Should Companies Buy Or Lease Vehicles? Report Custom Essay Help

Table of Contents Executive Summary


Problem definition

Research objectives




Executive Summary The question as to whether companies should lease or buy vehicle can best be answered from a case by case analysis. There are several issues that first have to be addressed in order to answer the question.

Businesses need to bear in mind that both options are financing alternatives. When it comes to that time when a business needs a car, chances are high that most businesses will first investigate the monthly payments and go for the cheaper option (Sweeney, 1999). However, analysts argue that businesses do not need to rush for the cheaper options.

They first need to stop and consider all the things that are required to form part of their decisions. This study sought to evaluate the two options of either buying or leasing a car for businesses entities by weighing the benefits and disadvantages involved with both. Drawn from the findings, it is better for businesses to lease a car than buying a new one especially if the business depends on the car for its daily operations.

Introduction There is a difference between leasing and buying a car. In leasing, a user pays for using the car and not for the car itself. The payment of the lease does not only cover the cost of using the car but also the depreciation that comes about as a result of using the car. Just as in most assets, cars depreciate in value over time.

Therefore, the lessee is expected to make payments for using the car within the period of the lease. Sometimes the monthly payments can shoot up if the lessee uses the car frequently and vice versa. The lessee is also responsible for the maintenance of the car until the end of the lease period (Az-Oxlade, 2000). Once the lease term ends, the lessee has the option to buy the car but at its residual value at the time of return. Even though this explanation can look simple, leasing a car requires one to consider a lot of factors.

Unlike leasing, buying simply refers to making purchase for the whole car. Once a company or a business makes the full payment for a car, it owns it. They do not have to return after a period of time. However, the buyer has the option of selling the car at its residual value or trading it in with another car (Henry, 1997).

Since the last three decades, the idea of leasing cars has become common among people because of its attractive nature. Leasing a car offers the user an opportunity to drive a new one after the end of the offer. Car dealers have been using appealing ways of advertising their deals to encourage people to lease for cars.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, some of the dealers would offer low attractive payments and no down payment. Generally people with the desire to drive new cars after a period of few years should opt for the leasing option. However, it is still possible to buy a new car after a period of few years and trade in or sell the old one.

Problem definition One of the biggest problems that business face in regards to having a car is making the decision to either have the car leased or bought. Both options have their positive and negative sides. However, the choice remains with the business owners.

Research objectives This report seeks to evaluate the two options of either buying or leasing a car for business owners. It assesses the advantages and disadvantages of both sides and seeks to develop a solution for business owners who are faced with this dilemma.

Findings Leasing has been described by many to be an easy way of getting a car. The process involved is very simple and one can easily be appealed into securing a lease offer. During a lease, one makes monthly payments for using the car. Leasing has an advantage for businesses because they do not have to own the car.

The cost of purchasing a new car may be high for a business to afford. However, the same business may have the finances to make monthly payments for leasing a car and use the car to aid its operations. The monthly payments for leasing a car are usually low and sometimes one does not have to make a deposit.

The payments can be considered as tax write offs which is an advantage to the lessee. In other words, tax write offs imply that the business will pay for the car, as a result money will be saved. A business can also insure a leased car in case of theft, damage, or loss; although the insurance policy is usually high than the normal policy for purchased car because of the nature of circumstances involved (Chappell, 2008).

If the car is to be owned by a business, tax considerations have to be taken into account. The business has to ensure that it has a steady flow of cash in order to get into a lease deal. This will enable the business to confidently make the monthly payments without failure. During the process of price negotiation, it is important for businesses to disconnect the negotiations from the financing methods. The two areas are completely different since they involve separate issues (Stoller, 2011).

We will write a custom Report on Should companies buy or lease vehicles? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Leasing is also good for businesses because they do not have to pay for the cost of repair. Leasing is only done on new car. One cannot lease old cars as it is better to buy an already used car than leasing it.

If a car is to be purchased and used primarily for the purpose of business, companies have to consider the internal revenue code. The code helps to create limitation on the annual deductions resulting from depreciation. In this way, a company will find it hard to write off the car within a short period of time. If the car is an expensive luxurious car, the period required for a company to write it off will even be higher.

Another important consideration is the length of time that the car is to be used. For a business, it is better if cars are renewed after a period of time. This ensures that the cars used are constantly in good condition to service the operations of the business. New cars make work more efficient and bring good reputation and a positive image to the business.

Assuming that the leased car is in good shape at the end of the lease, the company only needs to hand over the its keys and be given the keys for a new car, of course after signing a new deal. However, if a company had bought the car brand new, three years later, it will require selling the car. The process of finding a buyer for such a car is tedious and sometimes they may end up settling at a raw deal.

On the negative note, leasing may become costly especially if the lessee is exceeds the allowed mileage. There are additional costs charged if a user goes beyond the mileage allowed. The charges are based on per-mile covered. The charges can range from 10 to 20 cent per mile.

Normally, the permitted mileage is 15000 miles every year. In addition, the only time when one is expected to pay for repair is when the car is wrecked beyond tear. Another disadvantage of leasing is that when one wants to bail out from the agreement, the charges that they have to pay may be too hefty depending on the leasing company. The charges can be as high as a six month worth of payment.

Conclusion It is cheaper for businesses to lease a car if they intend to meet this need of regularly renewing cars. If for instance, a business is to buy new cars after every 2 years, there might be a problem selling off the cars or trading them in with other cars. A close analysis of the both situations reveals that leasing is the better option in such a situation.

Leasing out a car is more disadvantageous to individuals using the car for personal use than to than to companies using the car for business use. A business may not have to worry about having equity as long as its operations are efficient and effective. This implies that owning a car for business use may not always be necessary. As long as the business is confidence of a regular cash flow, then the issue of making monthly payments becomes simple.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Should companies buy or lease vehicles? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Az-Oxlade, G. E. (2000, July 7). Thinking of leasing a car? Prepare yourself and get a better deal. Chatelaine, p. 28.

Chappell, K. (2008, March 5). Auto Financing: leasing versus buying. Ebony, p. 56.

Henry, E. (1997, April 4). Buying a car: The dream and the reality. Kiplinger’s Personal Finance Magazine, pp. 79-82.

Stoller, J. (2011, September 6). Buying or leasing vehicles? Purchasing B2B, p. S22.

Sweeney, K. (1999, February 5). How To Decide Between Buying And Leasing A Car. Investor’s Business Daily, p. B01.


The Wine Market in the United States Qualitative Research Essay essay help

Case analysis It is evident that the wine market in the United States is growing tremendously. The same can be evidenced in European countries. The improvement of the wine quality in recent years has proven that the demand for the product is high, especially in the United States. Moreover, the competition for the US market as a strategic and high priced wine market is an indication that the market is growing with time.

Moreover, the resuscitation of the old world wine producers in the European countries is an indication that wine market is yet to saturate. Over the years, the demand of wine has fluctuated as can be evidenced in the case study of the global wine war. Some of the factors that has affected this demand include, price, customer preferences, market distance, chain of distribution and wine quality (Anderson 278).

On the other hand, the supply of the wine has been affected by the following factors; the price of the product, wine producing technology, the price of related products such as beer, the climatic conditions of the wine producing countries and subsidies given to wine producers or grapevine growers. In the following discussions, the above aspects will be outlined in an in-depth manner.

As earlier indicated, the wine market is growing rapidly. An example of such is exemplified in the US wine market. It is asserted that with time a new generation of wine consumers started to prefer wine compared to conventional alcohol consumers in America. From this perspective, it is notable that majority of the Americans are used to liquor and beer (Bartlett 3).

However, with time, majority of the alcohol consumers started to understand the health benefits that are accrued from taking wine. As a matter of fact, American wine producers could not satisfy the domestic market, prompting more wine to be imported from the old world’s wine producers.

Another justification of the expanded market of wine is that some of the old world wine producers had already started to battle for a ready market of wine in America. The competition was largely contributed by price and quality factors. The Europe’s advance on the American market through various tactics is an example of a promising wine market. An example of such is evidenced by the subsidized marketing on wine products.

As a matter of fact, the subsidizing of these products is as a result of a European Union policy on agriculture. On the other hand, the American US producers have taken another role of rebranding the foreign wines as their own. Examples of such wine are the Italian wines; Ecco Domania and the Bella sera wines.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to determine the demand of wine in the wine industry, one has to consider the various factors that influence the commodities’ demand. In this case, the wine’s demand has incredibly changed or fluctuated over time. First, the price of the wine in old world wine producers was relatively high.

This is due to the fact that, wine was only associated with class and prestige. The increasing of the price affected the demand of the product and in due time, the demand of wine had reduced in many of the old world wine producing countries. Example of such is evidenced in Chile, Argentina and in Spain.

The entrance of the new world wine producers, namely; US and Australia, saw the reverse of this demand. The two countries ensured that wine was produced with the newest technology and made available at lower prices to many of the wine consumers. Relatively, this increased the demand for wine. America has a lot of alcohol consumers and their preference sometimes depends on the price of the commodity.

In the same context, the consumers’ preferences will determine the demand of the product in question. In case of the American wine consumers, most of them preferred the foreign wines. This was after the domestic wine producers in America started to increase the price of their wines (6). Moreover, some of the wine consumers in America believed in the authenticity of the wine blended in the old world.

This affected the demand of the local American-made wines, prompting for more wine imports into the country. Another reason that affects the demand of wine in America is the price of other alcoholic drinks such as beer and liquor (Bartlett 3). As indicated earlier, majority of the conventional Americans are used to beer and liquor. Beer and liquor can be termed as substitutes to alcohol. Since the prices of the two substitutes are relatively lower than wine, the demand for wine goes down.

However other factors such health benefits make more of the Americans consume wine than other alcoholic drinks. However, a higher demand on wine does not make beer and liquor inferior. The superiority of a commodity depends on the preference of the consumer. Majority of the wine consumers in the US are well endowed people, well educated and internet savvy. According to the case study on the global wine wars, the US wine clientele is also termed as price-sensitive (6).

This exhibits the sophistication of the US wine consumers. This means that they have the ability to buy wine regardless of the price, but with certain considerations; utility. The wine consumers want to buy a product of value and which they consider as quality. This is the reason they prefer low-priced wine from foreign countries, and which they still believe is still of good quality.

We will write a custom Essay on The Wine Market in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Supply is another major aspect to consider when discussing the wine industry in the US. According to Amerine and Josyln (146), the supply of wine into the US market has been influenced by factors discussed herein. Firstly, the price of the commodity in the US was relatively high considering that the product was under strict regulations (Bartlett 2). On the other hand, most of the old world wine producers had little wine production capacity.

This made the new world wine producers monopolize their market territories making the price of the commodity go high. In most of the European countries, the price of the grapevines was bought relatively low by the merchants and other corporations that were involved in large-scale wine production. The price of essential factors that contribute to production of wine such as land or labor can either reduce or increase the supply of the commodity.

For example, the fragmentation of land in many of the European countries like Germany and UK reduced the supply of wine. In this case, farming of the grapevine was done in small-scale and only few growers supplied the vines. On the other hand, large tracts of land in both Australia and America were used as vineyards. With time, the new technology used in producing wine by the new world made it easier to reduce labor and all costs associated with land and production (4).

Therefore, this reduction of the production costs increased the supply of wine in the expanding of wine market. Thirdly, the government’s action to subsidize farmers who had vineyards and wine making companies ensured that some of the old world wine producers supplied more wine.

Works Cited Amerine, A., Maynard and Josyln, A., Maynard. Table wines: The technology of their production, Volume 2. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1970. Print.

Anderson, Kym. The world’s wine markets: Globalization at work. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2004. Print.

Bartlett, A., Christopher. Global wine war 2009: New world versus old. Harvard Business School Case Study, August 13, 2009. Print.


Impact of Environmental Changes in an Organization Report college essay help: college essay help

Introduction Studies reveal that change is steadfast and unchanging. The organizations that do not keep up with change end up being unstable. However, the long term survivability of such organizations is questioned. Events and situations happen in the business environment and they influence the manner in which businesses operate. They influence the performance of a business both in a constructive or destructive manner (Watkins, 2012).

These events or situations act as the environmental factors that influence the performance of organizations. External and internal situations are the major environmental factors that affect the performance of organizations. The goal of this paper is to discuss the manner in which changes in the business environment affect the performance of organizations. It will focus on changes in economic, cultural, technological and ethical environments.

Discussion Changes in the economic environment

Today, the economic environment acts as the key driver of major organizations in the world. This means that an organization needs to look for ways that can allow it to address the needs of its customers appropriately. The global market provides organizations with opportunities to expand their operations significantly (Watkins, 2012). As a result, it is the duty of managers to ensure that their organization embarks on the production of goods and services that meet the needs of the customers in the global market.

For example, the railway industry in the UK is adopting measures to help it cope with the changing economic forces. Changing lifestyles have made many people to own cars. This situation has made railway companies to adopt measures that will help them compete with road users effectively.

As a result, most railway companies are being privatized so as to ensure that they are properly managed. Moreover, they have been able to provide their customers with incentives that have enticed them to use rail transport. People’s living standards have changed drastically. As a result, most companies are investing funds to improve their infrastructure thereby allowing them to provide their customers with comfortable and reliable means of transport (Kirkup, 2012).

In this perspective therefore, it is evident that the railway industry in the UK is responding to the changes that are taking place in the global business environment. This situation has allowed the industry to address the needs of its customers in an efficient manner. As a result, most people now prefer to use rail transport because of the comfort and convenience it offers.

Changes in the cultural environment

The cultural environment plays an essential role in terms of boosting the productivity of an organization. Therefore, most organizations are responding to the needs of diverse cultural backgrounds in order to build customer loyalty and confidence (Watkins, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this perspective therefore, most banking institutions are engaging in reforms aimed at responding to the diverse needs of their customers. For example, Barclays has set up banking standards aimed at responding to the needs of its customers.

It has embarked on a legislation policy aimed at responding to the banking needs of its customers that will ensure that its customers are able to increase their returns on investment. In this perspective therefore, it is true that in order for an organization to win the confidence of its customers, it should study the cultural environment to help it understand the needs of its customers in an efficient manner (Stewart, 2012).

Changes in the technological environment

The field of technology is growing at a fast pace. As a result, global organizations are embracing technology to allow them boost their competitiveness and profitability in the market (Watkins, 2012).

For example, the Royal Academy of Engineering recently made a proposition that digital literacy, information technology and computer science should be taught to all people who have attained the age of five. This would make people to change their negative perception about the subject being dull. The goal of this initiative is to inform people that the subject is meant for the 21st century students and that it can make students to be creative and pervasive.

The Royal Academy of Engineering stipulated that digital literacy, information technology and computer science should be taught to children when they start going to school (Cookson , 2012). When children are exposed to technological concepts at an early age, they become innovative and creative. Therefore, when they find employment, they boost the productivity of their organizations significantly.

Changes in the ethical environment

The ethical environment is changing. The ethical environment plays an important role since it increases the customer base of an organization. This means that an organization needs to portray ethical behavior to its customers in order for it to gain their loyalty and confidence.

Therefore, to remain competitive in the global market, most organizations are engaging in green initiatives to help them build a sustainable customer base. For example studies reveal that low-carbon businesses in the UK provide a third of the growth that has been observed in the region. Moreover, approximately 1 million people in the UK have been employed by those organizations that offer green jobs (Harvey, 2012).

We will write a custom Report on Impact of Environmental Changes in an Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The green economy is regarded as the biggest source of growth in the region. However, most businesses in the UK are frustrated since the government is not paying significant attention to the issue of green businesses. For example, Michael Heseltine stipulated that wind energy will provide the energy-deprived regions with affordable supply of energy. Moreover, this initiative is expected to provide the region with opportunities for growth.

There are approximately 10 foreign companies in the UK which are considering investing in wind energy (Harvey, 2012). This is because the issue of green businesses is gaining popularity in most parts of the world. As a result, the businesses that will take advantage of this opportunity today are expected to boost their productivity significantly. Therefore, because of the urge to conserve the environment, most consumers are shifting to green organizations in order to ensure that the environment is not subjected to destruction.

Conclusion From the analysis therefore, it is true that in order for an organization to remain competitive in the market, it should adopt the changes that take place in the business environment today. The factors that influence the manner in which an organization copes with the changes in the environment include the economic environment, cultural environment, technological environment, and ethical environment.

Once an organization pays attention to these factors, it is able to respond to the changes that take place in the business environment in an efficient manner. This way, an organization is able to gain access to new production techniques and customer support skills thereby boosting its competitiveness in the market.

Reference List Cookson , C 2012, Willetts announces new school IT curriculum. Web.

Harvey, F 2012, Green economy is on the rise but remains to be fully exploited. Web.

Kirkup, J 2012, Investment in rail industry. Web.

Stewart, H 2012, Banking sector reform. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of Environmental Changes in an Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Watkins, R 2012, Business Environment, Pearson Custom Publishing, New York.


Antigone Essay (Movie Review) scholarship essay help

Antigone is a 1961 movie directed by Yorgos Javellas and produced by Demetrious Paris. In the movie, Irene Papas plays Antigone, Maro Kodou plays Ismene, and Creon is acted by Manos Katrakis. The movie was released in 1961 and it is based on the famous Greek tragedy. Several months ago, I decided to watch a black-and-white film version, an adaptation of Sophocles’s most famous play called Antigone. The movie was released in Greece and it involves Greek actors, which suits mythological themes recovered in the picture.

The film refers to the times of ancient Greece. King Oedipus invades Thebes and unintentionally kills his farther and marries his mother Jocasta. The King later has four children –two daughters, Ismene and Antigone, and two sons, Polyneices and Eteocles (Antigone).

After Oedipus’s death, Eteocle promises his father to reign with his brother by alternating their power annually. However, when Polyneices ascends the throne, he refuses to give power to his brother and gathers the army to confront Eteocle. However, when both brothers die in a battle, the king Creon decrees that only Eleocles deserves the honorable ritual of burial whereas Polyneices must be left unburied.

When Antigone learns about this, she decides to bury his brother herself. As soon as Creon is informed about Antigone’s decision, the king thinks that burying her alive in a tomb is the only punishment for her horrible deed. However, the heroine hangs herself after she is pushed in a tomb. Haemon, Creon’s son, tries to attack the king, but later he kills himself as soon as he finds Antigone’s body.

The story is based on the famous Greek tragedy Antigone written by Sophocles in 441 BC. The play, in its turn, is an extended version of Theban legend. Despite the fact that the film is based on fictional characters, it is premised on historical context as well. In particular, Antigone dates to the epoch of national rebellion in 441, when imperialist movement was on the rise.

The story also relates to numerous military expeditions of Greek leaders to expand imperial control and power. In the play, Sophocles criticizes anarchy and makes direct references to Athens. In general, the play does not touch on patriotic themes. On the contrary, it refers to analysis of moral themes typical of those times.

The movie was set in Greece and it features Greek landscapes and ancient interiors so that the atmosphere was skillfully rendered by the director. In the movie, several locations have been used, the mountainous setting, the buildings reminding of ancient Greek palaces, and the caves where the main characters were buried.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In such a way, the director has managed to describe the epoch, as well as demonstrate what challenges that main heroes faced. While watching the actor’s clothing and the building interior, it was possible to feel the air of time. Black-and-white version contributed to the entire idea of the picture.

In my opinion, the movie successfully reflects the epoch of imperialism when the Kings expanded new territories and were obsessed with gaining control over new lands. The story also accurately conveys the behavior and habits of ancient time because honor and respect were among the most important qualities that a person should possess. Therefore, the movie is not a patriotic account about achievements and courage of Greek military leaders; it is a story about love, compassion, betrayal, and independence as presented by Sophocles.

Works Cited Antigone. Ex. Prod. Demetrios Paris. Greece: Dinos Katsouridis, 1961. DVD.


The Effects of Slavery on the American Society Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

During the lead up of the American Civil War, national ideological focus changed to what is known as the slavery debate. This shift was particularly important for a nation that prides itself on the principles of liberty and freedom. This debate over whether the ethical issue concerned with slavery exploitation was protected under the Constitution of the United States heavily challenged fundamental doctrines of this free nation.

One shining example is former president Abraham Lincoln and democratic nominee Stephen A. Douglas’ series of unmediated political debates, which illuminated much on the country’s reliance on slave exploitation. Stemming from this invigorated interest, remarkable changes began to blossom into a new era of American literature, cinematography and media coverage.

Distinct writers, such us Richard Wright, used their literary works as a way of redefining discussion of race relations in the United States during the mid 20th century. Indeed, Wrights novel Native Son was the first best selling novel by an African American writer and heavily increased his respect as a novelist.

In his novel, Wright uses his main character, Bigger as an example of the average brute Negro and highlights his relation with white individuals. Bigger’s life is not only contrasted with that of white, but an evident feeling of race superiority can be acclaimed through Bigger’s feelings and actions.

Wright’s chief success in the novel is his ability to warn America that Bigger’s aggressions were provoked by the oppressing racist force society imposed on African Americans. The author urges for change and explains to the white people the reasons behind several savage acts that black individuals such as Bigger committed. The effects of slavery on the American people have also been documented by James Baldwin.

James Baldwin an African American novelist and social critic of the mid 20th century presented Everybody’s Protest Novel: Notes of a Native Son, as a way of criticizing Richard Wright’s Native Son for portraying Bigger as and angry and violent black male.

Although Baldwin tackles issues against race in American and Europe, he believes that “Below the surface of (Wright’s) novel there lies, as it seems to me, a continuation, a complement of that monstrous legend it was written to destroy[1] .”It is evidential that Baldwin disregards Wright’s novel and intends to honestly analyze an African American man’s experience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Specifically Baldwin condemns Wright by highlighting: “The failure of the protest novel lies in its rejection of life, the human being, the denial of his beauty, dread, power, in its insistence that it is his categorization alone which is real and which cannot be transcended[2].” Clearly, Baldwin’s Notes of a Native Son agrees with other African American authors, specially criticizing Wright’s abuse of naturalism and protest fiction in his novel.

Race intolerance is an extremely delicate topic in the United States. Slavery reinforces social prejudices and the forceful oppression against colored individuals during the mid 20th century.

The enslavement of African Americans in the United States opened wounds that until the date society cannot heal. Slavery has been the root of fear and the cause of violence of black individuals. Undeniably the society in which African Americans lived created an oppressive atmosphere that caused them to find its balance and identity relying on hostile actions.

All efforts to examine slavery through the lens of modernity makes it difficult to comprehend how individual’s supported and sustained an institution for centuries that degraded and dehumanized others for the exploitation of profit3. Slavery was a multidimensional practice that influenced economic thought in its time but also affected the social, cultural, and moral ethos of both its defenders and its destructors.

The slaveholder and the non slaveholder alike were sallied by maintaining a slave based society, and all individuals, whether they lived in the South or North, found their lives and times circumscribed by the necessities inherent in preserving slavery and preserving civil society simultaneously.

The response to this challenge led to the formation of a defensive posture that acknowledged the place of slavery in the natural order of the things and viewed abolitionist challenges to the peculiar institution as errant beliefs that would only produce social discord4.

Slavery played a significant role in the American politics in the nineteenth century. The legacies of slavery such civil rights, segregation and racial discrimination have dominated the current American society4. Slavery was a detrimental human servitude that put to test the very meaning and freedom of the American people. Slavery has had a significant impact on the political climate of the US. A number of experts hold the opinion that the early US was in fact defined by a relative lack of social differentiation3. The absence of class stratification in the American societies is also another outcome of slavery.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Effects of Slavery on the American Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The American Revolution is said to have reinforced the scientific, social, and economic sources of racism, a product of slavery. The American Revolution brought together an extended body of political thought within which the existence of slavery[3] could be tolerated only with the greatest difficulty.

Moreover, largely because it was the Revolutionary ideology and rhetoric which had prompted the debate over the nature of blacks and their place in the American society, that debate was concluded substantially within its context. Although religious inspiration and conviction accounted for a large proportion of individual manumissions and helped to promote antislavery, the scriptures themselves were ambiguous4.

They reinforced but rarely determined the course of the argument. If we are fully to appreciate, however, not only the extent but also the limitations in terms of the Revolutionary developments in approaches to slavery and race, then we must look at certain other trends in the American society which made their own contributions to the growth of more rigid patterns of racial prejudice and which lent their support to the view that it was necessary to resist slavery.

It has frequently been pointed out by historians that the very existence of any widespread antislavery sentiment in the Upper South was contingent upon the declining economic fortunes of the Tidewater region. During the last quarter of the eighteenth century, that region began the painful process of a major agricultural adjustment[4].

Until the middle of the eighteenth century the Negro’s place in the American society has been firmly institutionalized: he was a slave. The ideas central to the revolutions subjected the definition[5] to severe strains. Coupled with broad a humanitarian and religious impulses, they brought under fire the institution of slavery and promoted a destruction of the identity of the slave and Negro.

This demanded, especially of the South, a redefinition of society and its values; it demanded a cultural revolution to match the political evolution. The revolutionary debate promoted an articulation of ideas which had previously existed largely on the level of assumption4.

The process of articulation made hardened and rationalized those assumptions and thereby made them more difficult to dislodge. It focused attention on the multiracial nature of the American population and laid bare the anomalous position, which blacks occupied. Blame for the anomaly was almost inevitably heaped upon the hapless blacks themselves.

The outcome of the debate was largely influenced by existing prejudices, but this emerged from it stronger than ever. Articulation and definition gave them an authority and respectability which firmly established them as societal norms. Moreover, there seemed to be no countervailing forces to arrest this development apart from those contained in the dogma of the American creed.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effects of Slavery on the American Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It had become obviously by 1820, however, that the revolutionary of force that creed was inadequate to destroy slavery and the social structure that it endangered3. It had become equally obvious that that the universality of the creed could not stand before the vision of America as a white man’s country.

Nether failure is all that suspiring, of course. Success would have involved a fundamental reordering of American society. But the extent of the failure was considerable. The growing discrimination against blacks has to be set against the active democratization and liberalization of the white society. It is worthy of note, for example, that restriction of black suffrage rights in some Northern states introduced in the very constitutions which were concerned to expand the political privileges of other members of the community.

Furthermore, by 1820, the major lines of Southern antebellum development had been established3. While this development included a similar, but modified, process of political liberalization, it was to include also an ever more active and positive defense of slavery. The 1820s was indeed a crucial decade; but the roots of those developments themselves foreshadowed, the revolutionary and post revolutionary generations.

The revolution flattered to deceive; it promised more than it achieved3. The historian is faced with the sad paradox that the first great onslaught on slavery on America was impelled by egalitarianism and by a belief in universal and natural rights: but it helped to produce a positive racism and explicit denial of those rights4.

The most detrimental impact of slavery on the American society is that it gave birth to racism. Racist doctrine evolved in early colonial America to place humanity into compartmentalized groups based on distinctive, social, and mental traits, which presumably established a ranking founded upon the unilinear evolutionist thinking of the time.

Its practitioners sought to delineate bicultural boundaries, coinciding with innate and heritable mental and moral differences, as justification for a polarization of the races that led to the subsequent exploitation and oppression of the darker races of the world.

The slave system was somewhat color blind until religious, social, legal, and political legitimation within the infrastructure of the Americas became aligned with the racist doctrine fostered by environmentalist thinking of the nineteenth century. Racism has its roots in the legacy of transatlantic slave trade, as it was the trades that created the ideology of white supremacy as a justification or support for the forced migration of millions of Africans to Europe and America4.

Bibliography Baldwin, James. Everybody’s Protest Novel. Paris: Partisan Review, 1949.

Davis, Darién. Slavery and Beyond: The African Impact on Latin America and the Caribbean. Maryland: Rowman


Beowulf Essay (Movie Review) college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Information

The Plot

The Reality

The Setting


Works Cited

Information The film Beowulf (2007) was directed and produced by Robert Zemeckis. Such Hollywood celebrities as Anthony Hopkins (King Hrothgar), Angelina Jolie (Grendel’s mother) and Ray Winstone (Beowulf) starred in the movie.

Beowulf (2007) is based on the Old English epic of the same title. Notably, the movie is “the full-length motion picture” where actor’s movements rather than their appearance were captured (Jones 18). I watched it on DVD and I was impressed by the technique used. I was also interested in the story itself, of course.

The Plot Beowulf is a warrior who travels the world and fights against the evil. He comes to help King Hrothgar to defeat a monster, Grendel, which devastates his kingdom. The warrior manages to kill the monster, but Grendel’s mother comes and kills almost all Beowulf’s men. Hrothgar tells Beowulf that Grendel’s mother, the Water Demon, lives in a cave and Beowulf sets to kill her only to be seduced by the monster’s mother who takes the form of a beautiful woman.

Beowulf and Grendel’s mother make a deal and the warrior becomes the next king while the Water Demon gives birth to Beowulf’s son. Many years later, when Beowulf is old, the deal between him and Grendel’s mother is broken and Water Demon’s son, a dragon, attacks the kingdom. Beowulf manages to kill the dragon but is wounded and dies soon after.

The Reality As has been mentioned above, the movie is based on the epic. However, it is an interpretation rather than a screening as, though major events are quite close to the text, the characters are very different from the original. First, Beowulf is not a very good example of a conventional warrior of the Middle Ages as he is less masculine and he is half naked throughout most of the film. Grendel is also depicted as a victim rather than hideous monster that is to be destroyed.

Grendel is that bad because people do not like him. People cause great pain to his head, which is the reason why Grendel attacks. In the text, Grendel is the evil monster who needs blood and murders. In the original, there is nothing about Grendel’s father and the dragon’s origins. In the movie these are children of Hrothgar and Beowulf respectively.

The Setting As far as the setting is concerned, it is really specific. On one hand, the landscape is depicted true to life. However, the creators of the film were not that precise when it came to costumes, appearance and customs. Thus, the king is wearing something like a Roman toga instead of clothes worn by Vikings (Jones 20).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The movie reveals certain clichés depicting the court in the Middle Ages as a “site of uncivilized savagery” with “bad table manners and boorishness” (Jones 20). Clothes of Beowulf and his warriors do not correspond to the epoch either.

Evaluation However, irrespective of these differences, I would recommend young people to watch the film. In the first place, this can make them read the text itself. More importantly, the movie represents a contemporary vision of people’s past. It reflects values that reign in the contemporary society.

Of course, the movie has certain artistic value. It is novel in terms of the production as it is a motion picture. It is also properly made. The performance is very good and the story develops at a proper pace. Therefore, the viewer will enjoy the great movie and will be able to think of history and development of the human society.

Works Cited Jones, Chris. “From Heorot to Hollywood: Beowulf in Its Third Millennium.” Anglo-Saxon Culture and the Modern Imagination. Ed. David Clark and Nicholas Perkins. Rochester, NY: Boydell


Columbia’s Last Flight by Langewiesche Essay college admissions essay help

The reading under analysis is called Columbia’s Last Flight and is introduced by Langewiesche. In particular, the story reveals the journalist’ investigation and research on the reasons for the space shuttle disaster happened in February1, 2003.

The author focuses on preliminary construction terms, NASA’s response to the tragedy, further investigations, and alternative methods for averting the tragedy. In addition, the author pays attention to negligent attitude of engineers and operators to risks detected at the preliminary stages of the shuttle launch.

At the very beginning of the article, the journalist outlines the underpinnings for the flight, including the construction terms, as well as the importance and the purpose of the mission. In particular, Langewiesche emphasizes that the space shuttle journey was not of the primary importance, although the construction deadline was under the great pressure.

Further considerations were dedicated to the accident, as well as to the events connected with it. In particular, the author focuses on the lack of awareness and failure of communication between the flight control board and the shuttle which became decisive factor influencing the tragedy.

In the reading, the journalist insists that the shuttle was damaged by the foam block that broke off the fuel tank and struck the shuttle’s left wing. Despite the fact that the damage was noticed, “…the shuttle program managers…had dismissed the incident as essentially unthreatening” (Langewiesche 61). However, ignorance and improper assessment of the situation contributed to further irreversible complications.

Further in the reading, the author refers to the analysis of investigation procedures and NASA’s responses to the tragedy. In fact, NASA’s representatives rejected the idea of foam block damaging the left wing because the latter was made of temperature-proof material that was strong enough to resist even the most powerful hit. As a result, the NASA’s reputation was at stake because further explorations and discoveries justified negligence of the engineers and constructors.

Apart from improper management of the construction process and lack of communication and reporting between the shuttle and the Space Center, there was a significant lapse in risk management. Specifically, Langewiesche discusses the alterative ways that the engineers could have employed during the rescue operation. On the one hand, launching the second shuttle to safe the crew was a risky business because there was a possibility of losing two shuttles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, a carefully arranged contingency plan can save the lives of seventh people. The latter variant, however, also presupposes significant costs, which did not motivated NASA’s leaders. The journalist notes, “for all their willingness to explore less likely alternatives, many of NASA”s managers were stubbornly closed-minded on the subject of foam” (Langewiesche 73). Once again, the author emphasizes inconsistent approach of the government to the incident.

At the end of the story, Langewiesche confesses that the details of the tragedy are quite sophisticated due to the involvement of technical, moral, and ethical issues. The human factor is also emphasized because all the parties involved in the issue failed to reach a consensus concerning the actual reason for the damage.

Nevertheless, all aspects in total had become lethal for the seven pilots on the board of the cosmic shuttle. The story also provides many lessons to be learnt that relate specifically to the communication and crisis management. Specific attention should also be given to NASA’s reputation and their response to the disaster.

Works Cited Langewiesche, William. “Colambia’s Last Flight: The Inside Story of Investigation and the Catastrophe it Laid Bare”. The Atlantic Monthly, (2003): 58-87. Print.


Relying on Senses: Concerning the Physicalism. Information vs. Experience Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents The Knowledge Argument Summary: Concerning the Key Ideas

Lewis’s Main Argument: Reading between the Lines

Against the Knowledge Argument: Joining Lewis’s Ranks

Works Cited

The Knowledge Argument Summary: Concerning the Key Ideas The process of the world cognition must be one of the most complicated ones that occur in a human mind. Indeed, the ability to make a coherent logical transition from experiencing a certain feeling to obtaining information, processing it and memorizing for the further use is what makes the human brain such an amazing organ.

However, some of the stages of the cognition process remain quite obscure despite the fact that the world science has developed considerably, having explained a number of peculiar phenomena, the question whether recognizing a certain object or issue and learning about its key properties can be considered the process of cognition or the process of physical perception is yet to be solved.

To be more exact, physical properties represent all the information that one can possibly obtain about a certain object, which is why the five senses are enough for learning all the essential information.

Lewis’s Main Argument: Reading between the Lines According to Lewis, the five senses of a human being are enough to learn everything that is needed to understand the functions and the properties of a certain object. While Jackson insists that there is more than the tangible image of an object, Lewis still makes it clear that, with the help of the five senses, one can obtain the required information about a certain thing within practically no time.

On the one hand, the argument is solely about the means of cognizing the reality. However, when digging a bit deeper, one will realize that there is more to this argument than meets the eye. Admitting that there are only the tangible parameters of a certain object or thing to recognize, Lewis makes it clear that the process of cognition consists only of obtaining a certain kind of information about the object in question.

On the contrary, Jackson explains that there is more to learning about a certain object than considering its properties; according to Lewis the process of studying an object is a process of cognition and learning, which can be possibly followed by practicing the newly obtained skills.

Against the Knowledge Argument: Joining Lewis’s Ranks It seems that Lewis’ argument is more valid than the one that Jackson presents. While both scholars offer sufficient pieces of evidence to back their ideas up with, there is still a grain of uncertainty about the arguments which Jackson makes. While the latter makes it clear that the process of cognition is a natural stage of experiencing a certain phenomenon, he still misses the fact that the process of recognizing the object’s properties comes first. Hence, the cognition process can be considered a result of the latter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the peculiarities of short-term memory must be taken into account. It is clear that a human memory cannot retain all the experiences which one has had over the day; therefore, the experience element in the process of cognition might be insignificant (for instance, in identifying an obstacle on the road).

In the above-mentioned example, the role of the five senses is obvious, while the experience and the conclusion which the experience should lead to are unclear. Hence, one can assume that Lewis’ ideas are closer to the truth than the ones of Jackson.

Works Cited Jackson, Frank. Lewisian Themes: The Philosophy of David K. Lewis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 2004. Print.

Lewis, David. “Knowing What It’s Like.” Theories of Mind: An Introductory Reader.

Ed. Maureen Eckert. Lanham, MD: Rowman


Disaster of Columbia shuttle Essay best essay help

In this chapter James Surowiecki describes the events that led to the Columbia shuttle disaster and explains the factors that contributed to this catastrophe. First of all, the author mentions that during the launch of Columbia a large piece of foam was broken off and smashed into the wing of the shuttle.

The thing is that that the members of the Mission Management Team (MMT) knew about this event, but they convinced themselves that it did not pose a significant threat to the crew. More importantly, the findings of the Debris Assessment Team (DAS) were not properly investigated. So, poor decision-making within the NASA led to the death of seven astronauts. In his book, James Surowiecki analyzes organizational factors that can explain unsatisfactory performance of the MMT team.

First of all, people, who took part in this project, were extremely firm in their conviction that there had been no defects with Columbia. This is one of the reasons they rejected the request to take photographs of the shuttle in order to estimate the impact of the foam on the shuttle.

The problem is that they did not know much about the possible quality of these images. This is why they lacked evidence when analyzing the situation and evaluating risks. James Surowiecki believes that it is a form of confirmation bias when people choose to see that they want to see. Moreover, such situations exemplify such a phenomenon as groupthink. It occurs when separate individuals do not want to contradict the opinions of their superiors.

Furthermore, James Surowiecki notes that when the member of the MMT team realized the extent of the threat, they came to the conclusion that nothing could have been done. Yet, after the investigation, it became clear that there could be at least two ways of rescuing the Columbia crew. These examples demonstrate that poor decision-making can have significant implications for people’s lives.

Apart from that, James Surowiecki argues that such organizational behavior can in part be explained by the culture of the NASA. In the past, this organization recruited people who had worked in various industries. It was more likely that they could have different views on the same question or problem.

Yet, nowadays, the employees come to the NASA mostly from graduate schools. Very often they may not be experienced in such discussions. In many cases, the employees may be reluctant to voice their disagreement with those people, who occupy a higher position in the workplace hierarchy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the writer attempts to explain the reasons why group discussions in organizations may not be very productive. In his opinion, some members of the team can dominate others, while the opinions of more reserved people can be overlooked. James Surowiecki refers to empirical studies demonstrating that teams are more likely to take better decisions than separate individuals, if team members can openly exchange ideas. The task of a leader is to ensure that communication within a group is not hindered in any way.

James Surowiecki emphasizes the necessity of looking at the same question or problem from different angles. More importantly, people should express these different views on during discussions or meetings. Only, in this way, organizations can avoid tragedies like the collapse of Columbia. The issues discussed by the author are relevant to many organizations that consist of many divisions or discussions.