Table of Contents Introduction
Profits as a core objective of management
Creation of benefits for stakeholders
The drawbacks of disregarding corporate social responsibility
Introduction Business administrators and scholars often debate about the goals that managers have to achieve. It is often believed that these professionals should be mostly concerned with the wealth of owners and shareholders.
Such an assumption can seem quite plausible, because every company will cease to exist provided that it does not bring revenues to its investors. However, it also has to create the value for customers, community and employees.
Without it, the very sustainability of this organization can be put under threat. Moreover, a manager who thinks only about financial benefits, can compromise his/her ethical principles.
This paper is aimed at showing that maximization of profits can be possible only if the management of a company strives to follow both ethical and legal rules. Their main goal is to create value for customers, employees, and the society in general.
They should not focus only on the needs of owners or stockholders. This is the main thesis that should be discussed. The first section of this paper will analyze theoretical origins of the belief that the primary objective of management is to maximize the wealth of owners.
In particular, it is necessary to focus on the works of Milton Friedman and the way in which his ideas could be misinterpreted. Moreover, this section will show that long-term profitability of businesses is impossible without ethics and social responsibility.
The second section will identify the benefits of creating value for various stakeholders. Finally, the third section will examine the dangers of thinking only about financial performance and profitability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Profits as a core objective of management The idea that wealth maximization should be the top priority for managers has been discussed in the works of many economists. One of them was Milton Friedman who argued that businesses had to concentrate on their profitability (Friedman as cited in Cosans 2009, p. 391).
This argument could be very appealing to many corporate executives because by adopting this approach they could resolve or even dismiss many ethical dilemmas and problems. Moreover, many business administrators assumed that a company could do whatever it deemed necessary provided that these actions did not contradict the law (Cosans 2009, p. 392).
Therefore, this business philosophy frees an organization and its managers from many restrictions and obligations that can be related to the rules of ethics. This is why it enjoyed popularity for a long time. Even now many business administrators apply this principle, even though they can speak about corporate social responsibility of their companies.
Unfortunately, many business administrators and even scholars simplify the ideas of Milton Friedman. In fact, he did not exclude ethics from the functioning of companies. He said that the activities of a profit organization “should be conforming to the basic rules of society” (Friedman as cited Cosans 2009, p. 393).
Overall, he placed emphasis on such issues as compliance with the law, unacceptability of deception, and openness of the company (Friedman as cited Cosans 2009, p. 396). This entity was not allowed to disregard the needs of other stakeholders such as customers or workers.
This is why ethics and profit seeking should not be separated from another. Thus, even if managers believe that their main task is to increase the wealth of owners and stockholders, they should not try to achieve this objective at any cost.
Business administrators or corporate executives have to reconcile the needs of an organization with legal and ethical standards; otherwise their work can hardly be viewed as successful.
We will write a custom Essay on Should the primary objective of management be to increase the wealth of shareholders and owners? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, those managers pursuing profits at any cost should not suppose that many scholars support this approach. There is no way in which one can reject the restrictions of business ethics.
Ethical aspects of businesses continue to attract the attention of many scholars and many of them believe that ethics and responsibility are necessary for successful functioning of markets or even entire economies.
For instance, William Shaw (2009) admits that businesses are driven by self-interest, yet, he also points out that by following only economic players can achieve long-term benefits only if they follow a certain set of rules (p. 568).
To a great extent, the situation reminds the so-called prisoner’s dilemma in which a player has to sacrifice some of his/her interests in order to succeed (Shaw 2009, p. 567).
For instance, car manufacturers have to place much emphasis on the safety of their customers, even though they have to incur extra expenses and even recall many cars. Provided that they choose to neglect this issue, they can simply lose the trust of their clients.
In this regard, one can mention the notorious case of Ford Pinto. The management of Ford Corporation chose not to recall the car that had a poorly designed gas tank (Danley 2005, p. 234).
When this information was revealed, the reputation of Ford Corporation suffered a severe blow. More importantly, their revenues began to decline. This case illustrates that ethics has to be an inherent part of businesses activities, because without them, no form of cooperation will be possible.
The thing is that business activities are premised on long-term cooperation and the formation or partnerships or alliances (Solomon 1999, p. 18). They can hardly exist provided that partners think only about their self-interests. Apart from that, this example shows that companies are dependent on many stakeholders, for instance, customers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Should the primary objective of management be to increase the wealth of shareholders and owners? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although, they do not own stocks of a company, they can strongly influence this organization. In this context, the term stakeholder can be defined as every person or organization that can affect a company is affected by it (Fassin 2012, p. 85). This is another reason why profit maximization cannot the sole objective of managers.
On the whole, managers should not assume that ethical decisions always run against the self-interest of a company or individual. This is the assumption that only harms many businesses.
Profitability and responsibility toward various stakeholders are quite consistent with one another. This is the main issue that business administrators should consider. Such scholars as Bryan Husted and Jose Salazar (2006) argue that modern firms should not be forced to behave in a socially responsible way (p. 75).
Under such circumstances, they will act as “coerced egoists” (Husted
The Neglect of the Elderly Essay essay help
Elderly neglect is an overlooked problem in the society (McAlpine, 2008).When people get old, they may not think, see and hear as they used to. These weaknesses create room for immoral people to exploit them.
Therefore, elderly abuse by family members and other caregivers exists in frequencies and rates slightly lower than child abuse (Quinn and Tomita, 1997). This makes it one of the most common forms of domestic abuse.
Although governments and other agencies have taken great strides toward ending this ungodly act, more should be done to eradicate or lower cases involved. According to McAlpine (2008), spotting victims and providing timely interventions are some of the measures aimed at curbing elderly neglect.
Additionally, there should be mandatory training and recognition of caregivers and professionals working in this area (McAlpine, 2008). Stiffer penalties should also be imposed on caregivers who fail to meet their obligations. This essay gives an insight into the neglect of the elderly.
Latest statistics show that tens of thousands of elderly people face abuse by people trusted with their care (Helpguide.org, n.d.). Helpguide.org (n.d.) also reaffirms that more than half a million cases of elderly abuse reach the authorities yearly in the USA alone.
Surprisingly, millions of other cases go unreported. Elderly neglect makes up more than half of these cases (Helpguide.org, n.d.). In this context, elderly neglect is the failure of caregivers to discharge their responsibility appropriately (helpguide.com, n.d.).
This can be from the failure to provide the elderly with basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. In most cases, the affected elders are distressed. For that reason, psychological disturbances are the main symptoms of elderly neglect.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More International agencies and governments have devised a number of initiatives to curb and create awareness on elderly neglect. For instance, there is a world elderly abuse awareness day celebrated annually. Therefore, it is true that majority of elderly people are not completely neglected.
However, more effort should be directed towards the few caregivers who still practice the vice. This can be done by a number of ways. Firstly, victims should be spotted early enough and timely interventions provided (McAlpine, 2008).
Secondly, mandatory training should be given to caregivers and professionals working in this area (McAlpine, 2008). Thirdly, caregivers and other people working with the elderly should be given proper recognition to boost their morale. Lastly, stiffer penalties must be imposed to deter people from abusing and neglecting these fragile people (McAlpine, 2008).
In conclusion, it is agreeable that people take no notice of elderly neglect in most cases. However, elderly neglect is a serious and deeply rooted issue in our society. Additionally, only child abuse occurs in rates and frequencies higher than elderly neglect (Quinn and Tomita, 1997).
This makes it one of the most recurrent forms of domestic abuse. Furthermore, governments and other agencies have taken bold steps towards ending this shameful act. Nonetheless, more should be done to minimize cases involved.
Spotting victims and providing timely interventions are some of the ways of restraining elderly neglect (McAlpine, 2008). McAlpine (2008) also adds that mandatory training and recognition of caregivers and professionals working with the elderly can alleviate the vice too.
Giving offenders stiffer penalties can also deter people from abusing the elderly. Eventually, these interventions will result into more years for the elderly on the earth.
We will write a custom Essay on The Neglect of the Elderly specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Helpguide.com. (n.d.). Elder abuse and neglect: warning signs, risk factors, prevention, and help. Web.
McAlpine, C. H. (2008). Elder abuse and neglect. Oxford Journals, 37(2), 132-133. Web.
Quinn, M. J.,
Implementation of a Diversity Management Strategy in the Workplace Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Schneider Electric in Paris
Introduction Diversity management is an organizational program developed and designed voluntarily. It ensures that there is more inclusion of all individuals into both the formal and informal organizational programs.
Kellogg Company The age, gender, race, and ethnicity, and language of employees is pre-determined, the organization can have no control over these criteria. This company has found the need to transform the human resource system due to the dynamic labor force.
At the same time, this company is undergoing major changes in the nature of employment relationships. The management of this organization has realized the importance of increasing diversity in the workforce.
This company has moved away from the traditional human resource systems that were largely designed for a harmonized workforce.
The organization is undergoing challenges regarding the integration and design of some specific human resource policies such as selection and compensation, in support of the implementation of a diversity management strategy in the workplace.
Experts from diverse policy areas have come together to develop views on the significance of diversity in the workplace. This company and some other companies have been trying to improve the inclusiveness of minority employees in the workplace.
This has been achieved through positive efforts by the organizational management to improve the diversity of employees in the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Diversity is also crucial in the top management team. This will determine the extent to which top management is heterogeneous with respect to the employees.
According to research, there is a significant distinction among the different kinds of diversity. Qualitative data from four different organizations indicate that the understanding of diversity is based on how the socio-demographic differences of employees affect the performance of the company.
The socio-demographic can either contribute to or hamper the performance of the organization. These understandings of diversity shape the companies approach to diversity management.
Schneider Electric in Paris According to Schneider Electric in Paris, diversity management is the range of managerial practices that promote the career development of the minority groups. Many companies including Schneider Electric in Paris run diversity programs for minority groups.
These programs are aimed at improving recruitment, employment, retention and promotion of employees from the minority groups. These companies have also changed the ethos of the organization in relation to the diversity of the workforce.
This organization faces a paradoxical situation. If the company shuns diversity, it risk losing it competitive advantage; on the other hand, if they embrace diversity, they may experience work place conflicts. This calls for the company to weigh keenly the advantages and disadvantages of diversity.
This organization has experienced diversity as a source of innovation and creativity. Diversity has provided a basis for competitive advantage. Diversity has also been a cause of suspicion, conflict, and misunderstanding.
We will write a custom Essay on Implementation of a Diversity Management Strategy in the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has a hampering effect on the general performance of the organization. This is because the employees experience low morale and thus there are many cases of absenteeism, and poor work quality. This leads to a loss of company competitiveness.
These organizations have achieved positive results as a result of the diversity management. Diversity management in these organizations has increased the problem solving capabilities of these organizations.
As a result, diversity management has helped to increase the range of diverse customer base in the organization. This has played a significant role in improving the creativity of the workforce.
References Kellog’s. (n.d) Diversity Strategy. Web.
Schneider Electric. (n.d). Managing diversity in the workplace: competitive advantages for companies. Retrived from https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/observatories/emcc/articles/managing-diversity-in-the-workplace-competitive-advantages-for-companies
Evaluation Report: Theories of Occupational Health and Safety Report custom essay help
Executive Summary The issue of occupational health and safety covers a wide array of factors that influence the health and personal safety conditions in the workplace. The theories that form the basis for consideration of the issues of the La_Camera Restaurant include the classic deterrence model, the responsive regulation model, and behavior reasoning theory.
The methodology used in the paper included the application of these theories in the situation at La_Camera to determine the theoretical impact of their application and the potential to improve operations.
The recommendations offered for La_Camera include the use of more positive methods of enforcing occupational health policies, reduction in the use of the punitive measures, and the implementation of the measures to mitigate not just safety risks, but also health risks affecting the employees.
Introduction Framework for the Report
The issue of occupational health and safety is a wide body of knowledge that deals with safety in the workplace. Employees have a right to work in a safe environment that guarantees their personal safety and health.1 The focus on occupational health and safety is not just accidents that occur in the workplace.2
It also includes diseases that people get when they are at work, depending on the working conditions. Working conditions can cause health deterioration among workers, apart from workplace injuries. This report focuses on occupational health in the context of the La_Camera Restaurant. A previous examination of the operations of the restaurant showed that there were some theoretical possibilities to improve the occupational safety and health practices.
The report identified various ways that the restaurant could use to improve its work. The original report looked at the three theories, and it examined one in detail. The purpose of this work is to look at different ways of implementing this theory in the context of the La_Camera Restaurant.
The three theories that formed the backbone of the previous report were the classic deterrence model, the responsive regulation model, and the behavior reasoning theory.3 The classic deterrence model states that the best way to reduce accidents in a workplace is to deter people from committing the accidents by implementing the punitive measures.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The responsive regulation model sought to bring in the positive motivation aspect in it by creating rewards for people who were reported to take occupational health and safety risks. The third theory, the behavior reasoning theory, assumes that people act based on certain reasons hence if the employees get good reasons to observe high standards of safety in their workplaces, then there is a good chance that they will uphold the required standards.
These three models informed the study of the application of occupational health at the restaurant. In addition to these, there was an effort to investigate the operations of the restaurant, in order to determine how well the models applied work in the restaurant.
This involved the examination of the relationship between the restaurant waiters and the managers to determine whether they were predisposed to better occupational health and safety operations.
In addition, the report looked at some of the policies relating to the sources of injury and risk that seemed to have an influence on the practice of occupational health and safety. The other issues that informed the study included the role of regulators and clients at the restaurant.
This exercise will look at the theories afresh in order to identify clearer strategies of their implementation. Without invalidating the classic deterrence model, this work will focus more on the other two theories. The reason for this is that the scope of the responsive regulation model covers the implications of the classical deterrence model, hence there is no need to revisit the implications of the theory in detail.4
On the other hand, the behavior reasoning theory forms an important viewpoint to help in understanding the responsive regulation theory. This makes it important as a part of this detailed analysis of the implications of these theories in the La_Camera Restaurant.
The second element of the method applied for this study is that there will be another look at the relationships between the staff of the La_Camera Restaurant to create a concise picture of the occupational health and safety issues in the restaurant. The final element of the methodology is the comparison of the occupational health and safety practices at the restaurant with other establishments to identify the lessons that the La_Camera Restaurant can adopt.
We will write a custom Report on Evaluation Report: Theories of Occupational Health and Safety specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discussion Research Findings
The findings of the previous research fall into three major categories, along in line with the three theories. Under the classical deterrence model, it was clear that there were measures instituted at the café to ensure that the members of staff found it easier to conform to safety standards than to risk to have the penalties of violation.
For instance, the restaurant charges broken cutlery to the waiters responsible for that, hence it is in the interest of every waiter to keep the utensils from breaking. One of the unintended consequences of this policy is that when no one witnesses the breaking of the utensils, then no one owns up to the loss because of the penalties imposed on the offender.
Secondly, the responsive regulation model was not in full use at the restaurant. There were no clear incentives for the staff to participate willingly in the development and implementation of the occupational health and safety standards. The attractiveness of this model came from the fact that while it allowed people to interact freely, it alienated the leadership, making it difficult for the staff members to volunteer information.
Thirdly, there is sufficient verification for the behavior reasoning theory because of the occupational health and safety theories at work at the La_Camera. It is not difficult to find reasons for each of the prevalent attitudes towards reporting incidents that have an influence on occupational health and safety.5 The fact that the policies of the company tend to punish employees that enhance risk factors makes it unattractive for them to report such incidences.
Despite the problems with the manner in which the restaurant approaches occupation health and safety issues, it is nonetheless clear that the restaurant puts a premium on safety issues. Its policies actually came up to protect the employees and the customers that patronize the restaurant.
The existence of the strict codes still makes it a safe environment to work. The only issue with it is the negative notions that the codes seem to evoke among staff caused by the safety procedures. Another strong point of the system is the fact that it allocates responsibility of addressing the risk factors in a logical way, having a clear chain of command.
It is the responsibility of the staff member responsible for spillages, breakages, and minor personal accidents to deal with the cause immediately. The responsibility moves upwards to the supervisors and then the managers. This feature of the occupational health and safety procedures makes it very easy to stop any further risk to the rest of the staff members.
Analysis of Findings
The findings are consistent with the predictions of the theories of occupation health. It is true that many organizations tend to use negative motivation to address health and safety issues in the workplace. The reasons for doing this vary, but they seem to make sense. However, the best practices in occupational health and safety seem to be counter intuitive.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Evaluation Report: Theories of Occupational Health and Safety by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead of seeking to keep things safe by using threats, it is better to use encouraging methods because people respond better to encouragement rather than punishment. This does not mean that there should be no recourse for negligence or willful actions likely to threaten the safety of the workplace.
It means there must be a system that encourages the reporting and documentation of the occurrence of the safety risk factors in order to control them. One of the approaches is to give a monetary reward to employees with good safety records, or to base performance pay on safety activities.
It can also include having rewards for employees that come up with ideas that can help improve the safety of the place as they aid in identifying risk factors that the restaurant does not formally recognize. Another option is to put up some kind of reward for the safest shift to encourage teamwork in the area of occupational health and safety.
One of the best practices at the La_ Camera is that there is a very clear chain of command when it comes to occupational health and safety. The restaurant reporting lines also serve as the chain of responsibility when it comes to the assessment and elimination of safety factors. This clarity helps a lot in cases of emergencies and enforcement of policies. It is the best practice recognized in occupational health and safety field.
As it is common in many workplaces, there is too much focus on the safety of the employees and patrons at the restaurant, and very little focus on the health concerns that come about in the course of duty.
The research showed that many organizations tend to focus on safety and completely ignore the health component mainly because health issues are more difficult to detect and relate to the workplace. The La_Camera does not have clear protocols or policies relating to the health the workers especially concerning the health problems that activities at work can cause.
On the one hand, there are strict regulations that govern the entire hospitality industry relating to communicable diseases because of the risk of spreading them to clients.6 However, there is very little attention to the health risks the staff faces on a daily basis. For instance, chefs spend a lot of their time in smoky and humid conditions as they prepare dishes. Waiters do not have many options when it comes to serving smoking clients in the sections of the restaurant for smokers.
Examples of Application of Occupational Health and Safety Theories
A study on occupational safety showed that one of the most prevalent health complications that are the results of workplace injuries all over the world is the musculoskeletal disorder.7 This is an injury of the muscles, tendons, and nerves. The leading cause of these disorders is poor ergonomics.8
The working conditions require the repeated use of certain body parts that experience inordinate strain over time. Some industries have more risk of these injuries as compared to others. However, virtually all workplaces have factors that predispose workers to these conditions. The risk factors are not very severe in the hospitality industry, but some aspects of working there can result in health deterioration of the workers.
Waiters and chefs tend to spend many hours running their feet off moving about the kitchen and the restaurant hall. In addition, waiters carry several pounds of weight on each trip, either carrying food to the customers, or bringing back used utensils. These actions, continued for many years, can cause severe back pain. In addition, if the waiters and chefs use inappropriate shoes, than it can cause or aggravate lower back pain.
This case shows that there is a need to enforce certain working conditions such as the length of a shift and the weight that a serving tray should not exceed. This is easier to implement by limiting the size of the tray used by the waiters. In addition, the restaurants should determine the best type of shoes adapted to work for long hours for both waiters and chefs. This measure will result in less strain during working hours and lesser risk of absenteeism from work.
To illustrate the application of the responsive regulation model, there are documented evidences of cases when workers developed terminal lung disease because of working in a popcorn-processing factory.9 Occupation health practitioners related the disease to a particular chemical used to line popcorn flavoring.
he chemical, diacetyl, is one of the known causes of bronchiolitis obliterans, a rare and poorly documented lung ailment. This chemical caused death of a number of employees who worked for Jasper Popcorn Company by inducing brochiolitis obliterans. At the time the employees became ill, it was not yet clear that it was the cause of infection.
The chemical occurs naturally in milk and vegetables in trace quantities. Hence, it did not seem to present any serious risk to the employees. Jasper Popcorn company decided to increase the quantities that were used to line its popcorns because it improved the butter taste in popcorns. Upon identification of the chemical as a possible cause of lung disease, there was little intervention from the authorities because there were no procedures to deal with the issue.
It took litigation efforts to bring the issue to public attention precipitating redemptive actions. In this sense, the lack of procedures to deal with unforeseen consequences in occupational health led to the unsatisfactory management of the diacetyl problem, which ended up causing the death of many employees in the popcorn industry.
The lessons for the La-Camera Restaurant from this situation is that there is a risk of causing harm to employees provided there are no procedures for dealing with the issues. It should encourage the restaurant to take its time to develop procedures that take into account the health of the employees in the workplace.
The third occupational health case study is the place of occupational health in the construction sector.10 This sector is one with the highest safety risks, and normally requires the use of various safety measures.11 The focus of construction on safety comes from the fact that the industry has many risks associated with the safety of the workers. Workers face risks from falling objects, machinery, heavy lifting, and related physical processes.
This greatly reduces attention to the health risks that come with construction. In addition, construction projects do not last long enough for the full impact of the health risks associated with the work to manifest. This situation illustrates the need to focus on responsive regulation for such conditions. The La-Camera Restaurant should be careful to take into consideration both safety and health concerns of the employees.
Conclusions and Evaluation Summary of Findings
In conclusion, the practical application of the responsive regulation works better that the single application of classic deterrence model in occupational health. Using deterrence alone makes people develop resistance to the process, and it requires a constant input of pressure to make the process effective.
Responsive regulation is central to the effective implementation of occupational health measures because of its capacity to develop both deterrent and encouragement measures. Secondly, there is a necessity to make up a balance of health and safety measures that an organization puts in place to deal with its occupational health and safety concerns.
Overemphasizing one at the expense of the other can lead to unfavorable long-term consequences. Focus on health alone would cause casualties in the area of safety. Lack of safety can be fatal in a very short time. However, lack of measures to protect the health of employees can lead to long-term consequences threatening business continuity.
The third theory evaluated in the exercise, the behavior reasoning model, relies on reasons as the basis for action in occupational health. It assumes that everything people do comes from a reason or a combination of reasons. Therefore, it seeks to provide people with the reasons they need to practice effective occupational health and safety standards.
Its impact is not unique apart from the other theories. Therefore, its impacts fully lay within the purview of the responsive regulation framework. In this sense, it is useful as a supporting theory, but is not an essential theory in the development of an effective occupational safety and health framework.
In relation to the La_Camera Restaurant, there is an opportunity for it to improve its occupational health and safety operations by using the responsive regulation model. In particular, the restaurant needs to explore more ways of encouraging the staff to observe high health and safety standards without the undue fear of reprimand. This will create a positive working atmosphere and a less acrimonious place to work.
Evaluation of the Research Process
The process used in this research had two main thrusts. First, there was the development of a theoretical framework to examine the occupational health practices at the La_Camera, and then there was a process to determine the application of these theories to identify loopholes and opportunities for improving the current implementation platform.
The process relied on the theories to develop ideas to be used at the restaurant. The recommendations made from the theories make it clear that the use of theories can help develop useful models for planning the application of occupational health and safety strategies. This approach integrates theoretical development of concepts with their practical application in the field of occupational health and safety.
Reference List Bluff,E, N Gunningham,
Evaluation Report for Ped’s Kafe Report college essay help online: college essay help online
Executive Summary This paper relates to the examination of research findings on Peds Kafe’s application of communication theories. The report found out that there are opportunities for Ped’s Kafe to increase its customer base by using social media as an avenue for communication with its clients.
The recommendations offered to Ped’s Kafe based on the information integration theory and the uncertainty reduction theory is to determine the appropriate level of involvement in social media either as a predictive practitioner, a creative experimenter or as a social media champion. These options have an increasing commitment to social media participation
Introduction Framework for the Report
The need to integrate day-to-day experiences into learning is becoming more important with the rapid changes affecting the world of information. More and more, people find it impossible to take time to reflect on the information they get simply because of the rate at which research reports reach end users.
The internet is working to remove all barriers of information exchange.1 It is possible to deliver a book to all parts of the world in a matter of seconds. The basis of this report is to provide the opportunity to give a greater amount of reflection on the issues uncovered in a previous research on the application of communication theories. The research focused on the theories of communication and sought to uncover the application of these theories at Ped’s Kafe in Australia.
The cafe is a not a large establishment. Is has a small number of staff members. The application of the theories focused on the interaction among the staff, and the interaction between the staff and the café’s clients. It is the objective of this report to investigate the findings of the report further to derive both academic and practical conclusions. This report will also use external sources to illustrate any assertions, and to confirm any of the conclusions it develops.
The report that this work evaluates focused on communication theories and their use in the workplace. The report looked at various theories relating to communication, which fell within the broader framework of the research question.
While more than seventy theories relating to communication appeared in the course of research, only a handful of the theories were relevant and significant enough for inclusion in the final report.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theories included the information theory, the attribution theory, groupthink theory, information integration theory, and the uncertainty reduction theory.2 These theories formed a consistent body of theories for use in the evaluation of the communication processes at Ped’s Kafe.
This report will focus more on how to actualize the potential benefits that accrue from the insights gleaned from the theories. Studying theories apart from real life application at best makes the process an academic venture. Industry requires people who have both the theoretical understanding of their profession, but also the skill to translate it to practical applications. Ped’s Kafe will once more provide the basis over which to apply the theories.
In order to determine the benefits that the theories can bring to Ped’s Kafe, it will be important to start the exercise by examining the research findings of the paper under review. The focus of the exercise will be the identification of critical theoretical findings and practical implications of these findings for Ped’s Kafe.
This process will give way to an analysis of those findings to clarify further the benefits identified in the first report. The result of this exercise will be to clarify the findings of the report for Peds Kafe. Appropriate evidence from other scholars will come in handy to support the findings.
There will be an attempt to develop a prioritized method of implementing the recommendations. The final process will be identifying relevant examples of the operation of strategies based on the theories discussed. This should provide Ped’s Kafe with operational models of the theories at work. The objective of the exercise will be to clarify that the theories have value and that their application in real life situations can yield certain benefits.3
Discussion Research Findings
The major findings made from the research carried out earlier included the identification of five interrelated communication theories. The information theory deals with the fact that all types of communication suffer from noise. Noise is anything that affects the effectiveness of the communication process by reducing the clarity of the message.4
The attribution theory postulates that people tend to draw inferences relating to other peoples character based on how their communication style. It explains the numerous instances of people developing attitudes towards other people based on their communication style.
We will write a custom Report on Evaluation Report for Ped’s Kafe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third theory, groupthink, explains the tendency of closed groups to look at problems from the same direction and to have a high degree of agreement over issues.5 The group members tend to look at disagreement as dissent, hence the high level of agreement.
Last two theories are the information integration theory and the uncertainty reduction theory. Information integration theory came from observations that people tend to make decisions based on the sum total of the information they receive about an issue. This means that decision-making is not necessarily an objective process, but is the result of exposure to evidence.
Whichever evidence occurs more often tends to win the day. Uncertainty reduction theory states that people seek to reduce uncertainty during decision making by gathering more information about the issue. There is a certain amount of information required to break the uncertainty threshold.
The findings related to Ped’s Kafe included the fact that Ped’s Kafe uses the telephone and the internet as the main means of external communication with suppliers and for social media interaction.
The main recipients of communication from Ped’s Kafe are target clients via social media platforms, and business suppliers via email and telephone. Internal communication processes at Ped’s Kafe involve the staff, supervisors, and the restaurant manager. Arguably, the most critical communication occurs at the café’s floor when the waiters interact with the clients.
The opportunities for improvement at Ped’s Kafe identified in the report included the need to encourage staff to speak up regardless of how well their views conform with the rest to avoid the dangers associated to groupthink. Secondly, Ped’s Kafe has the opportunity to strengthen its marketing efforts by utilizing social media and internet marketing opportunities.
The thinking behind this proposal came from the realization that if there is sufficient positive press on Ped’s Kafe on appropriate online platforms, then Ped’s Kafe can improve its market share. Based on attribution theory, it is important for the staff at Ped’s Kafe to treat all customers equally based on a polite disposition because of the risk of making character judgments on customers that may influence service provision negatively.
Analysis of Findings
The goal of this paper is to examine the findings more closely to determine the workability of the theories in the areas identified in the previous research. In particular, there is need to examine the need for the application of the information integration theory and the uncertainty reduction theory in the context of social media and electronic communication to improve the customer base of Ped’s Kafe.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Evaluation Report for Ped’s Kafe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ped’s Kafe positions itself as a middle class restaurant aiming to serve professionals from nearby commercial facilities affordably in order to retain them as long-term clients. Serving the target market calls for the preparation of good quality yet affordable food. The clientele is sensitive to hygiene and service standards, and while they cannot afford to pay premium prices on a regular basis, they still would like access to such services occasionally.
Young professionals in the area, like the rest of the country, are avid social media users.6 They use social media to communicate ideas, to share jokes, to plan events and even for personal messaging. They find messages on social media platforms light and informal hence it is a welcome relief from the rigidity and official aura of email.
Ped’s Kafe needs a communication strategy that will take into account these demographic characteristics. The design of the message should portray Ped’s Kafe as a professional yet informal establishment. The target market should perceive Ped’s Kafe as a place to relax and eat. Since young professionals are sensitive to price, appropriate pricing must be part of the message.
The use of social media in this case refers to the use of Facebook and Tweeter. They are the most popular social media outlets used by young professionals who form part of the target market. Peds Kafe will need to open and maintain the content of the social media pages current.
The relevant information includes choice menus, special price offers, and house specials among others. The objective of the social media strategy will be to ensure that there is good press about Ped’s Kafe. The other reason for it is that social media will allow the clients to respond to any offers made there, and there is a good chance that they will leave a review of the services offered at the café.
On the other hand, there is need to ensure that the communication that goes out to clients and suppliers remains official in tone, and that it remains brief. The reason for this is that people get too many messages on any single day hence if Ped’s café sends very long messages, then the recipients will ignore the messages.
Examples of Application of Communication Theories in Social Media
The use of social media to place appropriate information about an organization is quite widespread. Many businesses, non-profits, and charitable organizations use social media outlets to reach their stakeholders in a relaxed atmosphere that allows for unfiltered feedback.7 We will consider three organizations that Peds Kafe can benefit from.
Three types of organizations use social media strategies to market the products. The classification includes, “predictive practitioners”, “creative experimenters”, and “social media champions”.8
Predictive experimenters limit the use of social media to specific aspects of their business. Those who fall under this category tend to be businesses that are new to social media hence are not ready for full-blown social media campaigns. Others in this category are organizations that want to limit their risk exposure in the social media scene due to historical reasons, or simply because of the perception clients may have if the organization becomes too active in the social media.
Clorox is an example of a company that falls under the predictive practitioner category.9 The strategy that Clorox used was to post specific question on its social media platforms stating that they were developing a particular product, hence what type of features were the clients interested in seeing in the finished product? The company also gave points to people who responded to the queries hence creating some competitive value in its postings.
The lesson for Peds Kafe from this example is that if it feels it risks negative exposure if it develops a comprehensive social media campaign, them it should use a predictive practitioners approach. It can give freebies such as free lunch or subsidized lunch to the most prolific participants.
Creative experimenters use social media to conduct different types of tests to uncover the needs of their clients before engaging in fully-fledged social media outlays. The thinking that guides creative experimenters is that there is a need to identify the strategies that will work for them by experimenting with different approaches before settling for one long-term solution.
On the other hand, some use it for creative experiments to keep the image of an innovative company in order to retain clients who value that aspect. A good example of a creative experimenter is EMC. The company developed an internal platform for its forty thousand employees to use social media to locate skills they needed within the company. The experimental platform led to savings in excess of forty million in its first year or operation.
The experiment is now a permanent feature of the company’s collaboration strategy. The lesson for Ped’s kafe is that it can develop experiments in social media among its clients to generate the feeling that it is innovative and that it listens to its clients. For instance, it can have a competition for recipes and share proceeds with the owner for a month. This will increase the interest of those who take pride in developing recipes, and those that enjoy trying out new dishes.
The last category of social media users is the social media champion. The main feature of a social media champion is that the social media strategy comes from a deliberate design with very predictable results. It is often very large in scope and may include huge offline investments.
The Ford Fiesta Movement of 2009 was such an outlay. The idea Ford developed for its reintroduction of the Ford Fiesta was to give away one hundred Fiestas for half a year to people that would relate their experiences in social media platforms. Within that time, the drivers posted more than sixty thousand items on social media platforms and the related YouTube videos had more than four million views.10
If Ped’s Kafe wants to be a social media champion, then it needs to identify its purpose for participating in social media and then develop the requisite following to conduct such large-scale marketing efforts. Ped’s Kafe can create a special group of clients, say fifty of them, who should undertake to make predefined social media postings on Ped’s Kafe’s social media platforms.
The incentives that Ped’s Kafe can use include charging them half price for their meals, or giving them a free meal once a week of a certain value. The options for this are many. Ideally, it should be something that encourages them to eat and review the meals and services at Ped’s Kafe.
Conclusions and Evaluation Summary of Findings
Ped’s Kafe needs to develop a consistent communication strategy that takes into account its target market.11 It is clear that the target market for Ped’s Kafe includes the young professionals that work near the restaurant.
Their needs include having a place to eat that does not carry a very formal feel. However, they also require an establishment run professionally. This clientele is very active on social media hence there is potential benefit in reaching them using social media platforms.
There are many opportunities for Ped’s Kafe to improve its market by using the uncertainty reduction theory and the information integration theories. Social media provides an inexpensive platform for Ped’s Kafe to apply the uncertainty reduction theory and the information reduction theory.
It can use the social media to reduce the level of uncertainty about its service online thereby increasing the confidence the customers have with the services offered at the café. The theory points out that people try to find information to reduce their degree of uncertainty to increase their level of confidence by researching.
On the Information Integration theory, if Ped’s Kafe does not endeavor to develop positive press for its services in online platforms, then it risks losing clients who will make their judgment based on the information available to them. If the information is negative, then it will be very costly for the café.
Ped’s Kafe can use a variety of approaches in its social media efforts aiming at increasing its client base. There are three options available for Ped’s Kafe to engage in social media strategies to engage its clientele. It can do so as a predictive practitioner, a creative experimenter or as a social media champion.
Using social media as a predictive practitioners will some from the need to keep social media interaction minimal and within highly defined boundaries. An approach in this sense is marketing of a daily special. Using social media as a creative experimenter will mean that the café uses social media for experimental purposes, or as a means of maintaining the image of an innovative company.
This can take the form of creative recipe competitions for the reward of a free or subsidized meal. In the case of using a social media champion approach, the café will develop an elaborate marketing plan that will include a group of clients it can offer free or subsidized meals in exchange of reviews and other postings on social media platforms. It will be important to keep the information publicly available to reduce chances of accusation of unethical business practices.12
Evaluation of the Research Process
The research process involved in the development of the recommendations that Ped’s Kafe can use to increase its customer base has been useful in the development of several viable options that the café can use to increase its market share.
It shows that there is real value in pursuing theoretical research to develop practical leads to answer business concerns. The comparison of strategies used by companies in different sectors provided a wider horizon for looking the potential approaches and benefits that an organization can derive from using social media as a platform.
Reference List Braunack-Mayer, AJ, “What Makes a Problem an Ethical Problem? An Emperical Perspective on the Nature of Ethical Problems in General Practice,” Journal of Medical Ethics, vol. 27, 2001.
Corson D, RL Heath,
Horticultural Therapy in Alternative Medicine Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Currently, the use of horticultural therapy as an alternative form of treatment is being acknowledged in our society unlike in the past. This has led to the establishment of more therapeutic gardens.
When setting up these gardens, certain considerations should be made concerning the capturing and engaging of client’s five senses. Because of their varied and distributed clientele, modern therapeutic gardens have been customised to meet different client’s taste and preference.
Normally, these gardens are designed for people with impairments or various dysfunctions in the society. Such people include patients with Alzheimer’s disease, prison inmates, patients in hospital care facilities and physical handicapped people. Due to the need to cater for the needs of various clients, horticulture therapy programs are also availed in most health care centres.
Horticultural therapy is known to be an effective way of reliving stress for depressed individuals. However, not all horticultural practices and gardens are designed for horticultural therapies.
Some of them are meant purely for farming or demonstration purposes. In order for any horticultural practice to be considered as a therapy, it must meet three basic requirements. These requirements are specified based on clients’ goals and treatment task. Horticultural therapy clients vary in nature in that not all patients have the same disabilities or sickness.
An historical overview reveals that geriac patients were the first to use horticultural therapy. The second group to embrace this therapy constituted of individuals in nursing homes subsequently followed by people in retirement homes.
In horticultural therapy, different clients have diverse needs that must be considered. For instance, people with mental problems and mental injury are taught on the enhancement of job employment skills.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is no defined boundary between horticultural farming and horticultural therapy. As a result, any horticultural farm can be modified to meet the requirements of a particular client.
In the therapy farms, treatment is administered through various farm activities. These include harvesting of flowers, intermixing of various plants to provide a varied view, and weeding.
Some activities like flower sorting and plant propagation are known to have a motivational impact on clients. For effective therapy results, some patients’ behaviours have to be stimulated.
This is normally achieved by adjusting the therapeutic settings in several ways, which include enhancing the proximity of the plants, organising the program activities in a scheduled manner, and clearly identifying the garden’s territories. Moreover, the garden’s setup should be appealing to the client.
Through therapeutic gardens, individuals are provided with an appealing environment, which nourishes them in numerous ways. The gardens provide isolation and comfort to those who want to avoid external disturbances. Appropriately defined boundaries enable visitors to move around the gardens without having to seek for the assistance of a guide.
The plants choice in a therapeutic garden is selected specifically to stimulate the sense of touch, smell and hearing. Furthermore, various architectural designs in the garden help to realize visual pleasures.
In this regard, some visitors recalling memory can be stimulated. In addition, their social interaction becomes enhanced. However, the presence of plants in the gardens compromises the space needed for social interaction around the gardens.
We will write a custom Essay on Horticultural Therapy in Alternative Medicine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Occasionally, horticultural therapy is fused with other treatment procedures. This ensures that the programs’ design eventually achieve their required goals.
Each horticultural program has been designed to achieve certain desired goals for a certain client. With its soothing capability, horticulture therapy is expected to cater for the needs of diverse clients.
Free Trade and National Policies Research Paper college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Debate concerning whether to encourage free trade remains a controversy. Some countries favour free trade while others underscore the benefits that accrue from free trade. Trade plays a vital role in ensuring economic growth and a decline in deficits.
Free trade function perfectly compared with fiscal and monetary policy adopted in counteracting the effects of subprime crisis. Additionally, regional trade and international trade experience barriers to trade.
Different states and countries have barriers that restrict trade from going on smoothly. The degrees of the restrictions that prevail in an economy are in relation to the movement of services and goods across territories.
The two-trade experiences a considerable number of restrictions such as exchange control, tariff duties, and quota restrictions among others.
As such, the economy experience similar problems, as a result, of the tariffs that are being imposed by the countries involved. The governments, therefore, should favour free trade against national interests (Cavusgil
Poverty Indicators in Developing Countries Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Poverty Indicators in Developing Countries
Types of Industries that Characterize Impoverished Countries
Actions to Spur Economic Development in Poor Countries
Poverty Indicators in Developing Countries The World Bank produced its first global poverty estimates for developing countries. These estimates are found in the world development report of 1990, which used house hold survey data for 22 countries (Ravallion, et al., 2001).
By incorporating data collected during the last fifteen years, that database has expanded considerably and now it includes 440 surveys representing almost 100 developing countries (Jimenez, 2007).
The commonly used ‘a dollar a day’ standard indicator for determining poverty rates at the household level was instituted in the 1990 report. Because this indicator failed to effectively capture the different economic situations of many poor countries, another yard stick for measuring poverty in poor countries was formulated.
This standard is known as ‘purchasing power prices’ (PPPs). It was chosen by the World Bank for use in determining the poverty rates of poor countries.
The most used Poverty indicators for developing countries includes according to world bank includes; percentage of poverty gap at national level, percentage of Poverty gap at rural level, ‘Poverty headcount ratio at 1.25 dollars a day (purchasing power prices) of the percentage population’, ‘Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty level of the percentage population, Poverty headcount ratio at rural poverty level of the percentage rural population and lastly poverty headcount ratio at urban poverty level of the percentage urban population.
Types of Industries that Characterize Impoverished Countries Developed nations gain from their trade because they produce and export industrial commodities, whereas the poor countries specialize in primary goods production and lack enough commodities for export. Technological progress in the world seems to work to their disadvantage (Singer and Ansari, 2004).
The essential difference between the rich and poor countries is not that they produce different types of commodities but the main difference between the two is that, the rich nations produce a different mix of goods and services while the poor countries produce a single mix of goods and services (Singer and Ansari, 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In many poor countries of the world, national income and productivity usually increase at a very insignificant rate. These two factors hinder poor countries from taking on new investments, increase their production rates and lower their imports (Soubbotina, 2004).
Most poor countries are affected by political instability which hinders investors from investing in those countries. This also makes the already established industries in those countries to relocate to much stable countries. All this negatively affects the economic growth of the poor countries.
Actions to Spur Economic Development in Poor Countries Based on the review of the experience of the last decade and extensive research on the nature and causes of poverty, a multidimensional approach to poverty reduction is recommended to liberate the poor nations from poverty (World Bank, 2002).
Poor countries should develop an expanded framework with actions at the country level planning. They should do all they can to create vast economic opportunities for their people, empower their citizens and enhance their security development (World Bank, 2002).
Opportunity is crucial to the creation of opportunities which are actions that support healthy economic growth. Empowerment means strengthening the capacity of poor people to affect decisions that have a bearing on their lives and removing barriers that prevent them from engaging effectively in political, social and economic activities.
Security is the resilience and preparedness to shocks such as illnesses, disasters and economic downturns. In order for development in poor nations to be fast tracked, it is necessary for the Nations to collaborate with industrialized countries, international organizations, private companies, research communities and other global players across abroad spectrum.
Conclusion It can be noted that, the World Bank whose mandate is to improve the world’s economic status has been able to offer assistance to several countries in the world. Poor countries are given first considerations in programming and implementing of the World Bank’s projects.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Poverty Indicators in Developing Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most Non-Governmental Organizations and Donors have also been at the fore front of alleviating poverty and human suffering in poor nations. It is therefore upon the leaders of the poor nations to initiate an enabling environment for development to take place.
References Jimenez, E. (2007). Development and the next generation. Washington, DC: World Bank Publication.
Ravallion, M., Galasso, E. and Salvia, A. (2001). Assisting the transition from workfare: A randomized experiment. Washington D.C: World Bank Policy Research Working Papers Series. Print.
Singer, H. and Ansari, J. (2004). Rich and Poor Countries: Consequences of International Disorder. USA: Routledge.
Soubbotina, T. (2004). Beyond economic growth: an introduction to sustainable development. Washington, D.C.: World Bank publication.
World Bank. (2002). Poverty reduction and the World Bank: progress in implementing WDR 2000/2001. Washington D.C: World Bank corporation.
Employee Use of a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Essay college essay help near me
It is difficult to notice the work related effects that health care practitioners go through. Health care personnel who take care of mentally or physically ill patients tend to experience symptoms which resemble post traumatic stress disorder.
This happens because of the trauma that employees develop as a result of investing long hours at the workplace and dealing with stressing situations in the workplace.
Many employers think that by providing their employees with attractive benefits and services, they will be able to motivate and retain their workforce.
This at times results in low morale, decline in job performance and high rates of employee turnover, absenteeism and taking of sick leaves (Cohen, Ruggie and Micozzi, 48). If all these setbacks occur even after employers provide work incentives, what could be the underlying problem?
Most of the time, it is the welfare of victims that is taken care of when there is a disaster. Even during war, the injured are the ones who receive urgent medical attention. The priorities of medical personnel who work in military medical facilities are to selflessly devote their time and efforts towards saving the lives of soldiers who are injured during wars.
They attend to soldiers who have had their legs torn off by landmines as well as those who received bullet wounds. The medical personnel also attend to those who fall sick while in the jungle and soldiers who are rescued from kidnappers.
Medical personnel who attend to these victims and patients devote their full attention to their work so that they are able to help the wounded recover fully. The families of these victims are also taken care of by being accorded all the necessary support when they are bereaved or their members affected by disasters.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above findings indicate that victims of disasters and their families are often well taken care of. But what about the personnel who take care of them?
The plight of this category of individuals is usually ignored since employers assume that their employees are well trained and capable of handling all kinds of situations.
Employers however fail to remember that their members of staff are also human and that they also develop side effects from dealing with people who have undergone disasters (Leach, 402).
It is not only the people that have been affected directly by disasters who develop traumas. Many medical personnel have developed work related secondary traumatic stress as a result of dealing with sensitive cases while discharging their duties. Is the welfare of such kinds of employees taken care of?
Many organizations are slowly adopting the idea of providing on-site services such as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their employees.
These investments are not a waste of funds since wellness clinics produce good results when they are implemented effectively. Surveys have revealed that wellness clinics produce positive results in employees.
For instance, Duncan et al. brought out that employees who attend wellness clinics and CAM reported that they developed improved nutrition, sleep, self awareness, moods and cognition (812).
We will write a custom Essay on Employee Use of a Complementary and Alternative Medicine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They also exercised more, increased stress reduction practices and reduced the use of addictive substances that were previously used to deal with the trauma (812).
Benefits and services are not enough if employers are to retain their workforce. That is why there is increased investment in on site child care, on site food and on-site CAM wellness clinic.
Works Cited Cohen, Michael H., Ruggie, Mary and Micozzi, Marc S. The practice of integrative medicine: a legal and operational guide. New York: Springer Pub. Co., 2006
Duncan, Alaine D., Liechty, Janet M., Miller, Cathy et al. “Employee Use and Perceived Benefit of a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Wellness Clinic at a Major Military Hospital: Evaluation of a Pilot Program.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 17.9(2011): 809–815
Leach, Robert A. The chiropractic theories: a textbook of scientific research. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams
Technology Progress in Realising Sustainable Economic Growth Essay college essay help online
Technological progress is the main factor that drives an economy to sustainability. Over time, Asian countries have embraced technological development, which has contributed significantly to the growth of most of their economies.
Because of the need of innovation to foster economic growth, most Asian countries have undergone a transition from being adopters of technologies to become independent technology innovators. Previously, the Asian countries used the United States and Europe’s technological innovations and inventions without emphasizing the need to advance such technologies themselves.
Upon realising that innovation is a key factor concerning the realisation of long-term economic growth, these countries have adopted the current technology in all aspects of their production (Nelson 2005, p. 125). The innovation process must be supported by a complex set of social institutions for it to be the main pillar of growth.
Because of the growth theory and the development theory having fostered the process of technological advancement as the core reason for economic growth, most of the Asian economies have embarked on the initiative. It is now understood that unlike in the past where technology was a sub-segment of economic growth, it is central in the realisation of economic development.
Consequently, in this regard, economies have embarked on the evaluation of the importance and means of attaining technological advancement. This has necessitated the adoption of technological progress as an endogenous element in the realisation of economic growth (Ting 1985, p. 74). In this regard, it has been possible to identify the two fundamental modes of technologically progression.
These are innovation and adoption. Innovation refers to the process of establishing new and unique technologies based on the improvement of old technologies.
On the other hand, adoption entails the introduction of technologies, created in a different location, in a new economy. Any economy needs to utilise the two modes of technology improvements in a balanced ratio for it to become technologically robust.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The analysis of the two modes of technology indicates that countries that opt for innovation as their ingredient for technology are more economically empowered compared to the adopters. Essentially, most Asian countries chose adoption to progress their economies by improving the living conditions of their citizens.
In this regard, Asian countries noted the lags created by the adoption of technology over their counterparts who were innovating. This implied that the continual adoption of technology from the innovators resulted in an increasing gap between the adopter and innovator in terms of the income per capita.
Furthermore, there existed multiple barriers for an adopter concerning technology advancement due to the limitation provided by patented innovations. In this regard, several Asian economies sought to achieve the level of technology innovators. The process of the transition from a technological adopter to a technological innovator was the main conduit to economic growth and technology independence (Carayannis 2006, p. 146).
Nevertheless, numerous challenges were encountered since technology innovation is a cumbersome and involving task compared to adoption. Additionally, the earlier nature of the Asian economies being effective adopters affected the transition process. Repeatedly, the Asian economies were viewed as having little innovativeness capacity.
This necessitated the establishment of numerous infrastructures to enhance innovation. The main initiative of this focus was to attain a technology advancement that sought to narrow the gap between developed countries and the Asian countries in terms of the income per capita.
Meanwhile, the market was established to have a considerable influence on the innovation process. This is because innovation on its own cannot survive without the contribution of the output technology’s demand and supply forces. Nevertheless, technological innovation in Asia has been on the rise since it is not a market-driven phenomenon.
In this regard, such economies have integrated the market and non-market institutions to contribute significantly to the process of technological innovation. Additionally, this process requires the formulation and adoption of innovation strategies that promote high innovative economic systems for it be successful.
We will write a custom Essay on Technology Progress in Realising Sustainable Economic Growth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Notably, the realisation of the innovation strategy’s need has been witness more in Asia than in any other part of the world. The fact that the Asian economies demand a completely new approach to technology since it is on the verge of development has significantly facilitated this process (Gapinski 1999, p. 154). As a result, most economies have tried to discover the crux of the innovation process and its contribution towards economic development and growth.
Since innovation is the main factor of technological process, it has several characteristics concerning its interactive nature with the mix of the market and non-market institutions. Initially, the innovation of technological structures is believed to be a science-based process.
In this regard, the elements of higher education must have the appropriate attitude and capability to contribute towards the success of the innovation strategies set by governments. Consequently, governments must place considerable investments in the higher education while adopting the latest education systems to enhance the realisation of innovation.
In this regard, major institutions can adopt technological inventions in their countries while fostering the advancement of such ideas. Notably, the Asian economies realised this fact and inputted a significant amount of capital towards the higher education.
Evidently, the combination of this move with the right structure and mentality adopted by the people, has led to the witnessing of technological progress by the Asian economies.
Site specificity is as a crucial component for the successful technology adoption or innovation process. The undertaking of any technological improvements to address the local challenges should be in consideration of a country’s local conditions. In this regard, the Asian economies valued their own ecological characteristics and adopted or developed the technologies that suited their needs.
On this note, any challenges whether health, agriculture, energy use, culture or infrastructure were addressed in relation of their capabilities and convenience to the available technologies (Babu 2005, p. 106). This implied that not all the technologies innovated by the Asian countries’ counterparts whether in the United States or Europe were suitable to their needs.
The process of technological innovation entirely depends on the market-based incentives considered and the capacity of the market itself. On this note, the extent of the market determines the success an innovation strategy and its contributory elements to the economy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Technology Progress in Realising Sustainable Economic Growth by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Considering the fact that the implementation of any innovative idea demands a one-time and irreversible amount of capital, it is vital to analyse its output critically to regain the invested capital through subsequent sales.
Additionally, a limited market for technological output would be insignificant. In this regard, the Asian economies have realised this concept and adopted open economy systems contributing immensely to technological progress.
Additionally, the fact that most Asian countries are export-oriented has enabled them to access the global market with ease. Notably, closed economies have a little access to foreign ideas as well as a limited market for their innovation outputs.
At stake is the notion of idea sharing for technological improvements and innovation. Ideally, when people share ideas, the ideas are not lost to the first person, but provide room for the refinement and improvement of technology.
As a result, everybody can participate in the expansion of the technological knowledge without depriving others of their ideas and inventions. Due to lack of rivalry, the society as a whole benefits from the dissemination of new and critical ideas, which contribute to economic growth.
Notably, any economy that attaches value to knowledge promotes the widespread diffusion of basic technological knowledge that aims at fostering economic growth (Pak 2003, p. 128). Certainly, on analytical and critical view, this notion would cause the disappointment and non-satisfaction of the inventors of new ideas due to the free and broad distribution of their ideas.
This implies that to restore their morale and self-esteem, these individuals must be recognized and rewarded. Moreover, their inventions ought to be patented to avoid the duplication of similar ideas.
In this regard, the Asian countries have embarked on the process of encouraging their scientists through social status, prizes, fame and direct market incentives. Thus, technological scientists have been significant in the tussle of realising economic development in such economies.
Innovative technological ideas demand specific forms of organisation that develop, examine and prove them. These organizations include universities, government research laboratories, and private companies engaged in scientific studies.
In this regard, innovation requires the consolidation of numerous ideas. Therefore, it demands the entrepreneurs within any organisation to exercise their risk-taking skills in experimenting new ideas in the market (Ting 1985, 184). Entrepreneurs must initially engage in the learning and mastering of new ideas before implementing them for this initiative to be productive.
Notably, it is known that the courage to take risks allow entrepreneurs to invest heavily in their companion’s knowledge in the attempt to market the output of their ideas. This unique phenomenon is exhibited by the economies with the urge for economic growth, a situation that was rare in the traditional economies. Importantly, the Asian countries have appropriately adopted this concept.
The achievement of the technological progress for a sustainable economic growth demands financing mechanisms that accommodate knowledge in both the public and private sector. Definitely, these institutions should provide capital to such initiatives despite being intangible and non-collateral.
Noting that the major financial institutions like banks do not lend funds to people with creative ideas, new financial providers should be established to offer such individuals a chance. In this regard, the need of venture capitalists becomes very essential. These venture capitalists provide capital to non-collateral ideas with the anticipation that the new ideas will become commercially viable when implemented (Itō 2005, p. 104).
For the Asian economies, this element of financing has been identified and a lot of capital allocated to them. This implies that venture capitalists have been on the process of identifying individuals with realistic and achievable ideas.
As a result, most individuals with practical ideas have been given the opportunity to implement their ideas. Furthermore, people have been considerably encouraged thus boosting the efforts towards the realisation of technological innovation and economic growth.
It is essential to set up effective intellectual property rights system for any government to provide the protection of its citizens’ technological innovation. The core issue on such matter is that the judicial system should be an independent institution that promotes the rule of law.
On this note, the intellectual property rights within the constitution can protect scientists’ inventions and innovations. In this regard, several Asian economies have established judicial systems that are independent from any political disputes or intellectual rights regimes.
These legal institutions have marked a crucial motivation towards the long-term development of most of the Asian economies. As a result, scientists’ are motivated to work towards embracing the set legal guidelines concerning the innovation of technological ideas.
Through the creation of a conducive and convenient administrative structure that enhances business start-ups’ conditions, many ideas can be presented to the market. Despite the Asian countries insisting on technological innovations, several have focused on making innovations available in the market to realise the input costs.
On this note, the major financial institutions and venture capitalists provide the start-up capital for such individuals (Carayannis 2006, p. 165). As a result, the government can earn benefits from the long-term application of the available knowledge whether in business or science. The government or a private orgnaisation should monitor any business enterprise offered with a start-up capital for the effective use of funds.
In this regard, the firms emerging because of innovation should have a clear and effectively structured business plan. The matters of interest in a firm are organisational structures, which include delegation approaches, productivity-based compensation, and the improvement of knowledge and skills within an enterprise.
This implies that a business would focus on its core objectives of profit making while offering chances to its staff for knowledge acquisition or improvement.
Economically, technological advancement is critical in the realisation of the long-run economic growth. In this regard, researches indicate that although technological diffusion is vital for economic development, it is essential to note the significance that innovation plays in an economy.
In this regard, the Asian economies should realise the need to transform from being technology adopters and become innovators as a sole drive to technological advancement. Notably, the proper social systems should be set up to enhance the realisation of technological improvements.
Nevertheless, the individuals within the economies should be imparted with the appropriate mindsets through education on the importance of technological advancement and the means of achieving it. Additionally, the usage of such technologies should be appreciated with continual improvements (Rondinelli 2007, p. 110).
Overtime, the process of innovation has presented numerous challenges for countries that have attempted to realise this goal. The main challenges have been the lack of appropriate creativity and financial capacities of some of the Asian countries.
As a result, most economies have resorted to the adoption of technology from developed countries that have limited commercial outputs and rewards for the participants. Concerning the financial aspect of these countries, a lot of finance is placed at the risk of new ideas, which in most cases may not be practical.
This is influenced by the fact that any tested knowledge or idea cannot be ascertained whether its output will be effective. Similarly, since most of the innovations financed could only be viable in the domestic market, the cost of the input will outweigh their benefits. Another factor influencing innovation is the population size of the Asian economies.
Because of the large population sizes, the balance of knowledge acquisition by all individuals becomes a hindering factor in the achievement of technological innovations. Most individuals attain a moderate level of education, which cannot guarantee a majority of them to engage in innovations.
Regardless of the fact that the innovation process is a challenge to economies due to the need of utmost focus, attention, and institutional creativity, proper measures will boost its attainment. Considering that Asia has the necessary resources and knowledgeable workforce, it can become the center of science-based innovations.
In this regard, the most populated countries in Asia such as China and India will considerably contribute to the economy as a whole. As a result, the structure and perception of these economies will be positively transformed. Similarly, the 21st century will be well endowed with the best technology that will improve the living standards of people and means of operation (Itō 2005, 172).
Nevertheless, knowledge acquisition would be generally accessible with the availability of the relevant materials. This implies that the gap between the developed and the developing countries due to knowledge or income per capita would be significantly reduced. As a result, it enhances the long-run sustainability of economic growth.
References Babu, S. C.,
Jean-Paul Sartre and Jules Ferry Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Imperialist ideology can be viewed as a distorted version of Western-European culture, because it emphasizes such values as liberty or dignity, but at the same time denies many people the right to humanity. This idea can be better discussed by analyzing Jean-Paul Sartre’s preface to the book The Wretched of the Earth written by Frantz Fanon.
Moreover, Sartre’s views can be compared to the arguments expressed by Jules Ferry who was an advocate of colonial policy. His speech before the French National Assembly in 1883 can be regarded as a defense of colonialism. The comparison of these two texts can highlight the contradictory nature of imperialism and explain how this political and cultural ideology influenced the countries that were under colonial rule.
One of the critical arguments put forward by Sartre is that many nations colonized by Europeans could see that the colonizers failed to live up to the ideals of humanism that they often proclaimed. The thing is that European culture lays stress on such values as liberty, equality, freedom, and dignity; however, those people, who speak about these ideas, can easily act in a cruel, biased, and selfish way. Sartre says, “The yellow and black voices still spoke of our humanism but only to reproach us with our inhumanity” (1961, p. 1).
To a great extent, this sentence renders the sense of disappointment that many African people had, especially after the atrocities committed both in Europe and Africa. They could not understand how the alleged values of colonizers could be reconciled with their actions. Jules Ferry also refers to the ideals of humanism; in particular, he says Europeans have “the duty to civilize inferior races” (Ferry as cited in Andrea
Theories about International Relations Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction International relations may be defined as the increased interaction between countries, states, government and individuals on the global front. International relation can also be defined as the study of relationships between various states, non-governmental organizations, individuals and multinational companies.
These interactions can either be interaction in public policy or academic interactions. A theory can be defined as a school of thought or an explanation as to why something exists.
Critical theories of international relations will always give the various thoughts about the idea of international relations (Baylis, Smith
Adam Smith Economic Theory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents The Invisible Hand Theory
Division of Labour Theory
International Trade Theory
Importance Adam Smith Theories
Benefits of the theory to the U.S. Economy
The Invisible Hand Theory According to this theory, Adam Smith points out his feeling about the operation of the economic society. He felt that each individual aimed at becoming rich with an intention of personal gain. However there must be sharing and exchange of commodities that one owns or what he produces.
This leads to advancement of the public interest through free market and public interest. Adam Smith is recognized as the father of economics and came up with all sorts of phenomenon for instance: environmental degradation, scientific progress and the game theory (Joyce, 2001).
Adam Smith linked the invisible hand theory to God’s creation of the universe that made human beings happy. Basing on this, he stated that the property rights must be very strong and people must respect and put into practice the social norms to minimize representations and theft.
According to smith theft was the worst crime to be committed although the poor can steal from the rich and they feel happy. According to him, the role of the government is to protect the rich from the poor.
He further states that the social norms are very important for any system to work to enable continuation of the exchange and enforcement of the contracts. This would enable people to get information about the availability of goods and services hence the rule of law must hold
He also explained how the theory works in the modern world. Adam explained a process that occurs through what he calls the invisible hand, which leads to the outcome of decentralized institutions with business contracts acting as agencies to economic transactions.
The entire process is not mandatory but is intentional with each party having some interests. However, the interests of the agents involved in the process are not similar and therefore not coordinated by the outcome of the process, which the exchange of goods and services. He said that the process is called invisible because it should be in progress even without the knowledge of the agents.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The free market, which other scholars call the market economy is mainly characterized by Adam Smith’s invisible hand given that market operators interact freely given their interests. Adam Smith assumed that consumers go in for lower prices but entrepreneurs venture into businesses of high profits.
He said that the demand of the consumers is identified by entrepreneurs through the market prices which give them a direction and an opportunity to invest in the production of various goods in a profitable industry. Put in mind that this is an industry that will produce high quality goods and services hence increasing the overall economic well being.
The most important part of the market based economy is that it put into consideration demands for other people. According to Smith, this was the good part of the invisible hand mechanism. He came up with two ways that can enable one to interact freely with others.
The first way is that they should always show the goodwill of others. Smith found out that to do this one must be repulsive which has limited success. The second way is to plea to the interest of other people
For Smith, his intention of proposing an exchange is to serve as an example to other people that what you can do is of benefit to other people. This is because when one carry out an exchange it shows that he value what other people have. This explains why the self esteem of a job is reflected in a person’s pay for instance a good pay is an indicator of how others value your contribution
Division of Labour Theory According to Adam Smith, the riches of a nation depend on its economic growth. He further states that growth is engrained in specialization of labour which simply refers to breaking down of the production process into various stages.
Specialization is significant because repetition of the same task improves on the workers efficiency. It also saves time because labourers do not move from one task to the other. Specialization enabled the Victorian industries to expand during the nineteenth century.
We will write a custom Essay on Adam Smith Economic Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They used the assembly line production to enable workers concentrate on a specific stage of the production process. However, Smith came up with various problems that were associated with this development. He found out doing the same task repeatedly makes labourers to be ignorant. Basing on this belief¸ he urged the government to take the role of educating workers.
International Trade Theory The major objective of Adam Smith on international trade theory was to analyze various ideas called mercantilism. Some mercantilists were of the view that government regulation was a necessary requirement of international trade for a nation to have favourable balance of trade meaning that exports should be more than the imports.
The term favourable balance of trade is used to explain a situation where a country exports more goods than what it receives where the difference between these situations is solved by making payments by use of gold (Smith, 2012).
A favourable balance of trade can only be favourable if one wrongly believes that the riches of a nation depend upon it having metals like gold. However, Smith argued that if a country can produce more goods than another country at a lower cost than it would be beneficial for the two countries to exchange their goods.
Each country would exchange the good that it produces at a lower cost for the good it produces at a relatively expensive cost. In economics, this is referred to as absolute advantage against foreign trade. This argument is not restricted to foreign trade. It can also be used in national trade.
In modern economics, as labour concentrates on the production of a particular commodity there is always a reduction in costs. He argued that the merits of international trade were based on increasing returns.
He realized that if two people were born with a particular talent and it does not change then it means that they will not benefit if they specialize and sell their goods. Smith recognized that each nation has the capability to gain absolute cost advantages in the creation of some goods and services through division of labour and specialization, and all nations could have an added advantage resulting from foreign trade.
Smith criticized policies made by the mercantilist because they evaluated the wealth of the country basing on the amount of precious metals it had instead of looking at the flow of goods. Smith hold that the government should set appropriate policies concerning foreign trade and the same should apply to domestic trade.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Adam Smith Economic Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A laissez faire policy would improve the level of economic growth of a country. Modern economics evaluated the economic ideas and found out that there is a difference between the mercantilists and the classical that had significance on free markets against the government regulation.
In modern economics, exchange is a game in which there should be a winner and a loser. To prove that all nations can benefit from international trade, one must prove that the production of goods has increased after exchange of goods and services has taken place (Bagehot, 1915).
Smith’s insight on international trade theory was that both nationals and international countries must gain from voluntary exchanges made. Its major aim was to ensure that the US economy thrives in the long run.
Importance Adam Smith Theories Specializations make workers to be experts in their fields of operation. As a result they become more competent in the production process which reduces the costs of production. Specialization is also very important because it leads to development of machines and tools that make workers perform their duties effectively.
According to Smith, division of labour must lead to production of valuable goods. Labour must produce more goods that can be used to produce more goods. Adam Smith identified the exchange and use value. Smith came up with a conclusion that labour is the major foundation of value.
The cost of a good is also known as its natural price. However, the natural price should not serve as a real value of the good in the market. Competition is expected to bring some changes in the market by either pushing the natural price up or down.
Benefits of the theory to the U.S. Economy Trade liberalization is assumed to be an influencing factor to economic prosperity and growth. Free trade is important in fighting poverty and aiming at expanding economic growth of a country. The trade policy legislation made it possible for America to advocate for free trade and the benefits associated with these policies. It was mandatory that lawmakers evaluate the trade initiatives.
Free trade earned the US economy $12 trillion. The total exports in the US in 2005 totalled to $1.2 trillion. These have created manufacturing employment opportunities in the US. The jobs were directly linked with an improvement in good pay from 13% to 18%. Foreign trade has a positive impact on jobs both in the private and manufacturing g sector.
Foreign trade creates employment opportunities in Ohio’s private sector. It also supports one out of 10 private sector jobs in South Carolina. Foreign trade also promotes opportunity. International trade also accounts for 79% in the service sector of the United States economy. The service industry also contributed to generation of job opportunities. For over 20 years the service industry had created about 40 million jobs in the large America.
Currently, the international economy provides unmatched opportunities for the United States economy to enlarge trade by eliminating barriers to services and goods. Free trade has increased on the level of competition in the modern market leading to production of quality goods, introduction of new markets, increasing labourers pay and increasing saving and invest% of global consumers stay outside the US. Free trade enables the United States to join the market and improve economic growth of America.
The United States has equally benefited from the reduction of trade barriers for more than five decades. This acted as an open door to economic growth and improvement of standards of living. Free trade has improved standards of living for Americans and is optimistic to bring more improvements if trade barriers are broken down.
The institute of global economics found out that trade liberalization has a positive effect of increasing income to an American household by $9,000 annually. Other benefits resulting from free trade are the Uruguay round of the world trade organization and the free trade agreement that generate yearly benefits of 1300 dollars to 2000 dollars for an American with a family with four.
Similarly, Free trade also avails goods and services to Americans at relatively cheaper prices, enabling families to save part of their income or purchase more goods and services. Adam Smith theories have helped the economy because these theories are associated with various benefits as explained in importance of Adam Smith theories.
I think Adam Smith would suggest free trade and trade liberalization as an economic plan for our economy. This is because according to him, free trade and trade liberalization are the major pillars to economic growth and improvement of living standards of people of America.
Adams1 smith Advice to the United States would be that it opens it economy even more and remove the protectionist barriers such as “made in America” policies. The current policies in the U.S. are not beneficial to the citizens. He huge debts that the government has accumulated have put more pressure on tax payers, unemployment is still high (Finnegan, 2012).
References Bagehot, W. (1915). Adam Smith and our modern economy. Web.
Finnegan, M. (2012). Romney pounces on Obama’s economic policies. Web.
Joyce, H. (2001). Adam Smith and the invisible hand theory. Web.
Smith, A. (2012). Free trade and international trade theory. Web.
Social Pressure and Change Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
XYZ Company manufactures agricultural chemicals. A year ago, the company experienced significant scandals including charges of stock fraud, harassment lawsuit against several executives and dumping waste into a neighboring wildlife preserve.
Why might such Pressure Cause XYZ to Change?
The external pressure facing XYZ might make the company to embrace change because the firm has to adhere to societal expectations in regard to environmental responsibility and general community involvement.
Recently, information and modern technology have contributed extensively to the growth of social pressure, since information regarding firms that do not conform to social standards spread quickly. Also, external members expect that companies conduct business fairly, maintain favorable working conditions for employees and carry out activities that do not harm the environment.
Failure to do so may spur demonstrations by community members or warnings by environmental pressure groups, in order to force the company to conduct activities that preserve the environment. Also, XYZ Company may face prosecution in a criminal court, due to stock fraud. Besides, failing to adhere to societal expectation will, ultimately, create an unhealthy reputation for the company, which might make customers obtain products from other firms that have similar products.
How does this affect the Organizational Ethics of Work at XYZ?
Outside pressure, regarding the above mentioned issues, will affect organizational ethics of work at XYZ. First, management practices must be adjusted to suit the needs of employers. As mentioned, in the introduction, a number of executives have filed harassment lawsuits against the company. This implies that organizational ethics have to be adjusted, in order to enhance worker satisfaction and productivity in the company.
Besides, XYZ needs to impact outside members positively, through stopping to dump waste products into the nearby wildlife preserve. This will create a positive public image, which is likely to attract new customers. Lastly, the company has to stop stock fraud, because the public may put pressure on legislators to impose existing regulations regarding stock frauds. The company should ensure that both internal and external auditors receive the right information regarding sales and stocks of the company.
What Change might XYZ Incorporate?
XYZ needs to establish an ethical workplace through creating, and constantly, improving the code of ethics. This will encourage ethical practices, in the firm, in order to ensure moral conduct and make potential customers and employees consider the company as ethical.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The managers, at XYZ, can also create a department entrusted with overseeing ethical practices in the organization. Such a department would denote to all external members that the company has committed to upholding ethical practices.
Another change that XYZ may incorporate involves training the entire workforce on new ethical practices that the company desires. Such training programs do not highlight all the practice that must be observed. Rather, the training enables managers to have a framework that they can use to judge whether some actions are ethical or not.
Besides, the company should incorporate social goals into the yearly planning processes. Such an approach of meeting social requirements indicates that a company is socially responsible.
Lastly, managers at XYZ should be accountable for creating and upholding conditions whereby people are apt to act ethically and reduce situations that promote unethical behavior. Managers, through taking charge of these aspects, can reduce the urge to perform unethical acts, as well as, promote social responsibility at XYZ.
In conclusion, social pressure affects how a company functions. Failure to adhere to such pressure may ruin the reputation of a business, or make a business cease to attract new customers.
Anthropomorphism Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Nature of anthropomorphism
Taxonomy of anthropomorphic claims
Introduction Human beings are generally characterized by traits and behavior, which differentiate them from nonhuman animals. However, it is possible to have a nonhuman being; a person who resembles an animal with regard to behavior and personality, described as rampant anthropomorphism. For instance, a person could be married but be given a name such as “baboon” to imply his or her animal-like personality.
This phenomenon has become quite common, especially in describing the social aspect and manifestation of an animal’s traits in a human being. This has been studied and developed by cognitive ethologists in the last four decades, a concept that is viewed as cognitive revolution.
It is this concern and diversion, which has augmented the relationship between human and nonhuman animals. This has contributed to the emergence of cases like mindreading, playing and rape in nonhuman animals (Keeley 523).
In this understanding, the question many people ask is whether the idea of anthropomorphism is a mistake or reality. Is it possible, realistic and correct to relate human behavior to that of animals like baboons, monkeys, insects and birds? Perhaps this depends on the stance taken in relating human and nonhuman nature of animals.
Keeley 2004 argues that anthropomorphism is a myth and that there is no fault in relating the behavior of human and nonhuman animals. Nevertheless, the case may be argued from different points of view, and there is no problem in describing anthropomorphism beyond attributes, which are known to be untrue.
It is important to underscore the existing relationship between human and nonhuman animals in order to appreciate the need for animals in certain areas of research like neuroscience and developmental psychology.
Despite the fact that cognitive science has remained comparative in its surveys, there is concern over the muted kind of approach accorded to anthropomorphism. It is imperative to have clear information and eliminate doubts that have always been held against animal models.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Anthropomorphism As implied in the above introduction, anthropomorphism revolves around the relationship between human and nonhuman behavior, and was introduced by theologians, as they explored the nature of God and gods with regard to human identity and behavior. The questions raised at that time sought to establish the truth behind the link between human characteristics and their gods.
For example, are human beings created in the image of God or do they create the image of God in their behavior and personality? The role of God is well depicted in the bible, where man interacted with God in several occasions in the Old Testament, according to the Christian faith.
In most instances, proponents of anthropomorphism lay emphasis on perfect qualities in human beings as the impact of God. This is mainly due to the fact that God is highly revered with perfection that is highly needed for a person to portray appealing and attractive qualities (Keeley 524). On the other hand, those opposed to the views of anthropomorphism believe that God and man fall in different categories, which do not allow their attributions to be compared.
Also, it is argued that the inability of man to understand God is because of his divine status, which outweighs that of human beings. This can also be viewed that God’s nature is complicated to allow human comprehension. Throughout the development of science, many studies have come to terms with the fact that anthropomorphizing God may cause people to stray and appreciate their attributions to animals.
Naturally, words carry human connotation, even though some of the motivation and purpose expressed might have no connection with the behavior of animals. In this case, it would be illegitimate to hold certain attributes to other species of animals like insects, monkeys and birds among others.
This school of thought delinks the perceived connection between human behavior and that observed in animals. Whatever attributes observed in baboons do not denote the nature of human beings regardless of connotations that may exist in words used by human beings.
Arguments One important factor is that anthropomorphism thoughts can be ignored even though they are highly perpetuated by cognitive ethologists, who are viewed as heirs of olden scientists. Most of the arguments put forth concentrate on meta-scientific approach that does not appreciate the use of data in supporting scientific claims.
We will write a custom Essay on Anthropomorphism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, the focus is put on what could be considered as appropriate or inappropriate scale during data interpretation and the possibility of finding information outside the scientific scope. Moreover, cognitive ethologists have received backing from several quarters, due to their empirical work. They therefore need to be considered and engaged in discussions before their views concerning anthropomorphism are refuted.
Nature of anthropomorphism According to Keeley 2004, anthropomorphism cannot be assumed to be related to anecdotalism; the two are independent. It is argued that earlier efforts to associate the behavior of human and nonhuman animals’ behavior were based on anthropomorphic and anecdotal approaches. In most cases, their conclusions were based on the achievements observed among certain animals.
This was communicated in form of stories, which were adopted as true findings, relating the behavior of human beings to that of other species (Keeley 527). The lack of cues in most of these findings was enough evidence and reason to refute information collected from people in the form of stories. In essence, anecdotes cannot be considered as satisfactory evidence that can be used to make conclusions regarding the behavior of animals and their capabilities.
Although it might not be essential to understand the superiority between experimental evidence and anecdotes, it is imperative to emphasize the fact that the two sets of quality are independent. With regard to cognitive ethology, it is possible to have experimental evidence in the absence of anecdotal stories because of their distinct connection.
Taxonomy of anthropomorphic claims Like many other fields of study, anthropomorphism encompasses a wide range of senses, some of which might not be relevant in the analysis of some cases defining the behavior of human and nonhuman behavior. Different researchers therefore have an array of views in defining the concept of anthropomorphism. For instance, imaginative anthropomorphism relates the image of animals to human beings.
Importantly, a clear line has to be drawn to differentiate this from interpretive anthropomorphism, which argues that certain traits manifested in animals are caused by similar mechanisms recorded by human beings (Keeley 529). The latter approach can however be understood by considering two ways of analysis: the categorical anthropomorphism and situational anthropomorphism.
Categorical anthropomorphism involves the association of traits to nonhuman animals, which do not have attributions. On the other hand, situational anthropomorphism focuses on cases where the behavior of an animal is misinterpreted depending on the existing circumstances.
Interestingly, opponents of anthropomorphism do not always consider the above situational case as the only mistake, since a situational error can only be identified by use of empirical methods. This differs from what is supported by opponents of anthropomorphism.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Anthropomorphism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On this basis, there is no need of carrying out an ethological study to find out the relationship between the display of bared-teeth and smiling in chimps as purported by some scientists. This ought not to be the case since the animals in question are chimps and not human beings; the two are not connected (Keeley 529).
Similarly, the concept of categorical anthropomorphism can be analyzed deeper to determine further distinction. For instance, there are unwarranted attributions of human behavior to certain animals. A good example is “rape” in flies. How can this be possible? It would be ridiculous to adopt search an approach since insects cannot have human behaviors. Nevertheless, such an argument could probably be conceived when dealing with chimpanzees.
This is based on the likelihood of considering insects versus chimps. From this perspective, it is essential to underline the fact that the issue is never the kind of species being considered but rather the traits being attributed to these animals with regard to human beings (Keeley 529). In other words, human behaviors could be attributed to some animals but not to all nonhuman animals.
Another important factor of consideration is that anthropomorphism is not always defined within psychological confines. Such an approach may limit a justified attribution of human behavior to certain animals.
From the above analysis, it is clear that anthropomorphism is a concept that has received a wide range of views throughout history. It is vital to consider several points of view in establishing the relationship between the traits of human and nonhuman animals.
Works Cited Keeley, Brian. “Anthropomorphism, primatomorphism, mammalomorphism: understanding cross-species comparisons.” Biology and Philosophy 19 (2004): 521–540. Print.
Transpiration Process in Plants Essay online essay help: online essay help
Transpiration refers to the loss of water by plants through tiny pores called stomata. In addition, at times, plants lose water through stems, flowers, branches, or roots. Depending on the particular plant’s adaptation, the stomata location on the leaves surface varies. For most plants, the stomata are located on the undersides of the foliage to minimize the rate of loss during harsh climatic conditions.
Additionally, the stomata have guard cells, which open or close to regulate the transpiration level. Transpiration facilitates the cooling of plants. In addition, the process regulates the rate of absorption of water in the roots, intake of mineral nutrients, and the osmotic pressure within the plant. Some of the factors, which influence this process, include temperature, low humidity and other factors that induce transpiration (Böhm, 2010).
Capillary action facilitates the flow of water from the roots to the shoot in plants. Initially, the roots absorb water by the process of osmosis due to the variation in the concentration of the water level between the soil and roots. For tall plants, the movement of water and nutrients to the upper parts is facilitated by the plants’ reduction of hydrostatic pressure. In this regard, the pores between the soil particles are large compared to the roots pores.
Therefore, the plants absorb water and maintain a consistent supply. Because of the availability of water at the leaves, plants attempt to regulate their moisture content with respect to the surrounding conditions. The main sources of energy for this process include temperature, humidity, wind and incidence of light (Mansfield, 1993).
Temperature levels influence the rate at which transpiration occurs. At high temperatures, plants receive heat, which creates the need for cooling on the upper parts of the leaves. Because of this process, the plants moisture content decreases, and water moves through the pores causing cooling. As a result, the heat vaporizes the water leading to its release into the atmosphere.
Low humidity leads to a difference in vapor concentration occurring between the leaves’ surface and the atmosphere. Water moves by the process of diffusion between two regions with different concentrations. This is influenced by the decrease in the moisture content in the upper side of the leaves. The water release out of the pores is lost to the atmosphere leading to the maintenance of balanced humidity between the leaves and the atmosphere.
Wind refers to the movement of air. Concerning plants, winds play a crucial role in facilitating the process of transpiration. The movement of air causes the difference in water concentration between the leaves and the atmosphere. This is due to the decrease of moisture concentration in the leaves upper part. As a result, water is lost through the wind energy to the atmosphere.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The incidence of light causes heating on the surface of leaves and the decrease in moisture level. The moisture in the leaves is lost through the pores on the upper surface. This causes cooling. The moisture is lost to the atmosphere through the transpiration process.
With the analysis of the sources of energy that influence transpiration, the rate of transpiration depends on the adaptation of a particular plant (Smith, 2006). Regarding the plants in a high-moisturized environment, they have a large number of stomata, which contribute to the high rate of transpiration facilitated by the sources of energy. On the other hand, plants in a dry environment have adaptation characteristics that facilitate low levels of transpiration.
References Böhm, C. (2010). Transpiration. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Mansfield, T. A., Davies, W. J.,
Fire Prevention at Waste Handling and Control Classification Essay essay help
Table of Contents Solid Waste Management Systems
Waste Chutes and Handling Systems
Codes, Regulations, and Standards
Solid Waste Management Systems Waste management systems cover processes of collection, temporal storage, internal transportation, treating, and finally the goal of garbage disposal or remains generated from garbage management procedures (Douncet
Confucians and Judeo-Christians Essay essay help
Part 1: The Ethical Conflict between Indulging Individual Freedom and a Well-ordered Society
This conflict can be seen in the case of Confucians against Western democracy or Judeo-Christians. Western countries including Europe and America seem to observe individual freedom at the expense of the entire society unlike Asian countries, which embrace the notion of a well-ordered society.
For instance, enhanced standards of living, in countries that embrace individual freedom, such as America and Europe, are likely to be viewed in light of the size of the yard that an individual’s home covers and the number of channels that one can access from his TV. On the other hand, enhanced standards of living, in countries that embrace the notion of well-ordered societies, such as Asian countries, are likely to be viewed in light of societal issues like night security and the capacity to limit undesirable media content to children.
This conflict is as a result of realization, by Asians states, that they can do things equally with other cultures. The majority of present Neo-Confucianists spent their early lives in Asia, where Westerners ruled predominantly. At present, Neo-Confucianists want to overturn the cultural flow, in order to see the Americans concurring with them on some notions.
Part 2: How Different Religious and Philosophical or Cultural Perspectives Shape Moral Perceptions and Discernment
Confucian and Judeo-Christian ideas shape views of leaders in different ways. Lee, the leader of Singapore and a Confucian, feels that the Americans have deserted the ethical foundations of society. Therefore, he does all that he can, in order to ensure that such a situation does not show up in his territory. Besides, Lee orders policemen to keep a vigilant eye on Singapore, in order to ensure that people do not commit crimes such as littering and chewing gum (Reid 3).
The government of Lee, also, controls the savings of citizens by ordering them to secure a certain amount of their money and no one opposes this act. A number of Neo-Confucians say “the government of Lee is a pervasion of the sage’s teachings” (Reid 3). The same critics argue that Lee of Singapore and Mahathir of Malaysia twist Confucius ideals, in their territories, in order to safeguard their personal power.
The standpoint of Reid is that the authoritarian rule employed in Singapore is not part of Confucianism (3). This is because South Korea, which also embraces Confucianism, is a noisy and polluted state. However, Koreans claim to be no lesser Confucians than Singaporeans. Therefore, the outlook of Lee on Confucianism or Asian culture is for personal gains, because Confucians appreciate democracy.
On the other hand, Thomas Jefferson and Washington got influenced by Judeo-Christian ideals. Judeo-Christian virtues allow democracy since they embrace the virtue of individual freedoms. Besides, both leaders promoted activism during their reign, as an influence of the Judeo-Christian ideas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Part 3: Reasons for a Course of Action Consistent with One’s Personal Moral Values
Obtaining the right balance between individual freedom and social order requires enjoying individual rights while not interfering with social order. For instance, adults may be allowed to view any TV channels that they desire, while limiting the content that get exposed to children. This can be a feasible way of balancing social order and individual freedom, as individuals will enjoy their freedom while maintaining a well-ordered society.
A well-ordered society, in this case, will appear because children will not be exposed to in appropriate material, such as violent video games and pornography, which are likely to cause undesirable behaviors like violence and crime, in the society. Such balance can be obtained from societies that embrace individual freedom, such as, Europe and America, since children’s rights to protection from abusive media can easily be incorporated into individual rights.
Part 4: The Alternate Perspective
Conversely, it would be hard to balance individual freedoms and social order in a Confucius society. This is because a Confucian, such as, Lee of Singapore leads by autocracy, and may not tolerate the notion of individual freedoms. Hence, it would be difficult to maintain a well-ordered society that, also, embraces individual freedoms, in such a territory.
Besides, it would be difficult to balance social order and liberty in a country like South Korea, which is extremely disorganized. South Korea, which also embraces Confucianism, is a noisy and polluted state. Hence, although South Koreans have democracy, it would be extremely difficult to balance individual freedoms and social order in a disorganized state.
Bibliography Reid, TR. “Confucius Says Go East, Young Man: Many Asians Now Think Their Lives and Values Are Better Than the American Way.” The Washington Post 19 Nov. 1995: 3. Print.
Correlation Coefficient Analysis Case Study online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Correlation coefficient analysis is used in exploring relationship(s) between variables where there is interest in examining the strength of a relationship between variables. A correlation coefficient is a numeric measure of the amount of strength of the association or relationship between variables.
In this case, the variables are GDP per capita, economic freedom and property rights. The current case study aims to look at the statement, “the nations’ wealth appears to be highly related with a level of economic freedom and property rights” and establish its consistency or otherwise with the collected data.
Consistency or inconsistency of the statement with the data The table below shows three countries that had the highest GDP per Capita value, Economic Freedom, and also Property Rights. The table also shows the countries with the lowest GDP per Capita value, Economic Freedom, and also Property Rights.
Country GDP per Capita (2011) Economic Freedom Index Property Rights Index Austria $40,624.85 70.3 7.8 Denmark $47,284.65 76.2 8.2 USA $42,448.43 76.3 7.5 Nepal $370.97 50.2 4.4 Madagascar $270.99 62.4 4.1 Uganda $440.52 61.9 4.9 Source: Author (2012)
From the above table, it can clearly be seen that there exists a strong relationship between a nations’ wealth (GDP per Capita), Economic Freedom, and Property Rights. From the economic performance of the selected countries, it can be observed that increase in economic freedom results in increased GDP per Capita. Similarly, increase in security of a person’s property results in increased GDP per Capita.
Therefore, there is a positive correlation between the dependent variable (GDP per Capita), and the Independent variables (Economic Freedom and Property Rights). This means that an increase in the independent variable results in an increase in the dependent variable resulting in positive correlation. However, the correlation between GDP per Capita and Property Rights is stronger with a correlation coefficient of 0.8045 compared to the lower correlation coefficient of 0.6860 between GDP per Capita and Economic Freedom.
Countries that have free economic freedom and the most secure freedom rights have large GDP per Capita. This can be Denmark has the highest GDP per Capita ($47,284.65) and also the most secure property rights (8.2). This country also has a high index economic freedom coming second to USA with an index of 8.2. Increased security in property ownership and rights of use means that people are more confident of the future and can invest without fear of loosing their property and hence investment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will therefore spur growth and results in the growth of a nation’s wealth (GDP per Capita). At the same time, secure property rights regimes means that more new investors whether domestic or foreign will be willing to invest in the country. This will result in growth in the GDP. When people feel insecure about their property, they do not invest and in extreme cases may even to get out of earlier investments resulting in a decline in GDP per capita.
This was the case in Uganda when the dictatorial government of Id Amin seized foreign owned property (of mostly immigrant Indians) consequently plunging Uganda in an economic crisis that has yet to recover fully. Economic freedom does not only make trade easier, but also allows healthy competition. This completion is good because it ensures that high quality products that are affordable to the customers are in the market.
This will therefore result in increased GDP per Capita. Economic freedom is also associated with reduction of the process of licensing of new enterprises. This removal of unnecessary barriers to trade encourages new people to venture into business resulting in increased GDP per Capita.
Etiquette in France Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Greeting and Meeting
Dining and Entertainment
Introduction The French people always adhere to harmonized and strong values set by the country. They normally take pleasure in their language, culture, cuisine and history. This is one of the reasons why France has been a leading nation in fashion, architecture, art, food and wine.
The French people embrace originality and new ideas in all sectors of business. The French people also value etiquette and mannerism in the corporate world, eating, and dressing. This paper is mainly about etiquette in France addressing, eating, business as well as persona etiquette.
Greeting and Meeting The French people normally shake hands each time they meet. When it is the first time that a French person is meeting you whether for business or friendship, they normally consider shaking hands with you.
Shaking of hands is also a common practice every morning when people arrive at work whereby colleagues get to greet each other by shaking hands. This can also happen when they are leaving work in the evening. Families or close friends in France usually kiss their loved one at the cheeks as a sign of greetings (“Etiquette in France,” 2012).
Corporate Culture French business people do value professionalism at a very high rate since it is the means through which outsiders such as customers are accepted. French people respect and admire hard work in business but they are against workaholics. French people enjoy and encourage well-educated and trained labor force. This is one of the reasons why France a country is successful when it comes to business.
Keeping time and punctuality is one thing that French people value and appreciate in business. This has promoted effectiveness especially when it comes to serving the customers. French business people are usually conservative and most of the time they like being formal. Most business affiliations are mainly professional, accurate and organized.
Every person who goes into any organization in France is expected to provide their business cards to the secretary or leave it to the receptionist when you arrive in the office. All the print cards or academic degree are done either in French or English. This is because majority of people in France speak English and French.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The French government performs a major part in many businesses in France. Whenever you need help with regulatory obstacles, local representatives such as lawyers and bankers are always there to offer you with whatever directions you need. Most business people in France do not normally share their personal life especially with those they do business with.
They normally keep their private life away from business (France – French Culture, Customs and Etiquette, n.d.). This means that nobody is allowed to introduce their personal life in business especially when they are found in mistakes or in cases whereby they have been coming to work late regularly.
French people are quick and that is why they find it easy to get into a business. However they are slow when it comes to decision making process since they normally take their time to reflect on the way the business will go about and how to make it prosper. When it comes to economic planning, French business people lead. This is because they normally make up plans which are detailed and comprehensive which normally lead to success.
Most business institutions in France are federal and they have chief executives who are very influential. Most managers in these organizations are authoritative and domineering. There are specific rooms within the organizations that are selected such that only those with specific ranks are allowed to seat or even enter the room. Anyone who is below the rank is not allowed to set foot on the room unless they get permission from the authority.
When most organizations carry out meetings, they normally follow a set up format which every individual must honor and keep time. The main agenda to be discussed in the meetings are usually detailed and to the point. This helps in time saving and eases the whole process since everyone is aware of the main agenda to be discussed in the meeting. French people are disciplined; they cannot debate or disagree in public forums. They normally control their debates making them more enjoyable and lively.
One of the reasons why business meetings are held in France is to clarify and brief the staff and subordinates concerning certain issues. The intentions are usually stated openly, clearly and directly so as not to confuse the people (“Etiquette in France,” 2012). Before any presentation is conducted, it is usually well written and organized in a clear and comprehensive way before it is presented in professional and formal manner. One of the things that French people dislike most is the hard sell method.
French people value connections and group work. Business meetings held before two weeks or during August, Easter period and Christmas time is usually discouraged in France because during these particular periods of time, most people will want to be with their loved ones hence some may miss the meeting or those who will attend will not be that attentive. Most French business persons do not like to be called at home except if it is an emergency such as fire outbreak or theft cases.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Etiquette in France specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dining and Entertainment French people will consider anyone who does not value eating rules to be discourteous. Foreigners are therefore expected to master French table manners. In France, they do not expect anyone to carry flowers to the dining table; they should be either sent before the event or after. Carrying pets or close friends to the dining without permission is highly prohibited in France. The host of an event should be informed well in advance if anyone is to carry a pet or bring a friend for diner.
It will be considered a dishonor if any guest refuses to take the foods prepared for dinner. The only two meals that guests are accepted to reject are curry and oysters. However, the hostess is required to find out the type of meal that the guests would like to take before they begin to supply food.
A normally dinner in France usually takes about two to four hours due to a wide variety of means served separately. All the guests present are expected to eat at least each small portion of the meals served at the table. A glass of French wine cannot miss at the dining table and every guest is expected to serve it. More wine will be added to those people whose wineglass is not full.
The French people love to use knives and forks to eat their meals. Meals such as fish and chicken should be first slashed into pieces and then collected for consumption using particular type of table gadgets such as fork.
The art of using knives and forks by the French people have gone as far as using them to consume fruits. The salad is not to be slashed into pieces instead it should be properly crinkled before consumption. The dining table is usually set with salad knife but guests should not utilize it unless it is the last choice available.
Resting your elbows on the dining table is not allowed and is considered as unethical when it comes to table manners. You should place your hands where they are visible (“A guide to French etiquette,” 2008). The hands should not be placed on the lap.
Those people who are still eating are expected to traverse the equipments they were eating with by placing the fork above the knife on the plate. French people hate unexpected visitors. Friends should inform each other before they come for a visit. Making phone calls before 10am in the morning and after 9pm at night is highly prohibited in France.
It is unethical to ask for a scotch or a martini before they prepare dinner. French people consider those who do this to be palate numbing. After every meal, French people usually serve their guests or family members with liqueurs. Most business people in France usually take their breakfast and lunch while working. However, lunch time is still regarded as private time.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Etiquette in France by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At dinner time, French people do not always talk about business. This is because they see diner time as communal event and period for taking pleasure in the nice meal prepared. There is however some dinners mainly organized to discuss business and in such occasion, spouses are not always incorporated. Male and female guests do not always sit together; the female is expected to sit at the right hand side of the host while the male is expected to seat at the left hand side of the hostess (“France,” 2012).
All the guests are not allowed to taste anything until their hostess or hosts have done it. If in any case there is a toast to be made, you should be patient enough not to drink the wine until the toast has been made. Nobody is expected to smoke during dinner or lunch time when people are taking meals. French people consider it ill-mannered to depart without clearing your food. It is proper to thank the host or hostess after the dinner or lunch meal.
Dress The French people dress with heed and concern hence expects every person in the country to do the same. France as a country are leaders in fashion which means that they are conscious about fashion and that is why they dress in understated and conservative way. It is inappropriate to be seen in the city with casual attire. Everyone should be elegant and tidy every time and every day.
This means that French people are fond of good things and that is also the reason why you find that most people put on valuable accessories. To create a good impression in the public, men are expected to wear conservative suits which are dark in color. On the other hand, women are expected to put on elegant dresses or suits which are stylish but have soft colors. The suites or dresses should be sophisticated with no cleavages and they should not show off their thighs.
In conclusion, the French people always adhere to harmonized and strong values set by the country. They value etiquette and mannerism in the corporate world, eating, and dressing as expressed above.
References A guide to French etiquette. (2008). Web.
Etiquette in France. (2012). Web.
France. (2012). Web.
France – French Culture, Customs and Etiquette. (n.d.). Web.
Jane Austen and Convention of the Gothic Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How Jane Austen challenges conventions of gothic novels
Introduction The novel Northanger Abbey adversely mentions gothic literature; it even influences the main characters’ actions and decisions. However, the use of this genre is done to mock and trivialise the genre.
How Jane Austen challenges conventions of gothic novels As one reads the novel, one comes across a series of gothic titles throughout the narration. The characters talk about and reference various pieces in the book. Catherine meets with Isabella at the beginning of her adventure at Bath. Their main topic of conversation is gothic literature. These two ladies especially mention the Mysteries of Udolpho, by Ann Radcliffe, but their fondness for the books makes them appear one -dimensional and detached from reality.
Jane Austen also mocks gothic literature by selecting a very unconventional heroine. Gothic novels usually feature beautiful young women as main characters. Catherine is average-looking at best; sometimes, Austen leads readers to believe that her main character is even unattractive. The first page states that Catherine had “an awkward figure, sallow skin colour, dark lank hair and strong features” (Austen 1817, p.1).
In eighteenth century Britain, strong features and sallow skin were undesirable traits. Jane Austen wanted to defy conventional expectations of gothic literature by choosing an individual who had little physical appeal. Furthermore, Catherine’s social background was nothing extraordinary. She came from a large middle income household, yet most gothic novels either focused on incredibly poor or exceptionally wealthy heroines (Rose 1993).
Furthermore, Catherine was not talented in the conventional ways of English society at the time. She could not draw or paint, and neither could she write. Even Austen remarks that she was “a strange and unaccountable character” (Austen 1817, p.6). Catherine appears to have challenges with social interactions as well. She does not seem to understand people; yet this is a predominant quality in most gothic books.
Catherine did not know about Isabella’s true intentions until the situation had gone overboard. She could not hide her suspicions about Henry’s father from him. Furthermore, she fails to realise that she was leading-on John Thorpe. Catherine lacks social experience, which was a quality that was hard to miss in the gothic genre. In choosing such a heroine, the author wanted to challenge stereotypes of women in romantic literature, of which gothic novels belong (Summers 1964).
In the narration, the main character appears to grow and learn about the workings of English society. This was not initially true at the beginning. In fact, one detects Catherine’s naivety when she first visits Bath. She seems to have an overblown imagination about the way the world works. Catherine looks at the world through the eyes of the characters in gothic novels (Glock 1978).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In these books, seemingly ordinary events can lead to terrible occurrences in the future. The main character thinks of Mrs. Tilney’s death as one such tale, but later realises that she had distorted reality. Jane Austen wanted to demonstrate how gothic novels can feed the mind with unrealistic and fantastic expectations. For instance, when Henry drives her out to Northanger Abbey, he indulges her imagination:
“In one perhaps there may be a dagger, in another a few drops of blood, and in a third the remains of some instrument of torture; … your lamp being nearly exhausted, you will return towards your own apartment. In passing through the small vaulted room, however, your eyes will be attracted towards a large, old-fashioned cabinet of ebony and gold, which, though narrowly examining the furniture before, you had passed unnoticed.” (Austen 1817, p. 144)
Catherine is quite gullible at this point because she expects nothing short of gothic mystery in the place. She is deeply disappointed when she realises that Henry’s home is quite ordinary. The house possesses none of those concealed spaces that she read about in the gothic tales.
Clearly, Catherine is deluded by these readings; the author wanted to show that such exaggerations can impede one’s functioning in society. Catherine paid a heavy price for these wild imaginations when Henry discovered that she thought that someone has murdered his father. Some critics summarise this depiction through the following summary
“Again and again we see the kind of malediction novels confer on Catherine, teaching her to talk in inflated and stilted clichés, training her to expect impossibly villainous or virtuous behaviour from people whose motives are more complex than she suspects, binding her to the mundane selfishness of her contemporaries” (Gilber and Gubar, 2000, 132).
Although Austen satirises gothic novels through Catherine’s extreme indulgences, one must realise that the main character still sensed the pretentiousness of the people around her. She was right about questioning General Tilney’s character, because he turned out to be mean spirited and elitist. The author of the book wanted to show that gothic elements can skew one’s reality, but may lead to unconscious revelations about such people.
As such, Austen did not completely write-off gothic fiction. She wanted to satirise its flaws, but also acknowledge that it did possess some insights. The writer defied conventions of gothic novels by starting with a naive character, and then developed and nurtured her to the woman that she becomes at the end of the novel.
We will write a custom Essay on Jane Austen and Convention of the Gothic specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In most gothic works, the heroines of the narrations are highly perceptive. They are well experienced in the world, and know what to expect from people. These are all qualities that Catherine lacks at the beginning of the book (St.Clair 2004).
Catherine is not the only character in the novel to defy conventional gothic depictions: General Tilney also signifies this indifference to the status quo. At the time when Austen wrote her novel, most gothic novels had villains that were forceful, violent or even murderous. However, Northanger Abbey has none of this; in fact, the villain does not seem to possess the typical traits of such a character (Sadlier, 1944). Nonetheless, Austen depicts his undesirability through his intentions and interests.
The General is overly concerned about Catherine’s wealth regardless of her admirable qualities as a person. A woman’s social status is so important to the ‘villain’ that he is willing to ruin his relationship with his son for it. Henry Tilney chooses to defy his father rather than abide by his dictatorial rules. One can perceive that Jane Austen wanted to speak out against the ills of male patriarchy in her society (Varma 1966).
She, therefore, preferred to use this role in order to advance her themes rather than to advance her plot, unlike the case is in eighteenth century gothic literature. Perhaps even the treatment of General Tilney as an antagonist is misguided in this analysis. He comes off as a man who cares too much about money and reality. The General is so concerned about maintaining his status that he meddles into the affairs of his children. Austen opted to mock gothic books by having a character that takes the shape of villain, but is not really one.
Sometimes gothic pieces focused on man’s weaknesses and his inability to control his surrounding. Rarely did they caricature society’s flaws (Levine 1999). Northanger Abbey was the exact opposite of this propensity. It satirises society’s obsessions with power and wealth through its plot as well as its characters. One such individual was Isabella who claims to care for nothing more than love.
However, she gets very frustrated at her fiancée when she realises that he is not as wealthy as she had presumed. She causes James great anguish when he realises that she was flirting with another man. Additionally, General Tilney is quite hospitable to Catherine when he thinks that she comes from a wealthy family. However, he kicks her out when John tells him otherwise.
These people were all depictions of what society can become when it places too much emphasis on wealth. Jane Austen challenges conventions of gothic literature by going in this direction. One should note that most females in the late eighteenth century had minimal economic or social options. Writing was one of the few professions that individuals could use in order to earn a decent living (Kate 1993).
They were not politicians or property owners, but they had an opinion and needed to express it somewhere (Todd 1980). The author of the novel chose to mock societal practices through the use of a common literary genre, that is: the gothic novel. While the main character of the book is unattractive, Isabella is beautiful and charming.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Jane Austen and Convention of the Gothic by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The author used conventional qualities of protagonists in gothic literature to satirise Isabella’s obsession with material wealth (Monaghan 1981). This choice in character traits may seem unintentional, but it reaffirms the fact that the book is indeed a parody of gothic work.
In order to mock certain elements of fiction, some authors may choose to mirror the stylistic devices of their parodied work in order to achieve this objective (Dentith 2000). Likewise, Jane Austen does the same thing with her novel. She integrates gothic elements in her piece in a manner that satirizes them rather than validates them. Most gothic novels have an air of mystery about them.
They tend to cause suspense by leaving out vital pieces of information. Readers often read on in order to discover what will happen to the main character. Austen uses mystery in her novel as well, but this achieves different objectives. For instance at some point, Henry describes Abbey exaggeratedly to Catherine. Of course she realises that Henry is fooling around.
However when she finds a manuscript, she presumes that she can uncover some proof about her suspicions. However, darkness engulfs her and she hears “receding footsteps… and the closing of a distant door” (Austen, 155). She cannot validate the significance of this piece of paper until morning. When morning comes, she soon appreciates that it was nothing but a laundry list.
The passage about the dark room may fill a reader with suspense. Nonetheless, when one discovers the reason behind her fear, one realises that there was no mystery behind it. Jane Austin employs gothic tactics to satirise the genre by showing that all the mystery was created in the mind of the protagonist.
Most gothic novels often focus on oppressed individuals. These situations may elevate readers’ perceptions of the main characters after they triumph over their adversaries. Usually, such heroines will scream and act in terror. Sometimes them may cry and faint over an issue. Others may appear overly emotional or too sentimental (Mandal 1999). It is through their sorrow and anger that the readers get to connect with them.
In Northanger Abbey, Jane Austen also uses sentimentality as a trait, but only as a mechanism to defy the oppressed-heroine stereotype. In one instance Catherine seems to have lost it all; her potential father in law sends her out of his house. It is almost as if her whole world has been shattered, although John Thorpe was partly to blame for this occurrence.
Regardless of these circumstances, the reader does not necessarily think of Catherine as a damsel in distress. Furthermore, things change for the better when Henry pays her a visit in her hometown (ART 2008. General Tinley eventually consents to the marriage, so she ceases to be the oppressed victim. In another scenario, the death of Mrs. Tilney preoccupies Catherine’s mind when she suspects that her husband killed her.
However, little proof exists for her to validate this statement. She seems deeply disturbed by these issues, and one may even assume that she is living in a dangerous place. Later on, she realises that there was nothing to these suspicions. “The absurdity of her curiosity and her fears… could they ever be forgotten? She hated herself more than she could express” (Austen 1817, p.183). Austen mocks this aspect of victimisation in gothic literature by dismissing off ‘dangerous situations’ as misguided thoughts or delusions.
Conclusion Jane Austen satirises gothic literature by using unconventional characters in her novel. The protagonist is not a damsel in distress, unattractive or even talented, yet one cannot miss these qualities in the gothic genre. Additionally, the villain does not fit conventional gothic depictions because he commits no explicit wicked acts.
The author also uses her characters to mock society’s obsession with wealth; an uncommon trait in gothic work. Even the stylistic devices she borrows from the latter genre are designed to dismiss such works as remote from reality.
References ART, 2008, ‘Northanger Abbey and Persuasion’, Quarterly Review, vol. 24 no. 3, pp. 48.
Austen, J, 1817, Northanger Abbey, John Murray, London.
Dentith, S, 2000, Parody, Routledge, London.
Technical Communication Summary Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Social exchange theory as an example of principle of interpersonal communication, proposes that people tend to weigh relationships by putting into account the ratio of their returns to that of their expenses. Communication within an organisation has been used by writers to draw conclusions of the theory for places of work. Insightful assumptions can be drawn through the application of this theory to work relationships.
Some relationships have to do deal with status benefits, self-esteem, or satisfaction in communication. Costly relationships have higher chances of dissipation over time, while worthwhile ones are probably more enduring. If there is a need to enhance beneficial relationships in the work place, one has to consider ways that can intensify the perceived benefits they carry along.
There is an implication of social exchange theory that if effective relationships are to be established and maintained, rewards have to be used in those situations. Similarly, continuity in relationships of a communication environment can be achieved through the development of superior communication skills.
Interpersonal communication’s research puts into consideration the relationship maintenance factors. These researches have concluded on some elements that are deemed important. They include assurance giving, positive communication, networking and openness.
Skills for managing interpersonal communication range from those having an influence on communication climate to those creating awareness of individual communication approach. Message is an element that has been emphasised most by scholars as compared to other elements.
Research has shown that simply speaking the right words is not enough. Communication climate is a contextual element referring to those conditions present at the immediate communication setting. This element influences the feeling of acceptance and other emotions concerning relationship. The following formula is helpful in understanding it: Communication = Content Relationship.
Exchange of hurtful messages creates difficulties in building healthy communication climate. Supportiveness, non evaluative communication, spontaneity and openness are conditions essential for building a communication climate. Supportiveness entails encouraging, loyal and considerate communication. Non evaluative communication involves constructive criticism that aims at understanding first before judging.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Immediate evaluation and critique smothers interpersonal communication faster than any other factor. In addition to this, communicating with descriptions and observations of behaviours, rather than personal interpretations are useful for the success of interpersonal communication. Examples of non evaluative communications include communicating mostly feelings, communicating mostly observations and communicating more behaviours than observations.
The use of spontaneous rather than rehearsed messages is another factor which enhances positive communication climate. Spontaneity occurs when one uses a lively tone of voice, makes eye contact, smiles and takes turns with the communication partner. Turn taking involves moving into new conversational topics of relevance to others instead of fixing individual favorite topics. Listening carefully and then speaking using less ‘canned’ language enhance interpersonal communication skills.
Being open minded and receptive to innovation have greater contributions towards successful communication climate. Maintenance of openness and avoidance of dogmatism can be eliminated using the so called ‘cushion statements’ which helps in making dialogues more sensitive. However, cushioning of statements do not imply that one cannot say what he/she intends rather than being aware of peoples’ comfort levels when agreeing or disagreeing with them.
Interpersonal communication concerns two areas of awareness: self awareness and awareness of others. Areas of awareness are either known or unknown to other people and comprises of four quadrants of the model.
The North Haven Fire Department Report online essay help
Introduction The North Haven town is located ten miles from Yale University and New Haven and ten miles from Long Island Sound in Connecticut, United States of America. It is about seventy six miles from New York City. This town has an estimated area of about twenty one square miles whereby almost twenty square miles consist of land while the rest is covered by water. According to the census report of 2005 it was estimated that The North Haven town had a population of twenty three thousand nine hundred and eight people.
This town is home to various learning institutions like Quinnipiac University graduate colleges and schools and other New Haven based learning institutions. It derives a lot of fame through its developed infrastructure with a huge manufacturing and retail businesses employing about twelve thousand six hundred and forty people. This report aims at outlining various aspects in the structure and functioning of The North Haven Fire Department which plays a major role in rescue and emergency services.
The history of The North Haven Fire Department dates back to more than forty years ago when it was a constituent of a SAFER donation from the Federal Emergency Management Agency. However, in 2009/2010 there were major changes in this department and it was allowed to develop its fire fighting abilities through investing in career development of its workers.
This plan was successful courtesy of the grants obtained from the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the immense support from the community during a budget referendum to put the grant into consideration (The Library Director). This played an important role of ensuring there were enough resources to train their staff as far as fire fighting was concerned. The North Haven Fire Department consists of thirty four employees.
These employees are categorized as administrators who comprise of one Fire Chief, Deputy Fire Chief and four Lieutenants who also act as shift controllers. The other group of workers is referred to as the fire fighters and it consists of twenty eight workers. This department is further aided by other volunteer companies that include Montowese, West Ridge and Northeast companies that are allowed to have a maximum of thirty five workers.
These volunteer companies consists of a Captain, two Lieutenants and two Foremen while the Fire Police Division are supervised by Police Lieutenants assigned to each company and are answerable to the Chief of the Department. This Department has an elaborate system that enables all their plans to be carried out effectively (The Library Director). The management does not solely perform the administrative roles but rather allocates some of these duties to the managers of volunteer companies.
Through this division of labor it becomes very easy to offer quality fire fighting services to the residents of The New Haven town in terms of public awareness on fire fighting equipments and the steps to be taken in the event that there is a fire outbreak. Planning is an essential element in the process of delivering quality services to the people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The office of the Fire Marshal has an elaborate plan that involves new activities and reviewing the existing practices. These activities include routine inspections of fire fighting equipments in homes, institutions and all other areas that have been considered to be risky in the event of fire breakouts.
All new and renovated buildings are visited to ensure they conform to the standards stipulated by the CT Fire Safety Code. Training of fire fighters is a mandatory practice that all disaster management organizations must adhere to in order to ensure the fire fighters and the victims are safe during rescue operations while ensuring there is no damage to property.
It is a requirement that all career and volunteer members of The North Haven Fire Department attain a minimum of Firefighter 1 level in order to handle medical emergencies and respond effectively to situations that require systematic rescue procedures.
There are daily training sessions by the career fire fighters using a time table prepared by the chief’s office and supervised by officers commanding these sections. In the volunteer companies training is done every week to ensure all fire fighters have the required skills and to inform them on how various equipments are used.
There are indoor sessions that offer basic and technical knowledge to all fire fighters to enable them develop and sharpen their field skills in order to have a wider knowledge on how to approach various disasters in the town. There were certification classes organized by the department to build on the skills of staff members in fire fighter 1 and 2 curriculums.
In addition, four members received higher training on Hazardous Material Technician Level (HMTL) to ensure they have skills that will enable them handle disasters in the Haz-Mat team levels (The Library Director).
It is very important that all fire fighters undergo regular training in order to build on their skills with regard to the inevitable changes that occur as a result of modernization. In addition, it is important for fire fighters to do routine exercises to ensure they remind themselves of the basic rules and guidelines that ensure effective rescue operations are conducted in the event of disasters.
We will write a custom Report on The North Haven Fire Department specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fire fighting and disaster management is a comprehensive activity that involves the use of physical, biological and mental assets of the victims and rescuers. It should be noted that the fire fighter’s safety is as important as the victim’s safety and without efficient equipments both of them will be subjected to great risks.
However, The North Haven Fire Department boasts of an elaborate network of apparatus that enable its workers perform their duties effectively (The Library Director). These equipments consist of a ladder truck, seven pumping engines, two rescue trucks and two vehicles that carry command functions.
There are other equipments for special cases like a boat for rescuing victims stranded in rivers and ponds and a gator for off road cases. Apart from performing rescue and evacuation services to the public The North Haven Fire Department offers public education on safety in schools, homes, companies and business premises through issuing educational brochures on safety topics.
The fire fighting department carries out periodic surveys on security matters in schools, homes and companies to ensure no one is exposed to any risk. In addition, they also help in supplying smoke detectors to homes that had faulty ones or none at all. This was made possible during one of the department’s campaign dubbed North Haven Cares that saw one thousand three hundred and forty three smoke detectors distributed in various homes that had faulty ones or none at all.
Conclusion The North Haven Fire Department is one of the largest successful enterprises in the United States due to their ability to handle various forms of disasters that citizens are exposed to. These disasters range from fire outbreaks to drowning on swimming pools. Effective rescue operations are determined by the level of training of rescue workers, equipments used and public knowledge regarding essential safety measures at personal and institutional levels.
Works Cited The Library Director. The North Haven Fire Department: The North Haven Town, May 2001. Web.
Apple Inc and IPhones 4 Market Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Apple Inc. is one company that for a long time has dominated smartphone market due to its exemplary technology and innovation. The company has built a formidable reputation that its competitors find virtually impossible to dislodge or ignore.
Apple Inc., spearheaded by dedicated management team, has remained keen to innovation and technological development, which are the bedrock of the company’s success. Success for Apple Inc. has largely come from a combination of brand development and loyalty, innovative products, superb marketing strategies, and exemplary public relations strategies.
Recently, the company launched the innovative iPhones 4 products, which will be the basis of this study analysis. It is perceived that exemplary performance of this product in the market depends on identifying the right marketing strategies through carrying out adequate market analysis.
Company Overview Apple Inc. was established in 1977 by three friends – Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne. Since its establishment, Apple Inc. has established itself in the market as a company that is involved in the design and production of innovative personal computer (PC) products and also developing its own unique operating systems to run its designs of Mac desktops and laptops (Porter and Norton 2009, p.335).
In addition, Apple Inc. boasts of numerous innovative products and services it has introduced in the market over the years. For example, some of popular products innovated by the company include: Mac computers, iPhones, iPod, Apple TV, Xserve, consumer and professional software applications, the Mac OS X and iOS operating systems (Reuters, 2011).
Other products and services include third-party digital content such as iTunes stores, and many more accessories, service and support offerings, all of which are geared towards satisfying identified market niche (Reuters, 2011). At the same time, Apple Inc. employs different market methods to dispose its products and services.
The most notable ones include retail stores, online stores, direct sales, third-party network carriers, wholesalers, retailers, and value-added resellers (Reuters, 2011). The market niche for the company’s products is diverse, but the most identified ones include individual consumers, small and medium sized companies, education fraternity, enterprise organizations, government, and creative markets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apple Inc.’s market segmentation has concentrated largely in five market regions that include America, Europe, Japan, Asia-Pacific, and Retail (Reuters, 2011). American market serves both North and South American markets, while the Europe market extends its network among Europe countries, Middle East, and Africa regions.
On the other hand, Asia-Pacific markets cater for all Asian countries including Australia and New Zealand, but exclude Japan, while the Retail market has big concentration in United States of America and selected international markets. Financial performance of the company remains healthy, and this can be attributed to increasing sales of iPhones units.
Since 2007, net income for the company has been on upward trend and by the end of 2010’s fourth quarter, the company posted improved revenues of $28.27 billion with net profit of 6.62 billion (Apple 2011).
Market Analysis for iPhone 4 In 2010, Apple Inc designed yet another innovative product in the market (iPhone 4) which immediately became a market ‘hit’, recording massive sales and enquiries. Since the introduction of the first iPhone 4 products, Apple Inc. has continued to improve the product and just a few weeks ago, the company introduced to the market, an improved version of iPhone 4 known as iPhone 4S (Gallagher, 2011).
Within three days after being introduced in the market, iPhone 4S sold 4 million units, surpassing records set by other devices (Gallagher, 2011).
PEST Analysis Political
China’s political climate remains conducive for local and international business activities. The country enjoys political stability where also, government has been initiating policies that tend to open up the country’s market for outside world, while protecting the home firms through balanced regulation of business activities and contracting requirements for foreign firms (Asian Market Research, 2003).
China is a growing economy where social classes are differentiated by economic position. Young people and students tend to have fewer resources to purchase products or satisfy their consumption needs.
We will write a custom Report on Apple Inc and IPhones 4 Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, they tend to operate on limited budgets while making purchases for smartphone products. Therefore, they tend to buy products that their budget constraints can afford, yet possessing the desired features and ‘smartness’.
China’s market is composed of different demographics that differ in consumption characteristics. With a population of over a billion people, China’s smartphone market remains dominated by young people and students who embrace latest technology at faster rate than older people do. However, the young population is limited by financial constraints in their consumption needs of smartphone products.
Technology remains the most avenue companies continue to battle especially as taste among different demographics tend to shift regularly and embrace technologically enhanced products. Apple can capitalize on its exemplary technological know-how to respond to consumer needs of Asian market.
Competitive Analysis for iPhone 4 Competitive market leverage emanates from market segmentation strategies, and this can be possible with Asian market (Sigal, 2010). Different market competitive frameworks can be used to assess Apple’s potential and suitability of penetrating the Asian market (China), which is one of the developing economies; this is in addition to how well the company can introduce the iPhone 4 products in this market.
Porter’s Five-force Model In 1980, Michael Porter observed that the profitability potential of an industry depends on five competitive factors, which possess the ability to influence return on investment of any given company (Henry, 2008).
The five competitive factors, popularly known as Porter’s five-force model include threat of new entrants, rivalry among competitors, threat of substitutes products, bargaining power of buyers, and bargaining power of suppliers (Henry 2008).
Threats of new entrants
At the moment, the smartphone market is gradually becoming complicated, given the increasing number of competitors such as Nokia and Samsung. This shows that as potential continue to grow in the sector and entrants’ barriers become loose, it is likely that in near future, there will be flood of new entrants into the market, especially in potential markets like Asia.
Rivalry among competitors
Currently, Nokia has established itself in the Asian market more strongly, given its concentration in low-end products; this endeavors the company to many consumers. Other smaller competitors are coming up, as market barriers reduce, and this is likely to complicate the market environment even further for Apple Inc.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Apple Inc and IPhones 4 Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Threat of substitutes products
Asian market, and specifically China, has a number of players producing market moving smartphone products. For instance, Nokia has the Nokia Oyj; Google Inc has numerous Androids, while Samsung also market numerous smartphone products. Therefore, substitutes to Apple’s iPhones are likely to be more as numerous competitors join the market.
Bargaining power of buyers
The smartphone market in China is highly competitive where many players offer a wide range of smartphone products to different consumer groups. As a result of many providers, consumers have become ‘price shoppers’, as they look for the best products at reduced price. This has increased consumer bargaining power, especially as constraints on the budget affect consumption needs of many consumers.
Bargaining power of suppliers
As competition increases and many players enter Asian market, there is tendency for competition among suppliers to source contract from various players (Apple, n.d). This aspect has led to reduced bargaining power of many suppliers in smartphone market, especially with tendency of many companies to reduce costs of operations and production.
Behavioral motivation for consumer purchase behavior Consumer culture
China’s culture abhors the concept of ‘face’, which is integral in the society. As a result, status consciousness is important to majority of Chinese. Among consumers, achieving greater status and prestige in the society is exhibited in the type of gadget can has and given the p[premium nature of iPhone products, majority of consumers have expressed desire and drive to purchase iPhones products not only for their usefulness, but also for the status it accord the user (Panzarino, 2011).
Consumer lifestyles and psychographics
China’s market for smartphone products is largely concentrated among young people and students who, given their trend, flashy and dot.com lifestyle tend to exhibit consumption behaviors for ‘smart’ products that propel their lifestyle. Products that appeal, convenient in nature, perform multiple functions, and still provide the user with fame are most preferred in China’s market (Panzarino, 2011).
Attitude plays great role in consumption behaviors of many people and this is evident in China’s market. For a long time now, China’s social life is intertwined in their consumption behaviors (Chan 2011). A product with negative social approving is likely to get backlash in the market.
Social approving for products emanate from the capacity of the product to meet social, economic and cultural benchmarks of the larger China’s society. Smartphone products especially that integrate China social, economic, and cultural aspects tend to have greater acceptance given the overall improved consumer attitudes on such products (Panzarino 2011).
Emotional involvement, expressiveness and intelligence
Asian markets are characterized by consumer attaching great emotions to products they use. The products become part of the consumer emotion expressiveness. Majority of Chinese students and young people can be described to have great emotion involvement, especially on products that meet their needs and expectations.
Smartphone products are used for educational purposes, social life, and all life activities, hence they have become part of emotion expression on part of consumers.
Recommended marketing mix for iPhone 4 Product
Apple Inc valued products exhibit innovative technologies that integrate consumer needs and wants. Apple’s products are preferred and they have dominated the market, given their ability to remain flexible, unique, and technologically accepted to different demographics.
Therefore, to appeal to China’s market that remains front for competitor battle, this will require Apple Inc to design iPhone 4 products that have faster chip, possess higher resolution camera and possess software capabilities to meet customer needs as compared to competitors. In addition, the products should remain innovative, compatibility, easy-of-use, upgradeable and quality in nature (Maxwell, Lee, Suen,
Geology of Palouse Falls Exploratory Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Structures and interesting landforms visible on the geologic map
Geologic History of the Palouse Falls
Introduction The Palouse Falls is found southeast of Washington, US, on the Palouse River as it enters Snake River. Although a series of falls were formed along the river, the Palouse Falls is today the only one surviving, dropping water through a distance of an estimated 200 feet.
The waterfall is a breathtaking site visited by thousands of people annually. The Palouse Falls is thought to have been formed as a result of the heavy flooding which occurred upstream when the glacial Lake Missoula burst, releasing massive volumes of ice and glacier.
The flood material cut long and deep channels, called coulees, that formed 3 waterfalls at the confluence of the Snake River and the Palouse River. With each flooding, the waterfalls moved upstream until the present day structures were formed.
Palouse Falls contains many different types of rocks that were formed from glacial floods during the ice age era just before the Palouse River entered the Snake River. The rocks, of which basalt is the most common, are mostly metamorphic and were formed as a result of the cooling of floodwaters and ice.
These rocks were formed from the floodwaters from Lake Missoula that flowed across eastern Washington during the Pleistocene era (Alt 23). The basalt rocks are estimated to be around 15,000 years old.
Structures and interesting landforms visible on the geologic map Palouse River was formed as a result of glacial floods that originated from the glacial Lake Missoula, however, little evidence is left of this massive activity of which the most visible is the Palouse Falls. Today, the water has eroded the walls of the rocks, exposing layers of basalt rocks.
The basalt is formed of layers from flows at various periods, some of which are nearly 100 feet thick. Another structure is the plunge pool. The plunge pool is formed as the dropping water erodes the rock below and the side of the canyon where it originates, this continuous abrasion and erosion causes the base of the waterfall to move backwards as seen in the Palouse Falls base (Alt 12).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This eventually causes the rocks in the upper parts of the waterfall to fall off, consequently making the whole waterfall to move upstream. Various structures can be seen on the rocks surrounding the Palouse Falls that explain its geology, including plunge pools, kolk created potholes, hanging coulees and rock benches. These structures draw thousands of visitors to the park area.
Surrounding the Palouse River are the Palouse Hills that were made out of fine particles deposited by winds during the last phase of the Pleistocene era. Outcrops of basalt rocks are also visible in the surrounding area. These rocks are volcanic and reflect the huge eruptions that occurred in the area during the Miocene period.
These eruptions occurred in present-day central Washington and resulted in the release of large volumes of lava to the surface. From the different layers of these rocks, geologists have concluded that the eruptions and subsequent laval flows occurred more than once (Bacon 61).
The basalt rocks have turned orange (clay colored) due to weathering processes that occur when the rocks are exposed to weathering agents such as water and air.
The size of the ‘bowl’ into which the Palouse Falls drops its water is many times larger than the river itself and this suggests that a force larger than the river carved it out. Geologist studies have determined that this bowl was created by huge outburst flooding of the glacial Lake Missoula as massive ice volumes from the lake moved along (Carson para. 2).
The series of floods were at first triggered when glaciers from the north advanced, or the ice broke due to its weight, letting the glacial lake to burst out, pushing everything on its way downstream. The moving ice and debris cut across the land creating long and deep coulees. These structures dot the area around the Palouse Falls.
Geologic History of the Palouse Falls The area around eastern Washington, in which the Palouse Falls is found, was shaped by two major events in history. First was an enormous basaltic lava flow that occurred around 15 million years ago followed by massive flooding due to glacier outbursts around the area during the ice age (15,000 years ago).
We will write a custom Essay on Geology of Palouse Falls specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This area is bound to the east by the Rocky Mountains, the south by the Basin and Range Province, and the west by the Cascades. The main tectonic structure in this area is the north-west-skewing Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL) that is partially a strike-slip fault and aligns with a number of anticlines found in the Yakima fold belt (Carson para. 7).
Between the Columbia River and the Blue Mountains, the OWL can be seen in form of a 200m high escarpment that marks out the Wallula fault zone; a chain of sharp pointed faults that show evidence of both dip-slip and strike-slip movements (Carson para. 7).
Another fault line, the Hite fault, crosses the OWL at almost 90 degrees southeast of Walla Walla, and disappears on the Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River. An earthquake of magnitude 6.0 was recorded in the area on July 15, 1936 (Bacon 68).
Works Cited Alt, David. Glacial Lake Missoula and its Humongous Floods, Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press, 2001. Print.
Bacon, Charles R. “Eruptive history of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake caldera, Cascade Range, U S A.”, J Volc Geotherm Res, 18 (1983): 57-116.
Carson, Bob 2012, General Geology of Southeastern Washington. March 21, 2012.
Online gaming and behavior Research Paper college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Over the last three decades, technology has drastically changed and so has technology-based games. The rapid increase in popularity has been due to development of the internet infrastructure, which can now support online games that can be accessed from any geographical location.
As a result, the effects of computer games can be seen in almost all aspects of today’s lifestyle, from politics, music and Hollywood.
Body Technology’s influence on the gaming community has continued to grow at an alarming rate and with its increase in popularity there have been social and psychological problems that have resulted.
Research shows that online gaming activities are one of the most sought after form of lifestyle by kids and young adults, a behavior that is carried along into their adult life. Though the games are popular across all genders, the male gender is one that is affected by the games more than the female gender.
Research has shown that due to their nature, online games have an impact on the human brain as they spend most of their times indulging in the game rather than indulging in outdoor activities which are more interactive.
The addictive nature of the games can be attributed to the nature of the game that results in the player being indulged in mindless amusement, reduced social interaction, sexism and several antisocial behaviors (Wan
Dajoji Inc.’s Obsession with Functionality has a New Design; Organic Cotton Chef’s Jackets Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Vancouver based Dajoji Inc. has unveiled a new design of chef jackets made of organic cotton, with the aim of redefining sustainability in restaurant kitchens. Dajoji Chef Jackets brings eco-fashion awareness on kitchen apparel. Dajoji Chef Jackets are also stylish and as well as having enhanced functionality to improve the chef’s performance in the kitchen.
Vancouver, BC, March 11, 2011— It is increasingly becoming a common occurrence for restaurants to serve menus not laced with pesticides or antibiotics. However, such sensibilities are not extended to the type of apparel worn by chefs.
As a result Dajoji Inc. aims to extend the same eco-friendly sensibilities to chef’s apparel. Cotton grown under conventional methods involves use of hazardous pesticides. Thus, Dajoji Inc., a Vancouver-based company, in collaboration with Texas Organic Cotton Farmers Cooperative, designs stylish organic chef jackets from organic cotton in efforts to extend these sensibilities to the chef’s apparel.
According to Dajoji Inc. founder Anthony Nicalo “sustainability is important, but not the driving force behind Dajoji’s coats”. Nicalo wonders whether it is possible to see a “chef meticulously plating her latest 100-Mile Diet creation wearing something akin to a paper sack” (Robinson par 4).
This underlines Nicalo’s motivation to create jackets designed on functionality rather than on sustainability. Such a motivation emanates from the need to design chef jackets that enable chefs to easily operate in fast-paced environment that is characteristic of a professional kitchen.
Nicalo’s creations are informed by his first hand experienced in a fast paced kitchen. Having worked 14 hour a in a busy Chicago restaurant, Nicalo grew tired of the conventional jackets; they were uncomfortable and made the wearer feel boxed, thus the desire to design organic jackets that also improves performance.
Having relocated to Vancouver, Nicalo found his match in Leanne McElroy, an ethical fashion designer. Together, they collaborated in creating organic cotton chef jackets, designed to enhance movement; the jackets had “an athletic fit, a bit of style and lots of comfort” (Robinson par 6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dajoji’s ties with Vancouver go beyond collaboration with Elroy Apparel; Dajoji Inc. has established ties with other niche market fashion labels such as lululemon athletica.
Dajoji Inc. adds value to its products through the expertise of experienced partners such as Jessica Robinson. Robinson, a yoga expert, and brings in keenness and attention to detail and explains; “I love food and wine, which is how I met Anthony, but I’d never thought of crossing that with my love of, and education in, fashion. Kitchen apparel and chef coats in particular are truly in need of change and innovation,” (Robinson par 9).
Dajoji’s eco-fashion approach is not merely limited to the fabric, but extends to packaging and production. Dajoji’s eco-fashion mindset extends to, thanks to Jessica Robinson’s obsession with details, the finest particulars such as buttons on the men’s jackets.
These are developed from eco-friendly materials such as tagua nuts, naturally found in South American Rainforest. The use of these materials generates economic benefits in Ecuador by enabling local gatherers to engage in eco-friendly alternatives other than clearing rainforest.
Dajoji Inc. aims to make Dajoji Chef Jackets available for both male and female chefs. Thus, it is offering them at a discounted rate of $100CAD (Robinson par 13).
For further information on Dajoji Inc., Dajoji Chef Jackets or any other query contacts Jessica Robinson via www.coolcoats.com. All Dajoji products can be purchased through the website.
Works Cited Robinson, Jessica. Dajoji Chef Jackets Bring the Earth-to-Table Ingredients Approach to Kitchen Performance Apparel. 2009. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Dajoji Inc.’s Obsession with Functionality has a New Design; Organic Cotton Chef’s Jackets specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
University Assessment: Grice’s Cooperative Principle and the Turn-Taking Mechanism Essay essay help online free
Introduction The use of Grice’s cooperative principle and the turn-taking mechanisms are two of the most used and discussed principles of communication.
Generally speaking, the cooperative principle refers to a communication code used mostly in linguistics and social studies to refer to a certain set of principles (maxims) set by Paul Grice to help govern people such that they can communicate effectively(Grice, 1975).
According to Grice, communicators should strive to ensure that they contribute relevantly as is required of them during communication while intermittently making certain that during the exchanges in a given discourse or dialogue, the necessary purpose of communication is objectively achieved (Isenberg, 2008).
Even though Grice’s cooperative principle is usually viewed more as a prescriptive command, the main purpose of this principle is usually to describe the real nature of normal conversations and how people should behave when communicating with one another (Bach, 2005).
On the other hand, turn-taking simply refers to the instance in conversation whereby the communicators take turns when communicating. According to Isenberg (2008), turn-taking is a key aspect of any given social interaction as it creates a forum on which people get to express their opinions or ideas as is required during conversation.
However, in order for the turn-taking mechanism to take place in an objective manner, it is important that some principles are keyed in (Ladner, 2009). It is at this point that Grice’s cooperative principle, and other related principles, come in. A discussion of these two principles is done below with relevant explications being given from our sample dialogue.
In discussing Grice’s cooperative principle as well as the turn-taking mechanism, with special regards to the sample transcript conversation given; these two facets of language and communication will be looked at differently, at first.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Then once their intricacies have been individually outlined, a rejoinder will be given analyzing both of them and how they relevantly contribute to proper communication—with regards to our sample case.
Grice’s Cooperative Principle
Preliminarily, it is elemental to state that Grice’s Cooperative Principle is usually divided into four maxims namely: the Maxim of Quality, the Maxim of Quantity, the Maxim of Relevance and the Maxim of Manner (Grice, 1975).
In essence, all these maxims are typified variedly in conversations depending on the communicators and the nature of their communication.
However, as a standard rule, all these maxims primarily function to explain the important link between utterances in conversations and what people get to understand from them. In the sample transcript conversation, all these maxims play out variably—as is detailed below.
To begin with, the maxim of quality stresses on the value of truthfulness in any given communication (Grice, 1975). According to Grice, communicators should strive to be as truthful as possible and not just saying something for the sake of conversation even when we do not have sufficient evidence to back that which we say.
In the sample conversation between Lori and Michael, this maxim is repeatedly exemplified. For example, when Lori asks Michael if he’s a dog person, Lori says yes and when Lori goes ahead to probe further whether or not Michael is saying the truth; Michael says “Absolutely, 100% confirmed, dog person.
You bet.” This response goes a long way in asserting the fact that Michael is a dog person. And as we later proceed, this fact is ascertained through the various instances that Michael candidly talks of his experiences as a “dog-person.”
We will write a custom Essay on University Assessment: Grice’s Cooperative Principle and the Turn-Taking Mechanism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If Michael had lied about being a dog person, then the rest of the conversation would have been as good as nothing since there would be no objectivity in the conversation which, apparently, centralizes on the dog topic.
Based on the above example, it can therefore be said that the maxim of quality is a crucial part of any given conversation and, if objectivity is to be enhanced in any conversation, the communicators should strive to be as truthful as possible.
The second maxim, the maxim of quantity, is more-or-less similar and equally important as the maxim of quality. The variation here, however, is that the maxim of quantity stresses on the amount (quantity) of information.
To this regard, Grice says that communicators should make sure that their contributions in conversations are informative and insightful (Grice, 1975)). However, Grice warns that we should not be carried away to the extent that we give more information than is required of us just in the same way we should avoid not giving enough information (Bach, 2005).
In the sample case, the maxim of quantity is duly explicated both positively and negatively. On the positive side, when Lori asks Michael if he owns a dog, Michael says that “Yes, I have. Yes, I had — let me see, this would be about 10 years ago. I had my own doggy; I had a Norwegian Elk Hound.”
This response not only answers Lori in a candid manner but it also gives useful information about when Michael had the dog as well as the type of dog. On the negative side, when Lori asks the question “OK! Do you have a law in England or in your city that you have to pick up the dog poo when you’re walking your dog?”, Michael’s response seems too wordy and bit overstretched even to areas that were not in Lori’s question.
If the intended purpose of the conversation is to be achieved, it is inherently unavoidable that the communicators tailor their words in a way that only useful information is given while unnecessary verbosity and conversation fillers are avoided.
The third maxim, the maxim of relevance, just like the name suggests, stresses on communicators communicating relevantly using relevant words and expression.
Not sure if you can write a paper on University Assessment: Grice’s Cooperative Principle and the Turn-Taking Mechanism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Regarding this maxim, Grice emphasizes that the words and expressions that we use during communication should be relevant to the purpose and objective of our conversations. To a great extent, the maxim of relevance heavily relies on the maxim of quality and quantity (Grice, 1975).
Apart from the aforementioned instance when Michael seemed to have overstretched his answer, the conversation between Lori and Michael hugely emphasized on issues relevant to what they were talking about.
This, however, would have not been possible had the maxims of quality and quantity not been keyed in their conversation—with the elements of truth and quantity of information being emphasized.
The fourth maxim, the maxim of manner lays emphasis on the importance of clarity when communicating. Here, Grice stipulates that, during a conversation, the communicators should avoid things like ambiguity, prolixity and obscurity of expression while striving to be orderly and candid with their words and expressions.
In order to do this (ensure clarity in a conversation), it is advisable that simple and easily understandable words are used.
In the conversation between Lori and Michael, most of the words used were relatively simple and straight-to-the-point thus making it easy to understand what was being said.
Only in the instance where Michael mentions the 1970’s without any substantiation or any follow-up answers concerning what happened then, do we find his words somewhat far-fetched and kind of ambiguous.
Based on the differences in languages, rules of communication and manner of communication, among many other factors; turn-taking comes in a myriad of ways—as was earlier glimpsed. Nonetheless, there are some basic principles that are usually constant for most instances of turn-taking.
For example, according to Isenberg (2008), we can easily recognize the points in which people shift turns in a conversation through pointers such as pauses, speaker change, question intonation and sentence intonation.
In prescribed excerpts, however, it is normally much easier to pin-point the instances of turn-taking since names, letters or numbers are used to differentiate the people involved in the conversation (Miller, 1999). The above pointers outlined by Isenberg can be identified in the conversation between Lori and Michael—as shown below.
Lori: Would you consider yourself a dog person or a cat person?
Michael: Oh, I’m a dog person, I can tell you straight away.
In this example, the question intonation (signaled by the question mark at the end of Lori’s transcription) signals Michael that it is his turn to talk. And as we can verifiably see from the extract, Michael decides to respond soon after Lori’s question.
For turn-taking to go on smoothly, it is advisable that the communicators give each other time to respond adequately to questions. If this is not practiced, then the communication will be one-sided thus not giving a fully objective communication.
In the case of Michael and Lori, it is worth commending that the two managed to give each other time to talk, ask questions or even give responses. As a matter of fact, by the end of the conversation, Lori had talked 9 times while Michael talked 8 times.
Going by the observation that Lori is the one who initiated conversation, and it was therefore natural for him to end it; it can be said that turn-taking between them was duly balanced. This balance is furthered by the uniform sequence of LMLMLMLMLMLMLMLML where L represents the instances where Lori talked and M represents Michael talking.
In some instances of turn-taking, interjections can be used—especially in cases where one of the people involved in the conversation is going overboard with his/her talks. In turn taking, the interjections can be in form of a laugh or even interruption by chipping in with some words.
In the conversation between Michael and Lori, this form of turn-taking was not exhibited since the communicators were disciplined.
In finality, Wardhaugh (2006) states that most people who are close to one another tend to find it easy to easily take turns without the unnecessary long pauses or speaking at the same time thus creating distortions.
Other studies also indicate that good communicators can easily “read between the lines” of their fellow communicators and thus avoid any overlaps, distortions or miscommunications (Cameron, 2001).
Based on these studies, it can therefore be assumed that Michael and Lori are close friends (they know one another) or they are good communicators based on the smooth flow of their conversation.
Rejoinder of Grice’s Cooperative Principle and the Turn-Taking Mechanism with relevance to the Sample Conversation Transcript
As was earlier mentioned, Grice’s cooperative principle and the turn-taking mechanism function symbiotically towards the objective of good communication. If the cooperative principles outlined by Grice are followed; relevance, objectivity, clarity and truthfulness are enhanced thus making it easy relatively for the people communicating to take turns in the required way.
On the other hand, by following the key elements of turn-taking, communication pitfalls like ambiguity and lack of clarity are avoided thus sustaining the objectives of Grice’s cooperative principle.
This mutual relationship was hugely typified in the conversation between Michael and Lori. Nonetheless, if ultimate objectivity is to be enhanced, then it is recommendable that other facets and principles of language and good communication are keyed in the conversation (Cameron, 2001).
Conclusion In many important ways, Grice’s cooperative principle and the turn-taking mechanism have been repeatedly used in communication forums with many positive results found thereof by the communicators (Isenberg, 2008).
However, in looking at such aspects of conversations, it is important to keep in mind the fact that they are not all-perfect. For example, Keenan (1976) says that, just like most social behaviors, Grice’s Maxims are culturally dependent thus principles that apply in one place may not necessarily apply in another.
This, therefore, refutes the arguments that Grice’s cooperation principle can be applied universally. Maintaining a circumspectly keen eye on these principles is therefore paramount to avoid overstepping some language boundaries or misleading people during communication.
List of References Bach, K., 2005. The top 10 misconceptions about implicature. Web.
Cameron, D., 2001. Working with spoken discourse. London: Sage Publications.
Grice, P. 1975. “Logic and conversation”. In syntax and semantics, 3: Speech Acts, ed. P. Cole
Macroeconomic policy about population growth Report (Assessment) college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Comparison of population growth and economic growth
Factors that led to an increase in population growth
Introduction After the World War II, the new institutions such as World Bank and IMF were established so as to foster globalization. This in turn led to reduction of poverty, creation of industries, job creation, increase in economic growth, and improved living standards.
This resulted in an increase in population and reduction in infant mortality rate. In 1960’s and 1970’s countries started to embrace globalization which in turn gave rise to international trade (Mishkin, Giavazzi, Srinivasan,
Talent Management at Norvatis Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Section One: Summary of the Case Study Norvatis is a pharmaceutical company that came into existence in the late 1990’s. The company has made tremendous success in terms of increasing its global presence and increasing its profit margins. The company’s CEO, Daniel Vasella grapples with the idea of coming up with an elaborate system of performance appraisal and worker’s motivation.
Apparently, Norvatis has an organizational culture that supports hiring senior management executives outside the company’s human resource department. As such, Vasella articulates that there is the need for the company to identify employees and train them within the context of organization to enhance their managerial skills.
Although the CEO asserts that 78% of senior managers have ascended through the ranks of the company, Norvatis experiences a challenge regarding ‘pay for performance’ and other ways of motivating the employees. This implies a global talent management system.
At the outset, it is important to appreciate the role of any global talent management system. According to the CEO, the company’s ability to develop leadership skills among its employees is a critical objective of global management system. In fact, he asserts that the manager ought to establish an organizational culture by allowing the senior managers to have vast experience in the organization.
He asserts that the process of hiring managers outside the organization is expensive and it discourages a consistent organizational culture within the company. The CEO is also wary of the fact that the trained managers would need to reach to their places of work before other companies hire them and as such, it will become an expensive venture for Norvatis.
To avoid such an occurrence, it is important for the company to provide motivation for the employees. Indeed, he appreciates that money did not motivate the employees to the level that is necessary to retain them. He says that many employees do not work for money but instead seek to be a part of the company’s success.
To that end, the performance management system at Norvatis ought to reflect the organization’s values and incline the employees towards increased chances for success. Initially, Norvatis had a performance management system that it used to rate its employees in order to have a performance based method of motivation and compensation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company also insisted on the need to have a uniform standard of measuring performance across the world. Guided by such values as innovation and creativity, the company’s ratings would receive their respective performance ratings across the globe (Goldsmith
Is the international system moving away from US hegemonic power to a new system of international order? Essay argumentative essay help
Introduction Polarity in the context of international relations describes the way power is distributed within the international system (Walt 34). This can be either unipolarity, bipolarity, tripolarity and multipolarity, depending on the number of states between which the power is distributed (Raymond 102).
Uni-polar or hegemonic power refers to system where one state has the most cultural, economic and military influence (Brooks 103). The United States has dominated the world since 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed.
This paper seeks to establish whether the international system is moving away from the US hegemonic power (uni-polar system) to a new system of international order.
The paper will carry out an analysis on hegemonic states and state why this takes place or not, and if so, try to predict the new system that might emerge.
Hegemony In the last two decades witnessed assertion of hegemonic (uni-polar) power by the United States. This was mainly expressed through invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan (Cohen 60).
The unilateralism has continued to play through the endemic Global War on Terror (GWOT). The world has also witnessed globalization and the adoption of liberalism that is commonly referred to as “the American way” (Hurrell 133).
This paper will not ignore or underestimate the uni-polar role that the United States continues to play, mainly in global politics. However, times are changing fast and some analysts are concluding that a multi-polar world order is taking shape as more and more developing countries emerging as formidable economic powers (Koenig 10).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many others are emerging as important poles of growth to sustain the new world order. However, other analysts observe that the United States will still play a very important role in the coming years.
Two scenarios are developed in this paper, one is regarding the debate on the weakening of the US hegemonic powers and the notion that the US is still a global hegemonic power (Pape 27).
This paper will mainly focus on the assertion that the US is still a global uni-polar power. The first thing that should be done is an in-depth analysis of all definitions of the term “hegemony”.
For the purpose of this paper it’s important to give the various definitions of hegemony and give a concrete justification of its current importance in the academic arena.
The most accepted meaning of the term hegemony is “leadership, authority and influence, especially of one state in a group of states” (Walt 20).
From the international perspective, this role is often played by a country or state that has the military, economic and cultural capability to play this role, according to Cohen “the other states in the hegemonic system usually define their relationship with the hegemon” (28).
A realist theory can be used to describe a situation where one state dictates the conditions which other states are to follow in anarchical world order (Hurrell 45).
We will write a custom Essay on Is the international system moving away from US hegemonic power to a new system of international order? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another well known definition of hegemony was put forward by Gramsci. According to him, “hegemony is made up of a political power that flows from the intellectual and moral leadership, an authority as differentiated from that which comes from the armed forces” (Pape 36).
Analysis of the American hegemony through realist and neorealist theories This section will basically describe hegemony and its implications within the realist context. The section will further indicate how the United States still holds the global hegemonic power (Brooks 34). The argument will seek to show why the US still fits into this position.
One of the postulates of political realism asserts that the world is mostly ruled by anarchy (Walt 51). States cannot harmonize their interests since they naturally tend to conflict with each other.
In such cases however corporation is feasible, but only if it serves the interests of the different states in the power system. Indeed, politics is known to be a struggle for obtaining power and interest is described as a function of power (Pape 7).
In the realist perspective, the rationality of the competing power balance is usually enhancing the ability to take control over other states. The easiest approach is by attempting to amass resources.
Thus, the relations between this states is determined by their relative level of power which is determined by each individual state’s capabilities, both militarily and economic (Hurrell 89).
A classical realistic view puts emphasis on the use of sheer power to foster a vertical agenda. In this case, the military resources are the most important to ensure self security (Cohen 50).
Neo-realism, on the other hand, gives room to more horizontal agenda, as such, the economic issues are paid a greater attention and their resolution is of a prime importance (Brooks 15).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is the international system moving away from US hegemonic power to a new system of international order? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The typical features of realism can be used to determine the performance of unipolar states until the end of socialism in the eastern part of Europe (Brooks 18). Neoliberalism emerged as a better theoretical framework to explain the various dynamics of the United States hegemony.
From a theoretical point of view, the hegemon requires dominance over resources. These resources include raw materials, market dominance, as well as capital, in general, different benefits that are provided by the production of valued goods (Koenig 45).
As far as this definition is concerned, the United States is without doubt a uni-polar or a hegemon. The US do not however exert total control and thus the lexical meaning of the term ‘hegemon’ is not important in the classification of United States as a hegemon (Raymond 5).
Many people around the world perceive the United States to be a global power and are likely to continue doing so for a long time to come.
The US foreign policy stipulates the principles which are put in place to foster and maintain internal unity while carrying out the legitimized global hegemonic roles. In reference to the theory of hegemonic stability, the hegemonic state takes leadership for granted, with regard to particular issues (Brooks 8).
In this regard, if no hegemony exists then this may cause an escalation of the issue at hand that may in turn result into chaos. Therefore, according to Brooks, “the leadership that is provided by hegemonic states is very important in facilitating the achievement of collaboration among different states” (7).
With this features in mind, it’s important to recoup how the US has played a role in tackling the drug menace with Latin America, nuclear disarmament with Russia, oil revenues with Middle Eastern states, and high –tech with Asia (Koenig 20).
As mentioned earlier, there is a serious debate that seeks to point out that the US is weakening. Emerging economies such as China, India, South Korea, Russia and Brazil are said to play a very big role in the redistribution of global power.
These states are already playing some hegenomic role in their regions. It’s estimated that by the year 2025, this economies will collectively account for one half of global growth (Koenig 5).
As things are now, the US dollar is the most sought after international currency. The World Bank projects a multi-currency scenario in 2025 (Pape 29). This will be an extension, expected to reflect a multi-polar system of global power distribution.
China poses the greatest risk to the US hegemonic status. The US’s traditional allies in the euro zone have shrunk in the recent past and are expected to go further down in the coming years (Walt 7).
As things are now, these countries are in most cases advancing only on the economic front. This still have a long way to go to match with the United States’ ideals, democracy, liberty, self determination and national interest (Cohen 9)
It’s true that a new world order is in the offing, however, this will take place in the future but as things are now, the US is still a world hegemonic power.
Conclusion This paper sought to establish whether the international system is moving away from the US hegemonic power (uni-polar system) to a new system of international order. The paper also carried out an analysis and stated why this is taking place or not and if so, tried to predict the new system that will emerge.
The paper has established that as things are now, and in the near future, the US will still remain a hegemonic state. However, it’s true that the international system is shifting away from this and will lead to a multi polar system.
Works Cited Brooks, Stephen and William Wohlforth. “Hard times for soft balancing”, International Security 1 (2005):103. Print.
Cohen, Stephen. India, emerging power, Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 2001. Print.
Hurrell, Andrew. The United States and Latin America: neorealism re-examined, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print
Koenig, Archibugi. American Power in the 21st Century, London: Polity Press, 2004. Print.
Pape, Robert. “Soft balancing against the United States”, International Security 30.1 (2005): 23-44. Print.
Raymond, Aron. Peace and war: a theory of international relations, London: Weidenfeld
Issues Relating To Collaborative Working within a Childcare Setting Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Planning and Preparation
Child Development and Supporting Transition
Teaching Assistant’s Role
A teacher as a parent
A teacher as a motivator and talent developer
A teacher as an educator
A teacher as a disciplinarian
Teacher as Role Model
Managing Parents’ Expectation
Keeping Parents Informed
Information Sharing Within the Workplace
List of References
Introduction Childcare has increasingly grown popular in many countries across the world. United Kingdom in particular, has developed mechanisms that would ensure that it has a system that would support children from very tender age. Nussbaum (2002, p. 28) says that for a long period, the position held by children in the society has been regarded as a concern for individual families.
Although families have cherished their children, the society has not been able to look at the issue of childcare as a responsibility of the entire fraternity of the community. Childcare centers offer a forum where different parents come together, in collaboration with teachers and other professionals, to take care of children in a community setting.
Inasmuch as many families protect and care for their children at family level, there are families that have shown lack of concern to their children. Morrison (2008, p. 45) notes that parents who are drunkards, drug addicts or are just social misfits have abused their children in various ways according to the report by UK Department of Education 2004 (Morrison 2008, p. 64).
This has seen many children go without the basic needs of food shelter and clothing, not to mention education. This happens, not because the parent is not in a position to provide for this, but because in one way or the other, the parent is irresponsible (Darder
Conflict Mode Assessment Essay essay help
Introduction A conflict is a form of disagreement between parties leading to a confrontation. This arises in most cases due to people’s difference in ideology or lack of mutual interest in a certain activity.
Settlement of conflicts has to take place amicably in order to play down the harmful impacts that they may cause in an organization (Jellison, 2006).
The paper highlights conflict using a “job interview” scenario, where the person is supposed to solve a conflict arising due to unexpected challenges. Convectional wisdom is an essential requirement when solving conflicts of any magnitude to ensure sustainable relationships regardless of change.
The Thomas Kilman conflict model consists of five modes used when managing conflicts and changes. It based on human behaviors of assertiveness or cooperativeness as a form of action in adjusting to changes caused by conflicts.
Competing being the first mode, involves assertiveness and self-centered actions when handling conflicts. The intention is to use all channels available to triumph in a scenario.
It can engage individual using their rights in obtaining power of control in a situation. This action has a score of five in a continuum (Jellison, 2006).
Accommodating is not assertive, contrary to competing, the next party is considered in a conflict. It engages another’s point of view, normally awarded a score of nine in a continuum.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Avoiding, which is the third mode, also has a score of five is not assertive and is usually uncooperative. A conflict to be solved is neglected in this case either temporary or permanently.
Collaborative is a mutual mode of solving conflicts where both party’s interests are looked into (Jellison, 2006). It involves self-sacrifices where necessary when handling issues analytically, normally given a score of five, which translates to 40% using percentage.
Lastly, compromise is an intermediary form of conflict management, the agreement made satisfies both parties. Compromise addresses issues directly and is normally in a score of six.
Compromising mode is the preferred style of conflict management in the scenario above. There has to be mutual agreement amidst the parties involved due to unexpected situations.
The interview is of much benefit to one party while solving the accident is beneficial to all. An understanding might result to a solution that benefits all the parties using compromising mode.
It is only by the compromising mode of conflict management that a win-win situation is possible (Jellison, 2006). Compromising model minimizes the chances of conflict aggravating, since there can be a clash of interest amidst two parties.
This mode is suitable in solving problems of dynamic nature when under pressure. This mode allows for exploration of other channels when settling disputes, normally preferred in cases of emergency. Compromise reduces the sensitive nature of a problem at hand in this case the interview is of much importance than parking the car.
We will write a custom Essay on Conflict Mode Assessment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For the competing mode, there will be assertiveness in insisting on the right to parking. This overlooks other people’s interests. Collaborating mode will involve integrating the interests of the other party.
It will delve much into issues thus complicating the conflict auxiliary from the initial intention. Avoiding the conflict does not apply in this case since it will provide no solution when managing conflicts.
Avoiding is suitable when the issue at hand is of a smaller magnitude, thus negligible (Jellison, 2006). Accommodating will result to less solution for urgent cases requiring immediate solutions while benefits is to the other party more than self.
Competing mode is difficult to work with, since a good number of conflicts results from competition between parties. This mode generates unpopular decisions when sorting out problems and it is more self-centered limiting other people’s opinions that might be useful in the end.
This conflict mode is only useful in groups that uphold integrity and high values when conducting operations. It is much dependent on an individual as opposed to other models in handling conflicts.
References Jellison, J. (2006). Managing the dynamics of change: the fastest path to creating an engaged and productive workforce. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional.
Korean and Japanese Honorific Systems Essay college essay help online
Honorific is considered as an address form which portrays respect towards the addressee and are classified according to addressee’s title. Suffix endings such as Professor, Mister, Coach, Officer, Captain, Sir, and so forth are some examples which are commonly used.
Every language has these kinds of honorifics and Asian societies have honorifics which are essential elements of their cultures and the language. Asian societies are fixed to a Confucian value arrangement which underlines diffidence, humbleness and respect towards older people (Brown, 2011, p. 65). Most honorifics are applied when attending to kings, queens, landlords, and some respected persons.
The dislodgment of honorific is extraordinary in Asian languages; while both Korean and Japanese have preserved their Honorific forms and this paper would compare and contrast honorific languages in these two communities.
In Japan, traditionally, respect and honor is mostly treasured since both are still traditional joint country. Thus, honorifics are essential elements while addressing other people, where they have agglutinative language which they usually do not recognize gender. Nouns are also not considered and conjunction is not reflected.
Japanese languages contain three stages of respects which are applied: Keigo (Advanced Plain), Teineigo (Simple Plain) and, lastly, Kudeketa (Plain); these are stages of respects which are essential than the prefixes or suffixes which accompanies (Backhouse, 2005, p. 25).
Teineigo level is more inflectional arrangement and commonly applied for a person who is being spoken to, while Keigo are split into two different languages, Sonkeigo and Kensongo. Kensongo are usually used when addressing the group which may include sister or brother or workmate.
Sonkeigo is a polite speech used for somebody being talked about which may include bosses or a customer. Regular and irregular verbs are contained in Kensongo and Sonkeigo and they as well apply the prefix ¨o¨ or ¨go¨ to create a term honorific (Backhouse 2005, p. 25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Different from Teinogo, highly inflectional arrangement, both ¨ükagau¨, contained in Kensongo, and Sonkeigo apply interchange verbs to turn into ¨ükagau¨ in Kensongo and ¨ïrasshar u¨ in Sonkeigo and all stages of the languages possess its particular verb endings and vocabulary.
They considered that it is not the way you end the language that makes it very complex, but it important to understand which stage to use for a particular person. If a person needs to introduce the boss to another person of the same status with the boss, he or she would utilize the Kensongo to introduce the boss.
Another case is that a kid needs to apply Sonkeigo when addressing his grandmothers, but would apply Kensongo when introducing her to somebody else. The application of each of them relies on the idea of “Out groups” and “In groups” (Hasegawa, 2010, p. 140).
Hence, this language stage is corresponding with someone or situations which are being addressed or talked about. These language stages are distinguished by extended polite phrases like ¨¨ motasete itadaku¨¨ which can be translated as ¨¨can I kindly be permitted to carry…¨ in Kensongo (Hasegawa, 2010, p. 140).
On the other hand, Japanese usually has an inclination towards brevity, and this is shown in their sentence structure. Children are not provided to learn use of honorific language and they are usually expected to apply it, but it is just during their employment when he or she is openly taught.
Korean and Japanese languages share complex arrangement of honorific speech levels and they normally applied with Korean aristocracy (Yang bang). They contain prefixes like Sir, Doctor, etc. and also expressions for kinship. The suffix ¨¨ nim¨´ may be attached to a noun to create it more honorific and nouns can as well be substituted with these honorifics (Sohn, 2006, p. 132).
Contrary to honorific, polite words are there also and some verbs contain particular forms and terms like ‘I’ or ‘we’ pronouns utilize form. Speech levels are very significant in Korean language and these levels are applied to bring up narrators’ or authors’ addressees, while honorifics are mainly used for a subject.
We will write a custom Essay on Korean and Japanese Honorific Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gender group, he or she, is required to settle on honorific and speech level to apply, hence, not just the addresser who has an option regarding speech level, but gender group as well may select to attach the honorific.
Subject and predicate have to match while using honorifics and it is impossible to attach a marker to the predicate when the subjects are categorized as group of nouns which are not in agreement with the marker.
For instance, ¨¨ sensaennim I cip e ka-si-eyo (the tutor has gone home) has corresponded with verb ending and honorific subject, while “haksean I hakkyo e ka-si-eyo” (the learner has gone to school) is inappropriate in Korean language since the subject is not allowed to have honorific ending and it is not corresponding with the verb used in the sentence (Sohn, 2006, p. 132).
Korean language has more than seven speech levels and every speech level has a particular distinct arrangement of verb endings to show the level of requirements. Politeness and respect are represented by three ordinary levels of speech and the first one is ‘ta’, usually used to address somebody younger than the addresser.
Second one is polite (yo), normally used to address somebody older than the addresser such as employer, stranger with same age or older than addresser, older relative, and superiors. Third one is deferential (su), commonly used to address somebody who is superior to the polite yo (Sohn, 2006, p. 132).
The number of levels remains unknown but the bilingual persons argue that there are around seven distinct speech levels and these levels would be briefly discussed below. The first five speech levels are combined as jondaemal, whereas the last two speech levels are grouped together as banmal and every speech level has a particular distinct arrangement of verb endings (Bruno, 2011, p. 33).
These seven different speech levels portray respect and politeness to addressees and in Japanese language these speech levels as well make “In groups” and “Out groups.” In Korean language, honorific arrangement is exceptionally complicated and the issues are present in three distinct ways.
First, each expression must be marked for the triad engaged in dialogue, receiver, referent, and reporter and second, the guidelines need cautious choice of highly linguistic pieces (Bruno, 2011, p. 33). Third, addressers can change speech levels at any moment (Bruno, 2011, p. 33).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Korean and Japanese Honorific Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, if somebody desires to bring in a dialogue, he or she is required to choose which speech level to apply and the addresser is required to settle on status and age with the aim of selecting proper speech level to use.
Different from Japanese honorifics, which are classified as relative, Korean kinds of honorifics are considered as absolute and are applied not considering the person the speaker is talking to. Honorifics are also attached irrespective of “In groups” and “Out groups.”
Conclusion Language is just like something which undergoes evolution and changes and it is astonishing to observe the manner in which political and cultural transformations may change certain language. It appears that these honorifics originated from minor societies where people staying in those societies recognized everybody’s social status.
Japan appears to be experiencing much bigger problem regarding preservation of honorific language and it appears, from my view, that the Japanese are troubled as they preserve ¨face¨¨, the function of respectful language which is more influenced by changing western society and culture.
On the other hand, Korean seems not to be influence by the change of the western society regarding honorifics and appears that their honorifics, which are absolute, create it easier, while in Japanese language, honorifics are compared with the situation creating it slightly complex to apply.
Permanent honorific application, in Japanese language, will rely mainly on the way government is strict implementing its use in their newly introduced guidelines.
References List Backhouse, E 2005, The Lexical Field of Taste: A Semantic Study of Japanese Taste Terms, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Bruno, L 2011, Asian Honorifics, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Philadelphia PA.
Brown, L 2011, Korean Honorifics and Politeness in Second Language Learning, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam.
Hasegawa, Y 2010, Soliloquy in Japanese and English, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Philadelphia.
Sohn, H 2006, Korean language in culture and society, University of Hawaii Press, Hawaii.
Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Flow Next to High-Rise Buildings in Hong Kong Due to Air-Conditioner Heat Rejection Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
The article under consideration is titled “Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to flow next to high-rise buildings in Hong Kong due to air-conditioner heat rejection”. It is written by Bojic M., Savic S., and Nikolic D. in 2008 in the International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy.
This article presents the Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the situations when the Window Air-Conditioners reject condenser heat.
The authors of the research wanted to consider how the situation is going to develop under the particular conditions in order to prepare the basis for the further research connected with solving the problem of Window Air-Conditioners rejecting condenser heat and predicting its consequences. The article consists of several sections.
The introduction, the mathematical model: Computational Fluid Dynamics development, the simulation, the results with several subtopics (“flow and temperature field in the recessed space”, “flow and temperatures of the bulk flow in the recessed space”, “horizontal development of flow and temperature field with depth of a recessed space”, “bulk flow with depth of a recessed space – vertical development”, “flows to condensers with depth of a recessed space – vertical development”, “influence of plates on the bulk, buoyant airflow inside the recessed space”, and “influence of plates on the flow – flow of air through condenser units”), and conclusion.
The article is supported with the abstract, keywords, biographical notes, nomenclature, and reference list. The article is presented in the
The main idea of the article is to conduct a simulation of the situations when the Window Air-Conditioners reject condenser heat by means of the Computational Fluid Dynamics. The results of the research have provided two outcomes which lead to two results.
Thus, if the mass-flow rate is lower than the nominal condenser, however, the outdoors air temperature is higher, the energy losses are considered. Otherwise, if the mass-flow rate is higher than the nominal condenser and the outdoors air temperature is higher, the energy benefit is observed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These results allow to make sure that the depth of the recessed space does not have any connection with the average mass flow rates and at the same time does not impact the average temperatures.
One of the main ideas of the research was to extend the results presented in the Bojic, Lee, and Yik (2001, 2002,
Reward or Recognition Plan Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Rationale for Change
Reward and Recognition Plan
Safe Environment Creation Plan
Introduction As evident in numerous occasions, organizations experience different types of changes that include organization-wide versus subsystem change, transformational versus incremental change, remedial versus developmental change and planned versus unplanned change.
This piece seeks to address describe the current situation in organization, explain the rationale for change, design a reward plan that includes milestones and create a safe environment for change.
The paper focuses on implementation of a new process to deliver services affiliated with SunClean, which will serve as the case study. The company focuses on cleaning services for households and corporate bodies.
Current situation The contemporary operations of the company indicate that there is a request for customers to fill forms in a manual way before a customer care representative attends to them.
After this, they have to wait for three working days for them to access the services requested. Consequently, poor public relations become manifest and company profits reduce.
A survey conducted on customer satisfaction depicts that the majority of clients complain about length of time it takes to get services from the company. Furthermore, laxity amongst employees to serve customers is equally evident.
It becomes difficult for them to attend to clients because the company does not have suitable employee reward scheme. There is feedback from customers suggesting that customer care representatives ought to change their attitude.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is also lack of appropriate measures by Company Y management to impress clients and ensure their loyalty through various customer loyalty programs. Additionally, there are no discounts for customers who are still loyal after experiencing poor services.
Rationale for Change Change process starts with the identification of changes that ought to be made by the company, determination of major issues that need to be considered, obstacles that can arise in change implementation and accessing key stakeholders who will experience the change (Jellison, 2006).
Conversion of service forms from manual to electronic forms in order to save clients’ time. Additionally, customers will be contented as evident in the time taken to deliver services to customers and improving the quality of services offered by the company.
Indeed, filling forms online; thus, ensuring minimal interaction between customers and representatives who could still be rude after implementation change in the company is vital.
The forms shall be brief as compared to the previous manual ones. These will not require customers to fill unnecessary details that waste time.
Instead of clients waiting for three working days for the delivery of cleaning services to their homes and offices, delivery time will be short.
Clients who place cleaning orders over the weekend will have their places cleaned concurrently unlike previous times since they had to wait for the working days. There will be an improvement of quality of cleaning services and discounts offered to all premium customers.
We will write a custom Essay on Reward or Recognition Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, there shall be replacement and upgrading of current washing equipment to competent machinery. In addition, premium customers shall have discounts every third time they place cleaning orders at the company.
Reward and Recognition Plan According to Spitzer
Ethics of Death Penalty Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Do we need the death penalty?
Doing away with the death penalty
Analysis of the arguments and personal opinion
Introduction Every society must be guided by laws and regulations, and distinguished philosophers such as Kant have been quoted (Avaliani, n.d) to have said that no state or society can exist in the absence of laws. Violation of these laws attracts punishment.
Most states and justice systems employ the death penalty as punishment for crimes that are considered to be serious. Crimes such as murder, treason and most recently terrorism attract the death penalty. Many ethical issues are raised about the death penalty (Mosser, 2010), and this paper examines and analyses the ethical arguments for and against the punishment.
Do we need the death penalty? It is only the state that has a right to execute a person, and this execution must be premised on the decision of a court (O’Neil, 2012). The debate surrounding this issue is not about its legality but on whether it is ethical or not.
Most people agree that a person who violates the law must be punished, even those who argue against the death penalty. Kant argues that a society that does not punish those who violate its laws becomes the offender’s accomplice (Avaliani, n.d). Every individual has a right to life. Why then, should the state sanction the willful taking away of life by its agents?
Everyone who commits a crime against society puts himself in debt, and this debt must be satisfied in full (Vollum, Mallicoat,
Are Correctional Boot Camps Effective? Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Lack of Follow-up Support
Introduction Boot camps were introduced so that it can act as an alternative to jail for young offenders or criminals. Several studies have reported that the frequencies of recidivism for juvenile offenders who have been admitted in teen boot camps are extremely high, above 85% (Vito, 2005, p.65).
Boot camps may appear like the correct option for young people who have gotten involved in unlawful acts or are engaging in inappropriate conducts.
In Boot camps, they consider that terrifying and punishing the teens might discourage them from participating in illegal activities in the future, but this may be wrong. Most boot camps are considered to lack follow-up support, ineffective, and contain physical abuse.
Lack of Follow-up Support When teens have shown the signs of rehabilitation, they are allowed to go back home from boot camps. After that, boot camp providers would not make a follow-up so that they can help the teens create sense of what they have experience in the boot camps.
This lack of follow-up raises the chances of the teens or young people reversing into the previous conducts. Mostly, boot camp providers avoid follow-up so that they can reduce expenses.
Since children are instructed to follow and respect seniors or boot camp providers who use noisy and violent tones, it has been reported that after going back home, many teenagers would have difficulties adjusting to normal superior’s leadership ways.
Their teachers and managers usually are not aggressive to students and workers and many former boot campers experience trouble in respecting them since they do not scream and threaten them (MacKenzie, Wilson,
“Hope’s Boy The memoir” by Andrew Bridge Essay college essay help online
Andrew Bridge’s memoir “Hope’s Boy” has been ranked as a leading bestseller by the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Publisher’s Weekly, and The Washington Post. It is a moving memoir that illustrates the flaws that exist in the U.S foster care system.
The Memoir explores a childhood filled with horrendous sagas which are hardly spoken by many openly. The story is intertwined to bring out what the young in foster homes undergo while growing up.
This paints an elaborate picture of the America’s society dark side. Bridge was transferred to a foster home after experiencing her Schizophrenic mother, “slit her wrists and paint his name with her blood” (NPR 2008).
By then, Bridge was only six years and, according to the circumstances, he was placed under foster care for the remaining part of the blossoming childhood.
Despite the woes he underwent and witnessed in the foster care, Bridge fueled childhood influence in the university. Currently, Bridge has become a fulltime lawyer who specializes on matters concerning the welfare of children.
The memoir “Hope’s Boy” portrays the childhood experiences of Bridge which depicts the U.S foster care as one which is adversely disoriented.
Bridge, who lives in Los Angeles, has continued to fight in the war to ensure that kids under foster care receive proper treatment and even have conduct with the social workers if they cannot get in touch with their biological parents (Bridge n.d). Personal experiences greatly influence the future career choice of individuals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Personal background and atrocities can fuel the desire to pursue a certain career (Dietrich 1). For instance, Bridge is portrayed as a child from a poor family filled with devastating events.
For example, at the age of less than three years, his father and mother are jailed and, at the age of four, his father demands a separation (NPR 2008).
By the time Bridge was six, he was placed under foster care. Bridge having his childhood and parental love has vowed to fight for other children who undergo the same problems during their childhood.
This can be supported by the personal experience of Debbie Black, a parole officer, who notes that her family, experience and conflicts from within, shaped her career (Black 2008).
Having undergone divorce, living in the streets, and facing a difficult marriage, the experience is almost like Bridge’s. Although the life of Debbie was infringed when she was mature, the experience is the same as both face social injustices.
Bridge’s past has dictated the path to follow to ensure that no other child will have the same experience he had when he was young.
Anger and emotional feelings drive people to do what they think is right in their lives as a way of shadowing their past. For example, the childhood of Bridge is filled with anger and hatred for losing the only person who cared from him, his mother.
We will write a custom Essay on “Hope’s Boy The memoir” by Andrew Bridge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is depicted on the title of his memoir “Hope’s Boy”. Hope is the name of his mother in which he has dedicated his work to, despite the fact that she was not there but was willing to raise him.
The anger of his childhood leads to the belief that there is a hope that the future can be better. This drives Bridge to study law with the hope he can represent other children who undergo the same childhood as he did.
Bridge’s career choice has prompted him to give back to the society what he lacked love when he was a child. From his memoir, Bridge believes that “we can best keep kids with their own families’ safe and together with the folks who know and love them best” (NPR 2008).
The belief that something can be done right is what fuels people to choose certain careers. For example, Bridge believed that the best love a child could receive is from family members.
He believes that children can be loved best if they lived with their parents or folks. For this reason, Bridge has been championing for the welfare of foster children to live with their parents or, at least, get to talk with the social workers allocated to them once a month (NPR 2008).
From a personal point of view, some people follow intuition in order to make sure that they can solve problems in life. In other words, they believe that they are the ‘saviors’ who can speak out on the behalf of other disadvantaged persons in the society.
To sum it up, personal past experiences contribute a lot to the choice of career path they choose to undertake, the way people have been raised, the life they have been exposed to, and the belief that one can change the world.
Emotions fueled by anger, drive people to take careers to ensure that other people are not exposed to the same atrocities or past they underwent.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Hope’s Boy The memoir” by Andrew Bridge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is portrayed in the Hope’s Boy memoir which shows how the past can fuel one to develop a career that addresses the problems in the society. The same is shared by Debbie Black who strives to help others.
Works Cited Black, Debbie. 2008. Personal experiences influence career Choice for Debbie Black. 2008. Web.
Bridge, Andrew. Hope’s boy: A memoir. n.d. 2012. Web.
Dietrich, Cindy. “Decision making: Factors that influence decision making, heuristics used, and decision outcomes.” Student Pulse 2.2 (2010): 1-3. Print.
NPR. ‘Hope’s Boy’ a memoir of childhood in foster care. 2008. Web.
Solar Panels in China Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The growth of the PV industry has been on increase due to technological advancements and the support the industry has been getting from governments.
The industry has also witnessed remarkable growth occasioned by concerns on global warming. It has been projected that solar energy demand will continue to grow in China and other parts of the world (Tiwari, 200).
However, the energy form has still been expensive in comparison with other forms of energy. This is because the industry has been grappling with a shortage of raw materials used in producing the energy. For instance, demand for silicon which is used in the manufacture of solar cells has been increasing.
Background China has plans of developing large amounts of hydropower, wind power, biomass and solar photovoltaic by 2020. In order to accomplish this mission, the country requires at least 267 billion USD for it to invest in renewable energy sources.
Investment in renewable energies such as biofuels and wind energy has been slowed down by concerns of global warming. China has projected that by 2020, an estimated $ 40 billion would have been invested in solar energy. As part of the plans to have enough energy, the country has embarked on the use of solar energy.
Analysis The gross domestic product in china has been growing significantly thus stabilizing the country’s economic forecasts. As a result of this increased economic growth, the country’s demand for energy has been increasing thus prompting the government to come up with renewable sources of energy.
Due to the popularity of solar energy and its domination in the world market, it has been the most appropriate option for the country. This has led to stiff competition among several companies providing solar energy in the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, in 2007 four Chinese companies paved their way into the market and made huge profits. In 2006, two more companies had raised more than $ 500 million after joining the list.
These companies have been attracting investors since their prices have been lower than the prices offered by Western manufacturers (China solar, 2004).
The Chinese government has taken important measures in improving the environmental condition of the country. New laws on renewable energy sources have been enacted to emphasize on cleaner energy technologies.
The country has a target of raising the number of people who use renewable energy to 16% by 2020. The new law has various stipulations that should be followed by the companies involved.
To begin with, the energy authorities have been mandated to implement and manage renewable energy development. Secondly, the government establishes a renewable energy development that provides support including financial support to the relevant industries.
Thirdly, the government has been involved in setting the prices of renewable energy and supporting the generation of grid-connected renewable energy
Due to the sustainability of sola energy in china and its advantages over other alternative sources of energy, the Chinese government has embarked on constructing resource efficient villages.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Solar Panels in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The largest portion of domestic PV market in china which constitutes more than 40 % is rural electrification. The program aims at making electricity accessible to more than 20 million Chinese who live in 20000 rural villages.
10 million people out of the 20 million are residents of the Western provinces. The rural electrification program impacts millions of people living in rural areas by empowering them through access to energy. As a result, solar energy has been one of the most common and widely used renewable energy n China .
Argument Against Despite the widespread use and popularity of solar energy in China, there has been a negative side of the renewable energy resource. Constraints in the supply of silicon have remained one of the most challenging hurdles.
The silicon market has been so tight thus creating a disadvantage for a large number of players who have been unable to secure feedstock supplies.
The downside has been particularly experienced by the small scale solar dealers who have not succeeded in getting silicon supplies. This has led to lower rates of utilization, lower profits, and unmet growth plans.
Domestic polysilicon producers also have been facing problems such as less beneficial technology which uses 2-3 times the energy used in production of an equal amount of raw material than its oversees peers do.
Domestic polysilicon manufacturers have also been smaller in size when compared with the international players, something that has made it difficult for them to leverage the economic scales.
Initially, the overseas competitors were reluctant to transfer the knowledge to Chinese natives forcing the domestic enterprises to employ a high degree of innovation and independence in their work (Source guide, 2012).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Solar Panels in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Announcements have been made by companies with emerging technologies or commercial ambitions expressing their interest to venture in polysiliscon manufacturing.
However, such ventures have been faced by commercial, technology, safety and environmental risks. The commercial risk is that there has been a high degree of competition from famous and well known producers who have been in the business for long.
The technology risk comes in due to the presence of the well established and fully characterized Siemens which has been operating in the country.
There has also been a safety risk in that most of the intermediate gaseous chemicals used in the production of silicon can result into a spontaneous fire when in contact with air.
This is something that has caused fatal accidents in the past. Finally, there has been the environmental risk in that although production of silicon has been for green products, chances of pollution are also possible .
Despite the fact that China has been capitalizing on the lucrative IPO and the heavy investment, the market has been criticized of fatigue, especially at the mid heading downstream, while companies that have not been listed have found it difficult to differentiate themselves.
This has been recently indicated by the poor performance of some of the stock prices for the enterprises. However, it has been said that the market is yet to be exhausted since some Chinese silicon manufacturers are yet to join the market.
Recently, the grid companies have not been showing quick response to solar energy owing to its high cost. Alternatively, wind power has remained popular and a stronger substitute. The domestic market will not receive sufficient stimulation unless there is reduction in the cost and favorable subsidies provided.
Conclusion Solar energy is a green trend that has found popularity in Chinese market in recent days. The rapid economic growth in the country has increased power requirements prompting companies to look for ways of investing in alternative sources of energy.
Solar energy has been highly preferred because of its environmental friendliness as opposed to other forms of energy. The country has since embarked on projects of spreading the energy form to rural areas through rural electrification.
However, there have been concerns that solar energy is still very expensive when compared with other energy forms such as wind energy. As a result, more attention has remained on the other energy forms that are considered cheaper.
References China solar. (2004). China Solar Energy. Retrieved from http://www.chinasolarenergy.com/
NBSC. (2012). National Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/
Solway, A. (2009). Renewable Energy Sources. New York: Heinemann/Raintree.
Source guide. (2012). The Source for Renewable Energy. Retrieved from http://www.sourceguides.com/
Tiwari, G. (2009). Solar energy technology advances. New York: Nova Publishers.
Zheng, S. (2006). Solar Energy in China. Retrieved from http://www.ceibs.edu/
How Religion and Family Produces the Idea of Gender Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
How Religion and Family Produces the Idea of Gender
Introduction This article examines how religion and family produces the idea of gender. It presents an initial literature review on religion and family as these factors relate to shaping gender ideology.
Case studies are used in the article as reference to elaborate how family and religion interrelate to influence gender ideology.
How Religion and Family Produces the Idea of Gender Gender is the way society creates, patterns, and rewards our understandings of femininity and masculinity, or the process by which certain behaviors and performances are ascribed to women and men.
Gender is a form of social institution of sexual difference (Susan
Social Justice: Wray’s Essential Aspects of Biblical Law and Justice Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Various Interpretations of Biblical Laws and Justice
The Four Assumptions of Biblical Laws and Justice
Introduction The purpose of this paper is to evaluate Wray’s essential aspects of Biblical Law and Justice in light of what it offers religious educators for the classroom study of justice. A large portion of the Bible has been dedicated to the issue of law and justice.
Therefore, religious educators who teach about justice in classrooms today must go back to the Bible and look at biblical legal codes and justice.
Justice has become a matter of concern for many people in modern societies. Nevertheless, it is a concept that is socially constructed, meaning that it is subject to contextual interpretation.
Various Interpretations of Biblical Laws and Justice Wray has conducted an extensive study on the subject of social justice and suggests that students taking any course on law or social justice must go back to the origins of these laws and justice, in this case the Bible.
He maintains that biblical laws and justice should be taught in the classroom in a bid to tackle some of the prevalent issues affecting modern societies, including laws, prohibitions and injunctions (Wray, 2011, p. 161).
Indeed, the quest for social justice has been highlighted by many social philosophers for many centuries since the emergence of enlightenment and industrial revolution.
The industrial revolution and the emergence of capitalist economies gave rise to social decay and the erosion of social values as most people were subjected to hard social and economic conditions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The world is divided between the haves and the have-nots. In theory, social justice is an attempt to address the question of equity and fair distribution of income and resources.
The theory of justice implies that people should be treated equally (Miller, 1999). The concept of social justice is widely used today to refer to the fair distribution of resources amongst the members of the society.
For many centuries, this concept has been applied in various societies, but it is evident that even today discrimination of the poor from the market economy still continues (Miller, 1999).
However, regardless of what has been researched, written or formulated as part of our social policies, justice is far from being realized. Perhaps it can be argued that humanity have rejected the origins of these laws and regulations and came up with mere philosophies that does not address the real problems.
The best model for social justice is in the Bible which in Borg’s view is the foundation for political and personal transformation. Any attempt to fight for social justice must be based on the word of God because the Kingdom of God is the heart of justice (Borg, 2003).
Borg also argues that although the American society promotes the principles of individualism, all humans are part of a wider social-economic, political, cultural, and faith systems that promotes social lives in the community (Borg, 2003).
Borg goes back to the biblical account to show God’s passion for social and political justice. He maintains that Jesus’ teaching about the Kingdom of God in the New Testament is all about justice (Borg, 2003).
We will write a custom Essay on Social Justice: Wray’s Essential Aspects of Biblical Law and Justice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, views have been expressed by O’ Donohue who states that the biblical concept of justice is intrinsically connected to human relationship.
He argues that God demands for justice that does not appear in abstract, but the kind of justice that exists within our human lives. True justice emerges from the relationship between humanity and God and fellow humanity. It starts with the individual then moves on to society (O’ Donahue, 1977).
This is the line of argument that Wray has followed. In his view, biblical law and justice should be the main text for students studying social justice and other law related courses.
The most important part of these texts is that which deals with Torah on the Old Testament and the Kingdom of God in the New Testament.
These texts contain the golden rules upon which we derive our mannerism and ways of treating other people. The purpose of the biblical laws was originally given to regulate human behavior in a manner that was intended by God from the beginning (Wray, 2011).
Consequently, these laws have become the cornerstone for legal codes that governs modern civilized societies. This is not to say that the modern societies are perfect.
But regardless of their levels of civilizations crime, injustices and immoralities are still the order of the day. We still have many cases of rape, murders, theft, slandering, corruption, fraud, and lying, even as the bible prohibits such behaviors.
Our jails and prisons are full of people have been locked up for going against these laws. These laws have governed the world since the days of ancient Israel when they were first given to control humans but their behaviors are still the same (Berger, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Justice: Wray’s Essential Aspects of Biblical Law and Justice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This does not imply that these laws are ineffective. In fact, they are still unique and effective if applied appropriately. Wray laments that most religious educators and preachers do not discuss biblical justice with the laws of Israel.
This means that one cannot teach about observing the laws without first developing a relationship with the lawgiver, who is God. For instance, treating other people fairly, defending the poor and the weak can only demonstrate the existing covenant relationship with God.
The Four Assumptions of Biblical Laws and Justice Wray also outlines four main assumptions connected to the interpretation of the biblical laws and justice (Wray, 2011). The first assumptions that are commonly held by many people purports that the Ten Commandments were given by God and therefore God’s people are obliged to abide by these rules and regulations.
In Wray’s view, the ten commandments should be treated like’ formulaic prohibitions’ that controls human behaviors and legalizes how the community needs to relate with each other (2011, p.162).
He continues to suggest that the interpretation of the law should not be confined to the Ten Commandments only, but should include the entire Torah including other 600 laws.
However, there are divergent views concerning the interpretation and practice of Torah (biblical laws from genesis to Deuteronomy) between various Christian denominations and other world religions (Wray, 2011).
The second assumption suggests that when one breaks these laws then they are subjected to punishment which in Wray’s view has given birth to retributive justice.
The interpretation of this concept has brought lots of complications to the understanding of crime and punishment, commonly referred to in the bible as an eye to eye.
Wray claims that biblical laws are divided into two areas, the apodictic laws which include the Ten Commandments which in most cases are prohibitory nature.
He argues that this group of laws does not contain any elements of punishment attached to them, rather they were meant to deter the offenders from committing the offence.
In other words, they are precautionary or preventive rather curative. They are unique and different from any other laws found in Ancient Near Eastern regions (Wray, 2011).
However, Wray indicates that the second type of the laws can be grouped as casuistic because they are more of case laws which were common in the Ancient near eastern societies and commonly used in court cases in even in those days.
From his assessment of these two types of laws, Wray concludes the entire Torah were specifically give to the Children to regulate their devotion to God and control how they behave towards their human beings (Wray, 2011).
According to Wray, the third assumption supports and advocates for Golden rule. This rule suggests that we should treat others fairly and then expect the same in return.
He argues that the Golden Rule promotes justice and fairness in the society. It addresses the notion of fairness and justice and especially to the weak, oppressed and poor.
While the fourth assumption purports that justice is about caring for those people in the society who are less fortunate, socially disadvantaged and marginalized (Wray, 2011).
Conclusion This paper has attempted to evaluate Wray’s paper which suggests that the essential aspects of biblical law and justice must be taught to classrooms for those studying justice and law related a subjects.
Social justice is still a major concern for many societies and the solution is to go back to the basics. The author argues that justice is socially constructed; meaning that its interpretation differs from one society to another.
Wray argues that the biblical laws upon which our modern legal code and social values are based were originated given by God to govern human behaviors and regulate how they relate with God and fellow humanity.
Therefore, true justice must start with the individual’s close relationship with God and then be reflected and translated back to the society.
This implies that our view and practice of justice must begin with the individual person and stream down to the society. Furthermore, it supports the argument that religious educators must teach the individual students to change their own views and attitudes as individuals before they can go out there and transform the rest of society.
Reference List Berger, R. M. (2007). What the heck is social justice? Sojourners Magazine, 36(2), 37.
Borg, M. (2003). The kingdom of God: The heart of justice. In The heart of Christianity. pp. 127-148. San Francisco: Harper Collins.
Miller, D. (1999). Principles of social justice. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
O’Donahue, J. (1977). Biblical perspectives on justice. In Haughey, J. (Ed). The faith that does justice. pp. 68-112. New York: Paulist Press.
Wray, T. J. (2011). What the Bible really tells us: The essential guide to biblical literacy. Lanham, Md: Rowman
Business Memo: Impact of Technology on Quality of Work Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Implication of Technology on Work Quality
The current paradigm shift in technology has enabled organizations to be effective and efficient (Suematsu, 2004). Organizations can now compete favorably in the market as technology has enabled them to gain a competitive advantage.
Decision making in the workplace is now easy and information can easily flow from top management team to the subordinate staff. In addition, the information required can be generated and disbursed across several departments simultaneously.
Other than these benefits associated with the adoption of technology in the workplace, technology has other impacts on the quality of work both negatively and positively.
Implication of Technology on Work Quality Although the emergence of technology has major benefits, it compromises the quality of work (Suematsu, 2004). For instance, the social media networks like Facebook and twitter are among the leading addictive sites with nearly every employ spending some time chatting with friends and spreading office gossip (Turner, 2010; Balderrama, 2010).
This makes technology a problem as employees spend hours that could have otherwise been utilized to generate good ideas that would benefit the organization. Instead, valuable time is wasted carrying out tasks that are not related to office affairs.
As a result, the quality of work is compromised; time wasted, and resources wasted too. Office gossips through social networks or spread of rumors and lies may create disharmony in the workplace.
Chaos can arise which can easily be fuelled through the social media networks. For example, employees can plan and execute strikes and stoppages through the social media which may compromise the quality of the work (Turner, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Technology adoptions in the workplace jeopardize the privacy of the employees and that of work projects. Through information systems management, information on employees’ private life like salary, home address, marital status, credit card number, and benefits can be stored in the organization database.
The information can be accessed from any point in the organization hence compromising the employees’ privacy. In the event that data or information lands on private hands, then the information can be used for malicious issues.
Also, technology enables management to monitor all what employees are doing in the workplace. The quality of work can be affected by this as some employees do not perform as required under supervision (Blish
The Role of the Government Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Liberal vs. conservative
Introduction The paper is a critical analysis of the opposing views of the role of the government held by the liberals and the conservatives. It is evident that these two groups ideally hold varying views with regards to the role of the government as well as other important factors in governance.
Liberal vs. conservative Conservative is also known as the right or right-wing in the context of the United States. As suggested by Schneider 98 individuals in this category strongly believe that the government should work with the people and not over them, stand by their sides and not riding over people.
The government should have limited influence when deciding things. The key to prosperity is personal responsibility. This can be seen in the eyes of government trying to craft laws that would encourage Foreign Direct Investment between her and other friendly countries (Schneider 89).
This has seen to it that the citizens of involved countries seize the opportunities and set up businesses in other foreign countries. Another example can be seen when upon taking office President Bush called the Congress to pass laws and policies that would relief Americans from heavy taxation.
Ideally conservatives believe that the government should actively indulge and other relevant stakeholders before arriving at any conclusion particularly with regards to laws that directly or indirectly affect individuals.
It is the role of the government to ensure that right policies are in place so that the citizens feel secure. Similarly conservatives are of the view that once people exercise personal responsibility and the government has ensured desired freedom, the pie will be much bigger for everyone.
The government does not solve the societal problems; this is the role of citizen since the government has provided the desired degree of freedom. It is the role of the government to ensure that things remain the way they are or even returned to the previous state (Ballou 129).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, liberals are sometimes referred to as the left or left wing. Liberals are of the view that “it is the duty and responsibility of the government to achieve equal as well as equality for all” (Scott 74).
On the same note liberals hold that it is the duty of the government to direct resources and efforts towards eliminating the various social ills such as theft, murder and prostitution so that individuals are protected and human rights standards upheld.
It is worth noting that liberals see the government to be responsible in ensuring that no one is in need. The policies to be developed fully emphasizes that it is the role of the government to solve societal problems be they economic, social, environmental or political (Scott 42).
Decisions are usually made by the government without thorough consultations with other relevant stakeholders. A typical example of how liberals believe the government should work is by passing laws and policies that will help deter some social ills such as corruption, prostitution, murder among others.
It is no doubt that liberals believe that the government need to force individuals as well as organizations to comply with existing laws and policies (Scott 201).
Conclusion It is evident that liberals and conservatives hold varying views with regards to the role of the government.
Whereas liberal strongly believe that it is the role of the government to solve problems in the society, conservatives strongly believe that government should play a minimal role of only ensuring that the desired freedom is in place to ensure that individuals can realize their goals. Individual should exercise personal responsibility and solve problems.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of the Government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Ballou, Olivier. The Graphic Guide to Conservatism: A visual primer on the conservative worldview. London: Sage, 2011. Print.
Schneider, Gregory. Conservatism in America since 1930: A reader. New York: Wiley
“When the State Trembled” by Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell Essay (Book Review) college essay help: college essay help
When the State Trembled presents a comprehensive study of the history of the Canadian working class, labor strikes, and the country’s most famous industrial conflict .
The book is about the 1919 Winnipeg general strike that created a heat wave in the legal and historical arena regarding its impact on the nature of collective bargaining and a phase of social revolution.
The other strikes that the book discusses are the Regina Riot of 1935, Asbestos Strike in Quebec of 1949, and many other such movements in the Canadian labor history.
Kramer and Mitchell unearthed a large number of new archival records that helped them reconstruct the events during the strike in a completely new way.
The authors went on to analyze the Citizens’ Committee of One Thousand that comprised most of the powerful men of the city, used their power to bring into disrepute the strike.
The book uses the state “trembled” to represent two meanings: first is the threat posed by the unified city workers who went on a strike against the state machinery through their refusal to continue normal work and second, the congregation of the powerful businesspersons of the city who apprehended state authority to defeat the strikers.
The book, When the State Trembled, is about the famous Winnipeg General Strike of 1919. The event involved more than 30,000 labors and is considered to be Canada’s most famous strike.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the State Trembled presents the story of the strike from a different angle that had not yet been seen in the labor history i.e. through the point of view of the Citizens’ Committee of 1000.
The intention of the Committee was to regain normal working. However, the Committee, comprising mostly of the business class elites, failed to see the sentiment behind the strike, employed stern anti-strike measure, and ended up stigmatizing the strike as a criminal action. The root of the Citizen’s Committee lay at the pre-war antiunion mobilizations.
The Committee that was formed by all major businesses in Winnipeg, however, it was the core group of the Committee that directed the operations and decisions of the Citizens’ Committee.
Three lawyers who, through their legal knowledge, guided the Committee chiefly directed the Committee. Of the three, A. J. Andrews was the most influential and prominent leader. The book shows that it was A. J. Andrews and his tactical maneuvering helped the Committee attain victory.
Kramer and Mitchell in the book showed that the Citizens’ Committee took two distinct paths: first, are their similarities with the common Winnipeggers and the second, is the political wallop created by the federal policymakers.
The first consisted of the public propaganda conducted to discredit the strike. The authors unearthed the daily newspapers that were used by the Citizens Committee as a medium of propaganda during the strike e.g. Winnipeg Citizen.
They pointed out at powerful discourse of antistrike strike propaganda available through this particular newspaper. The authors point out the idea that the newspaper propaganda that could definitely demonstrate the actions undertaken by the Committee: “And only the Citizen could suggest the citizen’s best course of action.”
We will write a custom Book Review on “When the State Trembled” by Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main idea behind the book is represented by the single most ideal of the Committee to create a uniformed public opinion through the powerful discourse and project the strike as a harmful thing.
The authors have identified powerful discourses such as starving babies in order to prove the unconstitutional and derogatory status of the strike.
The presentation of the public documents by the authors is undeniable. The ignorance of the labor leaders led to their projection and comparison with those in Europe where a strike did lead to a revolution.
Handling problems such as food distribution and hampering of public health and work due to the strike led the Committee to replace the constitutional authority and negating the rising rhetoric in the pre-strike period of the downfall of capitalism.
Therefore, it was the strong discourse or propaganda of the led to make the strikers as communists and the Committee made racist attacks on the pro-strike war veterans accusing them of masterminding the strike.
The analytical approach of the authors also unearthed the private correspondence between A. J. Andrews and Arthur Meighen, the then acting minister of Justice:
Historians have mistakenly characterized Meighen … as the author of reaction, the antagonist in labor’s story. … However, during the Strike, Meighen and Andrews communicated regularly, and with the release (under the Access of Information Act) of the Meighen/Andrews correspondence, which previous historians had no access to, we can tell the full story of the Citizens’ Committee of 1000.
The private correspondence between Andrews and Meighen show that the federal government actually agreed to support the Citizens’’ Committee position of negating any form of negotiation with the strikers as it believed that the strike was a path to the European style revolution.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “When the State Trembled” by Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This led Meighen to give “loose” power to Andrews to deal with the strikers by appointing Andrews as the slackly defined delegate of the justice department to deal with the strikers.
This gave the Committee the leeway to decide on the actions to be taken against the strikers. Andrews took the opportunity to strongly deal with the strikers by doing what he and the other Committee members actually wanted i.e. to destroy the union.
Their main aim was to suppress the socialist extremism that was creeping into the working class of Winnipeg. Though Andrew regularly sent reports to Meighen regarding the proceedings and progress in dealing with the strike, he carefully manipulated the information he passed on in order to avoid any political awkwardness.
These letters of correspondence between Meighen and Andrews showed that the former was completed unaware of the ground realities and therefore, lacked control over the handling of the strikers. A communication of Andrews shows his judgment of the non-acceptable material:
Certain members of the Winnipeg Western Labor News Special Strike Edition have contained objectionable matter in that it is seditious, inflammatory and inciting to riot and this publication must be discontinued. NO more issues of this publication must be printed or circulated.
Andrew on the other hand was dedicated to finding evidence that would help in prosecuting the strikers. Andrews, determination to demolish the strikers, went ahead with the prosecution of the strikers under criminal law when the Immigration Act requested by the Committee proved to be too limiting.
He, singularly, convened a meeting of the Committee members and called upon a few government officials in order to make the list of the strike leaders to be detained.
Without any authorization given to him from the federal government, Andrews went ahead to arrest several leaders of the strike and started their trials.
Therefore, the authors point out that the private business houses had actually seized the wheel of state machinery and had started acting on their own accord to meet their own interests.
This therefore shows that the state was arrested by the private business houses comprising the Committee who wanted to do away with unionism and therefore, used this situation to meet their ends.
The most interesting part of these trials was that the federal government did not have any jurisdiction to arrest and put the strikers on trial.
Hence, these became private trials and neither the Committee nor the government wanted to explain such actions to the public. Therefore, the authors called Andrew as the “agent” of the government to hit against the strikers.
Kramer and Mitchell’s chronicle of the strike shows that it was the outright initiative of Andrews and few of his legal friends to be the reason why the Winnipeg Strike turned out to be the way it did.
By the end of the day, Andrews was a representative of the government but he ended up controlling the proceedings. Though his legal tactics were unconstitutional and unethical as he ended up fabricating a story of seditious conspiracy against the government and public long before the strike occurred.
The account presented by Kramer and Mitchell shows A. J. Andrews as the villain of the Winnipeg Strike who conspired and manipulated incidents, communication, and power to bring down a strong hand on the strikers to result in their consequent defeat.
Andrews was the mastermind behind the twisted stories, discourses, and manipulated communication to the Ministry of Justice demonstrating that the strikers were actively conspiring against the government.
The story of the Winnipeg strike is the most well known piece of Canadian labor history. Therefore, the question of its uniqueness in demonstrating a new angle to the strike is pertinent.
Does the book say anything new about the strike? Yes, the book does point out to a new aspect of understanding the greatest strike in Canadian history.
The book is different from the other accounts of the strike because Kramer and Mitchell re-write the story of the strike keeping the Citizens’’ Committee of 1000 at the heart of the events and making A. J. Andrews the leader of the anti-strike Committee.
The book presents that Andrews and two other colleagues Isaac Pitblado and Travers Sweatman, were lawyers but they had very close connection to the elite business class of Winnipeg.
Therefore, Andrews and the other’s neutral professional background helped them to pull a façade and helped in imposing bourgeois hegemony during the strike.
Andrews was a sharp trial lawyer, respected and feared, not so much because of his legal knowledge – which, as we will see, was sometimes faulty – but because he understood people.
Winnipeg’s leading businessmen would buttonhole him, looking for advice. When the General Strike dropped on Winnipeg, it wasn’t surprising that the acting minister of justice, Arthur Meighen – a lawyer … friendly with Andrews and Pitblado – would soon buy Andrews’s analysis of what sort of hell had broken out.
The intervention of the lawyers during the strike occurred at different levels. It was ideological, legal, as well as political and it was through the book it can first be observed that the success of the Committee, and mostly Andrews was in intervening in prosecuting the strikers and ending it.
The Committee achieved their goal of crushing the strike and prosecuting the strike leaders. Therefore, it reaffirmed the triumph of capitalism in a state economy.
The previous books on Winnipeg Strike of 1919 have usually been told through the point of view of the strikers and had focused mainly on workers, the leaders of the strike, and politicians.
This book shows how a strong elite public Committee (opinion) could manipulate the end of the strike. The Committee was a largely influential, but hitherto, unknown force in demonstrating the power of influence of the elite in negotiation with the strikers.
The Committee, which was previously an unknown side in the 1919 strike history, emerged as an important figure in the multi-sided interaction and communication between the federal government, intelligentsia, police, courts, and the strikers.
The book also shows that though the Committee was called Citizens’ Committee of 1000, there only a handpicked few who really enjoyed the real power and say in decision-making, and one of them was Andrews.
The book shows that in order to deal with a politically volatile situation it is important to undertake manipulation of the people with whom the real power vests; in this case, it was the two federal ministers Meighen and Gideon Robertson.
Andrews actually led a delegation to the Fort William and told the Meighen that a socialist style revolution was being staged at Winnipeg.
Andrews even persuaded Meighen to revise the Immigration Act to deport the British born strikers. The book recounts numerous stories of the Committee taking an active role in manipulating and influencing the decision against the Winnipeg strikers.
Are the claims of Kramer and Mitchell that the Citizens’ Committee of 1000 was the key influence to deal against the strikers overstated?
Probably note, as the members of the federal government were eagerly waiting for lobbyists and elites like Andrews and they secretly shared the same views.
The book presents the ideal setting for understanding lobbying, ideology, rhetoric, and power and how these can be successfully employed to negotiate with a striking community.
The book therefore, makes a compelling case of the state not managing the affairs of the bourgeois, but the other way round. They present a lot of primary sources to make a convincing story of the Committee successfully manipulating the government.
The Committee is demonstrated as a secret weapon of the business class elites who, through the core members like Andrews influenced the government and public opinion against the strikers.
This was done through the loose power vested by the government on a few members of the Committee who used it to demonstrate the strike to be a disorder, which was actually a “fictitious” fabrication.
The book closely relates to the course module as it presents a new way of looking at labor history in Canada. The book presents the real villain of the 1919 strike through the authors refuses to call Andrews as the villain as he worked with immense manipulative intelligence and insight.
The book presents a new light into the role played by lobbyists like Andrews who helped the business houses to meet their desired end by manipulation. The book is important for the course as it helps in unearthing the true story behind the relationship between the labors and business class elites.
Works Cited Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell. When the State Trembled: How A.J. Andrews and the Citizens’ Committee Broke the Winnipeg General Strike. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010. Print.
Diversity within Unity Essay best essay help: best essay help
Overview and Introduction Cultural diversity is a source of strength as well as weakness for many societies around the world. A multi-cultural society has the advantage of having a rich cultural environment but this diversity in culture can also be a source cultural tension and conflict (Fisher, 1994).
Educational institutions are the most affected by the potential negative impact of a multi-cultural environment, thus, creating the need to implement policies for dealing with cultural issues in schools (Freire, 1985).
The aim of this paper is to analyze critically the ways of dealing with cultural diversity issues facing educational institutions as presented in the article Diversity within Unity by Banks, Cookson, Gay and others.
The Concept of Diversity as Discussed in the Article Diversity in the article refers to cultural, ethnic and language differences in the context of the American society. The cultural landscape in the US is becoming increasingly diversified mostly due to the high number of immigrants that join the nation each year (Feagin, 1994).
This number is estimated to be around one million. Most of the immigrants are Africans and Asians who have different cultural and language backgrounds from those of the natives of the US.
A high percentage of the immigrants are youth who join educational institutions in the country including high schools, colleges, and universities and they only use English as their second language (Dahl, 1998).
Though this influx of new cultures has the positive impact of enriching the nation’s cultural environment it also harbors the potential effect of dividing the country along cultural lines.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is need, therefore, to emphasize the common aspects of all the different cultures in the US in a bid to foster cultural cohesion and create a united nation.
The best way to achieve this unity would be through encouraging multi-cultural cohesion in schools through both instruction and by emphasizing inter-cultural interactions among students (Fine, 1991).
Analysis of the Philosophical Perspectives Advocated in the Article The article identifies various principles which the management of educational institutions in the US should implement in order to promote cultural cohesion amongst students. These principles are as follows:
Professional Development Programs for Teachers
The article advocates for teachers and educators to undergo professional development programs in which they can learn how culture, language, ethnicity and social classes affect students’ learning and behavior.
By taking such programs, teachers and educators will be in a good position to prevent the negative influence that culture, ethnicity, social class and language background may have on learning.
Offering Equitable Opportunities for Learning
The article calls for schools around the US to offer equal learning opportunities to students irrespective of their cultural, ethnic or social background in order to foster a sense of equality amongst students.
According to the article, the current curricula that are being taught in the US schools should be changed and new ones developed which embrace all cultures including the minority groups. The current curricula are biased towards the majority groups in the country.
We will write a custom Essay on Diversity within Unity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Providing Equal Opportunities for Extra- and Co-curricula Activities
Extra- and co-curricular activities such as sports and academic associations enhance students’ learning and performance. Students of all cultures, races and ethnicities should be encouraged to participate in these activities so as to promote cultural interactions as well as learning.
Creation of Super Ordinate Groups
Super ordinate groups are groups whose purpose would incorporate all cultural groups. Such groups could be based on grade levels in school, age, sex, etc. Super ordinate groups create cohesion among different cultures.
Teaching Students about Stereotypes
Stereotypes result from categorization of people into groups and the belief that a person’s group is superior to other groups. It is crucial to teach students about the fallacies of stereotypes and how they develop so that students can avoid believing in them.
Teaching Common Cross-Cultural Values
There are some values which are shared by all cultures such as justice, equality, and fairness. Teaching these values to students in a multi-cultural environment promotes the sense of egalitarianism amongst them which enhances social cohesion.
Imparting Social Skills on Students
Helping students to acquire social skills is one of the best ways of promoting inter-cultural interactions. Teachers should encourage students to learn and understand the behavior of other cultures as well as how to resolve and mediate intercultural conflicts amicably.
Implications of the Principles in a Specific Educational setting According to the above principles, promoting cultural cohesion in educational institutions is necessary to avoid inter-cultural conflict. The way to achieve this is by emphasizing on the common aspects of different cultures and playing down the differences.
Recommendations and Conclusion Cultural diversity is beneficial to a society by virtue of cultural richness but at the same time it could be a source of conflict and social tension. This situation is most apparent in schools where cultural diversity is depicted at its best.
There are various strategies that could be used to promote cultural cohesion in educational institutions not only in the US but around the world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Diversity within Unity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These strategies or principles should focus on emphasizing the similarities between different cultures and underplaying the differences.
References Dahl, R. (1998). On democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Feagin, J. R.,
Corruption and Bribery in the Oil Sector of Angola Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Corruption and Bribery in the Oil Sector
Management of Oil Reserves
Introduction Corruption is one of the big problems in various developing countries that are rich in oil. It has been considered to be pervasive and an important element of resource curse. Corruption has always been extreme in Angola and Nigeria and billions of US dollars have been disappearing.
Most of the disappearing billions are from kickbacks, and this has led to the concentration of the wealth into few hands. Since the countries are endowed with resources, they are said to suffer from the resource curse. Angola is considered to be the second oil produce after Nigeria.
Angola receives a lot of money from various oil companies in the form of signature bonuses that are received before the signing of contracts. The oil wealth has been to line and oil the wallets of the elite and political class within the society.
Unbridled corruption is the norm in the oil economies. In Angola, the aid agencies have estimated that billions of dollars have been lost in royalty payments through corruption.
Corruption and Bribery in the Oil Sector A lot of oil revenues have disappeared from government coffers according to the reports by the Human Rights Watch and Global Witness. There has been evidence according to studies undertaken in France and Switzerland about the bribes that are given to the president of Angola Eduardo Dos Santos, and it is by no coincidence that he is the Richest Angolan.
Corruption is the main bane of the Nigerian development, and this has eroded the benefits of oil wealth. Corruption is endemic in the Nigerian economy with oil serving to distort the oil structure. The Nigerian domestic refineries have been laid into waste due to the rampant cases of mismanagement and corruption.
It is by no coincidence that Nigeria is ranked as the third most corrupt country in the world. The corruption in Nigeria is manifested in various media sources and tribunals that have been established to investigate some cases of financial impropriety on the government officials (Jerome, Adjibolosoo
Social Influence on Bullying in Schools Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction There is no globally agreed definition of bullying. Tattum (1993) defines bullying as, “the desire to hurt or put someone under pressure”.
Bullying is the most malicious and malevolent form of deviant behavior widely practiced in schools and yet it has received only scant attention from national and local authorities (Tattum
Calambra Oil Company Case Study essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
The marketing mix
Plan for the 1994 remaining oil
Introduction Frank Lockfeld faces the dilemma of deciding on the number of olive oil gallons to manufacture for the year 1994. Besides, Lockfeld has not assessed the viability of market of the preceding year sales, and thus has to rely on assumptions.
As such, this manuscript mulls over Calambra Oil Company, thereby assessing measures that Lockfeld may apply to minimize losses in his recent business endeavor.
The marketing mix The 4P’s of the marketing mix entails preparing the right goods and services, considering the needs of customers. It is evident that Calambra manufactures the best oil, as it has been voted in California severally.
Besides, the products ought to be at the most apposite price, whereby the intended consumers can pay for. This is a challenging issue for Lockfeld thus forcing him to make a well-informed decision in order to avoid looming losses.
In addition, the products ought to be in a proper place for customers to have adequate access. Additionally, business people ought to promote their products in order to have a niche, in the competitive market.
California offers a viable market for Lockfeld’s olive oil. Besides, he endeavors to expand the market to North California, along with other places.
In my opinion, Lockfeld has successfully applied the correlation of the 4P’s in the marketing mix. Though he has not assessed the 1993 sales, it is evident that his company’s name has created its name in the available market. As a result, this has given him a major boost in the competitive Californian market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Market Viability The Californian population provides a steady market for the Calambra Company olive oil due to its excellent quality, owing to the use of the premium black olives. Besides, the oil acquired the first position, beating 21 competing oil manufacturers.
However, stiff competition still poses a great challenge for the firm, since it places its products at a high price. Fortunately, the firm boasts of steady and loyal consumers thus giving Lockfeld a niche over his competitors. Besides Lockfeld’s accentuated that the oil is from California, boost his markets, owing to the fact that local people are willing to promote more local products.
Gallons Quantity The number of gallons that Lockfeld should produce poses a serious dilemma to him, since he dreads incurring losses in his new endeavor. As such, he has to make careful and well-informed decisions. His decision on the quantity of gallons to order will be based on various aspects.
For instance, though he has not received the 1993 sales information, he may project on the current 1993 sales. Moreover, he ought to project on the current 1994 market viability. Lockfeld plans to purchase about 3000 gallons as part of the viability test, based on his projection.
Plan for the 1994 remaining oil It is clear that the firm will not sell all its oil. As such, it is crucial to pre-plan for the remaining oil. This will aid in playing down the losses that it may experience. Lockfeld should set preservation measures for the remaining gallons. Besides, they may be sold at a lesser price and thus reduce the involved reduced earnings.
The Profit and Loss Assumption