Should We Be Realist Or Non-realist Towards Religious Claims Essay Essay Help

Introduction It is sometimes difficult to make a choice on whether to be realistic or non-realistic towards religious claims. Often, people choose to apply both.

Realist views in religion claim to be referring to God’s existence and God’s characteristics as a real being with real features. Therefore, if there is no God, and if these characteristics of God did not exist, people would be making false claims (Peterson et al., 2007, p.5).

Of course, realism exists in many forms. An important form for discussion is ethical realism. The realist philosophers hence believe that their perceptions and normative claims concern definite realties in the moral realm. However, as the paper unveils, we should be realistic about religious claims.

Without getting into much discussion about the prospects and challenges of non-realism on general philosophy, I can say that there is a central problem with non-realists’ perception of truth (Trigg, 1997, p.217).

They fail to acknowledge the commonsensical idea, in religion and beyond, where truth relies on the way things are. Truth surpasses what is determinable in boundaries on certain discourse (Trigg, 1997, p.219).

Religion is essential in a community and both realist and non-realist at some point aggress of this given the advantages that religion has had. The society has been using religion to ensure that people comply with its rules (Peterson et al., 2007, p.7).

Non-realists point out the structure of religion as a social discipline with nothing supernatural about it. The basic sense of religion seriously changes from these thoughts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More My viewpoint is that, human agency works to determine whether there is something or nothing. It is blatantly false that the human beings created the universe (Peterson et al., 2007, p.7). People find themselves part of the universe hence the non-realist stance cannot explain creation.

Don Cupitt view of religion relies on radical relativism, linguistic constructivism, and culture’s impact on humanity. Cupitt’s perception is that religion is a cultural situation in modern time (Cupitt, 1995, p.81).

There has come the end of an era. The old realistic concept of God as omnipotent, spiritual and independent of human is long overdue according to Cupitt (Cupitt, 1995, p.81). People need to make their own truths and value developing a reality that encompasses everyone.

In the past, Christian morals were entirely realist. For instance, the God’s commandments in the Bible tell people what to and what not to do. This has caused people to view moral truths as independent of the commandments.

This implies obeying the commandments without question (Cupitt, 1995, p.82). However, as people now challenge or even reject moral truths and religion by rationalizing issues to believe in, this has resulted in a perception of any absolute form of such issues gradually rejected.

The main challenge to religion’s certainty and centrality beliefs came about in Europe following the emerging philosophy in 1700s. People refer this period to as the Enlightenment or Age of Reason.

This rationalization of belief has reduced the objective view of God. Moral ethics stands out as attempts to obey God-given moral code. However, this has led to the perception that there are no absolute standards of what is right or wrong. According to Cupitt, the bottom-line is that there is a new starting point for Christian ethics.

We will write a custom Essay on Should we be realist or non-realist towards religious claims specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cupitt’s rejects God’s objective existence based on epistemological concerns on how much knowledge human have of God, or more significantly lack.

He rejects God’s existence as lawgiver arguing that, if he were to exist, then human would not truly free to live the way they wanted…they would follow certain ways designed by God (Cupitt, 1995, p.82).

Such heteronymous faith cannot be a means of becoming autonomous of fully liberated spirit, as it seems decisive against God’s purpose of existence.

An objective God cannot offer salvation. Believing in divine lawgiver is repressive from this viewpoint. If God set out the right ways to live, human beings would have to fallow that ‘path’. Cupitt argues that this view cannot save, as salvation means freedom, while this viewpoint means submission (Cupitt, 1990, p.106).

Roger Trigg argues from different angles that it is badly unsound understanding of religion that makes people think it is optional and eccentric: secretive individual conviction.

Religious belief is not typically private. However, it takes a public communal shape. Rarely is it an issue of personal concern: it finds expression in the way followers of the religion live out their communal life (Trigg, 2007, p.191).

For many people, leave alone the religious ones, religion is not optional but a crucial factor of fundamental identity as persons. Religion has also over the years proven not to be an idiosyncratic thing.

For years, cognitive scholars argue that human beings are naturally religious beings. It is indispensable to add to the argument that no one merely has religion rather religion comes are types of religions (Trigg, 2007, p.191).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Should we be realist or non-realist towards religious claims by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If these arguments are true, it hence constitutes a powerful case for believing that humans have a prima facie inalienable right to practice their religion.

Trigg notes that, in European declarations, it is common to see region referred to as clashing with rights. In such cases, it has to give way to rights (Trigg, 2007, p.193). Religion has it own rights.

Realists like Trigg and Penelhum also argue that God’s existence has to be independent of believers. Trigg’s argument points out the possibility of defining God’s transcendence without reference to any mind enclosing boundaries (Trigg, 2007, p.195).

Therefore, for realists, existence of God is real. Furthermore, this existence is independent of the world and, therefore, not the same as the world or anything in it. God exists independent of our minds – what we think (Trigg, 2007, p.196).

The central tenet of realistic perception of religion is, therefore, the claim that God exists, otherwise referred to as the Objectivity of God’s reality.

In essence, if this argument is true, God existence is not sensibly reliant on human’s subjectivity or certain ways of thinking and practice where cognitive actions and assertions pertaining God occur (Trigg, 1997, p.213).

Realism simply declares that God derives God’s own existence and reality from God’s self and not from the world, notions and or language that people use when referring to God (Trigg, 1997, p.216).

Theological realism is hence metaphysical realism that comprises of divine reality, affirming that God is objectively real with his existence independent of what people believe in or say about him (Trigg, 1997, p.217).

Doing justice to this rational perception, people need to tie truth with reality in a manner that the truth of religious propositions such as Omnipotent God or Loving God rely on whether reality is in agreement with them or not.

Realists like Trigg try to save this notion by placing arguments that religious propositions are true only if they correspond to the way human-independent reality is (Trigg, 1997, p.215).

Therefore, it is understandable with contention that an essential fact to realism is the concept of truth as constituted appropriate between beliefs or statements and the characteristics of independent, determinate reality.

There are religious realists claiming that God exists beyond practice and perception while there are also non-realists who claim this is not true. Independent existence seems to be the main concept of their claims.

I support the realist arguments that there is the existence of God beyond language, practice, and compromise. To deny this claim mixes up issues of how something is determined to be true and what it means to be true.

I think that it does not entirely require the concept of independent existence to prove real existence but the theory of objectivity of existence (Trigg, 1997, p.217).

Don Cupitt defines truth as something that comes up because of language hence it is a cultural thing (Cupitt, 1990, p.107). If realists agree to this then, consensus is paramount in deciding on what in the truth.

However, consensus cannot create the truth. It is not the people make truths by failing to accept certain true claims. Replacing them with our own notion is no better.

In conclusion, I support the realist claim on the subject of knowledge, as well as its object regarding our search for truth. Realists claim that we can have knowledge of something.

However, sceptics have a problem with how one achieves this knowledge. That is why Trigg proposes a non-fundamentalist way, which uncritically builds on own culture: a metaphysical thesis on the nature of reality (Trigg, 1997, p.220).

Trigg puts it that the solution to contention between realism and non-realism entails answering epistemological concerns, which refer to one’s ability to know.

The metaphysical concern is the nature of objective reality. Something real is independent of how we criticize it. Unreliability cannot be consequential without logic of objective reality.

Reference List Cupitt, D. (1990). Creation Out of Nothing. London: SCM Press.

Cupitt, D. (1995). The Last Philosophy. London: SCM Press

Peterson, M., Hasker, W., Reichenbach, B.,


Profile of a language group present in the Los Angeles area Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Living areas The Los Angeles Area is inhabited by a very large Korean American community. At this point, it is very difficult to determine the exact number, but according to the results available in 2008, this minority was represented by 1.1 million people (Kim, 27). These people live predominantly in Los Angeles County and Orange County.

There are some places where there is a large proportion of this group; in particular, one has to speak about such neighborhood as Koreatown. They constitute 23 percent of total population which is approximately 28520 people (Kim, 27). Overall, Korean Americans live in Los Angeles, Anaheim, and many neighboring cities.

Reasons for settling in the US and the LA area There are several reasons why these people decided to settle in the United States, and particularly the LA area. First, some of them had to immigrate in order to avoid political prosecution. This reason is particularly important when we speak about North Korean refugees or their descendants.

Secondly, many Korean people chose to settle in the US because this country could provide them with better economic and employment opportunities. It should be noted that Korean population of the Los Angeles area began to increase dramatically after the adoption of Immigration and Nationality Act (Chen, 41).

Many of these immigrants chose this part of the United States because of its rapid economic growth, vast educational opportunities, and mild climate.

The use of the language in the private sector Private education

The Korean language is not often used in the sphere of private education. Certainly, we can mention Wilshire Private School in which students can learn the Korean language, but it is not a part of the curriculum (Wilshire Private School, unpaged). It is located in Los Angeles on 4900 Wilshire Boulevard.

This educational institution can serve the needs of ESL students, and many Korean immigrants want their children to attend this school because in this place they could practice both English and Korean.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Religious worship

Currently, the majority of Korean Americans view themselves as Christians (Yoo


Eastman Kodak Analysis Report writing essay help

Introduction George Eastman founded Eastman Kodak Co. in 1892. The company is presently a global purveyor and a developer of digital imaging products and services. Over the years, the company has created a strong customer base with the traditional imaging products for commercial, leisure and scientific purposes.

Among the products that the company deal with include home printers, photographic processing chemicals, digital cameras, scanners and films. They also offer a wide array of services that include wholesale finishing services, digital imaging as well as online photo storage and sharing services. The company also creates calendars, photo books, requested prints and frames that it ships.

The company is generally organized into 3 divisions dealing with separate sets of products and services. These are the Graphic Communication Group (GCG), the Consumer Digital Imaging group (CDG) and the Film, Photofinishing and Entertainment Group (FPEG).

Kodak Co, is traded in the New York stock exchange and reported revenue of $9 billion last year and is believed to has assets to the tune of $9billion in FY08. The story of the company has been one of innovation over the years.

However, there was laxity in embracing the digital revolution and this slackened the growth of the company which has made it struggle for a long time in trying to cover the lost ground. The company has realized that in order to be profitable, it should not solely rely on sales.

Therefore, it has embarked in other ventures including selling of assets like the intellectual property rights and the OLED arm of business which is a potential platform for next-generation flat display technology. This technology has been steadily developed by the company in the last couple of decades (Kodak, 2009).

The company is assuming to establish itself as a maker of user friendly imaging products that are primarily crafted with amateurs in mind. The problem with this strategy is that most of the products end up having lower prices in the market which creates an illusion that they may be of inferior quality than those of the competitors. The way the company markets its products does not emphasize on a single product but rather promotes a range of products.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s rise to global acclaim began when George Eastman advanced a dry plate technology that allowed for the amateur pursuit of photography. This led to the issue of about 19,000 patents from 1900 up to 1999. The greatest success was from the development of the Kodachrome which was the first colored film and was used by NASA in the maiden flight to the moon to take photographs and relay them to earth.

However, with such a strong background, the company failed to capitalize on its strengths during the rise of the digital age and this saw it revenues plummet form $15 billion to $ 9.4 billion (Butcher, 2009). There has also been a major operation by the company to cut its work force considerably which has seen around 50,000 job cuts (Dobbin, 2009).

Porter’s five forces Porter’s five forces are usually those factors that prevent the entry of a company into a market or those that prevent an established business from expanding. Kodak is in crisis having lost a large share of its market due to competition and the shift from film photography to digital one (Pham-Gia, 2009). The company unveiled a plan that was aimed at investing a large sum in the expansion into new markets.

This plan of action infuriated investors who were going to loose out on dividends in order to fund this endeavor. Over the last couple of years, the company has experienced a dip in profitability which has increased concerns about the company’s strategy going forward.

The first force that prevents Kodak from expanding into new markets is the threat of competitors. In the digital imaging business, there are other companies that have a large market share including Canon and Sony who are renowned for their electronics’ manufacturing. Other companies like Hewlett Packard and Facebook also compete with Kodak on multiple fronts.

The second force is the threat from new entrants. Whereas the company has been in operation for the last century, new ideas are constantly born and as such there is no guarantee for continued prosperity. As technological advances are made, the needs of consumers change.

Companies that realize the needs fastest are the ones who benefit most. In the last couple of years, for example, Facebook was conceived out of the need for people to communicate by sharing pictures. Thus, when Kodak rolled out its Kodakgallery, the market had already been swayed towards the social networks.

We will write a custom Report on Eastman Kodak Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third force is the presence of substitutes. Since electronic products are now being produced by a large number of companies, there has been an increase in the number of cheap products that have entered the market. Most of these are counterfeited and do not go through the set licensures and hence they are cheaper.

The fourth force according to Porter is the action of suppliers. This includes the suppliers of raw materials and capital. Certain raw materials are very costly and thus they deter the production of a certain product.

There is also the fact that there are patents that work against the company and that is a deterrent as the purchase of these patents may be very expensive. The final bit of this point is that investors might withhold their input if they do not buy into a certain venture the company is looking to undertake.

The final force that may hinder the expansion of the company is the customers. The market is already saturated with a wide array of similar products as those of Kodak. This may mean that the company might take a long time to break even in new markets.

Kodak’s corporate strategy The market strategy adopted by the company is customer focused. Specifically, the company targets people between the ages of 25 and 40 years and those that are active, in relationships and love to take photographs, have basic skills in photography, and those that care about family and friends and are fascinated by the prospect of freezing time and sharing those moments with others online.

The company is positioning itself in a way to fight off the competition by allowing users to take, share and store images on the internet and also engage a keepsafe feature unlike its competitors Canon, Nikon, and Fujifilm.

There is also focus on improving the products that the company offers. However there is a popular notion that although the company uses words like “easy” meant to insinuate that the products have user-friendliness, there are no features to support the claim.

The only thing that the products have is a long battery life like the Kodak Easy Share M1033 digital camera. The Kodak Easy Share 5300 printer is accompanied by a very unfriendly user interface that is cumbersome to use and lacks a networking capability.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Eastman Kodak Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These facts discredit the company’s repeated promotional campaigns that suggest that all its products are user-friendly. However, there is reprieve as the products are created within a very short time frame in order to fend off the competition and can be improved over time as the technology improves and the needs of the customers change. The products that the company develops present different market scenarios (Keegan and Greene, 2005).

For example, the digital camera is the same as that of the competitors. In an attempt to improve the product, the revenue from the original product is reduced and this projects a certain element of cannibalism on the products. On the contrary, the development of the printer has given rise to one that has a high initial cost but reduces the costs of ink needed.

Kodak strives to provide products that demand price differentiation from those of the competitors so as to make profit. Comparing the primary Kodak products like digital cameras and inkjet printers, and its secondary products like Kodak Gallery and digital picture frames with those of its competitors, a trend emerges.

According to the Consumer’s Union of the United States (2009), Kodak cameras retailed between $80 and $160 while those offered by the competitors ranged from $110 to $500. It is possible to deduce that Kodak suffers from a negative price differential.

While lower products attract a large proportion of the price sensitive consumer, it also serves to create an image that the products are of a lesser quality than those of the competitors to the more critical customer whereas in reality, Kodak products hive the same results as those of these competitors if not better.

In a ranking that was done to reflect the top 26 spots point and shoot category of the digital camera, Kodak was found to hold four of these spots only bettered by Canon which had nine. Others like Fujifilm held two and Nikon had none.

Kodak, like its competitors, markets its products through individual websites. There is also placement that is done in major and local retailers in stores and also on the internet. Photo storage products are exclusively offered on the internet.

Kodak has aggressively been involved in promotional activities for its products. In 1988, the famous catch phrase associated with its products was “you press the button we’ll do the rest” (Kodak, 2009). Others included “the Kodak moment”, “share moments, share life” in 2001 and “it’s time to smile!”

The communication today between friends and families is easier. This is because of the numerous channels that have opened up. Among the most significant is the development of the social networks where people share pictures and other images.

Cell phones are also contributors to these increased interactions. The use of these networks has not been used by the company to a meaningful level.

Compared to the number of followers that competitors of Kodak have, it is clear that the company has still not embraced technology and its effects on marketing of products. Charlene Li (2008) presents a scenario that helps to better understand the impact of the social media on a company’s profitability.

Assume that the ideal Kodak consumer spends $200 per year for 20 years in a variety of products totaling $4,000. Also, assume Kodak‘s contribution margin stays at nearly 25% so each customer is worth $1000 to the company. If an integrated digital campaign of the magnitude that Kodak is implementing costs nearly $10 million per year to maintain, the company will need 10,000 of these consumers to break even.

Kodak’s promotional strategy has not been in line with that of its competitors. While the company relies too much on its brand strength, its competitors have engaged the services of celebrities who are worshipped wildly, world-wide.

Nikon engages the services of Ashton Kutcher, a movie star whereas Canon has Maria Sharapova who is a sports icon, to energize their brands. Kodak therefore needs to improve on its initiatives so as to build on its community of fans and in turn stir growth in revenues and image.

SWOT Analysis Kodak will be analyzed according to its perceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.


The existence of the company since 1892 has led to cultivation of a very strong brand image. The company’s brand name is recognized world wide and this helps to increase sales margins as the company charges premium prices for its products (Pringle and Field, 2008).

A strong brand name always attracts a brand loyalty that helps the customers to perceive a high quality different from that of recent entrants. A strong brand is always associated with strong stock and this ensures trade in the stock market for its products.

Another strength for the company is the intellectual property rights that it has. This gives it the edge over the other products as its portfolio is associated with innovations and thus keeps customers anticipating their products and other companies buying the rights to the developed products.


Over the years, the company has missed some great opportunities that have led to missed profits. This misses were occasioned by the presence of a weak management that did not take enough risks (Al-Ali, 2003).

However in today’s environment, the company has many initiatives that it hopes hold the keys for future technology advancement. The excessive risks taken by the company could lead to decreased profits occasioned by wasted resources on projects that fail to bear any fruits.

The company is in the process of a restructuring that has seen a massive loss of jobs over the past couple of years. If this transition is not managed carefully, then the company is set to loose its footing in the market which could affect its image and in turn revenue.

Another weakness is the fact that the company has shifted its focus from film photography to digital photography. This is unhealthy for the company as there are still many areas in the world where people are still reliant on films for photography especially in third world nations.


Kodak has a number of opportunities mostly stemming from advances in technology. Technology has occasioned the improvement of products and services offered and also introducing new platforms that could increase profitability. This may also assist in building competitive barriers against competitors.

Emerging markets also present an opportunity to increase the business prospects especially in markets that are opening up around the world especially in Africa and Asia.

New products that are built constantly present a great opportunity for expansion of the markets in which Kodak operates. New products can stem from the increased research in new technologies or can be developed out of the realization of a need gap in the consumer behavior.

New markets are also an opportunity for Kodak to capitalize on. While emerging markets insinuate spreading into new frontiers, new markets connote a diversification of the range of the products and services that the company offers.


The biggest threat is posed by the deteriorating economy occasioned by the global economic crisis. This has greatly reduced the consumer purchasing power and in turn is destined to affect the revenue the company rakes.

Intense competition is also a major threat to the profitability of Kodak. The competitors can attract customers and persuade them that their products are superior to those of Kodak. Therefore, the company needs to keep aggressively marketing its products.

The presence of substitute products is also a major threat to the sales recorded by Kodak. The major threat posed by substitutes is that they can affect the company in case of an increase in the prices of products since they are cheaply available.

Competition for Kodak is not only in the imaging companies like Nikon and Canon but also the social networking sites like facebook that give users the same experience as that which Kodak promote involving storing pictures on the web.

Recommendations There are a few recommendations that would be very helpful to the improvement of Kodak’s position in the market.

Availing products to the markets for sale to customers is very vital. Kodak, although avails the products, does not inform the consumers of the locations where the products can be easily accessed. When one visits the company’s website, it is difficult to get a location from where one can purchase a Kodak product. As such, the company should improve on its communication to the customers about the nearest outlets to them that stock their products.

The company should consider revising its prices upwards so as to increase its price differentiation (Kavajecz, 2009). According to the market survey discussed in the preceding segments, it is clear that competitors of Kodak make profits from the sale of their products that are of a similar quality as that of the company.

An increase in price will not necessarily decrease sales and in turn revenues since the competitors charge higher prices for the same quality. In fact, this move would increase the revenues generated by the company.

The market strategy that the company has adopted overwhelms customers as it’s presented as a process. For example, Kodak tells customers to take pictures with their digital cameras, print them with their printers, share them on KodakGalley, create keepsafe and display the pictures on their frames. This process is tedious for the customer.

Thus, the company should focus on promoting one product at a time. The recommendation here is that the company should focus on a primary product like digital cameras and then choose the others as supporting products. This will ultimately increase sales in comparison to the adopted strategy.

As a result of the target market that the company has adopted, there should be focus on the production of more user-friendly products. The company attempts to sell its digital cameras to the novice photographers. As such, the product should integrate an easy to use interface and should have most of the other function automated.

This should not however compromise the quality of the end product. Currently, the company’s products compete well with the others but do not go out of their way to differentiate themselves. The same case applies to their printers.

References Al-Ali, N. (2003). Comprehensive intellectual capital management. New Jersey: John Wiley


The Legend of Sleepy Hollow vs An Indian’s Looking Glass for the White Man Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The short story, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, written by Washington Irving and published first in 1820, is set in the Dutch settlement Greenburgh or Tarry Town as it was known. Specifically, the whole story takes place in a secluded glen, the Sleepy Hollow in the late 1700s. Ichabod Crane and Abraham “Brom Bones” Van Brunt are the two main protagonists battling out for the hand of the 18-year-old daughter of Baltus Van Tassel in the marriage.

The young lady in the endless dog fight between these two men is Katrina Van Tassel who is the only child of the wealthy farmer. The two gentlemen are of different characters as Ichabod, a schoolmaster, is a very superstitious man. On the other hand, Abraham is the town rowdy and is a very cunning man.

Ichabod while from a party from Van Tassel’s home, he is chased by what he believes is a headless ghost. After this event which occurred during one night in autumn, Ichabod disappears without a trace.

However, the manner in which Brom knows the story about Ichabod’s mysterious disappearance, it is clear that he was indeed the headless ghost. He takes an advantage of the fact that his main competitor, Ichabod, is a very superstitious man and scares him away leaving him with the bride, Katrina Van Tassel.

In his book, An Indian’s Looking-Glass for the White, William Apes tries to point out various aspects of racism in the society in which he lived in. The topic is actual for all times including the present days. Racism has been one of the main problems facing the modern society nowadays.

In this book, Apes points out that it is hypocritical to hold on to the existence of races at the same time call yourself a Christian for racism is not even recognized in the Bible. This book is set in the 1800s when the white people controlled the Native Americans.

However, Apes, writing to the mostly predominately white Christian audience, insists that they have no right to rule the colored people and even Jesus and His disciples were colored. In his essay, Apes asserts that the whites have committed heinous crimes in the name of Christianity murdering the colored Native Americans to grab their lands.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More William Apes believes that it is quite dehumanizing for the whites to deny the colored people their basic human rights such as land ownership. It is not right for any race to have control over the other races as it is a free world and people are supposed to have equal rights.

He points out that it is not right for the whites to treat the Native Americans as lesser beings. However, Apes tries to bridge this gap that has emerged due to the skin color by calling everyone to a common understanding that all are the same; white or colored. He believes that all races should love each other for all are Christians.

Of the two books, William Apes’, “An Indian’s Looking-Glass for the White,” stands out as the better of the two. The plot structure of this book is very elaborate and to the point. The plot structure clearly brings out the writer’s main themes, racism and Christianity.

In his plot, Apes clearly points out the crimes committed by the white people against the Native Americans. The whites murdered the Native Americans and grabbed their land in the name of Christianity. Interestingly, the writing was directed to the mainly white dominated congregation.

In his plot, Apes calls on all Christians; white or colored to come together and live harmoniously for they are one and that racism is not recognized in the Bible. Moreover he points out in his book’s plot structure that directly address us in the world today, that no race has the right to dominate over the other.

Even though written long time ago the plot structure of this book still resonates with us today. The plot of this book is simple and direct to the point. It has the plot of a preaching by a pastor directed to a divided congregation.

In the book, William Apes has set the story in the 1800s a period marred by mass murder of Native Americans by the whites in the name of Christianity and in the quest of land. During this period, the whites considered the Native Americans as lesser human beings who had no right to own land in America. William Apes’ point of view is that all are equal bound together by Christianity.

We will write a custom Essay on The Legend of Sleepy Hollow vs An Indian’s Looking Glass for the White Man specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During such a time when the Native Americans were dehumanized by the whites, he believed that no race should control the other in the name of Christianity or skin color. He believed that racism did not exist in God’s Kingdom. The characters in this book are whites and Native Americans.

The whites are the oppressors while the Native Americans are the oppressed. The whites are the murderers who try to justify their actions by hiding behind the veil of Christianity. On the other hand, the Native Americans are the victims of this dehumanizing act who are considered to be lesser beings.

The sufferings of the Native Americans and the control of their social and political lives by the whites symbolizes the sufferings of not only the colored groups in America but also the world over. It shows how many people the world over have suffered in the hands of their leaders and other tribes. The excuse of whites for committing such atrocities resonates with many given by oppressors today.

The book has strong themes which we can identify with in the world today. The theme of Christianity stands out throughout the book. Apes calls on everybody to stop hypocrisy and embrace one another. He even uses Biblical verses in his book.

Moreover, the theme of racism dominates in the book as William Apes points out various heinous crimes and dehumanizing crimes committed by the whites against the Native Americans. The whites grab the land of the Native Americans’ land and murder them. Moreover, the whites treat the colored people as lesser beings hence they have no right to own land.

Even though he does not recognize races, he also biased in his view but one thing that stands out is that Apes tries to bridge the gap between the races. He calls on all the races to treat each as equals for all are Christians bound together by God’s love. These attributes of the book makes the book the better of the two as it even resonates with our tribulations today.


American Revolution and the Crisis of the Constitution of the USA Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The American Revolution – A Long Way to the Independence

The U. S. Constitution as the Symbol of Its Independence

The Activities of the Tea Party and the New Left


Reference List

Introduction The U. S history, particularly the period of the American Revolution, has been marked by a number of inconsistencies and misconceptions concerning the origins of political power and reasons why people were involved in mass insurgencies. One way or another, the historical events occurred in the past has formed the present, newly established movements struggling against inequalities and corrupted political regimes.

This fight, however, is based on the political frictions connected with the limitations and changes presented in the U. S. Constitution. Throughout the American history, this document has been the major source of confrontations between the Conservative and Republican Parties that interpreted the clauses with regard to their personal and political interests.

The point is that the oldest legal documents still fails to directly address the current political issues and meet people’s expectations with regard to their rights. In order to stand the biased provisions, liberal and radical confrontations appeared, such as Tea Party that is now followed by the New Left, a radical movement fighting against the corrupt government and protecting the innocence of the unwitting community.

In whole, the American people paving the way to independence have to face challenges in the form of restricted provisions of Constitution, wrong interpretation and understanding of the American Revolution, and false representation of conservative and republican views on democracy.

The American Revolution – A Long Way to the Independence The American Revolution emerged as a result of political, social, and intellectual shifts in the American government and society. This was one of the first attempts of people to oppose the corrupt authoritative structure, establish justice, and promote liberal views.

While comparing previous resistance to the modern attitude to the political regime in the United States, much attention should be paid to the efforts of Tea Party and the New Left to protect social interests and model a new political order based on democracy and liberalism. According to Crain (2010), today the American population “…have come to regard insurgency as a foreign and unpleasant phenomenon” to the extent that one cannot recollect the fact from the American history about cruelty of the American revolutionaries (p.3).

It is often neglected, however, that the Tea Party movement often resorted to unjust and cruel methods and introduced conspiracy theories and violence. As a result, a shadow of biases is now imposed on the current movements protecting the rights of people because of the ambiguity of the U. S Constitution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is more doubtful is the introduction of U.S. constitution whose provisions have still left much ambiguity concerning its rightfulness and justice with regard to people and the democratic regime (Lepore, 2011). Apparently, the misconceptions emerged in the past were also due to the eternal confrontation of the political parties and regimes.

Specifically, there have always been a conflict between Conservatives and Republicans leaving no space for protecting the rights and freedoms of humble people. Lack of ideology and reluctance to follow the generally established norms led to discrepancies and frictions (Hanna, 2010). As a result, the entire U. S. history is a revolutionary path of people established to fight against those inconsistencies.

The U. S. Constitution as the Symbol of Its Independence The USA was declared as a federal constitutional republic. In 1787, the Constitution became the main document of the government (US Constitution, 2011). This constitution is considered to be the oldest one in the modern society. As the document states, “We the People”, it implies “…forming a more perfect Union, establishing Judgment, insuring Domestic Tranquility, providing for the Common Defense, promoting the general Welfare and securing the Blessings of Liberty to the American and their prosperity” (Lepore, 2011, p. 1).

Although some politicians refused to sign it because of the uncertainty of some laws covered in its document, it was still adopted. The document was only the symbol of a federal constitutional republic (Lepore, 2011). As the Constitution was created for every American, it became accessible for reading.

Importantly, everyone could keep this invaluable document of the government in a pocket (Lepore, 2011). Although it became available for many people, the power of this document was not enhanced.

The Constitution of the United States of America is considered to be one of the shortest ones because it contains forty-four hundred words only. However, the document generates serious discussions and is subjected to different interpretations by the Parties. Existence of different variants and amendments to the Constitution prevents the government from establishing a unique set of rules and regulations applied to the contemporary society.

In particular, the original document fails to “…directly address many of today’s significant political issues” (US Constitution, 2011, p. 2). In this respect, the Republicans are more prone to use the corrected variant of the document because they approve the necessity to introduce changes to a constantly developing society.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on American Revolution and the Crisis of the Constitution of the USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In contrast, the Conservatives believe that it is more reasonable to apply to the original variant so as to preserve the integrity of regulations. The presented ambivalence significantly hampers the overall social improvement.

Everyone is taught to respect the Constitution from his/her childhood. However, even if you have such a great opportunity to look through the document, it can be differently interpreted due to the existence of general and ambiguous statements.

According to Lepore (2011), “the Constitution was made like a Fiddle, with but few Strings, but so that the ruling Majority could play any tune upon it they please” (p. 2). It is a sort of an instrument used by politicians to achieve their interests.

The contracted version of the legal document presented in public, however, cannot provide solutions to the problem of freedom and equalities protection because it significantly deviates from the existed variant considered by the government. In fact, the availability does not mean the existence of the printed variant of its document, but sufficient understanding of laws, rights, and duties.

More than that, there have been millions of different interpretations of the same law from this document, which leads to insurgencies and resentment among the U.S. population. Many politicians were concerned by this problem and some actions were undertaken to solve it. In 1789 and 1860, only the one state California wanted the Constitution to be taught at schools (Lepore, 2011).

There was a great doubt concerning this issue. Despite the fact that the Constitution proclaimed liberties, the majority of people were far from being free from slavery for a long time. Hence, changes should not be proposed to the document, but to the attitude of the Government to the document itself.

Judging from this, the U.S. Constitution failed to provide equal opportunities for all citizens of the United States irrespective of their race and nationality. In particular, inconsistent information was provided concerning social and political problems at different historical periods.

On the one hand, the alterations included into the legal document seem to be unreasonable because some of them are not congruent with the original and universal statements. On the other hand, the introduction of amendments and corrections is indispensible to meet the challenges of the modern society.

Not sure if you can write a paper on American Revolution and the Crisis of the Constitution of the USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is an assumption that the Constitution “…is not a document, but a stream of history” (Lepore, 2011, p. 2). The Constitution should always be subjected to changes. It should also correspond to social and political problems of the society.

When new problems arise and the government is not able to provide solutions with regard to the existing norms of the U.S. Constitution, the urgency of this document goes out of date. In this respect, it should be stressed that the Constitution of the United States of America is in crisis now.

The point is that the nation is a complex unity that undergoes different social, cultural, and economical processes. At this point, the Constitution should be developed in accordance to the needs of society (Lepore, 2011). Judging from the rigorous criticism of the documents, the U.S. Constitution should undergo tangible changes for the U.S. people to feel that their rights are protected and respected.

What is more important is that the original document, along with all the amendments, should be available for all people. Each citizen should understand the value of observing the rights and freedoms of every person to eliminate the problems of social, racial, and cultural inequality.

The Activities of the Tea Party and the New Left There are many interpretations of the Constitution that facilitate its understanding for ordinary people. The newly introduced variation impels many Americans to comprehend this document with regard to their personal needs and interests. This idea of easy interpretations is supported by the New Left, the successors of the Tea Party and conservative think-tankers.

The movement seeks to return power to people, overthrow the power of the elite and organize a revolutionary movement (Hannan, 2010). The Constitution is not the privilege of elite, as many politicians state. On the contrary, the Constitution was proclaimed for the whole nation. Everyone has the right to know all his/her rights and duties.

Although the Tea Party and the New Left have a number of differences, there are also many similarities in their politics (Brooks, 2010). The established parallels specifically concern the methods of fighting with the legal inconsistencies through organizing public demonstrations and extreme movements.

It should also be stressed that both parties agree with the statement that all people are virtuous and pure and all problems are caused by “rotten authority structures and corrupt elite” (Brooks, 2010, p. 2). They believe that political regimes contribute to the destruction of our society. In this respect, the best decision of solving these problems is “the spontaneous upraising of participatory democracy” (Brooks, 2010, p. 3).

Is it actual to live according to the Constitution which is considered to be the oldest one? The New Left is keen on introducing the changes to the Constitution.

It also seeks to provide privileges to the middle social class. Additionally, the Party is confident that imprudence, naive radicalism, and self-righteousness can contribute to achieving the established goals and objectives (Brooks, 2010). Despite the fact that many politicians criticize the measures used by the liberal movement, it is the only way to draw attention of masses to this burning issue.

The Constitution of the United States of America, the oldest historic document is the symbol of the independence for many Americans. The U. S. honor and follow it without fully comprehension of its content.

However, community is not aware of the actual role that the document plays in governing the state because political forces are inclined to use different interpretations for achieving their personal goals. Judging from these considerations, the questions about the objectivity and appropriateness of the U.S. constitution provision arises. In order to solve the problems and eliminate contradictions, political upbringing is one of the main aims of the modern society.

It presupposes a full understanding of the Constitution. If the Constitution too difficult for ordinary people to understand, it should be reconsidered. The history shows that many regulations and norms have appeared because of revolutionary movements.

Conclusion Many contradictions are specifically connected with the origins of the U.S. constitution, as well as the further events connected with its provisions. The American Revolution, eternal confrontation between the Republicans and the Conservatives, and the emergence of the Tea Party are among such events proving the necessity to re-evaluate the clauses of the U.S.

Constitution and introduce universal principles that would be applicable to each person. It is impossible to live in modern society with new social and political problems without changing the main document of the government. In spite of the fact that the slavery was abolished long time ago, but the consequences and undercurrent issues remain.

Reference List Brooks, D. (2010). The Wal-Mart Hippies. The New York Times. Web.

Crain, C. (2010). Tea and Antipathy. The New Yorker. Web.

Hannan, D. (2010). The Tea-Party Tradition. National Review Online. Web.

Lepore, J. (2011). A Critic at Large. The Commandments: the Constitutions and its worshippers. The New Yorker. Web.

US Constitution Read Aloud in House of Representatives. (2011). BBC News US and Canada. Web.


Statistics for Economics Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Statistics for Economics

Works Cited

Executive Summary Professor Steve H. Hanke is the author of the Monetary Misjudgments and Malfeasance, a Cato Journal, Vol.31, No. 3 (2011): pp. 473-484. According to Hanke, the United States policy has been characterized by monetary misjudgments and malfeasance. In spite of the fact that there were clear signs of the impeding economic crisis, the Federal Reserve officials and their counterparts in Europe were unable to alleviate the economic crisis that took place in 2008-09.

To make the matters even worse, their corrective measures turned the crisis into a panic. According to Professor Hanke, the Fed officials were mainly responsible for creating the demand bubbles (especially the market-specific ones) that disrupted the relative markets prices. In addition, both the Fed officials and their counterparts in Europe compelled commercial banks to raise their capital-asset ratios as a safety measure.

For example, the Bank for International Settlements (based in Switzerland) increased the capital-asset ratio from 4% to 7% based on the bank’s risk-weighted assets. It further imposed an extra 2% surcharge in addition to the 7% requirement for largest commercial banks. The justification for this move was that commercial banks would be safer and stronger if they were heavily capitalized.

On the contrary, this move distorted the money supply metrics and weakened economic growth. The money balances of commercial banks were effectively been wiped out. According to Professor Hanke, commercial banks were forced to shrink their asset bases in order to comply with the new regulation. As a result, the deposit liabilities of commercial banks’ declined significantly thereby wiping out money balances.

Statistics for Economics The Federal Reserve is mainly responsible for creating market-specific demand bubbles in the US for a long time. Prior to the Lehman Brothers’ demise in 2008, the Federal Reserve not only generated aggregate demand bubble but also initiated a number of market-oriented bubbles. The Fed was in a good position to alleviate market-specific bubbles (witnessed in the commodity, equity and housing markets) by monitoring price volatility in the markets (such as adjustments in the aggregate consumer price index).

Nonetheless, the Federal Reserves officials have persistently refused to take any blame for generating market-specific bubbles that led to the economic crisis in 2008. As a matter of fact, the Federal Reserve officials have proposed that commercial banks must raise their capital-asset ratios in order to stabilize their operations and prevent a similar crisis from recurring (Hanke 473).

Aggregate demand bubble occurs when the Fed’s negligence permits aggregate demand to rise too fast. In other words, an aggregate demand is created when nominal final sales to buyers in the United States surpass nominal growth rate (consistent with modest inflation) by a large amount.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the two-decade reign of Bernanke and Greenspan at the Fed, the nominal final sales rose at a 5.2% annual trend rate. This pattern reflected an inflation rate of 2.2% and real sales of 3%. Nonetheless, the annual trend rate has revealed a number of deviations. The first one started soon after Alan Greenspan was appointed the chairman of the Federal Reserve.

Following the stock market crash in October 1987, the Federal Reserve released more money into the market thereby creating an aggregate demand bubble. As a result, the nominal finals sales rose by 7.5% (above the trend rate) in the following year (Hanke 474).

It is worthy to note that the Federal Reserve was mainly responsible for initiating the 2008-09 aggregate demand bubble that led to the economic crisis. This led to the Federal Reserve’s preferred inflation targets-energy prices, absent food prices and consumer price index- increasing at modest rates.

For instance, the inflation rate grew by 12.5% between 2003 and 2008 period. Although the Federal Reserve’s inflation rate did not indicate any problems, unexpected changes in key relative prices were in the making.

For example, there was a surge in the housing prices (which increased by 45% between 2003 and 2006). In addition, share prices increased steadily by 66% in 2003 and reached its peak in 2008 (Hanke 475).

The most remarkable price increments were apparent in the commodity market. According to the Commodity Research Bureau’s index, prices of commodities grew by 91.8% between 2003 (first quarter) and 2008 (second quarter).

This remarkable increase was mainly attributed to a weak dollar (which declined by 30.4% during the same period) as well as the ensuing liquidity cycles. A number of financial markets experts believe that the surge in the commodity prices was as a result of the decline in the value of the greenback.

We will write a custom Essay on Statistics for Economics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the devaluation in the value of dollar precipitated a surge in commodity prices between 2002 and 2008. In addition, the prices for crude oil grew by 51% while the price for rice rose by 55.4% (Hanke 476).

The comparative rise in the housing prices was an obvious sign that prices were deviating from the fundamental laws. For example, during the first decade of the 21st century, the demand for housing in the United States was approximately 1.4 million units per annum.

This figure includes acquisitions of newly constructed houses as well as the refurbishment of over 290, 000 units per annum that were destroyed by floods and fire. Throughout the bubble years (2002-2006), housing buyers were about two million per annum.

This number increased given that an extra 490,000 units of were being created every year. In reality, the prices for the new housing units should have been declining during this period. On the contrary, this was not the case as the prices grew by 45%. The Federal Reserves officials failed to spot the imminent housing bubble and take counteractive measures (Hanke 477).

Following this incident, both the Federal Reserve and banking institutions engaged in the blame game as to who was responsible for the 2008-09 economic crises. The Federal Reserve officials claimed that banking institutions were undercapitalized and hence too hazardous and risky. Consequently, the Bank for International Settlements (based in Switzerland) issued new Basel III capital guidelines.

These new rules were expected to raise the capital requirements of banks from the current level of 4% to 7% on the basis of their risk-weighted assets. In addition, the Bank for International Settlements imposed an extra 2.5% on top of the 7% obligation for banking institutions that were perceived as too huge to fail.

However, these new requirements are not even enough for some financial regulators. For example, the Swiss National Bank plans to enforce a mega-high 19% capital requirement on both Credit Suisse and UBS. In the US, Federal Reserve officials have also advocated for a higher capital-asset ratios for large banks (Hanke 479).

The Federal Reserves and other financial regulators have successfully imposed high capital requirements on commercial banks. Since the inception of 2008-09 financial crises, US banks have been compelled to raise their capital-asset ratios in expectation of Basel III.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Statistics for Economics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Federal Reserve has applauded this move arguing that a higher capital-asset ratio will make the commercial banks safer and stronger. However, some experts believe this is not a wise decision. They argue that commercial banks can raise their capital-asset ratios by either issuing new bank equity or by reducing their assets.

If the commercial banks reduce their assets, the deposit liabilities will shrink and money balances will be wiped out. In other words, the Federal Reserve’s drive to raise the capital-assets ratios of commercial banks in order to make them stronger has had a negative impact on money balances.

This move has dented the liquidity and asset prices of commercial banks (Hanke 480). Commercial banks can also raise their capital-asset ratio by issuing new equity. However, this method also destroys money balances.

For instance, when shareholders procure newly issued bank equity, they use bank deposits to acquire new shares. As a result, this phenomenon reduces commercial banks’ deposit liabilities as well as their money balances (Hanke 481).

The decision by the Federal Reserve to force commercial banks to raise their capital-asset ratios during the 2008-09 financial crises was undoubtedly a great mistake. For example, the Bank for International Settlements (based in Switzerland) issued new Basel III capital guidelines. These new rules were intended to raise the capital-asset ratios of banks from 4% to 7% on the basis of their risk-weighted assets.

In addition, the Bank for International Settlements imposed an extra 2.5% on top of the 7% obligation for banking institutions that were perceived as too huge to fail. Commercial banks were thus forced to raise their capital base by either issuing new shares or reducing their asset base in order to comply with the new directives. Although this move probably made commercial banks stronger for a short period, it distorted money supply metrics and compromised economic growth.

Works Cited Hanke H. Steve. Monetary Misjudgments and Malfeasance. Cato Journal 31.3 (2011): 473-484.


Exhibitions in Wing Luke, Burke and Cambodian Cultural Museums Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Brief Introduction

The Wing Luke Museum

The Burke museum

The Cambodian Cultural Museum

Works Cited

Brief Introduction A museum is a building that accommodates various artifacts, scientific objects, and history of a certain group of people. The artistic and cultural values of these people may be also presented in different ways depending on policies of a museum. Anything significant concerning a certain ethnic group is available in a museum.

However, there are two main types of museums such as art museum, and history museum. This depends on what a certain museum want to present concerning a certain group of people (Aguirre and Turner 119). This paper will focus on three exhibition museums presenting the culture of some ethnic groups. Several issue such, as how the groups are presented in the museums would be discussed and many more.

The Wing Luke Museum Wing Luke Museum is in Seattle. Seattle is found in Washington’s Chinatown-international District. This museum specializes in issues of culture, art, and history of Asian, pacific Americans. People find this museum as memorable, because it is the only one, which presents the information concerning the pan-Asian pacific American.

The life experiences of this ethnic group are clearly explained in the museum. Asian, pacific Americans are among the most dominant racial groups in United States of America (Chinese Historical Society 83). The name of the museum is in honor of one member of Seattle city council. This person was the first Asian American to be an official in one of the public offices in the Pacific Northwest.

At the beginning, this museum only focused on Asian folk art but later expanded its coverage to various aspects of the entire Asian, pacific Americans community. Other crucial programs are presented in the museum such as addressing civil rights, and humanity justice issues. These programs are meant to promote understanding of various cultures and tolerance.

Wing Luke history is one representation of the Asian pacific Americans. He is described as a person, who portrayed the importance of adhering to civil rights (Miller 102). He advocated for urban renewal, and the need for honoring historic events.

Through other presentations, the Asian pacific Americans are portrayed as people with exceptional hearts of survival, as they succeed through many struggles in United States. They are represented as people with high hopes, compassion, and have knowledge of handling various types of conflicts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The stories concerning this ethnic group is told through written posters that are hanged everywhere in the museum. Every topic is presented in different posters for people, who are interested to read (Museum Education Roundtable 35). The photos, for clear understanding among the visitors, accompany most of the information presented.

Video presentations are also provided to tell the story clearly for those visitors, who would prefer such methods. For instance, food is part of any group’s culture. To make visitors understand more about the cultural foods of this ethnic group, the exhibition concerning this is structured in four main areas.

The first area is from the source to the table, where the history is clearly shown about the Asian, pacific American contributions to the food industry. The second area, exhibited is the family, which portrays that food is their central gathering point for the entire ethnic group. The third area is the politics, where issues like labor, nutrition and perseverance are narrated in a deep manner.

The final area is for culture, which demonstrates heritage aspects, adaptations, and originality. Historic and family photographs accompany the exhibitions. To demonstrate their originality in agricultural activities farming tools and main industrial, farming equipments are portrayed.

Moreover, most of the cultural aspects of this group are narrated and demonstrated in the museum. Beginning with the history and legacy of wing Luke, one get to know the history of Asian, pacific Americans. The collections and exhibits concerning these people are displayed.

Their cultural histories and stories that are accompanied with the relevant photos are made available for visitors to see. The most enjoyed part is the youth space and child friendly room that is provided to make such visitors feel comfortable, and have a chance to discuss issues in question (Aguirre and Turner 114). In the third floor, there is a display of original furniture such as tables and several rooms.

There is no clear explanation provided for the main purpose of these rooms. Visitors are left wondering what could be the purpose of the rooms. The Gary Locke library is one of the most fascinating parts left for visitors. This serves as a resource for students, historians, and any other person who may be interested in learning Asian American experience in United States.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Exhibitions in Wing Luke, Burke and Cambodian Cultural Museums specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The interactive nature of the museum is attractive. The youths are made active through stories, photos, and artifacts. The youth are also provided with interactive activities, through which they can share culture and family histories. However, there are parts of the Asian pacific Americans history that are not told in the museum.

Before this ethnic group settled in America, several troubling experiences occurred. The process of settling in their current position was not easy. Some of the resistant that were experienced by the early immigrants included the ban of Chinese immigration, riots in 1907 against immigrants (Aguirre and Turner 96).

Early immigrants experienced harsh treatments such as denial to receive full veteran benefits. Only a small percentage that was accorded united states citizenship, and burial benefits. The Asian Americans were oppressed, hence could not enjoy the full benefits.

During the Second World War, the immigrants assisted the Americans in the war, but they could not be given the full veteran benefits. They were also supposed to receive the disability pension like other Americans, but they were not given. The debate concerning these immigrants to receive the full benefit has been there, although it has not been successfully passed (Miller 62).

This is the dark story of the group, which is not displayed to the public. The generations of the group, which may visit the museum may not feel comfortable to see how their first generation were oppressed. It is sure that these people were discriminated and killed during that period, but it would not be advisable for any visitor to be reminded of the sad story.

The full history is available in the museum, but such sensitive parts are preserved in private rooms, where the accessibility is preserved for some people. These are not the stories that every visitor would like to hear. Displaying the dark side of these people, may lead to a negative effect to the museum and to the visitors. It is the nature of every human being, not to display his or her weaknesses to everyone.

The use of technology is applied in the museum, although it is not commonly used. Innovations of more advanced technology are still being invented. Wing Luke museum; apply technology in their videos when telling the stories of Asian pacific American (Miller 113).

When visitors are, listening to the video to obtain some information, the stories he or she is listening to are controlled. The video may contain every detail about the history of Asian, pacific Americans, but what visitors listen to is controlled. It is easier to skip some parts, in a way that visitors may not realize.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Exhibitions in Wing Luke, Burke and Cambodian Cultural Museums by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although these visitors may have read every detail from books, it is advisable for a museum to avoid presenting hurting stories to the visitors. Instead of going around the museum reading posters and analyzing the pictures accompanying the posters, visitors prefer listening to a video. It adds much joy to their comforts, especially when they are enjoying the cultural Asian foods.

In most museums, visitors do not pay attention to many posters, placed on the walls. It is tiresome, and most visitors consider it as wastage of time. Apart from obtaining information for learning purposes, most of the visitors go to museums for leisure.

The idea of reading the posters adds stress to their appropriate times. It is evident that, majority just look at the posters without any interest (Miller 95). The museum management may be thinking that, such posters are crucial to the visitors, but they are not.

Most of the visitors came to the museum to see to reality of what they have learnt or heard. Video explanations of tour guides, and practical participation to some events like cooking and eating work well in museums. Only the children who get interested to read the wall posters and the displays, but after a while, they also get bored.

The Burke museum The burke museum is recognized by people as a museum of natural history and culture. This museum originated from the natural history club, which existed in the early 1880s. This old club was known as the young naturalist’s society.

The young naturalists’ society worked together with the Washington territorial university, specializing in natural science. The main theme was to assist the societies understand the natural history and displaying natural objects for their referral, and for the public to come and see. With time, the main players in Burke museum continued expanding and adding more materials for exhibition.

Burke museum represents both long term and unique exhibits (Schacht 109). Their exhibition depends on certain periods per year. The main exhibits that are found in the museum include conservation photography, recent natural events that happen, and ancient and modern cultural arts.

Although the museum has represented the culture of various ethnic groups, this part will mainly focus on Native American ethnic group. It is one of the many ethnic groups represented by Burke museum.

The Burke museum has tried to explain the culture of Native Americans in various ways. For instance, most of the factors of Native American are explained through various exhibitions, events, research, and collections.

The various exhibits that are used to explain the culture of Native Americans are current, upcoming, online, past, and traveling exhibits. One of the historic exhibits that are used by Burke museum is Carnival. The Ainu group is the native people of the region referred to as Hokkaido in Japan.

Their region of the occupants is mainly the northern islands. Their ancestors are believed to have occupied that area for more than 16000 years (Karl 103).

The Burke museum has represented this ethnic group as active traders, who conducted commerce with neighboring countries. The museum has portrayed their trading business, through displaying their trade objects they were using.

The Ainu ethnic group has a strong believe in spirits. Among the people of Ainu, it is evident that anything that is in the environment surrounding humanity is composed of spirit. They refer to such spirits as kamuy, and are expected to bring blessings to their people, as well as the whole community.

The Burke museum has managed to portray the religious point of view of this group through the provision of photos demonstrating their spirits. For instance, these spirits called kamuy are relied on to take care of everything that is used by human beings such as animals, plants, and water.

The cultural story of this ethnic group is narrated on how they perform rituals and ceremonies, as a way of giving thanks to gods for protecting them (Miller 78). The daily practices of this ethnic group as portrayed in the Burke museum were hunting, fishing, farming and foraging.

During the events that are held in the Burke museum, the main Ainu ceremonies are presented. One of their outstanding ceremonies is known as the “lomante”, which is a ceremony of the dead. The key issues during this ceremony are to honor and send animal gods to the big world of gods (McBrewster 98).

Many people attend a ceremony from the society. Another major theme of conducting such ceremonies is to bring the people of Ainu together, as a way of strengthening their community bonds. There is an immensely popular bear carving, which attracts every visitor, who comes in Burke museum.

Ainu artist known as Matsui Umetaro in early 1920s prepared the bear carving. He was a famous artist among the Ainu people.

The religious believes of the Ainu people is also emphasized through the exhibition of a sacred ikupasuy, a prayer stick, which was used when praying the god of the mountain. The sacred stick is believed to have been used during the first salmon ceremony. The Ainu people have a belief of using their beautiful art on clothes and platters, as away of showing honor and respecting their gods (Karl 106).

It is hard to define a spiritual aspect in any of their clothes and platters. Their tradition requires that their designs to remain original, without making any changes, as this would annoy their gods. Several designs of their robes are portrayed in the museum, with their uniqueness of symmetrical aspects.

The historical culture of the Ainu people is also elaborated through the history and picture of Sakhalin Ainu man. The picture is explained to be obtained in early 1900s. This man is used in the culture of the Ainu people, to demonstrate the mixed blood of Ainu and Russian group. His pictures show an expensive robe, and the belt, which is a sign of prosperity.

The picture of man is used in the museum, to show the interaction of two groups. Through their greatest economic activity of trading with their neighbors, they managed to interact, and some becoming a one group through intermarriages. The most emphasized interaction is that of the Ainu, and Russian (Karl 109).

A strong social contact proved to exist for many centuries between the two groups. The enormous Haida canoe displayed in the Burke museum demonstrates the long distance trading of the Ainu people. This acts as an evident of long distance trading.

Moreover, by events, exhibits, education, research, and collections the Burke museum has narrated much concerning the Ainu people. Just as in any other museum, it is not appealing to display the darker part of the group. The Ainu people are presented as a humble ethnic group.

At the beginning, they interacted well with the Japanese through intermarriage. The Japanese and Russian were significantly expanding groups that intended to finish the pure blood of the Ainu people. Their utmost theme was to grab the land of the Ainu people (Karl 120).

In history, the Ainu people were given the worst part of the country to settle by the Japanese. Much discrimination existed in Japan against this ethnic group. It reached a point when nobody would confess he or she belongs to Ainu group, due to fear of discrimination. In addition, the Ainu group is considered part of Japanese.

However, Burke museum would not agree to display this part of discrimination to the public. Although, it is a fact in their history, some visitors may not feel comfortable reading or seeing exhibits of such issues.

The Ainu people have a terrible history of being forced from their ancestral lands by the Japanese. They were referred to as commoners, with their festivals and hunting activities restricted. The Ainu people went through many frustrations in the hands of Japanese, something that cannot be displayed in the public.

Such darker parts may end up causing uneasiness among visitors, or the museum to lose their honored visitors. It is the responsibility of every museum to safeguard its reputation. The worst part of their history is that they were forbidden from using their native language. The piece of land that they were given was the worst part, and were not allowed to use other names apart from the Japanese ones.

Through the researches done, it is evident that the Ainu people face discrimination even today by the Japanese. The Ainu children, who happen to enroll in Japanese schools are exceedingly discriminated and bullied. It is said that, they are referred to as “Inu”, which is a Japanese name for dog (McBrewster 99).

Burke museum has tried as much as possible to make use of the advanced technology, when telling stories. Incase of most sensitive issues, they cannot be revealed in the story to the visitors. Through online exhibits, the story is made available through You Tube for the public to listen.

Most of the sensitive parts are skipped when making the video. Incase the story is told through the wall posters, the same thing, applies of skipping the most sensitive parts of the history. Visitors listen and watch videos within the museum.

Those videos do not reveal such areas to the visitors. The Burke museum has incorporated so many ways of passing the information to the visitors, hence making them satisfied. The use of tour guides, videos, and unique exhibits such as carnaval have made the visit to Burke museum as compelling event to visitor (McBrewster 104).

Visitors do not like reading the posters to get the real idea on something; they prefer something interactive to keep them alert. It seems to bore for people to keep on reading the posters on the wall.

The Cambodian Cultural Museum This museum became operational first in 2001. The picture of the founder is placed at the entrance of the museum. He is said to have put extra efforts in gathering photographs, and other documents to assist in testifying the act of violence of the Khmer. This led to the name ‘killing Fields Memorial”.

The museum is meant to show significant honor to riches, and the enduring culture of the Cambodian people (Miller 103). This ethnic group is represented in this museum as a precise, determined and persevering group. There was a change of the location of the museum in 2004, when it moved to its current location at south of Seattle.

It is evident that most Americans and Cambodian Americans are not aware of the great violence that Cambodian people faced. Therefore, the museum creates an opportunity to create awareness to the public concerning how Cambodian people suffered.

These killings happened in 1970s, when the group was under the leadership of Pol Pot. In the museum and other historical sites, Pol Pot is described as ruthless leader and a brutal communist. This Cambodian leader was ruling through Rouge party.

The main theme of the leader and his fellow officials during this period was to do ethnic cleansing. The key targets were the people, who were adopting the western way of life. Pol Pot wanted to deal with those people directly, and if possible do away with them completely.

This systematic program of cleansing the western influenced individuals resulted to torture and deaths of more than two million people (Miller 86). The story of this ethnic group is full of sorrows, as so many people were brutally killed, while some managed to escape to the neighboring countries. A relatively large number of the Cambodian people immigrated to the United States.

The main purpose of the Cambodian cultural museum is to ensure that all those people, who were tortured by Pol Pot, receive the appropriate honor. Several lessons that were learned from this hurting episode are meant to serve, as a challenge to the most ignorant people.

The story of the Cambodian people is explained in the museum through various ways such as exhibits of various types and galleries. Family festival is one of the most fascinating ceremonies, which are held on Saturdays from 10am to 6pm. The beauty and wonders of Cambodia is presented in this festival, as a way of complementing other exhibitions.

The key activities that are featured in family festivals include traditional music, dance performances, and various gallery activities (Aguirre and Turner 118). The Gordon Getty Concert is another famous ceremony held in the Cambodian culture museum. It is mostly held in the evening, meant for visitors to understand the classical Cambodian music and dance.

The famous artists who are featured in this concert are Ho Chan and Charya Cheam Burt. The use of music and dance among the Cambodian people has served as a link between natural and spiritual ways of life. The Cambodian people currently exist as symbols of cultural flexibility and renewal.

The use of conferences is another way of narrating the history of Cambodian people in the museum. Leading scholars of Cambodian art, as well as the cultural specialist usually conduct these conferences. Their key theme is to present and discuss pertinent issues such as the history of the Cambodia people, their religious affiliation, and their modern way of life.

They also discuss in a wider way, the Cambodian bronze sculpture prepared by the University of California. The history presented in the museum educates the Americans and other visitors on the culture and art of the Cambodian people.

Most of People have managed to act as a witness for the millions of Cambodian people who perished in the violence (Jerrelene 149). Apart from the violence part of history, culture and their attractive arts are also presented in the museum.

The unfolding of the Cambodian people history through exhibitions, lectures, and performances has ensured excellent preservation of the art and heritage of this ethnic group. The clear testimonies, presented in the museum concerning the massive killings of the members of this group are an admirable way of preventing future genocide (Jerrelene 160).

The museum managed to reveal this dark part of the Cambodian history to create access of information to students, scholars, and journalists, in efforts of trying to warn the public on such incidences in future. The museum could not afford to hide this discouraging history, as they also expected support from humanitarian projects, to assist the oppressed Cambodian community.

Although the museum revealed the history of killings to the public, it was not possible to mention all individuals who facilitated the killings apart from Pol Pot. The public knew of the ruthless leader although, there were also other officials who contributed to the genocide. This is part of the story that could not be portrayed in the public.

The Cambodian cultural museum has equipped its library on the third floor. This is where visitors, who want to research more, can get the information. The Cambodian cultural museum has also placed most of their history in Wing Luke Asian Museum for easier accessibility.

The museum makes use of technology in telling the stories in the most appealing way. Through online, the museum uses the public radio documentary. The people who showed interest in the history of the Cambodian people were requested to call during the summer seasons.

Most of people from the community called in, listened to stories, and managed to share their own point of views (Books LLC 203). The people who called left approximately 200 messages to be shared among other visitors. They are wide use of videos in demonstrating and narrating the culture and history of Cambodian people.

The videos are set in a way that not every detail of the story is revealed, but only the main positive issues. The use of public radio documentary opens an opportunity for those people, who are willing to contribute in supporting the group.

The use of videos, guides, and events such as artist shows that are conducted regularly make the visit to the museum more intriguing. Most of people do not prefer the use of displays only, as they make the visit boring. An interactive way of narrating a story is better that a one-way method (Miller 112).

It was evident that, most of the visitors do not pay attention to most of the displays presented in the museum. Once they enter a museum, they look for a place, where there is someone, who can take them through the place. Incase there is an event going on, visitors end up becoming more interested in such places.

Other areas of the museum that are most fascinating to the visitors are hotels and gift shops. Reading the wall posters has never been appealing to the visitors in any museum. The Cambodian cultural museum has tried to incorporate all possible ways of telling the history and culture of their people. This is to ensure that their visitors are not bored during their visit.

Works Cited Aguirre, Adalberto and Jonathan Turner. American Ethnicity: The Dynamics and consequences of Discrimination. New York: McGraw-Hill , 2010.

Books LLC. Cambodian cultural museum in the United States: Old stone House Museum. New York: General Books LLC, 2010.

Chinese Historical Society. Chinese America: History and Perspectives 2000. Beijing: Chinese Historical Society, 2000.

Jerrelene, Williamson. The cultural heritage of Cambodian people. New York: Arcadia Publishing, 2010.

Karl, Samson. Frommers Seattle 2011. New York: John Wiley


The Definition of Budgeting, Its Types and Methods Essay essay help free

Table of Contents A budget cycle

Types of budgeting

Types of funds

Government Methods of Financing

Strategy and management of budgeting

Types of Taxes

Works Cited

A budget cycle A budget cycle can be defined as a duration in which a budget will last. In other words, it is a time taken to exhaust the budgeted resources of a budget. A budget cycle can also refer to the time span between one budget and the next one.

Budget cycles normally differ from person to person and organization to organization. This depends on a number of reasons such as resources, policies, and business lifespan among other reasons.

Types of budgeting Budgets normally differ in a number of ways. For instance, personal budgets are different from business budgets. Therefore, the first type of budgeting is a personal budget, which presents a plan on how the funds of the individual will be used within a certain period (Stringfellow 1).

Business budgeting is diversified to plan for specific funds that are allocated to different sectors of the business (Stringfellow 1). In that case, there are sales budgets, revenue budgets, production budgets, expenditure budgets, and cash budgets. Another type is a government budget, it is a budget according to which government plans the resources of the nation.

Types of funds Businesses have different sources of getting their funds. First, they can get funds from the profits generated by the business. In this case, the source of funding will be the business itself.

Second, they can get funds from reserves which are also known as the shareholders equity. Reserves entail the money invested into the company in the form of shares by external parties (shareholders) to the businesses.

Government Methods of Financing The government has different ways of financing its budget. The most common ones include trust funds in which the government disposes some of its current assets that are not in use hence creating a trust fund for them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another method of financing the government is providing the user fees paid by legal entities and individuals to get the authority of running specific services. Taxes are paid to the government, and donations from aid bodies present another way through which governments get finances.

Strategy and management of budgeting The process of budgeting is of a great concern, as well as other business processes. taking into consideration this fact, it has to be strategically planned and managed in order to achieve its objectives. The strategy put in place should be able to ensure that the budget balances properly and that there is no deficit or surplus.

This is because a budget forms a critical point during decision making for the business enterprise. One of the strategies put in place is the forecasting, whereby the business enterprises prepare forecast budgets prior to the actual budgets. The other strategy entails making sure that the budget is followed up to the last dot.

Types of Taxes There are different types of taxes that are paid by individuals and businesses to the government. It is due to the fact that they are imposed on different items such as goods, payrolls, property, and income. Under the income category, there are income taxes, corporate taxes, and capital gains taxes.

As for the property, there are property taxes, expatriation taxes, inheritance taxes, net worth taxes and transfer taxes. Based on goods and services there are value added tax (V.A.T), tariffs, excises, and sales taxes. Other types of taxes include license fees and poll taxes. The list of taxes is endless, since almost everything is under taxation.

Works Cited Stringfellow, Angela. What are the Different Types of Budgeting? 1999. Web.


Revolution in Tunisia Essay online essay help: online essay help

“Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali was born on 3 September 1936 in Hammam-Sousse, Tunisia” (Pierre para 1). In his teenage, Ben Ali got into the anti-French independence Neo-Destour movement. This made him be expelled from the schools that were under the management of the French. Ben Ali involvement with the Neo-Destour movement earned him a scholarship at a military school in France after Tunisia got independence in 1956 (Pierre para 2).

On returning to Tunisia, he joined the military security in 1964-1974, where he was the head of Tunisian military security. Ben Ali then quickly rose to the ranks and became the general in the year 1979, then the Tunisian ambassador to Poland in 1980 and the Head of national security.

He then became the minister of interior in 1986. In 1987, Ben Ali was then appointed prime minister by the president. His appointment in October 1987 later led to the ousting of president Habib Bourguiba in November 1987 after a successful coup d’ etat. Ben Ali then assumed the position of the presidency (Pierre para 2).

During Ben Ali’s twenty three year rule (1987 -2011), he first claimed to ease up on stern political measures concerning opposition movements, particularly the Mouvement des Démocrates Sociaux (MDS; Social Democratic Movement) and the MTI. His interest in multiparty system led to the signing of the national pact with opposition leaders in 1988.

Human rights activists, Islamic, and opposition leaders increased protests over the years since Ben Ali took power as president over his oppressive leadership. He manipulated and controlled the politics through his Constitutional Democratic Rally party. The key positions in the state and local government were held by the CDR party.

Ben Ali put into place changes in the constitution to ensure his presidency could be extended without limit through his party which held most of the parliamentary seats. He also allowed a few political parties and imposed strict rules and regulations to minimize opposition to his rule. His political party constantly held majority of the seats in the lower parliament during his political tenure; the ruling party had constantly won elections with a great majority over the five terms.

Hizb An-Nahdah, (Renaissance Party), an Islamist opposition which rose in the 1990’s led by Rashid Ghannouchi was banned and branded a terrorist organization. The Islamist opposition was believed to be a terrorist organization which was pushing for the establishment of an Islamist state according to the United States State Department in 2003. Ben Ali pushed the passing of the anti-terrorism law in 2003, leading to arbitrary arrests and cases of torture (Pollock para 9).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Repression was a major crisis faced in the country. Ben Ali often controlled the news and information in and out of the country. Journalists and human rights activists were constantly the target of police brutality and were subjected to surveillance by intelligence services.

Foreign journalists were often accompanied by an official from the Tunisian Agency for External Communication – this was done to control news and information flowing out of the country through any means including the internet. Despite the repressions, Ben Ali was still influential to the international organization due to his zero tolerance towards terrorism (Bembo para 7).

The first lady self proclaimed herself as the Arab’s most successful female politician. She frequently headed charitable foundations and promoted women rights. Ben Ali’s entire extended family – the Trabelsis, dubbed “the Mafia” and his associates indulged in lavish lifestyles at the expense of many ordinary Tunisians.

The Trabelsis openly engaged in corruption that led the North African country’s economy down to its knees. Ben Ali’s wife was known to be a shopaholic with frequent visits to western countries with private jets. Investors in Tunisia feared the long arm of the first family- they often took they want, most business deals did not go through without the involvement of the first family in the country.

Bribes were also collected for those who operated businesses in Tunisia. The Trabelsis owned extensive wealth including an airline, hotels, two radio stations, food distributions and more which are both locally and foreign owned. The Trabelsi’s was cited as the nexus of Tunisian corruption.

The Arab idiom – “The straw that broke the camel’s back” which means a pile of small things which causes failure. In Ben Ali’s fall, his involvement in corruption openly, nepotism and the flagrant abuse power and the system led him to his demise. Ben Ali had become a dictator to the Tunisians.

His extended family’s brutality and economic crimes had gradually angered Tunisians over the years. Saad Djebbar an Arab political analyst said that “Ben Ali was so arrogant that he undermined his own power base, alienating supporters in the party and the business community” (Zisenwine para 3).

We will write a custom Essay on Revolution in Tunisia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The conditions in Tunisia led to ousting of Ben Ali – the high levels of unemployment, poverty, corruption and repression provoked Tunisians to detach themselves from Ben Ali’s oppressive leadership. During his presidency, he continually increased his internal security apparatus to neutralize any plausible threat. Intelligence was gathered through phone – tapping and the belligerent were threatened, beaten and assassinated.

Tunisia’s revolution might have been started by Mohammed Bouazizi who was aged 26 on 17th December 2010; he was selling produce illegally to provide for his family. When he was shut down for lacking a permit and he protested through self-immolation. This made Mohammed a martyr hence inspiring public protests against the government. Cases of Self – immolation and other forms of suicide become rampant over the months stirring more public protests.

As the government tried to crack down on the protestors by arresting and killing them, the crowds only grew more rapidly. Reports by the Tunisian government confirmed that at least 21 people were killed during the protests. Although the demonstrations were peaceful at that time, the police used excessive force to try to quell the protests.

Soon the trade union movement joined in the protests; this stirred the repressive response of the police resulting to more killings due to the union’s involvement. The union eventually embarked on a general strike which paralyzed Tunisia’s economic activities (Pierre para 4).

Media played a great role in the revolution of Tunisia and other North African countries. The ousting of Ben Ali was facilitated by the media through unearthing the real conditions in Tunisia. Most Tunisians were not conversant with the popular websites like Facebook, Twitter, Yahoo, Google, CNN and Aljazeera before.

The internet’s gain in popularity all over the world created a platform for the Tunisians to express their views and grievances. The advancement in mobile phone technology propelled the easy access and flow of information. The use of camera phones and the internet exposed the injustices instigated by Ben Ali’s government. Before Tunisia’s election in 2009, Ben Ali’s blocked Facebook for two weeks to minimize the spread of information.

Online censorship was frequently used to control information. Facebook and Twitter were used to circulate videos of each demonstration and to schedule the next demonstration. The internet successfully encouraged the ousting of Ben Ali. It made it difficult for Ben Ali to control information in the media. Therefore the media was able to expose the repressive nature of his administration especially the Aljazeera, which played a bigger role in covering the news in the early stages of Tunisia’s revolution (Pollok para 5-7).

After Ben Ali’s exposure, the international organization started withdrawing support from him. He had a good relationship with the United States of America since he was known for his strong fight against terrorism, this earned him leniency in the international organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Revolution in Tunisia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In June 2008, the US congress donated aid to Tunisia and noted that the repression, restriction on political freedom and human rights violations were of concern for the relationship of both countries to strengthen. Later, president Obama said that he congratulated the Tunisian people for their “courage and dignity”. The U.S. offered a hidden helpful hand in the ousting of Ben Ali; they planned, oversaw and directed the revolution (Pollock para 9).

At the beginning of January 2011, Ben Ali grew cold feet when more protesters sporadically joined the streets in the capital Tunis. More deaths occurred when Snipers situated on roof tops and the army in the capital city killed the protesters. On the 13th of January 2011, the army withdrew from Tunis and consequently the Central Intelligence Agency called for the overthrow of Ben Ali.

Ben Ali and his family eventually left the country on the 14th January 2011 to seek refuge in Saudi Arabia. His family owned a lot of wealth which they got through a series of organized corruption. “They bled the country systematically” (Pierre para 7) says Nicolas Beau, co-author of the Regent of Carthage.

Ben Ali’s family constantly acquired wealth illegally and transferred the ill-obtained wealth abroad during his presidency. The French media reported that Ben Ali’s wife withdrew bars of gold from a bank in Tunisia before leaving the country. Most countries abroad have frozen assets belonging to Ben Ali’s family and allies since his exile. Some of his relatives were caught with cash and jewelry while they tried to leave at the airport.

Tunisia’s ousting of Ben Ali paved way to the second stage of the country’s revolution. Tunisia had a long list of pressing matters and among these were the questions on how to address these matters as they push for stability within the country.

These questions included issues regarding the political system along with initiating a reconciliation process to unite diverse political and social currents, and the issue of unemployment and corruption in the country. Indeed, Tunisia needed a ‘savior’ to salvage the country from the abyss which Ben Ali and his regime had thrown the country into.

An interim government was set up to lead the country. It immediately issued arrest warrants to Ben Ali and his family. In addition, his close associates were also detained. Although the interim government was in place, a few ministers and other loyalists of Ben Ali still held key positions in the interim government. These still fuelled a few protests over Tunisia’s revolution (Freeman para 2). They were undoubtedly enough reasons to make the Tunisian’s protest even after the ousting of Ben Ali.

Zisenwine (para 4) states in his article “An early step by the interim government to enhance national reconciliation” showed that the government’s interest in addressing public grievances. A three day national mourning for those who lost their lives during the protests was set up and the announcement of compensation of lost property during the riots was also made.

This further showed the interim government’s commitment for revolution of Tunisia. Former political prisoners were released and leaders in exile accepted back to the country, including the leader of the “Renaissance Movement.”

The interim government provided a roadmap to a free and fair election in October 2011. Previous holders of ministerial positions were replaced from the interim government due to the public’s unrest. This would go a long way in building public trust in the interim government.

The government established a 10-year vision for political action, as well as a 5-year economic revival program. Experts were allowed to manage the social and economic projects to tackle issues of employment, security, health and poverty with the new government. Revolutionaries were concerned mainly on drafting a new constitution which would protect their rights, which included a fresh electoral law, a free press and a good political system for the country (Bembo para 5).

Tunisia for the first time held a “free and fair election” in October 2011 since Ben Ali’s rule. Tunisia’s relation with the international partners has continued and a sense of freedom in the country is imminent. Most injustices have been addressed including the president’s term limits, a steady political freedom, a free press and an establishment of good economic policies.

Works Cited Bembo, Pietro. Biographical highlights. The world’s perspective. 2011. Web.

Freeman, Colin. “Tunisia’s first family.” The Telegraph, 16 Jan 2011. Web.

Pierre, Tristam. “Profile: Tunisia’s Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali.” Middle East Issues. 2011. Web.

Pollock, John. “Green Revolutionary,” a profile of Norman Borlaug. Technology Review, January/February 2011. Web.

Zisenwine, Daniel. Telaviv Notes: An update on Middle Eastern developments. Moshe Dayan Center. March 27, 2011. Web.


The spectacle of Terror Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Terrorist attacks have had profound impact not only on the US, but they have also comprehensively transformed the world and how we view it. The attacks have changed our perception to terrorists, confirmed, heightened our fears and advanced our counter terrorism technology.

These changes are courtesy of the September 11, 2001 attacks. The media is vital in communication in today’s age. Visual media serves the public with the perception of a wider reality beyond the realm of personal experience. It offers the people with a unique chance of virtually experience events in which they were not part of.

The public believes it is honestly informed when all media agencies report the same story. Unfortunately, this is not always the case since the media reports are sometimes far from the truth. This does not mean to say that the media is always wrong, in fact, most of the time it serves a reliable source of information for the general public on matters that the people did not experience first hand.

Matters such as terrorism evoke concern on national security and the public is always alert when the visual media reports on such matters. These media reports have a far-reaching impact on the public and modify the people’s perception of the world.

People have been for a long time relied on the media to make even seemingly simple decisions; for example, people rely on the weather forecast to determine what they wear. Therefore, this essay discusses how visual media has transformed how the people view the world in relation to death and violence by drawing reference to the events of 9/11.

The reports from visual media elicited immediate reaction from the globe with the then US President George W. Bush declaring war on terrorism. This operation was aimed at bringing the architect of attack, Osama bin Laden to justice, an operation that never bore fruit.

Instead, it tainted the image of the US government as many innocent lives were lost and property damaged. The visual media gave this debacle a lot of attention and influenced American citizen’s way of thinking.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barrack (10) says that even countries around the world some of which were sworn enemies of the United States were deeply offended by this attack as it exposed their vulnerability to similar attacks. For instance, Cuba offered air assistance to its longtime critic. This attack to some extent promoted unity to among countries.

The breaking nature of the events of September 11 influenced greatly media reports and live coverage. Various mainstream media houses reported the propaganda battle in the wake of US led retaliation. These reports suggested that Osama bin laden was out to spread hatred and convince the Muslims that the western world was wicked and it deserved the consequences of the attack (Bockstette 7-9).

The western world denied those allegations by Bin Laden by employing the media to correct those misguiding aspects. Although, Bin Laden was wrong to incite hatred the visual media misled the public by implying the Western world’s response was honest, as a matter of fact, the West’s intention was gain support on its war against terrorism from the public.

The West was right to address the terrorism acts however; this propaganda has stuck in the people’s minds such that their judgment on matters of terrorism has become blurred in the appropriation of policies to fight terrorism.

Shortly after the 9/11 attack, an American citizen named Mark Stroman decided to retaliate to the attacks after being carried away by media reports that projected Muslims as terrorists. In Dallas, he murdered two men who he believed were from the Middle East.

This is an indication that the visual media reports have eroded morals and fuelled hatred between religions and races (Cainkar 215-239). It has made some people believe that it is in right order to attack or kill each other because they do not subscribe to the same religion. This collaborate Humphrey’s argument in a National Post article that, what some people perceive as refugees they may be mistaken as terrorists by other people (9).

It is worth noting that some people believe that violence begets more violence thus, it is not fitting to forget the principle values of justice and our humanity. This has in some way strengthened the values of humanity and people are now appreciating life and acknowledging that it is a delicate thing that has to be preserved at all costs.

We will write a custom Essay on The spectacle of Terror specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The visual media endeavored to report news as they broke out on a background of panic among citizens and the international community. In its attempt to cover the attacks authoritatively, the visual media sparked unnecessary wars between religions. Although the media was not the cause of the attack, the public relied on it to deliver reliable information on the tragedy.

The media appeared to castigate Muslims thus tainting the image of peace loving Muslims. The public was made to believe that a Muslims is a terrorist, which is far from the truth (Hoffman 32-34). This notion has remained etched on the minds of many American citizens.

The visual media has gone further by producing movies that portray terrorists as Muslims, which is outright misleading to the general public. Many people have become wary of potential terrorism acts of violence. For instance, a commuter may alight from a Metro bus that he has boarded because he has seen a suspicious package or person in the bus.

The events of September 11 have influenced people‘s behavior and a sense of patriotism instilled into people. Young Americans are now more willing to join the military to defend the country against future terrorist attacks. When one see images of people injured and others dead, a strong emotional feeling is aroused. However, America’s aggressive approach squandered its moral supremacy.

Sharp reactions arose and there was a wave of Anti-Americanism from a host of Islamic nations. The war did not only hurt this country economically but also tens of thousands of lives were lost in this unnecessary pursuit of revenge.

It suddenly became heroic for one to die or to loose a limb in Afghanistan in the context of fighting against terrorists. Robert in his New York Times article questions the government for exposing soldiers to danger in the guise of fighting terrorism.

Al Qaeda on the other hand was enjoying this immense media coverage, which offered a platform for it to spread its ideologies to anyone all over the world to anyone who cared to listen. The media had just granted the terrorists what they wanted; coverage (Abrams 86-89).

Some of the American citizens denounced their government’s efforts to fight terrorism criticizing it for unleashing terror on the Muslim world. The US government was considered the biggest terrorist. Many Americans today hardly believe what the government says about terrorists, climate change or any other issue of national concern even when the government is telling the truth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The spectacle of Terror by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The citizens have simply lost faith in their government due to the contradicting reports given by the media. Some Americans do not even believe that the September 11 was an act of terrorism; they believe it was a conspiracy of the government (Michael 6-8).

The way we view the world has been changed in a myriad of ways owing to the saturation of visual media in our lives. While it is an undisputable fact that the visual media provides information on what we do not know, it is important to approach issues that it reports with caution and consideration. It is worth noting that nothing is as it seems and we must subject media reports to our own judgment.

Visual images may be emotive and may influence a person to think with his heart rather than his mind. While it is for our own good that the government is fighting terrorism, we must question whether it is justifiable that an innocent child is killed because he is Muslim or that he comes from a country that is perceived to be harboring terrorists.

The media must be impartial in communicating to the public and resist succumbing to the urge of eliciting certain reactions from the public. More importantly, the media should refrain from being the mouthpiece of politicians whose main intention is to influence the people’s way of thinking with the ultimate objective of gaining support.

Works Cited Abrams, Max. “What the terrorists really want: Terrorists motives and counter terrorism.” International security. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 32.4 (2008): 86-89.

Barrack, Mendelson. “Sovereignty under attack: the international society meets the Al Qaeda network.” Cambridge journals, 2005.

Bockstette, Carsten. “Jihadist Terrorist use of strategic Communication Management Techniques”. 2008.7-9.

Cainkar, Louise. “The impact of 9/11 on Muslims and Arabs in the United States.” The Maze of fear: security and migration after September 11th. Ed. John Tirman. New York: The New press, 2004. 215-239.

Hoffman, Bruce. “Inside terrorism” Colombia University press, 1998.32-34.

Humphrey, Adrian. “One official’s ‘refugee’ is another’s ‘terrorist” National Post, 17 January, 2006.

Michael, Dillion. “Politics of security” New York: Routledge, 1996. 6-8.

Robert, Mackey. “Can soldiers be victims of terrorism?” The New York Times. 20 November, 2009.


Strategic Management: Planning and Organisational Success Case Study essay help

Introduction According to Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse (2008) strategic management enables organizations succeed beyond sustained business performance to attaining competitive advantage. This implies ordinary business management practices do not guarantee business success. This implies that business managers have to look beyond the traditional methods of business management since the demands of modern business keeps changing.

As such, any methods adopted have to enable the modern businesses adopt to change. In this view a company has to build on its core competencies so as to gain competitive advantage. Core competence is perceived as the efficient management of resources, including the human resource.

This is attained through the utilization of the most appropriate competitive methods. This implies that a company has to design products and services which would enable it to exploit new business opportunities. Designing these products and services is only attained efficiently allocate and manage available resources.

The assertions above are analyzed Vis a Vis Hotel Island View case. On the face value, Hotel Island View is a successful business. The challenge of dwindling winter sales seems minor and insignificant.

However, a careful evaluation reveals that there are deep rooted weaknesses within the company’s management processes that expose the company to gross under performance and future uncertainties. Suffice to state that the core of the company’s current challenges lies in human resource development strategies currently employed by the company.

The Company tends to rely on unqualified and untrained employees. This directly affects the company’s management processes.

The purpose of this essay is thus expose three major issues facing the company and to provide workable solutions. As such, inability to attain competitive advantage, human resource development and management, as well as intelligence and information seeking strategies have been identified as core issues affecting Hotel Island View.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These issues are explained in detailed in the first part of this report. Furthermore, specific solutions to these issues are offered.

Inability to attain Competitive advantage One of the key issues facing Hotel Island View is the failure to understand the link between core competencies and the attainment of competitive advantage. In order to understand how the company fails to attain competitive advantage, it is vital to recapitulate on a few issues pertaining Hotel Island View.

According to Max Harvey, the hotel’s General Manager, the hotel has experienced a sharp decline in occupancy rates during winter. Low occupancy rates have an immediate impact on the hotel since the vibe created during peak season is lost. This situation is complicated by the fact that, during winter, the hotel seems unable to provide all the services offered during the summer.

This is due to a number of factors ranging from inadequately skilled staff, financial limitations, among others. Solving the low occupancy rate seems easy task. However, the fact that the hotel is not adequately equipped to offer all services during winter complicates the issue.

Additionally, the hotels top management seems unaware of the fact that the current staff does not posses the necessary expertise that will enable it generate solutions aimed at enabling the business address new and emerging challenges. As such, the company is not able to adapt quickly to changing business environment.

According to Jehad and Faleh (2009), many of businesses have not realized the need to connect future business opportunities with the current management practices. Analyzed Vis a Vis Jehad and Faleh’s (2009) assertion, Hotel Island View seems unable to link its current management practices and emerging opportunities.

This is evident from the fact that instead of concentrating on building its core competencies, Island View Hotel management is concentrating on strengthening and protecting core products. Additionally, the hotel management is oblivious of the competitive space provided by dwindling occupation during winter.

We will write a custom Case Study on Strategic Management: Planning and Organisational Success specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While Jehad and Faleh (2009) portray the need for a company to build on its core competencies to exploit new opportunities, Ljungquist (2008) asserts that building on core competencies enables businesses to diversify products and services, and that such diversification should address emerging business needs.

This enables companies to out do competition. Ljungquist (2008) assertions are evident in Hotel Island View’s case since the company is inclined to protect its primary products and services. By concentrating on its core products (summer water sports and boarding), the company misses the opportunity to diversify its products and services. As such it cannot address emerging consumer trends.

As mentioned by the private tour guide, winter guest want different products than what the company offer during summer. As such, winter guests look for alternative activities such as tennis, golf, biking among others. Unfortunately, the company’s management is unaware of the needs of the winter guests, since it is blinded by the positive feedback from summer guests.

As explained by Ljungquist (2008) the inability of Hotel Island View to diversify its products portfolio emanates from the fact that the company does not have the relevant resources, technologies, expertise, practices and systems which will enable the it gain competitive advantage over its rivals.

Human resource management Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse (2008) suggest that one of the best ways of achieving competitive advantage is through efficient management and allocation of resources, including the human resource. This assertion brings to the fore another key issue in Hotel Island View’s case: recruitment, management and development of human resource.

The problem of human resource management at Hotel Island View has many dimensions. To begin with, the hotel is a small establishment and as such, it cannot manage to hire experienced and qualified staff to work on fulltime basis. This is further complicated by the fact that the hotel is located in a remote and unattractive location.

As such, it fails to attract experienced staff especially during winter. This means that the hotel faces an irregular supply of qualified workers, especially considering that it needs such experience most during winter. As such, having inexperienced staff to manage the hotel during low season expose the hotel to mismanagement.

Additionally, the hotel over relies on students looking for part time summer jobs. According to Wilton (2010), inexperienced staff is not well equipped to handle the day to day management challenges and tasks in a company. In view of Wilton’s (2010) assertion, the reliance on inexperienced students expose the hotel to lack of focus especially pertaining addressing daily management challenges.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Management: Planning and Organisational Success by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While the existence of inexperienced staff within Hotel Island View’s human resource poses a major challenge, the human resource dilemma take a more complicated dimension when considering the hotels competitive methods. Within Hotel Island View, there is an array of activities designed to keep visitors busy during summer. However during winter, the hotel does not have the required human resource to man and offer support in all these activities.

While Clardy (2008) sees this as a poor human resource development strategy, the company’s general manager sees cross training as the ultimate solution. However, this view is simplistic given that the hotel does not have a regular supply of fully qualified staff.

Furthermore, as Clardy (2008) and Jehad and Faleh (2009) assert, with poorly trained and unqualified staff, a company lacks the necessary human resource to build its core competencies. It is in this view that Hotel Island View lacks the ability to fulfill its promise to offer all services available during summer at winter.

While the effects of relying on inexperienced employees are not evident outrightly, a closer analysis of the company tendency to ignore current news tells the depth within which the company is affected by recruiting inexperienced employees. The hotel accountant makes efforts to inform the general manager on latest news. He goes further and analyses such information with regards to how these events affect Hotel Island View.

However, the General Manager, as well as the rest of the employees, perceives such events as insignificant. This is due to the fact that a majority of the employees lack formal training. Clardy (2008) confirms that on the job training helps employees overcome day to day management deficiencies.

This leads to improved performance by the human resource, effectively affecting business outcomes positively. However, since most of the hotels permanent employees lack formal training, they therefore lack basic management competencies (Clardy, 2008). This negatively affects the business.

Intelligence and information gathering As mentioned earlier, the private tour guide poses valuable information which would enable hotel island view address the challenge of low occupancy during winter. However, a few factors play against his determination to share such knowledge with the hotel management. To begin with, the hotel rejects his request to place his tour company brochures in the hotel.

While this has a direct impact on his tour business, there are negative long term effects which affect Hotel Island View than his tour company. By refusing to collaborate with the private tour guide, Hotel Island View management fails to utilize one of the key requirements of building on its core competencies: establishing successful partnership with existing business partners (Jehad and Faleh, 2009).

While Jehad and Faleh, (2009) consider this as a lack of awareness on enhancing a firms core competencies, Kleinberg, Suri and Tardos (2006) sees it as an opportunity lost in building strategic networks. Strategic networks are vital as they not only help firms seal gaps that exists within the business structure but also utilize, synthesize and apply information that emanates from others partners within the network.

In view of Kleinberg, Suri and Tardos’ (2006) assertion, Hotel Island View has failed to utilize the private tour operator as the bridge to accessing crucial business information. This can also be perceived as one of the ways through which the hotel management fails to identify emerging competitive space.

In relation to Jehad and Faleh’s (2009) study, the inability of a firm to discover new competitive space implies that the company has not developed its core competencies effectively. Furthermore, Jehad and Faleh (2009) argues that by utilizing strategic partners a firm is able to exploit the competitive space, especially those brought about by new business trends.

This is attained by focusing beyond performance based on products and prices to creating strategic alliances. However, the company ignores the opportunities provided by the tour company operator and chooses to rely on products and prices as its main performance enhancement method. This results to poor business performance.

While the inability to establish networks with other private companies seems tied to Hotel Island View’s association with Primo Hotel Alliance, the hotel’s inability to gather market intelligence and information has a more significant dimension. The company had a tendency to rely on inexperienced and untrained staff. While Wilton (2010) suggests that the human resource is the most valuable asset for any firm, this assertion is not applicable to Hotel Island View’s case.

This is because the hotel’s human resource does not provide the necessary resources, especially information resource. This is evident from the fact that other than the company’s accountant who makes efforts to follow current news, other employees fails to see the correlation between current events and the effects on hotel business.

The issue is aggravated by the fact that the company’s General Manager, a leader who is naturally supposed to motivate his juniors by setting standards and goals (Jehad and Faleh, 2009) fails to see the need to keep the hotel human resource updated on current events.

The fact that he is unable to correlate these two variables indicates his lack of managerial skills and competencies and exposes a weakness in the company’s management structure. As such, the inability of the company to utilize information as a business asset can be attributed to two major factors: its inability to establish strategic networks and partnerships as well as unskilled manpower.

Recommended Solutions Co-alignment strategy

Gaining competitive advantage is one of the major determinants of a firm’s performance in the business world. To do this, the firm must be able to link competitive advantage with the company’s core competencies. This will be achieved by aligning factors within the prevailing external environment and the strategic choices that a firm makes (Branzei and Thornhill, 2006).

In effect, Hotel Island View will not only attain improved business performance but also ensure the attainment of competitive advantage over its rivals in the hotel industry. By external environment, economists refer to the forces that determine change within the business environment.

These include factors that influence consumer trends and preferences. More often than not, the effects of these forces, if not properly managed, impact firm’s performance negatively (Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse, 2008). With regards to Hotel Island View’s case, there are a number of external factors which influence the need for change on how the hotel’s management approaches business.

These include the weather season pattern and its influence on business trends. During summer, the hotels occupancy rates are almost 100%. However, for the last two years, the occupancy rate during winter has dropped significantly to 36%. Furthermore, during winter, guest demand for alternative recreational activities other than water sports.

This shows that the consumer trends changes with changes in weather seasons. As such, the hotel needs to realize that changes in weather patterns affect business trends.

To address the effects of external factors, the hotel management needs to make the right strategic choices. This includes the use of best competitive methods which will enable the company to gain competitive advantage over its rivals.

While Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse (2008) suggest that the need to reevaluate its products and services portfolio, Jehad and Faleh (2009) suggest differentiation; offering a wide range of products and services at market competitive prices. In view of Jehad and Faleh’s (2009) assertion, the suggestions made by the private tour operator on the need to have additional recreational activities such as snooker, tennis, biking, among others seems relevant.

By doing this, the management should be able to design new products and services, which will not only help Hotel Island View address the consumer trends but also gain market advantage over its rivals. The designing of new products and services will be attained through efficient allocation of human, financial, tacit and any other relevant resource. This will enable the hotel build its core competencies, and effectively improve its performance.

Human resource management and development strategy

Hotel island view human resource challenge is multifaceted. To begin, most of the employees at the hotel lack relevant training. Furthermore, the hotel supply of qualified human resource is irregular. In trying to come up with a solution for this problem, the hotels General Manager suggests cross training of existing personnel.

This will enable the employees acquire multiple skills, and thus serve in more that one area when needed. This seems to be in line with Jehad and Faleh (2009) assertion on the need to develop a firm’s capabilities to redistribute employees to handle new business challenges.

However, Clardy (2008) asserts that this is a traditional method and needs to be supplemented with modern forms of efficient human resource utilization. As such, Clardy (2008) suggest that firms needs to conduct a capability analysis. This is attained through evaluating a firm’s work routines and how those routines fit into the firms operations.

This enables the firm managers to understand the basic workflow and thus reengineer the firms operations. The existing human resource personnel is thus trained and equipped with the relevant skills and knowledge to handle the reengineered workflow.

Strategic networking

As explained by Kleinberg, Suri and Tardos (2006), the inability of Hotel Island View to gather and utilize Valuable information exposes structural gaps in the company’s business structure. To fill in these gaps, (Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse, 2008) suggests reorganization of a firm’s strategic management practices.

While Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse, (2008) sees strategic management as a combination of the external environment, finances, human resource management and business performance, Hotel island Views case requires the reorganization of the hotels human resource portfolio, especially with regard to the top management.

This is as a result of the realization that effective strategic management involves the cognitive abilities, the experiences and information management proficiency of the top management (Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse, 2008). Jehad and Faleh (2009) asserts that a firm’s top management needs to set goals which inspire company’s staff.

As such, there is need to reorganize the company’s top management. Jehad and Faleh (2009) assertion is in line with Clardy’s (2008) assertion that a firm’s human resource development strategies are basic requirements towards building company’s core competencies. This will be attained by replacing the company’s General Manager, preferable by the company’s chief accountant.

This is because the accountant seems aware of the implications of current news, something that the general manager seems unaware. If this is done, it will ensure that the company’s top management has the appropriate information management skills.

The company’s accountant has the appropriate information management skills and competencies since he is able to accurately assess current events and the effects they have on the hospitality industry. As such, he is best placed to help the hotel to establish information and intelligence seeking networks.

There are some valuable sources of information unused by the current hotel management. These include partners within the industry who, by offering auxiliary services generate valuable market intelligence. As explained by Kleinberg, Suri and Tardos (2006) the new manager should consider creating networks links with partners whose aim is to gain from establishing such strategic networks.

In this case, the private tour operator, who currently, holds crucial information that would benefit hotel island view, seems a relevant business partner. While Clardy (2008) links a company’s human resource development to the achievement of a company’s core competencies, Wincent, Anokhin, Örtqvist and Autio (2009) assert that a company’s human resource is the most vital asset that enables a company develop strategic networks.

This leads to improved business performance. In this case, hotel island view needs to evaluate its human resource development strategies, especially on hiring the top management personnel to help meets its business information needs.

Conclusion There are several issues that face Hotel Island View. Among them includes, the inability to attain competitive advantage, inappropriate human development strategies as well as weak information management strategies. While these issues seem unrelated, their core root is the company’s human development strategies.

The company has a tendency to rely on unskilled and untrained employees. This denies the company the opportunity to utilize new business opportunities since most of the employees lack the relevance expertise to spot such opportunities. The lack of skills is manifested in the inability of the employees to spot and utilize valuable information, as well as perform other strategic management practices.

Since most of the employees lack basic management skills they are not able to link the company’s human resource development strategy with the challenges the company is facing.

Reference List Branzei, O. and Thornhill, S. (2006). From ordinary resources to extraordinary performance: environmental moderators of competitive advantage. Strategic Organization, 4(1), pp.11-41.

Clardy, A. (2008). The strategic role of Human Resource Development in managing core competencies. Human Resource Development International. Web.

Kleinberg, J., Suri, S. and Tardos, E. (2006). Strategic network formation with structural holes. Social and Behavioral Sciences. Web.

Ljungquist, U. (2008). Specification of core competence and associated components: a proposed model and a case illustration. European Business Review, 20(1).

Olsen, M., West, J., and Ching-Yick Tse, E. (2008). Strategic management in the hospitality industry. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Wilton, N. (2010). An introduction to human resource management. London: Sage

Wincent, J, Anokhin, S., Örtqvist, D. and Autio, E. (2009). Quality Meets Structure: Generalized Reciprocity and Firm-Level Advantage in Strategic Networks. Journal of Management Studies 47 (4).


Managing Supply Chain of Nokia Essay college essay help: college essay help

History and Background of the Company Nokia Corporation is a Finland based company that primarily deals with the manufacture of mobile telephones. The company’s brand product is the Nokia phones. The success of the Nokia Company is largely attributed to its best management in supply chain practices.

This project will tend to analyze the supply-chain management practices at the Nokia Corporation. It gives a vivid description of how the company is enhancing its efficiency in a supply chain so as to counteract the impact of reduced market demand of mobile phone handsets.

Nokia is the number one producer of mobile phone devices in the world, and its supply chain has been rated as number six in the ranking of world’s top 25 companies in the world in terms of their supply chain. Nokia Company was founded in 1865 as a paper milling plant, and it was until 1982 that it began producing mobile phones.

Nokia Corporation has 15 mobile manufacturing plants that are spread in nine countries. Their plants are found in the following countries: Brazil, Romania, South Korea, Finland, China India, Mexico, Hungary and Great Britain. Its mother depot is located in Gurgaon.

The mother company provides help in the selection of market partners like distributors and dealers; it also provides monetary privileges to its priority dealers in order to assist in promotion of the Nokia products on a larger scale (Scribd, 2011).

Supply-chain management is defined as the totality of all activities that are involved in the delivery of company products to the customer. This process involves the sourcing of raw materials, assembling of the raw materials to form the finished products, warehousing, distribution and delivery of the final product.

Nokia operates two business groups, Nokia mobile phones and Nokia networks. The company provides wireless communication products and services. Nokia supplies equipment and communication services all over the globe. Nokia is considered as a leading international communication company which focuses its operations on wireless and wire line telecommunication areas (Shah 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is the pioneer of digital technology and wireless data communications network; its innovativeness enhances its competitiveness and telecommunication network growth. Nokia is listed in four stock exchange markets (Nokia Website, 2011).

Overview of its Supply Chain Supply chain of an organization is the system of all the activities and resources that are involved in transferring a product from the supplier to the consumers, it is the transformation of the raw materials and the components into finished goods, which are ready for use by the customer. Market analysts associate the success of the Nokia Corporation to its best supply chain practices.

The supply chain of Nokia Corporation is an integrated one with “intertwined suppliers, manufacturing plants, contract manufacturers, sales and logistics service providers and the ultimate consumers” (Kalra, 2011, p. 3). The company has entered into a relationship with its suppliers while supporting them in their processes.

Nokia has been in a better position to keep the prices of its products low due to its efficient manufacturing system and production processes. Nokia Corporation has adopted a hybrid system of manufacturing, which is a combination of both in-house and outsourcing manufacturing. To enhance its competitiveness, the company has incorporated smart manufacturing techniques in its manufacturing facilities.

The company’s distribution network is wide, and this has enhanced its ability to reach the majority of its consumers. Nokia stands far much ahead when compared with other companies, particularly in regional outsourcing and its unique feature of collaborating with the suppliers to form an organized design of the supply chain (Cavinato, Flynn,


The impact of good supply chain management Essay college essay help

Supply management plays a major role in any business organization. As such, there is every need for managers and all stakeholders to embrace good supply chain management while executing their management and leadership roles.

What are the advantages of maintaining good supply chain management? This essay gives an analysis of the impact of maintaining good supply chain management in any form of business.

It is worth noting that supply management does not function alone; many other departments are always involved in ensuring its success and economical impact. However, the number of departments involved solely depends on the size of a given organization. While this is the case, it has been found that supply chain managers must work with certain departments in order to realize set goals and objectives of the organization.

These departments include engineering, finance, operations, marketing, quality and information technology (Burt, Petcavage


Global Warming and Carbon Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction





Introduction Global warming is believed to be as a result of excess carbon in the atmosphere. Scientists have predicted climate change. This essay analyzes and evaluates an article “The Global Warming Myth” by David Bellamy. Bellamy, who is a professor, is a founder of Tree Appeal and a well known botanist and environmental campaigner, as Salter (2009, p. 1) reveals.

The British environmentalist claims that the global warming allegations by scientist are manmade and that there is no imminent danger that carbon will cause an end to the present world. He maintains that predictions based on generated computer models cannot be relied on since the presence of carbon in the atmosphere cannot cause a catastrophe.

This essay analyzes and evaluates these claims by showing assertions that carbon may not be responsible for global warming as claimed by many scientists.

Analysis Bellamy (2007, p. 1) argues that global warming is as a result of carbon and is not a threat. The changes in climate that have occurred are not sufficient to make the assertions that the world is in danger. The climatic change that has occurred does not give transformed details of whether that could indicate an approaching catastrophe.

The challenge is that the climate change supporters have gone to extents of politicizing the issue and causing panic in the society. Their predictions are generated in a computer model which has been designed by man.

He appreciates the scientists for conducting research in the disputed area and notes that their research has contributed to science. The prediction dwell on the model yet accurate results of weather forecast can predict two weeks.

To support his argument, Bellamy (2007, p. 1) notes that global temperatures have displayed climatic trends in the past century that pronounce catastrophe. The highest temperatures were recorded in 1940 and 1980 whereas the lowest temperatures were recorded in 1910 and 1970.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following changes in 1980, scientists announced that global warming was approaching. The computer models they used are seen as unreliable by the professor. The recorded changes in temperature are not sufficient to declare danger in the changes in weather.

The ice age began to fade away 20,000 years ago when the sea level was increased and has since stopped. For global warming to be considered a threat, the cycle of change takes many years. It is thereof inaccurate to use data collected within 60 years and claim that climate change will cause a catastrophe. Airhart (2010, p. 1) states that, vast amount of data that cover tens of thousands of years is required to make a judgment.

The content of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is constantly increasing. The climate changes have varied in a cyclic manner from time to time. Many scholars have ignored that carbon dioxide has an advantage in plants growth. Scientists propose a long period to be considered when considering climate change.

Bellamy (2007, p. 1) notes that the climate has been recorded to be on decline in the past 10 years. Hence, the weather could have begun another cycle of change to global cooling.

The scientists scare the world’s population by spreading the word of doom. Bellamy (2007, p. 1) insists that wild animals have increased in the past decades. Governments funding on the spread of the looming catastrophe is enormous.

The variability of the climate change is challenging, only half is predictable. Consequently, the prediction is inaccurate. Predictions accuracy is applicable for less than two weeks, besides the weather being unpredictable in nature.

Bellamy (2007, p. 1), who is an environmentalist, encourage people to participate in sustainable programs that promote natural environment. Indigenous plans and animals are important to the climate. The changes in the weather are real.

We will write a custom Essay on Global Warming and Carbon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The presence of carbon dioxide is not a danger to the population but may be useful for plants. Carbon dioxide is not capable of causing an end to the world.

Evaluation The climatic changes happening are likely to be a normal process that the earth undergoes from time to time. The global warming needs to be reversed to avoid the possibility of a catastrophe. This will be possible if indigenous trees and animals are safeguarded so that they do not become extinct.

The earth has been cooling since 1998 and thus, the global warming may be reversing as Airhart (2010, p. 1) indicate in support of the article. The increased amounts of Carbon dioxide alone are not sufficient to cause a global warming.

The models used in determining the future in climate are deficient. They fail to be realistic because predicting future weather is challenging when one considers the complexity of nature and patterns of weather.

There is no scientific explanation on carbon as having the capacity to cause a global catastrophe. Changes in weather that have occurred have been explained as natural phenomena. Scientists have failed to form a consensus on the natural explanation of the global warming.

There may be other explanations of global warming other than the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. May be the global warming is as a result of land use like the urban heat that is absorbed by buildings and roads in developed land.

There could also be a possibility that the weather stations collect measurements affected by the urban development. History of weather shows that the global temperatures increase first then the carbon levels are raised. The carbon levels increased after global warming and may not have a negative effect (Salter 2009, p, 10.

Bedard (2009, p. 1) argues that carbon dioxide is harmless and has benefits. More carbon dioxide is required to support the existing plants. Global warming may have originated from solar activities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Warming and Carbon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Slowing down carbon dioxide will affect the growth of plants, since plants require carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is not harmful to human beings, the efforts on reducing carbon dioxide are unnecessary.

Global (2011, p. 1) differs with Bellamy (2007, p. 1) view of global warming effects and states that the earth’s air and water are becoming warm, which may result in a catastrophe. The article fails to see the effects of the global warming like the shortage of water as indicated by Natural Resources Defense Council (2001, p. 1).

Climate threats like drought expose people to the danger of starvation; hence the nations should conserve the plants and animals to reverse the effects of global warming.

Statistics shows that carbon emissions are on the increase in the present world than before. The professor fails to acknowledge the increase of emissions has been on the increase than before. Barett (2009, p. 1) notes that the states have entered into international agreements which have discussed various ways of reducing the carbon emission. Measures to reduce the carbon emissions are taken because the effects of global warming have been realized.

The effects of global warming have been realized across the globe. Carey (2011, p.1) argues that the extreme weather changes are as a result of global warming effects. The emission of greenhouse gases has been increased by human activities. Massive rainstorms, extended droughts and frequent floods are examples of extreme weather conditions that have not been realized before.

Researchers are in harmony that the possible cause of the adverse weather changes have been contributed by human activities. Mandia (2011, p. 1) states that, the climatic conditions that are witnessed today are beyond the regular climatic conditions. The adverse weather conditions are likely to cause major disruptions in the social life of human beings and the existence of the entire ecosystem.

There is great variability of climate than in other times. Researchers base their studies on the effects of global warming with an aim of finding out the accuracy of the claim that the earth is endangered. Scientists argue that it may be necessary to distinguish changes in temperature in a certain region with that of the entire globe (RealClimate 2011, p.1).

Conclusion The article mentions that there is global warming and denies that carbon is harmful and will cause a catastrophe. The essay has shown that carbon is harmless and the global changes are as a result of natural changes in weather. It is therefore inaccurate to claim that the weather can be predicted with the computer models and ignore that the weather is unpredictable.

The essay has also noted that extreme weather changes have occurred and may have been contributed by the increased emission of carbon from human activities.

References Airhart, M., 2010. Climate myths: Jackson school set the record straight. Web.

Barett, S., 2009. Rethinking Global Climate Change Governance. Economics, 3, 5. Web.

Bedard, P., 2009. Scientist: Carbon Dioxide Doesn’t Cause Global War. Web.

Bellamy, D., 2007. The Global Warming Myth. Web.

Carey, J., 2011.Global warming and the Science of extreme Weather. Web.

Global Wraming., 2011. What is global warming. Web.

Mandia, S. A., 2011. Global warming man or myth. Web.

Natural Resources Defense Council., 2011. Global warming. Web.

RealClimate., 2011. Myth vs. Fact regarding the “Hockey stick”. Web.

Salter, J., 2009. Eco hero: David Bellamy. The telegraph. Web.


Supporting organization strategies Essay essay help: essay help

Extensive training of workers in an organization is extremely beneficial in the reduction of costs, escalating market share, and improving the organization’s profits. Training of employees enhances suppleness and receptiveness of the organization.

It enables employees to handle multiple functions besides their allocated job in case need arises (Williams, 2008). This training is relevant to diminutive businesses with minimal staff. The employer needs to give employees a time off from their regular jobs to enable them attend some training courses thus equipping them with skills such as computer acquaintance.

Broad training is a fundamental component of management in many organizations. Moreover, the best-qualified workers should accustom themselves with the current expectations and practices of the business.

When the businesses are trying to lower the operational costs, employers may choose to employ workers with minimal skills in order to reduce expenses. However, the employers with vastly skilled employees’ experiences an enormous return on ventures and elevated profits compared to organizations with less skilled employees (Williams, 2008). It is imperative to say that extensive training of workers aids in increasing the organizations profit.

Extensive training of workers gives them a set of skills. After the process of training, the individual gets the relevant skills to handle complex projects in a more industrious and proficient manner. The training of employees gives them high levels of motivation in offering quality output and minimal errors thus resulting to lower operational costs.

An organization is able to improve profitability and market share by escalating the sales output. Employers from various sectors such as finance need sales professionals with the pertinent skills.

Maintenance of steady levels of better sales performance is not an easy task. Sales professionals need some training service to sustain the levels of motivation in order to increase the sales output. For employers with extremely skilled employees in the sales sector enjoy an enormous increase in sales volume and thus increasing profitability.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though sales training is an expensive exercise, it is surely worthwhile to the employers. Well-trained employees really boost productivity, thereby aiding in increasing the organizations profits. Studies revealed that employees who obtain the needed sales training bring in more than fifty percent, in the net sales.

This eventually translates to superior gross profits for the organization. Some research confirms that the highest earning companies spend nearly six percent of the payroll costs to train employees, in order to enjoy high returns (Williams, 2008).

Training of employees at the start of their career results to increased profits, minimal errors, and greater efficacy. Employees with the capability of completing their work properly have a likelihood of remaining with the company, therefore, reducing the turnover and expenses related.

The act of training the employees effectively proves to be a marketing tool and still a method of recruiting additional employees (Williams, 2008). Highly trained employees help in minimizing rework and extra efforts by associates who correct the mistakes done by non-skilled employees.

It is worth denoting that highly skilled employees make few mistakes. When the employees know how to carry out a task efficiently, confidence increases, and this enhances efficiency in their work thus leading to improved profits and products of high quality.

Training from the start saves time in the end by eradicating the need to ask other colleagues to assist in performing a given task. Increased efficiency in an organization results to increase in profits and acquisition of a superior market share.

Extensive training to employees is advantageous the organization and employees. The employees are able to offer eminent output during the process. They acquit themselves with the definite skills needed to act upon their assigned jobs. Greater quality in work results to enormous profits and better satisfaction to the associates.

We will write a custom Essay on Supporting organization strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The productivity of an organization increases if the employees have skilled skills. Efficiency also improves since the employees become efficient. In a short time, there is the completion of more work as the employees know exactly what to undertake.

When employees are more familiar with their work, there is certainty in productivity gain (Williams, 2008). Profitability also increases due to wide training of employees. Consistent training of the employees aids in reducing errors. The sales increase since the sales team use a homogeneous selling process. The training also impacts positively on consumer relations as the employees learn on appropriate procedures to enhance consumer satisfaction.

When all the managers learn to use a suitable performance process, the turnover readily decreases. It is worth denoting that superb training results to improved profits and promises a greater future for all the members in the organization.

It is imperative to say that highly trained employees prove to be better performers, as they are capable of working independently, and occasionally participate with excellent results in teamwork. The result of having skilled employees is superb sales performance and increased production (Williams, 2008). This is beneficial to the organization as there is enlarged market share.

It is worth concluding that extensive training of employees’ results to their retention in the organization. The skills acquired by the employees during their training enables them to be more competent in their work thus offering excellent output. This later benefits the organization as it enjoys improved profits, reduction of costs, and improved market share.

Reference Wiliams, C. (2008). Management. New York: Cengage Learning


Green Buildings and Their Efficiency Water Consumption Research Paper best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Green buildings and water efficiency

Products selections

The future of green buildings


Introduction Green buildings or high-performance buildings incorporate design and construction standards that significantly reduce or eliminate the negative impacts of the building on the environment and occupants. Green buildings essential elements of focus include sustainable site, safeguarding water and its sources, energy conservation, conservation of materials and indoor environmental quality.

Property developers are beginning to understand that it is possible to build green buildings on a usual budget. As such, the need to develop green buildings is on the rise. Constructors and property owners are now extending green buildings to large residential homes, industrial and commercial buildings.

At the same time, they take advantages of the new modeling tools, regulatory incentives, design techniques and wise financial spending. The growth occurs as a result of companies and individuals who are seeking spaces that respect their values and lifestyles. Green buildings go a long way in fulfilling these needs (Yudelson, 2007).

The concept of green buildings emanated as a response to human activities in altering the global climate. Most of the carbon dioxide emissions causing global warming come from buildings. Environmentalists blame developed nations for emitting much of the world’s carbon dioxide responsible for global warming.

However, the concerted efforts to adopt green buildings are most likely to change this trend. Observers predict much development in emerging nations, which will increase the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The focus should now shift to energy efficient and green buildings.

Otherwise, we do not have many options in tackling global warming. Several countries are economically going to benefit by embracing green technologies and carbon reduction technologies, processes and systems.

We must understand that there are lots of literature and debates concerning green buildings. The information usually concerns social and economic issues. People who prefer to embrace environmental friendly involvements often meet greenwash activities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Studies in green buildings and environmental issues tend to give a full picture of what exactly are green and in what context. Critics ask whether the materials in use are also green or how green are the buildings. The resources are useful in terms of provide regulation of buildings, components of green buildings, selection of green materials and where to purchase such materials.

There criteria a building must pass so as to qualify as a green building. The essential element is its impacts on the environment. Designers must evaluate all the constituent parts so as to enable users to make informed choices about the buildings’ impacts on the environment.

People who operate in commercial buildings tend to refer to such buildings as environmental friendly buildings. Still, others call them high-performance buildings.

Participants in the building construction, design and real estate have embraced sustainable designs as landmark development in the careers and businesses. At the same time, changes in global temperatures have forced people to fight for environmental protection and reduce energy consumptions in buildings. Today, water is becoming a scarce resource as its consumption continues to rise.

Studies show that, between the year 1990 and 2000, the usage of water rose by 12 per cent (The U.S. Green Building Council, 2009). Water supply serves purposes of domestic, industrial, commercial, agricultural and other purposes. The high demand for water is straining its sources leading to massive withdrawals and reduction.

Developers have noticed the need to involve the communities. They believe that a genuine concern for the environment must involve the community from the grassroots levels for meaningful changes. Using large quantities of water increase the maintenance and life-cycle costs for building operations, and additional costs on the occupants.

Conversely, buildings that employ the efficient use of water reduce costs through lower service charges, reduction in energy and chemical use, and discharges. This paper shall focus on green buildings or high-performance buildings and their waters consumptions and efficiency processes.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Green Buildings and Their Efficiency Water Consumption specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Green buildings and water efficiency Observing water usage and performance are the first steps in understanding water wastage. Water and energy use relate to each other. This can help decision-makers to decide on overall efficiency. Individuals and organizations that can monitor water and energy usage can take these advantages to create greener and sustainable buildings (Wilson, 2006).

People should find ways to minimize indoor potable water usage. This involves using alternative water sources for non-potable uses. Installation of buildings components such as water-efficient fixtures, flow restrictors, composting toilets, and waterless urinals to minimize water usage.

Lowering water usage in showerheads, faucets will reduce the total amount of water users withdraw from natural resources and other water bodies. This method is efficient and effective in large commercial buildings that require much water for their occupants, workers and visitors (Spiegel and Meadows, 2011).

Saving water usually results into saving energy as well, which is leading to environmental well-being. Water efficiencies in green buildings result into reducing the amount of water for treatments, cooling, heating and distributions for potable use. These aspects require energy, of which if reduced, will result into costs savings and clean environment, through less energy consumptions.

Engaging in water conservation improves both human and environmental well-being. The looming water shortages in the leading cities are raising alarm among water suppliers and environmentalists. Water reservoirs and underground water are facing depletion. This will affect both the human and environmental well-being.

This is because low water levels can improve the concentrations of environmental pollutants. Green buildings attempt to improve water efficiencies by keeping it at safe levels. Users can also derive benefits from discharge of used water.

This is because there are costs, energy usage and materials inputs for treatments of used water. This is particularly vital in public facilities, which have high discharge rates.

In the US, water usage in landscaping is increasing at a massive rate. Observers consider landscaping as an outdoor water use that consumes large quantities of water. People should improve on landscaping activities and adopt best practices, which will reduce or even eliminate irrigations needs for landscaping.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Green Buildings and Their Efficiency Water Consumption by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Green buildings are reestablishing native plants to foster self-sustaining landscaping practices. This is because such plants require less water in irrigation, and provide other environmental benefits. Green buildings tend to look so natural in a natural habitat.

Native plants also require small quantities of fertilizers and treatment chemicals. These benefits reduce environmental degradation and other unwanted environmental impacts.

Outdoor water usage has created the concept of Xeriscaping. This term denotes water conservation in landscaping. The term refers to dry or natural landscaping. Xeriscaping applies techniques of selecting suitable plant types and planting methods which reduces or eliminates water except for normal use.

This method tries to minimize the negative environmental impacts of landscaping. Environmental consciousness and the need for green buildings have resulted into popularity of xeriscaping among property developers and landscape architects. Green buildings require temporary irrigation for the first year till the plants become well formed.

Xeriscaping also combines plants with similar water requirements. Landscaping architects do not normally xeriscaping in areas with abundant rainfalls. Therefore, the initial step to involve xeriscaping involves the evaluation of the site in terms of rain, sun, wind, existing vegetation, direction of orientation, topography and soil.

Landscaping architects should carefully choose the plants with regard to their various needs such as water requirements, sun tolerance, shelter and food requirements, including plants value to the natural surroundings. Once the plants have established themselves, nature takes control (The U.S. Green Building Council, 2009).

Records indicate that urinals consume more than 150 billion gallons of fresh water per year. Designers of green buildings are venturing into designing of water-free urinals. These designs have oil seals below the drain. These prevent sewer gases from rising up.

The system eliminates the need for flushing water to prevent the smell in the urinal. The pleasant-smelling seal has to be changed periodically to provide an airtight barrier between the urine and the restroom, thus preventing odor from escaping the drain. Sealant allows urine to pass through because it is lighter than the urine.

Urine flows to the drainage and uric sediments get collected by the cartridges. The result is an odor-free environment with clean pipes and no wastage of water at all. Water-free urinals are useful in places where large volumes of water are in use, such as public toilets, hotels, schools, stadiums among others.

Water-free urinals require proper design, installation and regular maintenance, drastically reduce water consumptions in green buildings by significant quantities. The future needs of water-free urinals will lead to less demand for water, sewerage infrastructure developments, and energy (Foster, Stelmack, and Hindman, 2006).

Green buildings have water-free urinals installed. The installations pay for themselves through savings in water costs, and energy consumptions. Examples of buildings with water-free urinals include Jimmy Carter Presidential Library, Jackie Gleason Theater in Miami Beach, among others.

Green buildings have concerted efforts to construct wetlands which are part of storm water management and sewerage treatment solutions. Constructed wetlands hold storm water, and use treated sewage to supply nutrients to aquatic lives.

The idea of constructed wetlands as part of green buildings, is beneficial in terms of provisions of nutrients, provision of shelter, elimination sediments, heavy metals, oil, grease, and transform sewerage nutrients into life giving-carbon, and trace minerals.

Constructed wetlands are sources of recreations, tours, environmental studies, wildlife habitats, and open space for green buildings. Architects consider constructed wetlands as cheaper to construct than the normal sewerage and storm water treatment plant. Constructed wetlands are cheap to maintain and operate. They also handle large volumes of waste water than the normal sewerage plant systems.

Examples of constructed wetlands with varieties of functions to both human and wild lives include Phoenix of the Salt and Gila rivers and Tres Rios of the Phoenix metropolis. Constructed wetlands are rapidly growing across Europe, America and China.

Earthship green building is an example of water efficiency use in green buildings. The building collects and stores rain water in the tanks. The channels carry rain water into a cistern for storage.

Gravity and pumps direct water through filters for purification to create safe water for domestic purposes. Thus, results into a safe drinking, cooking and bathing water. Water used after cooking goes to botanical tank with rubber-lined walls.

These containers hold gravels and plants. The plants naturally clean the water. Roots and gravels filter the water and add bacteria. The bacteria consume soaps and chemical in the water. This water is now safe for reuse. However, water that is too dirty for reuse finds it way in a different drainage channel.

Occupants can use this water for toilet purposes. Earthship residents can reuse water up to four times, and always have a constant supply of water from the filtering channels (Sirvaitis, 2010).

Green buildings apply effective ways to reduce water usage through the installation of flow restrictors or reduced flow aerators on the toilets, sinks and showers. High-performance buildings also have automatic faucet sensors and meter control devices.

The buildings have high efficiency water urinals and closets. They have no water fixtures and have rain water trapping systems installed.

Products selections Green buildings have their products and selection is becoming a complex affair. There are several innovative products to cater for green buildings in terms of standards, certifications, and metrics as means of assessing them.

However, some of these materials are just greenwash. The selection process requires the user to navigate all these pieces of information to find the materials he or she requires to use.

The product selections guidelines are the same as those of non-green buildings. All aspects of quality, aesthetics, costs and performance of the products are essential in green buildings materials selection processes. The fundamental questions for consideration include the environmental impacts and potential interventions measures on the products chosen.

The standard selection processes for green buildings including identification of materials, performance criteria, building materials options, technical information available, review of submitted information, evaluation of materials and selections and records of choices.

Product selection process is essential because there are many “environmental friendly” products available in the markets. Currently, majority would like to maintain the status quo concerning buildings. In fact, the industry pundits observe that clients do not show interests in eco products and continue to purchase materials which are not environmental friendly.

However, people are not all that informed about green buildings materials and where they can source them. This general lack of information has affected the market and distribution of green buildings materials (Woolley and Kimmins, 2002).

The future of green buildings New developments are likely to impact the on the future of green buildings and their materials. The emerging fields of scientific studies such as virtual reality, chaos theory and holographic philosophy will change the world’s perspectives as well as the buildings.

The uses of computers are also likely to alter some of the requirements in modern buildings as methods of working relations are dramatically changing. The shrinking natural resources may cause crisis in energy demand with a massive impacts on building designs and demands.

This might results into a search for energy efficient buildings. The solutions are green buildings with the renewable sources of energy like wind (Harrison, Woolley, Kimmins, and Harrison, 2001).

Buildings have risen beyond the need for shelter and protection. Today’s buildings reflect environmental and economical concerns. The future buildings might entail social, environmental and economic aspects.

The ability to notice changes as they occur allow us to implement counteracting measure e.g. in the case of global warming. This is possible due to rapid means of collecting, processing and communicating feedback to the users.

References Foster, K., Stelmack, A. and Hindman, D. (2006). Sustainable Residential Interiors. New Jersey: John Wiley.

Harrison, P., Woolley, T., Kimmins, S. and Harrison, R. (2001). Green Buiding Handbook: A guide to building products and their impact on the environment. London: Spon Press.

Sirvaitis, K. (2010). Seven Wonders of Green Building Technology. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books.

Spiegel, R. and Meadows, D. (2011). Green Building Materials: A Guide to Product Selection and Specification, 3rd Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley


Human Resource Management Issues Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Types of Human Resource Management Issues in International Business International human resource management is defined as the effective process of procuring, allocating and utilizing human resources in multinational corporations. The issues that are considered to affect human resource management in foreign establishments are as discussed below.


“Culture is defined as a set of assumptions, rules, and values about social interaction” (Hofstede, 2003). “HRM personnel should develop culture sensitive policies that are acceptable within the local culture.” (Sims,


Designing a Vehicle Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Planning and clarifying the task


The construction structure and layout

Outline specifications

An analysis of functions

Functional matrix


Introduction Design and development of a new system or product requires certain procedures and development stages before it finally becomes a product. Design and development of a product or system is a technical process. Design is the process which revolves around its look, its overall style, as well as other issues that make up the product work.

Development is a global process of creating a product so that it could appeal to the audience; it as well modifies, and tests the product until it fully fits the market and is ready for production. There are several methodologies that can be used to design and develop a new system or product. The Pahl and Beitz design method is one of the methodologies that is used to design a new product or system.

This method of design is based on the value of the new product that is being designed or developed. The overall design of the product is usually divided into different sections that perform different functions.

In this methodology, the evaluation is usually listed so as to determine the factors that design of the new product is being judged on. The design and development of the vehicle will follow the following method

Planning and clarifying the task The new product that is being developed is a commuting vehicle that is meant for transporting a single person at a short distance of about eight miles. The vehicle is supposed to be designed and developed with the lowest costs possible and it should conserve the environment. The vehicle should also be motorized.

When designing the vehicle, all these factors have to be considered so as to ensure that the design is good and well developed. The vehicle will be specifically for short distances and motorized and therefore the design should focus on these factors and also focus on environment conservation and reduction of costs (Chambers, 1992).

The design will be based on the demands and the wishes of the clients or customers because the product will only be successful if the customer is satisfied. When designing a system or new product, the customer demands and wishes should drive the design and the development of the new product.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main demand and wish of the clients is the need of a vehicle that will enable short distance travels probably within the city or town center. The vehicle should be able to reduce the number of people walking in the city center and also help in carrying luggage within short distances (Chambers, 1992).

Design specifications

Some of the design objectives will be as the following:

The vehicle will only be driven in short distances where there is traffic or no traffic of similar cars

The car will be driven by a single person at any given time and it will be driven on both wet and dry surfaces

Safety of the driver is of paramount importance and the car should be environmentally friendly and produced with the lowest costs possible

The vehicle must be able to be maintained by equipment found in a general or ordinary mechanical store

The car should also be motorized

Design requirements

The wheels should be small but thick because the vehicle is small since it is designed to carry just a single person

The vehicle must have a chassis

The car must be equipped with a fully operational double wishbone suspension system in the front and in the back

The braking system must affect all four wheels and be operated on one control

The vehicle will be powered by a motor

The sketch of how the wheels are designed is shown below

Concept The vehicle should be designed for one person because the distance is short and the vehicle is small and convenient for only a single person. The vehicle will also be designed for one person because it is not for public service but rather for public use.

The vehicle will be designed to carry one person at any given time and to travel only for short distances within the urban centers as these are the gap needs demanded by customers that need to be filled by the new vehicle being designed. Another wish or demand that the design must consider is low cost. The design should ensure that the vehicle will be developed at the lowest cost possible.

The construction structure and layout The structure of the vehicle will be four wheels and a single seat and a small chassis. The layout of the vehicle can be as shown below

The construction structure shows the foundation model from which the vehicle will be built. In the diagram above, it shows that the vehicle will be built as a four wheel vehicle with a single seat. The four wheels will be for support of the vehicle and for easy movement within the short distances

We will write a custom Assessment on Designing a Vehicle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Outline specifications The outline specification will include the list of the required materials for developing and building the model, the systems and the equipment that are required for the motorized vehicle and that will favor all its specifications.

It will also include the quality performance expectations of the motorized vehicle. Some specifications for the vehicle such as it should be used by only one person at a time will form the basis of the outline (Chambers, 1992).

An analysis of functions The main functional areas of the vehicle will include the body which will support the whole vehicle, the electrical part, the chassis and the climate control components. The main objective of a system approach to designing a vehicle is to clearly state the technical requirements of each component of the vehicle and also clearly identify the functions of each component.

The main function of the vehicle will be to carry a single person in short distances within an urban center. The main function of the chassis will be to protect the driver from harsh environmental conditions such as hot or rainy weather. The motor will be used to move the vehicle since the demands of the clients was that it has to be motorized.

The double wishbone suspension system will be able to protect the driver from any unfortunate incidents like injury incase of an accident. The breaking system will also be for stopping the vehicle (Chambers, 1992).

Functional matrix A clearly stated functional matrix is necessary for any design especially for technological and mechanical products. The functional matrix is used to describe the functional requirements of the product or system. A good functional matrix should be able to map the functional requirements of the product or system being designed with its design requirements or parameters

The materials after the development of the vehicle will be recycled. They will be used as scrap metal and others will be recycled into new design materials to be used for making other designs and developing other products.

Although the design and development of the vehicle is usually regarded as costly, its value becomes justified when the results of the vehicle’s functions are seen (Chambers, 1992).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Designing a Vehicle by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Chambers, J. (1992). Modeling and design. California: Cengage Learning “Vehicle structure and layout”. Web.


Policy Effects with Exchange Rates Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Policy Effects with Floating Exchange Rates

Fixed Exchange Rates

Policy Effects with Fixed Exchange Rates

Fixed vs. Floating Exchange Rates

Works Cited

Policy Effects with Floating Exchange Rates This chapter continues chapter nine’s discussion on the AA-DD model. It looks into the effects of the AA-DD model on an economy with a Floating Exchange Rate System. It also describes the government’s use of the model to formulate policies. It is evident that the AA-DD model affects a number of economic variables in the macro economy.

These variables include the GNP and the value of currency. Economists developed the above model to understand the connection between the various economic variables. The government affects some of these variables through expansionary policies and contractionary policies, among others. Therefore, this chapter looks at an Open Exchange Rate System and the effect of government policies on the AA-DD model.

The government uses two policies to control money supply in a country. That is, expansionary and contractionary policy with the effect of increasing and reducing money supply respectively. The effect of expansionary policy on the AA-DD model is a shift to the right. This increases the exchange rate of a country’s money with respect to another country. However, this does not happen fast. It takes on a transitional mode with many factors at play.

For example, the real money supply exceeds the real money demand. This, in the short run, means that inflation levels increase quickly. However, the trend lags as more people convert their money assets into non-money assets to beat or take advantage of the inflation levels. In the long term, the natural effect is that the exchange rate will increase with the amount of cash in the economy.

Governments employ the contractionary monetary policy when the money supply in an economy reduces. This reduction has the effect of shifting the AA-DD model downwards. When this happens, there is an immediate reduction in Gross National Product of a country. It also leads to a relatively stronger local currency.

Fiscal policy refers to government spending. The government is the biggest consumer and its consumption has many policy effects on the economy. The government uses this power to effect policies in a country through either reduction in spending (contractionary fiscal policy) or increase in spending (expansionary fiscal policy).

An increase in government spending causes AA-DD model to shift to the right. This causes a decrease in the exchange rate. For example, the Canadian dollar would do better than the American dollar in this situation. However, this leads to an increase in the GNP for the country. This is because it may attract more foreign investment as it is favorable to them. There are many causes for an expansionary policy. This includes transfer payments, tax reductions and government direct spending.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The three factors lead to different effects on the AA-DD model. The increase in government direct spending and tax reductions leads to increase in disposable incomes in a country, which causes increase in GNP. This increase leads to increase in GNP, which also increases real money demand. The effect is that interest rates increase. The reverse is true for contractionary fiscal policies, which occur because of limited government spending.

Government expansionary policy that occurs when the economy has numerous jobs spurs economic growth. This is because retailers and manufacturers enjoy better returns because of increased process of goods and services. Expansionary policy over a long period has some necessary effects to the economy.

The economy feels the heat as the increase in interest rates bites. However, the GNP does not increase immediately and before that happens, the government may plunge the economy into a placid situation. This is because lesser and lesser people will be willing to borrow.

Fixed Exchange Rates They were once the only way to do business in the years before 1973. They are still in use albeit at a lower and managed level. There are various types of fixed rate exchange systems. In a fixed exchange rate system, the government determines the value of a country’s currency.

This is contrary to a floating exchange rate system in which the prevailing market conditions determine the rate of exchange. In a fixed exchange rate system, the government or the controlling authority has a lot of control on the value of a country’s currency. However, this is not the case in a floating exchange rate system (Suranovic 56).

There are various fixed exchange rate systems. The most common is the Gold Standard. In this system, which is the most common with people, Gold is used as the measure for exchange. Since it is considered to have an equal value world over, the exchange rate is fixed for particular amounts of gold. Price specie flow mechanism is the second one. It advocated for a reserve of gold whose value was known by all central banks that would have used the system.

This would maintain fairness and a particular standard. Other systems include the next one is crawling pegs where a country forecasts that during a particular period there will be volatility of its currency. Thus, it fixes the exchange rate for that particular period to eliminate problems with the economy. The most drastic method of fixing a currency is to use the currency of another country. For example, south Sudan may use the American dollar at a time when using the currency of another country is the best way to curb inflation.

We will write a custom Essay on Policy Effects with Exchange Rates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In a fixed exchange rate system, it is evident that the country that uses it has to do something after a certain period to adjust the exchange rates. This means that the treasury or the government arm that deals with monetary and fiscal control has to be alert at all times to mitigate a possible problem. In a floating system, however, this is not the case since the system controls itself with up and down movements depending on demand and supply.

Hence, economists ask the question is it possible for the two systems to work well at the same time in a country. This is not entirely possible for a long time. It can only happen where the country wants to solve a particular problem. When the problem disappears, a country reverts to its earlier method. This is because the dynamics are too intricate and the formula and manner of doing it is too complicated.

From the above discussion, it evident that a country’s central bank can intervene to solve an economic problem using exchanges rate systems. They do this through a controlled environment where a country declares a particular amount of money to the reserve bank. This is to adjust the levels of a particular currency in the market in cases where it is in little or too much supply.

Hence, the central bank puts up Foreign Exchange Bureaus to buy or sell the currency in its residency. For example, the United States may put Foreign Exchange Bureaus that trade currency to sell British pound so that it can control its spread in the country.

This chapter looks at the balance of payments. For a country to be able to purchase foreign currency, it has to stock foreign currency in reserves in its country. These reserves are called the balance of payments reserve. Because of the frequent buying and selling of both foreign and domestic currency, these reserves may run low or increase.

When they run low, this is balance of payments deficit and when they are high, this is balance of payment surplus. These two are the indicators of the activity of the exchange rate and the government uses them as pointers.

In any market where there is trading in currency, the issue of black market trading is imminent. The players in this illegal market can be even the best financial operators in a country. This includes banks and other financial institutions.

Governments need to use so much resource to avoid this market since it has ability to cripple the financial system. The government also needs to ensure that the Foreign Exchange market is vibrant to eliminate a situation where there is undue demand or supply of one currency leading to a serene environment for black market trading.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Policy Effects with Exchange Rates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Policy Effects with Fixed Exchange Rates Governments do not work the same in either fixed or floating exchange rates. These policies shift depending on the type of exchange rate use. In this light, it important to know how the AA-DD model would behave in such situations. This means that a country should have a fixed exchange rate policy. This chapter is an analysis of the fixed exchange rate policy in light of the AA-DD model in situations of monetary policy and fiscal policy changes.

As seen earlier, the AA-DD model shifts according to changes in monetary policy. Under expansionary policy, the AA-DD model shifts to the right. The money supply puts pressure on the exchange rate. This cause significant reduction the interest rates, which arouses public interest to borrow more from among themselves and the government.

In that case, they sell their bonds and treasury shares. However, since the exchange rate is fixed, an automatic intervention form the government forestalls a situation where the rates overshadow its efforts. This is the effect in the short run.

When this happens for a long time, the government loses part of its GNP. This is the exact opposite when contractionary monetary policy is involved. Hence, governments that use fixed exchange rate systems need to strike a balance between quick short-term benefits or the long-term health of its economy in making policy decisions (Suranovic 67).

The government may also use expansionary fiscal policy or contractionary fiscal policy. In these two situations there are different after effects that play out. Fiscal policy emanates from the fact that the government is the major consumer in an economy. Another way to influence fiscal policy is through transfer of payments and tax revenues. Overall, expansionary fiscal policies increase the growth national product to a certain level. This happens in the short run in a situation where the exchange rate is fixed.

However, in the long term detrimental effects may play out in the economy. Contractionary fiscal policy causes the GNP to reduce significantly in the short run in a fixed exchange rate system. However, the long-term benefits outweigh the short-term results.

In a situation where there is an exchange rate policy with fixed exchange rates, the government uses the concept of devaluation and revaluation to affect the monetary policy. Devaluation refers to a situation where the government lowers the value of its currency through use the reserves reduction.

If the government increases the value of the reserve, it increases the value of its currency through a concept called revaluation. Generally, devaluation in a fixed exchange rate system causes a significant increase in GNP. Revaluation has an opposite effect and this happens in the short run. This is what the United States government accuses china of doing.

This part explains the reserve country and its effect on the reserve currency. For example, India may use the American dollar as its reserve currency and fix its exchange rate. By doing this, USA government has no authority to manipulate the Indian government in policy making just because it uses its money for reserve. It can use both expansionary and contractionary monetary policies to ensure the reserve fund is at its best.

To maintain sanity the country holding the reserve, the government needs to constantly buy and sell the reserve to respond to different market demands. Normally, a government holds the reserve in form of treasury bonds. This way it makes it easy to trade the bonds and hence control the market real time.

Failure to observe this may lead to a balance of payments crisis. Several things may lead to a balance of payments crisis. These crises may result from many things such as devaluations, capital flight, borrowing reserves, return to float among others.

Fixed vs. Floating Exchange Rates The hardest question that governments and economist find is the determination between the fixed and the floating monetary policies. It is mind boggling to know which one to use. However, there is no definitive answer as all have worked and failed in different situations. For example, it is hard for a government to have the autonomy to control an economy in a fixed economy. However, it is easy to that in a floating economy.

Before choosing which system to adopt, a country must consider a number of factors. This includes its effect on the volatility of the risk involved, inflationary consequences and how autonomous the monetary system will be.

Exchange rate volatility refers to refs to what extent the value of exchange rate fluctuates over time. In essence, even from the wording, fixed exchange rate is not supposed to change at all. On the other hand, floating exchange rates are supposed to move up and down depending on the performance of the markets.

Hence, the more the changes in the value of exchange rate the more volatile it is. By definition, fixed exchange rates are not supposed to change. However, this is not necessarily the case as they are constantly revalued and devalued denoting changes. Exchange rate risk refers to the possibility that a person may lose money because of the changes in exchange rate (Suranovic 70).

Exchange rate risk is not unique to any particular person in an economy. Actually, it has the potential to have spiraling effects that span across the board. This is because it touches on various parts of the country’s economic system and particularly the import and export trade. This trade has a direct or an indirect influence on the prices of many commodities especially basic ones.

Exchange rate systems have inflationary effects too. When a government wants to adopt a particular exchange rate system, the best way is to adopt a system with the minimal inflationary tendencies. The writer notes that many governments world over have fallen prey to citizens demanding more spending from it and transfer of payments.

However, these governments do not increase taxes to cover these spending and transfers. This leads to huge public deficits, very high interest rates and inability to borrow money without significant harm to the economy (Suranovic 78).

In a floating exchange rate system, the options for the above situation are quite limited just as in the fixed system. This is because the short-term solution is normally to print money. This is not very popular as it the cause of many historically infamous situations. For example, the recent happenings in Zimbabwe and the Turkey situation in the 1980 etc. After departure from the fixed exchange rates system used in 1960 and 1970, the controls were chaotic.

This is because devaluation leads to automatic inflation. Additionally, the base currency in use, the dollar, sometimes experienced critical shortages because of unnecessary hoarding from some countries. Then, economists suggested the floating exchange rate where each country controlled its economy.

The problems it presented were numerous as the formulation of exchange rates to facilitate import and export trade came into being. Currencies were not steady anymore and some countries suffered because of runaway inflation. Currently, the return to the gold standard, used before the arrival of Bretton Woods’s institutions, are the ones frequently proposed.

The issue of monetary autonomy is back from history. In the past for decades and counting, the need to come together and have a single currency was not good. This was in the wake of a single fixed rate system, which led to a lot of chaos. Monetary autonomy refers to a country’s independency to make monetary decisions through its central bank.

This is true in a floating exchange rate system. It can increase money supply by lowering interest rates, which triggers borrowing, investment and economic growth. However, this is not possible in a fixed exchange rate system. In this system, different methods such as crawling peg. For effective central bank control of the monetary system, it has to have an independent way to operate separate from the government. This will avoid the situations in both Argentina and Zimbabwe.

The above discussion leads to the question, which is better between fixed and floating exchange rate systems. The fall of Bretton Woods meant that countries would formulate either their own monetary system or come together to have a bloc that had Base Exchange rate systems.

However, currently all countries look into options that best makes its economy more vibrant and stronger. For example, the Euro zone is currently engulfed in a monetary situation that is threatening its unity. Countries must formulate prudent and flawless monetary and fiscal policies if they are to survive the current turbulent times in the world economies.

Works Cited Suranovic, Steven. International Finance, 2012. Web.


An assessment to build the largest Wind farm in Europe at Whitelee, south of Glasgow Proposal cheap essay help: cheap essay help

This document assesses the viability of the project by outlining the possibilities of putting up the wind farm to produce energy. The wind energy plant will be able to generate electricity in large quantity. The decision on the construction will be based on this document.

Initial assessment is focused on the finances, suitability of location, the modern, latest technology on the design and the community around the area of the construction site. Noted concerns above are some of the issues incorporated in this document to make an informed decision in construction of the farm.

Evaluation of Possible essential factors for the construction Arguments for the construction

Geographical advantage: the area has got quite a good soil structure and the location is strategic whereby the wind mills can be firmly constructed. Since wind is the driving force for the farm in running the turbines. Location is having reliable strong wind that can be used to generate large megawatts of power at all times (Andrew and Jamie 34).

The interconnection and accessibility: the area is vital for successful construction of the farm. The region is well connected with good roads whereby it is possible for the management and the government to supervise the process during its initiation times and operation process (Gipe 9).

Availability of required finances: the government is ready to avail funds for the construction and this is our supportive factor on this project (GE Energy 21).

Power requirement: the generated power from the company will be useful in pumping in more megawatts in the national grid system. This will reduce power rationing in future.

Community acceptance: the surrounding community is happy with the project because this will create development of employment opportunities in that particular region.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Market for the power produced. The power produced will be readily used by the locals both in residential areas and for commercial business purposes.

Economic impact of the farm: the project has economic benefits for the nation landowners and communities. The land owners are entitled for compensation every year. The state is also able to get more taxes to run the economy.

Security: there is sufficient security for the equipments in case option for construction is selected.

Arguments against the construction of the farm

Environmental constraints: the construction site alternatively is useful in farming. ( American Wind Energy Association 12). The neighboring residence has raised concern about possible noise pollution by the generating turbines (Williams and Palmer 56).

The construction process requires expertise and proper approach by the government on the progress. Wind energy may face transmission challenges (Keith 8). Market barriers: it is associated with lack of financial, legal and institutional framework to support the uptake of renewable energy projects.

Analytical barriers: the quality and information availability necessary for practical underwriting and developing quantitative analytical methodologies for risk management instruments (U.S. Department of Energy 14). Political barriers: they are associated with policy issues and regulatory procedures by the government ( Elgerd 25).

Long lead times and up-front failures: involves planning permission and construction cost which is very high. Failure of the critical components: For example, turbines and gear train and bearing blades. This may raise maintenance cost.

We will write a custom Proposal on An assessment to build the largest Wind farm in Europe at Whitelee, south of Glasgow specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The offshore cable laying is cumbersome and expensive for transmission purposes. This is on infrastructural necessities (U.S. Department of Energy).

Conclusion The stated assessment factors are vital to provide informed decision on the possible construction of the farm located at Whitelee, south of Glasgow in Europe.

Works Cited Andrew, Swift and Jamie, Chapman. “A Primer on Wind Energy: Meteorology, Technology, Economics and Transmission,” Wind Energy Institute Conference, Austin (2007): 1.

American Wind Energy Association. The Economics of Wind Energy. 2008. Web.

American Wind Energy Association. The Most Frequently Asked Questions About Wind Energy. 2008. Web.

Elgerd OI. Electric Energy Systems Theory. 2nd edition, New York: McGraw Hill, 1982.

GE Energy. Offshore Wind Energy, 2007. Web.

Gipe Paul. Wind Power. Renewable Energy for home, Farm and Business. Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2004.

Not sure if you can write a paper on An assessment to build the largest Wind farm in Europe at Whitelee, south of Glasgow by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Keith Johnson, “Renewable Power May Yet Yield Windfall,” The Wall Street Journal (March 2007): 8.

U.S. Department of Energy. Department of Energy to Invest up to $4 Million for Wind Turbine Blade Testing Facilities. 2007. Web.

U.S. Department of Energy. Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends: 2006. Web.

Williams Griffith and Palmer Lennie. Impact of Manawatu Wind Generation on the Scheduling and Dispatch Processes. Sept. 2005. Web.


Role of mergers and acquisitions in achieving a corporate strategy- InBev Case Study essay help free

Table of Contents Description of InBev Company

Problem Statement

Analysis of the estimated Value this deal will create for InBev

Works Cited

Description of InBev Company This is a company that resulted from the merger between AmBev and Interbrew in 2004. Interbrew was ranked third largest in the entire world in terms of profit margins with most of its sales emerging from North America, as well as, Europe, leading to a total of 120 countries being captured in the marketing strategy.

On the other hand, AmBev was ranked fifth in the global market with most of its sales centered in Latin America. The merger between the two companies was strategic in terms of business development of both companies resulting into a new brand name- InBev.

It should be noted that the mutual intention for both companies was related to gaining of market share value in the respective regions where the counterpart company was strongest, i.e. AmBev’s intention was to gain a foothold in the Northern America and Europe where its brands had not been fully introduced while Interbrew had intentions of fully launching its brands in Latin America.

As a result, it can be noted that the intentions by both companies were strategically business-sensible since they would lead to more sales for both partners due to expansion to foreign untapped markets.

InBev launched its bid to acquire Anheuser-Busch Company in 2008 in a deal that would see the company paying extra, in order to close the deal. InBev placed a bid of $46.4 Billion in order to acquire Anheuser-Busch in a deal that would see the merger of the two companies form the strongest and largest brewer in the world with an estimate of about $36 billion worth of sales annually.

With the Anheuser-Busch rejecting the initial offer of $65 per share by InBev, the CEO of InBev raised the bid to $70 per share, willing to go extra heights in order to close the deal. This represents a major step whose long term corporate strategy would have to produce maximum estimated returns.

Problem Statement What is the rationale for the deal in which InBev Company is willing to pay up to $70 per share in order to acquire Anheuser-Busch Company?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis of the estimated Value this deal will create for InBev In order to comprehensively answer the question presented above in the problem statement, it is important to critically evaluate the potential benefits that InBev Company estimates to achieve in acquiring Anheuser-Busch Company that would justify the decision to pay the high premiums. An analysis of this issue will require an in-depth examination of the potential benefits lying ahead after the closure of this deal.

First, InBev is estimating to increase its sales to approximately $36 billion dollars annually. The Budweiser brand from the Anheuser-Busch Company maintains a dominant lead in terms of sales in America, having done well in the market for the last 139 years.

An acquisition of this company by InBev brings forth huge financial benefit since the dominant value of Budweiser in American market will help InBev to achieve its goals in expanding dominance in the American Continent market environment.

According to the CEO of InBev, this deal would create a competitive advantage for the company since the sales are estimated to go higher with annual estimates rising to $36 billion. This would represent excessive sales in the American markets through the sale of Budweiser brand, as well as, benefits of international sales emanating from the sales of brands from InBev Company. As a result, it can be noted that this deal will be a potential benefit for InBev leading to a justification of the high premiums paid for the acquisition procedure.

The creation of the world leading brewer industry is another justification for the acquisition. This acquisition deal will lead to the formation of the world’s largest brewing industry since it will constitute the combination of the world’s fourth largest producer (Anheuser-Busch) and the second largest producer (InBev).

As a result, it can be observed that the acquisition will lead to the formation of a major company that will gain variety of potential benefits in the beer industry. As a matter of fact, InBev is estimated to benefit from the market share in Europe and American continents.

Since Anheuser is majorly dominant within the American continent occupying up to 50% of the market share due to the sale of its brands, the combination of sales from Europe that will emanate from the InBev companies will create a major boost for InBev due to the increased market share.

We will write a custom Case Study on Role of mergers and acquisitions in achieving a corporate strategy- InBev specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, InBev is estimated to increase in net profit margins through expansion and increased sales due to variety of beer products from the company. In addition, the highly estimated sales will be helpful in terms of giving InBev absolute opportunity to dominate the beer industry by investing the money into research in the market to find out the existing untapped markets, as well as, the changing tastes of the consumers and customers (Mitchell-Lee and Mirvis 23). As a result, this will create an effective corporate strategy by the company that will lead to more potential benefits of the company.

Third, this deal will ensure that all the US breweries remain open. Due to the threat of global recession, the chance of companies going bankrupt is a likely possibility. Efforts to consolidate unity in the market in such tough financial seasons would be necessary in terms of ensuring that the beer industry stays alive in the global business environment.

It should be noted that the government policies that may be launched by various government s in response to the global financial crisis may be unfavorable to the beer business.

As a result, the decision of InBev to pay high premium in order to acquire Anheuser-Bush, is an effective corporate strategy that will not only strengthen the stakes of the company, but also, help the breweries within the American continent to stay open and operational within the tough financial season in the global environment.

As a result, it should be noted that it was a good corporate strategy for the CEO of InBev to invest in the acquisition of Anheuser-Busch Company at the time.

Creation of large chain of employees and executive managers of both companies is another justification for the high premiums paid by InBev in the acquisition procedure. It should be understood that the acquisition would create a large pool of employees from both companies which would potentially create great manpower resource since highly-skilled employees from one company can be deployed to other non-performing branches of the company to create a turn-around which would be financially useful for the company.

In addition, the inclusion of the board of directors from Anheuser-Busch Company will provide more executive and intellectual management skills that will help InBev to scale higher heights in the global environment in terms of management.

Works Cited Mirvis, Philip, and Mitchell-Lee, Marks. Joining Forces: Making One Plus One Equal Three in Mergers, Acquisitions, and Alliances. New York: MacMillan Library Reference, 1998. Print.

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