Sexual Content In Broadcast Media: United States Case Essay A Level English Language Essay Help

United States Case Study The television was invented around 1925 but became popular in 1950s, and in America, there were more than 50million television sets in use during that period. Nearly every living room in America had a TV. Questions were then raised about the content, whether to regulate it or not, and how to regulate it. The television and radio were similar in some ways: both were broadcasted through airwaves (before cable), and both were regulated by the federal government. This paper shall discuss these issues in depth.

Since the beginning of broadcast regulation, there were not enough channels for all who wished to broadcast their information, the electromagnetic spectrum had been deemed to be a publicly owned natural resource. The “scarce public resource” then made simple come up with broadcast regulation basis.

Both television and radio broadcasters operated under the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). With this, broadcasters applied, for licenses, to use a section of the “public property”, a definite frequency (UCSB SexInfo Online n.p.). Broadcasters, on the other hand, had a duty to serve the society’s interests. The obligation requires a licensee to ascertain the society’s needs and then provide a service to cater for those needs of the society. The FCC has the right to censor or restrict content with obscene material, requires fairness in political programming and segment broadcast percentages for certain content, for example, content for “public use” (Kaarina 233).

Obscene programming is considered whereby an average person, with contemporary community standards, finds the material appealing to the prurient interest; the content demonstrates or defines sexual behavior in an offensive way; the material lacks literary, political, artistic or scientific value. Indecent programming is whereby the contemporary community standards measures the broadcast medium and describes excretory or sexual activities and organs in the broadcast (Kaarina 231).

Indecent material was prohibited in the 1950s but later it was only aired after hours when the children have slept. The meaning of “indecent content” has changed over time. The National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters (Center for Media Education 5) then came up with ways to call for censorship whereby there was self-censor with decency standards and production codes.

The first Amendment of the US Constitution declares that the congress shall not make any law that will abridge the freedom of speech or the freedom of the press (Perebinossoff 234). However, the state legislatures and the congress have tried to hold back speech that is considered indecent, harmful to minors, obscene or injurious to children, such as pornography (Perebinossoff 234). Common legislation seeking to regulate media content is seen mostly in an election year.

The US content regulation differs by the medium of expression. The 1st Amendment projection has affected the print publications to the highest degree. Radio and Television, on the other hand, have enjoyed the least protection degree. Initially the Fairness Doctrine and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) required broadcasters to have time to reply to those who said their views were criticized (Center for Media Education 24).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That rule was then killed in 1987. Another rule that still stands till now is the “equal time law” for the political candidates. The broadcasters are restricted to barring the transmission of profane material, obscene content or indecent material over the airwaves. These rules do not apply to print publications.

Congress has tried repeatedly to tackle this problem. However, their efforts have been in vain. They came up with the Communications Decency Act, 1996, which was struck down as unconstitutional. It then came up with Child Online Protection Act (COPA), 1998, which still remains in a legal uncertainty.

It went ahead and came up with the Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA), 2000, which has been upheld by the Supreme Court of the country (Wayne 234). CIPA facilitated the use of technologies to filter and keep off pornographic content from computer screens in schools and libraries which received funds from the federal government.

Indecent content is material which contains excretory or sexual material that is not at the level of obscenity and is clearly offensive. The First Amendment protects indecent speech though the Supreme Court has held it back. The high court allowed restriction of indecency for some certain main, for instance, TV and radio broadcasts. The same court recently disallowed Congress proscribing of indecent material on the internet or cable TV.

The Federal Communications Commission’s rule of banning obscene and indecent material from being broadcasted on the radio or TV was backed by the Supreme Court. The Court established a public interest in the prevention of transmission of questionable material via broadcast medium, from 6.00am to 10.00pm. From 1978 up to around 2004, the FCC enforcement of rules against indecency was limited, that was until the Janet Jackson and Bono sagas.

Janet Jackson, who was considered “the infamous wardrobe malfunction”, on February 1, 2004, was featured in the Super Bowl XXXVIII which was aired by CBS (Gunter 67). The show featured many celebrities, including Kid Rock in a poncho from an American flag cutout. Dancers repeatedly grabbed their crotches writhing to the music. In the finale, Justin Timberlake ripped one side of Janet Jackson’s bustier which then exposed her right breast to hundreds of millions of viewers in a split of a second.

Many viewers were not sure of what they saw until the radio, internet, and newspapers accounted on the next day. Others wanted to have a second look. Hence, the show became the most replayed over the TiVo digital video recorders. CBS was fined by the FCC $3.5 million, the highest penalty ever, for this and other indecency violations. CBS refused, insisting that the incident was not planned for, which then turned around to the 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals in Philadelphia and challenged the indecency fine.

We will write a custom Essay on Sexual Content in Broadcast Media: United States Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another account was on a rock star called Bono. He was awarded in the Golden Globe Awards on January 19, 2003. The awards were broadcasted live and without taped delay. While accepting the award, he declared, “…this is fucking brilliant…” (Perebinossoff 234). The FCC Enforcement Bureau declared that he did not use the word to describe sexual activities or sexual or excretory organs. Thus, there was no basis for the argument in the indecency law.

Congress managed to pass the Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act, 2006, increasing the fines to $325,000 for each day of a violation or the violation itself, and a maximum of $3 million for failure to act or any single act.

However, in 2007, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals said that fines could not be collected from companies for so-called “fleeting expletives” because, in recent times, even top leaders use the expletives in a manner that no reasonable individual would believe that it has been used to describe excretory or sexual organs or activities. There were several acts against obscenity and indecency including

Child Pornography Protection Act (CPPA) was passed in 1996. It banned all visual depictions of minors, even if no minor is used. This law was then considered unconstitutional because it focuses on canning the content instead of banning the production.

Deleting Online Predators Act (DOPA) was passed in 2006 by Congress but was not voted by the Senate. The bill mandated e-rate portion to prevent minors from accessing chat-rooms and commercial social networks in schools and libraries. This measure would not grant the FCC the power to regulate or decide which sites were to be blocked.

In 2003, Congress passed the PROTECT Act (Prosecutorial Remedies

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Economical Globalization in the United States Evaluation Essay cheap essay help

Introduction Globalization is the process of enabling financial and investment markets to operate internationally. This is as a result of deregulation and improved communication. On the other hand, economic globalization refers to the interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movements of goods, services, technology and capital (Held and MacGrew 4). It is also the process of increasing economic integration between countries, leading to the emergence of global markets.

Globalization has shown a paradigm shift in economic activity from agriculture to service in both developed and developing countries. The kinds of growth noted have been in total as well as per capita GDP (Gross Domestic Product) mainly in the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) or the developed countries (Munck 21). In spite of this growth, freeing other parts of the world from poverty has been a great challenge.

Before the global economy came into being, the world economy was ruled by the United States, however with industrialization of many powerful countries, the monopolistic nature of the United States has reduced to about 20%.The United Kingdom has one of the greatest open economies in the Europe. About two decades ago, foreign exchange trade controls were removed and the financial markets have since then been gradually deregulated (MacKinnon et al. 1).

Impact of Globalization on the British Economy Advantages of Globalization

The advantages are as follows:

High levels of direct foreign investment. Basically the UK has been favored by overseas direct investment. This has been due to favorable tax system and a high trust on industrial relations (Tompkins 1).

Structural change in Industry. The issue of unemployment in textile industry and other manufacturing industries has been solved by the global economy in that, the immobile output that has accumulated for years is being be traded globally. This has not just revived the industries but also provided much income and employment opportunities.

Rising level of import penetration. This has been beneficial in areas where comparative advantage had been lost. Such loss was evident in the manufacture of low value adding electronic products. Hence, more sophisticated imports from various countries worldwide were increased.

Efficiencies in production. Globalization has resulted to increased efficiency in resources allocation. Efficient use of resources results to high productivity which consequently increases the total domestic output of goods and services. In addition, increased competition promotes innovative methods which employ advanced technology in marketing and product distribution (Tompkins 1).

The consumers in various countries are also able to obtain greater supply of a variety of goods and services. Increased competition also ensures goods and services are offered at lower prices. This mostly benefits the consumers.

The countries that are involved in free trade experience rising living standards, increased real incomes and higher rates of economic growth. This has resulted from increase in productivity and efficiency in competitive industries.

There are great effects of globalization on the lives of individual citizens in every country. These effects have been noted especially in the lives of young people (Held and MacGrew 20). Globalization has had a lot of influence on young people in various aspects. These are both negative and positives.

In the area of social and media outreach, globalization has lead to an awakened youth in both UK and other countries in the wider globe. This shows that there is a large percentage of well educated and politically endowed youths worldwide. These youths are able to channel their energy into protests for better change. This is due to the uneven distribution of costs and benefits through globalization in the trading sector.

Disadvantages of Globalization

There has been a notable increase in the cost of living in the UK. This has seriously affected citizens who are living on low incomes. Thus, a reliance on family and local support.

Due to media globalization, events happening in other countries are normally infiltrating in almost all countries media stations at a greater speed.

The issue of free trade may result in unemployment in the near future. This may impact the economy negatively as the government will have to go an extra mile so as to save its citizens from poverty (Tompkins 1).

Lower incomes, Gross Domestic Product, domestic demand and falling export incomes as a result of recession may affect the economy. This is because of increased instability in domestic economy. Therefore, globalization predisposes businesses, employees and consumers to downturns.

Foreign debts may be accumulated by countries that deal majorly on agricultural products. This is due to low export income that is incomparable to high import payment. These import prices result from the so called high value added imports (Munck 50).

Competition in a highly flooded market is at times very challenging. Thus, development of new industries may be hard with lack of short term protection policies (Tompkins 1).

Terrorism. As the world reflects or is actually a global village, it becomes easier to access various countries. This is very dangerous in terms of terrorist’s attacks. Such wars can destabilize the economy and can ruin a country through fateful suicidal attacks. In the current news, there was a discussion between the US embassy and the UK officials on the need to provide Olympic security inputs for the 2012 Olympic Games. It was reported that the UK had been working on issues of security matters and that no one had given substantial information about security status that could result to a check up. This was said after there were claims by the American embassy on a terrorism plot come 2012 (MacKinnon et al. 1).

Conclusion Since various countries have experienced a better part of many downturns, some countries have come up with effective ways to counteract the negative effects. For instance, in ensuring positive effects on poverty and communities, the UK has decided to change its labor markets and employment practices.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, it has also reverted to digging deep into research. This has been done by the UK Government to ensure that its people are empowered with job creation capabilities instead of depending on the external market for jobs. In this research, the UK also is planning to find new ways of combating the issue of competitive markets.

This is by dealing in more sophisticated goods and services. Globalization is one of the risky steps that the worldwide countries decided to agree on, but each country needs to be careful and focus on the future rather than the present. It will be safer to be caught a wares in future in case of any downturns than to be caught unawares. Therefore, each country should be heads up to monitor the global economy.

Works Cited Held, David and Anthony McGrew. Globalization/Anti-Globalization: Beyond the Great Divide. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2007.

MacKinnon, Danny, et al. Globalization, Labor Markets and Communities in Contemporary Britain. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 4 March 2011. Web.

Munck, Ronaldo. Globalization and Social Exclusion: A Transformational Perspective. West Hartford: Kumerian Press Incorporation, 2005.

Tompkins, Wayne. “Benefits of Global Economy Uneven”. Courier-Journal. 2005. Print.

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Sexual Content in Broadcast Media: United States Case Essay essay help free: essay help free

United States Case Study The television was invented around 1925 but became popular in 1950s, and in America, there were more than 50million television sets in use during that period. Nearly every living room in America had a TV. Questions were then raised about the content, whether to regulate it or not, and how to regulate it. The television and radio were similar in some ways: both were broadcasted through airwaves (before cable), and both were regulated by the federal government. This paper shall discuss these issues in depth.

Since the beginning of broadcast regulation, there were not enough channels for all who wished to broadcast their information, the electromagnetic spectrum had been deemed to be a publicly owned natural resource. The “scarce public resource” then made simple come up with broadcast regulation basis.

Both television and radio broadcasters operated under the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). With this, broadcasters applied, for licenses, to use a section of the “public property”, a definite frequency (UCSB SexInfo Online n.p.). Broadcasters, on the other hand, had a duty to serve the society’s interests. The obligation requires a licensee to ascertain the society’s needs and then provide a service to cater for those needs of the society. The FCC has the right to censor or restrict content with obscene material, requires fairness in political programming and segment broadcast percentages for certain content, for example, content for “public use” (Kaarina 233).

Obscene programming is considered whereby an average person, with contemporary community standards, finds the material appealing to the prurient interest; the content demonstrates or defines sexual behavior in an offensive way; the material lacks literary, political, artistic or scientific value. Indecent programming is whereby the contemporary community standards measures the broadcast medium and describes excretory or sexual activities and organs in the broadcast (Kaarina 231).

Indecent material was prohibited in the 1950s but later it was only aired after hours when the children have slept. The meaning of “indecent content” has changed over time. The National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters (Center for Media Education 5) then came up with ways to call for censorship whereby there was self-censor with decency standards and production codes.

The first Amendment of the US Constitution declares that the congress shall not make any law that will abridge the freedom of speech or the freedom of the press (Perebinossoff 234). However, the state legislatures and the congress have tried to hold back speech that is considered indecent, harmful to minors, obscene or injurious to children, such as pornography (Perebinossoff 234). Common legislation seeking to regulate media content is seen mostly in an election year.

The US content regulation differs by the medium of expression. The 1st Amendment projection has affected the print publications to the highest degree. Radio and Television, on the other hand, have enjoyed the least protection degree. Initially the Fairness Doctrine and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) required broadcasters to have time to reply to those who said their views were criticized (Center for Media Education 24).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That rule was then killed in 1987. Another rule that still stands till now is the “equal time law” for the political candidates. The broadcasters are restricted to barring the transmission of profane material, obscene content or indecent material over the airwaves. These rules do not apply to print publications.

Congress has tried repeatedly to tackle this problem. However, their efforts have been in vain. They came up with the Communications Decency Act, 1996, which was struck down as unconstitutional. It then came up with Child Online Protection Act (COPA), 1998, which still remains in a legal uncertainty.

It went ahead and came up with the Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA), 2000, which has been upheld by the Supreme Court of the country (Wayne 234). CIPA facilitated the use of technologies to filter and keep off pornographic content from computer screens in schools and libraries which received funds from the federal government.

Indecent content is material which contains excretory or sexual material that is not at the level of obscenity and is clearly offensive. The First Amendment protects indecent speech though the Supreme Court has held it back. The high court allowed restriction of indecency for some certain main, for instance, TV and radio broadcasts. The same court recently disallowed Congress proscribing of indecent material on the internet or cable TV.

The Federal Communications Commission’s rule of banning obscene and indecent material from being broadcasted on the radio or TV was backed by the Supreme Court. The Court established a public interest in the prevention of transmission of questionable material via broadcast medium, from 6.00am to 10.00pm. From 1978 up to around 2004, the FCC enforcement of rules against indecency was limited, that was until the Janet Jackson and Bono sagas.

Janet Jackson, who was considered “the infamous wardrobe malfunction”, on February 1, 2004, was featured in the Super Bowl XXXVIII which was aired by CBS (Gunter 67). The show featured many celebrities, including Kid Rock in a poncho from an American flag cutout. Dancers repeatedly grabbed their crotches writhing to the music. In the finale, Justin Timberlake ripped one side of Janet Jackson’s bustier which then exposed her right breast to hundreds of millions of viewers in a split of a second.

Many viewers were not sure of what they saw until the radio, internet, and newspapers accounted on the next day. Others wanted to have a second look. Hence, the show became the most replayed over the TiVo digital video recorders. CBS was fined by the FCC $3.5 million, the highest penalty ever, for this and other indecency violations. CBS refused, insisting that the incident was not planned for, which then turned around to the 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals in Philadelphia and challenged the indecency fine.

We will write a custom Essay on Sexual Content in Broadcast Media: United States Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another account was on a rock star called Bono. He was awarded in the Golden Globe Awards on January 19, 2003. The awards were broadcasted live and without taped delay. While accepting the award, he declared, “…this is fucking brilliant…” (Perebinossoff 234). The FCC Enforcement Bureau declared that he did not use the word to describe sexual activities or sexual or excretory organs. Thus, there was no basis for the argument in the indecency law.

Congress managed to pass the Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act, 2006, increasing the fines to $325,000 for each day of a violation or the violation itself, and a maximum of $3 million for failure to act or any single act.

However, in 2007, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals said that fines could not be collected from companies for so-called “fleeting expletives” because, in recent times, even top leaders use the expletives in a manner that no reasonable individual would believe that it has been used to describe excretory or sexual organs or activities. There were several acts against obscenity and indecency including

Child Pornography Protection Act (CPPA) was passed in 1996. It banned all visual depictions of minors, even if no minor is used. This law was then considered unconstitutional because it focuses on canning the content instead of banning the production.

Deleting Online Predators Act (DOPA) was passed in 2006 by Congress but was not voted by the Senate. The bill mandated e-rate portion to prevent minors from accessing chat-rooms and commercial social networks in schools and libraries. This measure would not grant the FCC the power to regulate or decide which sites were to be blocked.

In 2003, Congress passed the PROTECT Act (Prosecutorial Remedies

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Oligopoly Industry Characteristics Coursework online essay help

Introduction This assignment is a discussion on the topic of marketing. In the discussion, attention is given to the oligopoly industry and its key features. This will be illustrated using the oil industry which comprises firms which do the business of oil and gas. The discussion also looks at the concept of price fixing by exploring the detergent industry especially in Europe and the economic rationale behind not fining Henkel, one of the companies which were found guilty of price fixing by the commission in charge of competition.

Discussion Oligopoly industry

Oligopoly is a market structure which is characterised by few but big firms. The firms usually know each other very well and they are characterised by sharing the whole market in terms of percentages. For example, if there are four big firms in a certain field, each usually occupies a certain percentage of the whole market in terms of capital base and the number of customers (Vives, 2001).

One characteristic of oligopoly is a cut throat competition. This means that the firms in an oligopoly industry usually compete for the customers but in very unique ways. Some of the ways in which firms compete is through what is referred to as differentiation and positioning.

In marketing, differentiation is the process of distinguishing a product or service from the rest through describing its unique differences and or characteristics. It is done for competition purposes with a view of creating a market niche for that particular product or service. Differentiation seeks to create a good image about a particular product among the targeted consumers so as to ensure that they perceive it as unique and different from other similar products (Armstrong and Kotler, 2009).

Product differentiation makes the targeted consumers not compare a particular product with others; which gives that particular product a competitive advantage over the others. In doing differentiation, marketers or product owners may rely on advertisement, promotions, improved product quality, lowering or increasing the prices as well as the lack of understanding on the part of the consumers regarding the price and quality of the product being differentiated (Armstrong and Kotler, 2009).

A company may engage itself in differentiation of several products at the same time. This makes it have a definitive number of customers, who are sort of owned by it due to the uniqueness of its products or services. This is what is called positioning. Positing entails using various strategies like promotion, distribution of products or services and production of unique products with unique pricing to build an identity of a particular company or organization in the minds of particular consumers (Vashisht, 2005).

Positioning seeks to stabilize and retain the positions of the particular differentiated products for a particular company so as to retain the competitive advantage of the company in regard to those products. For a company to create and maintain a particular position in a market, it needs to do a thorough research and consistent monitoring of market trends so as to modify or readjust the differentiation and positioning strategies for its respective products (Ferrell and Hartline, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firms also compete through increasing their efficiency, which entails the maximization of their resources and ensuring that they provide services which are very efficient, reliable and of high quality. Those firms which are more efficient are the ones which use the minimal resources to achieve the maximum results. They can for example engage in what is referred to as human resource development, which entails things like training of employees on various tasks, so that the employees can work on various departments at different times. This makes the firms save on hiring more employees especially on contract basis because their full time employees are competent to undertake various tasks at the same time.

A good example of oligopoly in work is the oil industry, which is controlled by the body known as OPEC. The firms under OPEC usually dominate the oil industry in virtually all parts of the world. The key competitors in the oil industry include Saudi Arabian Oil Company (259,900 million barrels per year), National Iranian Oil (138,400 million barrels per year) and Qatar General Petroleum (15,207 million barrels per year) ( Petro Strategies, 2011).

What this means is that they try as much as possible to beat each other by competing for the customers for oil and gas products. It is usually not possible for one firm, say for example Arabian Oil Company to hike its prices or lower the quality of its products. This is because doing so would make it lose its customers to their major competitors.

In some cases, oligopoly leads to formation of business cartels. This happens when the firms agree to increase the prices of their products beyond the reach of many consumers. They can also decide to reduce the supply of some products so that the demand may go up, which consequently makes the prices to shoot up. This is however illegal and when the firms are detected, they are usually fined heavily by the relevant government authorities (Levenstein, Suslow and Oswald, 2003).

Price fixing

This is a conspiracy between buyers or sellers to control the trade of certain products for their own benefits. This conspiracy usually leads to creation of a cartel, which is usually illegal. Price fixing involves an agreement between the sellers or buyers of a product to have uniform standards, terms and conditions for the supply and demand of the product (Levenstein, Suslow and Oswald, 2003).

Sellers can conspire to purchase a product at a uniform price thus fixing the price at the level which they want. This is because the sellers can easily conspire through various forms of sophisticated communication and fix the prices of certain products. When this happens, the loser is always the buyer. The sellers usually achieve this thorough having uniform costs of production which entail transportation, labour, discounts and bonuses. Their ability to control and coordinate the flow of the goods and services as well as to communicate with each other on what price they should offer on a certain good or service further makes it hard for government authorities to detect their illegal practices (Bonin and Goey, 2009).

Price fixing usually takes place in industries which are dominated by few large firms, a characteristic of oligopoly discussed above. One such industry is the detergent industry in Europe. This industry is usually dominated by three major players namely the Unilever, Procter

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The Public Library Descriptive Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The services provided by the public library

The cooperation with political and governmental structures

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Rapid development of information technologies, especially Internet and various social changes contributed to the decline of public library usage in the United States and many other countries (Goulding 2006, p. 112). This trend urges these organizations to improve their practices and find new ways of attracting visitors.

This paper is aimed at describing an imaginary public library that will serve the needs of a middle-sized city with a population of 150,000 people. In particular, it is necessary to identify the major services that it will provide. Secondly, this essay will explain how this institution will cooperate with other public libraries and governmental structures. Thirdly, one has to explain the principles that will govern this organization.

One should note that this organization will operate in the environment which does not yet exist. This means that this institution will not have to face budgetary constraints as it is often done by public libraries. Secondly, it will work in the environment in which the government fully appreciates the educational importance of such organizations and supports them.

The services provided by the public library First, we should say that this organization will be a part of a large library system. The thing is that such networking enables libraries to better share resources and information (Wilson 1992, p. 166). It is particularly important when we speak about books or periodicals.

Secondly, these institutions will able to share information about user’s most common requests. As it has been said before, this organization will work in a middle-sized city. Its population will have various educational, informational, and developmental needs and this library will serve these needs.

At this point, it is necessary to speak about these functions in more detail. First of all, this public library will support those people who pursue their education. In this case, one can mention school, college, or university students and those people who want to acquire new knowledge in their professional area (McClure

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What is the Importance of Ethics When it Comes to Governance? Expository Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Ethics is the study of what should be done. The terms ethics and morality are often used interchangeably . The word ethics comes from a Greek word ethickos – meaning an ethos, habit, pattern of behaviour or prevailing attitude. It has been widely viewed that ethics is not an easy word to define.

We believe that ethics has no substantive form, has no single method and is not in the domain of any one discipline or individual. Rather, ethics is best characterized as a space, a region of turbulence, where the space is defined by what is at stake – values, relationships, behaviour and human flourishing. This space contains many of the things that people care about, but about which not everyone can agree.

What is governance? It may be loosely defined as the act manner, fact or function of governing. This implies that to govern is to rule with authority, to exercise the function of government . Governing is therefore a whole range of actions, in a spectrum from the rule through influence to self – control.

In essence, governance may be seen as a process for reconciling the ambitions of the individual with the need to preserve and develop the ‘common weal’ which binds individuals through shared interests.

Why does governance matter? Governance has been largely taken for granted in the past, both because its failure was only apparent in infrequent crises, such as revolutions, or major systemic failures such as that caused by the Black Death. For most of human existence governance has been imposed on the majority by small elite, whose power has been legitimized by a priesthood which had a virtual monopoly of knowledge.

This form of governance depends on curtailing the freedom of the ruled in order to maximize the power of the rulers. Thus we can conclusively say that governance is concerned with the intrinsic nature, purpose, integrity and identity of an institution with a primary focus on the entity’s relevance, continuity and fiduciary aspects.

Governance involves monitoring and overseeing strategic direction, socioeconomic and cultural context, externalities and constituencies of the institution. Governance is usually delivered through an agreed constitution, through a complex web of customs and practices, underpinned by a shared system of ethics, to a range of stakeholders in that institution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus with the above definitions it is quite clear that ethics is an important aspect when it comes to good governance . There are certain factors which influence ethics. These include values, culture and transformation. This leaves us asking, what is the importance of ethics when it comes to governance?

In essence, ethics serves to protect the basic human needs. In this case, ethics corresponds to basic human needs. Ethics also builds on credibility among the public, that is, ethics creates credibility with the public especially so when in the governance sector. With this in mind, it is worth noting that gaining the confidence of the community is vital to the public sector.

Public opinion is the most powerful force in a democratic society. It is a way of achieving higher standards of ethical behavior. Ethics provides a common language for aligning a company’s leadership and its people. Ethics, when perceived by employees as genuine, creates common goals, values, and language.

Lastly, ethics helps in better decision making. Ethical decisions made by the company will always be in the interest of the shareholders, other stakeholders, public, and their employees. This is because respect for ethics will force the management to consider all aspects of a question – economic, social and ethical.

Some of the decisions which have been made in the process of governance have several implications towards the sustenance of ethics as a necessity to good governance. It is worth mentioning that the BAe system case study presents a series of decisions which were made and which can be categorized as laudable, culpable or non culpable decisions.

An example of a decision which can be classified as culpable is the manner in which the Tanzanian government used the funds that it had got from the United Kingdom. This was made prevalent by the level of furiousness which was exhibited by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown in the year 2001. Essentially, the exchequer was furious by the fact that the Tanzanian government had diverted its funds to cater for military traffic control systems.

Whereas ignoring the intended purpose of the money which was to cater for the Tanzanian education. Essentially, the President, Mr. Mkapa was on record contesting the reason for the furiousness. On the other hand, Alan Johnson, the minister in the Department of Trade and Industry responded by stating that there was no evidence of corruption in the deal.

We will write a custom Essay on What is the Importance of Ethics When it Comes to Governance? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In another case, the ‘AL – Yamamah’ contract for the sale of BAe was associated with underhand dealings which were not straight in their operations. There were rumours that there was a benefactor who was taking in the profits for helping to set up the deal. Mr Aitken was imprisoned for perjury, because he claimed his wife paid the hotel bill when the couple spent a weekend at the Paris Ritz.

She did not. Wafiq Said was at the Ritz during the same weekend. This led to the establishment of a committee to probe into the dealings of the BAe. The Woolf committee which was set up recommended that BAEs should:

Establish a Corporate Responsibility Committee (CRC) of the main board, to set ethical standards and to oversee all conduct relevant to ethical and reputational risk.

Establish a team, led by a senior executive accountable to the Chief Financial Officer, and responsible for ensuring a group-wide ethical business programme worldwide.

Proactively advocate high ethical standards, including openness and transparency.

Make all ethical policies and procedures publicly available and easily accessible.

Develop, publish and implement a global code of ethical business conduct, including specific behavioural expectations for managers, to take precedence in any dilemma.

In the medium term (3 years), develop systems to achieve audits of ethical and reputational risk as thorough as audits of financial risk and set up processes to evaluate all business risks.

Make the Internal Audit function responsible for assessing ethical/reputational risk.

Provide in its annual report a public update to shareholders outlining the findings of external and internal audits of ethical and reputational risk.

In the medium term (3 years), publish an independent external audit of ethical conduct and management of reputational risk; and do likewise at regular intervals thereafter.

In their performance appraisals, monitor senior management’s ability to demonstrate high ethical standards.

In the variable element of their remuneration, pay people according to their ability to demonstrate high ethical standards.

Keep a central register of spending on gifts and hospitality, itemised by individual recipients, by customer, by country and in aggregate, reported annually to the CRC.

Where possible, eliminate facilitation payments immediately, though it may not be possible to do so immediately in some countries.

Report all facilitation payments to the board and develop systems to implement a global policy to forbid and eliminate them completely over time.

Make customers aware of BAES policy regarding gifts before contracts are signed.

Ensure rigorous selection and due diligence in hiring advisers, including face-to-face interviews with BAES lawyers; and make their identity known to potential customers.

This brings us to the question, which was the best way of dealing with the case? Essentially, this is a philosophical question which touches on moral philosophy . In this case, moral philosophy attempts to answer the question of how one should live and how one should behave.

In the case above, it is worth mentioning the fact that moral philosophy would have played an important role reading some of the decisions which were being made. In general, moral philosophy as a whole can be usefully divided into three basic areas: metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. In this case we are interested in normative ethics.

Normative ethics involves substantive proposals concerning how to act, how to live, or what kind of person to be. In particular, it attempts to state and defend the most basic principles governing these matters. For example, in the earlier case, it would be considered immoral to substitute education of the masses for the benefit of a few. Secondly, it is immoral to receive commissions based on underhand dealings when it comes to public governance.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that when it comes to ethics. Normative ethics should be given considerations with regard to governance. This is because normative ethics is concerned with stating and defending the most basic moral principles.

Reference List Chandrasekaran, B

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Challenges of International Information Systems Management Research Paper college essay help near me

Introduction Information refers to a piece of data or a message that needs to be passed from one individual to another. A system is a combination of interrelated items that work together to achieve desired objectives (Peng, 2009). Information Systems refers to a combination of information, the people concerned and the technology that supports the operation.

It also involves the management of information (storage, transfer, interpretation and consumption of the information) and the decision-making process. International Information System refers to the information system that is able to support the communication and coordination of persons at local and international levels.

Information needs to be transferred from one individual to another for it to be meaningful. The process of passing information from one individual to another is referred to as communication. Communication is very important. Kaplan (2009) argues that communication is the only way that an individual can make known what is in his/her heart to another individual. In the business world, nothing can transpire without this vital component.

The only link between a firm and its customers is communication. Through this, a firm will make known what it offers to the market. It will also need this business component to pass other pieces of information to the target market. The customer on the other hand needs communication in order to be aware of firms offering products that satisfy their needs in the best way possible (Muniz

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Buyer Behavior and Integrated Marketing Communications Analytical Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Buyer behavior refers to characteristics exhibited by consumers when making the decision to purchase an item. It examines the reasons behind decision making on the side of customers on when and where to buy a product. It puts into consideration, factors such as demographic and psychological factors that affect the decision of the buyer in the market.

Communication on the other hand refers to the passing of a message from one party to another. In the context of marketing, communication refers to the art of passing a message from the firm (or business unit) to the market and back, from the market to the firm. Evans (2010, p. 25) asserts that communication is the core to business success.

Communication creates and maintains positive relationship between a firm and its customers. It is through communication that a firm can pass information to the customers about introduction of new products into the market. Buyer behavior is strongly affected by marketing communication. It is very important for a firm to manage communication properly if it is to succeed in customer attraction and retentions (Falkow 2010, p. 19).

Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline that majorly operates in the European nations. With its head office at Dublin Airport, this airline has experienced a massive growth within the past one year. In a market characterized by strong competition from the world’s renowned airline like British Airways, Air France, the Virgin Atlantic among other giant airlines, Ryanair must come up with strategies that will enable it survive the market wave.

Communication offers the best way to reach the customers and develop a relationship with an aim to crating new customers and retaining existing ones. The airline positions itself as the cheapest airline in the market for domestic and across border travelers within European countries.

The target markets for this airline are the travelers who seek to travel within the European nations either for leisure or for other purposes but are looking cheap air transport. This airline comes in as the preferred option for such customers due to its affordability. The airline therefore needs an integrated marketing communication in order to reach this market segment.

It also needs to understand factors that determine buyer behavior so that it may be in a position to manipulate customers’ decision to opt for the airline as their preferred airline. With Turkey’s growth of the tourism sector, this airline finds itself poised for success if the management makes the right steps in implementing the right marketing strategies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Buyer Behavior Analysis and Integrated Marketing Communication Analysis of buyer behavior can best be approached by segmenting the market first. Market segmentation can be done by taking into consideration the demographic composition of the market. The age, level of income, taste, preferences, and other psychographic factors should be put into consideration when coming up with the market segment (Klein 2009, p. 35).

The Target Market Profile

The main target markets for Ryanair airline are the Britons and the Germans who are aged between eighteen to forty four years. Most of them are able to travel by air to attractive destinations as tourists or private travelers. However, they are middle-income earners who are trying to balance between leisure and the importance of saving. Customers who are price sensitive characterize this target market. Any slight change in the price of the air tickets leads to a massive shift of the market. This market can further be segmented by age.

The first segment will be those aged between eighteen to twenty four years. These individuals either are at college or have just entered the labor market. They do not have much in terms of wealth as they are trying to establish themselves as responsible adults. This group is easily influenced by peer pressure as they try to fit in everything that seems trendy. They would try to imitate what superstars do and they tend to be rebellious towards anything that appears to limit their freedom.

Most of their actions are also influenced by the desire to be seen as responsible adults with the ability to make decisions on their own. However, they are financially crippled, as they have to depend on their parents in most of the cases. This makes them prefer cheaper airlines when on tours or making private travels.

Wayne (2008, p. 54) explains that they have the willingness to pay for the high priced add-on services on board, but lack the ability. They therefore settle on the basics when making their travels. They would therefore make a shift the moment there is a slight readjustment of the ticket price.

The next sub group is aged between twenty-five to thirty-four years. They are stable financially and are in gainful employment. They form the most attractive group in this market segment. They are independent and are therefore able to make their own decision. These individuals always like travelling for leisure, either as newly married or couples planning to marry. Most of their buying decisions are always influenced by the need to please their partners.

According to Giddens (2009, p. 52), this group have limited time but have the desire for leisure away from their jobs. For this reason, cheap airlines are the best alternative modes of transport as they try to balance between their careers and the need to for leisure. Kabani (2009, p. 42) reports that most Britons and Germans always start investing at this age.

We will write a custom Essay on Buyer Behavior and Integrated Marketing Communications specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With attractive investment in Turkey, most of this group is likely to frequent this country. Coupled with the beautiful sceneries in this country, the airlines plying this route have great opportunity to tap from this group. It accounts for the highest percentage of the Ryanair customers.

The last group in this category is individuals aged thirty-five to forty-four years of age. These individuals are stable financially, with some having made serious investment. They are always relaxed with life and comfort and security is their major priority when travelling. It is therefore unlikely that they can settle on cheap airlines as they consider them less comfortable and more prone to incidents and accidents.

They are insensitive to price change and are always willing and able to pay for extra comfort at extra costs. Because they are nearing self-actualization in life, they would go for things considered classy (Gorchels 2004, p. 37). A number of them are middle level managers and therefore travel for executive reasons. The flights may be booked on their behalf, leaving them with no choice but take the booked flights.

Buyer Behavior Analysis

Blackwell, Miniard

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2 page summary and 2 paragraph reflection on a the link below need it done in THREE HOURS https://www.understood.org/articles/en/understanding-universal-design-for-learning?utm_source=google-search-nongrant college essay help online

1. Read “Planning Differentiated, Multicultural Instruction for Secondary Inclusive Classrooms”: K306 Planning Differentiated, Multicultural Instruction.pdf. Download K306 Planning Differentiated, Multicultural Instruction.pdf. Summarize the big ideas/main points of the article and discuss its application to your teaching practices (Guideline: Approx. 1-2 page if you choose written response.) AND 2. Select an article/video/blog/podcast/TED talk, etc. of your choice on the topic of culturally relevant Universal Design for Learning in secondary classrooms and provide the link or citation. Be sure it is current and relevant. Please highlight the main points of the document and discuss its application to your practice as a teacher (Guideline: 2 paragraphs).

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Whole Foods Trends Case Study college essay help near me

Table of Contents Bargaining Power of Consumers

Threat of New Entrants in the Market

Suppliers Bargaining Power

Competitive Rivalry

Substitute Products

Whole Foods SWOT Analysis

Whole Foods Market, the world’s largest retail chain of organic and natural foods supermarket was founded in the year 1980, from what was initially a local supermarket for health and natural food stuff and products. For nearly three decades now, since its inception, Whole Foods Market has proved to be a leader in the supply of natural and organic foods across the United States.

The company is widely recognized for its constant ability to supply food products that are free from preservatives and ingredients, and also for their stringent standards to sustain agricultural practices in the country.

The company’s unique mission in business is stipulated by its organizational motto, which bears the slogan, ‘Whole Foods, Whole People, Whole Planet.’ This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the trends applied by the company in retailing organic foods and its competitive power in the market as it is observed from the provided case.

The organic food sector has shown consistent growth in the past several years. Some of the key factors contributing to this abundant growth would include more consumers getting informed through education and conscious concerns of health that processed food products are likely to bring to humans.

These practices have further facilitated developments in the sector over the time as mainstream supermarkets continue to utilize the available opportunities to diversify their selection of organic and natural products. Some of the most common trends pertaining the retail of organic food products in the industry include the ups and downs within the farming sector, concerns of the environment, and concern of healthy lifestyles.

All these trends would have a significant impact in Whole Foods Market. Uncertain climatic patterns for instance, would negatively influence the supplies of the products in the market, leading to shortages in case of a bad season. More importantly unavoidable weather situations such as tornadoes and hurricanes can also occur anytime, contributing to loss of crops.

Regarding environmental concerns, consumers tend to believe that organic products come with positive effects towards the conservation of the environment. It is also understandable that people are now paying more attention than ever before, to what they ingest. In that case, the necessary steps are being applied in diverse settings to promote healthier lifestyle for individuals and families.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whole Foods Market is making up and down attempts to establish major suppliers of organic supplies to cater for all chains and stores across the states. Food 2008 is a major player in the American food industry. Competition of the key players in the American food industry has increased rampantly in the past few years, owing to the heightening demand for organic and natural food products. Most Whole Food products target all categories of people in the society.

These products have continued to attract increasing consumer concerns from across the states owing to their unique market standards. It is easier to evaluate the competitive environment of the company using Michael Porter’s competitive forces that shape competition strategy. The five forces as observed by Porter include bargaining power of consumers, threat of new entrants in the market, suppliers bargaining power, competitive rivalry, and substitute products.

Bargaining Power of Consumers The company is known for its commitment and involvement in charity missions among other community citizenship activities. More importantly, all these would happen as the firm continues to maintain its quality standards on all their products. In that case, the firm’s customers have less bargaining power since their demands and requirements are appropriately catered for and in the most charming manners.

However, owing to the increasing number of players in the food industry, buyers are likely to learn new ways in the long run, thus gaining added advantage on negotiating leverage. This way, consumers would tend to shift to other vendors on realization that they can always land on an equivalent product from the market.

Threat of New Entrants in the Market As it would be observed, the initial concept of Whole Food Market was more innovative. However, current market trends are pushing the firm far from the scope of innovation and into mainstream.

According to USDA, the overall production of organic food products has been going up since the year 1990 in all regions, making organic food products the fastest advancing segment of agriculture. Rapid growth of market, coupled with minimal barriers to entry has attracted many participants in the industry, thus leading to stiff competition in the market.

Suppliers Bargaining Power Just like any other firm, Whole Foods Market largely depends on a wide range of suppliers for its products. In most cases, some of these supplier groups have been active and powerful in determining the company’s competitive strategy in a number of ways. For instance, much attention is given to food processors in the country, which enjoy all the bargaining power. Only a very little percentage of farms are used for organic and natural food products.

We will write a custom Case Study on Whole Foods Trends specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Competitive Rivalry Whole Foods Market faces great rivalry presently, from the many competitors in the food industry. In normal circumstances, some of the common ways through which the firm is affected by rivalry include introductions of new products and services, improvement of services, advertising campaigns and price discounting among other implications.

The fact that competitors in the food industry are numerous and roughly equal in power is enough to increase the intensity of rivalry or competition in the market and this reduces the productivity levels of Whole Foods Market.

Substitute Products The company faces a high threat of substitutes from conventional food products that are processed artificially in the country. For example, many people in the U.S. would tend to see fast foods such as snacks and drinks as more convenient, compared to other food stuffs that are made at home.

Most of these fast foods are artificially processed and preserved, and they pose serious threats to the firm’s productivity. In most cases, these cheap preserved foodstuffs would tend to offer a significant price-performance trade-off to the natural and organic food products offered by the company. In such circumstances, it is easy for buyers to turn to conventional retailers, as there is no cost for doing so. In this regard, these substitutes have continued to limit the company’s profits and earnings in normal times.

Competition from major rivals in the industry remains the most significant threat to the firm. This also includes the stiff competition posed by conventional stores across the states. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the year 2000 would see most conventional supermarkets in the country sell more organic food products, compared to the country’s natural food stores.

Even though a recognized leader in the supply of organic and natural food products, the company continues to suffer the cost of a high market competition from existing and new ventures in the market. In order to successfully combat this threat, the company should adopt an effective strategy that incorporates three significant tactics: Market, Product, and Operational.

In regard with marketing and product, things such as quality products, fair prices and effective ways of promotion would apply. On the other hand, operational strategy would incorporate the use of effective and exclusive store operations for improved outcomes.

Whole Foods SWOT Analysis Strengths Huge variety items/products

Marketer of nationally known food products

Outstanding experience in the market

Large stores

Weaknesses Low advertisement budget

Higher prices

Location of most stores in affluent regions

Lack of coupons in promotional offers

Opportunities Effective advertisement and promotion to attract more customers

Introduction of rewards systems for consumers

Expansion of private label selection

Introduction of cost-effective ways that will favor customers

Threats Bad or uncertain economy

Availability of local farmers

Conventional stores and supermarkets

regular changes in government regulations on natural and organic food products

It is possible for Whole Foods to achieve a sustained competitive advantage over its competitors in the market simply by making effective use of these strengths and opportunities. For example, the company deals with a variety of products that are nationally accepted as foods, and this could be a certain way of attracting and retaining huge numbers of consumers in the market. More importantly, the company has great business potential considering their large stores located allover the country.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Whole Foods Trends by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These facilities can be utilized in a number of useful ways, apart from only acting as selling stores. Holding exhibitions and educational forums regarding the products on sale to potential consumers are some of the useful ways of utilizing the stores. Effective promotional strategies would help in publicizing the company’s products whereby the introduction of a reward would play a significant role in the attraction and retention of consumers in the company’s products.

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Innovation in Brazil Exploratory Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Innovation is increasingly becoming a fundamental aspect in the development of the modern world. Apart from development of services and products for purposes of improving quality, innovation also involves new business systems, processes and methods of management, all of which present a very significant impact on business productivity and development.

As it would be observed, innovation is arguably the most powerful force for transformations and developments in almost every sector of the global economy. For this reason, many developed and developing countries have started to embrace the insurmountable opportunities presented by this upcoming trend to increase and sustain their economies.

Today, every organization in the world is experiencing the impact of current global issues such as globalization, technological revolutions, and uncertain weather patterns, among other turbulences. There is no better way we can address these challenges, but through the considerable effort of innovation. This assignment examines the case of Brazil as a country seeking to bring out significant changes in its growing society, through a greater focus on innovation in its organizations and institutions.

Brazil is ranked the fifth-largest country globally, with a population rate of about 185 million people. Attempts to foster innovation have been among the major challenges the country continues to face, as a nation striving to get recognition in the global economy (Sennes 46). This dream, however, seems to come true following the country’s recent plans to adopt policies that would boost innovation as a key driving force for regional integration and economical developments.

This intervention would see Brazil adopt a number of effective laws and policies targeted on innovation, over the years, as one way of addressing the many challenges facing the global population today. These laws are intended to promote the country’s social and economical developments, through a strategic plan that will take place within a system of innovation. Following is a summary showing the Brazilian laws on innovations and how they affect business development for both local and foreign organizations in the country.

The Intellectual Property Law was enacted in the year 1996 to protect the right of original work in the country. This regulation would contribute to increased number of patent in the following years, owing to the regulation of intangible right about ideas. More importantly, this law has continued to play a key role in encouraging innovative practices in the country.

In the year 1999, the Brazilian government would introduce ‘the Sectoral Funds for Science

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Allure Cruise Line Case Study college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Company Overview

The way of Market Penetration by Allure

Allure’s main competitors in this market

Uniqueness of Allure from Its Competitors

Positioning Strategy of Allure Cruse Lines

Reference List

Introduction The purpose of this case study is to discuss market entry strategies of Allure Cruise Line, the main competitors of this company in new markets, positioning strategy, and the difference between Allure and other companies.

Company Overview Allure Cruise Line is a small company in the North America, which started its journey in 1993 with only three ships to sail out of Landerdale, Florida, San Juan, and other itineraries within the Caribbean Sea (Dereskey, 2007, p.1).

According to the part one of the case study, it has more than 1000 employees (including crews, managers, board members, engineers and so on) and this company recruited the crews from 40 different countries and nationalities considering complex culture and importance of advance communication system to provide quality service. However, the following two figures show Allure’s vision and mission statements and organizational structure –

Figure 1: Allure’s Vision and Mission Statements

Source: Dereskey (2007, p.1)

Figure 2: Organizational structure of Allure cruise Line

Source: Dereskey (2007, p.3)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The way of Market Penetration by Allure The top-management team of Allure Cruise Line needs to research on the global cruise industry to find out potential market to enter and gain competitive advantages.

Before attempt to enter new markets, it is also essential for this company to consider its mission, vision, corporate structure, current challenges, political and cultural factors, financial position, legal barriers, leadership, human resource management, and market competition, size and growth of the cruise industry particularly North American, cruise industry and so on.

However, Dereskey (2008, p.35) pointed out the hierarchical model of market entry modes to help the companies select the suitable entry route strategy, for instance,

Figure 3: The hierarchical model of market entry modes

Source: Dereskey (2008, p.35)

The above figure demonstrates non-equity modes and equity modes of market entry; however, considering the service features of Allure Cruise Line, it can be argued that equity modes strategy would be suitable for this company to enter new zone.

In this context, the management of this company should contact with the management of small companies of the new selected markets to sign joint-venture agreement, which will give the opportunity to the Allure to share its resources and technologies with other companies; however, it is important for Allure to assess financial risk of joint-venture agreement.

We will write a custom Case Study on Allure Cruise Line specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the same time, the management team has the opportunity to acquire small cruise line companies to penetrate new potential markets, for instance, the company has significant prospect in the European or North American markets because target customers of this zone have enough financial capabilities to take service of this company.

On the other hand, the management of this company also considers the service categories and must try to sign joint venture agreement with different service providers and acquire the organizations, which offer similar services to avoid any financial risks; however, the following table provides more information regarding this issue:

Features Market entry modes Adventure and expedition cruise ships It is important to have smaller ships to access more destinations. The positive sector is higher passenger return visits. Allure Cruise line can sign both acquisition or joint venture agreement to enter new markets. Boutique cruise ships It needs small cruise ships, but the marketers have to ensure quality service; however, higher passenger return visits influenced the business operators to penetrate this market. The management has opportunity to acquire or joint venture with the cruise ship operators of new markets or ports. Mid-size cruise ships These ships have greater port infrastructure demands, require larger channel depths and wharf berthing. Allure should consider joint venture agreement with other companies. Mega-cruise ships It should require the biggest cruise vessels, major port infrastructure, larger channel depth, longer wharfs for side berthing, and international traveler processing services. At present, it is not possible for Allure Cruise line to enter this market. Military vessels This sector dominates by the large companies because of high operating costs (more than $400/ day per crew); in addition, it needs at least 5000 crews in one ship Allure should not show any interest to enter this market as a small company in the industry Table 1: The way of Market Penetration by Allure

Source: Self generated

Allure’s main competitors in this market Allure Cruise Line has to compete with both direct and indirect competitors in the national and international market; however, presence of numerous competitors is one the key challenge for this company.

It is difficult for this company to compete in this industry by penetrating new market with only three small ships; in addition, the company has many barriers like communication problems and social misunderstanding, unethical behavior of the crews, old technology, global financial crisis, threats of terrorist attack/pirating, unusual accidents and so on. However, the following table gives more information about the main competitors:

Major Companies Key characteristics Carnival Corporation (CCL) Market leader of cruise ship industry as it generated $24.32 billion in 2011 and it operates more than 90 ships in the global market. In addition, it has more than 91,300 employees, net profit was 1.62 billion and gross profit margin was 33.75% in 2011. Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd It is second largest company in this industry and it is operating largest cruise ship; however, in 2011, net profit was about 607.42 million, gross profit margin was 34.42%, and total employees was 60,300. Genting Hong Kong Limited It is a private company in this industry; however, in 2011, total income was more than $68.10 million, and total employees was only 4,430. Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd Norwegian Cruise Line is another private company in this industry; however, in 2011, total profit was over $22.60 million, and total employees was more than 13,769. Table 2: Direct and indirect competitors of Allure Cruise Line

Source: Self generated from Yahoo Finance (2012)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Allure Cruise Line by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Uniqueness of Allure from Its Competitors The dynamic operational strategy of Allure Cruise has aimed pose itself distinguishable in the cruise industry relation to its competitors, the organization has emerged with its unique operation from its human resource management, marketing and customer relationship management that contributed the company with tremendous growth of its passengers and crews.

In fact, in the cruise market the major challenge is high rate of employees’ turnover, the industry has an overall turnover rate of 35%, while Allure reduced it at 31% and the HR policy Allure allowed its crews to entertain as a family without discriminating the culture, ethic group, ranks, and position.

In the operation of Allure Cruse, the crews enjoy definitely a ‘brotherhood mentality’ among the management and crewmembers who hate to class difference, without differentiating nationality it has developed a culture to be more collective, quiet, with cooperative attitude that delivers best performance of the employees.

In Allure Cruse, there are crews’ almost forty different nations with different culture and habit with different age group from nineteen to forty, rather than any other players of the industry Allure mitigate this difference with unique strategy fundamentally different from others. For instance, while there are different tastes among the crews of different nationalities about their food habit and all of them would like to get attention and priority, Allure introduced to serve three times rice everyday for all crews at their dining.

For the cruise industry, there are so many recruitment agencies and all the competitors uphold their recruitment process through those agencies, but Allure’s recruitment process is extremely different from its competitors. The company uses the service of the recruitment agencies for only souring the candidates from different forty countries, but selection, recruitment and training of the company would be conducted by Allure itself, as a result, the company gets more competent candidates than the competitors in the industry.

For cost effective solution, most of the competitors use common training from the outsourcing agents; but Allure have its own standard of training both shore and onboard and the company spend 65% of its total cost for labor.

Allure has most sophisticated training system to train the crews onboard while it allow full pay for the trainees before starting work, the trainees also get similar dining and living facilities without any discrimination. Such differential operational practice provided the company enough space to generate a strong base of satisfied passengers that contributed the company for not to be affected by the incident of nine eleven.

Positioning Strategy of Allure Cruse Lines According to the following figure, the position of Allure Cruise Line in this industry is not in satisfactory level due to existence of many established brands like RCL and CCL; therefore, the mission of this company is to provide unforgettable and unique vacation experience to the passengers to become larger market player in this sector (Dereskey, 2007). However, the following figure shows Brand positioning map of Allure –

Figure 4: Brand positioning map of Allure Cruise Line

Source: Self-generated from Yahoo Finance (2012)

Allure bring into beginning of fundamentally different ways of competing in the market through its positioning strategy that pointed the lower rate of employees as a competitive advantage within the cruse industry.

However, the company provides sophisticated training and satisfactory compensation package to its crews that has generated higher extent of crew’s service quality and produced large base of satisfied passengers; consequently, the management has dared expand its target market in new routes.

In the following figure, it has demonstrated that the cost leadership and uniqueness of the services are the source of Allure’s competitive advantage, while Allure Cruse has aimed to drive from lower target market to higher definition market through right use of its resources and capabilities.

Figure 5: Positioning Strategy of Allure Cruse Lines

Source: Self generated

The management of Allure Cruise explored its intention for further expansion of business while the senior leadership team has alarmed that there are few factors of the crewmembers onboard may impede to implement the superior business plans that the company is going to introduce and it could put at risk for the accomplishment of the Mediterranean extension of service.

Reference List Dereskey, H. (2007). Allure Cruise Line*—Challenges of Strategic Growth and Organizational Effectiveness: Part 1. Web.

Dereskey, H. (2007). Allure Cruise Line*—Challenges of Strategic Growth and Organizational Effectiveness: Part 4. Web.

Dereskey, H. (2008). International management, managing across borders

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The Large and Culturally Diverse Teams Management Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction The 21st century economy is increasingly liberalized and collaboration in teams that cross different cultural boundaries has become the norm. More often than not, teams are scattered across geographical locations and work through communication enabled platforms made possible by advancing technology.

These teams are normally involved in complex projects and ideally, they are supposed to bring experience and pools of knowledge that should make work easier by creating competitive advantage. In practice, however, many teams do not realize their potential as they create less value due to clashes precipitated by different backgrounds.

According to Johnson et al (1998, p. 89), modern-day firms cannot afford to ignore culturally diverse teams since their value to realizing corporate objectives can no longer be underestimated. It is therefore to corporations and project management firms’ interest that they learn to assemble and effectively manage complex global and culturally diverse teams.

In this discussion, focus will be on the unique complexities that come along with the management of large and culturally diverse teams. These complexities pose obstacles to success of projects which both new and old management approaches have not been able to effectively address.

Great project management teams are those that work together in harmony, using their diversities as strength to consistently deliver superior performance and results. Success of a project is measured against performance variables such as time, budget and predetermined quality specifications.

There is a consensus among many project management experts that a project team does not necessarily have to be large to deliver good results. However, contemporary project teams are too big, disjointed and overly diverse, providing numerous complexities to their managers who rely on old and typical methods of management.

According to O’Rourke

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Adolescent Sexuality and Sexual Health Analytical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Pregnancies among the adolescent is a norm among many societies in the world. According to a Neelofur-Khan (2007) approximately 14 million teenagers, aged 15-19 get pregnant each year. In the sub-Saharan Africa, more than half of the populations of women give birth before they attained the age of 20.

The regional birth rate among the sub Saharan adolescents is approximately 115 births per 1000 pregnancies (Neelofur-Khan 2007). However, this reality is not limited to the developing countries in the sub Saharan region only; some of the developed nations are acutely affected by the menace of teenage pregnancies.

While the concepts of modernization, law, and other controls have led to a slight decrease in cases of adolescent pregnancy, teen pregnancy remain prevalent in most regions of the world. The number of girls getting pregnant during their teens, all over the world, remains high despite the worldwide campaigns launched to discourage teen pregnancy.

Adolescent pregnancy affects all communities and countries in the world. In fact, both the developed and the developing nations encounter the problem of adolescent pregnancies. In the United States, for instance, adolescent pregnancies remain higher than in most of the developed countries.

Although the number of pregnancies among adolescents between aged 15 to 19 has decreased by an estimated twenty-one percent in developed nations, the number of adolescent pregnancies in the America remains high (Rothenberg and Weissman 2002). Approximately 40% of women below the age of twenty in America get pregnant annually (Dangal, 2006).

National statistic records in the United States indicate that an approximate 12,000 female below the age of 15 are pregnant (Rothenberg and Weissman 2002). With these staggering figures seen in the United States seeming hard to beat, it is astonishing to learn that the numbers of adolescent pregnancies in the sub-Saharan Africa are higher. Research conducted in the 1990s show that sub-Saharan Africa has the highest number of teen pregnancies (Demographic health surveys 1995).

The sub Saharan region is affected by various factors that encourage teen pregnancies. Factors such as poverty, sexual abuse, and lack of career opportunities among other causatives lead to early pregnancies among the sub Saharan adolescents. Teenage pregnancies are accompanied by various risks. Some of the risks include potential death of the mother, spread of HIV to among the adolescents and high potential death of the infant (Matson 2002).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Adolescents may suffer death in case they try to abort under unsafe conditions. According to a report released World Health Organization, the number of abortions in the United States range between 2 and 4 million per year. Adolescents resort to unsafe procedures performed non-professional doctors because abortion is illegal in most countries of the world. The unsafe procedures performed these doctors increase the risk of teenagers contracting HIV and AIDS.

Winter (1997) in his paper ‘why teenage girls become pregnant’ revealed that, a number of factors might lead to pregnancies of the adolescents. He noted that most teenagers became pregnant because they lacked ambition.

Moreover, Poor grades, low self-esteem, unrealistic expectations, and lack of proper parental control lead the teenagers into the trap of early pregnancies (Harrington 2004). This paper discusses some determinants of adolescent pregnancy. Moreover, this article describes an intervention program that has had some success in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with pregnancy in adolescent.

Adolescent Pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa Teenage pregnancies in the sub Saharan countries is almost a norm in most societies. Poverty in these countries is very high and most children, especially the girl child, do not get sufficient education to sustain their future needs.

Therefore, by the time a girl attains the age of 14, she may be married or pregnant (Sarri

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Shuzworld Company Evaluation Essay college essay help

Workflow at Shuzworld (Discussion and Recommendations) Shuzworld’s case embraces the aspects of workflow. This section of the paper discusses the workflow provisions and provides appropriate recommendations applicable in this context.

This will ensure credible workflow augmentation in the Shuzworld Company with specific reference to Chinese plants. For example, the workflow in the production system is not efficient enough to serve growing demands for several types of shoes globally.

It is notable that the company takes nearly 46 minutes to produce one Rugged Wear Workboots product. There are recommendation on how this timeframe can be reduced (per process) to ensure efficiency, quality, and enhanced output.

Workflow recommendations and Justifications Firstly, it is recommendable for the company to use sound management principles and decision analysis in order to make sense of the available options. Although it is impossible to merge some of the processes due to protocol disparities, it is recommendable to restructure the production line as Catherine Pang drew it on the white board.

The company will save time and money as demanded by any proficient workflow. This is a critical provision when considered critically. It is notable that the workflow can either proceed to B or C after passing through process A.

Process E and F can also be selected for viability and time factor. Supportively, Shuzworld should use process ACDEGH, which will consume only 36 minutes instead of the current 46 minutes. Thus, it is appropriate to assert that the company should restructure its production line/processes as shown the subsequent output forms.

Shuzworld’s Rugged Wear Workboot Assembly Schedule Task Prospected time after merging (Minutes) Predecessors A 10 None C 3 A D 8 C E 3 D G 3 E H 9 G TOTAL 36 Another recommendation is that the company can increase the number of its workstations within china in order to curb the workflow challenges. Additionally, it can purchase more machines that will be able to handle numerous tasks simultaneously.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relying on fewer machines might distract the production system especially when one machine breaks down. Another recommendation is for the company to hire proficient and reliable workforce capable of operating the machines faster and accurately.

This will help in enhancing the workflow and other related concerns. Additionally, Shuzworld ought to improve the efficiency of its plants by enhancing competence and providing the correct number of workstations.

The company should also schedule the production of new products coherently in order to enhance the workflow. It is also important to enhance the reliability of the three machines meant to produce casual deck shoes. One production process should not interfere with others.

Notably, the company has been grappling with the reliability of machines. If one machine breaks down, the production is highly affected. Indeed, no shoes are produced if one machine has a problem. Therefore, there is the need for the company to improve the reliability of the machines in the plant by acquiring other reliable ones.

These should be put on standby waiting to replace the broken ones. This will obviously enhance operations and the ultimate output of the concerned operators.

Alternatively, the company can hire new employees, train them appropriately, and nurture their workmanship in order to enhance the workflow, productivity, and profitability of the company. This decision will reduce delays, lower labor costs and improved output.

With regard to frequent machine breakdowns, the company can acquire new machine models or hire qualified machine repairers then distribute them to different plants for reliability and efficiency. Another recommendation is to assign operators on jobs they know best.

We will write a custom Essay on Shuzworld Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead of having four operators, whose labor costs shift from one process to another, the company can facilitate the specialization of employees on single jobs. For instance, job machine operator C ought to handle process 1 owing to reduced amounts of costs.

Indeed, the company can save at least $3 dollars in this process. Second, Machine operator B ought to handle process 2 due to the cost efficiency as well. Process 3 should be the work machine operator D while the last process should be the work of operator A.

Job Machine Operator A B C D 1 $10 $12 $10 $11 2 11 9 11 11 3 9 8 11 9 4 10 8 9 10 Justification Output By improving the company’s workflow, the company will increase its output. At the outset, there will be an apparent and a marginal reduction of labor costs ($4) associated with machine operators. Besides, specialization improves the quality and the flow of work due to the improved skills for the specialists as depicted by Ryan (2009).

Second, the company will also enhance its ability to meet its customers’ needs without having by increasing its machines and hiring some skilled professionals. Although the company will incur significant costs by hiring more laborers to handle the new sandal line, it will break even within the second month of operation. Therefore, no customers will be waiting in the line. Below is the output form after the required changes.

Copy of the prospected output Task Prospected time after merging (Minutes) Predecessors A 10 None C 3 A D 8 C E 3 D G 3 E H 9 G TOTAL 36 Output for machine operators Job Preferred operator Cost 1 A $10 2 D $11 3 B 8 4 C 9 Work Flow Analysis Tool The Shuzwolrd case demand a viable workflow analysis tool, which addresses all the issues fronted to the new employee ranging from the assembly line issues to inventory challenges. The decision analysis tool was chosen because it was comprehensive and could tackle all the issue that faces the company.

Additionally, it could give quick and well-analyzed resolutions to the issue faced within the company and the industry at large. Concurrently, the tool could be used specifically in some areas to address particular issues raised by Cynthia Crowninshield, Alistair Wu, Catherine Pang, and Gloria Rodriguez among others.

For example, when analyzing the mall store sales, the tool can prefers on employing one efficient cashier for cost effectiveness. Another reason behind this choice is the ability to attain precise decisions on critical matters.

It is important to claim that the analysis tool used in scrutinizing the mentioned workflow and other relevant provision is viable, feasible, and applicable in various contexts. It is from this concern that the entire workflow concerns rest.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Shuzworld Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Precisely, the tool used is practicable, considerable and comprehensible indicating its applicability in this context. This is an important consideration.

Cost Analysis Analysis of the initial and ongoing costs

The entire costs that the company incurs include the costs associated with inefficiencies evident in highlighted workflow analysis ranging from assembly line issues to transportation factors among other provisions. The Maui Sandal Project presents the company with a huge opportunity to improve its global appeal and ultimately its revenues.

The production costs of women’s shoes are quite varying. This depends on the four machine operators with regard to which job type each one of them assumes (Fischer, 2008). It is important to assign each operator on a job, which he does best. This will help in reducing the costs indicated upon analysis.

Additionally, the transportation costs assumed by each plant while serving each of the three warehouses vary considerably. It is notable from analysis that the cost incurred by Shuzworld F (on a per unit basis) is higher when shipping products to warehouse 3 ($6 per unit). Nonetheless, it is cheaper to move from Shuzworld F to warehouse 1 ($2 per unit).

Concurrently, the Shanghai plant incurs a considerable cost when transporting products to warehouse 1 ($4 per unit). It is crucial to note that the three plants can reassign their operations such that each plant ships its products to less costly destinations.

Additionally, the plan by the Shanghai plant to increase its capacity from 1300 units to 2800 units translates to additional costs despite the benefits. Nonetheless, demand for more products has not increased as stated by Alistair Wu.

The inventory costs are equally infuriating. Shuzworld utilizes 300,000 pairs of shoelaces annually. The cost is estimated at $125 each time an order is made to the supplier. Since the cost of storing shoelaces in inventory is 10 cents a pair, it is improper to stock or purchase more than necessary. This is costly for no apparent reasons.

The company will also have to incur set up costs since the batches of sandals will have to begin after setting up the machines. Besides, the costs of designing the efficient processes that will oversee the production of singular units notwithstanding the pairs of sandals that is in a batch (Sharp

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Islamic Culture: Land Ownership in Pakistan Analytical Essay best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Organisational culture is a set of rules and priorities which help the company meet its mission and vision, complete tasks, satisfy customers’ needs, and create its image. Depending on the country the company performs into, the principles of the organisational culture may differ.

The innovation in organisation change may vary because of the peculiarities of business running in a particular country. The innovation is a set of actions aimed at solving the problems by setting up new decisions, approaches, etc. Considering the problem of innovation, change, and organisational culture and applying the issues to personal experience, it may be stated that the main purposes of this paper are to review the theories of the nature of organisational culture.

We are going to dwell upon the impact of innovation in those theories and critically discuss how the leaders of an organisation can affect the change. We will examine how culture influences behaviours related to innovation and change in an organisation in the investment banking, and recommend the strategies and actions that could be implemented by the organisation’s leaders to improve or create a fitting culture.

A critical review of the theories of the nature of organisational culture, including how it may impact innovation, and how it may be affected by the leaders of an organisation

The notion of organisational culture is similar to understanding business and leadership. However, there are several differences noticed only because of the organisational culture. Therefore, some sources claim that the leadership is a notion, which has the same definition in different cultures, however, due to the cultural differences, the organisations usually point at the characteristic features of the leaders.

Thus, being charismatic personalities, the leadership style under such characteristic feature aims to seek for transformational style of leadership with the purpose to set up innovation. Thus, in some cultures “one might need to take strong, decisive action in order to be seen as a leader, while in other cultures consultation and a democratic approach may be the preferred approach to exercising effective leadership” ([email protected] 1999, p. 1).

Considering such approach as the nature of innovation and the difference as the personal characteristic feature set on the leader, it may be stated that the failure to meet the requirements of the leadership in a particular organisational culture may lead to failure to run business. The organisational culture is to meet the social processes, corresponding to the environment and meet the rules prescribed in the country.

Dwelling upon the nature of the organisational change, many scholars believe that there are three layers of organisational culture which imply the correct functioning of business in the frames of one specific tradition. The lower layer of the organisational culture is the assumptions, the issues that are taken for granted. The next level is the beliefs which control behaviour. The upper level is considered to be the values which usually cover the mission, the vision and the objectives of the company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Each of these layers performs a particular purpose that cannot be substituted. Moreover, each layer is responsible for particular characteristics which accept that the organisational culture of a particular company is unique. This theory is believed to be rather effective as it explains the information mentioned above about the similarities of understanding the organisational culture and the similar approaches in most cases but different in performance.

The organisational culture may be compared with iceberg in this case, when the visible part of it represents the issues which are accepted by all of the cultures and are considered to be similar, and the biggest part which is hidden from the eyes of others which is considered only inside of the company.

Such approach is effective as following the commonly accepted rules. Each company may refer to one specific model of creating the organisational culture which does not contradict the commonly accepted rules and at the same time has specific peculiarities (Holbeche 2006).

Trevino, Weaver, and Reynolds (2006) have developed the theory that behaviour of the employees depends on their ethical decision-making processes which depend on the intrusion of the company. The authors are sure that the company is to play an essential role in the decision-making and ethical consideration of the company as these beliefs form the organisational culture. Moreover, they are sure that the behavioural ethics influences other aspects of organisational culture.

If to accept the fact that organisational culture is the collection of assumptions, beliefs and values of the company, it is impossible to disagree with the theory. According to the literature review conducted by Trevino, Weaver, and Reynolds (2006) and the definition of the notion “organisational culture”, it may be concluded that the belief that the ethical behaviour is the basis for the organisational culture is correct as the nature of this notion is in the organisational expression, the way how the company is represented.

This aspect is considered to be the main in the discussion of the organisational culture as the company is usually perceived on the basis of the behaviour of its employees and the way the company operates at the market, which is also the activity and one of the main characteristic features of the organisational culture.

The companies are to review the behaviour of their employees based on the ethical beliefs to make sure that the organisational culture presented in the mission, vision and objectives is exactly how the company is perceived by others on the basis of the behaviour of the company employees. The unity of the concepts and believes positively influences the organisational change and shares the responsibility among all the members of the company (Belcher 2006).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Islamic Culture: Land Ownership in Pakistan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is a belief that the organisational culture differs greatly in the companies where either men or women predominate on the leadership position. Considering this aspect as one of the theories about the organisational culture, a thorough research may present the following results. Several years ago, male and female organisational cultures were absolutely different as the style of running companies was different due to characteristic features of male and female leadership style.

Nowadays, the characteristic features in leadership lose gender feature and the organisational culture is defined by means of other issues ([email protected] 2005). However, remembering the Arabic countries, it is possible to state that the gender may play a significant role in the development of the organisational culture as Arabic people do not want to be run by women and this desire is expressed in their decision.

Doman, Glucksman, Tu, and Warren (2000) stress on the formation of the organisational culture on the basis of the talents of employees. Such theory is not effective as it is impossible to imagine the organisation which does not pay attention to the behaviour of employees, their vision and mission, motivation, company image, etc.

In case the company bases its organisational culture only on this aspect, the innovation and change processes are to be complicated by the outside processes which are to be weighted but the company does not refer to them due to cultural peculiarities (Shiu,

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The 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka Analytical Essay best essay help

Introduction The stay of mankind on planet earth has often witnessed moments of helplessness when natural disasters have stuck; thus, destroying many lives and disorienting mankind in the process. From our earliest ancestors to the modern man, we have not been safe from the anger of natural disasters.

Ranging from volcanoes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and the destructive tsunamis, we are susceptible to an array of natural disasters that is always waiting to strike. Such was the case when a tsunami hit the coastline of Sri Lanka on 26th December, 2004.

Without warning, thousands of people were killed by the 2004 tsunami. Such is the common story that is often told when catastrophic disasters like a tsunami strikes. Although we have evolved in science and thus learned many secrets of our world, we have not been able to subdue natural disasters. Since all life is precious, it is our responsibility to use the resources we have, and adopt a behaviour that can help us preserve even a few lives during catastrophic events.

Generally, a tsunami can be defined as a series of wave disturbances which usually originate from a vertical displacement of a water column (Abek 1561). The word “tsunami” has an origin in the Japanese language. Here, “tsunami” can be directly translated as a series of waves that often form at bays (Hassain 51).

Usually, anything with a potential of displacing, or moving a large volume of water can cause a tsunami (Vitarana 84). The most common causes of tsunamis include earthquakes, moving heavenly bodies such as meteorites and asteroids, volcanoes, and landslides (Vitarana 84).

Earthquakes Most tsunamis originate from earthquakes. Once an earthquake occurs on a sea bed, a large mass of water is displaced upwards. Due to the force of gravity, the displaced volume of water will move downwards to regain its original position (Vitarana 84).

A repetitive cycle where a water column moves up and down is created; hence forming a wave. Usually, a displacement of a water column will occur when part of a sea bed is displaced (UNEP 12). A fault line in the earths crust can especially create a boundary where a vertical displacement of the sea bed can easily occur (Liu 106).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Earthquakes that occur on subduction trenches are the main causes of most tsunamis (Liu 106). The tsunami waves that originate from an earthquake source can then move away from the place where they originate thousands of miles (Moore 143). Knowing the magnitude of an earthquake can especially be useful in determining the scale of tsunamis that have travelled thousands of miles from their source (Hassain 51).

Landslides Tsunamis can also originate from landslides. Landslides can occur at the seabed, or at the coast (Vitarana 84). Possible causes of such landslides include the earthquakes, the erosion of sea slopes, and volcanoes (Hanson 67).

The erosion of coastal slopes can occur as a result of rain action, from sea waves, and storms (Hanson 67). Due to a displacement of sea water as a result of displaced debris from landslides, a series of waves that has a potential of causing a tsunami is formed (Van 24).

Volcanoes When a volcano occurs above the surface of the sea, but in proximity to the sea’s surface, a large quantity of rock debris is thrown into the sea. When such debris falls into the sea, it displaces water; hence, creating waves that can cause a tsunami.

However, volcanic eruptions that occur under a sea are more hazardous in forming tsunamis (Hassain 51). Tsunamis can originate from a displacement of water that is caused from a rising slope of a volcano (Van 24).

Besides, gases that are usually released from an erupting volcano can also cause a large water displacement; hence, forming a tsunami in themselves (Hanson 67). Moreover, a volcano can also trigger an earthquake, which can then trigger a tsunami (Damen 106).

Meteorites, Comets and Asteroids Our earth is constantly in danger of colliding with heavenly bodies like comets, asteroids and meteorites (Hanson 67). While one might think that great damage from such collisions will occur if such bodies hit the earth’s surface in an area that is densely populated (such as a town), a greater catastrophic damage will happen if such bodies strike at sea (Abek 1561).

We will write a custom Essay on The 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, scientists estimate that if an asteroid that is about six kilometres in size was to fall in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, a third of the US population would be killed (Damen 106). The gigantic speed and size of a typical asteroid can create huge waves (tsunamis) that can cause a devastating damage to our population (Liu 106).

Although the possibility of us experiencing such a collision (from a heavenly body such as a comet) is almost zero, there is always a possibility, however remote, of such a catastrophe (Abek 1561).

Activities of Man Any human activity that can result in a displacement of a large volume of sea water can lead to the build-up of a tsunami wave. The carrying out of nuclear tests in deep sea can especially release large amounts of energy which can then displace large volumes of sea water; hence, leading to the development of a tsunami wave.

Characteristics of a Tsunami As we had seen earlier, a tsunami originates from a displacement of a large volume of water (Van 24). Such a displacement creates a wave that moves up and down. A tsunami is therefore a wave that is very similar to the kind of wave ripples that we usually observe when we throw a stone in a tank of water (Damen 106).

Very often, a tsunami will travel as a series of multiple waves; hence, it is usually called a train of waves (Damen 106). Once it forms, a tsunami can travel thousands of miles in the sea before reaching a coastal area (Liu 106).

For example, a tsunami with an origin in the Atlantic can travel at an incredible speed of over 1000 km/hr to reach the Japanese coastline within 24 hours. Usually, tsunamis travel at very high speeds in deep sea waters (Hassain 51).

However, on reaching shallow waters, the speeds of tsunamis usually reduce gradually (Van 24). Such behaviour results from an energy flux that remains constant during a wave travel (Hanson 67). Since the energy flux of a tsunami is proportional to the speed and amplitude of a tsunami wave, tsunamis at deep waters will travel at high speeds and low amplitudes.

Unlike their counterparts in shallow waters, such tsunamis will usually consist of waves that are small in amplitude and long (in horizontal size) (Abek 1561). Indeed, it is sometimes difficult to physically observe a tsunami wave that is travelling in the deep sea (Moore 115).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, as a tsunami moves into shallow waters towards a coastal area, its speed decreases while its amplitude increases. Travelling at a speed that is proportional to the square root of gravity constant multiplied by depth, a tsunami that is travelling in water that has a depth of five kilometres can move at a speed of over 800 km/hr.

On hitting a coastline, such a tsunami can travel at amplitude that is within ten to fifty meters. Such tsunamis can be observed as a series of water waves forming a series of rises that alternate with falls at the coastline. Usually, tsunamis can occur for several hours.

Like any other wave, tsunami waves can add to one another to form waves with higher amplitudes, or subtract from one another to form waves of lower (or zero) amplitudes (Moore 116).

The 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka The date of 26th December, 2004, will be remembered for a long time by many people in Sri Lanka. During this particular date, a tsunami of a large magnitude and scale hit the coastline of Sri Lanka (Liu 117). The 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka was caused by an earthquake of a high magnitude that occurred in the western coast of Sumatra (Moore 138).

The focal depth of this particular earthquake was about thirty kilometres (Liu 117). Described as the worst earthquake to occur in the history of our planet in the past five decades, the earthquake that caused Sri Lanka’s tsunami measured over 9.0 on the Richter scale (Liu 106).

The above earthquake originated from an interaction of Australian, Sunda, and Burmerse tectonic plates. Here, as much as 30 meters of the sea bed covering a distance of over one thousand kilometres was displaced (Abek 1561).

Thus, the displacement that was caused by the described tsunami resulted in a vertical displacement of a very large volume of water; hence, creating a tsunami (Moore 129). Moreover, the 9.0 earthquake caused a series of about fifteen other earthquakes in the affected region.

As a result of a water displacement (caused by the resulting upward movement of the sea floor) that was caused by the 9.0 earthquake, a series of three tsunami waves was formed (Liu 106). Time duration between these tsunami waves averaged about twenty minutes.

Effects of the 2004 Sri Lanka’s Tsunami When a tsunami reaches a coastline, it travels with high amplitude (from ten meters to even fifty meters). Thus, water overflows from the coastline towards the inland. Such a moving volume of water travels at a high speed, and with enormous energy that can cause huge destructions.

The 2004 tsunami, which hit the Sri Lankan coastline, affected more than two thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline. More than 20% of the Sri Lankan population was thus affected by the 2004 tsunami. Here, the moving tsunami wave drowned and killed thousands of people.

There were especially many deaths since the country was not expecting a tsunami, and was not therefore prepared for an emergency evacuation. It is reported that due to ignorance, thousands of Sri Lanka’s went to learn of what had happened when the first of the three series of tsunami waves hit their coastline (Liu 119).

Usually, due to interactions with a coastline (often leading to a loss of energy), the first wave of a tsunami is often less devastating than those that follow after it. Thousands of people here were thus caught unaware and killed by the second wave of the 2004 tsunami.

The total number of people who were killed in Sri Lanka by the 2004 tsunami has been estimated to be around 31,000 in total (Liu 119). A larger proportion of those killed by the 2004 Tsunami consisted of women and children.

It is estimated that over 10,000 of those killed here during the tsunami disaster consisted of children (Liu 119). Apart from deaths, about seventeen thousand people were injured by the tsunami tragedy while more than five thousand were reported as missing (Liu 119).

Moreover, the overflowing waters of the 2004 tsunami resulted in a massive destruction of property along the Sri Lankan coastline. As a result of the 2004 tsunami tragedy, more than eighty thousand homes were destroyed; hence, displacing about a million individuals as a result.

So as to cater for the needs of the people who were displaced by the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka, about 800 camps for the displaced were formed. Many of the people in these resettlement camps had lost their property and livelihoods as a result of the tsunami tragedy. Many others had to undergo psychological trauma due to the negative ways in which the tsunami had affected their ordinary living.

Apart from houses, many infrastructural facilities were destroyed by the 2004 tsunami; thus affecting transport, communication and also posing a reconstruction challenge. A lot of debris could be seen around all the areas that had been affected by the tsunami.

Besides, the 2004 tsunami affected the ground fresh water table through salinization of fresh water sources. It will take a lot of efforts and time to clean some of these water tables that were affected.

Since the Indian Ocean bed has been proven to contain lesser amounts of titanium as compared to the Pacific Ocean, more studies will be required before we can determine if large amounts of titanium was deposited inland during the 2004 tsunami.

Economic Impacts The 2004 tsunami affected the economy of Sri Lanka in several negative ways. Many people lost their sources of livelihoods as a result of the 2004 tsunami. Some of these people who had lost their livelihoods had lost their businesses and houses, which had been destroyed by the destructive tsunami waves (Dawson 224).

Moreover, since a large community of the Sri Lankan population depends on fishing, many fishermen became poor as a result of losing their boats to the destructive tsunami waves that had hit their coastline (Dawson 224). A United Nations report on the 2004 tsunami catastrophe estimated that about two hundred thousand people in Sri Lanka were in danger of becoming poorer following the 2004 tsunami tragedy (Dawson 224).

Because a large part of hotels, beaches, among other tourist facilities were destroyed by the tsunami tragedy, the tourism economy of Sri Lanka was affected negatively. With no places were tourists could visit and relax, the number of tourists arrivals in Sri Lanka decreased significantly.

As a result, many people who were directly employed by the tourism sector lost their jobs. Moreover, due to a decrease in tourist arrivals, Sri Lanka was thus losing an important source of foreign exchange for developing her economy.

With a destruction of her infrastructure as a result of the tsunami tragedy, billions of dollars were needed for restructuring. With limited resources, it will be difficult to meet the cost of restructuring affected infrastructure. Meanwhile, as a result of infrastructural destruction, many businesses were affected negatively (Dawson 224).

Many of these businesses depend on telecommunication, electrical power, and transport to carry on with their day to day activities. Most of these businesses are small businesses that contributed positively to the Sri Lankan economy (through employment of people and paying of taxes).

Since most of these businesses have suffered from a displacement of people (hence a loss of market and human resource), and also from a physical damage of their properties and facilities, they have found themselves in a very repelling environment to operate in; thus, limiting their capacity and output to the Sri Lankan economy.

Measures that can be taken to Avoid Future Tsunami Disasters No matter how much we prepare, we can never be ready for natural disasters. However, a possible measure of precautions and preparedness can help us to avoid, or minimize the destructive effects of natural disasters.

Although there is uncertainty on the effectiveness of using technology to mitigate the effects of natural disasters such as tsunamis, we should always work in the direction of utilizing such technologies if we can save a few lives as a result.

Together with several countries, the United States has developed and placed sensors at specific areas on the seabed of the Pacific Ocean. These pressure sensors have been designed to detect possible tsunami waves (UNEP 18).

Since tsunamis consist of waves that have rising and falling amplitudes, the resulting difference in the depth of water can cause pressure alterations at sea beds. These pressure alterations can thus be detected by pressure sensors at the seabed (Meihde 56).

However, since such a process of measurement is highly complex, it is very difficult for sensors at the sea bed to have accuracies that can detect tsunami waves. Still, the progress that has been made in using sensors to analyse data for a possible tsunami waves is positive (UNEP 12).

Moreover, since tsunamis interact with the coastline in a way that is difficult to predict, it is equally difficult to predict their behaviour. Sometimes, tsunami waves can add together or cancel one another; hence, making it difficult to determine their eventual behaviour (Meihde 56).

Several researchers remain uncertain if the tsunami warning technology in the Pacific Ocean can be replanted in the Indian Ocean. Still, Sri Lanka has been part of an ongoing program that has been working with several other countries to develop a system that can monitor for possible tsunamis before they occur (Liu 106).

Under the tsunami warning system, The Sri Lankan meteorological department will work together with Japanese technologies and the Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWC) to possibly help in the detection of future tsunamis (Yadav 107).

Although we do not have a reliable system of detecting tsunamis, the above development is progressive in developing reliable systems that can be useful in detecting and monitoring tsunamis before they hit a coastline (Andrew 23). However, since the Indian Ocean bed is different in structure and complexity to the Pacific Ocean bed, there is a need for scientists to develop a warning system that is unique to the Indian Ocean (Patra 362).

Currently, there has been a debate on whether to allow building of houses a few meters from the coastline (UNEP 21). Here, it will be useful to develop buildings that are protective and safe from tsunamis. Importantly, there is also a need to conserve the Sri Lankan coastline (Meihde 56).

A huge part of the coastline should be planted with mangrove forests (Patra 362). A thick cover of mangrove forests is useful in cutting and breaking tsunami waves before they move further inland (Yadav 107). Conservation of the Sri Lankan coastline will thus be useful in at least reducing possible damages that may occur from future tsunamis (Andrew 22).

Importantly, the political leadership in Sri Lanka has become more aware of damages that can result from natural disasters like tsunami attacks.

With such awareness, the political leadership in Sri Lanka can prepare for emergencies and move with speed to mitigate damages that can arise from similar disasters in the future (Patra 362). Here, it will be useful to develop a quick response system that can help in quick evacuations and treatments during times of natural disasters (Yadav 107).

An important area that needs to be utilised for the purposes of mitigating the effects of future natural disasters is the use of technology. Here, technology can especially be used to help in assessing the damage that could have occurred following the occurrence of a natural disaster (Patra 362).

Importantly, technology can be employed to communicate with the people who are in danger of being hit by a natural disaster (Andrew 22). It is fruitful to relay information to a target populace with instructions on where they can move to stay safe, what they can do, and how they can ask for help during such times (Meihde 56).

As we had seen earlier, a large number of people who died during the 2004 tsunami attack died from the second wave (Yadav 107). Having heard of what had happened, many people moved in ignorance to witness the effects of the first wave before the more deadly second wave hit (Yadav 107).

With the right communication, these people could have been told to stay away from the beach; hence, cutting on the number of fatalities that occurred (Patra 362). As it has been proven time and again, an effective system of coordination and communication is essential in saving lives during times of natural disasters (Andrew 23).

Conclusion Natural disasters will always remain a part of us during our stay on planet earth. So as to minimize the loss of lives during natural disasters, it is useful for man to utilize all resources at his disposal to preserve lives during the occurrence of natural disasters.

Such a direction would involve understanding the science of natural disasters like tsunamis, and thus develop measures that can help in warning, planning and rescue programs when natural disasters strike. The 2004 tsunami has especially provided us with important lessons on the direction that we can adopt to prevent massive deaths during such disasters.

Adopting programs that are helpful in preparing for such disasters can be fruitful in saving many lives.

Such a direction would involve developing an efficient system of communication, designing and implementing a standby resource of manpower and machinery for emergencies, using technological systems to warn for possible oncoming disasters, and importantly, developing a system of peaceful coexistence with our natural environment (such as the planting of mangrove forests along coastlines to help in subduing tsunamis).

Works Cited Abek, Kennedy, “Physical Size of Tsunamigenic Earthquakes from Tsunami Data.” Journal of Geography Research, volume 84.1 (2006): 1561-1568. Print

Andrew, John, “Tsunami Generated Forms.” Science of Tsunami Hazards 10.1 (2003): 21-34. Print

Damen, Michiel, What are Tsunamis? New York: McGraw, 2008. Print

Dawson, Foster “The Identification of Tsunami Deposits in Coastal Sediments.” Science of Tsunami Hazards 9.4 (2000): 206-423. Print

Hanson, Briggs, Sea level Change in North Iceland, London: McMillan, 2004. Print

Hassain, Kundsen, Effects of the 2004 Tsunami in India, Mumbai: McGraw, 2007 Print

Liu, Fearn, History of Tsunami Catastrophes, Beijing: McMillan, 2009. Print

Meihde, Mark, Characteristics of Tsunamis. New York: International Institute For geo-information Science Press, 2006 Print

Moore, Normark, Giant Hawaiian Landslides, New York: McMillan, 2005. Print

Patra, Singh, Agrochemical, Mumbai: McMillan, 1996. Print

UNEP, Early Warning Systems, New York: UNEP Press, 2011. Print Van, Frank, the Science of Tsunamis, New York: International Institute For geo-information Science Press, 2006 Print

Vitarana, Tissa, Sri Lanka after the Indian Ocean Tsunami New York: International Institute for geo-information Science Press, 2006 Print

Yadav, Agarwal, Soil, Water Conservation. Mumbai: Oxford, 2007. Print

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Mattel’s China Experience: A Crisis in Toyland Case Study a level english language essay help

Company Overview of Mattel Corporation In 1945, two entrepreneurs established Mattel Corporation with small range of product line, but now, it is the largest Toy Company in the world. According to the report of Gamache, et al (2), the name of this company derived from two founders.

At the initial stage of formation, this company only manufactured picture frames and dollhouse furniture for the customer though the owner intended to diversify products and concentrated on the new products development to increase profit margin. However, the management of this company had changed its strategies over time considering the influence of pop culture on the society, and change of customer behavior.

In addition, the management team also considered the suggestion of the outside members, for instance, it had introduced three-dimensional doll “Barbie” because Elliot’s wife (one owner) suggested this idea for the development of the company and now this company generated 50% profits from this product (Gamache, et al 2).

Important Historical Milestones

The most important historical milestones has included in the following table –

Year Historical overview 1945 Harold Matson and Elliot Handler formed this company 1959 Introduction of Barbie doll in accordance with the suggestion of Ruth Handler; however, Barbie was name of her daughter 1960 Enlisted in New York Stock exchange and rapidly ranked in Fortune’s list of the 500 largest US industrial companies 1964 Mattel started its first International sales outlet in Switzerland 1968 Hot Wheels was introduced, became the second biggest hit since Barbie 1970 Mattel tried to tap into electronic games though it was not successful project because competitor’s low pricing strategy 1975 Elliot and Ruth Handler, founders of Mattel, leave this company 1977 Mattel adopted diversified strategy and penetrated the new fast growing electronics game field and introduced the Intellivision home video entertainment system 1982 Mattel’s next large “hit” product briefly assists the company balance the success of the Barbie doll with a boy’s toy 1986 This company had entered into a joint venture arrangement with Bandai, Japan’s largest toy company; in addition, it acquired Hong Kong–based ARCO Industries to gain competitive advantage 1987 Mattel developed a strategy for maximizing core brands to maintain profitability and consistent profits streams 1988 The company revived its association with the Walt Disney Company to introduce different products infant and preschool toys based on famous characters like Mickey Mouse. In addition, it Mattel agreed to buy Corolle S.A., manufacturer of collector-quality dolls based in France. 1989 It acquired Corgi Toys Ltd., a British maker of scale-model, die-cast cars 1991

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China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services Case Study college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The UnionPay systems requirements granted the service suppliers to offer payment services using electronic cards to carry out transactions in foreign currencies. Under this system, the Chinese authority categorically stated that the devices used in payment card processes must conform to the entity systems requirements.

In addition, it was required that all the cards used in these transactions must bear the UnionPay’s logo. Another bone of contention under this electronic payment system arrangement is that the Chinese merchants were granted some exclusive rights to access the payment cards. However, the other members who were using this system of payment were meant to negotiate before they were given these access rights.

Analysis of the UnionPay case in China The US dispute on China’s UnionPay case

Under the Unionpay program, the United States of America questioned the legality on the country’s authority to issue credit card for electronic payment services. The US thought this would be a means of encouraging fraud and fraudulent activities regarding the electronic payment systems. Therefore, the US claimed that China was permitted only to use UnionPay for issuing electronic payment transactions that were mainly denominated and done in Chinese renminbi.

The United States’ cause of the rejection of the UnionPay services in China

The US never wanted to accept these UnionPay services because China was flouting the rules governing the electronic payment services. For example, the United States of America argued that China was acting inconsistently with the GATS rules, which regulate such services. The most affected sections of the GATS were the Articles XVI as well as XVII (WHO 1).

Analysis of the main idea for the case

The main idea for the UnionPay case is that it was thought by the United States of America to be contravening the established rules and measures that regulate the electronic payment services. In its defence, the US wanted to see that there was a legalized system that dealt with payment transaction services.

In fact, anything that would contravene the established GATS legal frameworks was not good to be adopted as appropriate means of payment (WHO 4). Therefore, the Chinese authority was found to be contravening the rules governing the electronic payment transactions, and the US could not definitely support such kind of a system.

UnionPay in China and its services

This organization can be regarded as the main bank card company in China, which was established in 2002. Therefore, the UnionPay refers to the banking card that is used by many consumers across the entire country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the UnionPay services in China are also important to other foreigners such as the American merchants, owing to its ability to perform interbank transactions by connecting to other ATMs facilities in the county as well as other parts of the world. The UnionPay cards are also famous with the Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale (EFTPOS), thus making it easier for the merchants to carry out payment transactions promptly.

Solution and Conclusion for the case

In sum, there are imminent fears and allegations attributed to the use of the UnionPay systems in China. Therefore, the best solution was found to be a legalized and harmonized framework between the two countries since it was evidenced that there was a legal conflict in the sense that the system operated under the Chinese laws and regulations, which the US thought to be contravening the established GATS rules. This solution would include sound rules and measures on administration and circulation of UnionPay cards.

Work Cited World Trade Organization (WTO) 2010, China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services. PDF file. Web.

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Public Health Perspectives on Tobacco Control: The Framework Convention Report college admission essay help

In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) member states successfully negotiated the organization’s first ever framework convention on tobacco control. The aim of negotiating this particular framework was with a view to ensuring global accountability in public health. This means that the Public Health Perspective on Tobacco Control is recognized and certified by the World Health Assembly (WHA). At the moment, it is made up of nearly 190 member states.

Prior to drafting of the FCTC, a number of products and services provided by individuals and corporations both locally and internationally had resulted in a lot of damage. Therefore, the FCTC was meant to address some of these issues regarding tobacco products as well as their processes. Look at from another perspective, the FCTC could be regarded as an attempt to protect and save millions of lives who have are daily exposed to the dangers of tobacco use (Hawkes

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Epidemiological studies of tuberculosis Qualitative Research Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Tuberculosis is a contagious disease, which mainly affects pulmonary system, but can affect kidneys, brain, and bones. The causative agent of tuberculosis is a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is among the leading causes of deaths globally because it is an infectious disease, which spreads through the air.

Epidemiological studies have revealed that tuberculosis is prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS in low-income countries because of compromised immune system and poor accessibility to healthcare services (Pang et al., 2014; Pawlowski et al., 2012). The revelation implies that immune system and accessibility of healthcare services play an important role in prevention of tuberculosis.

World Health Organization (2014) reports that tuberculosis 9 million people contracted tuberculosis in 2013 out of which 1.5 million people died (360,000 living with HIV/AIDS). These statistics indicate that tuberculosis is the leading cause of deaths globally and is prevalent among people with HIV/AIDS in epidemic regions, such as low-income countries. In this view, the essay examines global epidemiology of tuberculosis in epidemic regions such as the United States, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia.

Epidemiology The United States

The prevalence rate of tuberculosis in the United States is the lowest when compared to the prevalence rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), 10,528 cases of tuberculosis occurred in 2011, which amount to an incidence rate of 3.4 cases in every 100,000 persons.

Epidemiological statistics indicate that tuberculosis is prevalent in states such as Alaska, District of Columbia, and Hawaii for they have incidence rates of 9.3, 9.1, and 8.9 respectively (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011; Pawlowski et al., 2012). The epidemiological statistics, therefore, indicate that prevalence of tuberculosis varies from one state to another with Alaska, District of Columbia, and Hawaii having the highest incidence rates.

In the United States, there is disproportionate prevalence of tuberculosis according to race. According to the report of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), the incidences rates of American Asians, African Americans, and White Americans are 20.9, 6.3, and 0.8 respectively.

Epidemiological study undertaken to establish the prevalence of tuberculosis among American Indians shows that their mortality rate is 5 times that of national average (Pang et al., 2014). The incidence rates of tuberculosis among African Americans are considerably higher than that of White Americans owing to poverty (Hotez, 2008). Place of birth determine predisposition to tuberculosis in the United States.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other epidemiological studies have indicates that children of foreign parents and foreigners have higher incidences of tuberculosis when compared the children of Americans and Americans (Pang et al., 2014). Regarding co-infections, World Health Organization (2014) holds that HIV/AIDS contributes to the occurrence of tuberculosis. Hence, it is evident that the prevalence of tuberculosis in the United States varies according to race, place of birth, HIV/AIDS.

Sub-Saharan Africa

The prevalence of tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa is very high because it has predisposing factors such as HIV/AIDS and poverty. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa such as Congo, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Nigeria, Zambia, Liberia, and Mali, amongst other have high incidences of tuberculosis.

Mboowa (2014) states that the incidence rate of tuberculosis is 255 cases in every 100,000 people in Sub-Saharan Africa because it has about 70% of all cases of HIV/AIDS globally. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS cases in Sub-Saharan Africa implies that a significant number of people have compromised immune system, which predispose them to tuberculosis.

A study done to reveal the association of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS indicates that 50% of people living with HIV/AIDS, who are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, develop tuberculosis in their lifetime (Adeiza, Abba,

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Assignment: Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Part 2: Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity and Professional Ethics scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Nurse-scholars have a significant obligation to their community as well. Their work must have academic and professional integrity. Their efforts are designed to add to the body of knowledge, advance the profession, and ultimately help in the care of patients. Work that lacks integrity is subject to erode quickly or worse.

Fortunately, there are strategies and tools that can help ensure integrity in academic and professional work. This Assignment asks you to consider these tools and how you might apply them to your own work.

In this Assignment you will continue developing your Academic Success and Professional Development Plan by appending the original document you began in the previous assignment.

To Prepare:

Reflect on the strategies presented in the Resources for this Module in support of academic style, integrity, and scholarly ethics.
Reflect on the connection between academic and professional integrity.
The Assignment:

Part 2, Section 1: Writing Sample: The Connection Between Academic and Professional Integrity

Using the Academic and Professional Success Development Template you began in Module 1, write a 2- to 3-paragraph analysis that includes the following:

Explanation for the relationship between academic integrity and writing
Explanation for the relationship between professional practices and scholarly ethics
Cite at least two resources that support your arguments, being sure to use proper APA formatting.
Use Grammarly and SafeAssign to improve the product.
Explain how Grammarly, Safe Assign, and paraphrasing contributes to academic integrity.
Part 2, Section 2: Strategies for Maintaining Integrity of Work
Expand on your thoughts from Section 1 by identifying and describing strategies you intend to pursue to maintain integrity and ethics of your:

academic work as a student of the MSN program and
professional work as a nurse throughout your career. Include a review of resources and approaches you propose to use as a student and a professional.
Note: Add your work for this Assignment to the original document you began in the Module 1 Assignment, which was built from the Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Template.

https://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only
https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/plagiarism
https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/studentaffairs/academicintegrity/safe-assign-turn-it-in
https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/grammarly

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Third-Party Intervention at Lincoln Hospital Report college essay help

Abstract Labour turnover is one of the controllable, but unavoidable situations in any organisation. For example, where labour turnover is caused by workplace conflicts, proper management of such inconsistencies is required. If the situation is not tackled, employment turnover due to destructive workplace conflicts might have serious effects on the performance of an organisation both in the short and long-term.

High turnover in organisations leads to increased recruitment costs and the training of new employees to fill the gaps that are left by the outgoing employees. Tackling the issue proactively requires organisations to address its causations such as workplace conflicts, poor work morale, and dissatisfaction.

For Lincoln Hospital, failure to retain employees is a significant organisational problem, considering that replacing nurses in the operating rooms has proved problematic. Ensuring effective resource planning and procurement will determine the future success of the hospital.

Introduction Problem Solving

Lincoln Hospital is interested in bringing about change that can make it profitable in the end. Change management requires the development of an elaborate plan that shows how the various activities will be executed (Ledez, 2008). In this process, organisational diagnosis is important in determining problems that have to be resolved to realise the change.

When called in by Lincoln Hospital’s president to resolve its problems as described in Waddell, Cummings, and Worley’s (2011) case, it is important to implement the change by seeking mechanisms for resolving organisational conflicts. In this process, the first step entails determining the causes and parties in the conflict.

The establishment of the common conflicts of interest then follows before determining any commitment areas where parties can help each other in resolving their differences. While firing both parties that are involved in conflicts may help to resolve some challenges such as the rising turnover due to leadership disgruntlement, such differences are pivotal in enabling the organisation to identify its areas of weakness in its personnel and other resource management areas.

Hence, I will focus on resolving the conflicts by adopting the best inconsistency resolution mechanisms such as cooperation, compromise, competing, and accommodation. Conflict resolution through avoidance emphasises, leaving the conflict unaddressed (Johnson

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Third-Party Intervention at Lincoln Hospital Report essay help online: essay help online

Abstract Labour turnover is one of the controllable, but unavoidable situations in any organisation. For example, where labour turnover is caused by workplace conflicts, proper management of such inconsistencies is required. If the situation is not tackled, employment turnover due to destructive workplace conflicts might have serious effects on the performance of an organisation both in the short and long-term.

High turnover in organisations leads to increased recruitment costs and the training of new employees to fill the gaps that are left by the outgoing employees. Tackling the issue proactively requires organisations to address its causations such as workplace conflicts, poor work morale, and dissatisfaction.

For Lincoln Hospital, failure to retain employees is a significant organisational problem, considering that replacing nurses in the operating rooms has proved problematic. Ensuring effective resource planning and procurement will determine the future success of the hospital.

Introduction Problem Solving

Lincoln Hospital is interested in bringing about change that can make it profitable in the end. Change management requires the development of an elaborate plan that shows how the various activities will be executed (Ledez, 2008). In this process, organisational diagnosis is important in determining problems that have to be resolved to realise the change.

When called in by Lincoln Hospital’s president to resolve its problems as described in Waddell, Cummings, and Worley’s (2011) case, it is important to implement the change by seeking mechanisms for resolving organisational conflicts. In this process, the first step entails determining the causes and parties in the conflict.

The establishment of the common conflicts of interest then follows before determining any commitment areas where parties can help each other in resolving their differences. While firing both parties that are involved in conflicts may help to resolve some challenges such as the rising turnover due to leadership disgruntlement, such differences are pivotal in enabling the organisation to identify its areas of weakness in its personnel and other resource management areas.

Hence, I will focus on resolving the conflicts by adopting the best inconsistency resolution mechanisms such as cooperation, compromise, competing, and accommodation. Conflict resolution through avoidance emphasises, leaving the conflict unaddressed (Johnson

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Theory Integration in Intelligence Expository Essay essay help

Table of Contents Rational Choice theory

Meaning and its Application in Intelligence Studies

Conclusion

Reference List

Rational Choice theory George Homas is a sociologist who developed the rational choice theory by assuming that people make economic decisions by considering the greatest benefits and wants that will cost less for more returns. The theory is common amongst economists in cases where the majority of people want to balance less cost for greater profits.

The theory is also applicable in Intelligence Science because the presumption forms part of human behavior that is characterized by wanting greater benefits by giving less contribution. Therefore, looking for information about security threats such as terrorism becomes easier because it is assumed that terrorists or their targets are individuals who want to gain benefits by using easy ways that pose threats to a given country.

Meaning and its Application in Intelligence Studies The rational choice theory is applicable in every field because choices that free persons make are mostly for self-interest. Every person needs to gain more by contributing less. This scenario brings problems to areas such as economy and security in a country.

A country wants to sell more of its products to its neighbors,but at the same time buy less of what the neighbors are selling, thus jeopardizing international relations. It is interesting to develop a“hypothesis based on this theory in every research subject that human’s choice is relevant” (Gottschalk 2009, 35).

The greatest threat to any developed economy in the contemporary world is terrorism. Terrorism is viewed as a threat coming from religious dogmas. However, it is based on deception, which “is an aspect of human perception that is in turn shaped byobjective reality along with physiological and psychological factors” (Bell 2003, 244).There are huge investments made in the “developments of human intelligence” (Davies and Gustafson 2013, 154).

The contemporary world is incomparable with the past due to the huge developments that have been made in areas such as communications technology, weaponry, and transport developments. During the Cold War era, economic growth of developed countries stagnated due to threats, but it was easy to know every move that an enemy made due to human intelligence and undeveloped technology that was in place at the time.

However, today’s world is more dangerous than it was during the Cold War era due to the advanced technology that makes it hard for human intelligence to keep an eye on the enemy’s moves. Communication technological developments pose a threat to any country in the modern world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, there are numerous sources of threatsdue to the technological revolution; hence,highly sophisticated mechanisms of intelligence science are required to counteract the threats. However, it is very hard for any country to attain confidence in its intelligence science because the enemy knows how to camouflage in the presence of intelligence agents’ watch.

A terrorist would use technology to carry out a terror attack and an intelligent agent would use the same to keep an eye on every move made before the attack. Aware of that, a terrorist would act like a harmless person to keep off the intelligence officer. Hence, technology and huge investment on human intelligence are not anassurance of the successful fight against any threat to a country.

Conclusion The application of the rational choice theory is critical to the human intelligence developments because it requires the identification of the threats posed by human decisions and working them out. The theory depicts that human intelligence needs to find out the reasons why a person would do something that poses a security threat, and hence invest in counterattacking the threat by offering other alternatives that such a person would use to achieve a given goal.

Reference List Bell, Bowyer. 2003.“Toward a Theory of Deception.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence, 16, no. 1, 244–279,

Davies, Philip, and Kristian Gustafson. 2013. Intelligence Elsewhere: Spies and Espionage outside the Anglosphere. Washington, D.C. Georgetown University Press.

Gottschalk, Petter. 2009. Policing Financial Crime: Intelligence Strategy Implementation. Sydney: Universal-Publishers.

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