values. In other words, both the religious and ethical values should be applied in the transactions as well as product and services development.

In fact, Ijtihad in agreement with Shariah principles forms the basis in which most products and services offered by Islamic banking are developed (Kamali, 2003). The case in point is where the major product offered to the probable clients is asset funding. In fact, the stated asset funding is based on the concept of income distribution, which is always undertaken in the form of Murabahah.

Additionally, the model of sharing the proceeds is carried out in the form of profit and loss sharing principles commonly known as the Musharakah (Kamali, 2003).

According to the Islamic banking system, Murabahah contracts are constantly developed to form the basis in which the working capital through short-term financing can be achieved. Both Musharakah and Murabahah are Islamic banking products that originate from the Shariah principles (Kamali, 2003). In other words, the products are within the confines of Shariah laws and principles.

However, with changing circumstances, the financial products need to expand in order to take into consideration the changing needs of the people in different places in the world and at diverse times. The only source through which such changes can be taken into consideration is Ijtihad (Kamali, 2003).

Essentially, Ijtihad provides the framework through which changes that have occurred can be incorporated and harmonised with Shariah principles. Even though transformations have to be taken into consideration, the products have to remain within the confines of Shariah.

The evolution occuring in the financial market has also resulted into new products and services. Since other sources of Islamic laws terminated with the death of the divine prophet, Ijtihad remains to be the only way through which these new products can be defined within the Shariah principles (Kamali, 2003).

For instance, in the conventional Islamic banking system, the Shariah rules were utilised in the design of debt financing procedures. However, the changing needs of the market enabled increased capabilities to deal with the coming challenges. According to the Shariah rules, principal asset or assets must be backed by any transactions (Kamali, 2003). Ijtihad provides solution to the conflict existing in the current understanding of the asset and the conventional requirements of the Islamic laws.

Essentially, the current Islamic banking system applies the dynamic system of belief of Ijtihad in the development of the products and services. Besides, the dynamic tenets of Shariah to practical social, economic and institutional issues and problems of the society can only be explained through Ijtihad (Kamali, 2003).

As such, Ijtihad is commonly applied in the interpretation of Shariah principles to provide for changes needed in the social, economic and institutional developments. Moreover, Ijtihad takes into consideration the developments of Shariah regarding individual and social preferences as well as in relation to the institutional codes of belief for public purpose.

Besides, the application of preference theory in the development of new products in Islamic banking draws majorly from Ijtihad interpretations of Shariah principles. The preference theory is considered to be advocating for social well-being in the current Muslim society.

Ijtihad results into the changes that incorporate the social and economic welfare, which primarily form the basis of new products in the Islamic banking system. Ijtihad forms the framework through which Shariah principles can be developed to consider changes in the society (Kamali, 2003).

According to the preference theory scholars, the principles through which Shariah can be developed include the collective clearness as well as the alteration of Shariah to expected and regional demarcation of customs and practices (Kamali, 2003). In addition, Shariah must link the probability of action to the level of physical effort offered.

Combining these characteristics is critical in the development of new products that are in line with increasing the social interests of the Muslim community (Kamali, 2003). In other words, the principles are geared towards developing the social security of the Muslim society. Moreover, the principles eradicate inconsistencies that may arise due to changes in the circumstances, places and time. In reality, the combinations of the principles result in unity, which is essential Shariah requirement (Kamali, 2003).

Further, according to preference concepts, the relevance of the Shariah main beliefs do away with incongruity, divergences and discrepancies within the main source of law resulting in unanimity at the elemental stages.

The proponents of the theory also argue that the variations as well as differences that are found at the secondary level are not premeditated purpose of the decree (Kamali, 2003). In addition, the aspects of the theoretical perspective of Shariah augment the dynamic view to the ethical laws, which are greatly applied at the institutional levels.

The application of transformational nature of moral laws and principles based on the Shariah laws enables institutions such as Islamic banking find ways of developing products and services that suit the needs of society.

Moreover, the application of integrating principles of preference theory as well as interactive preferences of members of society forms the basis in which modern Islamic institutions develop. In fact, the consideration of necessities of life remains to be a significant elemental in the development of the life-fulfilling products and services. At the basis of preference conceptual framework, social needs for comfort and refinement of life remain critical components (Kamali, 2003).

Basic needs and comfort, as well as refinements, are considered critical life-fulfillments at the higher levels of socio-economic developments. Therefore, important and relevant institutions such as banking and finance have to consider such fundamental components while developing products and services.

Besides, the dynamic basic needs of socio-economic development are construed within the concepts of preference theory, which advocates for the public course. As such, all the institutions within Islamic society have to be established for public purpose. Essentially, the preference concepts are based on Ijtihad, which forms the basis for the interpretation of Shariah (Kamali, 2003).

Ijtihad and the Standardisation of Islamic Banking Procedures Standardisation is one of the major emerging issues in current Islamic banking system. Islamic scholars are debating on whether standardisation is possible under the Islamic banking system. Majority of Islamic scholars have argued that standardisation is not possible under the tenets of Islamic laws governing the processes of Islamic banking system. According to the conventional scholars, Ijtihad makes consistency of Islamic banking practices impossible (Kamali, 2003).

However, the proponents of the standardisation argue that being deficient in homogeneous regulations impede innovation. The reason is that each jurisdiction will always advocate for what is best in their circumstances. In addition, most of the proponents of standardisation argue that in order to enhance development in the banking sector, a global framework is highly required.

Further, with the increased asset value and rapid expansion of Islamic banking system, there is need for a strong global and homogeneous regulatory framework. Moreover, deficiency in Islamic money markets, insufficient derived market for Sukuk as well as feeble liquidity infrastructure further deteriorates the Islamic banking system. In other words, standardisation will enable Islamic banking benefit from the developed global money market as well as infrastructure.

On the contrary, opponents of harmonisation of Islamic banking procedures argue that standardisation does not enable creativity in the development of new products. Moreover, standardisation of the Islamic banking procedures may lead to the move towards conventional banking system creating no differences and violates the Islamic principles upon which the Islamic banking system is created.

Even in the situation where Islamic rules are applied, standardisation enables the rules become more difficult to apply particularly with the introduction of new products and services. In addition, most of the bankers are unfamiliar with several Islamic financial concepts making it difficult to implement uniform regulations in some boarders (Kamali, 2003). Moreover, there is lack of unvarying documents available to the public on the Shariah resolutions upon which the standardised regulations can be referred.

Most importantly, the differences arising from diverse Islamic scholarly views on the issue of conformity with Shariah principles makes it difficult to standardise the operations of Islamic banking system (Kamali, 2003). As a result, most interpretations of various opinions are conducted within Ijtihad. In the current Islamic banking system, Ijtihad is applied in the clarification of concepts, principles as well as conditions of Shariah particularly in contractual agreements.

Moreover, Ijtihad provides the basis in which certain decisions are made regarding matters relating to Shariah conditions, mechanisms and implementation of contractual agreements. As indicated, Ijtihad remains a critical element in which the design and development of new Islamic banking products and systems are based (Kamali, 2003).

Moreover, standardisation would mean synchronising some of the Shariah principles, which is against the religious practices. In order to avoid such contradictions, the functioning of various institutions, including the Islamic banking should be given wider interpretations of the law, including Ijtihad. However, such interpretations should be drawn from the Shariah principles.

Besides, the need to change with the changing circumstances explains the reason why banking procedures cannot be standardised. Harmonisation of rules and procedures is not applicable in highly dynamic industries such as banking and finance. In fact, the standardisation of rules and procedures under the Shariah laws is against the fundamental assumptions of Ijtihad.

Actually, Ijtihad has existed for many centuries and has been applied in Islamic banking and finance industry to establish changes required depending on the circumstances. Under the situations where the regulatory framework is highly considered, Ijtihad is not applicable. The application of consistent rules is also against the principle that Shariah law can be applied at all the time and places. Essentially, Ijtihad is what makes Shariah dynamic and capable of being applied in diverse circumstances.

Reference Kamali, M. H. (2003). Principles of Islamic jurisprudence. Cambridge, UK: Islamic Texts Society.


The Relationship between Color Vision and High Altitude Synthesis Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Abstract Color vision is one of the characteristics that are recognized as having an effect on careers and human interaction. This research establishes the effects of high altitude on color vision. It also investigates the color systems that are affected more in relation to others.

The research methodology mainly involves the analysis of materials on research done in the same area together with the data from various researchers. The findings of this research will reveal whether there is a reduction in color perception in high altitude with regard to the three axes in an effort to conclude the one that is most affected. Are the effects reversible with acclimatization and resumption to normal altitudes? The research also answers this question.

Introduction Color vision is one of the characteristics that are thought to differentiate human beings as a distinct species from some of the other species that are not able to perceive color. Man has always depended on this trait in several ways to survive. In the present day where careers have become complex, the importance of the trait has only increased. Some of the careers that demand an assessment of the trait in an individual include military profession, professions in the aviation industry, and transport industries among others.

It has been noted that there is a special group of people who are unable to perceive some colors, and hence the intense scrutiny of shortlisted candidates where color discrimination is crucial. The absence of the inability to differentiate between colors may mean life and death in some of the aforementioned careers. Accidents are also predisposed by the presence of inability to differentiate between colors.

Despite the innate inability to differentiate colors that are inborn in some individuals, some other factors have been found to affect people’s ability to perceive colors. This research focuses on the effects of high altitude on color vision. It examines some of the findings from other studies. There is an apparent relationship between high altitude, hypoxia, and color vision.

The many researchers who applied different methods to evaluate the relationship have provided this inference. Vision and light discrimination form a crucial part of people’s mission at high altitude. People in the aviation industry are tasked with the responsibility of making decisions, which are crucial to their missions in navigation. A slight variation may be a determinant of their operational success. Hence, studying this topic will be crucial in terms of knowing the link between color vision and high altitude.

Literature Review There are a number of literary works detailing the effects of high altitude on eye physiology. These materials have investigated the relationship between colour vision and high altitude. Their findings, which are stated below, will help in determining the answer to the question under study.

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High altitudes have been associated with reduced oxygen concentrations. Individuals visiting them often experience reduced concentrations of oxygen within their bloodstream. This condition, known as hypoxia, has a number of effects on body systems. According to Karakucuk and his colleagues, one of the effects of hypoxia is on vision where normal functioning is impaired in a number of ways (1).

In many of the jobs that people perform on high altitudes, vision is a very important characteristic. Some of the personnel such as land troops, mountaineers, and flight operators need a working vision at any altitude to perform their tasks (1).

Karakucuk and his colleagues also state that although most of the commercial passenger flights are pressurized at high altitudes between 2100m and 3000m, some of the flights such as small planes such as helicopters are not pressurized (1) despite the fact that some of these flights are capable of reaching those altitudes.

Their pilots and their companion operators have an equal reliance on color vision in making critical navigational decisions in the course of their flights. If vision and any aspects of it such as color discrimination fail at these altitudes, navigational crews will have a difficult task in their missions. As such, accidents may occur. Some other researchers have also cited effects of hypoxic conditions on normal vision.

According to Vingrys and Garner, some of these effects include visual fields, acuity, flicker sensitivity, and color vision (2). These researchers however cited the absence of evidence showing moderate hypoxia as it might be experienced in high altitude on color discrimination.

However, they discredited the findings of researchers with these conclusions based on the methodological approach that they had taken in their respective studies (2). Evidence from some of the credible research findings and their own research was sufficient to make a conclusion that there was evidence of deranged color processing systems although this was in an already compromised color vision (2).

Vingrys and Garner also stated some of the methods used to measure color discrimination, with Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue (FM 100-Hue) being one of the tests that their research cited as yielding results of presence of color discrimination problems at high altitude (2). Different researchers who found this association between high altitude, hypoxia, and impairment in color vision cited the most common perceptions impaired as being blue-yellow and red-green.

We will write a custom Article on The Relationship between Color Vision and High Altitude specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reasons for requirements of an intact color vision in army personnel and aircraft controllers are emphasized by the introduction of gadgets that employ color discrimination to operate efficiently such as the CRT displays common in aircraft control and monitoring systems (2). Hypoxia is recognized as causing impaired color discrimination by the researchers above.

High Altitude Exposures and Ocular Physiology

Ocular physiology is important to understand before evaluating the effects that high altitude and the resultant hypoxia have on normal color vision. There are a number of changes in the physical environment as one ascends in high altitude. One of these changes is the atmospheric pressure, which according to Buttler is about 760 mmHg at sea level, with the concentration of oxygen here being the standard 21% of the total volume of air (3).

The partial pressure of oxygen in the body is determined by the concentration of the gas in the inspired air. At sea level, this partial pressure is high and appropriate to support the basic body functions. Buttler states that the calculation of partial pressure of oxygen and other gases in the body can be done through the multiplication of the concentration of the gas in the air by the by the atmospheric pressure in the area (3).

The units of the atmospheric pressure in this calculation have to be in absolute atmospheres or in some cases ATA. The calculation of the partial pressure of oxygen at sea level, by taking into consideration the above values, provides a partial pressure of 0.21 ATA for the gas.

Ascending in altitude causes a reduction in the atmospheric pressure. When this phenomenon is applied in the equation, a resultant reduction in the partial pressure of oxygen is observed, despite the concentration of the gas remaining constant throughout the change in altitude.

Mountain climbers who venture onto Mount Everest have a reduced oxygen partial pressure in their system. Some of the effects of this case include loss of consciousness due to impaired metabolism in the brain. The effects are recognized due to the resultant reduction in atmospheric pressure, a situation referred to as hypobaric hypoxia. Research shows that the condition occurs with rapid exposures to high altitudes and sudden changes in altitude (3).

A gradual change in the altitude, on the other hand, has been associated with reduced effects on the partial pressures of oxygen in climbers, as acclimatization allows them to hyperventilate (3). An observed effect of hyperventilation is the reduced concentration of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream, a condition known as hypocapnia.

Major effects that Karakucuk observed in the eye and vision in relation to increase in altitude include changes in the diameter of the arteries supplying blood to the optic disc, the tortuosity of these vessels, and the concentration of the vessels on the optic disc (3). These changes are common to all individuals who ascend suddenly and those who took the time to acclimatize.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Relationship between Color Vision and High Altitude by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The increased vessel diameter, tortuosity, and optic disc hyperaemia resulted in decreased scotopic and photopic vision as well as the activity of retinal ganglion cells (3). This may explain the observed changes in the perception of colors at high altitudes.

Physiology of the Eye Color Discrimination at High Altitude

The eye is a complex sensory organ. Many researchers have discussed it as an extension of the brain in relation to its embryological development. With the observed effects of high altitude and its changes on the normal eye physiology, many theories have been fronted on the exact factor among these changes that cause impaired color perception at high altitude. Some researchers hold varying explanation for the physiological effect.

Some of them include changes in atmospheric pressure, the decrease in blood pressure, availability of carbon monoxide, and motor vibrations (4). In their part, they state that the administration of oxygen in individuals who experience impaired color perception and discrimination at high altitudes have resulted in the reversal of these changes (4). They therefore conclude that the main reason for color and visual impairment is due to hypoxia.

The perception of light and color in the eye is facilitated by the ganglion cells, which are of different sizes based on the function that each serves. Some studies have shown that the nature of vision and color perception is related to the functionality of these ganglions. Some of the electrophysiological studies done show that the smaller ganglion mediates color vision cells, which are slower in the conduction of impulses from the eye (2).

According to Vingrys and Garner, the same electrophysiological studies also demonstrate that anoxia mainly affects these small ganglion cells, sparing the rapidly conducting larger ganglion cells (2). The observation may provide an explanation to the physiological changes that take place in high altitudes resulting to impaired color discrimination. Hypoxia therefore causes changes on the neural channels in the vision pathway. This suggestion differs from that of other researchers who held that the effects were mainly in the photoreceptors (2).

The different visual systems are affected differently and at different altitudes in the visual pathway and photoreception. Vingrys and Garner state that photopic vision mediated by the cones is unaffected in slight increases in altitude. It occurs much later after scotopic vision that is mediated by the rods is interfered with (2).

The implication of this situation is that the scotopic vision is more susceptible to the effects of hypoxia compared to photopic vision, which is more resistant to the change (2).

An observable result of the findings is the requirements to have workers in the aviation industry, especially the cabin crew that has oxygen supplemented at night and during the day for flights above 10,000 feet. Some of the research done on the differences in altitude for the two visual systems concluded that there is no difference on the effects at mild to moderate levels of hypoxia (2).

The processing of vision has been studied in the neural channels that are followed, with researchers stating three channels (2). One of these channels is non-opponent while the rest two of these are color opponent.

Each of these models has its own class of cells mediating its functions. Achromatic mechanisms have been shown to have a major role in the visual detection of small dots. Reduced detection would be because of depression in achromatic mechanisms (2). The findings are therefore inconsistent with the effects of hypoxia on color vision.

The major aim of Vingrys and Garner’s study included the establishment of hypoxic effects on the photoreceptors (2). The researchers cited some of the previous studies that found an association between the impairment of color vision with hypoxia. The reception of the color green was apparent in these studies, with that of red perception being intact in the conditions that the studies were conducted (2).

An explanation made to the observed differences includes that the two color perception systems had a varying vascular supply, with this difference mainly being in the photoreceptor portions. In their own study, however, Vingrys and Garner believed that the vascular supply difference for the photoreceptors developed by the proponents above was defective since the differences could be explained by their observed losses in post-receptor achromatic channels (2).

The researchers believed that the reason for the differences observed was the variation in the absolute threshold that the different channels have for the different colors (2). This led to the conclusion that the effects of hypoxia are on the different channels and that the effects on the photoreceptors cannot be established.

The inner retinal layer, or the neural tissue as it is commonly referred, was cited as an important influence in the perception of vision. Optic neuritis is a condition that can be used to show the effects of the pathways in the color vision. A generalized color vision loss is found in these patients indicating that the neural tissue, and not the receptors, plays an important role in color perception (2).

The findings above are consistent with the electrophysiological findings stated earlier in terms of serving to strengthen the theory that photoreceptors are not the source of color vision impairment in high altitude hypoxia. Studies done on rabbits were also cited in support of the observations. According to Vingrys and Garner, these studies showed that ganglion cell layers, which constitute the visual pathways were the ones affected by hypoxic deficits and not the photoreceptors, which experienced slight effects much later (2).

In the study, the photoreceptors survived for a longer time in the presence of anoxic conditions, as opposed to the ganglion cells that survived for only a few minutes in the same conditions. Ganglion cells are associated with late receptor potentials while the photoreceptors are associated with the early potentials. In another study cited by Vingrys and Garner, the early potentials were reportedly affected only late after the onset of anoxia in monkeys while the late receptor potentials were affected early in the onset of hypoxia (2).

The findings presented by Vingrys and Garner are consistent with the findings of other researchers on the topic. The bipolar cells that are found in the photoreceptor zone are not responsible for color vision impairment in hypoxic conditions such as high altitudes since the ganglion cells are the ones that are affected (2).

Color Vision

It is important that we understand what color vision is and what it entails so that the objectives of the study are fulfilled. The different wavelengths of visible light are responsible for the perception of different colors perceived by the human eye.

Specialized cells in the photoreceptor zones called cones are responsible for the perception of these colors after the light wavelengths strike them. The impulses generated are transmitted to the visual cortex (5). According to Davies and his team of researchers, three different types of cones have been established as exhibiting peak sensitivity to lights of different wavelengths (5).

Color vision is genetically determined. Deficiencies in the genetic compositions result in the color vision impairment that is commonly seen in individuals. Another important thing about the genetic determination of color vision is association with sex that the characteristic is linked with. The X chromosome is thought to code for the long and medium cones in the eye.

Defects on the chromosome that lies in the region that is coding for the same leads to color blindness that is common in male patients (5). On the other hand, cones that serve the function of perceiving short wavelength lights are different from the ones above. They are genetically coded for in the chromosome number 7, with their distribution on the retina also being sparse (5). They are also reported to be fewer in number, accounting for only a significant proportion (10%) of the total population of cones on the retina.

Relation between Color Vision and High Altitude

Most of the studies cited above were done to evaluate the effects of hypoxia as the main aim. Few of studies have restricted themselves to the effects that high altitude has on perception of color. One of the studies that have been conducted includes that by Davies and colleagues who studied the effects that high altitude has on several visual axes (5).

In this study, 28 eyes were subjected to the changes in high altitudes, with the results of the same recorded against each participant (5). Davies and colleagues found no effects on color vision at an altitude of 4000m in the deutan axis (5).

At the altitude of 4000m, the changes in color vision that Davies and colleagues observed included deductions in the protan axis for 4% of the eyes. They also observed some associated reductions in the tritan axis for a large number (72%) of the eyes being (5).

Davies et al. continue to state, “Further on, at 5400m, all eyes had normal protan and deutan axis, while three quarters had minimally reduced, and one quarter moderately reduced, tritan axis” (5). Some previous studies had also demonstrated deterioration in one of the tritans that Davies’ et al. study investigated at an altitude of just 3000m. This was a cause of inconsistency in the two studies, which were both conducted in photopic conditions (5).

Color Vision and Disease

Several diseases affect the eye. The most effects that these diseases have are on vision, which is in most instances reduced. The severity of these diseases and their duration is important in the determination of the effects that they may cause on the eye. Some of the most common diseases affecting the eye include diabetes and glaucoma. These conditions are known to cause a corresponding deterioration in color vision early in their course, with the tritan axis being affected earlier than the others (5).

The reason that Davies et al. use to explain why blue is affected first is the relatively fewer number of the cones associated with the perception of this axis and the fragility that they have been associated with (5). The other reason provided is that the peak sensitivities of green and red are closer together compared to blue, which as a result has a larger receptive field as shown in the figure below (5).

Figure showing different wavelengths of the different colors (Source Davies et al., 2009)

Davies et al. found that even in the presence of disease, the ability to discriminate colors improves in patients who are provided with a means of increasing their partial pressure of oxygen (5). This implies that hypoxia that is associated with the disease conditions in the eye such as diabetes is a key factor in the observed deterioration in color vision.

Some of the other conditions that are associated with decreased perception of color vision include the inherited conditions that are not commonly associated with major deficiencies as color blindness. These conditions have also exhibited the characteristic of sparing the red and green color perceptions by first affecting blue (tritan) axis (6). The conditions include optic atrophy that is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition (6).

Materials and Methods

The research was carried out through first determining the best databases where research materials on the topic would be readily available. With the location of an appropriate database, the determination of key words was done so that the results would be used for accurate analysis. Some of the key words included high altitude, color discrimination, photoreceptors, ganglion cells, hypoxia, ocular physiology, color vision, protan, deutran, and tritan.

The results of the search were later refined, with those that are appropriate for the research being selected. The references of these literatures were later searched. Analysis followed to evaluate whether they would be applicable to the research. The initial search produced 36 results.

After refining the search, the number of literature remaining was 19. These materials were then subjected to a criterion to finally evaluate those that were applicable for review and research.

The inclusion criteria included that the literature had to be written in English, with most of the materials being peer review articles. The exclusion criteria also included the articles that were not written in English. These articles were excluded from consideration. This strategy saw the number of researches utilized drop to 15, as these were relevant for evaluation.

Results Color Vision at Hypoxia

Some researchers have observed no relationship between high altitude and color vision loss. In one study where the researchers applied the desaturated D15 test to investigate this relationship, the hypoxia developing because of exposure to high altitude did not lead to any major deterioration in color perception (7).

The study also involved examination of some of the other factors that may lead to color vision loss. These factors included the time of exposure to hypoxia, mountain sickness, and the physical exertion resulting from an increase in altitude (7).

In the above factors investigated by Leid and champagne, there was no observed change in the desaturated D 15. Hence, the researchers concluded that increase in altitude has little, if any, effects on color vision (7). The methods used in any study are crucial in the results that are expected.

Researchers should use methods that have been applied in a similar research or an improvement of the same to ensure reproducibility of results. Poor methodology leads to poor results. In the case of the research above, the tool used in the research (desaturated D15 measurement) was not standard. The researchers also stated that it might not have been a reliable tool for them to use based on its weak sensitivity in one of the axis (7).

High Altitude Exposures and Ocular Physiology

Wilmwe and Berens cite the requirement of good eyesight in the aviation industry and for pilots to have led to the large number of studies on color vision and its relation to high altitudes (4). In their research, they found that hypoxia causes a reduction in the perception of color in the eye (3).

In the studies that they cited, the methods used included stilling’s plate that is used in high altitudes. At 20000 feet with reduced pressure, there were no color changes observed (4). This research is among the studies that showed no reduction in color vision with increased attitude and low pressures.

Some authors also cited researchers who had earlier suggested no change in color vision with increased altitude (3) despite their independent results and those of other researcher showing a clear reduction in color vision with a tremendous increase in altitude.

Buttler states that although some researchers suggested no reduction or impairment in color perception, the studies they conducted, as supported by other studies, showed a reduction in color perception with altitudes above 12,000 feet (3). The basic conclusion made therefore is that there is a marked reduction in perception of color vision, with large and sudden increases in height.

Some of the researchers also found a reduced color perception in the presence of hypoxia. Some of the effects could be observed in the visual fields as well as visual acuity. They cited the unavailability of data supporting the reductions in color perception in hypoxic conditions (2).

Many researchers faulted the research showing no relationship between high altitude and color discrimination for poor methodologies that had been used, with one of the researchers using Nagel anomaloscope, which was more advanced (2). This tool facilitated the production of results supporting reductions in color perception in hypoxic conditions, but only for eyes with an already compromised color perception system (2). Moderate hypoxia was then regarded as a source of impairment in color perception because of the study.

Some of the researches that strongly supported the reduction of color perception with increased altitude included Leid and champagne’s research (7). In this research, the authors cited that only one of the researches that they evaluated had data supporting reductions in color perception in hypoxic conditions.

The study had used an anomaloscope (7). The results of this initial study indicated a reduction in the sensitivity to the color green, while Leid and champagne’s research found an association with all axes basing their findings on the artificial conditions used (7).

The results that the researchers used vary due to the tests that each used. The tests have their own specificity and sensitivities, which are a major influence on the analysis that is produced. Some studies have also been conducted on these tests. It is therefore possible to categorize them into the most sensitive to the least sensitive. One of these tests is the Farnsworth-Munsell test.

According to Karakucuk and his colleagues, this test, “is the preferred color testing method used in many investigations at high altitude or laboratory environments” (1). Some researchers have opted to use other less sensitive tests, which provide data that is not reliable or strong in making the required conclusions. Some of the other researchers who also support the use of the Farnsworth-Munsell test include Vingrys and Garner who state that the test provides reliable results in the estimation of color loss in high altitude (2).

Color Vision decreases with High Altitude

The review of literature provided some articles that supported the decrease in color sensitivity with an increase in altitude. Among these researchers are Vingrys and Garner who found that there was a loss of color discrimination when the FM 100-Hue tool was used in combination with the anomaloscope at a height of 12,000 feet (2).

The study done on two individuals showed a decrease in color perception from the level that was recorded at sea level. In another of the studies that Vingrys and Garner looked at, the same tool was applied in the estimation of the effects of color vision on five individuals at an altitude of 18,000 feet. It showed a marked reduction in the color discrimination in these individuals (2). The reductions were in the blue-yellow spectrum. The loss of blue vision was consistent with the results of other studies done using the same methods.

Although Vingrys and Garner found a decrease in the perception of color at high altitude, they differed with some of the results from the literature that they had examined in the axis that is mainly lost in high altitude hypoxia (2). They reported a decrease in color perception in the blue-yellow and red-green combinations. They stated that the reason for the differences might have been the methods used to attain hypoxia (2). The results therefore supported the existence of diminished color perceptions with an increase in altitude.

The results of most research articles examined show that there is a relationship between color vision and high altitude and that a reduction in color discrimination occurs with an increase in altitude. It is however important to establish the colors that are mostly affected with the hypoxia produced by an increase in altitude, as different researchers have given different colors that are affected.

One of the researches carried out with the specific aim of determining the colors that are affected is the one carried by Tekavcic and Igor (8). This study utilized the Mollon-Reffin Minimalist test at an altitude of 5400m. The color vision axes tested included tritan, deutan, and protan (8). The tool was apparently chosen based on the relative ease in administration to the participants. It was also a quick way of carrying out the investigation (8).

Tritan axis (Blue): The most affected

Among the factors that were under study, hypoxia was reported to have a significant relationship with color vision. Tekavcic and Igor also reported that the correlation between color vision and hypoxia was mainly in the tritan axis. High altitude and associated hypoxia can therefore result in defects in the tritan axis whose main perception is the blue color.

In other studies done with the aim of establishing the color deficiencies affected by high altitude, Willmann and colleagues measured the color discrimination thresholds for the different axes in two male participants (6). In this study, participants were tasked to ascent to Mt Everest, with the colors measured at different heights during the expedition (6). The tests applied in this study were quantitative and psychophysical tests, whose analysis applied the use computers (6).

The results of the study were consistent with other studies that found a reduced perception of color in at high altitudes. The major finding, which fulfilled the research objectives, is that the color axis that is mostly affected is the tritan axis (6). Another major finding is that this effect on the tritan axis may be reversed once the individual has acclimatized or returned to lower altitude (6).

In the above research, the researchers found no evidence supporting reduction in color perception for deutan or protan axes. This inference was supported in the data that they got from the research (6).

In support of their findings, they state that there was, “no correlation between altitude increase and protan (r2 linear¼1.64 E_5) or deutan (r2 linear¼0.025) thresholds for observer A and B” (6). Other researchers have also supported the findings that there is a reduction in color perception with an increase in altitude, and that this impairment in color perception is mainly in the tritan (blue) axis.

In another of researches supporting the involvement of tritan axis in the observed reduction in perception of color with increased altitude, Tekavcic and Igor state that their research and that of others managed to implicate the tritan axis as the main cause of the color vision impairment (8). In the research, they demonstrated that reduction in color perception in the tritan axis is further worsened by an increase in altitude, with higher altitudes having markedly higher effects (8).

The color impairment in the tritan axis was also observed in other studies looking at the effects of high altitude on the perception of color. Some of these had the same conclusion that the axis that is mostly affected is the tritan axis. They also supported the stated increase in the impairment with an unprecedented increase in altitude (1).

In another study, the effects of lowering the partial pressures of oxygen through decreasing the atmospheric pressure were evaluated in eight subjects (1). The researchers simulated the lowering of atmospheric pressure observed while climbing a mountain. They proceeded to look at the effects that this had on color vision (1). The results indicated that the blue and red ranges were the main ones affected, thus supporting the other work by previous researchers (1).

The studies therefore indicate that an increase in altitude has the effect of lowering the partial pressure of oxygen in the bloodstream, with the result being hypoxia. The resulting hypoxia is responsible for the impairment in color perception.

The studies also supported the theory that the reduction in the tritan axis perception of color was the main impairment in color perception with an increase in altitude. Some of the studies that found different results can be explained by the relatively weak methods that they utilized to get their results, as it can exemplified by Richelet and colleagues in their study (9).

Discussion In this section, a discussion of the results will be made, including the reasons behind high altitude affecting particular colors. An explanation will also be provided for the observation that tritan is the main color affected, and whether the effects are dependent on the age of an individual.

There has been a belief that acclimatization has an effect on the outcome of impaired color perception with increased altitude. This will be analyzed to ascertain its relevance. Some of questions to be discussed from the results include whether the time of day influences color vision in high altitudes. The differences that different tests produce in this research will also be discussed, along with the difficulties in carrying out the study.

Physiology behind Tritan Axis being the mostly affected

Studies carried out in photopic conditions have demonstrated dysfunctions in the tritan axis when hypoxia is induced by an increase in altitude. Other studies conducted in mesopic (dim light) conditions showed different results (5).

In the study conducted by Davies et al., mesopic conditions were provided, with the results showing that the color vision of the participants was not affected by their increase in altitude under these conditions (5). Studies done by some of the other researchers in photopic vision also yielded different results. Karakucuk and his colleagues indicate that their study showed deterioration in the blue-yellow color vision range in photopic conditions (1).

The above study demonstrated only the effects of high altitude in photopic conditions. There were suggestions that more changes could be observed if the scotopic and mesopic conditions were provided. Some researchers who have conducted research on the topic have suggested that hypoxia may cause impaired color perception because of depression in ganglion cell activity, which affects both scotopic and photopic vision (2). This means that a reduction in color perception is not only in day light, but also in dark and dim light.

Several explanations have been advanced for why the tritan axis is affected more than the other axes in response to increase in altitude. One of the explanations, which have gathered the support from most researchers, is that the cells that are responsible for the perception of the triton axis are more vulnerable to the effects of hypoxia.

Tekavcic and Igor state that S cones that are relatively smaller compared to the L (large) and M (medium) are responsible for color perception in the tritan axis. These cones are affected adversely by small reductions in partial pressure of oxygen (8). Some of the other researchers that support the observation include Willmann and colleagues. They state that the S cone pathway is more vulnerable to hypoxia compared to the L and M pathways that can withstand severe hypoxia for a longer period (6).

An explanation as to why color vision is affected however is that the cones responsible for this color vision are fewer in number and concentration in the retina. Common conditions affecting the eye affect the cones more often and severely because of this reduction in abundance compared to the other receptors (6).

The L and M cones are also more compared to the S cones. Any reduction in partial pressure of oxygen causes earlier reductions in the S cone’s absolute responses (6). This may be the reason behind the tritan axis being affected earlier compared to the other axes that are mediated by the larger L and M cones.

Another observation that relates to the effects of high altitude on the tritan axis is that supplementation of oxygen and reversal of the impairment.

Higher altitudes were found to have reduced perception in the tritan axis irrespective of supplementation (6). Because of these observations, a high altitude above the one measured in the experiments and studies above will produce marked reductions in the perception of the color blue. Other axes would follow. Supplementation at these high altitudes will have little if any benefits to the perception of color

The results can be summed up in Willmann and colleagues’ conclusion, “high- and extreme-altitude hypoxia adversely affects color vision predominantly along the tritan axis” (high- and extreme-altitude hypoxia adversely affects color vision predominantly along the tritan axis.).

The implications of the research findings are important for patients and aviators who stand to have the most effect from any deterioration in perception of colors. Some of the devices that should have the above taken into consideration in their design and painting include compasses, GPS receivers, and altimeters (6).

Older Individuals have a Higher Score in Tritan Axis

The other effect that was evaluated in most of the studies is the relationship between the age of participants and the impairment in vision produced by high altitudes. In one of the studies, which constituted of mainly young participants, the results of previous studies with older subjects were compared (1).

The young population for the study was meant as a way of eliminating the effects of age on the photoreceptors. This was thought to provide a better way of evaluating the relationship between altitude and perception of colors.

In the study, the results indicated that the population of young participants was affected by altitude, with a reduction in the perception of the same colors as gotten in other studies (1). This study showed that there were no differences in the photoreceptors reaction to high altitude. All individuals are likely to experience the same effects irrespective of their age.

Studies done with a relatively higher mean age of participants produced the same results as the ones done with a younger population. The only difference is that the scores on the tritan axis were higher in older individuals who participated in the studies (6), with this observation being held by several other researchers such as the one by Smith, Earnerst, and Pokorny, and Mollon, Astell, and Reffin (10, 11).

The studies however were all consistent with reductions in color perception in high altitude irrespective of the ages of the participants. This means that individuals of any age will be affected the same way with an increase in altitude. Tritan axis is more likely to be affected compared to the other axes. However, the degrees in the visual reductions for the tritan axis are different, with older individuals having higher scores at any altitudes (6).

Acclimatization improves Color Perception

Acclimatization is reported to have a significant influence on the studies performed on the subject. In one of the studies that used students, the rate of ascending a mountain was slower relative to most individuals. This provided them with a chance to acclimatize (1). The researchers however stated that for people that ascend to high altitudes at a faster rate, there is little chance of acclimatization. Hence, the findings of Rowe’s research may not be valuable for this population (12).

The conclusion was that acclimatization has little help in the prevention of the impairments in color for people ascending mountains. In another study by Dean, Arden, and Dornhorst, however, data collected on the threshold levels for the tritan axis showed improvements with increased stay in high altitude as the participants acclimatized (13).

The researchers suggested that with acclimatization, the physiological adaptation of the eye and the body in general allows the visual pathways to recover, thus reducing the effect of impaired color perception in high altitudes (6).

Davies et al. also observed that with time during their experiment, the subjects had improvements in the color perception. This can be attributed to the acclimatization that they had experienced as Wong, Khan, Adewoyin, Sivaprasad, Arden, and Chong confirmed (5, 14). When using the very sensitive desaturation D15 test, Leid and champagne found that well-trained individual and those who had time to acclimatize experienced little effects of high altitude in their color vision (7).

The disturbances were also reversible with a return to the normal altitudes. This means that if individuals have time to acclimatize, the effects discussed in this study will not be experienced. This does not however apply to individuals such as the air force and commercial airline pilots who ascend to high altitudes suddenly inside a non-pressurized aircraft such as a helicopter (13).

Color Impairment at High Altitude Reversible

In the question of whether the effects of high altitude on color perception are reversible, Tekavcic and Igor managed to show that the effects are reversed only three days after the study for the participants. Normal color vision was restored in a year (8). Some of the other researchers who observed an improvement in color perception when the participants returned to their normal altitudes include Willmann and colleagues (14).

This resulted in the conclusion that the effects of high altitude to color perception are transient in nature (6), thus indicating that the effects of high altitude on the perception of color are reversible and are only present when the individual is not well acclimatized to the high altitude.

According to Gibson and Mckenna, there were some apparent differences in carrying out the study above, including the low availability of literature detailing the effects of altitude on color vision (15). Few researchers had carried out this research. This claim was also crucial because it provided the needed knowledge gaps. The methodologies used in the reviewed literature were also different, hence providing the varying results that were obtained for different studies.

Another of the problems encountered included the estimation of the best ways to synthesize the data from the results of the study. In the studies, some of the problems that the researchers faced included mountain sickness and physical fatigue. It also took a longer time as compared to other types of researches.

Conclusions The analysis of literature was meant to determine the effects of high altitude on perception of color in human beings. Most of the literature evaluated indicated that there was a relationship between the reduction of color vision perception and increase in altitude. Altitudes above 12,000 feet are the mainly affected by the observed increase in the impairment if color perception. There are also differences in the degree to which the different axes in color vision are affected by an increase in altitude.

The most severely affected is the tritan axis. Acclimatization and return to lower altitudes is observed to reduce the effects of altitude on color vision. However, these effects are reversible. There is therefore need to put in place measures to ensure that personnel involved in intricate activities requiring perfect color vision at high altitudes are protected from these effects. Some of the measures already in place include pressurized aircrafts, supplemental oxygen, and regular color vision check-ups for these personnel.

Reference List 1. Karakucuk S, Oner A, Goktas S, Siki E, Kose O. Color vision changes in young subjects acutely exposed to 3,000 m altitude. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004; 75(2): 364–6.

2. Vingrys A, Garner, F. The effect of a moderate level of hypoxia on human color vision. Documenta Ophthalmologica 1987; 66(1): 171-185.

3. Buttler F. The eye at altitude. J R Army Med Corps n.d; 157(1): 49-52.

4. Wilmwe W, Berens, C. The Effects of Altitude on Ocular functions. Journal of American Medical Associations 1918; 71(5): 1382-1400.

5. Davies A, Morris D, Kalson N, Wright A, Imary C, Hogg, C. Changes to Color Vision on Exposure to High Altitude. J R Army Med Corps 2009; 157(1): 1-27.

6. Willmann G, Ivanov, V, Fischer D, Lahiri S, Pokharel, K, Werner A et al. Effects on color discrimination during long term exposure to high altitudes on Mt Everest. Br J Ophthalmol 2010; 94(1): 1393-1397.

7. Leid J, champagne J. Color vision at Very High Altitude. Color research and application, Supplement 2001; 26(1): s281-s283.

8. Tekavcic M, Igor T. Color Vision in the Tritan Axis is Predominantly Affected at High Altitude. High Altitude Medicine


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Importance of Early Childhood Education Traditionally, children were considered to be unable to distinguish between right and wrong. Therefore, people never saw the need to impart knowledge during their early stages. This outdated school of thought might hold some truth to some extent. However, it is vital to mention that children often accommodate everything in their immediate environment. The mind of a developing child operates like a sponge. Therefore, early childhood education is essential (McGowan, 2012).

The social capability of a child is critical in the overall social growth of a child. However, it is important to mention that children who are enrolled in early schooling programs can utilize their memories so well in the entire process of development. Moreover, the learning potential of children who have gone through early childhood education is greatly enhanced even when they reach higher levels of education. In other words, early childhood education sets the right foundation for acquiring education and the overall learning ability.

Early childhood stage refers to the first eight years of a child after birth. Research carried out on a child’s brain capacity indicates that eighty five percent of the brain develops at the age of five and that the brain of a child at the age of three functions two and a half times more effective than the brain of an adult (Whitfield, 2010). Brain cell connections are strengthened by continuous stimulation from the environment (Whitfield, 2010).

The first three years of a child are considered the prime time where the brain absorbs new information easily (Whitfield, 2010). The academic, mental and social growth of a child can be developed rapidly and effectively when a proper learning foundation is adopted. For instance, it is interesting to mention that children who are below ten years have the best opportunity to learn a lot due to their memory abilities. This stage is important in the academic and mental development of an individual.

Learning new vocabulary in language is possible with a child who is just three years old. However, if such a child has not been enrolled in an inclusive early childhood education, this reality cannot be achieved. This stage is considered to be the foundation of literacy (Whitfield, 2010). Whitfield carried out research studies to determine the importance of language skills development in early childhood.

Interesting findings were gathered from the study. From the study, it was found out that educators in daycare services have several opportunities of stimulating practical skills that help children acquire language skills at the age of five (Rigby, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though the early childhood stage does not require any professional training, it is interesting to mention that children usually undergo language training skills when they are enrolled in early childhood education programs. This may happen subconsciously. Educators can provide the most important guidance to young children when taking them through language classes. The ability to build strong and sensible vocabularies can be enhanced when a child goes through early childhood education.

In cases whereby the educator adjusted the child’s language registered few improvements as compared to when educators waited and listened (Ricker, 2011). This is also the same stage when children tend to learn the aspects of reading and writing. They particularly build a large volume of vocabulary with special preference to common words and daily experiences. However, this was a different case in groups where the educators made corrections when wrong grammar was used.

The children in this category failed to use any new vocabulary in constructing sentences and some were not showing any signs of starting to talk any time soon. In this research, it was clear that children tend to learn from their surrounding environment. Their language skills can be improved by simple structural changes and practice (Mayse, 2004).

The emotional development of a child, cordial relationship building, academic development and other superb attributes are enhanced when a child undergoes early childhood education. People tend to think that children develop their ego during their adolescent stage, which is not usually the case.

Before a child attains the age of ten years, early childhood education assists in the realization of personal identity as well as the ability to differentiate between right and wrong. The expected roles to be played by each gender is also learned effectively when a child is taken through a rigorous early childhood education. In addition, they keenly monitor the immediate environment and create a binding experience with other learners. Children also acquire their social skills through play and education.

A child’s academic and language skills are not merely education-oriented. These skills can be developed through directed play and proper interaction with children (Snapp, 2012). The latter author carried out an experiment to show the difference between child- directed play whereby children decide what they want to do and express them, and adult directed play whereby a parent or an educator dictates what the child should play.

In some of the research studies conducted on early childhood development, it is evident that children tend to socialize better with other children. Hence, early childhood education assists in rapid brain development of a child when it is appropriately directed by an instructor. In other, early childhood education plays a critical role in shaping certain desirable attributes in a child. In this experiment, the conclusion was that child directed plays establish egos and practice on how to express and control emotions (Hechinger, 1990).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Importance of Early Childhood Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They also tend to learn a lot when interacting with the environment. It is necessary for education stakeholders such as teachers and parents to acknowledge the fact that children have their unique thinking patterns that can be nurtured from the very early stage of development.

The society ought to contribute towards the proper development of a child by providing productive programs to both children and caregivers. This could go along way in promoting a child’s mental and intellectual development. Such an initiative is a crucial investment in any society.

Early childhood education is considered as the initial step towards formal education. Early childhood education is also integrated with primary, secondary, and tertiary education to form a complete spectrum of learning program. The period between birth and the eighth year of a child ought to be utilized properly to the benefit of a child.

The external environment should favor the positive growth of a child. In order to achieve this broad objective, a safe and accommodating environment with abundant sensory stimulation should be made available to the child during the early stages of development.

Children who experience extreme stress during their early childhood stages tend to develop cognitive and behavioral difficulties. These effects often extend into a child’s later development and performance at school.

Children raised in humble backgrounds often achieve lower level of education compared to their counterparts raised in middle-class families due to reduced ability to learn in school. Early childhood education should also be accompanied by effective healthcare delivery. Good nutrition, consistent care from family members and constant encouragement of a child may assist a child to perform quite well in school.

For any government, organization or community that aims at achieving high return on investments so that it can offer education, there is need to prioritize healthy social, cognitive, and emotional development of children. This can be attained by incorporating proper education with good health nutrition, water and sanitation in order to bring up children in a holistic manner. Governments should invest in ECD programs to provide the essential learning foundation for children during their first critical eight years (Blackburn, 2010).

In conclusion, the roles played by the early childhood education program are fundamental in setting the right pace in education. When children are enrolled in early childhood education program, they secure the best chance of performing well academically even when they reach higher learning levels.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Early Childhood Education by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cognitive ability of a child is also enhanced significantly when early childhood education is implemented at the right time. The ability to think critically and make proper judgment is also possible among children who have been taken through a professional early childhood curriculum. Therefore, early childhood education has myriads of benefits that should not be ignored by stakeholders in education.

References Blackburn, J. (2010). Summits focus on importance of early childhood programs. Web.

Hechinger, F. M. (1990). Cost, importance of early childhood education rising. Web

Mayse, J. (2004). Importance of early childhood education touted at owensboro. Web.

McGowan, M. (2012). Local advocates talk early childhood education in Raleigh. Web.

Ricker, N. (2011). Leaders stress importance of early education to business. Web.

Rigby, E. (2007). Same policy area, different politics: How characteristics of policy tools alter the determinants of early childhood education policy. Policy Studies Journal, 35(4), 653-669.

Snapp, B. (2012). OKCEO summit stressed the importance of early childhood education. Web.

Whitfield, J. (2010). Educator exemplifies the importance of education. Web.


The Usefulness of Educational Research Argumentative Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Educational research is the process through which educators evaluate various aspects of education such as student learning, instructional methods, teachers’ training programs and classroom challenges. The main purpose of educational research is to improve the quality of education by solving the problems that are associated with the education system. This paper highlights the usefulness of educational research.

Teachers can benefit from educational research in the following ways. To begin with, educational research informs the teaching practice. It enables educators to improve the quality of the content that they teach in various subject areas. Additionally, action research often includes inferences which facilitate implementation of various educational projects and policies.

Educational research is one of the best ways of solving existing problems in the education system. Best practice in educational research calls for reliance on observable experience, as well as, empirical evidence. This involves using accurate data and carefully developed procedures to analyze existing problems. The results of these analyses often provide effective solutions to existing and emerging problems.

Finally, educational research facilitates specialized and in-depth study among educators. Teachers who are interested in acquiring advanced knowledge through higher education such as PhD degrees must undertake rigorous research in their subject areas. In this regard, research enables the teachers to create new knowledge or to refine existing educational theories.

Educational research has a great impact on educator’s daily teaching roles. Effective research findings often influence educators’ decisions, as well as, the methodology for delivering course content. Concisely, research provides evidence based solutions to the instructional challenges that teachers face in classrooms.

Consequently, teachers are able to choose instructional methods that meet the learning needs of all students. Research also facilitates improvement in learning outcomes. It enables teachers to incorporate new ideas and approaches in the teaching practice. Furthermore, research provides teachers with the opportunity to reflect on their experiences with educational theories and to construct new understandings.

Hence, the teacher’s competency in teaching improves. Finally, educational research promotes organizational culture change at the school level. Empirical studies reveal that barriers to adoption of evidence based instructional methods exist at the school level. By inculcating a culture of research, teachers will be likely to embark on evidence based approaches to deliver course contents.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Teachers have varying encounters with educational research. Lack of high quality evidence is one of the factors that discourage the use of educational research findings. Most findings are inconclusive since the researchers hardly use effective research designs such as randomized controlled trials.

Moreover, teachers tend to prefer research findings that are relevant and easy to implement in their specific situations. Generally, teachers should have close encounters with educational research in order to improve their competencies.

The main similarity between contemporary and action research is that both of them produce findings and conclusions. However, they differ in the following ways. Whereas, action research includes recommendations for action, contemporary research does not. Contemporary research tends to extend a particular scholarly discipline. Action research, on the other hand, often adopts an interdisciplinary approach.

Whereas contemporary educational research focuses on testing a single set of hypotheses, action research focuses on analyzing the impacts of the available policy options. In conclusion, educators should adopt action educational research in order to develop solutions that are effective and relevant to their professional teaching needs.


The Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Creativity Argumentative Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

A Critical Analysis Trends in the current economic environment indicate a shift from “knowledge based activities to creativity, imagination, entrepreneurship, and innovation” (Oke et al., 2008, p. 56). The 21st century has realized a tremendous increase in business activities and opportunities owing to increased technological innovations and globalization. This has resulted into stiff competition for opportunities in the business world.

The current economic and business worlds are governed by creativity. Entrepreneurs need to be creative in order to remain competitive. Creativity and entrepreneurship are tightly linked to each other.

Without creativity, entrepreneurship cannot be realized. On the other hand, creativity is meaningless if its entrepreneurial opportunities are not exploited.

According to Bilton (2007, p.3), “creativity enables the entrepreneur to act on these opportunities in ways which can enhance a business’s competitiveness, and it can provide the basis for innovation and business growth, as well as impacting on the society positively”. This paper critically analyzes the relationship between entrepreneurship and creativity.

Entrepreneurship occurs in almost all organizations regardless of their size. According to Amabile (1988, p. 3), “entrepreneurship can be defined as the process of creating value for business and social communities by bringing together unique combinations of public and private resources to exploit economic, social, or cultural opportunities in an environment of change”.

On the other hand, “creativity has been viewed as the construction of ideas or products which are new and potentially useful” (Amabile, 1988, p. 3). On the entrepreneurial front, creativity should ensure that the profitability of an innovation in both monetary and social terms is tapped.

Creative ideas can either come from within the organization or from outside the organization. Generally, most entrepreneurs tend to exploit the internal sources of creativity first. Thus, creativity allows an organization to tap opportunities and at the same time adapt to changing environmental conditions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Innovation, risk taking, and proactiveness have been found to be the main components of entrepreneurship. Amabile (1998, p.4) argues “innovation is the manner in which the entrepreneur searches for new opportunities to a profitable conclusion or the way in which ideas are brought”.

The market place of ideas has stiff competition, and as a result, the viability and profitability of an innovation is determined by not only its novelty, but also its success. On the hand, “risk taking refers to the manner in which innovation is embedded in the organization, society or community” (Amabile, 1998, p.4). Risk taking also influences the willingness of people to invest in opportunities which are likely to succeed.

Moreover, “proactiveness is concerned with making things happen by perseverance, adaptability and by breaking with the established ways of doing things” (Amabile, 1998, p.4). Amabile (1988) argues creativity occurs when individuals seek to respond to environmental or societal needs, and this response may be of low or high frequency.

Morris et al. (2003), notes that such creativity responses are collectively known as creativity intensity. Creativity intensity incorporates the creative behaviour of both individuals and organizations, and society at large. Individual creativity or a team of creative individuals within the organization contribute to the enhancement of the organization’s competitiveness.

Various authors have attempted to highlight the connection between entrepreneurship and creativity. Previous evaluations of the connection between entrepreneurship and creativity focused on scientific interpretations, and the impact of technology and artistic creation.

As a result, the connection between entrepreneurship and creativity revolved around the end product of a creative act. Morris et al. (2003) argues that creative entrepreneurial individuals have a number of unique characteristics. First, such individuals have high self confidence and curiosity. Secondly, they have deep immersion and the drive to achieve.

Besides, Morris et al. (2003) argues that creative individuals are independent minded. On the other hand, Morris et al. (2003) argues that entrepreneurial individuals are self confident, and persevering. Entrepreneurial individuals are driven by the need to achieve and have high energy levels. In addition, calculated risk taking is another key feature of entrepreneurial individuals.

We will write a custom Essay on The Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Creativity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is evident from Morris et al.’s arguments that creative individuals and entrepreneurial individual have several features in common. In addition, economic growth and employment generation are as a result of entrepreneurial approaches and creativity.

Morris et al. (2003, p.5) indicate “entrepreneurial activity not only requires both a supportive and productive business climate but that it also needs an environment where creativity and innovation can flourish”. Successful business behaviour depends on well developed business and social networks.

Furthermore, having a wide knowledge base and the ability to identify opportunities boosts one’s entrepreneurial and creativity prowess. For example, social networking, which brings together people with the same interests, boosts the possibility of generating new ideas.

In addition, the commercialization of a product or service, or an idea, relies on the ability to integrate creativity and technology. A wide knowledge base is a great resource because it ensures the integration of previously unrelated ideas or domains.

Amabile (1977, p.16) argues “entrepreneurial creativity has been defined as the generation and implementation of novel, appropriate ideas, to establish a new venture”. Amabile (1977) also notes that entrepreneurial creativity often exists before a business has been established and when the business is up and running.

This is due to the fact that entrepreneurial creativity is not only shaped by the individual decision maker, but also by the social world. Furthermore, entrepreneurial creativity is determined by various external and internal factors.

“Entrepreneur activity requires a combination of intrinsic motivation and certain kinds of extrinsic motivation; a motivational synergy that results when strong levels of personal interest and involvement are combined with the promise of rewards that confirm competence, support skill development, and enable future achievements” (Amabile, 1977), p.18). Sometimes entrepreneurship requires making tough decisions.

Such decision relies heavily on an organization’s resources and an individual’s intrusion, which in turn shapes one’s creativity. An entrepreneur must have strong leadership qualities if he or he wishes to shape the business and the motivate organization’s employees. In addition, the achievement of this goal requires the combination of strong leadership skills and creative thinking.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Creativity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As mentioned earlier, the input of creativity might require the contribution of either an individual or a team. Organizations which flourish have recognized the fact that creative achievement has to be nurtured within the organization.

In addition, there must be an interaction between intuition and creative problem solving in order to enhance business entrepreneurship. Intuition is a key aspect with regard to conducting successful businesses. Creative organizations have been found to have individuals reach in ideas. In addition, such individuals have innovative leadership and open communication. Some experts consider creativity as competitive strength which is required by small and medium sized organizations for successful operation.

Others consider creativity as an entrepreneurial attribute. Entrepreneurial management is an essential aspect of business management and it has a significant influence on creativity. Entrepreneurial management provides a suitable working environment in which creative individuals and teams function.

Morris et al. (2003, p.25) argues “the dimensions of agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, general cognitive ability and openness impact on an individual’s behaviours which then influence individual and group level creativity”. Morris et al. (2003) further argues that people in an organization have different styles of creativity.

Some individuals have an adaptive style of creativity while others have an innovative style of creativity. A few individuals have both adaptive and innovative styles of creativity. Thus, Morris et al. (2003, p.11) “propose that in an entrepreneurial firm environment, higher levels of challenging existing thinking will occur and that any boundaries will be stretched or even broken”.

Morris et al. (2003) hold the opinion that an organization ought to have both adaptive and innovative individuals. Creative adaptation provides an opportunity to reconstruct existing ideas and concepts. On the other hand, innovative creativity enhances the invention of fresh and different concepts.

Morris et al. (2003, p.34) argue “entrepreneurial characteristics such as flexibility, visualization, and imagination all play a significant role in an individual’s ability to see new possibilities of applying past experiences and constructing alternative strategic directions”.

Organizations need to have flexible working conditions since individual and team creativity depend on the availability of a conducive working environment. Morris et al. (2003) argue that owing to their small size, small firms are more flexible than large corporations and that realizing creative ideas is easier in small firms.

In addition, an entrepreneur should critique existing practices, and implement the necessary changes at the correct time. According to Bilton (2007), the link between creativity and entrepreneurship begins with one’s creative potential. This depends on the ability of an individual to generate and then exploit novel and valuable ideas.

The entrepreneurial function implies “the discovery, assessment and exploitation of opportunities, in other words, new products, services or production processes; new strategies and organizational forms and new markets for products and inputs that did not previously exist” (Amabile 1996, p. 45).

On the other hand, it plays a significant role in technical innovation. Creativity may sound a bit like adaptability, and these two things are related. According to Amabile (1996, p. 45) “creativity is central to and inseparable from the entrepreneurial process, thus it should be noted that creative thinking is an essential entrepreneurial skill”.

In addition, “creativity and innovation are essential for the survival and continued growth and success, with frequent references to initial business ideas, and subsequent flow of new ideas for products and services, creative solutions to problems and innovative business processes” (Bilton, 2007, p. 89).

In summary, this paper has noted that trends in the current economic environment indicate a shift from “knowledge based activities to creativity, imagination, entrepreneurship, and innovation” (Oke et al., 2008, p. 56). The 21st century has realized a tremendous increase in business activities and opportunities owing to increased technological innovations and globalization.

According to Bilton (2007, p.3), “creativity enables the entrepreneur to act on these opportunities in ways which can enhance a business’s competitiveness, and it can provide the basis for innovation and business growth, as well as impacting on the society positively”. Entrepreneurship occurs in almost all organizations regardless of their size.

According to Amabile (1988, p. 3), “entrepreneurship can be defined as the process of creating value for business and social communities by bringing together unique combinations of public and private resources to exploit economic, social, or cultural opportunities in an environment of change”.

On the other hand, “creativity has been viewed as the construction of ideas or products which are new and potentially useful” (Amabile, 1988, p. 3). On the entrepreneurial front, creativity should ensure that the profitability of an innovation in both monetary and social terms is tapped.

Creative ideas can either come from within the organization or from outside the organization. Innovation, risk taking, and proactiveness have been found to be the main components of entrepreneurship. Morris et al. (2003) argue that creative entrepreneurial individuals have a number of unique characteristics. First, such individuals have high self confidence are curiosity.

Secondly, they have deep immersion and the drive to achieve. Besides, Morris et al. (2003) argues that creative individuals are independent minded. On the other hand, Morris et al (2003) argues that entrepreneurial individuals are self confident, and persevering. Creativity is seen as competitive strength which is required by small and medium sized organizations for successful operation.

Entrepreneurial individuals are driven by the need to achieve and have high energy levels. In addition, calculated risk taking is another key feature of entrepreneurial individuals. The current economic and business worlds are governed by creativity.

On the entrepreneurial front, creativity should ensure that the profitability of an innovation in both monetary and social terms is tapped. Thus, it can be argued that creativity is essential to entrepreneurship.

References Amabile, T. (1988). A Model of Creativity and Innovation in Organisations. Colorado: JAI Press.

Amabile, T. (1996). Creativity in Context. Colorado: Westview publishers.

Bilton, C. (2007). Management and Creativity: From Creative Industries to Creative Management. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Morris, M. (2003). The Emergence of Entrepreneurial Marketing: Nature and Meaning. Chicago: University of Illinois.

Oke et al. A. M. (2009). The Influence of Leadership on Innovation Processes and Activities. Organizational Dynamics, 38(1), 50-64.


Medical Anthropology Essay a level english language essay help

Introduction The increased participation by medical anthropologists in medical research and public health in the recent past has seen medical anthropology become an important area of study among anthropologists. It is therefore not surprising that the increasing number of medical research projects and public health interventions that involve medical anthropologists or that are closely related to social science disciplines.

This has also given rise to a powerful cooperation that now exists between anthropologists and health professionals. Despite their different ideologies, these two groups of people have been working hand in hand to lessen the effects of poverty (Pool


Euthyphro: Concept of Holiness and Piety Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free

The dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro in front of the King Archon’s court reveals two individuals at crossroads on how to define and comprehend holiness. The two were to attend court hearings on different cases. During their discussion, they reveal to each other reasons why they are to appear in court.

According to Burrington (n.d.), Socrates was to attend a court hearing in which Meletus accuses him of distracting the attention of young people from believing in the gods that the state religion recognizes. Instead, Socrates was propagating for the belief in new gods. On the other hand, Euthyphro was at the court to file a case against his father, who, he argues, has made his family and friends be unkind to him.

The father had isolated a servant, who killed a family slave, in a ditch to prevent religious pollution. Later, the servant died even before the messenger could report on what religious steps could be taken against the servant. Euthyphro explains that it is wrong, in line with his accepted beliefs, to protect a manslayer.

In addition, he says that his actions would prevent poisoning his father’s associates. According to Socrates, it is a taboo to lodge harmful proceedings against one’s father. This different points of view or different reasoning perspectives prompted the two to discuss in depth the concept of holiness or piety.

Notably, Socrates wanted to understand the interpretation of the term holiness from other people’s standpoint. This step could help him in defending himself at the court (God, 2009). Socrates wanted to gage whether his action of preaching to the youths to accept foreign gods could be viewed as holy or not. Additionally, he wanted to know whether his act was appeasing or annoying all the gods and whether it was right or wrong.

The concept of holiness also took prominent position, as Socrates wanted Euthyphro to evaluate his decision of arraigning his father in court. In the dialogue, Socrates aimed at making Euthyphro back his actions with solid premises, which are religious.

According to Socrates, many people have confused religious actions that are wrong or right, as they argue from archaic religious contextual. Remarkably, these two characters were faced by cases, which required deep philosophical explanations and comprehension.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Socrates requested Euthyphro to define what is meant by piety. In his first response, Euthyphro defended his ‘religious’ actions by alluding that even Zeus punished his father the same way. Socrates refuted this response by saying that, though it can be genuine, but the exemplification cannot be part of the definition.

Therefore, Euthyphro needs to understand the difference between what he considers religious and what he considers moral. Further, Socrates adds that he had difficulties in comprehending how misunderstanding arises among the gods. In the second definition, Euthyphro suggested that pious is what pleases the gods (God, 2009).

Socrates responded by indicating that what is appealing to one god could be unappealing to another god. Euthyphro felt frustrated and lastly defined piety as that which pleases all the gods. This definition prompted Socrates to ask Euthyphro a query, “Is what is pious loved by (all) the gods because it is already pious, or is it pious merely because it is something loved by them?” (Burrington, n.d.).

At this point, the two agree with the partial definition and go ahead to formulate schemas, that is something is considered pious if it is already holy in its own before god’s love it. These steps qualify the holiness of any act. Socrates added that what attracts the gods to love any pious act is its being morally right. Afterwards, they engage in explaining what actions one can accept as morally right.

Euthyphro argues that our moral actions involve helping our gods by protecting our people through offering sacrifices and prayers. Socrates then wonders why we ask the gods for things and offer them to the same gods as sacrifice.

Socrates’s objective in this dialogue was to show Euthyphro that there are different perspectives of viewing or understanding a concept, rather than having a fixated conception on an idea. Therefore, he wanted to understand the religious expert’s argument and widen his points of argument. This was Socrates’s intention because he assumed the role of a student or learner in the dialogue.

From this scenario, Euthyphro was fully able to give his understanding of piety and morality. Notably, in the dialogue Socrates played a passive role, as he could allow Euthyphro to respond to his questions, then offers suggestions to provoke further response from Euthyphro. Moreover, there is no point at which Euthyphro asked Socrates questions.

We will write a custom Essay on Euthyphro: Concept of Holiness and Piety specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In my opinion, holiness refers to a state or an act that is morally right in itself and that the gods love. The definition fails to give the level or point at which an act qualifies to be morally right. Additionally, who qualifies an act as morally upright?

Is it not the people? Is what is morally right loved by gods to make it morally right? On the other hand, is it morally right because people have accepted it to be so? There are individual differences in people’s arguments, cultures, perceptions, and understanding.

References Burrington, D. E. (n.d.). Guides to the Socratic Dialogues: Plato’s Euthyphro. Hartwick College. Web.

God, F. (2009, April 23). Socrates versus Euthyphro. No Double Standards. Web.


The Doctrine of the Christian Life Reflective Essay online essay help

The doctrine of Christian life analyzes the issue of Christian ethics in comparison to non Christian ethics. He explains that true ethical living is obtained from the word of God and this is the only kind of living that is free from controversy. Non Christian ethics tend to contradict each other and since there is only one form of truth, they are therefore considered null.

Ethics in this case involves making life decisions both personal and social in compliance with the doctrines stated in God’s word. From this non Christian ethics are not considered to be wrong since they bring about controversial assertions.

One of the key issues in understanding Christian ethics is the fact that these ethics are God like. The Bible clearly states the attributes of God as being pure, holy, righteous, loving, forgiving and so on. This means that for the word ethics to be meaningful, it has to encompass all these attributes and applied to the daily living of a Christian.

These are virtues that cannot be obtained through any form of education or intellectual study. Christian ethics are obtained through practice which should involve a lot of self discipline and sacrifice. The natural human being is normally inclined to selfish desires which in most cases are against ethical living and this is what Frame attempts to speak against.

The other important principle in Christian ethics is the separation between ethical living and hypocrisy. Hypocrisy involves doing things for purposes of outward recognition or just to fulfill a given expectation. This in itself is unethical since ethics should start from the inside motive and trickle down to the actions.

Any actions not accompanied by similar intentions are considered unethical according to Christian beliefs since they amount to deception. This point is even emphasized in the Bible in Proverbs 4: 23 which states that life’s issues spring from the heart.

The events occurring on a daily basis in the world over are enough evidence of ethical or unethical decisions taken at one point or another. In most cases, people say one thing and do the exact opposite. Leaders specifically are in the habit of saying things to please the public and earn recognition while in real sense they are unable to deliver in accordance with their promises.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This explains the chaotic nature of the world we are living in. A world characterized by many kinds of evil all as a result of lack of proper ethical guidelines or rejection of the same, the later being the most probable. This is because Christian ethics are clearly outlined in the word of God, but most people prefer to assume they do not exist.

Another form of misleading non Christian ethics is the assertion that anything that results in happiness is ethical. Happiness is a relative phenomenon in the secular world owing to the different opinions on the same. Some people however find joy in taking revenge, while this is considered unethical in the Bible. Not everything that makes people happy is right and not every right thing makes people happy as well.

Again, Happiness varies from one person to another hence implying that there is no standard measure of happiness in the secular world. According to Christian values however, the true source of lasting happiness is in God who puts everything in place at the appointed time. The changing nature of people’s definitions makes it evident that Christian ethics are unwavering and the best way to live according to Frame1.

Finally Christian ethics are perceived to be the best way of telling what is sinful and what is not. This is because it insists on virtues, irrespective of what the end result is. There are times when doing the right thing is difficult and in such cases, Christian ethics insist that the right thing should be done any way2.

Non Christian ethics on the other hand mostly suggest that people should always do what brings them satisfaction irrespective of the externality effects these actions have. The end result of this is selfish living, one of the major causes of most problems in the world today. Hence Christian ethics as stipulated by Frame form the best guidelines to life.

Bibliography Frame, John. The Doctrine of the Christian Life (A Theology of Lordship). Philipsburg: P


Drug Addictions Counseling: Assessment and Diagnosing Essay college application essay help

Drug addictions counseling is a challengeable and daunting profession because it requires specific abilities and skills to establish a good rapport with the client. Indeed, individual characteristics and qualities are of particular concern to medical treatment and counseling because they influence significantly the attitude of clients to treatment.

There is a false assumption concerning the idea of initially bad perception of counseling because the each person can be approached effectively. The task of the counselor is to find a unique technique and establish favorable relations with a client. Certainly, an addict should not be considered as a patient with disorder or impairment, but as an individual who came to the meeting to talk about his/her problems.

In this respect, the focus should be made on client-centered counseling which emphasizes “empathy and the client’s potential growth, shifting away from an attitude of therapist as high-and-might expert and putting a “human face” on the therapeutic process” (Myers and Salt, p. 75). Knowledge of psychology, therefore, is indispensible to substance abuse treatment.

For a substance abuse counselor, the term denial is commonly used to refer to a reaction of patients who deny their dependency, although they confront the obvious disorder. However, the traditional alcohol abuse treatment is often premised on the assumption that all addicts fail to recognize their problems, and their ability to change is encouraged only by ignorance of negative consequences (Springer and Rubin, 2009).

As a result, such approach cannot be considered efficient because it entails the change of behaviors on condition that external outcomes become sufficiently distressing to break the denial by immediate confrontation. Therefore, denial should be seen as “…a reflection of the interpersonal relationship between the counselor and the client” (Springer and Rubin, 2009, p. 5).

In this respect, the task of a counselor is to develop the clients’ intrinsic motivation and enhance their desire to recover through realization of positive consequences.

Positive correlation is vital for ensuring further recovery because it activates patients’ inner motivation to treat the disorder. Moreover, motivation for change can be fostered by amplifying and expanding client’s inner incentives to shape new positive behaviors that would allow patients to confront the challenges.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some substance addicts believe that abstinence is the only means of reducing the alcohol consumption and gaining social approval. They resort to these measures because of the fear to lose social and clinical support. Patient’s assumptions are premised on the verbal statements about the importance of reducing the amounts of substance use. Moderate consumption and abstinence should not be the only condition for gaining acceptance.

Rather, patients should develop inner awareness of the negative consequences of abusing alcohol. According to Mueser et al. (2003), “although…abstinence is a much more successful remission strategy than occasional or moderate use…the decision to pursue abstinence must come from the client” (p. 29). In most cases, clients start the recovery period by gradual reduction of the amount of alcohol consumed.

Such a strategy can only enhance patients’ dependency. Therefore, the counselors should monitor their clients gaining awareness of the abstinence development, which is much more effective than a gradual reduction strategy. They should also make sure that abstinence does not affect directly their life choices. On the contrary, it should be their choice to resort to abstinence. Attaining abstinence should not be prior to changing life goals.

References Mueser, K. T., Noordsy, D. L., Drake, R. E., and Fox, L. (2003). Integrated Treatment for Dual Disorders: A Guide to Effective Practice. US: Guilford Press.

Myers, P. L.,


Challenges/Threats to National Security: Turkey Exploratory Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

From Compulsion to Stabilisation

The AKP’s “Soft Power” Tactic


Works Cited

Introduction The current civil conflict in Syria that continues to upsurge every day is damaging the good relationship between Turkey and Syria. It is terminating the impressive bond between the Turkey’s ruling party, Adelet ve Kalkınma Partisi (AKP), and the al-Assad’s government that has existed for almost a decade.

Turkey’s Prime Minister in cooperation with the Foreign Minister ostracised their previous associate and backed the insurgents, as a way of preventing the revolt from infiltrating into Turkey. This move has led to an upsurge of refugees, military rebels, and opposition leaders, who are deserting the tyrannical authority, into Turkey.

Turkey has not only declared its support for the insurgents, but also promised a military intervention if the government continues with its violent suppression. Turkish government has lauded support for the revolutionists stating that Syria will greatly benefit from the resistance.

Syrian government has disregarded the threats raising the question if these events will prompt Turkey to cease its “soft power” and initiate hard power as a way of protecting its southern border.

From Compulsion to Stabilisation History reveals that Turkey utilised mechanisms of hard power towards Syria when Syria backed the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) thirty years ago. In an attempt to terminate Damascus sponsorship for the military rebels that Ankara had been unable to conquer for years, the Turkish government implemented pressure tactics against Syria on not less than three incidents in the 1980s, as well as 1990s (Bishku 36-53).

In the late 1980s, the Turkish government took advantage of the influence they had over the headwaters of Euphrates as well as Tigris to snip a chip on Syria. The anticipation was that Damascus would run out of options and withdraw its support for the PKK because Turkey had fortified its shares on the regional rivers.

However, this strategy botched as Syria continued supporting the group. Later in 1992, Turkey applied a second pressure strategy that was also unsuccessful when Ankara ignored retaliation threats on Syria if it continued sheltering PKK. The coercion ultimately inspired a temporary agreement when Damascus decided to remove PKK fighters from Helwe drill site.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the leaders of Turkey did not react when Syria allowed PKK to launch a site where 1000 insurgents were drilled in 1993. Turkey also failed in its third effort, when it had to stop its battle with Syria because of the unpredicted outbreak of conflict with Greece (Bishku 36-53).

The defining moment came in the fourth effort of Ankara in 1998 when Washington, Tehran, and Cairo supported them. The Turkish government hinted that it would use compulsion in case Damascus refused to comply and continue backing terrorist activities. Ankara established a diplomatic invasive as well as martial campaign to support its coercions (Damla 41-50).

These tactics in line with the strong support from Washington enabled Turkey to succeed eventually. Ankara signed the Adana agreement, which that stated, “PKK training camps in Damascus would be closed and Öcalan was prohibited from residing in Syria” (Özlem 165).

Furthermore, mechanisms to check if Syria observed the agreement’s demands were established. PKK was defeated and the relationship between Syria and Turkey strengthened once again. The economic association between Ankara and Damascus was also re-energised as Turkey and Syria signed a free trade accord, which was to remove the custom taxes (Özlem 163-175).

The AKP’s “Soft Power” Tactic Although the early Turkish leaders in the 1990s always aimed at perfecting the link between Syria and Turkey, AKP tried to utilise every available opportunity to improve the relationship between the two countries from 2002.

The AKP government proposed a remarkable role for Turkey in the Middle East. AKP agreed that, for them to achieve this goal, they had to acquire elements of “soft power” in trading, sharing of customs, diplomatic actions, as well as religious kinship whilst refraining from compulsive tactics (Damla 41-50).

The soft power approach was exemplified by the then Foreign Minister who stated that Turkey should have a zero conflict policy with its neighbours because of its central location in Afro-Eurasia.

We will write a custom Essay on Challenges/Threats to National Security: Turkey specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This geostrategic position would enable Turkey to become a core continental or even global actor if it maintained good relations with its closest neighbours. AKP’s achievement in establishing good links with Syria as well other Middle East nations hinged firmly on economic and political benefits (Idrees 87-99).

AKP decided to use its traditional as well as religious connections with Levant as an instrument of soft power. Since AKP is an Islamic inspired party, it believes that Turkey should be a typical example of justice, equality, as well as economic success witnessed during the Ottoman period.

This doctrine has encouraged it to accomplish its goals in the Middle East. In attempt to advance Turkish authority in Middle East, AKP got unforeseen backing from its entertainment industry. Over forty Turkish films have been aired in the Arab countries and they help educate the constituents of Arab world understand how Muslim societies can live liberally (Bishku 36-53).

The AKP administration has improved the bilateral relations introduced by the previous regimes. The Strategic Cooperation Council, which is made of ministers from both Syria and Turkey, held meetings in 2009 to improve the bilateral links. The efforts to perfect the bilateral relations got strong support from a group of organisations, which include investors and company representatives (Saban 5-7).

Consequently, the trade volume between Syria and Turkey escalated from $824.1 million to $1.84 billion in 2010, and they anticipated that the amount will rise to $5 billion by the end of 2012 (Bishku 36-53).

The boosted relationship between the two countries spread to other states in Middle East, which inspired Bashar al-Assad to request Ankara to intercede in the convert talks between Syria and Israel in 2007.

Lebanon also sought the assistance Ankara to help them persuade Damascus and Tehran to stop their diplomatically destabilising tactics towards Lebanon. These incidents disclosed the significant role that Turkey was playing in resolving clashes in the Middle East (Idrees 87-99).

Furthermore, Ankara sided with Damascus in several occasions instead of Washington, hence affecting the relationship between the United States and Turkey (Jim 12). For instance, the Turkish tactical interests concurred with those of Syria in several scenarios during Iraq incursion in 2003. The bond between the two countries became even stronger when Assad visited Erdoğan in Turkey.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Challenges/Threats to National Security: Turkey by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This visit was remarkable because sixty-eight years had passed since the last president of Syria visited Turkey (Saban 5-7). The relationship between the two counties appeared to have a bright future if not for the Arab revolts that began in 2011.

Although the soft power applied by AKP was successful in several incidences, it could not control the Syrian regime as it had anticipated and especially during the revolt. The relationship between Syria began to decline at the onset of the revolution (Damla 41-50).

Turkey believed that its close rapport with Syria would help convince Assad to stop torturing the rebels. However, Syria was not prepared to solve its conflict through reforms and instead continued with its brutality. These events prompted Erdoğan to support the rebels (Karen 26-32).

Whilst the mutual rapport between Turkey and Syria is deteriorating, a close relationship between the U.S. and Turkey is developing. Turkey has been holding consistent talks with the U.S. intended to resolve the Syrian conflict. The two governments have agreed to use compulsion against Syria. Turkey has recently threatened to impose sanctions against Syria (Karen 26-32).

Syria has also retorted asserting that it might re-introduce PKK. Ankara has also displayed its direct support for the militants by establishing camps, which shelter fleeing army officers and refugees. Allegations indicate that AKP has withdrawn its support for Assad because of Syrian Muslim Brotherhood (SMB).

SMB has promised to adopt Turkish governance policies after assuming power. Turkey sees this indication as a good opportunity to perfect its relations with the country (Idrees 87-99).

Conclusion Though the ongoing revolts have negatively affected Turkey-Syria relations, Turkey still has a regional authority in the Middle East. Clearly, the conflict in Syria is having both positive and negative impact in Turkey’s association with states, both regionally and internationally.

The revolts in the Middle East as well as the autocratic nature of the Arab potentates make it inappropriate to employ soft power. It is time Turkey in cooperation with foreign forces applied hard power, which was successful three decades ago, to oust the tyrants and restore peace in Syria.

Works Cited Bishku, Michael. “Turkish-Syrian Relations: A Checkered History.” Middle East Policy 19.3 (2012): 36-53. Print.

Damla, Aras. “Turkish-Syrian Relations Go Downhill.” Middle East Quarterly 19.2 (2012): 41-50. Print.

Jim, Zanotti. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations, 2012. Web.

Idrees, Mohammed. “Turkey and Iran Rivalry on Syria: Alternatives.” Turkish Journal of International Relations 10.1 (2011): 87-99. Print.

Karen, Kaya. “Turkey and the Arab Spring.” Military Review 92.4 (2012): 26-32. Print

Özlem, Tür. “Turkish-Syrian Relations – Where Are We Going?” UNISCI Discussion Papers 23 (2010): 163-175. Print.

Saban, Kardas. “Syrian Uprising Tests Turkey’s Middle East Policy.” Eurasia Daily Monitor 8.90 (2011): 5-7. Print.


Recovery Movement Analysis Essay college admissions essay help

The emergence of Recovery Movement is strongly associated with a treatment approach to substance addicted patients. The main scope of the recovery movement is to prove the individual’s potential for recovery and resistance to the addiction. Initially, the concept evolved from the Alcoholics Anonymous, which first recognized the preference of dependency of people (Ankerberg, 2011).

The movement also refers to training individuals skills, advancing social skills, and developing inner potential (Davidson et al., 2011). In this respect, the Recovery Movement incorporates various fields, including sociology, psychology, philosophy, social welfare, civil rights, and political economic theory.

Therefore, the concept of recovery acquires a much broader meaning and embraces various psychological, cultural, and social elements (Myers


Drugs and Their Effects Essay essay help free: essay help free

Drugs and substance abuse can lead both to physical and psychological dependency. As a result, drug-addicted patients can experience various side effects depending on the frequency and amount of drugs taken at a time. Investigating patterns of behavior of alcohol and drug-addicted individuals is important because it allows a drug addictions counselor to predict possible consequences and potential risks to health.

It has been found out that duration effect of smoking marijuana is about 4 hours (Coon and Mitterer, 2008). In contrast, large amounts of alcohol consumption can cause significant impairment of the brain, or even loss of consciousness.

Six packs of beer exceed the accepted norms for a person and, therefore, it is more dangerous for a person consume alcohol in such dozes as compared to two cigarettes of marijuana, which is accepted (Coon and Mitterer, 2008).

Therefore, as a drug addictions counselor, I would rather take control of the alcohol-addicted patient and focus on the patterns of his behavior to avoid complications and risks to the patient’s health. At the same time, the patient who smokes marijuana should also be monitored to make sure that he/she is not dependent on drugs.

Exploring patterns of alcohol consumption is helpful in understanding the main risks it can have for human health. The levels of alcohol abuse are associated with a number of disorders and diseased. In particular, such disorders as hypertension, liver disease, and neurological deficits relate primarily to patterns of alcohol consumption (Grant, 1997).

As such, there are specific signs of alcohol abuse which should be highlighted to prevent complications. The most serious concern should be with binge drinking, which is defined “…as downing five or more drinks in a short time (four drinks for women)” (Coon and Mitterer, 2008). This level of alcohol abuse is of particular attention to teenagers whose brain still develops.

In addition, binge drinking makes alcoholics be physically and psychological dependent on substance. As a result, they can face serious challenges while reducing the amount of the consumed alcohol (Craig, 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The role of the counselor, therefore, is to define psychological reasons for alcohol addiction and prevent further consumption. He/she should also provide all necessary assistance to those who do not even suspect of the fact of dependency.

Although alcohol is considered as a legally permitted substance in the U.S. legislature, there should be specific regulations that could prohibit the overconsumption of alcohol in restaurants and bars, apart from the regulations imposed on drivers. In such a manner, it will be possible to reduce the number of lethal outcomes and increase the overall welfare of the population.

People consuming less alcohol will definitely be much healthier. Second, legal restrictions should also be imposed on marijuana use, unless it concerns medical treatment for specific population. Whenever the alcohol abuse is legal or illegal, the consequences of the consumption can lead to detriment of individual’s physical and psychological health.

What is more problematic is that alcohol-addicted patients cause many problems to their relatives and friends. A person who suffers from dependency can also become socially isolated.

Therefore, the legal issues should be considered in much broader context to solve the current problems with substance dependency. In addiction, it is necessary to legalize the Alcoholics Anonymous attendance for those who seeks treatment and for those who abuse alcohol regularly.

References Coon, D.,


Differences Between ‘the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen’ and ‘the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen’ Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

This response paper looks at the differences between ‘the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen’ and ‘the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen’. This response paper highlights the differences between the two declarations.

The ‘Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen’ was adopted in France and affirms that all men are born equal. The declaration does not discuss anything related to women’s rights. The declaration is masculine in nature and does not consider women to have the same status as men. It states that men are born free with equal civil liberties which cannot be taken away from them (Anderson, 1908, p. 59).

The declaration further advances the argument that political systems only exist to preserve the rights of man. It looks at man as the origin of power which a sovereign state exercises. Sovereignty therefore is obtained from the will of the people. The freedoms outlined are to be practiced without injuring others as stipulated by existing laws.

The declaration also stipulates that established laws need to forbid actions that are considered to be harmful to the society. Article 6 of the declaration observes the right of all people in a society to participate in formation of laws either directly or indirectly. The dominant position that man is accorded in the society however does not change in the subsequent articles of the declaration.

The declaration sets standards to be followed regarding how penalties are to be administered to those citizens that break the law (Anderson, 1908, p. 60). The declaration upholds freedom of speech, the authority vested in government to administer taxes and the rights to own property. This declaration is masculine in its outlook but highlights strong civil liberties that have become synonymous with modern democratic societies.

The ‘Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen’ was constituted as a reaction to the ‘Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen’. The declaration sensitizes women to be aware of their rights in the society. It affirms that women are born with equal rights just like men and they should be treated fairly without any discrimination.

This declaration argues for the rights of women to own property and have liberties similar to those enjoyed by men in the society (Levy, Applewhite


High School Students Participating In Extra-Curricular Activities Have Fewer Discipline Problems? Research Paper essay help

Introduction The number of high school students of between 15 and 18 years of age who are reportedly involved in various types of antisocial behavior has been on the increase over the past few years (Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group, 2002).

Disruptive behavior has a negative effect on high school students and this could result in rejection by teachers and other students. In addition, high school students who are involved in antisocial behavior are also more likely to fail or drop out of school, and abuse alcohol and drugs (Gilman, Meyers


The Movement of Workers from China to India Report college essay help online: college essay help online

Abstract The present globalization has a range of structural effects. This is not only in developed economies, but also in the developing economies such as India and China. While China’s economy is driven by the manufacturing sector, India’s economy thrives because of the swift expansion of its services sector. The growth factor for India’s blueprint economic development is that it is geared towards long-term expansion.

Nevertheless, the effects of globalization on labor force are reported in India, China and globally. In this context, both skilled and unskilled personnel form the key pillars for sustainability and rapid economic growth for these two countries.

However, the development of labor force and labor regulations between these two countries differs. Whereas China labor force majorly concentrates on skilled manufacturing, India’s labor force is skilled in services sector. This gives India a proportional advantage over China because the current world economy is geared towards services sector.

Introduction In last few decades, India and China have gained impressive status because of their respective sustained and rapid economic development and growth. Since nineteen eighty, the country of China has prospered beyond its usual development rates. While the economic growth rate of India can hardly match that of China, India is still amongst the rapidly growing world economies.

Such exceptional economic achievements could be attributed to the fact that these nations were integrated into the universal economy. The impacts of integration principally on employment and economic growth have emerged as an essential academic investigation area. A review of study literature shows that when these nations were integrated into the worldwide economy, their economic growth rates were significantly affected.

The most prominent effect was the transfer of world labor force from China to India. This literature review problem necessitates that the researcher conducts a comparative and empirical analysis about the movement of workers from China to India.

Objectives The general study objective is to investigate factors that make the world labor force move from China to India. Under the general objective, the following parameters will be looked into:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To investigate the differences and impacts of universal integration on the growth rates of these economies

To establish the structural composition of the Chinese and Indian sectors

To investigate the Chinese and India labor force distribution by sector

To investigate the employment distribution by type in India and China

Research Questions At the conclusion of this study, the obtained outcomes should give reasons why world labor force transfers from China to India. Thus, research report will respond to the following questions.

What are differences and impacts of universal integration on the growth rates of these economies?

What are the structural compositions of the Chinese and Indian sectors?

What are the Chinese and India labor force distribution by sector?

What are the employment distribution by type in India and China?

Literature review The spectacular growths in the economy of these two countries in the last two decades have been attributed to the magnificent labor force. India in particular has developed an efficient and effective services sector especially in the information and communication technology. India’s economy is largely driven by the services sector hence the need for skilled labor force (Ahluwalia 2002, p.76).

The change of policy towards the attainment of higher education and the adoption of modern technology has increased India’s comparative advantage in the production of high tech products as compared with China (Mahtaney, 2007). The increased skilled work force coupled with low wages make India attractive in terms of labor cost in comparison to China, Mexico as well as other fast growing developing economies.

In essence, majority of engineering and technology firms outsourced their operations in low cost countries such as India in order to reduce their operation costs (Freeman 2006, p.131). The increase of these offshore firms in India enabled skilled-high tech workers in China to migrate to India to fill the gap.

The economics behind this movement of workers is that developed countries with comparative advantage in the technology sector stand to suffer economic losses when countries like India compete successfully in that sector (Samuelson 2004, p.140).

Products from these new competing countries have the capability of reducing the prices of products in the world market due to low wages. As such, workers in developed countries have to move in those countries where chances of being productive are high, and there is less competition in employment (Samuelson 2004, p.140).

Another factor that has led to the movement of labor force from China to India is that India has become the best candidate of the global-multinational firm’s sourcing for workers (Panagriya, 2008). Multinationals relocate their facilities including high-tech research R


Marketing Management Concept Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Role of Market Insights in enabling Outside-In Strategies

Role of Market Insights in analysing Customer Behaviour

Role of Market Insights in Customer Centricity

Role of Market Insights in Dealing with Abundance and Automation


Reference List

Introduction The industry of market research was orderly, predictable and fairly calm in the past days when professionals worked for suppliers and companies in marketing departments. These professionals worked in an environment with well defined space and roles. As such, they were specialised in research where they assessed various attitudes that affected consumer behaviour (Peck


Stimulus-Response Theory Essay essay help

Evaluate how Classical Conditioning can be applied to the Learning Process Classical conditioning is the process by which learning takes place through environmental and natural stimuli. Psychologists believe that learning occurs through behavioral change when environmental stimulus is associated with naturally occurring stimulus. Several theories support the working of classical conditioning and learning process (Carlson, 2010).

Stimulus-response theory agrees that when a test begins, unconditioned response may result. Despite this response, learning eventually takes place.

For instance, a rat may not respond unconditionally when put in a maze at the beginning, but with time, it learns the maze and thus responds conditionally. This theory has some flaws given that the conditioned or unconditioned responses may differ even when the stimulus is the same (Terry, 2009).

The second theory is based on stimulus to stimulus. This theory entails acquisition of a piece of knowledge and retaining it for future use. For instance, children learn colors and numbers conditionally or unconditionally, and remember this learning experience regardless of the stimulus later in life (Neuringer, 2002). Second order conditioning is used here for acquiring basic knowledge and then expanding it at high levels.

For example, at first grade, pupils may learn about Osama by name. At high grades, they may learn about his complicated life. The original teachings are conditioned stimuli that higher grade pupils use to obtain more information. This theory is based on cognitive abilities which differ from one person to another (Terry, 2009).

The third theory is based on operant conditioning. It focuses on certain behaviors that result in punishments or rewards. For instance, preschool children can be given a snack if they pronounce a letter sound properly everyday or the snack withheld if they do not.

This theory may impact learning process negatively because such children may develop negative reputation towards learning abilities (Neuringer, 2002). This hinders development of positive learning abilities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What are the basic Concepts of Conditioning Associated with Pavlov? Conditioning comprises of four basic concepts that are crucial in the understanding of learning process. They include the following;


This phenomenon refers to a period in which the conditioned response is reinforced. Associating conditioned stimuli with unconditioned stimuli reinforces classical conditioning.

For instance, a dog can be taught to salivate when the bell rings before it is given food. Immediately the dog salivates in response to the bell sound, the response has been acquired. Once the response has been acquired, the dog can be reinforced with food (Baum, 2012).


Removal of reinforcement affects the conditioned response negatively by weakening it (Baum, 2012). For instance, when one gets an accident while on a motorcycle, he/she develops fear riding it. However, with time, the fear fades away after several safe rides


Generalization concept results when a conditional stimulus brings to mind similar responses repeatedly. This is called stimulus generalization (Neuringer, 2002). For instance, when a dog gets burnt with hot water in a basin, it tends to fear water in basins.


The ability to distinguish between conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus is known as discrimination. For instance, if the national anthem is the conditioned stimulus, then the ability to distinguish between the national anthem and other songs is referred to as discrimination (Terry, 2009).

Behaviors can best be Learned by using Classical Conditioning methods Gambling Behavior

A person playing casino may have a big win while standing in a particular position or while wearing specific clothing. This person may keep on standing in this position or keep on wearing this type of clothing repeatedly thinking that the win resulted from these coincidental events. This, eventually, changes the person’s behavior (Carlson, 2010).

We will write a custom Essay on Stimulus-Response Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Superstitious Behaviors

People tend to believe that accidental events associated to each other have cause-and-effect relationship. For instance, if a person is robbed while passing through a given street at night, the incident would be associated with walking at night. This may change his behavior (Terry, 2009).

Alcoholism Behavior Treatment

One can use anti-abuse drug to induce the negative effect of using liquor. When alcohol is induced, the person experiences nausea. Hence, he/she learns to avoid it (Carlson, 2010).

References Baum, W. M. (2012). Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction and Contingency. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 97, 101-124.

Carlson, N.R. (2010). Psychology: The Science of Behaviour. New Jersey, United States: Pearson Education Inc.

Neuringer, A. (2002). Operant Variability: Evidence, Functions, and Theory. Psychonometric Bulletin


The Partridge-Raleigh Oilfield Explosion in 2006 Problem Solution Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Sequence of events The fatal Partridge-Raleigh oilfield explosion occurred in June 2006. Partridge-Raleigh had hired contractors from an independent firm (Stringer’s Oilfield Services) to carry out maintenance on the tanks used by Partridge-Raleigh to store oil. Specifically, the contractors were required to install pipes from two oil storage tanks to another tank.

During the installation process, welding sparks came into contact with the flammable vapor generated by open pipes eventually causing a fatal explosion. Out of the four workers deployed on the facility, three of them lost their lives while the other suffered serious injuries. Before this incidence, workers from Stringer’s Oilfield Services had managed to relocate two oil tanks from other sites to the new site.

The only task left was to install connecting pipes on the facility, but the explosion messed up everything. In a summary, the explosion was caused by errors made by the welders due to their inability to observe safety precautions when dealing with dangerous and explosive components (The US Chemical Investigation Board, 2007).

Preventative measures In order to prevent the occurrence of such incidences, I would have taken quite a number of preventive measures. Since the equipments are highly flammable, I would have used a gas detector to find out flammable vapour present in the tank other than using a lit torch.

I would isolate the open pipes and remove the pipes that were connecting the new tank with the older tanks that contained flammable liquid (The US Chemical Investigation Board, 2007).

Other measures of preventing such explosions include employment of qualified and well trained personnel to perform such tasks, observing extreme caution when working on containers with flammable liquids and also ensuring that every person involved understands the welding hazards.

The storage drums should be grounded especially when there is need to transfer flammable liquids from one storage tank to another (Ferguson


Globalization and Race Essay college essay help

Diaspora can be discussed as one of the most typical characterizations used in the modern world and society which develop according to the contemporary principles of globalization and multiculturalism.

In spite of the fact the notion of diaspora is connected with the definite public’s associations and examined by many researchers, historians and sociologists are inclined to define diaspora in different ways, determining it as a process, a phenomenon, or a condition. Clarke and Thomas propose their variant of defining the concept of diaspora, basing on the idea of referring to both the process and condition.

From this point, diaspora is “a process that generates subjects through negotiations arising from particular structural and historical conditions that change over time” (Clarke and Thomas 12).

Thus, specific historical and social conditions are essential for forming diaspora, and this statement is also relevant for discussing the problem of the African Diasporic cultures which were formed under the influence of the Western imperialism, colonialism, and capitalism.

Racial capitalism and colonialism affected not only the development of the African diaspora but also the transformation of the Western culture in which the social life and capitalistic relations began to depend on the racial discrimination and slavery when the African Diasporic identity formed, and Africanisms spread.

The Western world changed with developing the principles of racial capitalism and colonialism because cultures can vary significantly under the impact of intensive intercultural relations.

The concepts of colonialism and imperialism as the base of the progress of the racial capitalism traditionally depend on the racial discrimination toward the Africans moved to America as slaves and toward the developed Africans’ diaspora in the other countries as the discriminated minority.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, Clarke and Thomas concentrate on determining the problems of such diasporas as African Americans, Black Canadians, and Afro-Germans (Clarke and Thomas). The principles and ideas of colonialism and imperialism made Africans as the representatives of different diasporas consider themselves as racially unequal to ‘white’ people.

From this point, the development of slavery in America, the accentuation of the Africans’ primitiveness and backwardness in comparison with the civilized Westerners in combination with the status of discriminated minority resulted in discussing the question of the African Diasporic cultures as the controversial issue.

For instance, it is impossible to speak about colonialism and imperialism without referring to the problem of slavery as the fundamental aspect of the African American diaspora. Moreover, racial capitalism is also a negative factor for the development of the diaspora. Basing on racial identity, racial capitalism became the main discriminating factor in relation to the racial inequality.

The question of the African Diasporic cultures should be discussed with the focus on relations of the representatives of diasporas and the dominated nation. Diaspora is often defined as the nation which is not limited by the official boundaries in spite of the fact it is located at the definite territory.

The situation of separateness from the native lands make the representatives of diasporas feel oppressed by the dominated nation. It is important to note that colonialism and racial capitalism contributed much to the development of such associations.

The representatives of the African Diasporic cultures have to emphasize their identities under the impact of the Westerners who are discussed as more civilized and educated than the Africans.

Nevertheless, the development of the African Diasporic cultures is a result of the changes in the Western world because the Africans were not inclined to form diasporas in the Western countries before the progress of colonialism and imperialism (Clarke and Thomas).

We will write a custom Essay on Globalization and Race specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Being the product of the Western world, the African Diasporic cultures influenced the Western culture, and colonialism and racial capitalism played the leading roles in the process.

If racial capitalism and colonialism influenced the development of the African Diasporic cultures as the phenomenon, is it possible to speak about the transformation of the Western culture under the impact of colonialism and racial capitalism?

The transformations were observed due to the fact the development of racial capitalism and colonialism changed the whole social system in the countries where the African diasporas appeared as a result of the imperialistic policies and tendencies to use slaves as the base for the economic relations.

The African Diasporic cultures began to develop in the Western world, which could not be the same as it was before the moves in colonization and imperialistic policies. Thus, Africanisms and Pan-Africanism should be associated with the African Diasporic cultures influenced by the effects of the racial capitalism.

To understand the situation clearly, it is necessary to correlate it with the contemporary tendencies in the process of finding the compromise between stating the identity of the diaspora and establishing effective relations with the dominated nations.

Clarke and Thomas state that “contemporary transformations in the production of blackness are as relevant to the globalization of late capitalism as deployments of “race-thinking” … were to earlier periods of imperialism, state formation, and nationalism” (Clarke and Thomas 9).

Thus, the notion of globalization was added to the discussed concepts of race, equality, and identity as one of the most significant factors. If several centuries ago, the question of the African Diasporic cultures was connected with the results of imperialism, today the globalization processes in economy and social life are discussed as more influential factors.

The notions of racial consciousness and cultural identity are often discussed in relation to the African diaspora with references to the questions of the racial inequality and discrimination. These associations and interpretations are effected by the development of the racial capitalism. However, it is also necessary to focus on the further progress of the situation when the Western culture was also transformed.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalization and Race by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Clarke and Thomas pay attention to the fact that “the idea of race and the hierarchical institutionalization of racial difference emerged dialectically in relation to sixteenth-century economic transformations that ultimately created that what we now know as “the modern West” (Clarke and Thomas 11).

From this point, rigorous historical and social processes influenced the modern situation regarding the problem of diaspora and contributed to adding more points to the discussion of the issue of race.

To conclude, it is essential to note that racial capitalism in its association with colonialism and imperialism influences the development of the situation when the representatives of the African Diasporic cultures are perceived as the former slaves.

This fact explains the controversial discriminated position of the Africans in the Western world, which can be not accentuated, but it is a result of the historical development. Furthermore, the Western culture was also transformed because of its orientation to the discussion of race and racial equality as one of the significant factors for building economic and social relations.

Works Cited Clarke, Kamari, and Deborah Thomas. Globalization and Race: Transformations in the Cultural Production of Blackness. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006. Print.


The Benefits and Disadvantages of Free Trade Analytical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Overview The World Trade Organization is the sole global body that deals with fairness in trade among nations. It designs rules to ensure that large economies and small economies are at par in economic growth. However, its policies and propositions are not popular with most nations.

Its aims are to facilitate demand and supply by ensuring that producers of goods and services find a way to export their products and those that do not produce find a way to import what they need. Through its membership, World Trade Organization facilitates two major world forums. The Doha Development Agenda is a trade negotiations forum.

It is designed to achieve groundbreaking reforms in the manner in which world economies conduct their trade. The forum’s agenda is to inject revised rules and to improve the international trade system through systematic introduction of minimal trade restrictions. It was officially launched in Qatar in 2001. Ministers of respective countries tasked with commerce, trade, and sometimes finance attend the forum.

Each minister goes to the table to air their countries’ views. The Doha development agenda covers around 20 critical areas of world economy, which include agriculture, services, imports, exports, intellectual property, among others.

World Trade Organization’s advocacy for free global trade has not been popular with majority of the nations. Although free trade has many benefits as opposed to closed trade, many countries perceive free trade negatively and bring down any attempts at making the world economy free of national and regional barriers.

For example, in 2003 during the talks that were held in Caucun Mexico, the world witnessed massive protests. This was the third ministerial meeting with the same agenda: trying to break the deadlock that had been experienced in the last two sittings since the first round in Qatar.

The second major forum facilitated by World Trade Organization is the World Trade Forum. This forum seeks common ground on how countries can work together in tackling common global problems that go beyond the need for economic integration. This includes the need for development in major areas such as education. Major economies and their leaders normally attend it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They review goals and targets such as millennium development goals. This forum is generalist compared to the Doha round of negotiations. However, it is important to note that they both champion for a more developed world, which caters for the need of everyone. The following principles guide WTO.

Principle of Non-Discrimination: It requires a WTO member to apply similar trade conditions while transacting with all WTO members. It simply implies that the WTO members should treat other in a favorable manner. In addition, if a favor is extended to one member of the WTO in a certain transaction, similar treatment should happen to any other WTO member in case of a similar transaction.

Reciprocity: This principle advocates for nations to do mutual things to each other. For example, reduction of transaction tariffs should be mutual and equal in measure. Markets should be freer on both sides of the spectrum. Barriers restricting such trade should effectively come down to enable more trading for mutual growth and benefits.

Predictability: World Trade Organization proposes that any agreements arrived at should be binding and long-term. Any member should not decide arbitrarily to change any terms or conditions.

This gives confidence to members, investors, governments and any other stakeholders. It is a good ingredient to promoting healthier relations and growing economies. The subjects that touch on this principle include market-opening commitments, tariff rates, and trade barriers.

Beneficial to Less Developed Countries: This is a critical principle. However, in recent times and in the past many developed countries have misused this principle. It proposes that underdeveloped countries should enjoy special privileges when dealing with economically strong economies.

This will enable them to enjoy greater visibility and flexibility in the marketplace. At the start of the supposed agreement, it helps these economies to adjust to the current economic environment. Adjustments include sensitization of its citizens and structural changes, which may be much easier for the big economies.

We will write a custom Essay on The Benefits and Disadvantages of Free Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Competitive and Fair: The WTO strongly advises that a fair and level playing field should exist for all nations. Every country should fairly compete and universal human standards upheld. It discourages unorthodox practices such as arbitrary dumping of obsolete products to third world countries.

This practice common among the developed countries is inhumane and self-seeking. It also goes against United Nations Charter. Others include unfair export subsidies and cheap products development to gain market share.

If free trade is beneficial to nations, why does it face such hostility? Why is it that since its formulation in 2001, Doha round of negotiations did not record any milestones until 2011? Does it mean that since the major economies had been experiencing massive growth in their economies before 2011, they did not find it necessary to include other nations in their trade? These pertinent questions depict large economies as greedy.

They also point out the greatest lacuna in these talks where majority of the nations with the vote are large economies that want to shelve the interests of others.

This paper will analyze the benefits and disadvantages of free trade and look into the reasons why efforts geared towards this are hampered. Additionally, this paper will critically analyze the state of the global economy and reasons for the current state in light of existence of an idealistic free trade among nations.

State of the Global Economy Since the World War 2, political disintegration has been on the rise. There is currently more than three times the number of independent countries than there were at the end of the war. Political disintegration has sometimes been credited with innovation as countries strive to come up with ways to fund budgets, increase security, and be relevant to its citizens.

Consequentially, political disintegration has led to economic disintegration. Although some economists argue that this leads to innovation in respective countries, as noted above, majority are of the opinion that integration of fiscal, economic, and monetary policies that are geared towards the benefit of all nations have far-reaching benefits than the former.

The global economy can be classified as irregular clusters of self-seeking political and economic integrations, which offer minimal, if any, benefits to the less performing economies. The political and economic integration of Euro Zone is a perfect example. These countries have curtailed sovereign fiscal policymaking and delegated that to the European Union.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Benefits and Disadvantages of Free Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In future, this was expected to continue until the recent Euro Zone crisis that was brought about by reckless borrowing by some members. There is minimal economic integration world over since most large economies are interested in vesting their interests at the expense of smaller economies. This brings a wedge of sharp mistrust and spawns half-baked integration with minimal benefits.

Examples of treaties that may not be effective include NAFTA, COMESA, EAC, among others. The fact that countries can easily pull out of these economic bodies reduces their credibility and waters down their efforts. Hence, the world economy is closely guarded with minimal freedom to conduct trade.

Additionally, there is minimal fairness in the game with countries that can produce goods cheaply illegally exporting these products to countries that produce them at a higher cost. This essentially kills trade.

Since the financial crisis started in the United States and quickly spread in other nations, many countries have restrained their need to import in an effort to appear to support their ailing economies. This was particularly informed by falling employment levels in many countries. Many lobbyists would criticize government if it imported any goods or services that could be produced locally.

This forestalled growth in free trade and countries continue to be wary. For example, in South Wales, when the government imported police uniforms and firefighters gears from an Australian firm, there was mass ridicule from lobbyists and citizens.

This has been the case in United States, Europe and a host of other countries. Hence, these efforts to concentrate on growing national economies and protecting them have led to the traditional artificial barriers that restrict free trade.

Advantages of Free Trade Free trade may not be a fair trade but it has many benefits. Governments erect restrictions that restrict movement of goods and services between countries. Governments do this through use of subsidies and tariffs to hamper free trade. Normally, this is aimed at protecting domestic production from international competition. However, free trade has its benefits.

First, it allows countries to specialize in production of goods and services that they have comparative advantage. This specialization brings about efficiency, economies of scale, and increases output, which results in increased production. Second, free trade leads to an increase in productivity and a higher domestic output by increasing efficiency of resource allocation.

In addition, it increases competition, which leads to innovative ways of distribution, marketing, and technology. Third, the increased competition allows goods and services to trade at the lowest costs and gives producers reason to produce quality. Hence, customers experience quality. It also allows customers to have a variety of goods and services.

Fourth, free trade results in foreign exchange gains associated with the exchange of hard currency. This exchange allows the domestic country to pay for imports without having to exchange the money, which can be costly at times. Lastly, introduction of free trade generates employment to the domestic population.

This is because it allows economic resources to be shifted to the more productive areas of the economy, which leads to more demand for exports. The resultant effect of free trade is economic growth and development. Higher incomes and higher growth rate in economy increases living standards of citizens. Domestic industries increase production levels and enhance efficiency in productivity.

Disadvantages of Free Trade Although there are many advantages, many disadvantages are put forth by conservative governments, lobby groups, and some economists to scuttle the efforts towards a free trade. First, free trade creates a domestic dependence on global markets. This creates a domestic economic instability associated with inability to control majority of the markets and prevailing forces such as demand, wars, and recessions.

Second, the global market does not offer a level playing field. A country may produce a certain commodity cheaply at a surplus and, to avoid losses, dump it in a country that produced the same commodity at a higher cost. Many countries find it hard to compete when such conditions prevail. Additionally, the nature of goods a country produces may not auger well in trying to find a favorable balance of trade.

For example, countries that produce agricultural related commodities experience unfavorable terms of trade. This results in lower export income and subsequently a large national debt. Third, it is in the interest of nations to protect their upcoming industries. This may not be possible if they are constantly facing competition from already established firms.

Hence, developing economies may find it more conducive to close trade and allow growth of its industries. Lastly, there are other disadvantages such as protection from environmental pollution by external firms and protection from a possibility of structural unemployment.

Tradeoffs of Integration Introductory Case

The European Union is the single biggest economic and political integration since the Soviet Union. Europe had embraced industrial revolution and there was high industrial development across the region prior to the World War II. The war brought the economy of Europe into waste, with many of its industries destroyed.

During the period of 1945-1990, many of the countries in Eastern Europe fell into the communist hands of the USSR. United States came in sought to help save the European economy under the Marshall plan; it aided the western part of Europe and helped in building the economy.

By the 1980s the communist nations were rapidly falling while the economies of Western European countries were increasingly gaining power, this is attributable to the support of the USA.

With the help of America, many of the western nations moved to link together through economic integration. They formed the European Union that increased trade among them through shared infrastructure.

They agreed on a common currency (the euro) and made trade agreements that set their economies on the path to recovery. This was unlike the Soviet Union, which had wanted to continue scuttling efforts of recovery in Europe to its advantage.

Britain had been weakened by the Second World War hence it could no longer support countries in Europe like Greece and Turkey. It thus sought the intervention of the United States. The united states were strongly opposed to communism and to avoid European economies from falling in the hands of the soviet union they provided financial aid and also played a major role in stabilizing the civil wars at the time.

America’s intervention through the Truman doctrine saved the nations from soviet communisms in effect saving Europe from foreign policy failures and military humiliation. America believed that once a country falls into communism it would also weaken the neighbors as there would be minimum interaction due to diverging trade systems.

Their support was evident when the Soviet Union pressured Turkey over the Dardanelles Strait concessions that would have allowed invasion from the west, through enunciation of the Truman policy. USA helped Berlin with supplies and food when Stalin attempted to barricade West Berlin in a bid to take control.

This enabled Europe to maintain control of its cities from the Soviet Union. Were it not for the vast amount of aid America gave to Europe, European economies would have fallen further with the Soviet Union invasion during the cold war.

Tradeoffs of Integration

There are two types of integration: economic and political integration. The above case highlights the tricky nature of political and economic integration especially when carried out at the same time. The European Union is a classic case of economic integration with a measured political integration.

For example, it is possible to travel from some countries to others without a visa and it is a legal requirement is some countries within the euro zone. Economic integration is a major challenge to the national fiscal policies, the existence of some economies without straining and the entry of new members in the euro zone. These challenges are highlighted below.

Social and Political Challenges

A close look at Portugal and Spain who were late entrants into the European Union depicts profound developments in those two countries. Since entering euro zone, Spain has recorded a favorable economic climate highlighted by increased trade within Europe, access to European budget, and favorable infrastructure. However, many pundits believe that the inclusion of Spain and Portugal was not purely for economic reasons.

The European community strives to ensure that they have a functioning democratic union, with a common military purpose and a common defensive approach. Some economists argue that there cannot be a functioning economic integration without a political integration of some kind.

This is because many economic policies are spawned from political decisions. Hence, it follows that many Euro Zone countries do not have the political free will to make decisions as others may have.

The attached cartoon depicts a situation where a policymaker is considering two extreme options. The government of Greece had been borrowing money from the European Union members and from its citizens to fund expenditure budgets. It reached a point where the government was unable to meet its obligations and this resulted in a budget and debt crisis. The options were quite limited for the Greece government.

This is because they were not allowed to make hard financial decisions independently. Hence, the extreme options were to pull out of the Euro Zone and renege on debt payments to Germany and other big lenders or to abide by the demand from Euro Zone members to cut budgetary spending in exchange for a bailout agreement.

The bailout agreement, too, had many obligations. This includes the need to curtail government spending. This means the government will have to cut loose a massive working population from its structure. The other option will be to tax the Greek nationals more to meet the required budgetary requirements.

If Greece were independent from Euro Zone, the options would have been limitless. For example, the country’s central bank would have devalued the country’s currency. This would have facilitated more foreign investments and shored up the balance of exchange. Additionally, more money in circulation would have increased peoples spending and hence spurred economic growth.

However, all these fiscal decisions are tied to the Euro Zone fiscal structure. It is imperative to note that Greece was considering pulling out of euro zone. This meant that it would treat Euro Zone members as any other country outside euro zone. The reason this was an attractive way out is the short-term benefits.

For example, the country would immediately cease from having to consider Euro Zone members in its imports before going for any other option. Hence, the country would import essential commodities cheaply from countries in Asia, Africa, and Americas. Additionally, the country’s fiscal policies would be independent of any rules and regulations.

However, Greece would face trade barriers from even the closest neighbor and its exports would face a major lag. Hence, it would be hard to continue exporting goods to immediate neighbors. Additionally, it would be hard for Greece to be reaccepted into euro zone. The other countries will build a lasting mistrust in Greece. All these would have political, social, and economic consequences on Greece.

Legal Consequences

A country that enters into an economic integration has to abide by the rules of the integration. In the case of euro zone, all countries are required to align their agricultural, economic, and industrial legislation with the requirements laid down. Additionally, financial policies of a country must be in line with the European community. It is also mandatory to have certain taxation regimes and to have certain tariffs and subsidies.

Additionally, a country aligns its budgetary requirements with those of other countries in the euro zone. A country is also restricted from conducting business with another country if it can conduct that business with a country in the European community. All these are legal consequences that come with integration elsewhere.

One of the reasons why trade integration treaties do not work is because most countries do not take the integration seriously. In addition, the structures in place to ensure that these rules are adhered to watered down by the fact that a country has the free will to pull out at any time.

Poor Members

Poor members are one of the major reasons why economic integration is hard. Poor members feel like they are alienated and are not enjoying similar benefits as the rest. This had threatened the very existence of Euro Zone in the 1980s. These disparities include par capita income, infrastructure developments, education levels, productivity, and employment.

All these led to trade imbalances and hence poor countries were feeling the brunt. Efforts were made to harmonize this and some years later a fund specifically designed to address these problems was set up.

These structural policies systematically advocated introduction of new provisions that would make social and economic cohesions a common goal. Most integration treaties do not go to that extent. This means that in the end, most poor countries that are hungry for domestic development pull out. Eventually, the ability of the integration to continue working is severely scuttled.

Conclusion From the above analysis, it is evident that a country that enters into an agreement with other countries significantly reduces its sovereignty. Depending on the nature and level of integration, a country may also enjoy a number of benefits.

Hence, a country trades off by weighing the option of giving up certain privileges to gain some advantages. The treaty has to be formed with good intentions. Failure to do that may result in its immediate crumble. For example, an effort should be made to ensure there is fairness that caters for the poor countries so that all enjoy fruits of integration.


Development of Teaching Study Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Alignment The development of education system is based on the way stakeholders adjust to fit into the standards set by experts from both local and federal governments. In this case, the concepts of curriculum alignment are applied. Alignment in terms of education refers to the extent to which the component of education including curricula, instruction, assessment and standards functions as a unit or together to yield desired objectives.

Since the enactment of No Child Left behind Act of 2001 and necessitation of accountability in the sector of education, stakeholders in the education industry have resorted to curriculum alignment so as to comply with set rules and requirements. Alignment shields overlapping and skipping of important content in the curriculum (Stringer, 2008).

Concept of Alignment Alignment is achieved through vertical and horizontal practices. In vertical alignment, the program is enhanced across the grades from the nursery school level to the high school level. Vertical alignment is meant to improve the performance of the student as he or she progresses. In this case, the alignment should aim at decreasing instruction time utilized during re-teaching time.

Alignment is also achieved through horizontal concept. In this case, curriculum being taught by teachers in the same grade is made to conform to each other. It provides teachers with a goal for instruction on top of ensuring that students are equipped well for their subsequent grades or levels.

Guidelines for Ensuring Alignment To ensure that alignment is achieved, there ought to be a curriculum team in place. The group should consist of administrator s, teachers, head of sections, and content experts. The curriculum team should work together to come up with a curriculum map.

The curriculum map should be reviewed constantly to ensure that it address the needs of the entire student population and at the same time sticks to the regulation of the ministry of education and other education authorities. The curriculum team should ensure all parts in the curriculum have been addressed by the teachers in their instructions (Biggs, 2003).

This means that alignment should go hand in hand with supervision. At the same time, the alignment will consider provision of instructional materials stipulated in the curriculum and training teachers on the changes made.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Assessment Planning and Learning Theory Assessment planning entails procedures involved in an assessment cycle in relation to the required learning outcomes. It gives a student a learning outcome to focus on as well as helping them achieve the desired outcome. Learning theory on the other hand is very useful to a student.

This is because theory is the basis of a student’s professional performance. Depending on the theory a scholar chooses to study, one becomes shaped toward the learning outcome expected (Race, Brown


Critical Management Perspectives Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Employee empowerment and management

Empowerment Theories and Research

Complexity in employee empowerment

Merits of employee empowerment

Demerits of employee empowerment


Reference List

Introduction Management in an organisation is an important aspect that propels all organisational functions. Without proper management, organisations may not afford to handle some vital issues, thus leading to null performance. It oversees all organisational functions.

In management, several forms of leadership are applicable. Managers can either chose to use democratic or autocratic leadership styles, which are the two common management styles used across the world (Nankervis 2006). Both styles are significant in management depending on the context of their application. However, in the modern world democratic style is more acceptable than autocratic one.

In this context, managers have a close relationship with their employees. Employees actively participate in managerial issues in different ways including decision-making without supervision or consultations from their bosses (Amabile1997). This aspect underscores “employee empowerment”.

In most cases, empowerment results motivation. Motivation makes employees dedicated in their work, and they thus take their responsibilities positively. The aspect of motivation and employee empowerment led to the formation of theory Y.

According to Frame (2010), theory Y supposes that employees are capable of accepting responsibilities through self-control and determination in accomplishing organisational goals through commitment. However, over-emphasising in motivation may lead to discord in work.

Therefore, this easy seeks to investigate if empowerment can be another form of controlling an organisation, by exploiting uncertainty, ambiguity, and complexity in an organisation.

Employee empowerment and management Employee empowerment has arguably been a main discussion in modern management practices. Generally, employee empowerment involves an inventive approach in working with people and an effective shift of authority ranging hierarchically from the top management control to lower level management in an organisation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Yukl and Becker (2006), aspects of leadership behaviour or management programmes can influence empowerment. Psychological empowerment is the perception that employees or members of an organisation have the opportunity to help determine work responsibilities, can influence important decisions, or are capable of accomplishing meaningful tasks.

This psychological motivation adversely influences individual attitude and inspiration at work. This empowerment involves an increased work motivation that results from individual employees having positive orientation towards carrying out their responsibilities (Huff


Effectiveness of Empowerment Problem Solution Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Exploiting uncertainty

Tackling ambiguity

Motivating employees


Reference List

Introduction Today, over 70 per cent of organisations have implemented some form of empowerment scheme. Most organisations adopt empowerment after learning its effectiveness in enhancing organisational growth. Consequently, the empowerment process is implemented systematically (Fineman 2008).

In present global business environment, organisations should make use of creativity, energy, ideas, and knowledge of every employee to be successful. Institutions thus require empowering their employees to achieve this goal. Empowerment refers to a situation where employees are given the authority to make decisions on issues affecting their operations without having to rely on the management team.

Empowerment helps employees take initiatives and make decisions without prodding. Moreover, empowerment ensures that staff members attend to organisational interests with minimal supervision (Grey 2005).

Empowerment encourages employee autonomy within an organisation. Consequently, it facilitates in enhancing employee creativity and innovativeness. With the current rate of technological growth and organisational changes, empowerment will be the ultimate tool of dealing with uncertainties and ambiguity (Clampitt


Carbon Management Accounting Qualitative Research Essay essay help site:edu

Definition of carbon management accounting and four different ways within which companies can approach carbon management

Environmental pollution is one of the major issues that the corporate world faces. Therefore, it is critical for organisations to ensure their operations are sustainable. Carbon is one of the major environmental pollutants. Therefore, companies strive to reduce the carbon footprint in their products. Cap-and-trade system forces companies to reduce their carbon emissions.

Carbon management is one of the contemporary management issues of companies. Carbon management is the “management system that identifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emission opportunities from the production processes and implements corrective measures to reduce the GHG emissions” (Wimmer et al, 2010, p. 89).

Sequestration, separation, capture, and conversion to useful productions are the major techniques of carbon management. Sequestration involves removal of carbon from flue gases prior to storage for other purposes. Sequestration also involves use of non-carbon energy production processes (Tester et al, 2005, p. 179). These include nuclear, solar, or biomass. A company can convert waste carbon carbon to useful products.

These include plastics and construction materials, which the company may sell to earn an income. In addition, a company can separate carbon from fuels prior to combustion. This would create a hydrogen rich fuel, which is easily combustible. Separation and capture lead to a significant reduction in the amount of carbon in the fuel and waste of the company.

The company may use captured carbon in other production cycles within the manufacturing process of the company. This would lead to a significant reduction in the amount of carbon that the company releases (Eliasson, Riemer


Havard Product Market Report college application essay help

Introduction The smart survival kit was designed based on its productivity, uniqueness and applicability in regard to meeting the specified requirements and JAG requirements. It was designed to ensure that the users had adequate water, food, communication devices and first aid requirements for a period of three days.

The smart survival kit had different compartments that could hold the aforementioned items without running the risk of contamination. The design was also based on non-functional requirements such as durability, portability and user-friendliness.

Project overview JAG Corporation had its set of requirements regarding the design of the product, its price and the construction process of the proposed product. There were two markets for the product. The primary market consisted of the retailers. The selling price for this market was set at $95 and $85 respectively for wholesalers who were the secondary market.

In addition, it was decided that wholesale buyers such as the military, Red Cross and trip planners would buy the product at a lower price due to the anticipation that they would buy in bulk. The price difference was justified by the fact that wholesalers would buy more products at a go, therefore facilitating sale maximization.

The product was designed to meet the requirements of people under quarantine or in a disaster for an average of 72 hours. It will meet its requirements due to its low price, content (non-perishable items) and its targeted market, which focuses on individuals living in remote areas that are prone to disasters. As such, it will fit the scenario and fit the criteria to satisfactorily address the needs of the targeted users.

There are various differentiated products in the market. However, the price and unique features of the proposed smart survival kit will enable it to compete effectively within the market. In addition, the cost benefit analysis indicates that the product’s design will be a lucrative venture in the selected markets for JAG Corporation.

In regard to the market, this product is applicable to most people in the market regardless of their age, gender, ethnicity and financial status (Esman, 2012). As such, over 70% of people in any given market may need to have such a product at home in case a disaster strikes (San Francisco Department of Emergency management, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Product Design Features Features of the Product

There are situations that may force people to stay confined to a particular place for a long period of time (Jobe, 2012). It is from this notion that this product was designed. The survival kit was designed to ensure that such people got what they needed to survive comfortably for at least three days (Maveric, 2012). It has four compartments for holding water, food, basic first aid requirements and a communication device.

The product has the ability to cater for the needs of a broad spectrum of users regardless of their age or gender. The prototype was launched and tested to evaluate its durability, hygiene capabilities and applicability in regard to its ability to meet the specifications set by the JAG Corporation, and those proposed by consumers in the surveys.

With this in mind, the survival kit features include the following:

Will be portable and comfortable to carry. It will also be waterproof.

A compartment for first aid.

A compartment for water storage

A compartment for light and heating supplies

Instructions for usage of the Kit, general instructions for crisis procedure, and a radio for means of communication.

Convenient packaging so that a user can quickly find the necessary item.


The product will be made out of heavy duty plastic, which is strong and light. This is a product requirement stipulated by the consumers and JAG Corporation due to its durability and reliability.

At the set price, the lifetime expectancy of the product is estimated at 5 years. Most of the items contained in the product will be light weight. As such, the rigid structure of the product will be able to cope with the overall weight of the items without giving in to weight stress.

Weather resistance

The main focus of the product design is to ensure that it protects the contents within from exposure. Since the product will contain essential items needed for survival, the material used in its construction must be able to keep all weather effects on the outside (Ritter, 2001). Heavy duty plastic is effective against water corrosion, heat and cold, which makes it the best material to use in the construction of the survival kit.


The proposed design consists of four compartments that pull out like shelves. The outer casing looks like a briefcase and the shelves can only be accessed after opening the top lid. It does not consume much space and its overall size resembles a medium-sized travelling suitcase. This means that one person can carry it comfortably. In addition, it has two hind wheels, which make it easy to transport even to a small person.

We will write a custom Report on Havard Product Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The product is also user friendly. The first shelve contains a user’s manual, which describes the contents of the survival kit, the location of each item and “how to use” instructions. This makes it easy to use and less time consuming in regard to wasting time and disorganizing the whole kit. Similarly, the shelves are fitted with trays designed to fit each item in its place. As such, users cannot mix items or misplace them.


To guarantee reliability, the product was tested to measure its water resistance capabilities, security and usability. Each test provided positive results. The product and all its contents remained dry after being submerged in water for an hour. Similarly, after dropping the survival kit from a distance of three meters above ground, all items functioned as expected with no malfunctions.

This test was conducted 10 times to ascertain that the results were similar for all positions (6 faces and four corners). In regard to usability, the user’s manual played a significant role in assisting the users find what they required at a given situation. In total, users spent less than five minutes to find the appropriate item for the set scenarios.

Manufacture and Assembly The manufacturing process will be carried out by workers employed by JAG in a selected workshop. Moulds have been designed and unskilled labor will be used to pour the heavy duty plastic into the moulds. In regard to assembly, skilled labor (an engineer) will be responsible for bringing the parts together.

The shelves will be fitted in their respective locations and the hinges screwed at the lid. The kit will use a standard padlocking mechanism to facilitate safety.

Maintainability and Safety The product will have low maintenance requirements as a result of the material used in its construction. Heavy duty plastic does not require paint or cleaning agents regularly. Similarly, it is resistant to corrosion and rust. However, users can wipe the product with a dump cloth or vacuum it as desired.

In regard to safety, the product has two grappling hooks that can be used to attach it on given surfaces. Similarly, the base of the product will be covered with a rubber mat, which will prevent it from sliding or damaging delicate surfaces.

Design Optimization The final product was decided upon after careful evaluation of various design concepts. Different elements from previous design concepts were combined to produce a product that meets the needs of the targeted consumers satisfactorily.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Havard Product Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More We have also considered the trade level qualifications of the workers who will manufacture and assemble the product. As such, the design is simple and practical to various consumers. One of the components that were rejected due to impracticality was a deck of playing cards. However, it was omitted due to the fact that people would not think about playing cards while facing a disaster.

Business Plan Budget

The product will be sold at a retail price of $95. It is projected that the first batch will consist of 4,000 products, which must be sold within a period of one and a half years. Production of the products will require qualified engineers (@ $ 150 per hour), skilled labourers (@ $70 per hour) and unskilled labourers (@ $ 30 per hour).

Production Prototype Costs

The cost of producing a functional prototype was set at $40. The total cost of the prototype was $30, thereby falling below the budget.

Estimated fixed costs

In order to produce the first batch of 4,000 survival kits within the specified period, the fixed costs will consist of wages and salaries for the whole duration. Estimated variable costs

We have reserved $250,000for variable costs such as utilities and delivery costs. Production of the product will be done indoors. Therefore, it is unlikely that the process will be distracted by environmental factors.

Breakeven Analysis

Components Costs

Equating to 30% of the purchase price of $30

0.3*$30= $10

Total cost of all 4,000 components= 10*4,000= $40,000

Development, Manufacturing Costs


Macro Economic Strategy of AT college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Macro environment refers to forces outside an organization that are not within its control. These factors influence the industry and the organization within the industry.

Macro environment analysis is an important component of strategic management. This is because it produces much of the information required to assess the outlook for the future. The macro environment factors are technology, legal, economy, social cultural and political.

Mission According to the company website, the mission of AT


Hearing and Hearing Impairment Auditory Verbal Therapy and Auslan Problem Solution Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction It has been suggested that victims with complications related to hearing can feel unhappy with their situations because some are neglected, and discriminated by the public, who refrain from associating with them. Significant adaptations should be made to provide access and equity to all children, including those with disabilities such as hearing impairment. There are main conditions that bring about hearing loss.

They include having difficulties separating voices, a reduced range of hearing. The latter condition can make loud sounds quite intolerable. Some people inherit hearing impairment from their parents. Another cause includes lack oxygen during their time of birth, which affects their hearing condition (Pagliano, 2005).

People who have lost hearing appear frustrated because they are assumed and neglected. In a learning environment, instructors should come up with several approaches to handle these challenges so as to create equality among all children regardless of their hearing abilities.

Teachers Teachers can assist the hearing impaired children through lip reading. This is a process that helps a learner look at the lips of the instructor to facilitate communication. When learning becomes learner-centred, objectives of the lesson become achievable. This motivates students to have a fundamental teacher-learner rapport.

While attending to hearing impaired children, teachers should ensure that the learners’ attention is caught to avoid distraction. Attention enables learners to dominate the lesson, hence, the achievement of lesson objectives.

Teachers should avoid standing far away from the learners since that may make hearing difficult (Power, 2005). Some individuals believe that deaf students should be addressed loudly. However, this should be discouraged since it distorts the message, thus, affecting communication.

The teacher should identify a sitting arrangement that may enable learners to see the speaker and other learners so as to create harmony during the lesson. Learners who cannot see the instructor and their fellow students may feel out of the lesson.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Writing on the board while talking may affect such learners. This is because they depend on the visual expression to understand the information being passed. In addition, a teacher who may be facing the board lacks class control since some learners may lack attention (Brereton 2008).

Families According to Brereton (2008) parents play a significant role in the growth and development of hearing impaired children. Families neglect and treat them as inferior according to their cultural beliefs. However, such children need visual and sign language skills to improve their communication.

Parents can seek treatment for hearing impaired children through hearing aids, cochlear implants, which are identified with children of hearing loss (Hyde


Exploring Representations of Difference and Disability. Building Blocks or Barriers? Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction: Children with Disabilities and the Modern World There are a lot of ways with the help of which children with disabilities can integrate into the modern world and become an integral part of it. However, researchers believe that among the most efficient interventions of all, children’s books with characters who are disabled as well take the first prize.

As Iaquinta and Hipsky (2006) claim, “The process of bibliotherapy is based in classic psychotherapy principles of identification” (p. 209). However, books can form certain stereotypes of disabled children, which is why the issue is worth consideration.

Children’s Books about the Disabled: A New Take on the Old Problem Indeed, children’s books with their images of disabled characters, especially children, can help the little readers shape to their self-esteem, understanding that they are just as good and worthy as the other children are and that their success can be considered even greater progress, though these efforts might lead to less graphic results.

As Konrad, Helf, and Itoi (2007) explain, “If teachers take a strategic approach to selecting and using children’s literature, they can address both self-determination and literacy skills” (Konrad, Helf, and Itoi, 2007, p. 65).

When the Stories Help Understand the Way the World Works However, it can also be considered that, when not presenting the disabled characters properly, the books of the above-mentioned type can harm the readers. For instance, when portrayed as an antagonist, a disabled character can serve as the sign for the readers that the disabled must be feared or loathed.

Thus, the choice of books must be extremely careful. In addition, books are a wonderful means to help disabled children integrate into society, yet it is important to remember about other means of intervention: “There are three critical early transitions for children with special needs and their families” (Rosenkoetter, Hains, and Dogaru, 2007, p. 25).

Conclusion: From A to Z. Through the Pages of a Book and What Children Will See There Hence, it can be concluded that books are an essential means to help disabled children become a part of society. In addition, books of such kind also serve as the means to tell other children about the disabled ones. Finally, as Clopton and East (2008) explained, book intervention helps not only in the case of a child’s disability, but also with any traumatizing background (e.g. for children whose parent is imprisoned, etc.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Book Pictures: The Disabled Characters. Analysis and Reflections As it can be concluded from the above-mentioned, creating disabled characters which disabled children can relate to and with the help of which children can cognize the world is a good idea. However, it is not only the text, but also the images in the book that matter. Taking a closer look at some of them, one can see what impact such characters can have on the readers.

In this book, John, the lead character, is deaf and dumb. It is important that the artist depicted the boy with a cheerful smile. In addition, John never moves his lips in the pictures, which helps the children understand the world of deaf-and-dumb people better.

Describing a wheelchair boy, the artist uses bright colors and creates the characters which remind us of childlike scribbles. Rather cheerful, the drawings help the young readers focus on the character rather than on his disability.

This book plays on contrasts, mentioning a sunny day and describing a blind girl who cannot see the bright sunlight. Vivid and colorful, the images help the children relate to the lead character.

Reference List Clopton, K., and East, K. (2008). “Are there other kids like me?” Children with a parent in prison. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36(2), 195-198.

Iaquinta, A., and Hipsky, S. (2006). Practical bibliotherapy strategies for the inclusive elementary classroom. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(3), 209-213.

Konrad, M., Helf, S., and Itoi, M. (2007). More bang for the book: using children’s literature to promote self-determination and literacy skills. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40(1), 64-71.

We will write a custom Essay on Exploring Representations of Difference and Disability. Building Blocks or Barriers? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rosenkoetter, S. E., Hains, A. H., and Dogaru, C. (2007). Successful transitions for young children with disabilities and their families: Roles of school social workers. Children


It Isn’t So Simple: Infrastructure Change at Royce Consulting Case Study a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Description of the Case


Action Plan/Recommendation

Reference List

Abstract Royce consulting is an international company that provides consulting services to other companies in different parts of the world most of them being large corporations. Royce consulting has over 165 offices in over 65 countries with staff running different assignments for their company as well as on behalf of clients. The firm has contracts with clients at different levels in terms of the duration of the contract.

The paper describes the Royce consulting case besides offering a detailed analysis of the case based on parameters like its strategies and goals, its external environment and responsiveness, and its structural design. It further gives appropriate recommendations on what Royce consulting firm can do to perform better.

Description of the Case Royce consulting is a renowned company that provides its consulting services to a good number of other companies. The company has almost 70 offices in various countries. Since Royce follows its traditional strategies of getting labor, it recruits its workers straight from college ready to train them.

After five to six years, they are promoted to a managerial position each with an individual office. This arrangement has escalated Royce’s fixed and variable costs. It therefore has to be sorted in a way that will control the spiraling of costs thus calling for a need for infrastructural change.

Analysis Royce’s organizational goals and strategies are clear. They have been used to guide in the organization’s decision-making. One of the goals was the need for Royce to constantly expand its operations beyond the current market.

This successfully led it to recruit, train, and promote its workers continuously within a certain traditional framework model so that, at any moment, there are adequate personnel to work on different contracts in different countries (Mantere


Psychology of Learning Research Paper college essay help online

The functional and behavioral aspects of the mind depict the need and desire to know when certain conceptual strategies of learning are incorporated (Desse, 1967). These concepts create space to learn effectively.

We, therefore, need to evaluate and enumerate these concepts to enhance acquisition of knowledge and proper progresses in day to day learning processes. In a bid to perform this task, I will examine the concepts of learning and enumerate several issues related to them comprehensively.

The strategies involved in acquisition of knowledge involve an arranged sequence of events with a similar goal. Acknowledging oneself as a learner is a fundamental aspect enabling effective learning. This includes determining one’s best learning strategies, assessing understanding and shifting the learning strategies appropriately. The other aspect is capturing of the subject or topic overview.

This is where a person reads a syllabus outline and gets enlightenment of the subject coverage. Splitting tasks into bits that could be understood easily is a key to effective learning. For instance, a chapter could be broken into smaller topics or time intervals before completion. This, also, incorporates evaluating their comparisons and grouping them in an easier and fast way for a person to understand.

Other aspects requiring consideration include the knowledge about why a person is learning, things that the learner is aware of, assessing understanding after each topic and requesting for help. The final aspect is about memorizing and reviewing. This stage requires commitment in ensuring that a person attained a certain idea. It involves reviewing of past papers, revising and using mnemonic devices (Terry, 2009).

Learning and performance are two related and distinct terms. Learning refers to the acquisition of new knowledge. It calls for the need and desire to obtain information and incorporate it into the mind. The concepts trigger learning and its efficiency. For instance, observing, hearing, touching, writing and reading are some of the aspect that triggers learning.

It is, also, crucial to point out that schools rarely argue about what they should learn. On the other side, performance refers to a strategy of rating the art of learning. It is unfortunate that most schools emphasize more on performance than learning. The schools argue more about the performance than learning (Engelmann, 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The conceptual approaches in learning involve the substantiation of information hard to understand into simpler bits. This may involve selection and definition of contents awaiting dissemination. There are two different ways in which a person can learn. The two approaches involve the use of pervasive ideas and isolation of content topics. They cover the same contents.

However, the structures of substantiation differ. For instance, when using pervasive ideas, there is a comprehensive study of a topic regardless of the relationships that exist on certain issues. On the other hand, the second approach involves categorization of a main topic into subtopics that describe issues relating to the main topic (Mikulas, 1974).

In conclusion, conceptual learning is a tool that is vital in enhancing effective learning. I would like to recommend instructors to consider incorporating the two strategies in capturing a wider number of learners. In this way, learners will understand without discrimination.

This will improve the educational status and create room for more discoveries. Lastly, it is crucial to mention that learning is a vital tool in life. It requires appropriate structuring that could warrant penetration of information.

References Deese, J.,


IT and innovation Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online: college essay help online

At a time when globalization, need for transparency and new technologies have assumed the center stage in dictating the business environment, performance and consumer satisfaction patterns, innovation has become the best platform for adapting the unpredictable market environment.

Numerous changes have been experienced in the global business arena and also in the recent years due to the aforementioned factors to a point where it becomes almost impossible to identify the position of a business in a market, its competitors and even profitability.

This poses tremendous risk among managers in devising business strategies due to the levels of change and unpredictability of the market environment, as explored in the article We live in an era of risk and instability.

Earlier on, the world market was relatively stable and as such, developing business strategies using traditional approaches enabled a business to perform extremely well.

Adopting traditional approaches was effective in linking producers, traders, and consumers with greater efficiency, thereby making a business to exploit resources and capabilities a market has, occupy attractive niche, achieve a dominant scale and competitive edge.

However, it is clear that the need for greater transparency, the coming of new technologies and globalization have made sustaining resources, positioning and competitive advantage unmanageable.

Innovation for competitiveness is fast replacing the traditional methods with new methods that are much convenient and easy to execute. Due to advancement of technology, business energy has been propelled by easier capacity to simulate new products designs and easier interlink between the local and international markets.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Market competitiveness as dictated by the current trends entails the ability to remain highly peculiar in design and approach to reduce imitation and therefore reduce overall competition. This consideration has over the years seen major companies fast raise their image at the market while others still relying on traditional approaches take a nose dive into heavy losses.

Innovation becomes the key in achieving this competitiveness. This calls for a management that is capable of reading signals of change in strategies, processes and business models and acting on them via proper technology and IT systems.

The article The innovators solutions, creating and sustaining successful growth by Clayton Christensen and Michael Raynor sheds immense light on how to develop effective business strategies that will beat competitors and ensure growth in innovation. One interesting piece of information raised in the article is the introduction of disruptive strategy innovation to counter leading, established and incremental firms’ competition.

I noted that the authors raise two types of technologies that exist among competitors depending on the circumstance of a business. They include sustaining and disruptive technologies.

The latter is essential for outwitting incumbents in a market arena by producing and selling convenient and simpler products at a lower price to unattractive and new customers while the former is the opposite in that better products are made and sold at a high to attracted customers, a practice by well-established companies.

The article presents an insight into an organization’s demand for articulation of innovation models in its operations to generate the correct status for higher productivity.

In my view, the disruptive model as the authors point aligns a business activities with technology that is highly multi-interactive, where the business strategies are drawn with reference to enhanced technology strategies engrossed in business operations and activities that serve customer needs.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on IT and innovation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The model is set to meet the trajectories that many markets require in terms of new and improved products. As such, it offers a clear system for meeting current customer needs, unlike the sustainable model designed to achieve the highest possible future targets in terms of productivity and profitability.

I have also noted that business and innovation have become inextricably linked in generating value to organizations, thus needs to collaborate closely and share approaches that reinforce each other.

The use of disruptive innovation as a way of bridging the gap between businesses and competing favorably with giants in the market is not enough in ensuring optimization of business and profitability. A business needs to completely integrate innovation in its operations since by effectively leveraging and using them in producing products that reach diverse customers, a business ensures value maximization.

I have come to realize that the alignment of business and innovation is important and therefore needs to be carried out throughout the entire process of developing products, marketing and selling in order to enhance competitiveness. Innovation provides crucial input to business and strategic plans as assessment of risks and dependencies are all associated with competitiveness.

Innovation involves people, communication and quality of products. All these are focused towards achieving desirable outcomes in terms of market position and profitability. This appears to correlate well with the article entitled When should a process be art and not science? The article stands out as an important guideline towards optimizing business performance.

The authors seek to indicate that a business process should be more artistic bearing in mind that it offers employees an opportunity to gain and use their skills and appreciate culture. They note that standardization is scientific in nature and thus reduces accountability and creativity.

I have learned that positive work as a form of art cannot be realized by an organization without assimilation of the necessary change demands. Globalization has made the current work system to be a highly dynamic environment which appears to have been set loose from the captivity of scientific management.

Organizations are faced by constant changes that emanate from the external or internal factors which seek to liberate workers while attending to their workplace needs such as training in order to gain skills and competence. Making work a science is indeed a major obstacle in effecting workers’ learning needs, development of skills and business competitiveness.

Not sure if you can write a paper on IT and innovation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


The Expression of Sarcasm in the Odyssey Analytical Essay custom essay help

Introduction Sarcasm is a theme commonly expressed in various forms of writings. People use sarcasm when irritated, disappointed or angered by an action and they expect the recipients to recognize their vengeful intension (Minchin 542). In this case, we analyze Homer’s poem, Odyssey. Odyssey describes the sufferings and struggles of a king who spends ten years in war and another set of years in his journey back home.

Many transformations have taken place since Odysseus left home. Suitors have taken advantage of his absence to destroy his wealth. On his return home, Odysseus pretends to be a beggar and this causes a series of sarcastic instances. This paper discusses the expression of sarcasm in the Odyssey.

Sarcasm in Scheria: Euryalos vs. Odysseus Laodamas invites Odysseus to participate in a game. However, Odysseus declines the offer because his concerns about his return home engaged his brain (Minchin 541). Euryalos, a young Phaiakian utters sarcastic words to Odysseus saying he refused to play because of his incompetence.

He likens him to a merchant seaman who obtains profits from trading; a “heart-biting” statement that insults Odysseus. In anger, Odysseus leaps to his feet and displays his superior skills in the game. Euryalos feels ashamed. With guilt, he apologizes and offers Odysseus a gift.

Sarcasm in the palace: Antinoos, Eumaios and Telemachos vs. Odysseus Eumaios leads Odysseus (the beggar) to the palace where he begs from one suitor to another. Antinoos mocks Eumaios for his exaggerated politeness to the “disgusted swineherd”. He calls Odysseus a noxious beggar. This leads him to a series of arguments with Eumaios until Telemachos intervenes. Telemachos sarcastically states that Antinoos is senior and his actions portrayed politeness.

He tells Antinoos to continue with his generosity to the poor beggar and ignore servants who distracted his generosity (Minchin 543). However, Telemachos gains courage later on and openly accuses Antinoos of his extreme greediness. Antinoos is infuriated, becomes arrogant and threatens violence. Antinoos hurts the poor beggar, but the beggar decides to remain calm.

Sarcasm at the pack Eurymachos vs. Odysseus Eurymachos is a suitor leading the pack. He is a dissembler who taunts Odysseus and cracks a joke of his baldness. He sarcastically tells Odysseus that because he chose to live as a beggar, he should continue living on the mercies of generous people. He cannot offer him paid work in the pack.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Odysseus is infuriated by Eurymachos insult and he subjects him to a series of rustic and aristocratic challenges. The beggar insults Eurymachos telling him that should Odysseus return to the palace, he would escape swiftly such that the wide doors would appear narrow (Minchin 545). Odysseus makes this insult publicly and Eurymachos threatens to harm him.

Sarcasm at the hall: Ktesippos and Telemachos vs. the beggar Telemachos had known that the beggar was his real father and he welcomed him with utmost hospitality. Ktesippos is the third suitor who pretends to offer sentiments to the beggar. He openly mocks the beggar by stating that he would offer him an ox-hoof as a guest-gift.

He throws the ox-hoof on the beggars head. Fortunately, Ktesippos misses the beggar’s head and Odysseus gives him a sardonic smile (Minchin 547). Odysseus is filled with bitterness, but Telemachos comes to his rescue to physically attack Ktesippos.

Sarcasm prior to the contest of the bow: Theoklymenos vs. the suitors Theoklymenos prophesies a sad and horrifying death for the suitors who merely laugh. The suitors laughed and teased Telemachos of his struggles to defend the beggar. They make repeated jokes of Theoklymenos prophesy. The suitors make irritating jokes of the beggar stating that he struggled to have his stomach full.

Further Research How is Odysseus an Epic Hero? 5 41 Why does Poseidon hate Odysseus? 5 264 How does Athena help Odysseus? 5 69 How Did Odysseus Get the Scar on His Leg? 5 466 How does Odysseus escape Charybdis the second time? 5 315 What motivated Odysseus to reveal his name and put his men in more danger? 5 38 They even suggest shipping and selling the beggar and other guests to the Sicilians to raise Telemachos household income. These jokes deeply hurt Odysseus and Telemachos while they arouse jeers and laughter to the suitors.

Sarcasm at the contest of the bow: Odysseus vs. the suitors A series of events happen leading to the contest of the bow. Two suitors, Antinoos and Leodes gang up to insult and mock Eumaios. Their actions flash hostility and bring in tension amongst the suitors. They considering the beggar as naïve and allow him to take the bow and take part in the fight.

Odysseus simply examines the bow and one of the suitors mocks him saying he is a connoisseur. Another suitor sarcastically says that the beggar’s good fortune would equate to his success with the bow (Minchin 551).

We will write a custom Essay on The Expression of Sarcasm in the Odyssey specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Odysseus strings the bow and announces that it is time to rejoice. He commands the gathering, strips off the suitors and takes over the powers at the palace. Odysseus and his son, together with the loyal retainers claim victory in the bow context.

Conclusion Sarcasm prevails in most parts of the poem. It is evident that sarcasm can lead to a series of events. The exaggerated politeness of Odysseus in response to sarcasm leads to a series of dramatic events. Odyssey is one of the best poems representing sarcasm, where, Odysseus exaggerated politeness covers the better part of the poem.

Works Cited Minchin, Elizabeth. “The Expression of Sarcasm in the Odyssey.” A Journal of Classical Studies, 63.1 (2010): 533-556. Print.


Apple Analytical Essay essay help

Introduction Continued advancements in the information technology front have provided the impetus for market competition currently being witnessed among portable device manufacturers. Apple Inc., one of the world’s leading manufacturers of mobile phones, portable music players, and personal computers is renowned for its high innovative skills in the industry.

Apple single-handedly revolutionized the industry with its unique and high performing gadgets that outwitted other rival manufacturers in almost all areas. However, competition in the industry is stiff following the determination by all the rival players in addressing innovation, targeting to gain commanding market shares, and improving their profitability.

This paper addresses a possible strategic plan that can be used by Apple to strengthen its market position and performance, especially in the mobile phone industry.

External Environment Analysis Political and legal factors

Apple depends on the international market to supplement its domestic market performance and boost its overall earnings revenue. However, the world is experiencing an increase in wars and incidences of terrorism. These might eventually affect the company’s performance in the international market.

The US’ bad political relations with other countries of the world could also fuel a negative campaign against products from the country, including the iPhone.

As competition within the industry continues to grow, there have been accusations and counter accusations from rival firms accusing each other of copying ideas and technologies. Apple Inc. has been sued by Nokia, for instance, for breach of patent (Thompson, Strickland III and Gamble 54). Such legal battles are costly especially for firms found to be guilty as they result in heavy court fines.

Economic factors

The global economy has not yet fully recovered from the financial crisis suffered in early 2008 and which has continued for several years. The European market, which is among Apple’s most lucrative markets, suffered great consequences as most governments were declared insolvent (Reuters para 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that the market will take some time to achieve its full buying potential as consumers only have little disposable income left for their expenditure.

Social factors

The globalization concept has brought about the need and urge for people to maintain constant touch and relations even in cases where they are separated by physical distance. With the integration of browsing capabilities in Apple products, such as the iPhone, iPad, and the iMac, most people consider these as the right devices to help in maintaining close touch.

Technological factors

Advancement in technology has forced Apple to invest heavily in this subject area in order to enhance its overall innovation and create a huge demand for its products. Users seek to acquire products with multiple technological capabilities and design. Firms, therefore, have to invest heavily in technology if they wish to achieve a competitive edge.

Population demographics

Latest technological devices mostly seem to attract the youthful populations more than the case is with people of advanced age. This is an issue of great challenge because of the general situation in advanced economies where the population demography comprises of many older people. On the other hand, the developing countries have their population demographics comprising of many youthful people, although with a relatively poor buying power.

The Immediate Industry and Competitive Environment: Porter’s Five Force Analysis Substitute products

More substitute products are available in the market that buyers can settle on in case they fail to acquire an Apple iPhone. However, the substitute products have a relatively lower performance. This gives Apple the upper hand when it comes to market competition.

Buyers’ power

Buyers have a lower bargaining power owing to the high level of innovation that the company commands. In essence, Apple has been manufacturing and releasing premium products that cost more than what rival firms quote, but the firm still manages to make huge sales. While consumers still have other existing low-cost alternatives, they opt to acquire Apple with its high prices.

Suppliers’ power

Suppliers have a higher bargaining power in this industry. The industry comprises of many players, including Samsung, Nokia, and HTC, among many others. These companies are rivaling each other to gain market dominance. However, some players are seeking to reduce this high supplier bargaining power by making forward integration plans.

We will write a custom Essay on Apple specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Threat of new entrants

The threat posed by new entrants seeking to operate in this industry is low. A high capital requirement rules out the possibility of manufacturers successfully venturing into the business and competing effectively with the established industry players.

Equally, the established firms, such as Apple and Samsung, have built strong brand names that they rely upon to sustain their impressive market performance (Reuters para 8). New entrants need a long time span for them to build a similarly strong brand name. This is generally impractical.

Rivalry intensity

The intensity of rivalry is strong as the buyer demand appears to have slowed down in the recent times, particularly due to the poor global economic situation. Apple faces high rivalry, particularly in the phone industry where its iPhone brand competes with a range of other Smartphone brands. The Samsung Galaxy surpassed the iPhone as the global Smartphone leader in sales.

On the other hand, Google’s Android software has been enjoying great market performance as it surpassed Apple’s iOS operating system in market performance. Given Android’s flexibility and open source policy, the operating system continues to pose threats to Apple as many devices powered by the software stand a good chance of challenging Apple’s iPhone dominance.

Internal Environment Analysis: SWOT Analysis


Apple has a strong innovative capability that has contributed immensely to its market competitive advantage. The company spends heavily in research and development activities. This enables Apple to produce highly effective products that meet the demands of the market.

The firm has also managed to build a strong brand name following years of its efficient market performance. This contributes positively toward enhancing its overall performance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Apple by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Weaknesses

Apple’s iOS operating system does not support an open source policy for its app development as the case is with its greatest market competitor and leader, Android. No other manufacturer in the world, apart from Apple Inc., is allowed to use the iOS operating system. This policy has curtailed the popularity of the iOS software and, to a greater extent, Apple’s products.

Android has taken advantage of this situation and propelled its overall popularity in the market to an extent where it currently enjoys a global market leadership. The table below depicts how the high popularity of the Android operating system has successfully influenced the performance of Samsung, which mainly relies on the platform, to surpass Apple’s iPhones as the world’s leading Smartphone device.

Vendor Q12012 2011 2010 2009 Market Share (%) Market Share (%) Market Share (%) Market Share (%) Samsung 29.1 19.1 7.5 3.2 Apple 24.2 19.0 15.6 14.5 Nokia 8.2 15.7 32.9 39.0 Research in Motion 6.7 10.4 16.0 19.9 HTC 4.8 8.9 7.1 4.7 Others 27.0 26.9 20.3 18.8 All vendors 100 100 100 100 Source: (Gamble and Lou 196)


The global economy is on the recovery path and there are greater possibilities that it will soon achieve full recovery (Reuters para 5). This will come with improved and renewed demand for mobile gadgets, such as Smartphones, laptops, tablets, portable music players, and personal computers. This offers a good opportunity for companies such as Apple Inc. to improve their sales and profit margins.


With the ever increasing competitive rivalry amongst industry players, there are possibilities that the profit margins may eventually fall to insignificant levels. This may end up diminishing the industry’s productivity, thus pushing out players. With Apple Inc. targeting the premium customers, the firm is set to lose quite significantly in case the profit margins tumble to insignificant levels (Gamble and Lou 197).

Competitive Strength Assessment

Competitive Strength Assessments [1= very weak: 10= very strong] Key Success Factors and Strength Measures Importance Weight Apple Inc. Samsung Nokia Strength Weighted Rating Score S.R. W.S. S.R. W.S. Quality performance 0.16 8 1.28 7 1.12 7 1.12 Reputation 0.15 8 1.2 8 1.2 8 1.2 Technologicalskills 0.20 10 2.0 7 1.4 6 1.2 Financial resources 0.15 8 1.2 7 1.05 6 0.9 Manufacturing capability 0.09 6 0.54 7 0.63 8 0.72 Dealer network 0.05 6 0.03 6 0.03 6 0.03 Innovation capability 0.20 9 1.80 7 1.4 6 1.2 Sum of importance 1.00 Weighted overall strength weighting 8.05 6.83 6.37 Recommendations Although Apple Inc. still enjoys market control in many aspects, the company should consider revising its policy on content use. This will be helpful in containing the growing market popularity of the Android operating systems. Many handset manufacturers whose technology is comparably inferior to Apple’s iPhone are riding on the advantage of Android’s popularity to gain volume sales.

This is, in turn, affecting the iPhone because fewer buyers and potential buyers have knowledge and experience about the iOS’s capability. Allowing other device manufacturers to use the platform will provide an opportunity for the market to have a feel about iOS’s functionality and general capability.

In essence, it will help in building demand for the iPhone device itself as buyers will be convinced that the compatibility of the device and the software will likely give them a greater performance experience.

Conclusion Apple Inc. is among the leading global manufacturers of technological devices, including mobile phones, personal computers, portable music players, and tablets. Although the firm has registered remarkable performance in the Smartphone sector in the recent years, increasing industry competition has seen other rival firms gain ground on the firm.

Samsung’s Smartphone brand, Galaxy, has surpassed the iPhone in overall global sales, while the Android platform used by other device manufacturers enjoys a comfortable market leadership compared to the iOS platform. The industry is facing a promising future following the marked improvement of the global economy that suffered a slump in 2008.

Although the industry players are not worried about the likelihood of new players entering into the market, there is a major threat of profit margins dwindling. High competition amongst the players in their quest to gain market leadership could eventually result in lower margin profits, thereby rendering the whole industry’s value worthless.

Works Cited Gamble, John and Lou Marino. “Apple Inc. in 2012: Can it Sustain its Growth and Defend against New Competitive Threats.” Crafting


Ethics and Morality in Business Practice Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction One fundamental question that is mostly asked when referring to the moral cause in the contemporary society concerns the role of business in the society. There is a high level of growth of business in the contemporary world. This denotes a lot of competition among businesses.

Even amidst competition and struggle for survival in the competitive business environment, firms are still bestowed with the responsibility of ensuring that they play a critical role in eliminating the challenges that face the society.

This does not only help firms in establishing bonds with the society and ensuring sustainability of the society, but it also helps firms to win customers who come from the communities in which the firms operate. In this paper, it is argued that the main objective of almost all firms in the competitive environment is to make more profits. This implies that moral duties, like corporate social responsibility, are secondary considerations.

This paper explores business ethics in the contemporary business environment. Of greater concern in the paper is the discussion about the probability of firms attaining balance between their objectives and corporate social responsibility.

Corporate social responsibility vs. morality and ethics in corporations One of the moral responsibilities of firms in regard to normative ethics is to embrace stewardship. This implies taking care of the main supportive structures in the society. However, the ability of corporations to embrace sustainability of the supportive structures in the society is questionable (Ralston 2010).

In theory, morality and ethics guide the operation of all firms (Debeljak


Public Administration: Anthony Downs, Aaron Wildavsky and Herbert Kaufman Critical Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Anthony Downs

Aaron Wildavsky

Herbert Kaufman


Reference List

Introduction In the late 1960s, people revealed their dissatisfaction with the government and the US policies. There was certain distrust as people did not believe in the government efficiency. Public administration theorists came up with ideas on increasing efficiency of the government. It is possible to note that the most remarkable theorists of that period were Anthony Downs, Aaron Wildavsky and Herbert Kaufman.

Anthony Downs Admittedly, to improve efficiency of an organization it is vital to understand the way the organization develops. Downs described the life cycle of bureaus in detail. Thus, according to the theorist, bureaus are created to address an issue or a set of issues (Shafritz


The Road to PPB: The Stages of Budgetary Reform Critical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

In his article “The Road to PPB: The Stages of Budgetary Reform” (1966), Allen Schick focuses on the aspects of the effective budgetary reform which could provide the significant positive changes in relation to national budgeting and the role of government in the process.

However, instead of discussing the innovative approaches to budgeting, Schick pays attention to the previous strategies used to reform the budgeting system in the country. The author states that earlier the government used rather developed approaches to budgeting with references to effective planning and management of the changes in the system.

Schick’s work contributes to the filed of public administration with references to discussing the budgetary reform as one of the major government’s functions and presenting the procedure as the influential reform related to the public sector (Shafritz


Leadership in the American Elementary Schools Expository Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The need to improve educational outcomes of learners in a bid to match the contemporary professional demands and current challenges associated with socioeconomic changes is augmenting. Without the proper knowledge economy and the required proficiency in the industrialised world, the future generation will face great challenges in coping with the expected harsh economic realties.

Education is currently one of the most integral development strategies with the main purpose resting upon investing in children and youth education. As professionalism becomes a key economic and social aspect in the modern world, complex industrialised societies are calling for improved educational systems.

Ylimaki (2012) notes, “Curriculum leaders who are grounded in understandings of cultural politics and curriculum theory recognise curriculum as complicated conversation and complicated decisions as political acts…they must have such understandings to navigate within a broader and increasingly conservative political sphere” (p.305).

This essay seeks to discuss this statement with reference to contemporary issues across the United States.

Curriculum leadership as a complex matter Literature indicates that curriculum leadership has become one of the convoluted issues that seem to attract controversial debates in the U.S. (Ylimaki 2012). Educators in the American education system continue to believe in the presence of a great disparity in curriculum development and management, which has resulted in intense confusion.

The U.S. educational system should be guided by modernised content standards, but the system has not granted a standardised and mutually accepted norm on educational practices (Spillane et al., 2001).

In the present-day United States, developing a standardised curricula accepted by all operatives in the education sector has been confronting following a mixture of ideologies, principles, and perceptions on what seems essential to incorporate in the curricula.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As Schmidt et al. (2005) postulate, “defining what it is that students should be expected to know or do” (p.526) has been one of the controversial issues within the U.S. curriculum realm.

Several issues have protracted in the American elementary school curriculum development and management practices, thus making the competency of the education itself questionable as cultural, political, and social influences result in regular discourses (Spillane et al., 2001).

Despite having a long convention of shared responsibility in matters pertaining to curriculum decision making and curriculum development, there is a need to consider theory, critical studies, and modern developments that should have space of inclusion and consideration (Ylimaki 2012).

Two differences in managing and developing of standardised curriculum practice are prevailing with each having divergent views towards curriculum leadership. According to Schmidt et al. (2005), the U.S. political controversy regarding curriculum-making centre rests on convictions of individualism in curriculum leadership and local controls that include the district curriculum enforcers.

Confusion is rising from the federal or state levels to school administrations, which makes efforts of decentralising arrangements for schools and curriculum development and implementation difficult to commence.

The inception of the recent curriculum policies that involve development of the No Child Left Behind Act (2002) and the Race to the Top (2009) are among modern changes that have put principals and teachers in accountability issues and elicited more discourse (Ylimaki 2012).

Following stipulations of Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium (ISLLC), “the school leader/administrator must maintain standards and focus on creating a nurturing vision, maintaining a growth-oriented school environment, effective instruction and management, positive collaboration with family members and the broader community” (Hilliard


Communications and Integration Management Report essay help free

Introduction This report has been prepared to analyse the importance of communication and integration management in project management. This goal requires a review of a specific project, and hence the reason behind this study’s choice of the Victorian Desalination Project as an appropriate vignette. The project commenced in May of 2007.

The justification for this selection is partly the duration of the implementation of the project as viewed against the background of the actual planned date of completion, which was 2011. Instead, the project was carried forward by more than a year as the commissioning efforts were taking place in late 2012.

So far, the project is not yet under implementation as it is subject to the stay of production imposed by the government since 2012. Although the project lagged behind time so that it was not yet commissioned by 2012, Victorian desalination project can be deployed as an important case example for analysis of communication and integration management in a successful execution of a project.

Project Background The Victorian desalination project was aimed at augmenting water sources for both Melbourne and Geelong. The project was meant to ensure the production and supply of fresh drinking water through the aforementioned parts of the Victorian area. The commissioning phase of the project ended on the 17th December 2012. Therefore, as from 22nd December 2012, the project had been placed on standby.

This meant that it would no longer be used to produce drinking water through 2012 -2013. The commissioning was looking into the reliability, productivity, and performance of the quantity and quality of the water. The desired goal in terms of the quantity was 150 -200 billion litres of water.

The testing phase for the commissioning featured the running through of the system of 50 GL of water in different stages. Initially, all the water was emptied into the ocean for re-entry into the reservoirs. Upon the completion of the first stage, which comprised testing the first 50 GLs of water, the water was subsequently released into the network via the pipeline connects with the Cardinia reservoir.

The delivery outlets include Berwick. The specific location of the plant is the Bass Coast Wonthaggi, which was chosen after a comprehensive feasibility study that was conducted on several potential sites.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reasons why Bass coast was favoured include its proximity to the seawater, which would ensure convenience in the collection of quality source water with little or no contaminants as well as providing a repository for the concentrated saline solution because of the free circulation of the ocean at that point, which would ensure rapid dispersion.

Stakeholders Communications Management The main stakeholders in the Victoria Desalination Project were the communities and landowners (Stair,


Apple Inc. Smartphones strategic marketing plan Report (Assessment) essay help free: essay help free

Summary Apple Inc. is one of the telecommunication firms specializing in the production of high technological electronic products, computer hardware, and software. The company products include personal computers, media devices, mobile communication, and portable-digital music players.

Within the mobile communications category, the company has launched into the market variety of iphone and other android Smartphones that has significantly hit the world Smartphones market.

Currently, the Smartphone market share is valued at approximately five billion dollars with Apple products claiming 1.6 billion dollars, second after the Samsung products. The Smartphones market is expected to grow in the next five years, approximately an increase of 0.55% annually. Apple market share is robust with expected growth of 1.67% annually.

Apple Inc. brands are highly welcomed by majority of young generation particularly those between the ages of 16-40 years. The company has adopted social media marketing as the major strategy to reach the target market. However, the market is highly competitive with similar products being introduced into the market by the competitors.

Marketing objectives Apple Inc. will focus the delivery of Smartphones to the small businesses as the major market segment. The high-end small businesses that value services, support and knowledge are clearly differentiated in the market segmented. Within the market segment, the objectives of the marketing mix includes

To ensure sales increase by 40%

To ensure increase in the sales margin by more than 20%

To ensure increase in the total Smartphones by 55%

The marketing mix strategies particularly the price and distribution differentiations are aimed at attaining the set objectives. However, the major aim of the company is to increase its market share and the products brand awareness. Social media provides an avenue through which the company can achieve its major objectives (Dobele et al., 2005).

Apples Smartphones positioning The company will be using various marketing mix strategies to ensure that the new Smartphones are positioned in the market. Included in the market skimming strategies are product and pricing strategies, placing strategies, and promotional strategies (Mangold


Alcohol Abuse by Quentin McCarthy Qualitative Research Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction This article focuses on alcohol abuse by Quentin McCarthy. It uses the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) to evaluate McCarthy’s stage of dependency and provides possible interventions for recovery. Overall, the article shows that McCarthy must receive an appropriate diagnosis, placement options, and treatment modalities.

According to McCarthy’s wife, McCarthy used to drink to have good time, but today, he drinks because he needs alcohol. This makes McCarthy a good candidate for health care professional evaluation and intervention because his condition shows hazardous drinking and alcohol dependence.

Screening instrument: the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) MAST developed in 1971 by Selzer is the most commonly used yes or no questionnaire that has 25 questions, which consist of true or false options (Zung, 1982). These choices are of significant concerns on “legal, medical, and psychosocial problems, control of alcohol intake among people with alcohol problems” (Zung, 1982).

The aim of MAST is to determine the extent of alcohol consumption based on responses provided and formulate strategies of helping the agent with regard to excess consumption of alcohol.

One can easily administer the MAST as a form of semi-structured interview or survey questionnaire. The process is simple once the agent has taken the survey. It involves summation of all the scores of the items in the survey. Items may have unique weight assigned in order to rate the extent of the problem.

The evaluator can obtain the aggregate score and decide on the suitable recommendation for the patient or he can be the scores on a given cut-off points when screening alcoholism. Previous studies have indicated the need to improve the MAST based on the length of the questionnaire and different conditions that may influence the respondent (Zung, 1982; Shields, Howell, Potter and Weiss, 2007).

All the items in MAST focus on “symptoms of problematic drinking and negative consequences associated with the use of alcohol” (Shields et al.,2007). Respondents who get high scores indicate high rates of alcohol problem, which requires intervention.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The MAST provides advantages to users because it offers multidimensional approaches to the evaluation of alcohol problem. However, scholars do not agree on the exact number of such factors (Shields et al.,2007).

Evaluators who use the MAST believe that it relies on a single aggregate score, but there are some minor changes to questions. This makes the approach to provide uniform results of respondents. The MAST solves the challenge of defining alcoholism conditions in different stages, which has been a major source of concern to evaluators.

Hence, evaluators have relied on the MAST and other test scores to gauge alcohol problem and provide their professional opinions after diagnoses. The MAST is a simple tool that overcomes challenges of rating alcohol problem.

Diagnosis (a complete 5-axis diagnosis). McCarthy’s alcoholism diagnosis using axes McCarthy displays alcohol–related psychiatric conditions. Clearly, heavy use of alcohol has affected and altered brain chemical and hormonal systems, which affect the development of many mental disorders related to mood and anxiety. One can observe these symptoms and sings.

The client also has alcohol–induced psychiatric syndromes. These conditions (mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders among others) have resulted from the broad range of alcohol psychological effects associated with heavy drinking.

Axis I: Clinical Disorders

Anxiety disorders

Although anxiety disorder may be present in the general population, McCarthy has developed anxiety disorder due to dependence on alcohol. This is an alcohol-induced depression. The onset and the course of McCarthy’s anxiety disorder follow patterns associated with the temporary alcohol withdrawal.

Bipolar Disorder

Studies have shown that bipolar disorder, which is mainly mania or manic–depressive illness is the second disorder after anxiety disorder in axis I disorder. Bipolar disorder results from heavy drinking and alcohol dependence. McCarthy is a maniac patient who has become a heavy consumer and dependent on alcohol.

We will write a custom Essay on Alcohol Abuse by Quentin McCarthy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Diagnosing this condition can present considerable challenges. This may occur due to underreporting of symptoms or incorrect answers in the survey, complex mood changes from alcoholism, limited diagnostic accuracy, related conditions with similar symptoms, and involvement in pleasurable activities with friends to get business in return (common among manias).

McCarthy did not depend on other drugs other than alcohol. This has not complicated his condition and the diagnosis process. In other cases, accurate diagnosis is necessary through a careful analysis of the patient history in order to discover past tendencies and chronological order of alcoholism because several patients with bipolar disorder also abuse other drugs other than alcohol.

Independent Major Depression

Past studies have shown that many treatment-seeking alcoholic patients experience mood disturbances. Although mood disturbances may not be severe disorder, it is common among people with alcohol problem because mood disorder affects most alcoholics at some points during their drinking period. McCarthy’s mood disorder falls in the following three categories.

Abrupt and short effects of alcohol depressant on his cognitive functions

An organized series of symptoms and signs that indicate alcohol-induced disorder with depressive signs

A major disorder that exists alongside other mental problems prior to drinking periods

A careful analysis and classification of depressive conditions in McCarthy reveals that he suffers from a comorbid depressive conditions.

Although there are contentious issues about the exact cause- and-effect association between alcoholism and depression, depressive cases may predate early before patients start alcohol consumption. Alcohol causes alcohol-induced mood disorder among people with alcohol problems.

It is possible that McCarthy also experiences depressive cases of a major depressive disorder. In other words, he used to suffer depressive order before starting to consume alcohol, and then later fueled the depressive disorder with alcohol. This condition may persist even for a long period after abstinence.

Some studies have established that forms of depressive disorders differ among patients. There were cases of alcohol-induced depression and independent depressive disorder having diverse characteristics. A further analysis of the patient history, social relations, drug use, alcoholism treatment, and suicide attempts could show variations in disorders.

Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation

McCarthy shows several signs of alcohol dependence and psychiatric disorders. Alcoholism dependence relates with many forms of psychiatric disorder, which may develop irrespective of alcohol consumption and abuse. These independent disorders made McCarthy to be prone to alcohol abuse and other related problems.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Alcohol Abuse by Quentin McCarthy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McCarthy displays one of the most common disorders among people with alcohol problem. He has antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), which is within the second axis. Although McCarthy kept his fights to a moderate level, he was still anti-social. Moreover, he only drank with people in order to sell them insurance policies.

McCarthy also shows signs of obsessive or compulsive disorder in the manner he consumes alcohol. As a result, McCarty has developed a long and consistent pattern of irresponsibility and abuse of his business associates’ rights.

McCarthy can no longer sell insurance to his clients because of the compulsive disorder to consume alcohol consistently. In short, McCarthy’s business associate was not comfortable because her husband was “doing business with a lush”.

Axis III: General Medical Condition

These are mainly physical medical problems, which people with alcohol problems exhibit. They are critical for understanding the mental conditions of a client or in controlling the client’s mental disorders. For instance, McCarthy’s doctor informed him that the constant pain above his navel was an ulcer. Hence, McCarthy had to stop drinking for the sake of his health.

Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems

McCarthy has experienced several challenges related to his job. Many customers have deserted his insurance business blatantly. However, one long-time client of the agency left the business after his wife commented that she was not comfortable that he was “doing business with a lush”. This departure injured McCarthy’s pride and his business.

Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning

McCarthy already faces problems related to economic or loss of customers, occupation, and social issues due to alcohol dependency.

Forty: McCarthy shows severe impairment in areas related to work, job, and social relations, judgment, mood, and anxiety.

Treatment placement options McCarthy has been postponing his decision to get help from professional because of alcohol problem. Interventions from the family and social networks of people with alcohol problem may help them to recognize that they have alcohol problem. However, professional advice is the best advice for people with alcohol problems. Hence, McCarthy will require such help.

Given the severe impairment that McCarthy experiences in various areas, such social, economic, psychological, and occupational, multi-treatment strategy is the best approach in his case. These may include brief intervention, counseling, and residential programs among others.

Obviously, McCarthy has a serious alcohol problem. He has already lost control on alcohol consumption. The aim of the intervention is to stop his drinking habit and enhance quality of life. McCarthy requires a multidisciplinary approach in order to tackle his alcohol dependency.

Detoxification and withdrawal The initial treatment for McCarthy would be detoxification. This process may not exceed seven days. The client may need to get sedating drugs in order to eliminate chances of uncontrollable shaking delirium, confusion, and other symptoms associated with alcohol withdrawal. Detoxification procedures require McCarthy to be in the inpatient department for effective treatment.

The alcohol treatment specialist must establish skills and learning plan for McCarthy. McCarthy and the specialist must set goals, identify behavior change methods, effective self-help manuals, counseling seasons, and follow-up treatment strategies.

Psychological counseling McCarthy has severe psychosocial problems due to alcoholism. Counseling for McCarthy would be an effective approach. This would allow the client to comprehend his alcohol challenges and acknowledge recovery programs from psychological perspectives. He may also attend group counseling.

McCarthy can also attend couple therapy and counseling because he has a wife. The wife must recognize that her role is critical in helping McCarthy to stop drinking.

Oral medications Alcoholism treatment also involves oral medications. Certain drugs (disulfiram) normally stop people from alcohol consumption. However, they are not instant solutions to alcoholism because of compulsive or obsessive disorder among alcohol addicts. This drug works by inducing unpleasant feeling whenever one takes alcohol. These may include nausea, flushing, severe headache, and even vomiting.

Another oral drug is Revia or Naltrexone. This works by inhibiting good feelings and ideas associated with drinking alcohol. It lessens the urge to drink and prevent addicts from alcohol consumption. In addition, Campral lessens craving for alcohol. This drug does not induce nasty feelings and sickness after administration. Oral treatment may be effective for McCarthy.

Injected medication McCarthy may also consider injected medication for his alcohol problems. There are many injected drugs for people with alcohol dependency problems. Injection may be once in a month by alcohol recovery specialists. There are oral versions of these drugs, but injection may be effective for McCarthy because of consistency that the recovery process requires.

Continuing Support McCarthy also requires continuing supports during and after the program. The major roles of support programs are to help rehabilitated alcohol addicts to improve, recover, stop alcohol consumption, control cases of relapse, and adjust to normal lifestyles and diets. McCarthy will require psychological support groups, medical care, or get help from Alcoholics Anonymous.

Intervention for psychological challenges McCarthy has several and severe mental health disorders because of alcoholism. These also require effective therapies, which may include counseling, psychotherapy and psychological interventions, and antidepressants. Behavioral therapy and anti-depressants may help McCarthy to alleviate depression, anxiety, and other challenges associated with mental conditions due to alcohol dependency.

Treatment for other conditions McCarthy has already developed ulcer and constant pain in his abdomen. These are serious conditions, which require immediate medical attention. In addition, excessive consumption of alcohol may also cause liver problems, high blood pressure, heart problems, and high glucose levels.

In addition, McCarthy must note that he will experience several health problems related to withdrawal from alcohol consumption. Hence, aftercare must account for these conditions and treatment.

Treatment modalities McCarthy would require different treatment modalities in order to cope with withdrawal challenges.

Brief Interventions

This has been the most popular form of alcoholism treatment modalities. Besides, the modality is popular among scientists and researchers. Professionals that tackle alcoholism provide brief interventions to their clients.

A brief intervention is a process that involves evaluation of a client’s alcohol consumption tendencies in order to ascertain whether such habits are harmful to his or her health and lifestyle. A brief intervention for McCarthy would show that alcohol dependency has negatively affected his life. McCarthy would require a referral to a thorough treatment.

This modality may be appropriate for people who have alcoholism challenges because of several repeated interventions. Hence, it may be effective than other modalities. Several and fast evaluations by a professional would reveal whether McCarthy has the ability and readiness required to change his drinking habits.

Brief Motivational Enhancement

Professional therapists and psychologists conduct this modality for people with alcohol problem. This modality aims to improve a client’s motivation in order to alter his or her drinking habits. In the case of McCarthy, the therapist would focus on his inner abilities to change. The approach does not depend on pressure from external factors. The evaluator must discover the underlying factors that influence McCarthy to continue drinking alcohol. The aim is to solve the indecision, but McCarthy must make the decision as an individual.

This modality does not rely on direct persuasion because direct persuasion does not work for people with alcohol consumption. Instead, the evaluator must create a condition in which the client may feel comfortable. In addition, the evaluator must not be judgmental. The aim is to get the client to make the necessary changes.

One must note that the desire to change one’s drinking habits requires personal commitment. Overall, it requires effective interaction, communication, empathy, and evaluation of the problem by the interviewer.

Acamprosate: a GABA Agonist This is a relatively new modality for alcohol problem intervention. The modality has been in use since 2004 when the US authorized it. A GABA Agonist causes alteration in chemicals within the clients’ brain in order to reduce alcohol consumption. However, this modality has side effects. The modality causes allergic reaction in some people, changes in blood pressure, heartbeats, impotence, or possibly insomnia.

Naltrexone works by inhibiting opiate receptors in the brain. This process results in impairing the desire to drink alcohol. Such modalities may work best alongside other interventions, such as behavioral therapy.

Community Reinforcement Approach Therapists and psychologists believe that their clients can recover quickly with the help of families, friends, and the community. Therapists want patients to stop drinking by ensuring that they acquire the right motivational level, achieve sobriety, understand their own drinking tendencies, seek for positive support, and acquire new skills in order to adjust to new lifestyles.

This modality goes beyond the professional’s office, and it requires effort and coordination of all friends, families, and the community.

Self-Help Manuals Although self-help manuals do not seem like the best approaches for people with alcohol problems, they are also effective modalities alcoholism. Clients must make effort and attend the recovery intervention modalities like Alcoholics Anonymous sessions. These are sources of interactive sessions for such people.

A Smorgasbord of Modalities Researchers believe that evaluators should use any modalities based on their effectiveness on specific clients. Hence, the approach to modality selection should be eclectic.

In this respect, evaluators should base their decisions on informed choices, and they must understand how different clients react to various modalities. Moreover, it is imperative to inform people with alcohol problem and their families about possible prolonged struggle with alcoholism in order to avert the possibility of destroying social, economic, and personal health.

Conceptualization of the etiology of the client’s addiction One must understand etiology of McCarthy’s drinking problem by focusing its root and origins. For instance, McCarthy was hyperactive and the class clown in early days, poor performance at school, and a sense of guilt.

Several factors shaped the development of McCarthy’s drinking problems. While in the army, McCarthy started to drink moderately, he fought, and avoided troubles. McCarthy claims that he started during in order to sale his policies for people.

Finally, McCarthy’s drinking problem got severe after he became the sole owner of the business. McCarthy drank with his customers, made a lot of money, and had ready access to alcohol, failed attempts to stop, including failure of the Alcoholics Anonymous.

Initially, McCarthy drank to have a good time, but he later became an addict who needed alcohol to keep going.

Summary McCarthy’s alcohol problem evaluation using the MAST shows severe symptoms of anxiety, depression, antisocial and business behaviors, psychosis, and physical pain. Hence, McCarthy needs multidisciplinary approaches in order to manage his alcohol problem. Such strategies would help McCarthy to struggle and stop drinking.

References Shields, A., Howell, R., Potter, J., and Weiss, R. (2007). The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test and Its Shortened Form: A Meta-Analytic Inquiry Into Score Reliability. Substance Use


Cultural Studies, Multiculturalism, and Media Culture Exploratory Essay best essay help

Cultural studies of different societies reveal how media culture brings forth common norms, socio-political ideologies and issues in the current period. For instance, media in different countries are often expressing their views in a liberal or conservative manner. Notably, one can deduce the identities and opinions of the world from the media performances and actions.

Some of the media platforms that instill cultural behaviors on their audiences include films, radios, newspapers, and televisions. Media have significant influence on society, as they influence people’s understanding, interpretation, and criticism of different messages; they help in giving meanings to different information.

Evidently, media give suggestions on one’s view or perception of the world even though there is indispensable need for thinking for oneself or independent thinking. Through cultural studies, one is able to critically examine and scrutinize issues from different cultures without anticipated discrimination.

Currently, media have promoted the concept of multiculturalism where all cultures have their worth and the same recognition. In terms of gender and race, cultural studies have ensured that people alter their earlier perceptions on these groups. For example, media culture has made it possible for equal representation of female-gendered members and other marginal voices among the divergent races of the world.

Clearly, cultural studies sensitize all persons on how to encode discriminative acts, thus empowering individuals to develop resistance to such operations. Since media encourage divergent opinions, it has informed society on all frameworks and components of life.

On production and political economy, media firms have tended to produce systems in a specified format. For instance, they have inculcated special features like talks and shows, which have dominated the US television production. On the political economy, Capital Cities, GE, and Tisch Financial Group adopted Reagan’s slogan of conservatism and military adventures in managing their newly acquired media houses in the 1980s.

In this context, media culture reflects the ideologies of the ruling economic class, albeit intense struggle among the social classes. On textual analysis, media culture assigns different symbols and tags to their films and comedies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Markedly, some of them follow conflict resolution model by inculcating resolutions to endless miseries in life and including negative and positive aspects of social behaviors. Evidently, media culture tries to instill in society the benefits of kind acts and roles of all gender in the present world.

Besides, class, ethnicity, and gender shape how different audiences receive and encode messages. The factors, as mentioned earlier, have to apply multi-perspective and multi-cultural approaches in understanding the significance and effects of cultural studies in society. In this aspect, media culture has paid appropriate attention to all ages, classes, and gender in their service provisions.

This assists in aiding interpretation of information within the context of the production and reception. Further, media have adopted marketing and promotion strategies that target different consumers, as they consider gender, age, class, and race, among other factors.

The diversified approaches in cultural studies enable individuals to have freedom to analyze information in their own conscious. In addition, the move on media culture empowers individuals to resist any incident of manipulation by powerful bodies, thus enabling people to gain autonomy over their cultural practices and understand different political changes and cultures.


Web 2.0: Education Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Web 2.0 has led to an increase in leisure classes which has encouraged people to study online during their free time. They are able to do this without fear that their student accounts may be hacked. It has also led to freedom in learning as people are able to learn any topic or subject that they want.

The web 2.0 has made learning to be convenient since it is easier for one to access their course lessons anytime. This encourages more people to register for free online courses that are being provided by multiple organizations nowadays.

Web 2.0 has also contributed to MOOC by creating flexibility. It has made it possible for individuals undertake their studies anytime that is suitable in relation to their schedules. People are also able to choose who they study or in which groups they can take part in discussions.

The web 2.0 has ensured that what we learn can be retrieved online by simply looking them up via search engines. Hence, all that we learn is always available and this leads to the promotion of a lifelong studying and learning as students are able to access more information without the need to buy books.

The presence of advanced internet technology has made free online studying easier which enables people to access new information thus making the world seem as a global village.

It has also broadened the horizon to extents that no one could imagine by making communication easier since one can communicate his ideas with ease through the internet leading to enlightenment to the majority. Generally, web 2.0 has enabled people to carry out their learning online at ease.

How to use OER in building courses Open Educational Resources are a powerful tool that provides basic education for all and ensures that education of individuals is promoted for a long period of time. OER is used in numerous institutions of learning as it enables the provision of a wide range of courses to a large since it is less expensive. Increased use of OER has a likelihood of transforming people’s positively by increasing the levels of literacy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More OER broadens access of education within and outside institutions of learning since one is able to access the needed materials for their study whether at home or in school.

This leads to an improvement of the interaction and development in academic networks through enhancement of quality in learning as educational resources have been released openly not just for enrolled learners but for everyone interested in learning. It also encourages the scrutiny of the people who create resources and their colleagues by ensuring that education resources are accessible worldwide.

OER Increases productivity as it ensures that one has a clear idea of the course materials that they are supposed to possess. This enables students to access a number of resources that make them well informed. OER‘s ownership is protected by a copyright that permits institutions to manage the available resources to prevent piracy.

Describe how the game integrates digital technologies to the benefit of teaching and learning The game uses digital communication to ensure consistent communication which is continuous between the teacher and the learner hence ensuring good interpersonal relations between them. It also ensures that before any learning takes place the student is willing. This leads to a higher performance as the level of student engagement and motivation during learning is heightened.

Digital technologies accelerates learning since it makes it easier by ensuring the materials needed are readily available and can be accessed at will by both the students and teachers. Thus, it links teachers and students and enables both teachers and students access the professional and reliable academic resources.

Furthermore, it has led to increased educational productivity by increasing the quality of education. This happens because it encourages by providing them with materials that are reliable and authentic. There is also an increased efficiency since they can manage risks.

Digital technology reduces the cost of purchasing the learning materials since they are sold cheaply online. It also helps in utilizing both teachers’ and learners’ time as there is no time wastage since the students and teachers can access information easily that they cannot be able to access manually.

We will write a custom Assessment on Web 2.0: Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, the digital technologies ensure there is dual enrolment as students can enrol in more than one course at a time. Teachers can also carry out their education as they go on with their professional duties due to the presence of vocational and online classes.


Mental Health Counselor: Ethics and Professionalism Essay best essay help

The ACA Code of Ethics assists in client growth and development by encouraging healthy and secure relationship between counselors and clients. In line with group therapy, counselors must strive to understand the different cultural backgrounds of the clients and learn how to integrate clients having the same needs and goals that are compatible to those of a given group.

In terms of relationships, the ethical codes encourage non-sexual professional relationships between counselors and clients (Ethics


Culture and Communication: Variations and Effectiveness Exploratory Essay best essay help: best essay help

Communication is a vital process within organizations. Stakeholders in all organizations have different personalities and cultural backgrounds; they have to learn how to communicate to each other in order to attain effective competitive advantage over their competitors in the market. Effective communication requires initiators to understand the social and cultural contexts under which they intend to interact with the receivers.

The piece outlines that cultural differences can distort the meaning of messages sent to receivers; therefore, managers must comprehend the cultural behaviors of all their employees. Markedly, a media capacity used in a given cultural setting may not be effective in another.

Consequently, societal culture and individual perceptions affect the appropriateness of information transfer. If the receiver understands the message from the sender, the communication is considerably effective. In organizations, the mode of communication may depend on the urgency, complexity, and importance of information so that the receiver’s attitude and action changes in response to the message.

For media choice theory, the intention of communication, amount of data or information, and characteristics of the receiver are key factors that determine the choice of media that one uses in communication. The theory holds that all media have a specific capacity to convey knowledge correctly so that the receiver comprehends it properly.

Information context and content influence the attention of viewers; for instance, an organizational employee will pay attention to a formal memorandum than does an outsider. Clearly, lack of richness results in confusions in cross-cultural communication, and the theory helps in understanding effective communication of symbolism that are significant in some cultures.

Besides, societal perceptions influence the effectiveness of information as the beliefs, norms and values guide people’s behaviors, communication, and interpretation of information. Since culture dictates societal interactions, it is inseparable with communication, and any cultural variation will necessitate variation in communication.

In the analysis of different cultural orientations, communication processes are also different implying that culture affects the encoding and coding of messages. Individualism, as a variation of culture affects individual behaviors in achieving goals and gauging value of relationships.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a societal level, individualists tend to work alone and give their goals first priority, while collectivists tend to work in groups, through collective responsibility. Societies have members that range along the continuum of individualists and collectivists. Individualists have personal feelings and thoughts and are direct in their communication since they only view themselves and not actions of others.

This shows that the group possesses low creativity, analysis, and thinking skills. On the other hand collectivist communicators emphasizes on high context communication in order to comprehend the context under which the receiver will encode the message.

As opposed to individualistic cultures, collectivist cultures embed message content in the communication context, thus necessitating the receiver to know the contextual cues in order to interpret the message appropriately.

Evidently, individualist cultures will regard information sent through less rich media as it does not entail intensive cues. From this aspect, the perceptions that these groups hold reveal the challenges of communicating across cultures.

Power-distance of different cultures affects effectiveness of communication. For instance, societies with small power-distance, subordinates do not wait to be told of what to do while those with high power-distance tend to wait for their superiors to make crucial decisions and instruct them on what to do. In this aspect, there is a clear distinction between the subordinates and the superiors in a high power-distance culture.

Therefore, this culture promotes a specified line of communication from the superiors to the subordinates. On the other hand, low-power-distances cultures can change their medium of communication since they are independent workers. From the analysis, one can have the following questions for further discussion:

How do individual preference in an uncertainty avoidance and individualism in societal preference relate in affecting effective communication?

How current managers can adopt to varied cultures given the high rate of globalization?


Learning Styles and Pedagogy Reflective Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction As an individual within the teaching profession, I realise how it is often important to examine myself to determine the effectiveness of my performance. It is an aspect of critical reflection that questions my actual performance, thereby helping me in finding answers to some of the most pressing questions.

The critical reflection helps in developing the profession because it acts as a building block, enabling the strengthening of weaker areas and enhancing performance even further in best performed areas (Leung


Entrepreneurship and Innovation: The United Arab Emirates Report (Assessment) online essay help

Introduction: Business Endeavors and Results Evaluation Introducing innovative strategies into business is essential for the economic development of the state and the growth of its enterprises. As long as a country acquires the information on the latest strategies in business, it is capable of keeping in pace with the rest of the world and, therefore, remaining competitive. However, as soon as a state loses the touch with the globalized world, its business sector starts deteriorating pretty soon.

Despite the fact that the UAE is currently among the world’s most successful states, without the proper innovations introduced into the entrepreneurship sphere, it is most likely to share South Korea and Taiwan’s deplorable experience, which is a result of not updating business strategies when it is needed.

Considering the Experience of South Korea and Taiwan Analyzing the string of events that spurred economical, financial and entrepreneurial evolution of South Korea and Taiwan, one must mention first several issues that the given states had with their business field to begin with.

As the research says, Korea was in a very unique and quite complicated position, seeing how it was completely devastated after the war with North Korea and was trying to improve its performance in the world scene. As the research results state, the key to economic success was to progress from low to high growth and focus on exporting the goods to the partner states.

Speaking of Taiwan, its unique business setting involved the reconstruction issues that the sate faced in the early 50s. As a result, it was required to update the strategy on human resources and improve the technological aspects of the Taiwanese entrepreneurship.

Eriksson (2005) teaches that every single innovation strategy must be based on the assets of the state economics, which the country has gained over the course of its history, just like it must take into account its key weaknesses.

The Entrepreneurial Climate of the UAE: SMEs and Women in Business Consequently, it is required to look closer at the specifics of the UAE entrepreneurship. At present, the owners of small businesses face serious competition from the public domain and the immigrant owners of private enterprises within the state. In addition, the public companies in the UAE are notorious for their chauvinist policies, with little to no women getting promoted to the higher positions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What It Takes to Build Innovation Based Policies Judging by the situation described above, it can be assumed that the UAE needs to reconsider its traditional approach towards such issues as gender profiling within the system of public entrepreneurships, the opportunities for employment in private sector and the monopoly on private entrepreneurship owned by the foreign investors and the immigrants from other countries.

To address the aforementioned issues, it will be required that the new policies including the regulations for avoiding discrimination should be introduced into the public sector. In addition, the creation of SMEs should be encouraged.

Overcoming Possible Obstacles: The Fear of Defeat Taking the aforementioned issues of gender discrimination, lack of positions for the native residents of the UAE in private sphere, the insufficient professional skills of the latter and the lack of SMEs within the state, one must admit that there are a lot of obstacles standing in front of the UAE entrepreneurs.

Conclusion: When the proper Strategy Has Been Defined It is clear that at present, the UAE business field needs considerable improvement. Apart from the deplorable state of affairs concerning women in business, there is an obvious problem with the public sphere being flooded by the natives and, therefore, leaving a number of people suffering from unemployment and creating mad competition within the sphere of public companies.

By developing its small businesses, allowing more women into the entrepreneurial sphere and helping the natives get jobs in private sphere, one can expect considerable improvements.

Reference List Eriksson S. (2005). Innovation policies in South Korea and Taiwan. Stockholm, SE: Vinnova Analysis.


Education Society and the Curriculum Analytical Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Beveridge’s Five Giant Social Evils

What society requires from education

Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning


Beveridge’s Five Giant Social Evils According to Beveridge Report, also known as the Report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Social Insurance and Allied Services of 1942, there were five giant social evils that were affecting the British society and which needed to be addressed urgently. This report identified these giant social evils as squalor, ignorance, basic wants such as food, idleness, and diseases (Durand, Belacel


Branding Case Study: Burberry scholarship essay help

Introduction Burberry store is more than 150 years old. It had gained success and became a luxurious brand in Britain. However, in the 1990s, the company experienced challenges related to consumer perceptions, retail stores, and brand image. As a result, sales declined and profit dropped.

Elements of the Brand building factors used by Rose Mario Bravo since 1997 to rebuild Burberry brand

In 1997, Burberry brought in a new CEO, Mario Bravo to run the company. Bravo took a company that had lost its position in the market and had an old brand image. However, the new CEO had the required experience to transform Burberry to profitability (Moore and Birtwistle, 2004).

Bravo’s first approach was to introduce a young designer, Minechetti to change the clothes range at Burberry. Menichetti had to remodel Burberry’s raincoats and other conventional clothes by giving them a new image and making them striking to a new generation of emerging consumers. In addition, the young designer also had to introduce new clothe items for children, blue jeans, bikinis, watches, personal products, shoes, and home wares.

This approach aimed to re-establish Burberry among modern, young, and trendy consumers. As a result, Bravo managed to restore Burberry’s name in the market. This strategy also aimed at attracting new markets and increasing the company’s sales base. Bravo also appointed Christopher Bailey from Gucci.

Bailey would reinforce the brand name by designing heritage and classic clothe lines and presenting young, hip, modern, and fashionable clothes at the same time. This retained Burberry’s vision of heritage and classic to reflect its many years in the industry. All these strategies worked to restore Burberry in the market.

Bravo also focused on building the brand image in the market. As a result, she hired an advertising firm and a photographer, Mario Testino alongside models to shoot images that would change the old brand of Burberry. She would later work with other famous models who appeared in Burberry’s different commercial advertisements.

Burberry operated in an increasingly competitive fashion industry. As a result, it needed a greater focus on the brand image improvement in order to attract new consumers. Bravo noted that a well-developed advertisement message could play a significant role in developing Burberry brand image across its distribution channels and at all levels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The advertisement served to restore the company’s brand image by informing customers about the “functional abilities while simultaneously imbuing the brand with symbolic values and meanings relevant to the consumer” (Meenaghan, 1995). The two major focuses were to inform consumers about new clothes range of Burberry and transform their opinions about the company. All these elements led to consumer persuasion.

Consumers analyse the brand advertisement message and associate it with certain aspects. For instance, Bravo brought in famous celebrities like David Beckhams and Jarvis Cooker in order to associate Burberry brand with celebrities in the minds of consumers. Hence, Burberry brand became functional and expressive among its potential consumers (Meenaghan, 1995). This led to building the brand perception among consumers.

Consumers are responsible for creating a company’s brand perception because of how they perceive a brand eventually defines it. A company may have a positive brand promise, but this does not count since customers may perceive it in a different manner. Bravo worked with Kate Moss to create striking images for Burberry brand. This image had positive effect on consumers and it improved the company’s sales growth.

The brand perception helped the company to understand how consumers perceived its clothes and specific items within different market segments. The company was able to understand elements, which influenced consumers when they were making purchase decisions, sources of their information, and consumers’ thoughts about Burberry.

It is also imperative to note that Bravo recognised that creating a successful brand image and perception involved several elements, such as value to customers, visual images, brand relevance, and its ability to engage the target audience’s attention (Diller, Shedroff and Rhea, 2006). Clearly, Bravo invested in professional advertisement agency, skilled photographer, and well-known personalities in order to create a working brand image and perception for Burberry. Burberry became distinct and unique among competition in the industry.

In order to build Burberry brand, the new CEO also had to work with the company’s distribution channels. Bravo closed all unprofitable shops and focused on developing retail stores in strategic locations. This was to create a market position, which would reflect the new Burberry. For instance, the company positioned the brand as prestigious and luxurious by working with retailers located in the high-end markets.

Consumers would then associate the brand with luxurious, high-end prices. As a result, the company was able to increase its sales revenues from 20 percent to 25 percent and profitability. Bravo also managed to persuade other retail stores to stock various items for Burberry.

We will write a custom Report on Branding Case Study: Burberry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, distributors who were only selling raincoats also added high-end accessories. This branding strategy established Burberry as a potential gift store with affordable luxury items. Burberry stores distribution channels were spread across different locations. Hence, consumers could buy products at various points.

Finally, Bravo decided to establish Burberry as an international brand by selecting strategic locations in New York, London, Spain, the UK, and Japan to expand the business. The aim was to increase Burberry’s growth by venturing into critical international markets and establish the brand identity. Burberry had potential markets and good reputation in these regions for many years. Bravo understood the perception of consumers about Burberry and that it could deliver its products to the market and meet rising demands.

It is imperative to recognise that several factors influence a company’s brand development. These may include the logo, advertisement, and media among others. In addition, brand managers must note that it takes time and financial resources to create a reputable global brand. As a result, consumers can immediate recognise the brand, identify its promise and product benefits.

Challenges that Burberry could face as it builds a global brand

Burberry experienced rapid growth and it had to adopt a new business model for the international market. The company would then strive to expand its operations globally because of the apparent success in the domestic market. On this regard, it must ensure that the business would still realise its primary goals in the overseas markets. It will have to maintain quality standards and delivery products as required by local consumers. Moreover, Burberry must meet cultural expectations of different people globally.

One major challenge could be product delivery. Burberry will have to ship its products to the new markets. However, different countries have different laws regarding imports or even manufacturing products locally. This could present a potential challenge for Burberry in its international expansion strategy.

On this note, it is imperative for the company to ensure that it would satisfy and meet the local demands through product reliability and consistency in delivery. In addition, Burberry will also have to understand local laws for business operations and employment regulations. All its products must meet quality requirements in different countries in terms of components, labels, and even packaging.

Packaging laws differ from one country to another. Burberry will have to understand packaging regulations in its potential target markets. This must happen before venturing into the new markets to avoid business setbacks. For instance, some countries have banned the use of plastic packaging, or they impose heavy taxes on users and manufacturers of such materials.

This would increase costs of running business in such countries. Customers’ requirements with regard to packaging also differ. Burberry may also use more than a single language on its packaging materials and include all product details to all consumers globally. Therefore, it is important to understand local laws on packaging and consumer preferences before shipping products in order to avoid unnecessary costs in running business operations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Branding Case Study: Burberry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Burberry could also experience challenges related to building awareness of the brand in the new markets and enhance sales and profitability. It would not be possible for the company to succeed in new markets if it follows the same techniques applied at home to reach new customers and communicate.

The company will have to develop relevant messages to specific market segment in specific geographies, which highlight their needs and wants and the brand promise. Moreover, the channel of communication will also differ significantly, more so in emerging markets. The company must identify receptive channels for different target markets in order to allow potential consumers to understand and relate messages to their needs.

Burberry must develop the message carefully in order to account for diversity in the global market. It must engage in thorough research and possibly enlist the help of a local firm to assist in branding in the new target market.

It must evaluate what other firms and competitors do in the market to reach customers. Humorous or charming message in a different geographical location could be misinterpreted and misunderstood in another location. Burberry must also evaluate how consumers perceive old companies in its target new markets.

Burberry has been operating in developed nations since its inception. The company will have to understand the target markets, consumer habits, lifestyles, and find the right answer by conducting thorough research. The company will have to consider the right manner of communication, which is culturally acceptable.

This should account for tone and choice of words. Consumers can identify such elements in packaging, advertisement, and even through to employees. In addition, it will have to adopt a favourable sales policy in new markets. Ultimately, the company must project its brand at all levels in the international markets.

It is not simple for a multinational corporation to maintain its reputation across different markets globally. The company may be focused on developing an international brand and ignore other critical aspects of brand reputation. For instance, Burberry had spent a huge portion of its revenues on protecting its brand from counterfeit and association with hooliganism and violence.

In the Far East, the company could run into similar challenges, particularly with counterfeit and cheap imitations. Hence, the company must protect itself by educating consumers and communicating the right message to them. Protecting the brand reputation in every market is critical for a global firm. The challenge becomes worse as the company grows into several subsidiaries with many employees globally.

A brand acts like a promise that Burberry delivers to its potential customers. The company must ensure that customers have positive experience in all its stores with products and employees. This aspect also covers product delivery, product quality, and services rendered to consumers. The CEO must understand how to lead the organisation as it grows rapidly.

It is imperative to protect the company from any possible bad experiences with customers. As a result, a company needs to keep constant vigilance in most critical departments at all levels. It is also important to have an employee manual with the code of conducts and ethics. Moreover, the company will have to invest in employee training and engage in constant checks regarding growth and market activities in order to deliver the brand promise.

There would also be cultural differences for Burberry in new geographical locations. The company will face several obstacles, including languages and customers’ habits. Hence, it is important to work with local firms to help in building the international brand and gain a share of a foreign market. In extremely difficult cases, Burberry may consider working with local distributors or forming strategic partnership with local firms. Cultural or geographical differences may also influence customers’ needs.

Burberry price and competition will also have to consider both price and competition. The company has been operating only in developed economies. However, it will venture into emerging markets where consumers may perceive luxury items as too expensive and out of their reach. This implies that Burberry may review its prices downwards in order to cater for the middle class and few high-end markets. In addition, it will also face fierce competition from established brands in such markets, especially local brands.

“Opening more stores and adding new product lines can potentially dilute the Burberry brand”. A critical examination of this statement and recommendations for Burberry’s future operations

Brands have significant roles to play in global expansion strategies. Hence, firms must use a coherent international branding strategy in order to introduce new brands and open more stores. Burberry should show concern about adding more stores and new product lines.

Available studies on negative impacts of additional stores and brand extension or new product lines on the brand are few and their results are not consistent. Previous studies did not establish any significant impacts of dilution on the brand name through introducing new products, including unsuccessful ones (Romeo, 1991).

On the other hand, some studies show that dilution may take place when new product lines or stores are inconsistence with brand and brand belief (Singh, Scriven, Clemente, Lomax and Wright, 2012).

Hence, a brand failure may result from “difficulties to relate with the parent brand, a lack of product and brand familiarity and similarity, as well as poor integrated marketing communication messages” (Singh et al., 2012). A study on Johnson also showed that launching “a new product in same parent brand category have high chance of success while in different category is risk” (Ahmad, Mujeeb and Rajput, 2011).

Generally, some failures in new product lines can dilute brand equity, especially if the brand is integrated. In this case, dilution affects the new product and the original brand or parent brand. Any failure in stores or new products make consumers to develop pessimistic opinions about the brand or develop a different perception, associate the failure with the main brand, other products, and eventually lose sense of the brand and its uniqueness.

A failure in new products can affect either the general brand image or the product brand image. However, a strong brand like Burberry would not suffer much from a failed product, specifically on its general brand image. Overall, the dilution would greatly affect the product brand image. Consumers may hold their perceptions about the general brand image and attitudes towards the company. Nevertheless, a new product has ability to dilute the brand image and transform consumers’ beliefs and perception.

Any successful new product can attract massive revenues for Burberry. On this note, brand managers should spend their resources to understand the product before launching, understand the market and maximise the product message, and enhance awareness.

Technically, any flagship product will record the highest sales, revenues, and awareness. Today, consumers are critical and use social media to attack products, which do not meet their needs. Not all strong brands suffer from dilution because of a failure in a new product.

A dilute impact could affect other products instantly and eventually affect the whole company. However, the impact may not be severe for a parent brand. The outcome of dilution could be temporary and consumers’ perceptions may not diminish at all. Burberry should establish strong brand equity in the parent company through aggressive marketing campaigns and brand management.

The company should focus on establishing long-term brand equity across the world and evaluate all its business strategies and their potential impacts. Usually, any failure, even if it appears to be insignificant, could result in a great brand failure. Hence, the company should evaluate how consumers react to its new stores and new product lines.

It is imperative for Burberry to understand how consumers perceive new products. Consumers collect information, categorise, and associate them with either success or failure of a product. In fact, they would evaluate major differences between the main brand and new product lines from their experiences, other competing brands, and facts about the company and its brand.

The company should develop effective brand message for its new products and target markets. It must ensure that messages and communication are clear in order to develop a strong brand image. A negative result from a new product or a store can potentially harm Burberry brand.

On this note, brand managers and marketers should ensure that they develop consistent brand messages throughout the product life process. In some cases, negative outcomes from new product lines could be extensive and permanent, particularly in cases where the product message diluted the brand at all levels.

While few studies exist about stores or new product lines and their effects on the company’s brand, clearly any poor approach to branding and brand management could lead to a brand failure (Martinez and de Chernatony, 2004).

Burberry must also note that new product lines or stores may fail to generate increased revenues or develop brand equity as expected. Hence, it is a risky strategy for developing a brand or increasing sales because of the unexpected outcomes. Thus, brand managers must evaluate potential impacts of more stores or new product lines before launching them to consumers.

Reference List Ahmad, M, Mujeeb, E and Rajput, A 2011, Does Brand Extension Impact Parent Brand: A Case Of Johnson, UK, FFF.pdf

Diller S, Shedroff, N and Rhea D 2006, Making Meaning: How Successful Businesses Deliver Meaningful Customer Experiences, New Riders, Berkeley, CA.

Martinez, E and de Chernatony, L 2004, ‘The effect of brand extension strategies upon brand image’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 39-50.

Meenaghan, T 1995, ‘The role of advertising in brand image development’, Journal of Product


Clothing and Footwear Retail Sector in the United Kingdom Essay college essay help online

Introduction Marketing and its underlying thoughts and principles have evolved over the years. The evolution over the past few decades has widened the scope of this field. Such areas as business-to-business marketing, relationship marketing, and services marketing have become common in this field. Service marketing constitutes a major sub-discipline in this field.

Contrary to the impressions created by the name, this sub-discipline covers the marketing of both goods and services. According to Bessom and Donald (1975, p. 45), marketing of goods is a two-pronged phenomenon. It entails the promotion of durables and fast moving consumer products. On its part, service marketing entails the promotion of business-to-consumer and business-to-business services.

The current paper is written against this background. In the paper, the author conducts a case analysis focusing on the retailing sector in the UK. The clothing and footwear retail sector in this country is the case that is used in this analysis. The service marketing issues affecting this industry are critically reviewed in this paper. More specifically, the current study focuses on the competitive sector of sports apparel and footwear industry. The sports footwear sector is analysed in detail.

Introduction to Service Marketing The concept of service marketing is relatively new in contemporary global market. According to Lovelock and Wirtz (2001, p. 99), the concept of service marketing introduces a new dominant logic in the entire marketing spectrum.

Lovelock and Wirtz (2001) describe this new development as the ‘service dominant logic’. What this means is that promotion of services shifts the focus of marketing from operand resources. Such resources include, among others, land, plants, and animals. Service marketing introduces a new element of operant resources. The new resources include knowledge and skills.

The marketing of services brings together many industries in the global market. Some of these industries include those operating in the telecommunications, health care, aviation, and professional services sectors. Others operate in the hospitality and financial services segment of the economy.

Services constitute a major source of revenue for the developed economies. For example, such economies as the UK rely more on services compared to developing economies like those in Africa. As a result of this, it is apparent that service marketing is vital not only to the success of individual businesses, but also to the growth of the entire national economy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Service Marketing in the UK Retail Sector An Overview of the UK Retail Sector

The service sector in the UK and other economies can be determined from various perspectives. For instance, Burt and Sparks (2003, para. 3) highlight one of these perspectives in their definition of the service sector. Burt and Sparks (2003) conceptualise this sector as the wider group of industries that remain when agriculture, mining, and manufacturing industries are removed from the equation.

Going by this definition, it is clear that the scope of the services industry in the UK includes, among others, the transport and communication industries. It also involves the provision of professional services, as well as public administration.

Other examples of service industry sectors include, as already indicated above, financial services, hospitality, healthcare, and retailing. Professional services include the provision of such products as legal and accounting aid. On its part, the hospitality sector is made up of restaurants, accommodation outlets, and ski resorts. Examples of healthcare services include eye care, dentistry, and medical practice. Finally, retailing services involves merchandising and such other endeavours (Burt


Green Technology and Its Benefits Evaluation Essay online essay help: online essay help

Despite the fact that environmental concerns have been raised quite a while ago, the concept of green technology has been introduced comparatively recently into modern business and everyday life. Although the idea of green technology is relatively young, it still deserves a major appraise for the compromise between technology and environmental issues that it has to offer.

By implementing green technology, a company specializing in consulting services, such as the ConsultingNow!, will be able to face the competition and attract more customers.

According to the existing definition, green technology is “a new technical-economic mode which could combine environmental protection, ecological restore, efficiency improvement and economic development” (Pan, 2012, p. 47). As recent researches have shown, quite a number of companies follow the principles of green technology. Among the most notable ones, Siemens is often credited as “the world’s leading green technology company” (Siemens launches second edition of Green Technology Journalism Award, 2013, para. 1).

As the report says, Siemens has gained considerable support from its customers all over the world after choosing the green technology principles (Siemens launches second edition of Green Technology Journalism Award, 2013, para. 2). Thus, the principles of Green Technology affect a company’s development in an admittedly positive way.

When it comes to consulting business, though, green technology principles might seem rather hard to implement, since consulting has little to do with environmental awareness. However, even ConsultingNow! Can contribute to environmental safety and bring the rates of pollution down. For example, a stronger emphasis can be put onto using the equipment that affects environment in the least.

While it would be unreasonable to make every single employee in the company buy a Hybrid car, using the resources that are made of recyclable material is the least painstaking means to introduce the company and its members to the concept of green technology. In addition, the use of solar-power watch, calculators, and other devices should be encouraged and promoted in the company. In addition, the principles of energy conservation should also be included into the company’s policies.

The fact that the application of green technology is going to bring the total cost of ownership down considerably should also be brought to the company leader’s attention. Not only will the devices bought to follow the green policy save an impressive chunk of the company’s costs for such services as electricity, water consumption, etc. down impressively, but also serve as a rather cheap yet very efficient advertisement program.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By showing people that its members care about environment, the ConsultingNow! Company will show the clientele and potential customers that it cares about people and, therefore, is worth trusting. In addition, the total cost of ownership will be decreased due to a drop in the consumption of such services as water and electricity. However, the functionality of software used with regard to the environmental safety principles should be checked more thoroughly.

Judging by the fact that green technology, though admittedly costly, allows for attracting more target customers and creating effective promotion campaigns, it must be considered a necessary step towards the restructuring and reorganization of the company, as well as remodeling of its key processes so that its expansion into the globalized market could be carried out.

The given process is going to be admittedly hard; however, with the integration of the green technology policy, the ConsultingNow! will have the needed support of customers and partners.

Reference List Pan, J. (2012). China green development index report 2011. Berlin, DE: Springer.

Siemens launches second edition of Green Technology Journalism Award (2013). Web.


Consumer Interest in Space Tourism Report online essay help

Introduction and Background Tourism is a very rewarding economic activity in the present world, as it is among the largest income generators in many states and countries. For many years, countries have underscored the importance of tourism and its contribution to their economies. However, the act of underscoring the importance of tourism has gradually changed for a number of states have seen the benefits that accrue from organized management of tourism.

Unfortunately, several countries focus on common and traditional forms of tourism, such as beach tourism and expeditions to national parks and reserves. Stakeholders in the field of tourism, including the host government, communities, private investors, and the tourists accord little attention to alternative forms of tourism.

Alternative forms of tourism include leisure, sport, adventure, ecotourism, and space tourism. Therefore, it is against this background that the research assesses the viability of space tourism as proposed by Sir Richard Branson in terms of market size, number of potential consumers, their perceptions, willingness, and expectations regarding the space tourism.

Marketing Research Problem Tourism stakeholders like the government, private investors, service providers, non-governmental organizations, tourists, and the host communities have overlooked the benefits of diversifying tourism for a long time. Instead, these stakeholders emphasize on the development and consumption of common and prominent tourism products such as the expedition to national parks and reserves, as well as beach tourism, which incorporates sightseeing of elements like sand, sun, nature, and sea.

The development and extensive marketing of these common forms of tourism has resulted in the degradation of these destinations. The degradation of these destinations is due to the large number of tourists visiting the attractions.

These tourists usually exceed the carrying capacity that the subject tourist destination can comfortably support. Additionally, the large numbers of tourists increase the susceptibility of the destination to degradation owing to the trampling of vegetation, fire outbreaks, pollution, and other negative effects associated with tourism.

Extensive marketing of tourism attractions such as national parks, lakes, oceans, and seas, has led to pronounced degradation in the destination. Many tourists throng the tourist sites in these regions and in turn initiate several negative effects that only serve to degrade the destination and reduce the overall worth and value of the subject attraction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, it has led to increased negative effects like pollution, which comprises environmental, soil, water, and air pollution. Environmental pollution occurs when tourists in a given destination dump solid wastes in the attraction site, especially outside designated waste bins.

Soil pollution takes place when waste from service providers like hotels and travel agencies seep into the ground. On the other hand, when tourism establishments release their wastes into water bodies like rivers and seas, it causes water pollution. Smoke from vehicles and emissions from tourist establishments leads to air pollution.

Fire outbreaks, trampling, and destruction of vegetation are other negative effects, which transpire because of too much emphasis on common tourism attractions. Due to marketing and promotions on the common attractions, many tourists travel to these destinations and initiate negative impacts, which lead to depreciation of attractions. Mass tourists break vegetation, trample on grass and other small vegetations, and hence, destroy the vegetation found in subject attraction.

Furthermore, the large number of tourists increases the chances of carelessness that can sometimes result in dire consequences like fires in the tourist destination. The host community suffers from the effects initiated by the absence of alternative forms of tourism such as space tourism. The effects that the host community experience include child labor, increased cost of living, scarcity of resources due to high demand, and diversion of infrastructure to tourism facilities.

Due to the absence of alternative forms of tourism, the pressure exerted on traditional tourism destinations led to short life cycles of the tourism products. Many of the destinations degrade and depreciate quickly and end up as desolate and derelict regions. The desolate nature of the destinations owed their states to the strain exerted on them by the tourists and tourism establishments. In addition, many tourism stakeholders fail to enjoy the revenues accruing from tourism due unsustainable use of tourism products and resources.

Due to the absence of alternative forms of tourism levels in these areas declined since many tourists have already consumed tourism products from these destinations. Consequently, the absence of alternative forms of tourism limited the products of tourism only to those tourists who consume traditional and common tourism products leaving out potential tourists attracted to alternative and unique tourism products.

The Research Aims and Objectives Examine the existence of potential tourists who can consume unique products of space tourism.

Determine the market size of space tourism because it is a new product in the tourism market.

Establish demographic characteristics of potential space tourists.

Assess the expectations and interests of potential space tourists.

Find out the perceptions and attitudes of individuals concerning space tourism.

The Research Questions Do potential tourists of space tourism exist?

What is the market size of space tourism as an alternative form of tourism?

What are the demographic characteristics of potential space tourists?

What are the expectations of potential space tourists?

What are the perceptions and attitudes of individuals concerning space tourism?

Discussion Alternative Forms of Tourism and Space Tourism

Popular and common tourist destinations experience challenges such as degradation, pollution, fire outbreaks, trampling of vegetation, pressure on social resources, and short life cycles of destinations due to increased tours. The presence of these challenges necessitates the need to diversify tourism and introduce alternative forms of tourism (Casino


“The Los Angeles River: Its Life, Death and Possible Rebirth” by Blake Gumprecht Critical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Book review The impact left by industries and urbanization has been the reason for global concern for quite long. In the XXI century, the issue has gained even more significance, seeing how new threats posed to nature and its resources by technology have emerged since recently.

Among the most topical ones, water resources and their preservation must be named. In his book The Los Angeles River: Its Life, Death and Possible Rebirth, Blake Gumprecht addresses the problem of the notorious Los Angeles River and its vegetation, making it obvious that the time to reconsider people’s effect on nature has come.

While Blake clearly provides a fairly honest overview of the problem, describing the current state of the river quite precisely, he still leaves the problem of technological evolution as the crucial element out of the picture, therefore, making the argument rather one-sided. Considering the integration of technological advances into the process of saving the environment would be quite an upgrade for Gumprecht’s work.

What social factors cause the degradation? (society and environment) While the degradation issues that Gumprecht discusses in his book concern mostly the regression of environment, certain societal perspective of the phenomenon is are also somewhat touched upon.

For instance, Gumprecht ties in the process of degradation of the Los Angeles River together with the issues in the evolution of the urban life – or, to be more exact, the specifics of the life of settlers and the effects that these specifics had had on the local river system: “The destruction of the Los Angeles River is in many ways unique in North America because of […] the ways in which Euro-American settlers […] reacted to it” (Gumprecht 129).

The environmental degradation is, therefore, linked directly to the societal, down to the point where one triggers another. Judging by what Gumprecht has to say, degradation is caused by such social factors as urbanization and economic growth. While clearly positive from a sociological point of view, these processes affect the environment impressively.

People sacrifice environment for the sake of greater revenues, which results in a major ecological catastrophe. Therefore, among the social factors that cause degradation, urbanization, industrial development and IT evolution must be listed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What impacts does the degradation have on society? (environment and society) As it has been stressed above, environmental collapse is linked directly to the societal one; therefore, it can be assumed that degradation as an environmental phenomenon has a reciprocal effect on the society. In other words, with the deterioration of the environment, the Los Angeles River in the given case, the regression of society can be observed, starting from numerous health issues and up to conflicts regarding the priorities (i.e., addressing the environmental issues vs. solving the current financial and economic problems).

A deplorable state of society, in its turn, also contributes to the decomposition of environment. For instance, increasing financial concerns and growing rates of poverty will lead to the lack of concern regarding the state of environment and the following rise in pollution rates.

Therefore, it must be admitted that in the XXI century, nature and civilization are linked directly, one obviously depending on another. The given balance must be maintained in order to make sure that the industrial evolution of the humankind will not harm nature and that its resources can be either replenished or retained.

Works Cited Gumprecht, Blake. The Los Angeles River: Its Life, Death and Possible Rebirth. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press, 2001. Print.


International and Intercultural Communication Compare and Contrast Essay essay help free: essay help free

A Comparison of the United States and Tanzania’s Cultures using Hofstede’s Dimensions The two countries that have been picked for comparison are the United States and Tanzania. The geographical distance between the two countries is huge. However, when the two countries are compared using Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions, there are both similarities and differences.

The first dimension to be evaluated is power distance. The United States has a power distance of 40 while Tanzania has a score of 70. This implies that people in the United States are less tolerant to inequality as compared to the people of Tanzania. This also means that it is harder to question and communicate with leaders in Tanzania. However, in the United States, leaders are accessible and they tend to rely on their employees.

The second dimension is individualism where the United States has a score of 95 while Tanzania has 25. The biggest difference between these two cultures is in their individualism. While the United States is a very individualistic society, Tanzania’s society is mostly collective. In addition, this means that the Tanzanian society is uneasy about outsiders while the United States’ society is open to aliens.

On the masculinity and femininity dimension, the scores of the two countries are 62 for the United States and 40 for Tanzania. These scores indicate that the society in the United States is more ‘masculine’ and therefore more competitive (Hofstede, 2005).

On the other hand, Tanzania is a feminine country that does not overemphasize hard work and shuns cutthroat competition. For instance, an effective manager in the United States is able to encourage and foster competition while an effective manager in Tanzania works hard to maintain a sense of equality among employees.

The two countries have almost equal scores in uncertainty avoidance with a score of 46 for the United States and 50 for Tanzania (Hofstede, 2005). Therefore, both countries do not go to great lengths to prepare for uncertainties. Nevertheless, Tanzania is more likely to put measures to prepare for uncertainties. While the United States is less anxious about new ideas and products, Tanzania is likely to be more suspicious about the introduction of new ideas and products within its borders.

The long-term orientation scores of the two countries are 29 for the United States and 30 for Tanzania. This means that both societies adhere to the short-term cultures. Both the United States and Tanzania are societies that respect traditions and lack the need to save money for future use. The low scores in long-term orientation also mean that both societies are concerned with quick results such as making profits using the stock exchange.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recommendations for Business Between the two Countries If an organization in Tanzania is conducting business with an organization in the United States, there are few cultural considerations to be made to ensure effective communication. The first consideration is how to address superiors in the two organizations. While it is easy to gain audience and casually address management personnel in the United States, in Tanzania managers are highly regarded and addressed with more respect than in the United States.

It is important for the management in the United States to note that the society in Tanzania does not emphasize on the importance of personal space, as Tanzania is a collective society (Koester


Sustainability and Waste Management: University of Queensland Report essay help

Executive Summary Waste management is vital in any organisation. Managers should have a waste management plan in place at their respective places of work. The University of Queensland is one of the largest and oldest learning institutions in the state of Australia, producing thousands of graduates every year. The institution also contributes to research and policy development in the country. The report focuses on one main campus of the institution located in St. Lucia. This campus started over 100 years ago. It covers over 114 hectares.

The methodology used in this report mainly consists of interviews, waste area assessment, and waste analysis. A survey was also conducted. The waste management assessment at the institution showed an efficient waste management plan in place. The main waste types produced at this institution include paper, food particles, hazardous waste from the laboratories, and the plastics mainly from the packaging materials.

A private contractor and the local city council do the collection and disposal of these wastes. The general waste is land filled while the rest of the waste is either recycled or incinerated. At the time of the collection of the waste from the bins, the bins are over 50% full, with the general waste bins being 95% full. Analysis of the data obtained from this waste assessment at the institution is provided in the report.

The recommendations from the analysis of waste management at the institution were based on the opportunities available. The institution has a waste minimisation strategy, which involves the reduction of materials for land filling to cut on the greenhouse gas emissions (EPA Information Bulletin, 1993).

The report recommends the creation of a committee at the institution to oversee the waste minimisation strategy, which should be headed by a qualified individual. The bulk of the organic waste can be reduced through inventory management at the catering department with some of the food materials being fed to animals such as pigs (Panikkar, Riley


Cultural Values of an Organization Analytical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

In their daily practices, managers need to focus on a set of aspects that are critical for the effective performance of employees. For instance, one can speak about communication, allocation of duties, motivation, and many other tasks. This paper will discuss some of the practices that can help managers make their work more effective.

Much attention should be paid to organizational culture because it can affect every business process within a company. In particular, it is necessary to discuss the way in cultural values of an organization should shape the interactions between business administrators and workers.

Researchers, who study organizational culture, emphasize the necessity to strengthen human value of employees. They believe that employees have several psychological needs such as recognition, respect, autonomy, or personal growth (Stallard and Pankau 21). Therefore, the managers should create a culture that supports these needs.

For example, business administrators should eliminate excessive supervision since it deprives workers of their autonomy (Stallard and Pankau 22). Additionally, they need to recognize and reward the performance of every person. On the whole, managers should develop a culture which is based on such values as empowerment, responsibility, and openness.

These principles can be applied to other aspects of management, for example, teamwork. Scholars argue that in effective groups, every individual can openly express his/her ideas, and they will not be dismissed out of hand (Mealiea


Williams-Sonoma Case Study a level english language essay help

Introduction Large business organizations face numerous challenges in the contemporary world. Two main challenges affect the growth process and making of profits in a business, which include globalization and competition. In the wake of globalization, companies are seeking to extend their operations to different regions across the world.

Therefore, globalization has its challenges to the business whereby expansion to new locations increases the management risk; on the other hand, it poses competition challenges to local business organizations. On the other side, even without globalization, competition from rival companies has been a challenge to most businesses as they strive to claim a share of the existent market.

Williams-Sonoma’s growth process has been challenged by globalization, especially through Internet marketing and by other foreign businesses in the country, which have posed competitive challenges to the business. However, it has high chances of overcoming the challenges, as highlighted in this paper.

If the Williams-Sonoma continues with its present strategies and objectives, where will it be in five years

Williams-Sonoma Corporation has been experiencing steady growth process since its inception in 1953. Notably, the highest growth of the corporation can be defined in terms of product development and market coverage across the United States. The corporation’s leadership remained under Charles E. Williams, the founder and the corporation’s director, until 2003.

The director was focused on high growth rate of the company coupled with the attainment of competitive advantage over its competitors through product pricing and development. He was a growth-focused leader who helped the corporation to attain large market coverage in the country as well as introducing various products that target different customer genres. Williams’ successors have also played a major role in the attainment of the corporation’s competitive advantage in the contemporary competitive world of business.

The company’s strengths are on products and market strategies, which form the basic requirements of competitive strengths of a business. The company has adopted online marketing and selling as a modernized competitive strategy. The world is experiencing a new wave of globalization and in five years’ time, the corporation will have increased its market coverage to global markets given that it is a growth-focused entity (Michman, 2006).

This goal is achievable for a large corporation like Williams –Sonoma because it has the capital required when globalizing a company. In addition, the company would rely heavily on online shopping and avoid increasing its physical market coverage in various parts of the world, as that new strategy would facilitate the coverage of its local and international markets at the same time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, in five years’ time, the continued growth trend would usher the company into international markets and increase product varieties, which would play a crucial role of increasing competitive advantage in the global market.

If you were the CEO of Williams- Sonoma, what strategies would you recommend, and why?

If I were the CEO of Williams-Sonoma, I would recommend various strategies for the company to increase its competitive advantage. Firstly, I would focus on globalization as the most important strategy for the company. Williams-Sonoma is a well-established corporation across the United States due to its long existence and reputable growth since its inception. Globalization would increase market coverage into foreign markets that the company has never exploited before.

In addition, globalization would play a crucial role in the products’ development, as the corporation strives to acquire competitive advantage over foreign competitors in the international market phenomenon. In addition, globalization would also enable the corporation to increase varieties of products, which are customized to meet customers’ needs in both local and foreign markets, and hence enhance competitive advantage over the other competitors in the market.

Secondly, as the corporation’s CEO, I would advise the company to rely mostly on direct-to-customer operations market segment. In the contemporary world of business, companies have adopted strategies that aim at enhancing business-to-customer relations and eliminating intermediaries due to stiff competition in the market. Intermediaries are of little importance to manufacturers in acquiring competitive advantage, as they add no value to the products.

Hence, the strategy that would enhance business-to-customer relations would be the one that eliminates intermediaries in order for the business to acquire direct responses from customers. However, online marketing helps in enhancing business-to-customer relations as customers get a platform to express their feelings on the ability of business products to satisfy them. Therefore, the company should rely more on marketing strategies that promote direct customer contacts (Wheelen


Improving front office employees motivation in a luxury hotel in Beijing Research Paper essay help online

Introduction The service industry is the leading sector in globalisation and international hotels. Other industries are going global. According to Li-Qun (2013), the service sector currently accounts for more than a third of the trade in global services provision (p. 74).

Researchers have embarked on a study of service provision in the hotel industry, as it is the most dynamic and popular for their studies. Customers in this industry are more demanding than in most other industries, and thus a combination of these factors makes the empowerment of employees a very important exercise (De Zilva,


Emergency Preparedness in New Jersey Term Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Studies by Dincer (2010) show that emergencies related to global warming in New Jersey are caused by changing weather patterns, rising sea levels, higher precipitation events, and extreme weather conditions.

That has made New Jersey vulnerable to rising hurricane intensity and major storms, raising the potential threats of human morbidity and higher mortality rates (Ross, 2011). After the superstorm Sandy occurred on October 29, 2012, officials in New Jersey realized how vulnerable the city was to natural disasters from the effects of global warming (Dincer, 2010; Ross, 2011).

In theory, the disaster management lifecycle consists of disaster prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery components. The appropriate type of public health response elements for New Jersey includes clean water, warmth, clean air, food, and health care services (Ross, 2011). A needs assessment after the disaster showed the needs of the people in New Jersey to include rebuilding healthcare facilities, offering medical support and counseling services to restore and improve the lives of the people (Dincer, 2010).

In practice, New Jersey official has put in place a robust public health response plan and integrated it into the response and recovery operations of the disaster response and recovery agencies of the Government, which are responsible for conducting training and awareness and exercises and drills on disaster response and recovery (Responding to public health emergencies, n.d). The plan is continually modified to address emerging challenges in disaster response and recovery (Responding to public health emergencies, n.d).

A review of the details on New Jersey’s public health website shows that the city’s public health disaster response plan, which accounts for the health, safety, and wellbeing of family members, has one central health coordination, communication, and command center. The center consists of several crisis communication centers with critical infrastructure that enables for quicker disaster response and recovery during a crisis (Responding to public health emergencies, n.d).

The Network-Centric Health Emergency Response (NCHER) links different health emergency preparedness and response personnel, electronic communication, early warning systems, and social networks into a web that allows for real-time sharing of information on disasters (Responding to public health emergencies, n.d).

The critical components of the response plan include regional emergency response assets, situational awareness network software, and command and control networks (Responding to public health emergencies, n.d).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The strengths of the disaster response plan include a well-designed plan that integrates the core principles of disaster preparedness, prevention, and response, which are critical public health tools for responding to public health emergencies (Ross, 2011). According to Ross (2011), the response and preparedness plan was developed according to the disaster response and recovery principles, which include cooperative partnerships.

The plan is consistent with State and regional policies, standards, and operating procedures, which have made New Jersey best prepared to respond to public health needs in the event of a disaster. However, the weakness with the plan is that it lacks a disaster management contingency plan in case a disaster happens that destroys the entire emergency communication response networks such as social networks and the Network-Centric Health Emergency Response (NCHER) command and control infrastructure (Dincer, 2010).

The disaster preparedness and response gaps identified include a lack of clear political coordination of the people and an audit mechanism to determine critical resource requirements during and after a disaster and a contingency communication plan.

References Dincer, I. (2010). Global Warming, International Journal of Global Warming, 2 (3), p.21

Responding to public health emergencies (n.d). Web.

Ross, J. I. (2011). From the McDonald Report to the Kelly Committees: The Government Research and Policy Making Process Connected to Oppositional Political Terrorism in Canada, Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 8 (1), p.2-12.


The Analysis of Wal-Mart’s Retailing Strategy Case Study essay help online free

Wal-Mart is one of the largest multinational retailing corporations operating in North America and globally. The company was founded by Sam Walton in 1962. Today, the company’s headquarters are located in Bentonville, Arkansas. The corporation developed from a small chain of stores in Arkansas, and now Wal-Mart operates more than 7,000 stores which are located round the world (Ingram, Yue, and Rao 55; “Walmart”).

Wal-Mart’s operations are organized in a specific way to cover the needs of such divisions as the US stores, Wal-Mart Sam’s Club, and international stores located globally (“Walmart”). Wal-Mart stores propose a variety of food products, drugs, and general goods. To analyze the corporation’s retailing strategy and to state the perspectives for the corporation’s future development, it is necessary to focus on examining the Wal-Mart strategy’s strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities.

The Analysis of the Industry and Wal-Mart’s Strategy The retailing industry in the United States is highly competitive, and Wal-Mart has to compete with such rivals as Kmart, Target, Meijer, and Safeway directly. The most challenging competition is observed in the sphere of general retailing where supermarkets compete in proposing a range of goods, stating low prices, and developing discounting strategies for customers. However, Wal-Mart also competes with Costco in the sphere of warehouse club activities (Pradhan 567).

To compete within the industry effectively, Wal-Mart developed a successful retailing strategy which should be discussed with references to the concepts of target market and retail positioning (Levy and Weitz 110). Wal-Mart’s target customers are diverse in their needs and interests that is why the company orients to satisfy the demands of the different population’s categories, including women, elder persons, and children.

Wal-Mart’s retail positioning depends on the ways of how the company can be differentiated from the other retailers within the industry. Wal-Mart chooses to attract different customers while proposing them a variety of products and innovative approaches to researching and analyzing their preferences (“Walmart”).

To provide customers with the products which are interesting for them while following the low-cost strategy, Wal-Mart also develops the strong relations with suppliers, and these relations are beneficial for both the retailer and customers.

This approach should be discussed with references to the company’s retailing mix which includes the focus on product, price, place, and promotion. Wal-Mart establishes strong relations with suppliers to provide customers with a variety of products satisfying their demands and meeting their local preferences.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The great assortment in Wal-Mart stores provides customers with the opportunity to make the right choice. Moreover, Wal-Mart pricing policies are based on the principle of low-cost retailing, and stores propose different discounts daily and weekly to cover all the groups of customers. It is important to note that Wal-Mart stores are located not only in the US metropolitans but also in small towns in the country’s states.

In addition, the retailer focuses on addressing the customers’ needs that is why Wal-Mart stores located globally are developed to respond to the local expectations (Ingram, Yue, and Rao 60; “Walmart”). The company’s promotion strategy is based on declaring the principle of proposing better products for lower costs, and it is modified regarding the needs of the local public globally.

Wal-Mart Strategy’s Strengths and Weaknesses Wal-Mart remains to be one of the most successful multinational corporations in the sphere of retailing because of a range of strengths associated with the company’s strategy. The first strength is the effective pricing policy. The company is the price leader within the industry because of proposing lower prices basing on the cost-effective relations with suppliers. The next strength is the focus on the wide assortment proposed to customers.

Selling a range of products which customers need, Wal-Mart stores address all the customers’ daily demands. Furthermore, concentrating on using technologies to collect the data about the customers’ needs, Wal-Mart develops the most effective distribution and delivery systems (Pradhan 567).

In addition, Wal-Mart opens stores in many cities in the USA and in many foreign countries, and the company operates as one of the largest retailers in the world while developing the brand image and customers’ loyalty (“Walmart”). Wal-Mart responds to the modern trends and uses social media and mobile technologies to meet the customers’ interests and to develop the work with customers’ orders.

However, there are also weaknesses in the retailer’s strategy which are the focus on traditions rather than on changes; the lack of the effective differentiation strategy to compete within the industry; and the focus on monopolistic strategy to develop the business within the industry. Having become the largest and most recognizable retailer within the industry, Wal-Mart concentrates on supporting the image rather than on expanding the areas for meeting the customers’ interests (Pradhan 568).

Opportunities for Wal-Mart’s Further Progress The opportunities for Wal-Mart’s further successful competition within the market depend on the effective use of the strengths related to the corporation’s strategy. Operating internationally, Wal-Mart can focus on the further expansion of the corporation’s presence in the global market. Moreover, focusing on the use of technologies and innovation, the company can also pay more attention to the opportunities of online retailing.

We will write a custom Case Study on The Analysis of Wal-Mart’s Retailing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Today, the company uses different mobile apps and develops strategies to operate in the sphere widely (“Walmart”). Thus, the focus on online retailing and using digital strategies is a good opportunity for a company to attract more customers.

In spite of the fact that Wal-Mart as the retailer is attractive for customers during the decades, more attention should be paid to improvement the retailer’s brand image because it is necessary to focus on new approaches to formulating the company’s mission and vision to reflect the customers’ values.

The Threats Challenging for Wal-Mart Although Wal-Mart employs more than two millions of people globally and its revenues are more than $450 billion, there are several threats which the company can face within the industry because of the increasing competition among the rivals (Pradhan 569). Wal-Mart management strategies and policies do not attract employees, and these strategies are often discussed as discriminating in terms of payments and conditions.

Negative feedbacks related to the company’s policies regarding Wal-Mart employees also influence the customers’ attitude to the retailer, and they can be discussed as challenging for the brand image and customers’ loyalty. As a result, more attention should be paid to improving the company’s corporate strategies to affect the corporation’s development and public’s visions positively (“Walmart”).

The other threats are associated with retailer’s international operations. In spite of the fact that Wal-Mart proposes a wide range of products for customers globally, local competitors can also become a threat to the retailer’s activities because of their focus on responding to the market latest tendencies. More attention should be paid to the strategies followed by Wal-Mart stores globally.

Wal-Mart’s Performance, Position within the Market, and Prospects for the Future The effectiveness of the retailer’s performance depends on many factors which include the retailing strategy and the positive image as the employer (Levy and Weitz 24). If Wal-Mart’s retailing strategy focused on the customers’ needs and brand image is rather effective to increase the retailer’s competitive advantage, the company’s image as the employer is not effective to contribute to the customer’s loyalty because of the ineffective management strategies and policies.

Nevertheless, Wal-Mart aims to follow the strategy of the sustainable development to respond to the communities’ needs globally (“Walmart”). High levels of sales support the idea that Wal-Mart’s performance is based on the effective fundaments, and the chosen retailing strategy to meet the local customers’ needs globally contributes to the retailer’s strong position within the market.

That is why, the prospects for the future of Wal-Mart stores can be discussed as rather positive because of the customers’ recognition of the brand and Wal-Mart’s effective operation of the retailing mix.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Analysis of Wal-Mart’s Retailing Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To provide strong financial returns in the future, it is necessary for the company to focus more on expanding the international segment and on improving the relations with suppliers in the United States and round the world. These actions are necessary to expand operations and to increase revenues because it is the way to increase advantage in the situation of the new rivals’ entry.

Being one of the largest multinational retailing corporations in the world, Wal-Mart focuses on responding to the interests of all the customers in the United States and globally. The company’s strategy is rather effective to contribute to the future development of the retailer because Wal-Mart develops its leadership cost strategy, expands the assortment of products, and focuses on opening more stores meeting the demands of the local customers.

Works Cited Ingram, Paul, Lori Qingyuan Yue, and Hayagreeva Rao. “Trouble in Store: Probes, Protests, and Store Openings by Wal-Mart, 1998–2007”. American Journal of Sociology 116.1 (2010): 53–92. Print.

Levy, Michael, and Barton Weitz. Retailing Management. USA: McGraw-Hill Education, 2011. Print.

Pradhan, Swapna. Retailing Management: Text and Cases. USA: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2009. Print.

Walmart. 2014. Web.


“Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876-1917” by Matthew Frye Jacobson Critical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Book Summary

How the Author did It

What the author was trying to do


Book Summary Matthew Frye Jacobson, in the Barbarian Virtues, examines how immigration and expansionist ambitions defined the American identity in the 19th Century and early 20th Century. Jacobson offers a compelling argument about America’s interest and commitment to expansion and territorial domination, which claimed regions like Samoa, the Philippines and Guam.

He argues that this approach, which involved using “entire peoples as pawns” underscored America’s “heightened degree of imperialist vision in the twentieth century” (7). The book identifies industrial revolution and expansion of foreign policies as the two developments that led to increased the interaction with non-Americans, which defined the attitudes and perceptions about “Americanism”.

How the Author did It In his own words, Jacobson argues that the country’s “trumpeted greatness” during the Reconstruction and World War I periods was influenced by “the dollars, the labor, and, not least, the very image, of the many people with whom Americans increasingly came into contact” (8). The theme of American superiority is explored throughout the book with the author concluding that, during this time, the U.S. “chose imperial power” and non-populist policies as “many Americans liked them” (34).

Jacobson describes the dramatic post-Civil War events that transformed the social and political landscape and brought a new meaning to “Americanism” in the twentieth century. He articulates his thesis through three approaches. First, Jacobson traces the changing faces of ‘Americanism’ from the 1876’s Centennial International Exhibition to World War I, when America proclaimed its military might to the world.

An expansionist foreign policy and influx of immigrants were the two main developments that led to America’s tendency towards world domination in the 20th Century. But, according to Jacobson, the renewed sense of superiority that dominated the expansionist movement was meant to conceal a “plaguing and the quieter sense of self-doubt” (3).

The book uses political documents, treatises, travelogues and drawings as evidence for the strained racial relations during this period. The immigrant labor and overseas markets played a role in America’s industrialization and international trade.

Second, Jacobson describes the political rhetoric behind the foreign expansion and the influx of immigrants that dominated public discourses and helped shape the American identity. Jacobson describes immigration and expansion as “two sides of the same coin” (12), implying that the expansion led to a rapid influx of foreigners into America.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The entry of “problematic aliens” raised the question of their ability to govern themselves, which motivated the economic expansion efforts. The expansion policy was meant to protect America’s target markets in China. To cross the Pacific Ocean to China, America had to acquire Guam, the Philippines and Hawaiian Islands as temporary docking sites for its naval ships.

The colonization was justified on grounds that America was spreading civilization, a noble enterprise that characterized the “Great White Burdens” (104). The foreigners were perceived as “primitives” who should be civilized and therefore, the American intervention was necessary.

Third, Jacobson shows how the European migrants characterized the earlier immigrants as the “nativists” (9). Thus, cultural representations of foreigners and earlier immigrants combined with the changing attitudes towards the influx of immigrants defined “Americanism” at the start of the twentieth century.

What the author was trying to do The nineteenth century and early twentieth century saw a rapid influx of immigrants to America. As the U.S. was expanding to far areas, people from other nations were migrating to America in large numbers. Jacobson attributes the warm receptions that the migrants received to the high demand of labor (barbarian virtues) to drive the rapidly growing economy. This led to the emergence of labor unions, which, however, were meant to protect the whites while excluding Asian immigrants.

The labor policies favored racial exclusion and inferiority, which, according to Jacobson, served to exclude the non-white immigrants from mainstream local political and economic development, and justified America’s invasion to overseas lands inhabited by the “primitives” (7). Jacobson excels in associating the domestic racial exclusion campaigns with the justification for the colonization of foreign lands.

The United States’ place in global economics and geopolitics in the 19th century is well described in this book. Jacobson points out how this position was misunderstood and this shaped the current racial relations. The illustrations and pictures in the book reinforce Jacobson’s argument and convey the actual patterns of “Americanism”. It shows the “barbarian virtues” that the migrants had for America and the problems occasioned by the military expansion to foreign lands.

The broad range of evidence provided help to support the central argument of the book. Jacobson excels in describing how the American identity was developed through a domestic “crucible of immigration” and “empire-building” and domination of overseas lands.

We will write a custom Book Review on “Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876-1917” by Matthew Frye Jacobson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More America’s imperial power was achieved through racial differentiation and fueled by “the dollar, the labor, and, not least, the very image, of the many people with whom Americans came into contact”, who, however, “they blithely identified as inferiors” (85). Thus, America’s expansionist ambitions in the nineteenth century and in the early twentieth century were mired in racial differentiation at home and imperial civilization in overseas lands.

References Jacobson, M. F. (2000). Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876-1917. New York: Hill and Wang.


Space Tourism Analysis Report college essay help online: college essay help online

Executive Summary The important finding of the study is that there is a significant likelihood for people to travel into space. The descriptive statistics of income allocated to space tourism shows that about 90% of the respondents are willing to allocate the income that they earn within a period of less than a year. Additionally, descriptive statistics of respondents’ occupations indicate that the majority of respondents are white-collar professionals, blue-collar employees, and students.

Chi-square test and multiple regression analysis also shows that the level of education, age, and cost of space tourism are significant predictors of income allocated to space tourism. However, income allocated to space tourism does not vary according to the gender and occupation of potential tourists. In spite of the robust findings, the limitations are biased representation of potential customers and poor responses, which reduce both internal and external validities of the study.

Research Objectives To perform descriptive analysis of the income allocated to the space tourism and the current occupation of a potential space tourists.

Test the hypothesis using one-sample t-test to establish the willingness of respondents to undertake space tourism.

To determine the influence of gender on income allocated to space tourism using independent samples t-test.

Perform one-way ANOVA to determine the differences of income allocated among the occupations of respondents.

Chi-square test to determine the association between the amounts of income allocated to the space tourism and preferred length of stay in space.

Determine predictors of income allocated to space tourism using multiple regression test.

Descriptive Statistics Income Prepared to Allocated to the Space Trip

Analysis of the proportion of income that potential tourists are willing to spend on space tourism is important because it indicates their purchasing power. Gibson (2012) argues that a space tourism company needs to understand the amount of potential money that customers are willing to spend on space tourism so that it can design products and tourism packages that meet the demands of customers, as well as enable the company to optimize profits.

Table 1

Statistics Income Prepared to Allocate to a Space Trip N Valid 279 Missing 267 Mean 2.87 Std. Error of Mean .080 Median 3.00 Mode 3 Std. Deviation 1.337 Variance 1.786 Skewness .796 Std. Error of Skewness .146 Kurtosis .641 Std. Error of Kurtosis .291 Range 6 Minimum 1 Maximum 7 Sum 802 From the descriptive table, measures of central tendency are 2.87, 3, and 3 for mean, median, and mode respectively. This means that the majority of the respondents are willing to spend on space tourism income that they earn in 3 months.

Regarding measures of dispersion, standard deviation indicates that the majority of respondents are willing to spend on space tourism between one week’s income and 3 months’ income (M = 2.87±1.337). Although respondents indicate that they are willing to spend the amount of money that ranges from a month’s income to 5-years’ income, the allocated income skews towards income earned in less than a year.

The frequency table indicates the distribution of respondents according to the amount of income they are willing to spend on space tourism. The significant information in the frequency table is that most of the respondents (86) are willing to spend 3 months’ income on space tourism, followed by a month’s income (82), and the third is a week’s income (38).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Figure 1

The histogram illustrates the distribution of income among different periods, which shows that most respondents are willing to spend between 3 months’ income to a month’s income on space tourism. Moreover, it illustrates the skewed distribution towards short periods of income.

Current Occupation

The current occupation of the potential customers is important to the space tourism because it enables marketing managers to understand the nature of customers they are targeting. For the space tourism to be successful, it must target certain kind of customers and define its market niche by targeting customers with specific socioeconomic attributes such as occupation.

Table 2

Statistics Current Occupation N Valid 543 Missing 3 Mean 4.22 Std. Error of Mean .109 Median 4.00 Mode 4 Std. Deviation 2.548 Variance 6.490 Skewness .400 Std. Error of Skewness .105 Kurtosis -.935 Std. Error of Kurtosis .209 Range 8 Minimum 1 Maximum 9 Sum 2289 The measures of central tendency in the descriptive table are 4.22, 4, and 4 for mean, median, and mode respectively. These descriptive statistics imply that the white-collar professionals formed the majority of the respondents. Comparatively, measures of dispersion show that the respondents’ occupations comprise of students, blue-collar, white-collar, contractors and businesspersons (M = 4±2.54).

The frequency table above shows the distribution of respondents according to their occupations. The leading respondents are white-collar professionals (149) followed by students (123), and then blue-collar employees (73) come third. The histogram illustrates that white-collar professionals and students are major respondents.

Figure 2

We will write a custom Report on Space Tourism Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Testing of Hypotheses The Likelihood of Traveling in Space

H0: There is no significant likelihood of the person wanting to travel into space, having the interest, and having undertaking.

H1: There is a very significant likelihood of the person wanting to travel into space, having the interests and having undertaking.

Table 3

One-Sample Test Test Value = 1 t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper like to do astronomical observation -21.847 314 .000 -.603 -.66 -.55 risks taken in recreation and leisure 37.611 310 .000 2.585 2.45 2.72 Travelled outside Australia 26.418 301 .000 .699 .65 .75 like to play sport -21.278 314 .000 -.590 -.65 -.54 travelled to poles -210.000 210 .000 -.995 -1.00 -.99 like to play in zero g -15.748 314 .000 -.441 -.50 -.39 From the one-sample test table, it is evident that all variables that measure the likelihood of a person wanting to travel into space, having the interest, and having the undertakings are statistically significant (p<0.05). This implies that the test rejects the null hypothesis and accepts that alternative hypothesis, which states that there is a very significant likelihood of the person wanting to travel into space, having the interests and having undertaking.

Gender and Income Allocated to Space


H0: The amounts of income that male and female respondents are willing to allocate to space tourism are not significantly different

H1: The amounts of income that male and female respondents are willing to allocate to space tourism are significantly different.

Table 4

Independent Samples Test Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper Income prepared to allocate to a space trip Equal variances assumed .167 .683 1.388 277 .166 .222 .160 -.093 .537 Equal variances not assumed 1.387 273.559 .166 .222 .160 -.093 .537 The independent samples t-test shows that the difference in the amounts of income that male and female respondents are willing to allocate to space tourism are not significantly different (p>0.05). Hence, it implies that the independent t-test fails to reject the null hypothesis, and hence, male and female respondents have equal capacities of being space tourists.

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H0: The amounts of income allocated to space tourism have no significant differences across the occupations.

H1: The amounts of income allocated to space tourism have significant differences across the occupations..

Table 5

ANOVA Income Prepared to Allocate to a Apace Trip Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 26.133 8 3.267 1.871 .065 Within Groups 469.708 269 1.746 Total 495.842 277 The ANOVA table shows that there is no significant difference in the amounts of income allocated to space tourism among respondents in diverse occupations (p>0.05). Post hoc analysis also affirms that there is no significant difference in the amounts of income allocated among diverse occupations. Hence, the ANOVA test fails to reject the null hypothesis and affirms that occupations does not influence income allocated to space tourism.

The Association between Income Allocated and Preferred Length of Stay


H0: There is no significant association between income allocated to space tourism and preferred length of stay.

H1: There is a significant association between income allocated to space tourism and preferred length of stay.

Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 36.658a 24 .047 Likelihood Ratio 38.128 24 .034 Linear-by-Linear Association 7.572 1 .006 N of Valid Cases 264 The chi-square test indicates that there is a significant association between income allocated to space tourism and preferred length of stay (p<0.05). This means that the amount of income allocated determines length of stay in space.

Multiple Regression Analysis


H0: Level of education, preferred length of stay, cost, and age are not significant predictors of income allocated to tourism.

H1: Level of education, preferred length of stay, cost, and age are significant predictors of income allocated to tourism.

Table 6

Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .622a .387 .378 1.043 The multiple regression coefficient (R) is 0.622, which means that this regression model predicts the income allocated to space tourism.

Table 7

ANOVAa Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 175.352 4 43.838 40.290 .000b Residual 277.459 255 1.088 Total 452.812 259 Moreover, the multiple regression coefficient is significant (p<0.05). This means that the regression analysis rejects the null hypothesis and accepts the alternative one, which states that level of education, preferred length of stay, cost, and age are significant predictors of income allocated to tourism

Table 8

Coefficients Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) .757 .287 2.638 .009 highest level of formal education .106 .051 .107 2.099 .037 preferred length of stay in space .089 .060 .074 1.478 .141 pay for 2-day trip


“The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business” by Alfred Chandler Critical Essay college essay help online

In his book, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business, Alfred Chandler contributes significant insights to the world of business and defense management in the American management historic perspective. Chandler seeks to bring new knowledge of management by linking the traditional and modern managerial systems, which is of great significance to the growth and development of business and defense systems.

The book also has important implications on the readers’ side, especially in providing information on how important business functions located in small business enterprises can be utilized in the formation of multiunit enterprises, which in various ways can also be applied in a nation’s defense sector, as illustrated by the author’s idea that defense and business have similar managerial functions.

The book’s historical perspectives are also essential to the important government organs in assessing whether important government operations should be outsourced. Hence, the author intends to use the American historical perspectives of business and economics in relation to capitalism to advise the readers on the importance of history in the decision-making process in various sectors of governance in the US. This paper gives a critical analysis of Chandler’s book, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business.

The book’s historical lessons give advice and assistance to the government in exploring the benefits and risks that defense sector will incur by outsourcing some activities to smaller security firms. In addition, the book helps in determining whether the government should internalize such activities by taking business angles in which some activities push businesses into expanding their sizes and scope of their corporate structures.

The author compares the government’s defense sector with business enterprises and finds that the two can be managed in nearly the same way as their managerial activities have common historical evolutions in a capitalist nation.

According to author’s ideology, small activities that affect business enterprise management, as well as defense management, have been challenging to managers as they have high hidden costs. Hence, Chandler (1997, 6-7) advises managers to consider the option of internalizing such activities in ways that will result in growth of business enterprises rather than outsourcing them to small companies that are in the same business line.

Although outsourcing is done to reduce costs, while attaining high productivity, the author argues that failure to outsource gave rise to the modern business enterprises through history of business evolution in the United States. Hence, the growth of modern enterprises into future giant enterprises can be achieved by failing to outsource business activities that if retained will enable the business to increase its size and corporate structure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In business managerial, Chandler argues that the creation of managerial hierarchies was a key ingredient to the success of business management in the United States. The idea of business managers’ professionalism enabled many enterprises to achieve successful internalization of small activities that helped them to become large American companies that they are today.

Also, the author argues that professional managers are of great benefit to the business enterprises as they improve productivity and lower production costs, and thus business evolution cannot be achieved without professional business managers.

The author examines the evolution and growth of the American business enterprises in the period between 1840 and 1920, in relation to coordination and administrative developments (Chandler 1977, 20). Some of those developments gave notable rise to growth and evolution of business enterprises that include communication, financial administration, and transportation, all of which are relevant in production and distribution of goods and services.

Through the historical evolution of some business activities in that period, a notable growth of business enterprises was experienced in the US, whose managerial activities had advanced more as compared to their counterparts before the evolution. The author points out that development of key business activities gives rise to advanced business enterprises in the end.

In addition to his attention on managerial evolution, Chandler notes that the change in production and distribution activities in the industries after the development of department stores and chain stores, as characterized by mass production and distribution, was started due to available large market and storage facilities. Chandler’s insights shed light on the desegregation of production and distribution in industries via mergers and acquisitions.

This book gives insights to managers on the relevance of retaining small activities rather than outsourcing coupled with aiming at acquiring small companies within the same operation line. Chandler achieves the above idea by giving historical examples where numerous challenges, which faced supply chain management, were solved through acquisition of smaller companies, and hence forming larger corporate enterprises.

In conclusion, understanding of the “visible hand” of management makes managerial activities of modern business enterprises executable as it considers the evolution of the modern American business enterprise in relation to managerial activities and decisions that made business growth and development achievable. Hence, the problems facing the majority of American business enterprises and the defense sector can easily be solved by considering the decisions made in the historical evolution by enterprises under the same conditions.

We will write a custom Book Review on “The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business” by Alfred Chandler specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Chandler, Alfred. 1977. The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.


Exploring the Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Relevant Policy Issues

Nature of Substance Abuse, Addiction, Recovery, and Relapse

Evidence-Based Treatment Approaches

Current Substance Abuse Treatment System

Group Therapies

Conclusion and Recommendations

Reference List

Abstract This research paper establishes that the problem of substance abuse in the female sex is increasing in most parts of the world. The trend is worrying. Some of the policy changes discussed include the use of specialized care providers, provision of care in the society, and the establishment of more women-specific rehabilitation centers. Issues concerning the course and nature of substance abuse, addiction, recovery, and relapse among this population of female substance abusers have also been discussed.

Various evidence-based approaches to treating substance abuse and addiction in various settings in the selected target population will be tackled in the research paper. The context of a changing health care environment for women substance abusers will also be highlighted. Important therapies such as the nontraditional approaches of motivational therapy, solution-focused brief, and group therapies will take the center stage. SFGT emerges a futuristic treatment modality for women with substance abuse problems.

Introduction Women are a special population of drug abusers. They provide a challenge to any group or individuals who are working towards their treatment. Like many states in the US, the state of Florida is one of the most affected with the problem of drug abuse among women. The impacts of substance abuse are relatively similar to those in the male population. However, this group of substance abusers also faces special challenges.

Therefore, it is important to examine the impact of substance abuse on this population and its recovery at an individual (micro) and systems (macro) level. This research paper looks at substance abuse in women, evidence-based approaches to the provision of treatment services for them, and any historical and current policy issues that may have prevented or supported treatment-service delivery to this client group.

Relevant Policy Issues Policies addressing the treatment of substance abuse in women with substance abuse problem have been developed from many research findings. The treatment of the special client group is mostly similar to the male colleagues, although there are few variations in the policies. Zarkin, Dunlap, and Homsi (2004) looked at some of the substance abuse services cost analysis programs (SASCAP) and some of the major policies in the management of substance abuse.

Some of the policy changes include the allocation of scarce drug abuse treatment dollars (Zarkin, Dunlap,


Tiffany and Company Case Study a level english language essay help

Analysing the Case Strategic problem statement

Following Trian Fund Management LP’s announcement of Tiffany’s undervaluation, Tiffany became challenged to re-examine ways of increasing its shareholder value.

Tactical problem statement

Tiffany has prevented dilution of its brand name by limiting its sales growth, number of stores opened annually and not licensing the brand name to other entities (Hess 167). However, increasing its shareholder value means that the company needs to increase its presence in the market.

Identification of issues and symptoms Case Exercise: Tiffany and Company (Tiffany)

Tiffany was a leader in luxury jewellery brand with $2.6 billion generated globally from sales. The company even reduced the number of stores it opened in the U.S. though it could open 45 stores. Exclusivity of its products protected them from dilution and while opening fewer stores prevented production of low quality products.

However, with Tiffany’s realisation that it had the potential to increase its shareholder value, the company was forced to consider two strategic moves to achieve this. Lloyd and Davis (par. 1) note that creation of shareholder value depends primarily on the growth of revenue and return on invested capital in surplus of capital cost.

This can be through opening more stores quickly or licensing the company’s brand to the Italian company. However, it is important for managers to avoid blindly seeking to improve their companies’ shareholder value as they may end up destroying these values (Rappaport, par. 1).

Symptom 1: With recognition of Tiffany as a major jewellery dealer in America, it believes that it can maintain its competitive edge even after increasing the number of its stores.

Issue 1: (Strength) Tiffany’s long history and achievements in the jewellery business gives it ability to easily expand its operations. The potential profitability of the expansion is guaranteed as Tiffany has numerous customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tiffany has notable achievements that ensure that it is firmly positioned in its primary market. Companies that use the product concept as their guiding principle focus on high quality and innovative products to retain their customers (Kotler 11). Tiffany’s products of high quality have helped in ensuring customers remain loyal to the brand through time.

Symptom 2: The Italian company will help Tiffany to quickly sell its products to many customers while allowing Tiffany to save on logistics and warehousing.

Issue 2: (Threat) Tiffany may need to revise its operational strategies and management policies in order to conform to those of the Italian company.

Tiffany may be forced to review its management policies when it offers the Italian company license to its brand name. As noted by Sears, Glenn and Richard (246), such a network structure is likely to complicate control and coordination of activities within the alliance. Tiffany’s products will also be diluted and Tiffany may lose its ability to regulate its commodity prices.

Symptom 3: Tiffany has a low employee turnover rate and employee-satisfaction rates are also high.

Issue 3: (Opportunity) High employee-satisfaction rates and low employee turnover rate ensures that Tiffany is stable and able to continue producing high-quality products.

The commitment of Tiffany’s employees to the company gives it the ability to easily obtain employees to serve in the additional stores. This will ensure that Tiffany experiences minimum interruptions in operations.

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The new partnership with the Italian company will force Tiffany to review its operational and management strategies: (issue 2)

(Partnership with the new company will result in disruptions in operations and management of activities within Tiffany. As noted by Hess and Liedtka (65), it is difficult to maintain a sense of purpose and team culture while welcoming divergent views. Such divergent views are expected in the partnership between Tiffany and the Italian company).


Tiffany has a strong brand name and wide recognition: (issue 1)

(Tiffany has a long history as a dealer in jewellery with notable accomplishments. This gives it ability to expand and increase its shareholder value independently).

The high employee-satisfaction rates at Tiffany ensures that the company is stable: (issue 4)

(Stability in Tiffany gives it ability to expand is operations without external assistance as Tiffany has enough capital and an experienced workforce needed for the expansion).

Setting the goals or Objectives

To increase the shareholder value by expanding Tiffany’s operations through opening more stores quickly while maintaining the company’s mission of enriching lives of its customers through the creation of memorable objects of extraordinary quality.

Recommendations On Issue 1

Alternative 1: Tiffany may continue to focus on its market segmentation and maintaining the exclusivity of its products by not expanding.

Alternative 2: Tiffany may choose to expand independently by quickly adding a number of its stores.

On Issue 2

Alternative 1: Tiffany may change its strategies to conform to those of the Italian company.

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On Issue 3

Alternative 1: Tiffany should increase the number of its stores while relying on its committed employees for manpower.

Alternative 2: Tiffany should partner with the Italian company and use some of its current employees to serve in stores owned by the Italian company.

Implementation PLAN

Tiffany should consider increasing its number of stores quickly in order to improve its shareholder value while maintaining its vertical integration strategy that has enabled it to retain its competitive edge.

Alternative solution proposals

Tiffany should increase its number of stores and use its current employees to serve in new stores in senior positions while filling any remaining vacancies with new employees.

Works Cited Hess, Edward D. and Jeanne Liedtka. The Physics of Business Growth: Mindsets, System, and Processes. 2012. Print.

Hess, Edward. The Road to Organic Growth: How Great Companies Consistently Grow Marketshare from Within. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. Print.

Kotler, Philip. Marketing Management, Millennium Edition. n.d. Web.

Lloyd, W. James and Davis E. Laureen. Building Long-Term Value: Objective financial analysis focuses clients on business revenue growth. November 2007. Web.

Rappaport, Alfred. Ten Ways to Create Shareholder Value. September 2006. Web.

Sears, S K, Glenn A. Sears, and Richard H. Clough. Construction Project Management: A Practical Guide to Field Construction Management. New York: John Wiley