Both the e.e. Cummings poem, “She Being Brand” and Sharon Olds’ poem “Sex Without Love” address the act of love-making. However, although both use humor , rhythm, and metaphor, Cummings is less explicit.
His poem, perhaps reflecting a certain sexual modesty still prevailing in society in his decade, can be read as a straightforward love affair with a car or other motorized vehicle, rather than a metaphor for an encounter with a human woman.
More importantly, perhaps, Cummings celebrates the mutuality of the act, while Olds implies a critique of those who engage in sex purely for pleasure rather than to build a relationship.
Each poet employs a variety of techniques to evoke the act of sex. For example, Olds echoes the rhythm of approaching climax in the repetition of a phrase containing a word often used to describe that climax. Olds asks, “How do they come to the/come to the come to the/ God come to the/still waters… “ (Olds, lines 8-10).
This three word phrase, reiterated four times, humorously reproduces the way that people under these circumstances lose the capacity to finish a sentence or a thought. They often also call on the deity at this moment.
Similarly, e.e. Cummings describes the same critical moment in an episode of intimacy as follows: I slammed on/the/internalexpanding/
Fire protection systems for Offshore oil rigs Research Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Description of an oil rig
Types of oil rigs
Fire protection systems
Types and categories of fire protection systems
Fire protection systems for Offshore oil rigs
Introduction In order to meet the challenges that arise due to the production of oil, the oil has to be protected from fire. This procedure requires highly developed systems in order to overcome the challenges in the oil production system. Therefore, this research paper deals with offshore oil rigs and the various fire protection systems used to provide safety to the oil industry.
The systems to be discussed under this paper should be able to persevere with any environment such as the marine environments. They should also require minimum and easy maintenance. Also, they should be able to deal with rapid occurrence of fires that may release high amounts of heat energy.
Again, the systems should be reliable and should be approved by various authorities of regulation or safety. In order to meet these qualifications, the paper provides a discussion of a number of products and new designs which have been used in industries in order to meet the standards of fire protection.
A number of the fire protection systems discussed can be applied in various fields and industries to meet the standards of fire protection (Cote and Bugbee, p. 270).
Fire protection for offshore oil rigs is concerned with various conditions that are almost similar to protection of the oil refinery system. However, the former is somehow complicated. Any uncontrolled gases like carbon dioxide may cause overwhelming of the oil suppression systems.
Any operation meant for fire protection should be performed by the trained personnel on site. This is because evacuating the facilities for protection of the fires may result to high risks and consequences than any operation that is done on land. The fires that release high amounts of heat greatly reduce the amount of fuel available for combustion.
Fire protection for offshore oil rigs should first emphasize on protection of fire and also provision of training to the personnel who respond to the same. The goals of the systems must be keenly viewed before coming up with the decision to install fire protection systems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, the goal of the systems of fire protection that deals with hazards of low heat release are to detect the occurrence of fire control or put off the fire before the trained firefighters arrives. This trained administration is the personnel to whom the lease belongs or the personnel whose flag is registered under that vessel.
Another, factor to consider before having a fire protection system is the process used for regulating facilities in the offshore. This is because, for offshore setting, the process of regulation is different from the facilities on land.
This is done by the provision of features that are able to meet the requirements of the society as well as the government regulations. It is important to understand the major types of oil rigs before going to the fire protection systems used in oil rigs. This will enable one to know where and when to install the fire protection systems (Cote and Bugbee, p. 268).
Description of an oil rig An oil rig can be defined as a large structure that contains facilities used for drilling of wells. It also contains facilities for the extraction and manufacturing of oil and gas from its natural state.
Oil rigs are used for storage of products like oil temporarily until the time it is brought to the shore for refining and to taken for marketing. The oil rig, in other terms, may be called an oil platform.
There are many places where the oil rig can be fixed. These areas include the floor of the sea, float on the sea, or it can consist of an artificial island that is established on the sea or ocean (Ardley, p. 40).
Types of oil rigs One of the common types of oil rigs is the fixed type which is built on concrete of steel legs and connected with a strong support from the bed of the sea. They provide support to rigs for drilling and facilities used for production of oil and other products. These types of oil rigs are usually designed to be used for quite a long time because they are immobile.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Fire protection systems for Offshore oil rigs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is a variety of structures used under this oil rig such as steel jackets and floating steel among others. Steel jackets are made using steel tube members, which lie in piles on the bed of the sea where they are being constructed. The water tight structures called the concrete caisson have oil storage tanks which are in- built below the surface of the sea.
These tanks allow the oil rigs to be constructed close to the sea shore; they also allow the oil rigs to be floated to the last position where they are deeply sunk to the bed of the sea. They can only be installed to water depths of 500m and above (Ardley, p. 42).
The second category of the oil rig is the compliant towers majorly used for offshore gas or oil production. The compliant towers are used for sustaining some significant deflections and forces in a lateral manner due to their design. They are majorly used where water goes to a depth of 450m and above.
The third category of oil rig is the semi-submersible rig which has a hull with buoyancy sufficiency for easy floatation. The weight of the structure is sufficient enough to keep it always upright during its operation. The semi-submersible rigs are mobile and thus they can be relocated from place to place.
When the hull structure is submerged, this oil rig is rarely affected by loads from sea waves. This category of oil rig is very sensitive to changes in load.
This means that care must be taken when trimming in order to maintain stability. Its sufficient buoyancy is obtained by placing a heavy material on the in built tanks. In addition, it has the capacity to move from deep to shallow enabling substantial materials to be moved to the surface.
The fourth category of oil rig is the jack – up oil rig, which is mobile just like the semi submersible and can be upright on the floor of the sea. It usually rests on several legs that are for its support and anchorage. These legs can be raised or lowered to any position.
When it is lowered to its location to start working, the legs are jacked down on to the floor of the sea. The weight of the barge and the ballast water drives the support legs to the bottom of ocean or the sea in order to avoid further penetration when the rig is in operation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Fire protection systems for Offshore oil rigs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This process is called preloading. All types of oil rigs are self sufficient in terms of water and energy. They also provide necessary equipment for processing of the oil so tat it can be transferred through a pipeline to a tanker loading facility (Hyne, p. 153).
Fire protection systems These are systems which are meant for mitigation of the insignificant effects of highly destructive fires. Fire protection entails careful investigation of fire occurrences and the related emergencies which includes detailed research and application of systems for mitigation.
It is critical for the fire protection systems to be maintained in tandem with the basis of their design. Usually, the design is done according to laws and the fire code regardless of whether they are land based or offshore.
This is done to ensure that the fire protection systems serve the intended function as required and at the stated period. Whenever a fire accident happens, fire experts should be summoned to conduct investigation to establish the cause and damage of the fire accident. The fire protection aims at protection of property and the safety of life (Lambert, p. 25).
Types and categories of fire protection systems in a broader sense, the fire protection systems can be grouped into two. The two categories include: (a) active fire protection systems, and (b) passive fire protection systems. In passive fire protection, the fire compartments are formed by fire resistance rated walls and floor assemblies.
These are meant to limit the spreading of fire and keep fire as well as high temperatures within the fire compartment to enhancing fire fighting. In active fire protection, fire is detected by the equipment both manually and automatically. The fire protection systems are put in to other categories.
The first category is the fire sprinkler system. In this system water flows through pipes and must be connected to a fire detection system which detects heat or fire. This category has got various types of fire protection systems.
One of the most common protection systems is the wet fire sprinkler system which is often installed. This is a simplified system consisting of a sprinkler and an automated alarm valve. When it is subjected to a high degree of heat, there is a retraction of a certain in-built element which is highly sensitive. This allows water to flow from the sprinkler. In this system, there are two categories.
The first one supplies the system with water once it required whereas the other is pressurized in a continuous manner. The latter is disadvantageous because the water within the pipes may stagnate and become infested by bacteria and mold. The same water in these pipes can break the pipes due to continued freezing.
This is the reason why such systems require regular maintenance. The second category of fire protection system is the dry pipe system which is commonly used where cold is a major consideration. It does not involve water storage like the wet system. This helps in preventing freezing of water in pipes.
In such fire protection system, water is released only when the operation starts. This is only in case of any occurrence of fire. This system uses pressurized oxygen instead of water in the pipes, which is only released when the sprinklers are started. This operation allows the pressurized water to push the valve open so as to let the water pass through the pipes to reach the sprinklers.
This system has one disadvantage that it has a longer response time in case of fire. The third type is the pre-action fire protection system which is further categorized in to three other types. The single, interlocked system; where water flows into the closed sprinkler system when the detection unit is activated.
A pre-action valve in the system functions to keep the pipes free from water. When the pre action valve is released, water is made to fill the pipes, which is then released by the sprinklers (Cote, p. 460).
Another pre-action system is the double interlocked pre-action system. This is where water does not flow in to the pipes. In this system water only flows in to the system when there is activation of both the system for detection and also the sprinklers. This is to reduce any discharge of water.
The third pre-action system is the non-interlocked pre-action system where unlike the double interlocked, it allows water to flow in the pipes. All the above fire sprinkler systems involve pipes that run through the whole system. They use sprinklers which release water to enable putting out fire when it occurs.
This is achieved by separation of heat from the oxygen and cooling down the fire. Again, in such systems the sprinklers must always be connected to a fire detection system. The sprinkler pipes can either be of a plastic or steel material.
The second category of fire protection system is the pull alarms. This is open to everyone because even individuals with visual problems can make use of such alarms. This is enabled by braille signs that are placed on the pull buttons.
These alarms are placed near exits to allow the occupants of the room where it is installed to pull out the fire alarm in case of fire occurrence. The pulling of the fire alarm not only alerts the occupants but also sends a signal to any fire department locally in order to give an alert of fire occurrence (Cote, p. 463).
The third category is the fire extinguishers. This mitigates fire by spreading of a certain material which brings a cooling effect or causes separation of fire from the source of fuel. Although fire extinguishers are used in fire protection, they cannot be used to put out large fires. The fourth category is the use of fire proofing materials which resist the process of combustion.
These materials keep the building off from burning when any fire arises. They are not good conductors of heat; therefore, they cannot conduct heat easily and cannot be destroyed by heat unless subjected to very high temperatures. Another category of fire protection system is the smoke detectors, which act as fire protectors by sending a signal to any local fire department.
When the fire occurs it burns materials releasing a considerable amount of smoke in the atmosphere which alert of a fire occurrence. Apart from this they detect any high temperatures that occur to show that there is incoming fire.
Lastly, fire escapes are also fire protection systems which provide escape when fire occurs unexpectedly. These types of fire protection systems are used for domestic and small scale purposes (Cote, p. 461).
Fire protection systems for Offshore oil rigs Most of the above discussed fire protection systems are used for domestic purposes. However, there are others which can be used where there are large fires. In offshore oil rigs, since there is a high risk of fire occurrence, high fire detectors should be installed.
This is to ensure both safety of the machines and safety of the operators of the machines in use. Since offshore oil rigs are used in oil production, they require special fire protection systems and equipment in order to reduce high risks of fire. The offshore oil rigs mostly make use of passive fire protection to provide protection for the equipment (Cote, p. 465).
The oil rig structures are protected with fire proofing so that the fire boundaries can be adequate. One of the fire proofing materials used is the standard rock wool commonly found in water structures. Other products used are those that can fit well in an oil rig environment.
Such products are moisture and oil resistant and can be used in the offshore environment without any effect. Some of the sections of the oil rigs which require maximum protection are the control rooms, accommodation areas where the operators live, the places where the machines are kept and the area where oil processing is done.
The exit ways are the other places that may need protection from fire. Just like the operations that are based on land, the bulkheads, which have pipes and ducts for proper ventilation, should be highly protected. The other most commonly used fire protection system is the water mist system which is quite effective. It is the best for places where flammable liquids are the common products.
This is because they provide high fire suppression and fire extinguishing capabilities even if the area contains ordinary combustibles. This provides fire protection by use of various mechanisms.
These include cooling mechanism, depletion of oxygen which is also “inerting,” and also radiant heat blocking. In such fire protection system, water is the basic agent that is used for extinguishing any fire that occurs within the system.
This is because it has exemplary cooling properties that can be used in this system. This water is usually converted to steam which is more efficient than the water in liquid form. This steam is what causes depletion of oxygen in the flames of fire hence causing the fire to be extinguished.
Again, this system also cools down the oil in the system to ensure that the fire does not re-flash in to the system. The most important area to be given fire protection is an area that generates power to the system. That is the area with generator modules because these water mist systems provide fire extinguishing in a very excellent way.
These systems are advantageous because they require very little space to occupy. Once the fire has been extinguished, the whole system should be placed back to its normal service. This is done by refilling the cylinders used to store water and replacement of the cylinder that contains nitrogen.
Though most people think that these systems can cause harm to the turbines or the diesel engines, they have been tested by several agencies to prove that there is no harm from thermal shocks. This means that when choosing the fire protection system for the oil rigs care must be taken because of the high cost of turbines and engines.
Again, another important consideration is the safety of the people operating the system. For the case of the water mist system, it is very efficient and does not have an effect on personnel. This system is more advantageous over other fire protection systems that utilize gases like carbon dioxide as far as personal safety is concerned. This is because breathing the mist is not harmful to human health.
Again, the maintenance of a water mist system is very cheap especially in terms of cleaning the system. It is also advantageous over other systems because it does not cause any harm to the environment (Cote, 470).
Some fire protection systems that utilize carbon dioxide cause depletion of the ozone layer hence increased global warming. On the other hand, the living areas with accommodation facilities are protected by use of conventional sprinklers.
The areas used for food preparation are protected from fire by use of dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing systems. The production areas, areas for pumps storage, and areas for machinery make use of clean agents, deluge or foam systems. The areas where flammable liquids are stored are protected using dry chemical or using clean agent systems.
For all the above mention areas, a single pump based water mist system can be used to cater for the fire protection. In a single pump based system; stainless steel tubing is connected within the protection spaces. The mist from the system is delivered through nozzles in the method known as total deluge.
The areas mentioned above usually utilize the water mist nozzles that are open in order to bring down any strength that accompanies fire occurrence. The system that provides water for the water mist system should ensure that there is supply of water through out the facility.
The fire pumps used in the system should provide a reliable water supply. When working on the installation, care should be taken to ensure that all conductors are routed. This is made so because events taking place in the facilities can cause danger to the fire pumps.
It is also important to note that sea water causes corrosion and fouling on the fire pumps, so fresh water is significant. The pump materials are upgraded with aluminum bronze material, and the pipes are upgraded to copper nickel of fiber glass so as to prevent corrosion and fouling. This increases the reliability and integrity of the fire pump system and increases its lifespan (Cote and Bugbee, p. 272).
Another fire protection system is the deluge system which is used for areas like production, off loading, drilling and the well head areas. These types of fire protection are majorly used where fire is noticed to occur after a short period. They make use of open spray nozzles which are usually supplied by use of pipes containing water from the sea.
This water goes through a valve called a deluge valve. When an alarm is sent, the valve opens, and water is delivered through the spray nozzles over the hazard that has occurred. Water should be supplies at a high flow rate to cater for the high, challenging fire hazards. Although the fire protection system is quite effective, corrosion is a major setback in this system.
This is because pipes in this system are exposed open to the atmosphere hence they easily corrode making them non-functional. In order to ensure the integrity and efficiency, it is highly recommended that copper nickel pipes are used where possible. Fiber glass can be used in these systems to increase resistance when water is not yet flowing in to the system (Paik and Thayamballi, p. 3).
The other fire protection system for oil rigs includes the monitors and hose stations that are commonly used in the drilling areas or well test areas. These systems are very significant because they usually provide additional protection to the system.
It is highly preferable to look for a suitable place to locate them due to too much congestion on offshore oil rigs. They are commonly used in accommodation areas where fire occurrence is not highly expected. The hose stations are usually placed throughout the facility in order to ensure that all places can be reached within a short duration.
In this system, hose reels can also be used. These contain special provisions for delivery of certain foam stored in sealed buckets that can be pierced with an induction nozzle device. This nozzle is always connected to hose reels.
There is also another fire protection system called the fire suppression system and the fire extinguishers. These utilize clean agent to enhance fire protection within the oil rigs. Fire extinguishers are usually connected throughout the oil rig system.
This depends on the hazard of the protected space in the system. Another important fire protection unit is the fire and gas detection alarms. These operate by sending an alarm accompanied by a response from the fire brigade facility which causes an emergency shut down.
Apart from detecting fire occurrence within the system, the alarm system also detect poisonous gases, which are usually produced as by products of the system. Combustible detectors of toxic gases are also put in place especially in areas suspected to have leakages.
The areas that are protected by such systems are wellhead, the processing equipment, well floor and the degasser. Again, there is provision of smoke detectors in the control rooms and most of the enclosed areas within the system. This is because as said earlier smoke detectors are commonly used where fire occurrence is not often (Jones, p. 20).
Conclusion From the discussion on fire protection, it can be concluded that almost al fire protection systems available can be suitable for oil rig fire protection. It is also important to note that not any fir protection system can fit in any part of the oil rig system. All the factors should be put in to consideration before installing any fire protection system.
It can also be concluded that oil rig fire protection, has its own regulations which should coordinate well with the marine and fire codes. Again, on operation skilled and highly qualified personnel are employed in order tom ensure safety of the oil rig facilities.
This is because most of the realized risks of fires arise from poor operation of the equipment or carelessness in oil handling. This means that a lot of concern should be put on safety management techniques so as to reduce risks of fire. Again, it is important to ensure that, after installation of any fire protection system, testing should be carried out.
This assures the management of total safety within the systems. Also, a design that is appropriate to a certain hazard is required. Finally, it can be concluded that as the oil industry expands on quality oil production, it should also ensure high protection of hazards.
Works Cited Ardley, Neil. Oil Rigs. Ada, OK: Garrett Educational Corp, 1990. Print.
Cote, Arthur E. Operation of Fire Protection Systems: A Special Edition of the Fire Protection Handbook. Quincy, Mass: National Fire Protection Association, 2003. Print.
Cote, Arthur E, and Percy Bugbee. Principles of Fire Protection. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1988. Print.
Hyne, Norman J. Dictionary of Petroleum Exploration, Drilling
Depression and Cognitive Therapy Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Depression is one of the common psychiatric disorders that are known as the leading cause of disability globally. Depression is considered as a recurring disorder. There are various medications that have been established for the treatment and management of depression conditions. Some medicines that are used to treat as well as manage depression are purely palliative.
Palliative medication is those medications that are used to suppress the symptoms of depressions as long as they are administered, but do nothing in addressing the underlying problems that trigger the disorder.
The other type of medication that is widely used to treat depression condition is the healing process that helps in reverse or eliminates the fundamental process that results to the continuation of depression. Another option that it is used to manage depression disorder is the prophylactic process that offsets the process that trigger future onset of the disorder.
The curative and prophylactic processes are both enduring effects with the curative method preventing the relapse of the symptoms while the prophylactic procedures prevent the reoccurrence of the depression condition.
Thus, the current depression medications are categorized as either classified as affective in that they palliative in that they suppress the symptoms as long as they are being taken, while a relapse results when they administration is terminated.
Those interventions that are cognitive, as well as behavioral, are mainly curative as well as prophylactic. These interventions primarily result in lasting solutions or eliminate future reoccurrences of the depression conditions. The use of antidepressant in the control and management of depression has been noted to be highly effective.
Antidepressant is an example of a palliative medication that works by suppressing symptoms as long as it is been administered. Another method that is highly employed in the management of depression is the use of interpersonal psychotherapy as it helps in relieving acute distress as well as enhancing relationships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is an example of prophylactic process that helps in the lasting producing solutions for the depression condition as well as preventing instances of elapse in the future (Hollon, Stewart and Strunk, 2006).
Cognitive therapy is regarded as one of the most effective methods for the treatment and management of depression condition.
In this type of medication, people suffering from depression conditions are trained on gathering information is a systematic process in order to offset the influence of maladaptive information-processing methods and to carry out behavioral tests to measure the accuracy of their negative perceptions.
In this method of medication, patients use a series of logical tools in order to recognize the relapse nature of depression. In this process, the patients are guided on how to prepare for the termination of the cognitive therapy as early as during the initiation of the treatment.
In addition, patients are also informed about the explicit practice in order to prevent relapse cases. The use of cognitive therapy in the treatment of depression conditions is observed to be more productive by over fifty percent the results obtained from patients treated through other medications (Teasdale, Segal, Williams, Ridgeway, Soulsby and Lau, 2000).
Research has shown that despite the effectiveness of the cognitive therapy in treating depression conditions, the method does not prevent instances of relapse, which is onset of the new episodes of the depression condition.
It is noted that people who suffer from depression conditions are at high risk for the symptoms to reoccur mainly within the first six to nine months after starting medications provided that the underlying episode triggering the condition has to run its course once more.
We will write a custom Essay on Depression and Cognitive Therapy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, pharmacotherapists mainly do not withdraw their medications so soon after initial response. However, studies have shown that cognitive therapy has lasting effects even after the termination of the treatment. Cognitive treatment is observed to be highly effective when it is administered after the medication has been administered to reduce acute distress.
It is noted that the use of cognitive therapy to supplement medication treatment helps to resolve the issue of residue symptoms as well as reducing subsequent relapse cases after termination of the psychosocial treatment. Other methods of depression interventions have not been well tested.
For instance, dynamic psychotherapy intervention has been noted not to be highly efficacious towards the treatment of acute distress, although, it is noted to have an enduring effect in the absence of any immediate effect which makes it very difficult to notice such an effect.
Cognitive therapy is a treatment of acute depression which has long-term consequences in minimizing risk of future reoccurrence mainly through patients getting skills or alterations in thinking that guarantee some extent of protection against future relapse.
Nowadays, the best management of the relapse and recurring of depression is a combination of pharmacotherapy for the acute episode with psychological prophylactic interventions given following recovery.
Many scholars have observed that such an approach has been very effective in the treatment and management of depression. It is noted that combining the treatment of antidepressant with cognitive behavior therapy following recovery while, at the same time, withdrawing antidepressant administration gradually.
The reason why the combination of acute pharmacotherapy with psychological prophylaxis provides the possibility of capitalizing on the cost-efficiency of using antidepressant medication to reduce potential acute symptomatology while, at the same time, avoiding the affected people continuing on indefinite medicines in order to avoid future relapse sand recurring (Hollon, Stewart and Strunk, 2006).
It is noted that the tendency of relapse and recurrence should reduce if patients who have recovered from depression learn first to be more sensitive of the negative thoughts and feelings at periods of loaming relapse as well as respond to thoughts and feelings that enable them to disengage from ruminative depressive processing.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Depression and Cognitive Therapy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is tailored in teaching individuals on how to become more aware of thoughts and feelings and to relate them broader reflections of the reality.
It is noted that a successful strategy of preventing recurrence as well as relapse of depression is by in cultivation of a detached of depression-related thoughts that trigger feelings of depressions. This helps in escalation of thoughts related to depression at instances of potential relapse.
More research is needed in order to establish why MBCT does not prevent the recurrence in patients with a history of only two episodes of depression. The study should establish why the program has not been successful in preventing relapse of depression in less than two episodes instances, whereas it has been very effective in preventing depression episodes in more than three episodes.
The program is well known for its success in reducing the contribution of patterns of depressive thinking reactivated by dysphoria to the mechanism of mediating recurrence and relapses. It suggests that dysphoria-linked thinking is the one that is associated with repeated instances of depression episodes and elapses.
Therefore, more research is required in the same in order to establish how it can be administered for those individuals who had experienced depression episodes for two instances. In addition, more research is needed in order to come up with the best approach that should be undertaken in order to make sure that the relapse and recurrence cease completely when an individual undertakes medication.
The combination of medication treatment and cognitive behavioral therapy has been noted to be very effective in managing the depression episodes as well as reducing instances of relapse and recurrence. However, the process has not been wholly successful in managing the condition.
There are some instances of relapse as well as recurrence episodes that often results following the combined medication treatment and cognitive therapy administration. Thus, more study is required in order to establish a more effective enduring strategy of preventing any relapse or recurrence once an individual undertakes the therapy or medication.
As a generation of test yourself, the readers should make sure that they seek appropriate assistances from their family doctors when they realize any symptomatic deterioration that is associated with depression.
In addition, it is essential for people and mainly those highly vulnerable to depression to undertake MBCT program that is based on teaching skills that help individuals to disengage from habitual dysfunction patterns cognitive patterns as a strategy to minimize potential risks of recurrence as well as relapse of depression.
Reference List Hollon, S., Stewart, M., and Strunk, D. (2006).Therapy in the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety. Psychology Annual Review, 57: 285-315.
Teasdale, J., Segal, Z, Williams, J., Ridgeway, V. Soulsby, J., and Lau, M. (2000). Prevention of Relapse/ Recurrence IN Major Depression by Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 68 (4): 615-623.
Gambling and gaming industry Essay essay help online
Introduction The gaming entertainment industry has recorded tremendous growth over the last few years. This growth has been aided by the evolution of technology. Gambling has been the mainstay of the gaming industry. Gambling includes casino gambling, non casino gambling, and betting.
In the United States, gambling has been legalized and thus most adults find it as their most preferred pastime activity. Gambling can be an addictive behaviour which may result in such instances as escalated personal debts. The paper explores gambling addiction and initiatives by various stakeholders.
Discussion Compulsive gambling
Compulsive gambling refers to the inability to control an individual’s urge to engage in gambling activities. It is also referred to as pathological gambling. Prevalence of pathological gambling is estimated at between 2-5% in the United States.
There are various causes of pathological gambling but it is mainly caused by other psychological conditions like bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Other causes include addiction to drugs such as cocaine and an antisocial personality. Contrary to popular belief, regular stressors are less likely to result in pathological gambling.
Signs and symptoms associated with pathological gambling include the use of gambling as an anxiety reliever. In this particular case, an individual uses gambling to relieve him/herself from a depressive state.
Other signs include an excessive urge to engage in gambling which results in the individual running into debts. Also, such individuals are highly irritable especially in cases where they are not in a position to engage in gambling.
Treatment of compulsive gambling involves both use of psychotherapy and drug therapy. One of the most effective psychotherapeutic interventions is the use of group sessions. Such support groups as Gambling Anonymous (GA) are very effective. Also, personal counselling is used to counter compulsive gambling.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Individuals are encouraged to explore other alternatives that can replace the urge to engage in gambling. Counsellors can also recommend remedies for situations where the individual has accumulated huge personal debts including financial counselling. Use of anti-depressants is combined with psychotherapy in conditions such as depression.
Compulsive gambling control Initiatives
Various players in the gaming industry have introduced initiatives aimed at controlling the prevalence of compulsive gambling. One of the initiatives introduced is the National Problem Awareness Week.
More gaming companies participate in this initiative by providing their customers with materials on pathological gambling. Materials include brochures and web postings of used to create increased awareness on the problem of pathological gambling and thus customers are in a position to easily identify it.
Also, legislation has been used to regulate gambling in various states. For example, the Kansas state constitution outlines the tax liability of various gambling activities. Article 15 of the constitution stipulates that between 3%-6% tax rate is applicable on earnings from wagering activities.
In 2007, Kansas amended gambling law to include several state owned casinos. Other gambling activities in the state are classified as a misdemeanour. The United States government has implemented laws to complement state laws in regulation of gambling activities.
For instance, the Gambling Ship Act outlaws gambling establishments and activities in American owned vessels. American citizens are also banned from engaging in gambling activities in such vessels.
Conclusion From the above analysis, it is clear that compulsive gambling is heavily associated with other psychological conditions. Therefore, gambling remains a popular pastime activity among people in different cultures.
We will write a custom Essay on Gambling and gaming industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The risk associated with the development of pathological gambling is further reduced by increased awareness initiatives and stringent laws that ensure all gambling activities are monitored closely.
“Bards Guide” and “Shakespeare in Charge: The Bard’s Guide to Leading and Succeeding on the Business Stage” Critical Review Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The book subtitled “Bards Guide” to Norman Augustine and Kenneth Adelman’s “Shakespeare in Charge: The Bard’s Guide to Leading and Succeeding on the Business Stage” (New York: Hyperion, 1999) gives the full expression of the transformations of consumptions appropriate to late Shakespeare’s ideology of shakespearism.
(Burt 46) Business by Shakespeare on Management reflects the time-honored practice of appropriating Shakespeare in the form of concise description we now think of as sound bites.
(Burt 46) Asserts that, “not only has the ‘market’ now become in this latest stage of marketing a niche in itself, the whole swallowed up by the part as in the other management books.”
Thus, the key conceptual framework of this reflective critical review is an in-depth analysis of the book “The Bardʼs Guide to Leading and Succeeding on the Business Stage” by Norman and Stephen’s “Fail better! Beckettʼs Secrets of Business and Branding Success”. Besides, this exposition review alternative management practices as discussed in these writings.
Augustine and Kenneth Adelman This book represents a new trend in the Shakespeare business: the business of marketing Shakespeare as a connoisseur on business. As the most recent and most successful of these works, “Shakespeare in Charge” affords a fascinating window into the bard’s new businesslike appeal.
Leadership and management have been the focus of much literature since the beginning of time: biblical scriptures questions the decisions of King David (Corrigan 56). Technology advancement has provided many new tools (computers, mobiles, and phones, e-mail) to assist in management, principally in the management of resources.
Shakespeare places management within its social, economic, and political perspective, and examines how management approaches and activities are closely related to the environment in which they are practiced. Despite these changes, the basics still hinge on human nature, and human nature essentially do not change.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Issues such as the significance of diversity in the workplace and the need for ethical approaches to management are given serious attention, even as both theory and practice are brought together by discussing the management, drive, communication, and marketing of the organization.
As an introduction for management, Shakespeare in Charge offers basic but fundamental advice on how to carry out business activities. Undeniably, at its most basic level, Shakespeare in Charge is a self-help book for those who want to re-acquaint themselves with their leadership abilities.
The book offers some insights on what is acceptable and what is unacceptable in management. The management according this book should care about employees, accept challenge, and grab opportunities. In contrast, managers are advised not dally during a crisis, be an absentee leader and should embrace change.
According to the authors’ people that Shakespeare refers as ‘office pests’ people are as common at the workplace as they are in life, and a capability to tell the-the boardroom waffler-Kents from the Nestors (Troilus and Cressida) can help the executive make a distinction among dependable, incompetent, and disruptive workers (Allan 2).
Nestor a character in the play Troilus and Cressida presents himself as old, wise and respected. However when Nestor talks, he adds no depth or breadth; he is bereft of ideas and wallows other peoples contribution (Allan 3).
Although Augustine and Adelman are fundamentally writing the corporate equivalent this book becomes, through the clever structure employed by the authors, the book becomes creative work itself (Burt 8).
It is worth noting that authors do not align themselves with the Dr. Laura’s of the self-help scene, instead they dress up their purpose in well thought-of exaggerated attire, capitalizing on Shakespeare’s universal appeal to lend their own writing an atmosphere of undying influence.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on “Bards Guide” and “Shakespeare in Charge: The Bard’s Guide to Leading and Succeeding on the Business Stage” Critical Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Augustine and Adelman are not an iota too restrained about this aim. They state that several business managers think they lack the time for ‘Shakespearism’, or the training to comprehend the ancient language of Shakespeare.
They argue that mangers who do read Shakespeare find that he offers skillful and fascinating explorations of the world of power which remain as pertinent today as they were in the sixteenth century. The first chapter, for instance, covers Henry V, the type who fits in contemporary business success stories.
He praise by the authors for his sheer competence, dogged perseverance, grand scheming and creativity (2). Explored here is Shakespeare’s keen insight into group dynamics (12) join up Shakespeare’s plays as professional studies in human nature permits the authors to masquerade a conduct handbook as a guide to high culture.
Smart and enthralling as Shakespeare may be, he is also complicated. Augustine and Adelman recognize that few people, principally those in the fast-paced business world, don’t have time to read Shakespeare.
The book is therefore, an effort to tie together Shakespeare for an audience that has neither inclination nor time to peruse Shakespeare’s work, but wants, on the other hand, to profit from what he has to say.
Structured like a play, the book’s five chapters called “Acts” which give plot summaries of five major plays, generously dotted with quotes from the plays themselves. These summaries yield indispensable insight into leadership, which the authors respectfully list as “Acting Lessons” at the end of each chapter.
In Act One, Henry V is represented and he reveals the art of leadership; in Act Two, The Taming of the Shrew‘s Petruchio illustrates how to generate and manage change in people and institutions; in Act Three, Julius Caesar supplies a manual for setting and realizing goals, communicating, recruiting, and encouraging teamwork.
In Act Four, The Merchant of Venice outlines the art of corporate risk-taking through the figure of Portia. Lastly, in Act Five, Hamlet represents a case study in disaster or crisis management.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Bards Guide” and “Shakespeare in Charge: The Bard’s Guide to Leading and Succeeding on the Business Stage” Critical Review by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These acts outline the authors’ efforts to show that the management is at times strained and prone to irrationality. For instance, CEOs such as Michael Dell are described as living embodiments of Shakespearean characters. Also, this concept applies to cases when kings such as Lear and Antony are described as CEOs.
In fact, the analogy upon which the book is based is poor. The book’s own business connections offer an answer to that question.
For example, the award-winning Shakespeare in Love (1998), and Shakespeare in Charge may be presented as the businessman’s analogue to the film: where the idea of the bard in love sells Shakespeare to a movie-going public with a voracious interest in the lifestyles and love lives of the rich and famous.
Therefore, the idea of the bard in charge vends Shakespeare to a corporate world whose persistent drive toward financial success has become identical with an awkward lack of culture.
The benefits of such an approach are multitude. The invocation of Shakespeare not only gives the book recipe-for-success format, but also casts the work of management as a stage show, and as an art form in its own right.
As a matter of fact, if we validate the argument that Shakespeare was the first CEO, no matter how poorly that argument is defended, then it logically follows that today’s CEOs are descended more or less directly from Shakespeare.
Presenting the contemporary CEO as a revitalization of Shakespeare in this way not only instill the CEO with wide cultural significance, but also configures his employees as players on a business theater which is itself, is the contemporary equivalent of the Elizabethan theater.
In conclusion, the authors’ presenting Shakespeare as CEO in Shakespeare in Charge is actually in the business of finding the bard in the contemporary businessman. The book thus fails to offer much insight into either Shakespeare’s art or the art of leadership. Nevertheless, it is a masterful combination whose ultimate value lies in its capability to make business management seem significant.
Samuel Buckett ‘Fail Better! Samuel Beckett’s Secrets of Business and Branding Success presents Samuel Beckett as a highly regarded Irish playwright, and embodiment of art for art’s sake beauty. Unlike Shakespeare, Samuel Buckett loathed any kind of salesmanship, famously describing it as “mercantile gehenna” (Brown para 1).
Despite the antagonistic view that Samuel Buckett had about business and management; Samuel Beckett still remains an ideal role model for the contemporary managers during this contradictory times.
According to Brown, Buckets’ viewpoint is very consistent with the modern-day ‘creativity-driven, hyper-competitive, warp-speed world of fads, fashions, and here-today-gone-tomorrow consumer crazes’ (para 1).
The article has been sub-divided in to nine sub-topics: first; think differently about thinking is play that is neither a comedy nor a laugh sensation when it was first premiered. Samuel Buckett had failed in almost everything he had tried before trying Godot.
He thought better and turned around his fortunes and took a career in advertising. The idea put forward in this play is that unrelenting hard work coupled with perseverance when practiced in any filed including business is bound to succeed.
Second, in waiting for tenacity Buckett describes the indefatigable determination to conquer all odds. The concept presented by Buckett here is what most managers and entrepreneurs is concerned about-tenacity. Buckett however, overstates the importance of perseverance in business management.
Sandage 2005 cited in Brown (para 4) supports this argument; he argues that Buckett present a face of repeated, abject and heart wrenching failure among individuals as the driving force distinguishing those who succeed and those who fail.
According to Buckett the most successful mangers know how to attain success, sustain it and how to unleash it but still the vast majority of business ventures ending in failure. This assertion by Buckett might not be the reality as there are several examples of successful businesses in comparison to the number of failed businesses.
Schumpeter (1994) cited in Brown gives an even more exaggerated view by stating that most businesses fail- mergers, product launch-except for those that take into consideration and make prediction of what Schumpeter refers to as ‘creative destruction.’ Bucket notes that people learn from their failures and that those who accept failure and refuse to be beaten are the most successful.
Third, waiting for brevity describes the conciseness of Bucketts’ plays. Brevity might have been Samuel Bucket’s most important personality trait. Buckett wrote short plays and his works became increasingly shorter over time. Perhaps Buckett realized that brevity was the most important aspect in playwriting.
Alvarez (1974) cited in Brown (para 5) argues that Buckett was minimalist’s minimalist. In the business context manufacturers have realized the importance of minimalist brilliance. I out rightly disagree with Buckett disagree that minimalism has a place in the market place rather; maximalism is the trait for which marketing gurus are known.
In a world where competition is the order of the day, each manager needs to be concise in product development to able to out match the other competing products.
For example, “Armani is proof positive that minimalist concept works in the contemporary business society- the look is low-key, the range is narrow, the cut is singular, the fabrics are unique, the color palette is muted, the retail stores are few, the ancillaries are limited, the diffusion lines are confined, the concessions are controlled, and the preeminent promotional tactic is celebrity endorsement.
The Armani brand whispers class, elegance, and restraint. Less is always more where Armani is concerned, and understatement is the order of the day, every day” (Brown, para 5).
Fourth, the waiting contingency describes an episode in 1939, when Buckett was stabbed by a pushy panhandler almost to death. Buckett later learnt that the attack was by chance and he survived out of sheer luck. In most business ventures luck is not among their agenda.
In the management sciences, luck do not exist rather events occur as a result of predictable or presumed calculation which is obtained by robust models. Although there are a few scattered examples of business where sheer luck has contributed to their immense successes.
For example, the McDonald’s fast-food empire was founded by chance when milkshake shaker-supreme Ray Kroc paid a visit to the San Bernardino roadside stand that ordered eight of his machines. This is a successful company that owes its beginnings to elements of fortune.
Fifth, waiting for ambiguity describes Buckett’s decision not disclose the meaning of his plays. Buckett refused to divulge the meaning of his plays. Ambiguity has been observed with suspicion in the modern business cycles. Managers are required to avoid ambiguity.
Buckett argues that ambiguity increases customers’ curiosity, thus intensifying their involvement. This concept of ambiguity stipulates that the businesses should create products that raise questions rather than provide answers.
There appears to be some coincidence in the timing of the juxtaposition of the terms “management” and “leadership” and the correlation to the fact that the two literature post seems to cross pollinate the two phrases.
This plays were written during a time when management of business was a key to the success of business organizations. The contemporary business managers do not have to follow either of the two playwrights in order to achieve success.
In conclusion, the article argues that, in a world where every organization is customer oriented. Beckett reveals several prominent secrets of business and branding success. Bucketts presents business success in stages through the plays. Despite organizational limitations and constraints, the two playwrights have proved rather successful so far. Managers are offered an alternative approach for improving their managerial skills.
Managers who might not have had good managerial skills are introduced to it all the way through a connection with work-related topics in the plays.
Finally, everybody else who might not have been interested in business get a foretaste of it by approaching it through theater. Besides the usual strengths that characterize the use of theatre activities, using plays to represent the business success in makes business look like an act rather than a venture.
Works Cited Augustine, Norman, and Adelman Kenneth. Shakespeare in Charge: The Bard’s Guide to Leading and Succeeding on the Business Stage. New York: Hyperion, 1999. Print.
Burt, Richard. Shakespeare after Mass. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Print.
Corrigan, Paul. Shakespeare on Management: Leadership Lesson for Today’s Managers. London: Kogan Page, 1999. Print.
Brown, Stephen. “O customer, where art thou?” Business Horizons 47.4 (2004):61– 70. Print.
Brown, Stephen. “Fail Better! Samuel Beckett’s Secrets of business and branding success,” Business Horizons 49 (2006):161—169. Print.
Global Forces and the European Brewing Industry Report essay help: essay help
Executive Summary The aim of the study is to analyze the environmental factors that have contributed to the decline of the European beer industry using PESTEL and Porter’s five forces analysis.
The results were used to perform a SWOT analysis for Heineken. The findings reveal that the decline of European beer industry has been caused by high competition and government campaigns against alcohol consumption. Additionally, the industry has a low growth rate since it has reached its maturity stage.
Brewery companies are responding to these trends through mergers, acquisitions and alliances. Heineken’s main strength is its strong brand image. Over reliance on few brands and the European market is the main weakness of Heineken.
The opportunities available for Heineken include introducing new products and joining overseas markets. Overall, the environmental trends are likely to have a negative effect on Heineken’s future competitiveness.
The purpose of this report is to analyze the environmental factors that have contributed to the decline of Europe’s beer industry. In particular, PESTEL and Porter’s five forces analyses will be used to analyze the European beer industry.
The results will be used to conduct a SWOT analysis in order to determine the effects of the industry trends on Heineken’s competitiveness.
The study focuses on the trends in the external and competitive environment of the European beer industry. Additionally, Heineken’s internal environment will be analyzed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Background
The study focuses on the European beer industry. It investigates the effect of the competitive global environment on the European beer industry.
Assumptions and Limitations
Lack of current or updated information about the trends in European beer industry is the main limitation of the study. Thus, the statistics and data used in the report are assumed to be accurate.
The data used in the study was collected through secondary literature review. The main sources of data included journals and strategic management textbooks.
Industry Analysis PESTEL Analysis
PESTEL analysis is a tool used by managers to assess the effects of the trends in the external environment on their businesses. PESTEL analysis considers the influence of political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal trends on businesses.
Europe has a relatively stable political environment which promotes investment and trade between member countries. The formation of European Union led to the removal of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade in Europe (Rojas and Tianji, 2011, pp. 10-12).
This enabled beer producers to join European countries of their choice through exports and foreign direct investments. Trade liberalization in the region has led to an increase in cross-boarder mergers and acquisitions, thereby increasing competition.
In 2010, the economy of Europe, as a region, grew by 1.8%. The region also recorded an inflation rate of 3.1% in 2010. About 17% of Europe’s population leaves below the poverty line. In general, the production costs for beer have increased by approximately 24% since 2006.
We will write a custom Report on Global Forces and the European Brewing Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, nearly half of the European countries have significantly increased taxes on beer, thereby increasing the prices of beer. The slow economic growth and high prices have led to low demand for beer.
Concerns over the health risks associated with drinking beer have increased in the last two decades. Government and non-governmental organizations are actively campaigning against excessive drinking (Zygadlo and Slondski, 2010, pp. 59-74).
The significant reduction in sales for beer is mainly attributed to anti-alcohol campaigns.
Drinking habits have also changed, with more consumers preferring to buy beer through retailers (off-trade) instead of bars and restaurants (on-trade). Pan European beer brands tend to be more popular among Europeans than the imported brands.
Adoption of modern information and communication technology has enabled beer producers to enhance efficiency in their supply chains.
Through research and development, alternative sources of energy such as bio-fuels have been developed and adopted by producers. The high rate of technological transfer and investment in research and development in Europe has improved access to modern production technologies (Bollman and Theuvsen, 2008, pp. 63-88).
Overall, the use of modern technology has led to economies of scale in production and distribution of beer.
Beer production depends on agricultural produce such as barley. Changes in climate due to global warming continue to affect the production of barley negatively. Thus, the production and consumption of beer is likely to decline in future (Woolverton and Parcell, 2008, pp. 420-430).
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The beer industry is highly regulated due to the health risks associated with alcohol. Consumption of beer is controlled through high taxes and restriction on beer adverts. The high regulation discourages production and consumption of beer.
Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
Porter’s five forces analysis enables managers to analyze the factors or forces that influence competition in their industries.
Joining the beer industry requires a lot of financial resources which many firms are not able to access. The tight regulation associated with the beer industry also makes it unattractive to new entrants.
In the context of Europe, high competition limits the chances of rapid market penetration by new entrants. Consequently, the threat attributed to new entrants is low. This means that the incumbents can not easily lose their market shares to new firms.
Beer faces competition from its substitutes such as non-alcoholic drinks and other alcoholic drinks such as wine. The consumption of wine is increasingly becoming popular in Europe, thereby reducing the market share for beer.
Soft drinks such as coca-coal cost less then most beer brands. Unlike beer, soft drinks are associated with little health risks. Thus, the threat attributed to substitutes is high in the beer industry. This implies that demand for beer is likely to reduce as consumption shifts to other drinks.
Power of Suppliers
The suppliers in the beer industry include farmers, energy producers and manufacturers of packaging material. There are many farmers supplying the brewers with undifferentiated products such as barley.
The farmer’s products are very important since they are the main ingredients in beer production. The packaging and energy industries are highly concentrated. Thus, we can conclude that the suppliers have a moderate bargaining power.
Power of the Buyers
The producers of beer have low switching costs, and can easily shift from one supplier to the other. There are also a variety of substitutes for inputs such as barley, packaging material and energy.
The threat of backward integration is high since some beer producers invest in the production of inputs such as packaging material and barley. In the context of consumers, changes in drinking habits make it difficult to ensure customer loyalty. Increasing brand identity also makes it difficult to shift consumption from one brand to the other.
Additionally, the shift towards off-trade consumption of beer has enhanced the bargaining power of retailers. We can conclude that buyers have a fairly high power in the industry.
The threat attributed to competition in the beer industry is very high due to the following reasons. First, there are very many producers and importers of beer in the industry. Second, nearly all firms have embarked on product differentiation in order to attract more customers.
Third, heavy investment in production plants is an exit barrier to firms that intend to leave the industry. Finally, the industry has a low growth rate since it is at its maturity stage. The threat attributed to competition is likely to lead to low sales and profits among beer producers.
SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis enables managers to identify the strengths and weaknesses of a business (internal environment). It also helps managers to identify the threats and opportunities that are available in the industry (external environment).
Heineken is the leading producer of beer in Europe. It has 11.7% of the European market and operates over 115 breweries.
As the largest brewery company in Europe, Heineken boasts of a premium brand that is known for quality and value. The effective advertisement strategy used by Heineken has helped it to enhance its brand equity across Europe.
The visibility of Heineken’s products is also high due to its presence in over 170 countries. By focusing on improving efficiency and reducing costs, the firm has been able to remain competitive in Europe.
Heineken has the following weaknesses. First, Heineken mainly operates in Europe which accounts for 75% of its sales. Thus, a reduction in demand for beer in Europe is likely to have adverse effects on its profits.
Second, Heineken over relies on its two main brands. Thus, it is likely to lose customers to producers with a variety of brands.
The low threat posed by new entrants in European market, coupled with rapid increase in demand for beer in emerging markets such as Asia is an opportunity for Heineken to increase its market share and profits.
The rising demand for non-alcoholic drinks is also an opportunity of Heineken to develop new products (non-alcoholic and flavored drinks).
Finally, the growth in off-trade market is an opportunity for Heineken to improve the visibility of its products by distributing the products through well established and efficient supermarkets.
The threats facing Heineken include the following. First, the threat attributed to competition is likely to reduce its sales and profits. Second, the high regulation on drinking and alcohol production is also likely to reduce its sales.
Third, the European market which Heineken depends on has reached its maturity stage. Thus, chances of growth are limited. Finally, the threat posed by substitute products is likely to reduce the market share for Heineken’s products in Europe.
Effect of the Trends on Heineken
Market stagnation is likely to be experienced in Europe. Hence, there will be little scope for growth in the European market. High competition and slow market growth will result into a decline in Heineken’s sales and profits. The current trend in consolidation is likely to continue.
Consequently, more international firms are likely to join the European market, thereby reducing Heineken’s market share. Finally, Heineken’s dependence on only two brands is likely to lead to brand dilution, thereby reducing its competitiveness.
Conclusion The European beer market has traditionally been the largest in the world. However, the fortunes of the market have since declined due to high competition, high regulation and poor economic performance in Europe.
Heineken owes its success in Europe to a strong brand image, product visibility, and efficiency in production. Heineken’s weaknesses include over reliance on a few brands and the European market.
The opportunities available to Heineken include the rise in demand for beer in emerging markets such as Asia. Overall, the trends in Europe’s beer industry are likely to have negative effects on Heineken’s future competitiveness.
References Atoyan, R., 2011. Beyong the Crisis: Revisiting Emerging Europe’s Growth Model. European Journal of Operational Research, 97(3), pp.113-116.
Bollman, C., and Theuvsen, L., 2008. Strategic Management in Turbulent Markets: the Case of the German and Croatian Brewery Industry. Journal for East European Management Studies, 13(1), pp.63-88.
Erickson, G., 2009. An Oligopoly Model of Dynamic Advertising Competition. European Journal of Operational Research, 197(1), pp.374-388.
Jain, S., 2011. Global Competitiveness In the Beer Industry. European Journal of Operational Research, 34(7), pp.47-53.
Meger, A., 2008. Apartheid and Business: Competition, Monopoly and the Growth of Malted Beer Industry in South Africa. Business History, 50(3), pp.272-290.
Rojas, C., and Tianji, S., 2011. Tax Incidence when Quality Matters: Evidence from the Beer Market. Journal of Agricultural and Food Industry Organization, 9(1), pp.10-12.
Woolverton, A., and Parcell, J., 2008. Can Niche Agriculturalist Take Notes from the Craft Beer Industry? Journal of Food Distribution Research, 39(2), pp.420-430.
Zygadlo, K., and Slondski, T., 2010. Sustainable Growth Trade in the Strategic Analysis of Brewery Industry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Industry Organization, 2(1), pp.59-74.
Transplant Tourism as an aspect of Medical Tourism Research Paper writing essay help
One of the most prominent controversies, associated with the realities of a Globalized/post-industrial living, is the rise of a so-called ‘medical tourism’, which is being commonly defined as, “The movement of patients across international borders for medical care that is more expensive or less accessible at home” (Connell, 2011, p. 260).
The reason why this type of tourism continues to spark public controversies is that it is believed to contribute to the process of Medicare becoming increasingly commercialized, which in turn presupposes the lessened adequacy of healthcare services, provided to those patients that rely on Medicare’s public sector.
Moreover, medical tourism is being commonly referred to as such that contributes to the rise of global socio-economic inequalities, as it results in making high quality healthcare services less accessible to ordinary citizens in the countries where this tourism thrives.
As it was pointed out by Godwin (2004), “Since the care offered by medical corporations (that specialize in medical tourism) is far beyond the reach of even the domestic middle class, leave alone the poor, the beneficiaries can only be the ‘creamy layer’ of the economy which will further worsen the health inequality in the country” (p. 3983).
At the same time, however, the very concept of medical tourism appears being thoroughly consistent with the qualitative essence of Globalization, as a process concerned with the free-market economies’ functioning becoming ever more efficient, which in turn results in more and more people growing to perceive their ability to enjoy healthiness in terms of a commercial commodity.
Nowadays, medical tourism is being increasingly associated with a so-called ‘transplant tourism’, which is being commonly defined as the process of Western patients travelling internationally (most commonly, to the countries of Second and Third World), in order to undergo transplant-surgeries in privately owned clinics.
There are two major contributing factors to the rise of this particular form of medical tourism: the fact that in Western countries, there is an acute shortage of donor-organs, and the fact that undergoing transplant-surgeries abroad often proves to be substantially less expensive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Just as it is being the case with medical tourism, transplant tourism continues to spark public controversies, due to the fact that, as of today, the concept of transplant tourism is often perceived as being synonymous to the notion of ‘organ trafficking’. According to Budiani-Saberi and Delmonico (2008), “Transplant Tourism has become a connotation for organ trafficking.
The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), recently defined transplant tourism as ‘the purchase of a transplant organ abroad that includes access to an organ while bypassing laws, rules, or processes of any or all countries involved’” (p. 926).
Nevertheless, given the fact that, as time goes on, more and more Western patients express their willingness to become ‘transplant tourists’, it would be only logical, on our part, to discuss transplant tourism in terms of a discursively ambivalent concept, the practical manifestations of which are being equally capable of emanating ‘negativity’, on the one hand, and ‘positivity’, on the other. In my paper, I will aim to substantiate the validity of this thesis at length.
Introduction/Thesis statement It is now being estimated that in 2007, at least 100.000 Britons sought health care services abroad. The number of Americans that traveled abroad for the same purpose in the year 2008 amounted to 750.000 – while outside of U.S., they have spent on medicinal services close to $2 billion (Reisman, 2010).
According to the same author, “Exports of health services worldwide doubled between 1997 and 2003. They increased worldwide ten times faster than foreign earnings from tourism and five times faster than global exports of services” (p. 3).
Essentially the same dynamics are being observed within the context of what accounts for the qualitative essence of today’s organ-transplantation practices.
For example, according to the statistical information, provided by World Health Organization (WHO), throughout 2005 there have been 66.000 kidneys, 21.000 livers and 6000 hearts transplanted from donors to organ-recipients worldwide, with 10% of transplantation surgeries having been performed on Western ‘transplant tourists’.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Transplant Tourism as an aspect of Medical Tourism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By the year 2010, the percentage of transplantation-surgeries, performed on ‘transplant tourists’, has doubled. (Biggins et al., 2009). As of today, the most popular transplant tourism’s destinations are: Israel, China, India, Phillipines and Pakistan.
In its turn, this can be explained by the fact that in these countries, the functioning of national Medicare systems is being largely deregulated. In its turn, this created a number of prerequisites for the privatized sectors of these systems to grow progressively larger.
And, as it is being the case with the owners of just about any commercial enterprise, the owners of private transplantation-clinics in these countries are being naturally predisposed to regard their businesses’ foremost operational task as such that is being solely concerned with providing them with the opportunity to generate financial profits.
Such an opportunity naturally derives out of the fact that, in the earlier mentioned countries people’s lives continue to drop in value, due to the factor of overpopulation and the factor of the quality of local living standards continuing to diminish.
In its turn, this creates objective preconditions for impoverished locals to consider selling their internal organs for money.
After all, as it was mentioned earlier, the very realities of today’s living naturally cause people to regard their healthiness as nothing short of a commercial commodity, which can be purchased or sold, “Proponents of commercial markets in organ transplants argue that poor individuals should be free to sell kidneys.
They should be ‘at liberty’ to choose between the risks associated with selling a kidney and the risks of keeping two kidneys while remaining impoverished” (Turner, 2009, p. 193).
Given the fact that ordinary citizens (especially the ones from the rural regions) in such countries as China, India, Pakistan or Philippines rarely make more than $5-$10 per day, it makes a perfectly logical sense for them to think about selling their internal organs for money.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Transplant Tourism as an aspect of Medical Tourism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After having been paid $15.000 for allowing its kidney to be surgically removed, a particular impoverished Pakistani, for example, will not only have enough money to enjoy a comparative prosperity until the end of its life, but he or she will also be able to provide a financial assistance to its numerous children and relatives.
On their part, Western ‘transplant patients’ are able to benefit from the availability of donor-organs in the Third World countries, as well. This is because this availability naturally causes prices on donor-organs to remain comparatively affordable, “For example, hip replacement surgery, which normally costs around $25,000 in the United States, can be performed for $5,000 in India.
Heart valve replacement surgery, which costs around $200,000 in the United States, costs $10,000 in India” (Sengupta, 2011, p. 312). Nevertheless, it would be quite inappropriate to refer to the rise of transplant tourism as solely the consequence of global inequalities between people in the Second/Third World, on the one hand, and people in the First World, on the other, continuing to become ever more acute.
Apparently, one of the major contributing factor to the growing popularity of transplant tourism is the fact that, as compared to what it is being the case in Western countries, which during the course of last few decades were growing increasingly Socialist, in countries that are being considered the most attractive transplant tourism’s destinations (with the exception China), there are simply no armies of useless but resource-consuming ‘medicinal bureaucrats’ in existence.
In its turn, this significantly simplifies the bureaucratic procedures, concerned with potential donors providing a legal consent for the removal of their internal organs and with surgeons obtaining an official ‘go ahead’ to perform the transplantation surgery on a particular Western patient.
For example, while in their own countries, Western patients are being often required to wait for transplants to become available for as long as 5-10 years. However, while in such countries as China, India or Philippines, they can well expect the required transplantation surgery to be performed on them within a matter of few months, or even weeks (Rhodes
Iran and Region-wide backing of Hezbollah Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Syrian Ally
Iran and Hezbollah in the Gulf Region
Introduction Iran has turned out to be one of the major players as regards to the Gulf security and stability. This means that its role as a key player in the region can no longer be disregarded. Scholars observe that the 1979 revolution that took place in various states in the Middle East shaped the geo-politics of the region.
Iran emerged strong from the revolution, which gave it an advantage in terms of political influence. The state was able to export its ideas to other countries, which threatened the survival of other powerful states in the region, such as Saudi Arabia.
Furthermore, the region was transformed by the Iran-Iraq war, as well as the nuclear crisis witnessed in Iran (Jorisch 12). In 1971, Iran acquired three islands belonging to UAE and it is reluctant to negotiate over the islands.
As one way of flexing its muscles, Iran has been trying to influence the region politically, culturally and socially through vigilant restructuring and scheduling. Through this, it has been attempting to spread its ideas in the Gulf region.
The state has been mobilizing the revolutionary agents and coordinating the activities of sleeper cells in the neighbouring states such as Syria and Lebanon. These activities took effect after president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad took power in 2005. It should be noted that by 1979, the Shah, who enjoyed close diplomatic ties with the US, ruled Iran.
In the same year, the Shah was overthrown by an Islamic radical group, which turned Iran into an Islamic state ruled by a spiritual leader referred to as the Ayatollah. The spiritual leaders were keen to spread Islamic values all over the region.
Since then, Iran has been reluctant to accept western values, which insist that women are to be treated in the same way as men. Therefore, the state has always assisted other groups trying to fight the west. It is not surprising that Iran has been funding illegal groups and unpopular regimes that are undemocratic.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper will therefore evaluate the interests of Iran in the Gulf region and its position in the international system. The paper will analyze how Iran has been funding and supporting the activities of the Hezbollah, which is against the wishes of the international community.
In this case, it should be noted that Iran does not fund the Hezbollah out of good will but its main aim is to achieve the national interests. In this case, states are always interested in national interests implying that in whatever they do, they must satisfy their wishes and desires.
The Syrian Ally For many years, Iran has always sided with Syria over important issues affecting the region and the world. Furthermore, the two states have always shared strong military and financial links. Through this partnership, the two states have been able to achieve similar goals such as resisting the requests related to democracy from the international community (Ranstorp 31).
The two states have been accused variously for violating human rights and freedoms but nothing has changed since then. For instance, when the Syrian populace rose to challenge the government for being inhuman and indifferent to the needs of the people, the highest decision making organ in the Mullah regime in Tehran promised to provide logistical support to the distressed Alawite regime.
The Tehran organ promised to help the Alawite regime to quell violence that had rocked various cities. Tehran could not let the Bashar al-Assad regime go since it is very important as far as Tehran’s interests are concerned.
Tehran aspires to maintain its role in the Gulf region and make sure that al-Assad’s regime remains in power in order to further the interests of Hezbollah and other affiliates of Iranian-Palestinian organizations.
By scrutinizing the foreign policies of Iran towards neighbouring states, one is able to note that the state is concerned about support for Syria in order to safeguard the interests of Hezbollah, which has the same aims as those of Iran. In Iran, the government has always claimed that the international community is destabilizing the government of Syria for undisclosed reasons.
We will write a custom Essay on Iran and Region-wide backing of Hezbollah specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this regard, the Iranian government has assured Syria of its support in order to safeguard the Hezbollah. The two states that is, Syria and Iran, signed a mutual agreement promising to help each other economically and militarily. Following the agreement, the Iranian government sent out a number of revolutionary agents to the cities of Syria to monitor the progress of the revolution.
The main aim of Iran is to ensure that the ongoing revolution does not succeed. Restoration of democracy would allow foreigners to establish businesses and other organizations in Syria, which would make it hard for the Hezbollah and Iran to achieve their missions.
Democracy would expose the state to foreign domination and the values of Islam would be interfered with, something that both the Iranian government and the Hezbollah highly detest. Following this, the Iranian authorities coordinated with the security forces of Syria to dislodge any plans of the protesters.
Iran realized that Syria alone could not provide the necessary protection to the Hezbollah. Therefore, it had to intervene in order to safeguard its regional interests, which are closely related to those of the Hezbollah (Sankari 11).
Iran has been keen to ensure that Syria succeeds in pushing aside the requests of the population. Assad entered into a bilateral agreement with the Iran’s Supreme Guide in order to end the riots. The Iranian government accepted to pay the military for six months and provide weapons when necessary.
This was aimed at security the economy of Syria since the state was spending too much on weapons and the salaries of soldiers. In August 2011, the government of Iran was shown a green light when it was permitted to construct a military base near the Latakia airport.
This was aimed at easing the process of transferring weapons from Tehran to Damascus. The Iranian government promised the Syrian regime to respond to any attacks from Israel, as well as from other enemies.
The presence of Iranian forces in Syria has in fact complicated the Middle East conflict system. Other states are unwilling to participate in toppling the Assad administration since Iran would retaliate. Iran perceives the west as being behind the instabilities witnessed in Syria.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Iran and Region-wide backing of Hezbollah by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Gulf States have come to the realization that Iran is willing and is ready to destabilize the region using the Syrian revolution. The states have not been able to intervene either peacefully or military due to the presence of Iran.
In fact, Iran is more cautious because the international community has taken sides in the matter. In fact, the Iranian regime can resist the Gulf pressure but it cannot withstand the pressure from the American and European powers.
It can be observed that Iran will have to accept changes in the Syrian administration and prepare to face sanctions from the international community in case China and Russia fail to veto the decision of other powers (Saad-Ghorayeb 90).
Lebanese Ally Iran has always employed a regional policy as regards to Lebanon and Hezbollah. In other words, the relationship between Iran and Hezbollah population in Lebanon depends on the politics of the Gulf region. Iran has some fears over the consequences left by interior and exterior actors on the Hezbollah.
Iran is much concerned about the indictment of Lebanon by the special tribunal over the murder of the former premier Rafiq Hariri, the plans concerning Hezbollah weapons in the region, and the representation of the Hezbollah in the Lebanon government.
There is a looming conflict between the Hezbollah and other parties regarding the March 8 and 14 coalition agreements. These interests have led Iran to devise methods that would help the Hezbollah counter the enemies.
The Iranian Mullahs established the Hezbollah in Lebanon in 1980s. Since then the foreign Policies of Iran towards Lebanon, especially towards the party of God, has been influenced by the presence of Hezbollah. Iran considers Hezbollah as its surrogate in the Lebanese state and the Gulf region as a whole.
The Iranian administrations have always used the Hezbollah to export the Shea values and beliefs to other states in the region (Hala 89). In other words, Iran has been able to establish itself as one of the powerful states in the region due to the presence of Hezbollah in various parts of the region.
Through the Hezbollah, Iran has achieved its major goals and is intending to capitalize on the presence of the community in various parts to further its interests. Research shows that there are many Iranian Shiites in the Gulf region, who are closely linked to the Hezbollah.
In countries where the Hezbollah controls decision-making, the Iranian government has always pledged support and to eliminate any form of opposition emanating from within or without the state boundaries.
The international community, Israel in particular, has always tried to neutralize and challenge the power of Hezbollah in various parts of the region. Israel is keen to prevent a war similar to that, which took place in 2006 that damaged Israeli superiority and undermined the image of its disincentive capacities.
Iran and Hezbollah in the Gulf Region Previous inconsistencies between Israel and Hezbollah, as well as topical regional revolutions have made Iran to come up with methods that would strengthen the Hezbollah on all fronts. Furthermore, the state of Iran is preparing for a counter attack in case the international community decides to strike, particularly due to its nuclear energy strategy.
In places such as Lebanon and Bekaa valley, the government of Iran established military bases and dug underground tunnels that would be used to store weapons (Qassem 24). In Lebanon, Iranian government has been training military forces, which would be used to resist any incursion to the Hezbollah community.
In fact, Hezbollah members have been trained on how they can launch a missile, as well as how to make bombs. Data reveals that more than 1600 Hezbollah extremists were taken to Iran to participate in military training with the revolutionary agents.
Even after receiving sanctions from the international community, Iran has always supported the activities of the Hezbollah in the Gulf region. For instance, Iran has been supplying the Hezbollah in various regions with the communication and wiretapping equipments.
In fact, these instruments have been installed in various parts of Lebanon to help contain any external aggression. The houses of experts and diplomats working in various countries have been targeted mostly.
Iran is determined to maintain the supremacy of Hezbollah in the region since it has reinforced its role in Southern Lebanon, by providing weapons and other equipments of war.
Furthermore, funds have also been availed to the Hezbollah in order to acquire properties in places considered to be inhabited by Christians. These places would be converted to military bases when the time comes.
Iran has been influencing its neighbours to accept the position and activities of the Hezbollah in the region. In Lebanon, Iran has always interfered with political processes by proving technical information and resources to the Hezbollah candidates.
In the international system, Iran encourages the Hezbollah to oppose the decision of the international organizations. For instance, it requested the Lebanese government to question the credibility of the Special Tribunal put in place by the ICC to investigate the government of Lebanon.
In Lebanon still, the Iranian authorities have emerged to help the Hezbollah contain the influence of the Lebanese Sunni leader Saad Hariri (Harik 31). The officials of Iran have urged the Lebanese Hezbollah to expose the weaknesses of Hariri in order to cut him from the international community, which provides funds and knowledge to him.
In Lebanon, Iran requested the Hezbollah officials to embrace the Sunni leaders in order to form a strong relationship that would withstand the national and the international pressure. Following this, the Hezbollah incorporated the leader of Murabitun and the president of the National Nasserist Organization into their plans.
This was aimed at expanding the political influence of the Hezbollah. Furthermore, this would allow the Hezbollah to acquire many cabinet positions.
This benefit of collaborating with the Murabitun was realized when the Hezbollah vice director of military intelligence was given the post of the director general in charge of general security (Nizar 4). The president opposed this move but the Hezbollah won the seat since the majority supported it.
For the last few decades, the Iran-Hezbollah relationship in the Gulf region has shaped the security and political dynamics. Hezbollah is a radical group, a political party and a theological pressure group in the Gulf region. It managed to bring together various factions in an attempt to suppress the power of the United States and Israel in the region.
Middle East scholars such as Cambanis observe that people in the region have been influenced by the Hezbollah ideas and are willing to die for the group’s apocalyptic values. Other observers such as Samaha, who is the Lebanon’s minister of information, claim that Hezbollah is a legal group that tries to fight for the rights of the Muslims in the region.
Such observers claim that the role of Hezbollah and Iran is to defend the Arab land against external aggressors such as Israel. A report released in Beirut in 2006 claimed that the majority of Lebanese support the activities of the Hezbollah.
Hezbollah has continued to shape the foreign policies of many states including the US. In the US, Hezbollah is viewed as a terrorist group that should not be tolerated in the world. In 2011 for instance, the bipartisan members of the congress came up with a bill referred to as the Hezbollah Anti-Terrorism Act.
The act would ensure that no American Aid reaches the Hezbollah. In Europe, the European Union parliament treats the Hezbollah in the same way as the Hamas. In other words, the two groups are viewed as terrorist groups.
However, the European powers such as Britain, Spain and France have been reluctant to slap sanctions to the group since it would derail the Middle East peace talks. Therefore, it can be observed that the activities of the group have been felt globally. What is clear is that various regions view the activities of the group differently.
The neighbouring states such as Iran, Syria and Lebanon perceive the Hezbollah group as a blessing to the region since it fights for the rights of Muslims. In other parts, the group’s activities are illegal (Norton 3).
Conclusion It can be concluded that Iran has always supported the activities of the Hezbollah mainly because it has the same interests as those of Iran. The main objective of the two is to dominate the Gulf region by keeping away the influence of Israel and the west.
Middle East states such as Iran, Lebanon, Syria and Palestine believe that Israel is the problem. The states accuse the west for planting Israel in the region yet they did not participate in dispersing the Jews during the Second World War. Therefore, the relationship between Iran and the Hezbollah is expected to persist as long as the western countries continue supporting Israel.
Works Cited Hala, Jaber. Hezbollah. Colombia: Columbia University Press, 1997. Print.
Harik, Palmer. Hezbollah: The Changing Face of Terrorism. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2006. Print.
Jorisch, Avi. Beacon of Hatred: Inside Hizballahs Al-Manar Television. Washington: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2004. Print.
Nizar, Hamzeh. In The Path of Hezbollah. Damascus: Syracuse University Press, 2004. Print.
Norton, Richard. Hezbollah of Lebanon: Extremist Ideals vs. Mundane Politics. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2000. Print
Norton, Richard. Hezbollah: A Short History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. Print.
Qassem, Naim. Hizbullah: The Story from Within. Damascus: Saqi Books, 2005. Print.
Ranstorp, Magnus. Hizb’Allah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996. Print.
Saad-Ghorayeb, Amal. Hizbullah: Politics and Religion. London: Pluto Press, 2001. Print.
Sankari, Jamal. Fadlallah: The Making of a Radical Shi’ite Leader. Damascus: Saqi Books, 2005. Print.
History of Deforestation Exploratory Essay best essay help
Introduction Deforestation was largely driven by the need to meet man’s needs. In the beginning, these were subsistence-based and individualistic; therefore, the level of destruction was not as enormous.
Ancient populations highly depended on wood for fuel, and needed access to land for agriculture. The rise of industrialisation deflated pressures on forests for fuel, but technological developments caused commercialisation of tree-cutting.
Patterns of deforestation since early modern times 1600s
In the 1600s, deforestation was employed in order to provide man with land for agricultural use. Fire was the preferred method of forest balding among native populations.
However, because the population was small, the effects of their activities were not as substantial at the time.1 Later on, European settlers started moving into areas that were previously dominated by natives. They regarded forests as features that needed to be removed.
In fact, most farmers in those early times spent most of their time clearing forests, making fences and establishing a new system of agriculture. Implements were few and far between, thus making the methods of deforestation less dependent on technology.
However the pioneer farmer was still well aware of the importance of his forests in his life. He did not plan on eliminating all forests because they were crucial resource points. They provided him with food for fuel and house fencing.
Forests were also a rich source of nuts, berries and other products. Axmen did most of the clearing through direct cutting. Alternatively, they would cut vital elements of the tree in order to cause the upper part of the tree to fall off gradually.2
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 1700s
In the 1700s shipbuilding became a common activity. The birth of the naval store affected the pattern of deforestation in Britain. A naval store encompassed all those products that were needed in order to run ships.
Sails, ropes and planks in the ships required products derived from trees. In the previous century, pioneer farmers had discovered the commercial value of certain tree products. Alongside the products, timber itself was sold to various households through community markets.
The products that were derived from trees included tar, turpentine, pitch and potash; they could all be used for various purposes. A critical shift in the eighteenth century occurred when farmers in North America stopped relying on their own citizens to provide a market for their timber-derived products.
These were exported to distant locations in Europe; exporting towns were all areas that firmly depended upon the existence of wood to operate. At that time, much of the economy revolved around timber. In the 1600s, most naval supplies for the British navy did not come from North America; they emanated from the Scandinavian countries.
However, this dramatically changed when the US was discovered as a source for the products.3 Hemp was obtained from the barks of trees after the trees had been cut off. Individuals would make incisions in certain parts of trees so as to facilitate the collection of the sap, which was later collected in barrels, distilled and sold.
Actual use of wood for construction also contributed to massive deforestation in the US. Some of the planks would be employed in the creation of ships. These vessels were small but much in number. Constructors wanted to incorporate the risk of returning empty vessels.
Alongside the ship industry, construction of log cabins or houses also contributed towards greater deforestation. Certain individuals built sawmills that would guarantee an ample supply of wood to their townsmen as well as to other external markets. In fact after 1720, numerous sawmills began flourishing.
We will write a custom Essay on History of Deforestation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of them were based on contracts between local administrators and apprentices. They were supposed to engage in the deforestation of local trees for the local population first before they could use them for commercial purposes.
After several of these sawmills came up, a thriving commercial wood industry emerged. Most of these mills were found very near the forest for convenience. A number of them were primitive in nature because they employed manual labour or simple fulcrums for movement.4
The latter types were powered using water sources and were more efficient than the former type. An export industry started to emerge around the felling of tress. The US began exporting planks and boards to various markets through its coastal towns. This was especially prevalent after 1775.
Wood was a critical source of energy for most communities in the eighteenth century, and that contributed towards massive deforestation. At the time, most settlers relied upon the use of charcoal for their personal energy use.
Iron smelters were one of the most vital consumers of wood in the late 1700s. Iron consumption was common in Britain as far back as the seventeenth century. However, production was low-cost in England because they had discovered coke as a source of energy.5
The same did not occur in the US. Most iron smelters relied upon wood for energy. Furnaces were constructed in a manner that necessitated the use of charcoal.
In another part of the world i.e. Japan, forests were also used for a myriad of purposes. Some supplies would be utilised by the army while others were employed domestically for heating and cooking.
However, a rapid rise in population meant that forests were inadequate to meet man’s needs. Leaders realized that they needed to alter their patterns of deforestation in order to make it sustainable.
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Deforestation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This country started a community forest management project that would spearhead the plantation of several tree species. Therefore this part of the earth was one of the initial countries to start reforestation projects.
Environmentalism in Japan began in 1660 but intensified in the eighteenth century. Successes were reported years later, i.e. in the twentieth century.
Fuel consumption levels were so high in iron-smelting furnaces thus making it imperative to fell massive acres of trees. In fact, pig iron led to forest recession and shortages in several parts of North America.
A number of entrepreneurs had to abandon their furnaces because they lacked ample sources of coal. Usually, most furnace owners either leased or bought forested areas in order to cover their fuel needs.
However, such activities contributed to the detriment of forests in approximately ten to fifteen years. Therefore, charcoal burners were responsible for this tragedy in the forests.
Unlike their British counterparts, the Americans preferred to use this environmentally unfriendly method because the type of iron that coal made was in demand. Additionally, there was an abundance of wood in the US compared to Britain, which had already started experiencing shortages from as early as the 1600s.
In the US, charcoal burning was done through creation of pits in forests. This had a sterilising effect on soil and prevented re-growth of trees in the future. Charcoal burning also ruined tree stands and changed their composition if the tree grew back.
Land clearing for farming still continued in the US. However, farmers were sometimes overwhelmed by the amount of pasture land that they created after deforestation.
They needed woodland for fuel and pasture for their livestock. Therefore, farmers needed to strike a balance between crop land and land to be used for pasture or woodlands. This continued into the 1800s.
After 1860, some stakeholders realized that forests in the US were in danger and they began talking about it. Such individuals were especially concerned about the use of slash and burn techniques.
Energy use in the 1900s changed dramatically, after the discovery petroleum–based products; a lot of pressure was taken off trees. Deforestation was done in order to obtain wood for construction rather than energy use.
Additionally, the industrial era depended more on iron than on wood. Colonising countries wanted to preserve their own wood resources so they started tapping their colons’ resources. Deforestation in West Africa was commonplace.
Other European countries also secured their own supplies of timber from countries such as Malaysia. The US started getting its resources from Brazil and the Philippines while Japan banked its own trees. It depended on Indonesia and other South Eastern countries.6
Therefore, one may assert that there was a global spread of deforestation. In less-developed parts of the world, tree cutting continued for farming purposes but also for commercial use. In developed nations, creation of paper, construction and other wood-derived products continued to perpetuate the needs for destruction of forests.
After the 1960s, some improvements emerged because of the growth of environmentalists and other tree lovers. This caused a decrease in forest destruction and the use of wood alternatives.7
Differences between old and new patterns of use of forests Tree cutting in the old era was done in order to meet immediate needs. Commercial uses of timber were not a priority for those communities. Most wanted to access farmland and provide pasture for their livestock.
Since there was plenty of wood supply, most ancient communities did not give much thought to their tree- cutting activities. Therefore, one might add that deforestation was done on a subsistence level.
Individuals lacked the machines and technology needed to engage in massive deforestation. Additionally, because populations were still low in number, forest use was minimal in nature.8
However, current patterns reveal that most deforestation is commercially-based. It is driven by enterprises and can thus prove to be more detrimental than the old approach.
Even if deforestation is done for agricultural purposes, one may find that these attempts are often state sponsored and are done in order to facilitate large-s scale agricultural production.
Cases such as Indonesia and Brazil are ideal examples of this new pattern of forest use. Their governments actively promoted rural development through construction of roads and commercial agriculture.
This is quite different from the kind of forest destruction that was done by European settlers in the US. Their major concern was to meet their immediate needs.
Globalisation is also another theme that can be found in new patterns of forest use but not in old ones. Although some wood-derived products were transported to Britain from the US, it was evident that in the seventeenth century, most forests were to be used by locals.
Furthermore, it was the locals who did most of the deforestation; they only exported the derivatives of those products to other nations. In new patterns of forest use, distant countries initiated deforestation in different states.
Therefore, the process took on an international dimension. For instance, the United States sourced its products from Brazil while Japan sourced its products from Indonesia.
This reflects the globalization of deforestation and the need for self preservation. Most developed nations wanted to bank their forests while still enjoying the benefits of wood products. The spread of deforestation may have been caused by international stakeholders just as much as it was caused by locals.9
New patterns of forest use are also different from old patterns because current endeavours reflect conservation policies. Many environmentalists have spearheaded efforts in various sectors that directly or indirectly depend on deforestation for survival.
These individuals have contributed towards the minimisation of unwarranted forest destruction. Such environmentalists did not exist in the ancient times.
Developments in energy sources and technology have minimised the use of trees as sources of fuel in developed nations. This was not true in the past since coal was a vital cause of deforestation. Logging was often done in order to meet energy needs domestically and commercially.
Smelting of iron and other industrial related needs took place through wood- derived fuels. Currently, forests are useful for the creation of certain products.
However, these products cannot be created from certain parts of trees; they must come from the large scale elimination of trees. Therefore, while new patterns of forest use may have been propelled by other needs, they still present a serious threat to forests.10
Conclusion Man has always seen forests as a means to an end; trees enable him to meet his needs. However, changing technological advancements and needs altered the patterns of forest use.
Some of the objectives that motivated man to cut trees were eliminated in subsequent times while new ones came into existence. This explains the prevalence of globalisation (international sourcing of wood) and large scale deforestation as trends in forest use today.
Bibliography Braudel, F, The Structures of Everyday Life, Harper and Row, New York, 1979.
Brimblecombe, P and Pfister, C, The Silent Countdown, Springer, New York, 1990.
Cronon, W, Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England, Hill and Wang, NY, 1983.
Dargavel, J, Fashioning Australia‘s Forests, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1995
Goudie, A, The Human Impact on the Environment, 2d ed, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986
Radkau, J, Nature and Power: A Global History of the Environment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2008.
Schama, S, Landscape and Memory, Alfred Knopf, New York, 1995.
Thirgood, J, Man and the Mediterranean Forest: A History of Resource Depletion, Academic Press, New York, 1981.
Williams, M, Americans and their Forests: A Historical Geography, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,1989.
Williams, M, Deforesting the Earth: From prehistory to global crisis, University of Chicago press, Chicago, 2003.
Footnotes 1W Cronon, Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England, Hill and Wang, NY, 1983.
2 S Schama, Landscape and Memory, Alfred Knopf, New York, 1995.
3 M Williams, Deforesting the Earth: From prehistory to global crisis, University of Chicago press, Chicago, 2003.
4M Williams, Americans and their Forests: A Historical Geography, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,1989.
5 P Brimblecombe and C Pfister, The Silent Countdown, Springer, New York, 1990.
6 J Radkau, Nature and Power: A Global History of the Environment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2008.
7 A Goudie, The Human Impact on the Environment, 2d ed, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986.
8 J Dargavel, Fashioning Australia‘s Forests, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1995.
9 F Braudel, The Structures of Everyday Life, Harper and Row, New York, 1979.
10 J Thirgood, Man and the Mediterranean Forest: A History of Resource Depletion, Academic Press, New York, 1981.
The FTC vs. Google and Apple antitrust case of 2012 Essay essay help
An antitrust case is a legal term used to refer to a case brought forward for jurisdiction by parties charged with using dubious strategies and methods to limit or influence to one’s advantage free competition that exists in the market place (Posner 24). One party may be seeking the prosecution of the other or may be seeking the protection of a right to prevent any possible wrongdoing.
Recently, the United States antitrust regulators, Federal Trade Commission (FTC), became interested in the Apple and Google business relationship (Dylan 2012).
This case involved the use of Google programs and applications as the default settings in mobile devices manufactured by Apple. This has elicited heated debates and criticism because it is anti-competitive and breach of the US free market law.
Google and Apple have broken the US antitrust law (Dylan 2012). This law presents legal provisions that promote free competition in the market place by preventing dubious conduct by companies that is anti-competitive.
This law protects consumers against price exploitation and low quality products because of a company’s monopoly. Most monopolies present few choices on the range of products in the market (American Bar Association 65). The law does not illegalize monopoly but ensures that the power that is given to a company by a monopoly is not abused (Posner 53).
This specific antitrust case has been initiated by the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and involves the search engine Google and the Telecommunication giant Apple (Dylan 2012).
The commission is demanding for a legal explanation from both firms on the methodology and law followed in allowing Apple incorporate Google’s search engine on the iPhone and iPad as the default search platform (Dylan 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The commission has demanded for legal documents such as the agreement that gave Apple the privilege that interfered with the free competion in the market place (Dylan 2012). Google’s bitter rival in the marketplace, Microsoft, has not hesitated to label the agreement anti-competitive.
As a result, FTC has intensified its efforts to scrutinize Google’s business operations and conduct. This may lead to a revelation as to whether Google is taking advantage of the fact that it dominates the internet search services to increase its earnings.
As the use of internet over mobile phones increases, the default settings become an important aspect.FTC is also investigating the claim that the Mountain View branch of Google that is in California charges more for advertisements presented by their competitors (Dylan 2012).
In addition, there is a claim that it favors its own businesses and other businesses that it has affiliations to by ranking their search results highly. Since the introduction of the iPhone in 2007 and the iPad in 2010, Google has served as the default search engine (Dylan 2012).
The Android operating system is another critical issue.FTC is carrying out parallel investigations as to whether Google is using the Android operating system to influence competition to their advantage.
Google and Apple have been on the race for dominance in the Smartphone sector of the mobile phone market since 2008 when the first handset that was running on the Android operating system was introduced in the market.
Analysts project that in a few years, internet searches on the mobile phone will surpass searches on desktop computers. According to Macquarie Capital, many customers do not bother with the default settings in their Smartphone and use it with the settings from the manufacturer.
We will write a custom Essay on The FTC vs. Google and Apple antitrust case of 2012 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Last year, the Android dominated the mobile phone operating system market with a market share of 50.9 percent. This was in excess of 30.1 percent compared to the iOS operating system of the iPhone. In the same year, Google earned $1.3 billion in revenue from internet searches alone from Apple products (Dylan 2012).
Apple received $1 billion from Google to make it the default search engine. According to reports, Google earns approximately 95 percent of revenue from searches in the US alone. In 2010, Microsoft made an unsuccessful attempt to win over the default search engine spot from Google (Dylan 2012).
There are indications that Apple are not satisfied with the agreement but are reluctant to withdraw because Google provides such a nice experience for users of Apple products. Their feud began when Google announced its intention to introduce the Android operating system (Dylan 2012).
The feud aggravated when Steve Jobs launched a patent combat against manufacturers of handsets that used Android as their operating system. Microsoft and other companies are pushing for a close check of Google’s dominance in the market as they sense foul play.
The Apple and Google antitrust case is one of the latest involving two market leaders in the telecommunication and technology industry. The agreement signed between Apple and Google seem short-lived because the two have turned out to be bitter rivals.
This feud emanated from the introduction o f the Android operating system by Google that was developed to compete against the iPhone (Dylan 2012). The FTC has developed special interest in the relationship and is currently carrying out investigations to establish whether Google’s conduct went against the antitrust law.
Works Cited American Bar Association. Merger Standards under U.S. Antitrust Laws. New York: American Bar Association, 2009.Print.
Dylan, Lionel. Apple Subpoenaed in Google’s Antitrust Case. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The FTC vs. Google and Apple antitrust case of 2012 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Posner, Robert. Antitrust Law. Chicago: University of Chicago press, 2001.Print.
Stakeholders of Tourism in Thailand Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Thailand will achieve Long term social, cultural and environmental development when sustainable tourism development is attained by the stakeholders in tourism industry. This can be realized through reducing or reversing negative impact of unplanned programmes and overdevelopment on tourism sites.
Sustainable development in tourism ensures that present needs are met without compromising the ability of future generations to cater for their needs (Scripun, 2008).
This article will examine the steps that stakeholders in tourism industry are taking to ensure that sustainable development is achieved fast to enable all stakeholders to enjoy long term social, environmental, economic and cultural benefits.
Traditional mass tourism in Thailand can contribute less to sustainable tourism development. This is because it lacks necessary concern for socio-cultural environment. This objective can only be achieved when there is enough goodwill from the local community, the government and other stakeholders towards the initiation of sustainable tourism development.
Stakeholders in tourism industry can be divided into five categories that include the policy makers, locals, hospitality employees, owners and investors. Policy makers refer to individuals or state organs who formulate national policies, laws and regulations.
A good example of this would be the Tourism Authority of Thailand and government officials. Tourism in Thailand directly impacts on rural-urban migration, social dynamics and does cause some illegal activities such as drug abuse and sex tourism involving minors.
Hospitality employees or staffs get affected by tourist demands, compensation laws, policies etc. The final categories of stakeholders who directly interact with tourist are the investors and owners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Tourism Authority of Thailand or TAT undertook a joint initiative with three other key stakeholders namely Skal Thailand, Pacific Asia Travel Association or PATA and Joint Foreign Chambers of Commerce in Thailand or JFCCT to help establish a plan that will ensure sustainable development of tourism in Thailand (Ranee, 2007).
The details of this plan were thoroughly discussed at an interactive forum called “mapping the Future” that took place last year. The essence of this forum was to find ways of ensuring sustainable tourism development that will meet the needs of tourists, locals and the tourism industry in general.
The success of the joint forum is pegged on the level of stakeholder involvement in the implementation of the strategies that were discussed. The practitioners from the industry possess requisite experience that can help solve problems in Thai travel and tourism industry to ensure positive development and growth in future.
The stake holders who took part in “Mapping the Future” forum resolved to refurbish Thailand’s tourism marketing strategies (Nash, 1998). These included creating a better and stronger brand image for Thailand, managing reputation for the countries tourism, promoting sustainable tourism and promote extensive use of e-marketing and social media.
Due to increase in involvement of Chinese tourists in Thai tourism industry, the forum members suggested that TAT should accord the professor from China Tourism Academy Dr. Xu Chen an opportunity to provide crucial address on “The Role of Chinese Outbound Travelers in the Future of Thai Tourism and the Tourism Satisfaction Index” (Dearden, 1991).
Another stakeholder member Mr. Tim Riches, from Asia Pacific of Future Brand was charged with the mandate of handling the Brand Image of Thailand. The issue of e-marketing and Social Media was given to Mr. Tiwa York of Omnicom Media Group to handle.
The management of reputation was given to Dr David Beirman, a Sydney professor of tourism from the University of Technology. His work was to address issues arising in hospitality and tourism business given his background in crisis and issue management.
We will write a custom Essay on Stakeholders of Tourism in Thailand specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Dearden, P. (1991) Tourism and Sustainable Development in Northern Thailand. The Geographical review, 19(20), 5-9.
Nash, D. (I998). Tourism as a Form of Imperialism, in V.L. Smith (ed.). The Geographical Review, 11(13), 12-14.
Ranee, T. (2007). The Case for Government Involvement in human Resource Development: A study of the Thai Hotel Industry. Tourism Management, 9(40), 5-13.
Scripun, M., (2008).Total Quality Management and tourism and Hospitality Education. The Case Study of Thailand. 5(9), 7-11
Gaining Competitive Advantage Through Supply Chain Management Case Study essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Significance of supply chains
Competitive Advantage through Supply Chain Management
Integration in Supply Chain Management
Emerging Issues in Supply Chain Management
Introduction The aim of every firm is to maximize its revenue and reduce costs in order to widen the profit margin while at the same time increasing the market share for its good or services in comparison to their competitors. Traditionally, Most of the firms have concentrated on profit maximization concept because profits were the only measure of success of a firm.
Therefore, these firms have put a lot of effort on reduction of direct costs and other inputs that are seen to be more important than anything else. However, quite recently other aspects, more especially issues dealing with management, have been emerging as being also important in increasing efficiency in operations thus, reducing costs in a firm.
Supply chain management has proofed to play a key role in cost reduction as well as improving relationships between a firm and its partners in the market, consequently boosting a firm’s competitive advantage.
Supply Chain Supply chain is the process interconnection among organizations which involves the flow of resources of production, information, finances and finished products that helps in facilitating production, marketing and selling of goods and services.
It is a two way process and can either be downstream where it begins from the supplier of raw materials and flows through the manufacturer to the wholesaler the retailer and lastly to the consumer, or upstream in which case the chain starts from the consumer passing through the retailer, the wholesaler, the manufacturer and ends at the supplier.
Supply chain management is for that reason, the management of the supply chain system to ensure efficient, smooth running and well coordination of the chain of supply in order to take advantage of it (Sinha 2009). Furthermore, supply chain management involves the incorporation of important aspects that add value to the consumer over and above that of the partners in the supply chain.
Significance of supply chains Producers expect to receive inputs of production at the right time, to ensure that production process is carried on without interruption because interruption interferes with the entire supply chain since the commodity will not be available for delivery to buyers. In addition to that, the higher the inventory kept by producers the higher the storage costs and consequently the lower the profit margin. Therefore, producers desire to maintain at its minimum possible quantity in order to reduce storage costs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the same time, suppliers expect to receive payment in time to cater for their expenses and therefore enable them continue supplying. On top of that, wholesalers, chain stores and other retailers expect a Continuous supply of commodities to ensure that they do not run short of any commodity, while they want the level of inventories to be at minimum since huge inventory increases storage cost but bring no income (Bolstorff
Sony Corporation-Restructuring Continues, Problems Remain Case Study essay help: essay help
Defining the current strategy of Sony Sony Corporation has been undergoing rough corporate experiences forcing it to restructure its business operations and strategies. Evidently, the organization has been through numerous challenges since 1990s despite its efforts to recover. Nonetheless, the recent reformation strategies introduced by Howard Stringer (worked as the CEO and president of the corporation) have allowed Sony to revitalize its business operations despite the constant challenges experienced by the corporation.
Firstly, the company announced a prominent reorganization strategy that was to reface its managerial systems, departmental operations, marketing structures, and production strategies (Indul 2010, p. 1). It is important to agree that the organization needed such changes hence could not hesitate to enact them in order to remain relevant in the electronics industry.
It also strived to enhance its market visibility and revitalize its global presence. The organization needed new products, new production structures, managerial reforms, a break from obsolete silo cultures, and other dominant business provisions that could augment its competitive advantages against its rivals.
The first strategy was to reduce its business categories and cut down on its product models. This was to revitalize its electronic business by putting more efforts on the most selling products while withdrawing non-performing commodities from the market as well as in its production structures. The company equally intended to proceed with profitable business categories witnessed by its move to drop some of its corporate departments.
Another evident strategy is to eliminate redundancies and overlaps noticeable in its business processes. Additionally, proper management of resources and their diversion to high performing dealings namely HD products, mobile commodities, semiconductors, appliances, and others are among the prospected strategies to help in propelling Sony to the brighter future in the realms of business (Indul 2010, p. 3). Another prospected strategy is to unite the organization by integrated all in departments together for a unified business operations.
Initially, the company operated in different departments namely electronics, entertainment services, financial services, and others. Each department operated autonomously, a phenomenon named as a silo culture. The current strategy is to break the silo culture and integrate all the business departments as indicated earlier. In fact, Stringer promoted a new slogan named Sony United in order to enhance the cross-company integration.
Operating together as a team is the main strategy of the company. This will help in the reorganization processes prospected for its various departments. Reducing the number of its employees to a reasonable percentage while closing down some of the non-performing business structures could help.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the company opted to reduce the number of its suppliers from 2500 to 1200 in order to induce effectiveness as it only works with performers (Indul 2010, p. 1). Precisely, the intention of Sony is to enhance its performance, competitiveness, competitive advantages, market share, and revitalize its business operations.
Evaluating the strategy being adopted by Sony to regain its lost market share Notably, a strategy considers the aspects of change. Thus, whatever Sony is currently pursuing is in conformity with its desires to change its present business models so as to gain remarkable competitiveness in the concerned industry. It is important to agree that the current Sony’s efforts to reorganize its business operation are helpful and can aid its desires to regain the lost market share.
Evidently, there is a stringent competition in the electronics industry hence forcing every organization to strategize appropriately in the realms of business.
The archaic business models can no longer help following the emergence of new market demands, technology, globalizations, and competition among other pertinent factors. It is from this consideration that the Sony’s move to reorganize its business trends is important and time bound. It is advisable for any business to restructure its business models in order to match the new market demands as indicated earlier.
This is a supportive consideration in various contexts. Evidently, Sony cannot regain its lost market share if it continues with its old business models and operational activities. The organization requires promising overhauls in all its structures ranging from management to product models as mentioned earlier.
This will help the organization to compete favorably and respond to business challenges and dynamic market demands with promptness. Additionally, using visionary leaders like Howard Stringer is important in enforcing the desired business changes. It is from strategic leadership that the company will regain its lost competitiveness and market visibility (Indul 2010, p. 8).
Although the company faces numerous challenges in this context, it is still possible that Sony can perform wonderfully in the market. This is possible through introduction of novel and competitive products, appropriate business strategies, and customer focus. Ability to enact viable marketing concepts can equally help in this context.
We will write a custom Case Study on Sony Corporation-Restructuring Continues, Problems Remain specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Critically, the moves by the company to restructure its business models are quite decisive when scrutinized critically. The business has the mandate to enact the required prospective in the realms of constructive models. Additionally, it is evident that the company is embracing the virtues of change in its systems. Change is an evitable phenomenon, which must be ratified whenever its time comes.
Another important consideration in this context is the integration of the organization’s departments in order to consolidate its operations and match the current business demands with promptness. Similarly, this is a critical move as proposed by Howard Stringer in the business context. Allowing the company to operate uniformly and share common organization’s objectives is considerably important. Actually, the Sony United slogan (introduced by Stringer) is a credible strategy worth adoption by the organization.
It will enhance teamwork and collaboration between different business sectors as the organization strives to recapture its lost market share. This objective cannot be attained solitarily hence indicating the need for consolidating the entire business components under a centralized management and business norms.
Additionally, Stringer’s vision with the company is elaborate and effective despite the recently noticed challenges (Indul 2010, p. 1). Such strategies have allowed the company to reorganize its business trends and operational mechanisms with the intent of controlling its various components.
Additionally, the ability to unite the organization helps substantially when viewed from the business context. This is an imperative provision when considered critically. It is the mandate of various organizations to understand the nature of their businesses and the vitality of other rivals so as to strategize considerably.
Appropriate business strategies are demanded in various contexts. Precisely, the move by the organization to consolidate its business components and centralize their management is important. It will enhance teamwork and other operational mandates as indicated earlier. From this context, ability centralize management and enhance competitiveness will obviously help Sony regain its lost market share.
Constructive managerial strategies will ensure that the company remains customer focused, produces commodities that address the needs of the targeted customers, and prospects future changes in the market trends. This will allow the company to remain focused in its business endeavors.
Evidently, in order to revitalize its electronics business and remain competitive within the industry, Sony must enact various business strategies as witnessed in its recent endeavors. As indicated before, these moves are intended to regain the aspects of business and other probable business considerations. It is important to reorganize various components of the organization in order to enhance its relevancy and business focus amongst other factors.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sony Corporation-Restructuring Continues, Problems Remain by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evidently, Sony also intended to reduce its business categories and drop other product models. This was to happen with the intent of focusing more on the profitable products with the available resources. It is worthless to run numerous business categories with massive losses in return.
This has forced Sony to drop some of its archaic products and focus fully on the selling ones. This could allow the company to regain faster in the realms of market growth and other considerable components. Hence, this is a critical move when evaluated critically. It means that the company is ready to focus on the changing customer demands rather than clinging on the obsolete business models. Previously, devastating business approaches led to the plunge of Sony.
When the company launched its Bravia flat screen TV and other new entertainment and network product models, it picked up tremendously in the market (Indul 2010, p. 4). This allowed the company to recognize the importance of being customer focused rather than embracing traditional status quo while market trends are significantly changing. It is important to recognize such trends in the realms of business operations and other considerable factors in the same trends.
Additionally, the need to reduce the number of employees within the business and closedown other business premises could help in lessening unnecessary costs. This was an important strategy when evaluated critically. It is crucial to realize the importance of that move in enhancing the aspects of profitability while reducing unconstructive business costs and unworthy operational burdens. Critically, introduction of new business trends is quite important in various aspects.
It shows that the company is committed in its endeavors and plans to regain its lost market share despite the stringent competition witnessed within the industry. Sony has been known for quality products and it still mandates to provide such products to its customers. Additionally, the brand name it had initially built is considerable in various contexts.
This had promoted its business operations globally despite the rivalry it received from various firms including Samsung and LG among others. It is important to realize such business trends and strategize cautiously so as to regain the previous competitiveness in the marketplace.
The entire strategies were meant to enhance profitability for the company by reducing cost and enhancing sales. Precisely, all the efforts and strategies by Sony are considerable in regaining its lost market share. They tend to restructure the company in order to render it relevant in the current market trends.
The theory/concept that the current strategy of Sony was based on The strategy used by Sony in its endeavor to restructure its business operations for profitability can be based on the classical strategic theory (Mazzucato 2002, P. 8). Mazzucato (2002, P. 8) indicates that there are 4 concepts/perspectives on strategy. The classical theory indicates that the concerned manager has the entire control over the business operations.
This is evident in the allocation of both internal and external resources. Additionally, the very manager can manipulate the internal structures of the firm with the intent of accomplishing desired business objectives. In this regard, the strategic efforts are guided by rationality, opportunism, and self-interest as evident in the Sony’s strategic case.
For example, it is important to agree that the current move by Sony to revitalize its operation have been steered by Howard Stringer. Stringer managed to impose his business ideas in the reform processes embraced by Sony. All his proposals to unite the company, reduce costs, and increase profitability have been embraced with precision.
It is from this argument that the company attains its witnessed reformation strategies. The ability to address exact customer demands and restructure the company to meet the dynamic market trends is of a massive consideration (Mazzucato 2002, P. 8-9). Precisely, the company embraces classical concepts in its change prospects and strives to enact it with precision.
From the history of Sony (as provided in the case), all its previous CEOs have been introducing their operation models and business strategies, a fact that supports the aspects of classical concepts/theories indicated previously.
Critically discussing the feasibility of applying Porter’s diamond model on Sony’s case Notably, it is possible to apply the Porter’s diamond model on the Sony’s case following its viability and capability to discern the aspects of competitiveness that Sony strives to achieve. This is an important consideration in the business context and in the realms of business growth. According to Porter, a given firm’s competitiveness depends on the performance of other rival organizations in the same industry (Walker 2003, P. 177).
This is an important consideration since it also unveils why some industries are quite competitive compared to others in a similar region. The entire business prospects currently assumed by Sony conform to the principles of Porter’s diamond model when considered critically. It is important to revitalize the business operations of any given firm with respect to the business’ supremacy. Precisely, it is possible to apply the Porter’s principles in the Sony’s context with precision.
There are theories that determine how a company can become quite competitive in a given industry. Evidently, Sony has been a very competitive organization in its endeavors following the strong brand name it had established before. The quality of its products has equally contributed to this phenomenon despite the recent challenges. Applying the Potter’s model in this context can actually illuminate the entire business aspects of Sony in the realms of vitality and other considerable factors.
Potter’s ideologies are classifiable into various factors that can be applied in the assessment of a firm’s competitiveness. This is also relevant in the Sony’s case as indicated earlier. The first consideration is the demand conditions for the firm’s products or services (Potter 2010, P. 1).
Sony enjoys a massive demand for its products from clients globally. Its products are known all over the world having established a strong brand name. This has rendered the company quite competitive despite the stringent completion from LG and Samsung among other companies. Although its products have registered sluggish sales in the recent past, the company still enjoys a considerable demand for its products indicating how it is still quite competitive.
This is a considerable provision in the business contexts and global limelight (Walker 2003, P. 177). Frequently, buyers can induce a given company to introduce and embrace the aspects of new technologies in its systems, production capabilities, and products. This will allow the company to advance and enhance its competitiveness against other contenders in the same industry.
Contextually, when Sony had not introduced Bravia LCD TV sets, the market demanded them. Other companies like Samsung and LG had introduced such technologies.
When the company introduced the products, its competitiveness increased with Bravia registering massive sales globally. It is important to consider market demands and conform appropriately in order to gain the desired competitiveness and develop considerable competitive advantages. This demonstrates the possibility in establishing Porter’s diamond model on Sony’s case.
Another considerable component of the Potter’s model, which can be applied on the Sony’s context, is the factor conditions referring to human capitals, assets, infrastructures, and other vital resources that the organization possesses. Evidently, Sony has enough resources that it can utilize in the electronics industry to remain competitive and customer focused.
The ability to attain the required resources within an industry contributes considerably to the competitiveness indicated in such circumstances. This is an important provision when considered critically. Contextually, factor conditions are prominent determinants of competitiveness within a given firm. Sony has enough factor conditions that are helpful in its business endeavors as well as its prospected reforms.
Another important aspect in this context is the massive business capital that Sony possesses. The company can fund its research and development sectors in order to emerge with competitive commodities within the market. This is an important provision when considered critically especially in the business context. Actually, the aspects of resources make it possible to apply Porter’s diamond model on Sony’s case.
Concurrently, another determinant of competitiveness in this context is organization’s business strategies, its structures, and competition within the concerned industry (Potter 2010, P. 1). Contextually, Sony has formulated stringent business strategies meant to reform its operations with effectiveness. The proposed structure of the business will enhance its competitiveness in the realms of management, customer focus, ratification of technology, and profitability.
The organization strives to grasp a considerable market share despite the aspects of rivalry evident in the electronics industry. The way Sony was commenced and managed is a critical component of competitiveness discussed in this context. The initial objectives, missions, and vision of the company contribute massively to its competitiveness despite the challenges currently noticed in Sony.
According to Potter’s diamond model, another determinant applicable in the Sony’s context is the business eventualities or chance events. These are factors that the company can hardly control. Nonetheless, they can either augment a company’s competitiveness or contributes considerably to its loss.
For example, the recent global economic crisis affected numerous business with Sony included. In such a circumstance, Sony can do nothing but to adjust its business operations so as to remain competitive in the market. Additionally, the company can come with novel products at cheaper prices hence increasing its competitiveness within the market. Concurrently, supportive industries and government policies can dictate the competitiveness of a given firm (Walker 2003, P. 177).
Reference List Indul, P. 2010, Sony corporation-Restructuring Continues, problems remain, IBS Center for Management and Research, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Mazzucato, M. 2002, Strategy for business: a reader, SAGE, London, UK.
Potter, M. 2010, What is Michael Porter’s Diamond Model?. Web.
Walker, G. 2003, Modern competitive strategy, McGraw-Hill, Massachusetts, US.
An Economic and Business Analysis of Vodafone Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Economics refers to the study of the allocation of our limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants (Sivagnanam 2010). Economics helps professionals develop a disciplined method of thinking about problems. The application of Economics in problem solving does not always provide clear cut answers, but offers an avenue towards the correct course of action.
On the other hand, having some knowledge of market trends can help economists make informed decisions, including financial decisions (Sivagnanam 2010). In order to gain a deeper understanding of these concepts, this paper is going to give a detailed analysis of the business operations and economics of Vodafone.
The Business and the Competitive Environment Vodafone is the world’s largest mobile telecommunication company in terms of revenue, and it is headquartered in London (Hitt, Ireland,
The Management of Organization Culture Essay argumentative essay help
Introduction The term culture is regularly being discussed in workplaces. The discussion is in such a way that its meaning is presupposed. However, culture has been observed as one of the aspects of the organization that is essential in achieving high levels of effectiveness.
Though defining organization culture may be an easy task, it is marred with controversies about what constitutes an organization culture, whether organization culture can adequately be described, effectively be managed and what kind of management strategies are more likely to succeed (Smircich 1983, p.342).
More like the wider context of national culture, organization culture is seen as a set of norms, principles, beliefs and behavior that gives the organization its identity (Madu 2011, p.9). How these cultural elements are managed contributes to the organization success. Organization success is a situation whereby the organization stakeholders be it customers or employees are satisfied (Quinn
Final Paper Outline Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Read the assignment instructions for the Final Paper. Next, develop a formal outline for your Final Paper writing in full sentences (12 point font, Times New Roman font, double spaced). The outline must contain an introduction section with thesis statement, a body section that identifies the five conflict topics that you will use in your Final Paper and includes supporting material for each topic, and a conclusion section which reinforces the thesis statement established in the introduction. Be sure to include a bibliography with at least two of the sources that you will use for your Final Paper. Please make sure that the sources that you use are listed in the APA format.
Cite your sources in the outline and on the reference page. For information regarding APA samples and tutorials, visit the Writing Center (Links to an external site.).
Why does conflict occur?
The positive and negative effects of conflict
Role of personality types in conflict management
Outsourcing Popularity in Companies Case Study essay help
Outsourcing has become increasingly popular. One of the major concerns that firms have with outsourcing is the relationship between its core competencies and the task or activity being outsourced.
In the strategic focus group that deals with outsourcing, several concerns are raised regarding the negative effects of poor outsourcing decisions on a firm’s competitive advantage.
This means that the process of outsourcing should be done in an effective way in order to reap the benefits of outsourcing. In the first place, outsourcing refers to the act of identifying different parties and entrusting them with the functions of the company.
A separate firm is selected on grounds of its expertise and resource base. In this paper, three case studies on outsourcing will be considered and the rationale for outsourcing justified (Mintzberg, 2000).
Case Study One: The Reservation Call Centre for an Airline Airlines have myriads of activities that include preparing passengers for their respective destinations. This involves flight bookings and linking with passengers from other parts of the world.
This is accomplished through a reservation call centre. A call centre for an airline requires skills and resources as listed below.
List of Skills for a Reservation Call Centre’s Workers
Employees at the call centre must have excellent communication skills. They should be eloquent in many international and local languages.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They should also have an excellent command of information technology and specifically the skills and software used in call centres. At the same time, the employees should be knowledgeable in the management of databases for travellers and should have strong numerical skills.
People working in the call centres should have up to date information on the passengers’ destination including the weather and the general political condition (Porter, 2004).
Evaluation of the Outsourcing Situation
Airlines operate in many destinations found in different countries across the world. Taking care of the needs of potential passengers involves having a call centre in each destination with personnel equipped with skills mentioned above.
At the same time, airlines have to conduct strict supervision and on-job training in the call centres and incur the cost of setting up the machines and paying workers their benefits.
This means that outsourcing the services will be efficient and cheaper. At the same time, passengers will be able to access quality information if a call centre is handled by a qualified personnel.
Advice to the Airline
The airline in question should go ahead and outsource its call centre services because the process will be cheaper and efficient for its operations.
However, before outsourcing, the company should ensure good communication between its employees and the outsourcing firm because the workers are likely to thwart the process of outsourcing as it denies them job opportunities.
We will write a custom Case Study on Outsourcing Popularity in Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the same time, the airline should ensure that customers are not exploited by the outsourced firm (Porter, 2004).
Case study two: A Software Firm’s Helpline The software firm deals with the manufacture and sale of software programmes for various applications. The organisation needs a help desk for getting in touch with its customers and suppliers.
The customers of the firm could be local or international companies. The helpline should deal with complains involving installation and general trouble-shooting problems. The helpline can therefore be managed by few workers (Mintzberg, 2000).
List of skills for a Software Firm’s Helpline Employees
The employees in this case should have good communication skills. They should be knowledgeable in the programming language used in developing the software. At the same time, the employees should be knowledgeable about general trouble-shooting and installation procedures.
This means that the staff at the helpline should be a part of the technical team of the firm. On top of this, the staff at the firm’s help desk should be knowledgeable in taking orders based on the specifications provided by the customer.
Evaluation of the Situation
A helpline is an essential item in the running of the company. Through the helpline, the customers of an organisation are linked to the company and also helped in the process.
Through the helpline, customers are informed of the progress of their orders and assisted in troubleshooting. The skills required for the management of the helpline as seen from the first case are sourced from the workforce of the company.
Advice to the Software Company
The helpline for the software company is manageable and should not be outsourced. Outsourcing will be expensive because the helpline is not supposed to be offshore.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Outsourcing Popularity in Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At the same time, software architecture demands maintenance of contacts with the customers to provide information on the customisation procedures and necessary functions of the software.
At the same time, outsourcing may lead to the loss of customers as a result of poor customer care because the company involved may not be aware of the technical procedures used in the design of the software. This means that there should be no outsourcing (Hanson, Hitt, Ireland
The Golden Sands Hotel Report (Assessment) essay help
Current Situation The Golden Sands Hotel faces a serious difficulty in financial performance because of insufficient attention given to change management, as well as to the necessity of constant improvement.
The old-fashioned leadership and negligence of the managerial department with regard to constant training and development of personnel negatively contributed to successful financial performance of the hotel.
In addition to inability of hotel managers to encourage creativity and collaboration among their staff, they failed to address the problem of advertising and branding.
Poorly development networks of tourist attraction spots, as well as insufficient customer-oriented approach of service area does not provide a fruitful ground for the company.
The given situation can be worsen because leaders and managers of the hotel fail to practice current leadership models and transformation schemes for introducing change and encouraging the staff to offer innovation and technological advances to the present facilities of the building.
Finally, though commitment of the hotel to the old traditions is commendable, resistance to change will meet the strict demands of the global community.
Tourists are now more attracted by the fine services and recreation facilities of the highest quality, which has always been appraised. Therefore, a considerable shift should be mad to encourage the existing challenges.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More HR Actions with Regard to Recruitment and Retention of Appropriate Staff Reconstructions of the hotel should start with the changes introduced to the human resources management. The point is that the old-fashioned orientation of the hotel is explained by the inability of the staff to adapt to change and accept the modernization process occurred in the external environment.
Managers of the hotel should realize that new training courses and cultural diversity theories should be implemented for the employees to accommodate to a highly competitive environment.
Shift from service-oriented to customer-oriented approach is indispensible to increase the quality of services provided, as well as to enhance the hotel’s respectable image.
Development of new training programs should be oriented on developing new competencies and skills among the employees that would allow them to meet the constantly changing customers’ demands.
In addition, customers should be able to quickly adapt to changes, as well as learn new opportunities and options for improving the quality of the service within the hotel network.
Apart from effective retention strategies, HR managers should introduce a new basis for recruitment.
Though turnover should not exceed the accepted norms, integrating new personnel is necessary for reconstructing the culture of the hotel and producing more shifts and changes in accordance with the requirements of the global market.
We will write a custom Assessment on The Golden Sands Hotel specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Relationship of HR Department with Executive and Business Unit Managers The managerial department of the Golden Sands Hotel should be aware of the competition and the importance of constant change and innovation within the facilities network.
In this respect, the focus should be made on strict distribution of responsibilities. The distribution should be premised on the principles of solidarity, collaboration, and constant interaction.
Moreover, effective cooperation between business and executive departments is also necessary to provide HR unit with sufficient finance and support. Information and resources exchange is the key to the successful advancement of the hotel business.
In order to enhance the relationships of human resource manager with business unit, it is necessary to work programs oriented on financing training and educational programs encouraging employees to improve themselves, as well as to provide effective social schemes.
The Role of Management in Share Holder Wealth Creation Essay best essay help: best essay help
Introduction The main objective of doing business is to gain profits. This is what keeps firms in competition. The main beneficiaries of profits include shareholders, employees and the society.
There should be innovation and creativity. This is meant to ensure that a firm makes profits in the modern world of business that is characterised by stiff competition. Thus, the management not only serves to ensure profitability, but also promote growth and expansion.
When a firm identifies a new market, it produces a product that meets the needs of the market without replacing the existing product. This is what results in continued expansion and growth. Continued growth and expansion are a form of economic growth to the whole society.
Therefore, a firm should ensure that the societal needs are met as it achieves its profits. The profitability of a company is closely related to the positive impacts that it should generate in the community.
Therefore, the management should bear in mind that the growth and profitability of a company are a responsibility to the owners, shareholders and the community. This paper will discuss the role of management in achieving profits for owners and shareholders.
It will relate the benefits of these profits to employees, society and the general economic development of the nation. The management should also focus on the economic benefits expected by the rest of the stakeholders. This is meant to ensure that shareholders gain maximum profits.
Wealth Creation and Economic Development by Management The business objective of making profits has been integrated with other factors to discourage corporate greed that may be harmful to society. For instance, while a company focuses on making lots of profits, it should be ethical, obey the law, and exercise corporate social responsibility.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This way, the issue of wealth creation benefits shareholders as much as the other stakeholders (Bejou, 2011). Some organisations are known to exercise mechanistic social responsibility projects. These do not distinguish between the obligatory roles and those that are discretionary (Cosans, 2009).
This is evident in the way majority of the business rankings are interested in who made the most profits, how fast a certain organisation has grown, and who gives the executives the most pay. Such factors leave out the community and do not recognise the role that local communities play for companies to register big profits.
This is unfair given that it is the communities that provide markets, convenient locations, and a good environment for these businesses. A firm’s self interest should not override the corporate social responsibility.
Corporate social responsibility provides an opportunity for firms to work with the communities and make a difference in their lives. This can be achieved through exercising integrity, supporting human rights, and minding about the welfare of others in and out of the organisation.
Firms should be responsible for the impact of their operations on stakeholders. They should strive to ensure that their operations have a positive impact on the lives of those around them.
This provides equilibrium between the company’s goals and objectives and meeting the needs of the communities (Bejou, 2011).
Ireland (2003) stated that business growth and wealth creation are closely related. Growth is used by firms as a tool for creating wealth through building economies of skill and gaining market power.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Management in Share Holder Wealth Creation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When this happens, firms gain additional resources that translate to a competitive advantage. Similarly, increased wealth allows a firm to allocate more resources resulting to increased growth. This form of interdependence is critical to new market entrants who need to create wealth rapidly.
It calls for strategic management to ensure that firms do not overlook the importance of benefiting the community while creating wealth. Therefore, great emphasises should be put on creating customer value as a way of attracting a bigger market share.
Apart from developing superior products and adjusting market prices, a good reputation by the society can serve as a competitive advantage. This can be enhanced by developing good relations with communities, employees, suppliers and other stakeholders. When wealth creation focuses on the shareholders, it leads to bias.
This is because shareholders are just one of the stakeholders in the firm. Corporate governance that is solely interested on the shareholders is morally unjustified.
Moral responsibility should not be viewed as an obstacle towards rapid wealth creation. It should be a strategy of establishing good business relations that are profitable in the long run (Boatright, 2006).
Economic growth does not need to be large so as to be effective in the long term. Small scale growth over a short period can translate to economic gains that make a lot of difference to recipients. Such gains are highly observable in the long term, and it is impossible to ignore them.
For example, the US economy experienced a continuous economic growth rate of 1.8 per cent over a period of 130 years. This was between 1870 and 2000. This resulted in the growth of GDP from $3,340 to $33,330. Through this growth, the US population gained the best living standards, technology, infrastructure, health care, and a good life.
Similarly, in an organisational setting, small positive gains in profits can result to impressive economic growth in the long run. Therefore, managers should strategise for the plans and decisions that will earn the organisation income continuously. Wealth creation should be a long term goal that can be achieved by creating value in the business.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Management in Share Holder Wealth Creation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Management should focus on the strategies that add value to the firm. Traditionally, it was believed that growth came as a result of accumulated capital, productivity in labor and an effective macro economic management. Today, this has changed, and firms are now focusing on innovation and creativity to stay ahead of competitors.
Working closely with customers and communities as stakeholders is a strategy of creating value for the products. If customers see the value that the organisation brings into their lives, they are likely to develop interest in the organisation.
Such benefits include employment opportunities, projects that improve their social skills and products that improve the quality of their lives (Ahlstrom, 2010).
Corporate Social Responsibility Shaw (2009) identified the main aim of doing business as profit making. However, this requires a human touch on the business goals to ensure that a firm does not overlook the societal needs while concentrating on profit generation.
The value that a society attaches to an organisation is not entirely based on the products. In this case, it also depends on the way the organisation relates with the communities. Corporate social responsibility should be included in the company’s vision and mission. It should be reflected in the business culture, strategies and daily operations.
The main objective of corporate social responsibility is to improve the society’s quality of life by reducing or eliminating suffering. Communities suffer from poverty, in adequate security, pollution and even health related issues.
When a firm is incorporating the needs of the society in its goals, it should also consider that its activities do not bring more suffering (Husted
Impact of Internal and external environmental factors on business Essay essay help online
Internal and external environmental factors have almost equally relevant impact on any business. Marketers hold to the view that external environment influences the general performance of an organization whilst internal environment only impact on a few departments, this could be the case with Orangin Juice Squeezer.
Companies that specialize with product creation are in most cases affected with external environment. As an organization that deals specifically with orange juice squeezer, Orangin has to relate its decisions and operation systems to the external environment (Barrow, Barrow
Generic Business Level Strategies to Gain a Competitive Advantage Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Generic business policies entail the views that competitive advantage depends on, in pursuit of a coherent and viable scheme. Competitive advantage underscores the advantage that a business has over its competitors, by ensuring that customers get better value for their money.
Business leaders responsible for establishing and managing business-level strategies face challenges in identifying the key capabilities in the varied business departments, and assembling them together in a manner that enhances competitive advantage.
This paper aims at using three articles in describing how organisations establish generic business strategies to enhance their competitive advantage. This paper then analyses the three articles in relevance to the situation of Ecowash Mobile.
Gutterman (2007), Walters (2012), and Gallagher (2008) effectively outline the three generic business-level strategies that would help an organisation enhance its competitive advantage.
Gallagher identifies three generic strategies, which are employed by organisations to enhance their competitive advantages. These strategies are cost leadership, differentiation, and focus.
In his article, he posits that the overall cost leadership entails the business striving at becoming the leader in manufacturing and distributing products at the lowest cost.
Gallagher’s article uses case studies from numerous renowned companies, which employ the strategies, thus reinforcing their usefulness in understanding generic business-level strategies. For instance, Gallagher affirms how in 1980, Michael Porter popularised generic strategies (Gallagher 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gallagher describes generic business level policies that give a firm competitive advantage. Similarly, Ecowash Mobile uses these generic business level policies, which have given the company successful operation.
Two companies might be in the same widely classified industry, for example, retail clothing, but choose to compete in dissimilar domains that are characterised by particular target client groups (Gutterman 2007).
Gutterman states that, to achieve competitive advantage, a company has to cut down on operations cost, enhance organisational efficiency, manage labour costs, and do away with marginal consumer accounts.
Gutterman uses the term segmentation strategy to refer to focus. This generic strategy entails concentrating on a certain market segment, product line, or market niche. It helps an organisation serve a small segment efficiently.
Gutterman’s article also clearly describes the three generic strategies thus helping the learner understand the role of each strategy in enhancing competitive advantage. Gutterman identifies the business level strategies of McDonald and Amazon companies that give them competitive advantage.
Like the Ecowash Mobile, these companies execute each strategy firmly and circumspectly through a thorough progression applied all through their franchise system allowing them to control the excellence of the experience that clients have whenever served by the companies.
According to Walters, differentiation entails position the organisation’s brand in a unique manner relative to those of competitors. It involves making consumers develop the notion that ones products are unique.
We will write a custom Essay on Generic Business Level Strategies to Gain a Competitive Advantage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is achieved through advertisement or changing product features. It is hard for one to understand a topic area without relevant examples and explanations. By including well-elaborated examples and case studies, this article helps one understand the topic area effectively.
In this article, Porter explains how companies could gain competitive advantage in at least two approaches: operational efficiency (doing similar activities like competitors although doing them better), as well as tactical positioning, (performing things in a different way and bringing unique value for clients) (Walters 2012).
While citing examples like the case between Nike and Adidas companies, Walters illustrates how generic competitive policies offer a competitive advantage to companies. Similarly, Ecowash Mobile employs generic competitive policies like participation in a range of charity occasions and promotional actions to achieve competitive advantage (Grant, Buttler,
The Affordable Health care Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Thesis statement
The problems it addresses
Effectiveness of the Act
The most affected group
Future of the legislation
Thesis statement The responsibility of every country under local and international law to provide adequate and affordable health care has been implemented and enforced through a variety of policies and regulations.
One such legislation is the Affordable Health care for America Act which seeks to standardise the minimum health care standards that every citizen must subscribe to (Hulse and Pear 2009).
I will analyse this Act in its merits as a solution to affordable health care and a compromise between the interests of health care providers and the beneficiaries of the health services. I will also evaluate its shortcomings in light of the prevailing health care problems and concerns.
The problems it addresses The Affordable Health care for America Act which will herein after be referred to as the act was formulated to respond to the rising health concerns in the health care industry especially among low income earning population.
The number of non elderly uninsured whose income is below the federal poverty level is to the tune of 18.6 percent of the total elderly population. Among the working population at least thirty percent of each of the income levels remains uninsured.
This statistic brings the total number of uninsured citizens to nearly 45 million which accounts for at least 15 percent of the total population. 25 % of the uninsured citizens are children therefore at least 12 million American children are uninsured.
Subsequently the annual death toll associated with the lack of an insurance cover is at least 18 000 Americans. This is greatly contributed by the high cost of health insurance alongside other socio-political and economic challenges (Stanton et al 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem is expected to become worse with the emergence of new technology and methods of treatment which are more expensive and therefore requiring higher insurance costs.
The implications of these costs on the employers will be to engage cost cutting measures that will be reflected in withdraw benefits to employees while others will be forced to terminate such benefits to shift the burden to the employee entirely.
Among those without insurance there has been a great level of discrimination between Americans of different origins with the highest number being Hispanic Americans and the least being Caucasian Americans.
Further at least 70 % of citizens who file for bankruptcy had some form of health insurance and as a result of high medical bills individuals incomes are exploited to bankruptcy (Mitchell et al 2001).
The Act also seeks to solve the problem of lack of a universal comprehensive health care Act that brings on board all citizens. It goes further to try and address the rigidity of a government based Medicare Act that limits the choice of the citizens in regards to insurance providers.
The enforcement of a purely employer based Act has also limited the job opportunities of citizens who fear losing their cover if they leave certain jobs.
It also looks into the administrative nightmares that citizens incur when they fall sick and have endless procedures before they can claim from their providers or go through endless approval checks before they can receive medical care.
We will write a custom Essay on The Affordable Health care specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Act also seeks to address the deteriorating nature of health services that the citizens receive. It makes an attempt at laying emphasis on better relations between patients, physicians and hospitals alike (Fisher et al 2003).
Finally it looks into the manner in which the implementation of such a bold Act will take place. Reform requires huge financial backing therefore the Act must have a self sustaining strategy to ensure its success.
History The search for a health care act that is affordable dates back to 2009. This was when the act was proposed for the first time to the House of Representatives as a principal legislative proposal. This was in a forum for health reform debate in the 11th congress referred to as the “House Bill”.
It however did not see the light of day in its original form but rather as an alternative Act, The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2009 (Marmor, Oberlander
Visiting Ghana, Africa Research Paper essay help online free
Visiting Ghana, Africa, people from the Western world as well as people from other parts of the world different from Africa should conduct a thorough research to get to know much about the country peculiarity.
Ghana, Africa is not a country with some differences it is absolutely different nation with other principles of living, customs, traditions and other peculiarities which are to be familiar for tourists not feel comfortable in another country on the one hand, and to remain safe there, what is more important aspect, on the other hand.
Family and other social relations in the country are important. Another aspect which is going to be discussed is customs and the related issues.
Ghana, Africa has many peculiarities in communication. Tourists should know some information about historic and political issues to make sure that they do not appear in a complicated situation due to ignorance.
Going to Ghana, it is important to understand family traditions in the country, the role of women and the role of the aged people. The place of women in African society in general and in Ghana in particular is rather difficult.
Women are politically, socially, and economically oppressed (Mason, 1990). Women in Ghana do not have access to the information which is available for men. Women are oppressed in the questions of education and leading position at the workplace.
One of the main reasons for such behavior is the absence of the female leader who is strong enough to confront to men and to become the encouraging and pushing factor for combating for equal rights of men and women.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Women have to work twice longer than men. It is important to mention that about 60% of agricultural products are made by women, however, none of them possess personal land (Mitter,
Zara Business External Factors Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
General Economic Conditions Zara retail clothing chain was the leading global apparels retailer in 2011 following continual growth over the years. The clothing industry is competitive and subject to dynamic consumer tastes, changing spending trends as well as economic and trade requirements. Economic conditions affect the spending patterns of consumers.
For the past three years, the global economy slumped. Slow growth in economy did not affect the continued increase in sales for Zara in the past four years. Zara has recorded an impressive 10% growth in sales on average since 2008. However, the economic situation continues to improve. In particular, there is notable recovery in the United States where Zara has expanded in both online and store presence. In Europe, the prospects of growth are guarded because of the recent tightening of regulations and fiscal policies.
On the brighter side, the debt crisis has eased in countries such as Greece and Spain. The emerging markets for Zara and associated brands (e.g. Brazil, Japan and China) have had relatively stable economies. This makes the company’s strategic online and store presence in those countries worthwhile as the company heads to 2012. Improving economic conditions may increase growth in the overall apparel industry, reduce uncertainties and open new markets (Tokatli 2008).
Technology Internet and globalization are crucial to a current business. Zara’s store presence goes hand in hand with its online presence. This drives its flexible business model of fitting the right fashion to the right people at the right time affordably. Zara introduced 17 new online markets in 2011. 2012 is already promising to be successful. Inditex, Zara’s parent company, introduced e-shopping to 18 new countries in Europe alongside United States and Japan.
With store sales remaining relatively unchanged at an average of 25% across all major markets, online presence has experienced tremendous growth. However, connectivity has brought a major lifestyle revolution the world over. Hence, Zara is even more cautious on trends in regional and global markets. This shows that the overall industry needs to be aware of the benefits that technology brings in line with the continued uptake in many countries. It is a new route for more revenue generation, trend evaluation and growth (Tokatli 2008).
Societal Values and Lifestyles Different societies have different values and lifestyles (Tokatli 2008). Zara takes this as a challenge by giving the right people the right fashion. However, affordability, trend, durability and functionality form the basis for Zara’s products. Additionally, globalized and highly connected world has brought major changes in lifestyles.
This diversity affects employment, operations and sales. During the British Royal wedding, for example, Kate Middleton wore a Zara dress for her honeymoon. A day later, Pippa was spotted wearing a Zara dress. This propelled Zara sales globally and particularly in Britain. In 2011, Brazil launched investigations against Zara for possible violations of international labor regulations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Because of outsourcing, Zara got involved in a scandal where a London newspaper claimed Zara subcontractors were employing underage employees and keeping them in bad conditions. Zara has also been mentioned adversely in situations involving poor payment to workers. The industry needs to evaluate its affiliations along the entire supply chain to reduce embarrassing instances. Additionally, the industry should asses the different lifestyles to enable calculated strategic responses.
Key Success Factors Strategy Elements
Generally, Zara has a flexible business model. It develops affordable clothes in a timely manner. Its production cycle is fast (around three weeks) and customized. Zara was the trailblazer in ‘fast fashion’. Products are updated twice in a week. This makes its response to trends quite fast.
The company gauges the tastes and preferences of customers carefully to ensure competitiveness and to avert excess inventory. Online transition at Zara is spot-on. This is in line with globalization and internet uptake world over. It is new frontier for competition in the near future.
The strict code of conduct that guides companies that Inditex outsources garments manufacturing to is a strategic move in ensuring both ethical and quality adherence. Additionally, Zara streamlines its supply chain to ensure that products reach customers at the right time. This has increased funds from operations by an average 12% since 2008. Strategic management is vital to the success of a business. A business that loses its strategic focus fails hence the need to look into the main strategic elements at Zara.
The most outstanding feature about Zara is the company’s ability to understand the customer’s preferences, tastes and dynamics. This explains its online transition, flexible and fast business model and product attributes. Additionally, Zara strives to make its supply chain stable. This compliments its ‘fast fashion’ model which ensures that products reach the customers soon enough. This gives it competitive advantage over competitors such as Gap.
After transitioning to e-shopping, gap experienced steady growth. However, its earnings declined for the first time since 2006. Though Zara does not emphasize too much on brand building, it enjoys stronger brand success than competitors because it ensures big names use its brands. Competitive capabilities inform a firm’s strategic focus and competitive dimension. It is imperative for a company to be fully aware of its capabilities in order to shape its market focus (Tokatli 2008).
Reference Tokatli, N. (2008). Global Sourcing: Insights from the Global Clothing Industry-The Case of Zara, a Fast Fashion Retailer. Journal of Economic Geography, 8.2: 21–38. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/joeg/article-abstract/8/1/21/910523?redirectedFrom=PDF
We will write a custom Case Study on Zara Business External Factors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Netherlands’ Flower Paintings in 17th Century Essay best college essay help
Still life paintings were common in Netherlands in 17th century. Artists made these paintings with specific intentions and objectives. Dutch people have loved flowers since time in memorial. Artist took an initiative to represent various flowers in paintings. Flowers were in a sub-genre of still life which was highly regarded and well paid in Middleburg, Amsterdam and Utrecht cities in Netherlands. This encouraged them to make aesthetically attractive paintings.
According to Haak and Willems-Treeman (1984), artists depicted flowers in impossible arrangements to strengthen attraction to people who viewed them. The main reason for making these depictions in Amsterdam and other Dutch cities was to provide a cheaper way of having flowers in people’s homes.
The Dutch valued flowers so much and only the rich could afford banquets. Ordinary people were forced to buy depictions rather than real ones. Artists painted the pictures to look as real as possible. Various flowers were meant to represent certain believe held by residence of Dutch republic. Some flowers represented religious believes while others represented feelings.
We are all expected to make judgments on these pictures. Like other sub-genres of still life paintings, flower depictions had moralistic messages. However, some messages would not stand the test of time. Most of the paintings were for religious purposes. For example, the Madonna lily was used to represent Virgin Mary because of its unique features.
The white iris represented Virgin Mary’s purity, while the rose was a sign of her love. We can as well judge the artists for just depicting what was expected of them by people instead of expanding their own ideas (Haak
The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention Expository Essay college essay help online
Introduction The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) explains that “each year, traumatic brain injuries contribute a substantial number of deaths and cases of permanent disability” (p. 1). There is a myriad of factors that cause traumatic brain injuries (TBI) but the main causes are violence and road traffic accidents.
These incidents usually cause anatomical and physiological changes in brain functions thereby causing permanent or temporary changes to the mental system (which may manifest in lifestyle and behavioural changes).
Annually, about 21,000 people are treated in Australia for TBI while cases attributed to road accidents are estimated to be about 33% of this population (Rushworth, 2008).
The cumulative healthcare cost for the treatment and specialised care of TBI patients is estimated to be about $180 million (Brain Injury Australia, 2010).
By any standard, such figures are high and there is a need to improve the efficiency of treatment and specialised care plans to reduce the health burden that TBI patients have on the Australian healthcare system.
From this background, this paper analyses the influences of socio-cultural and psychological factors on patient recovery of TBI.
Traumatic Brain injuries after Accidents for Young Adults in Australia This paper has already established that traumatic brain injuries are often caused by road accidents or violence. In Australia, about two-thirds of the total patient population admitted to be suffering from severe or extreme forms of TBI are usually victims of road accidents.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Violence and falls constitute the second most probable cause of TBI-related complications. Majority of patients admitted because of TBI related complications are usually young adults aged from 15 years to 25 years (some researchers and medical journals explain that the incidence of TBI among young adults stretch to males aged up to 35 years) (Khan, 2003).
The incidence of TBI among young adults is explained to be higher within the male gender because of their high probability to take dangerous risks. The male to female ratio for patients admitted with TBI-related complications in Australia is reported at 4:1 (conservative estimates put this ratio at 3:1) (Khan, 2003).
However, such statistics are also true for other regions apart from Australia. Most of the patients admitted usually suffer from short-term loss of memory, and “life-long impairments in physical, cognitive, behavioural and social functions” (Khan, 2003, p. 1). At worst, these patients die.
Factors Influencing the Recovery of TBI Patients Socio-cultural factors
Some of the most common socio-cultural factors influencing the recovery of TBI patients centre on the role of family and friends in the healing process, education and prevention programs, how the patients cope with their new “condition” when returning to work and the economic impact that TBI have on patients.
Families and Friends
Like most long-term illnesses, the recovery process for TBI patients is often influenced by socio-cultural factors such as the input of family and friends. Probably, the most notable contribution of family and friends in a patient’s recovery process is the emotional stability of the patients.
Patients with a strong family support are confirmed to be more emotionally stable and suffer a low probability of experiencing depression (Julie et al., 2009).
However, family and friend support during TBI patient recovery process is usually complicated by ignorance and misunderstandings which are often caused by a poor understanding of the behavioural impact that TBI has on its victims (Classen et al., 2009).
We will write a custom Essay on The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Essentially, patients suffering from TBI exhibit poor behavioural and antisocial tendencies which may annoy family and friends (thereby creating rift between them). Such an eventuality only worsens the healing process for such patients because they lose the critical family and friend support needed for healing.
It is therefore important to prepare family and friends for any anti-social behaviour that may be exhibited by the patients so that they continue to support the patient throughout the recovery process.
Returning to Work
Patients who have suffered from traumatic brain injuries are usually required to resume their normal duties (which often require them to go to work). Some patients usually struggle to resume their normal work duties because their basic bodily functions have not returned to their full potential.
Notably, patients who have suffered from disability experience many difficulties when resuming their normal duties but researchers such as William et al. (2006) point out that the skill-levels of patients is usually the main cause of patient performance at work.
Here, unqualified people tend to experience more difficulties returning to work while qualified people tend to have an easier time at this. Occasionally, the ease of difficulty in returning to work has an impact on the patient’s recovery process because the patient’s level of happiness is affected in the process.
Patients who experience relative ease in returning to work are happier at the process than patients who have trouble at work. Happier patients tend to have a faster recovery process than unhappy patients (Sol Ibarra-Rovillard and Kuiper, 2011).
Earlier sections of this study show that Australia’s healthcare burden is partly caused by the high treatment and rehabilitation costs for patients with TBI.
Indeed, patients who have suffered from TBI experience huge healthcare bills which stretch from the primary treatment process into the late stages of a patient’s life. Unfortunately, these healthcare costs rise by the day and the economic implication of long-term treatment for TBI patients is significantly high.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nationally, Australia incurs in-excess of $184 million in treatment and rehabilitation processes for patients suffering from TBI-related complications (Harrison, Henley and Helps, 2008).
Education and Prevention Programs
Doctor NDTV Team (2009) explains that “prevention is better than cure” (p. 1). This is the main philosophy informing the introduction of education and prevention programs for the prevention of TBI.
Indeed, many social organisations and institutions have embarked on serious education and prevention programs to prevent the occurrence of TBI in Australia (by educating young people on the dangers of road accidents, high speed driving and drunken driving).
Even young adults who have been licensed to drive are among the target audience because they constitute the main patient population for TBI (Menon et al., 2010). In the education and prevention programs, young people are encouraged to wear seat belts and helmets (for motorcycles) to prevent the severity of TBI injuries when accidents occur.
Different countries have different structures for designing their prevention and education programs but some of the most notable proposals made to improve the effectiveness of these programs are to ensure driving licence renewal is subject to a thorough health analysis, and a frequent approval process.
In Australia, such proposals have been voiced and high levels of efficacy in establishing education and prevention programs for TBI have been realised (Maria, 2008).
The most notable psychosocial factors influencing the recovery of TBI patients include substance abuse, depression, aggression and the lack of self control. They are discussed below
Depression, Aggression and Lack of Self-Control
Depression, aggression and the lack of self control manifest symptoms of patients who have suffered from TBI. Aggression and self control may be caused by depression but the lack of self control is usually a manifestation of the behavioural changes which victims of TBI exhibit (Silver et al., 2009).
Researchers have always affirmed that depression, aggression and the lack of self control may cause a slow-down in the healing process and therefore, it is important for patients to be supported by healthcare providers and their families so that they do not fall victim to any of these symptoms (Khan, 2003).
Substance abuse often has a negative impact on the psychological development of patients. Patients suffering from TBI are not different because researchers such as Fary, Ian and Ian (2003) explain that substance abuse may lead to death.
In the context of this study, alcohol abuse stands out as a conspicuous issue in TBI incidences because it is estimated that majority of all road traffic accidents are usually caused by alcohol abuse. In fact, global statistics show that about 30%-80% of all TBI road accidents are caused by drunken driving (Khan, 2003).
It is from such statistics that this paper highlights the importance of prevention and education programs which are aimed at sensitising the youth against drunken driving. Earlier sections of this paper show that such programs have been carried out in Australia.
Conclusion After weighing the findings of this paper, there is a strong indication that TBI stands out as a major health problem in Australia.
Its importance is especially manifested by its high incidence among Australia’s most youthful and productive population who contribute immensely to the nation’s development (Shukla, Devi and Agrawal, 2011).
There is therefore an urgent need to adopt sound treatment and rehabilitation processes to help TBI patients have a quick recovery. This paper highlights the importance of socio-cultural and psychological support to achieve this objective.
Such support structures are especially important in helping patients recover from extreme TBI but more importantly, it enables patients to exhibit normal behaviours and exude normalcy throughout their healing process.
There are several ways that this objective can be achieved but this paper highlights the importance of good communication between patients and family members to improve their emotional stability and ultimately positively influence the patient’s recovery process.
To avoid some of the economic implications for treating TBI cases, this paper highlights the importance of prevention and education programs as a way to reduce the high incidence of TBI cases in Australia.
Psychosocial factors are also highlighted in this paper as possible influences in a patient’s recovery process from TBI but most importantly; this paper draws more attention to the influence of alcohol abuse as a prime cause for road accidents, leading to TBI.
Ultimately, it is important to embrace positive psychosocial and socio-cultural influences to improve patient recovery of TBI but in the same light, it is important to avoid negative psychosocial and socio-cultural influences that inhibit the same.
References Brain Injury Australia. (2010). Annual report 2010. Web.
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012).Traumatic Brain Injury. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/
Classen, S. S., Levy, C. C., McCarthy, D. D., Mann, W. C., Lanford, D. D.,
Linde Corporation Performance Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents The company industry
Linde Company’s structure
The Linde Group is an international corporation which has been in business for very many decades or even over a century since its establishment in 1880s. The organization has therefore got a very strong historic background build upon its business operations and closely related business deals1.
As a global organization, the company has grown and expanded over the years, thus becoming one of the famous and most admired organization, both by consumers and prospective investors interested in investing within the company’s industry.
The company occupies the eighth position in the recent Fortune’s ranking of companies, based on the company’s power to attract both clients and investors. On the side of other ranking factors of consideration such global competiveness and financial soundness, the organization falls under the top ten best performing organizations (The Linde Group).
In short, the Linde Corporation is a recognized as a world’s leading chemical and engineering organization. It engages mainly in the production of gases and other industrial chemical besides offering a range of engineering services. The organization is viewed to have its business segmented into three categories, namely: gases segment, engineering and logistic services, of which its core business operations are set around the first two segments mentioned above.
The Gases segment takes the largest portion of the company’s business operations, and its products and services are supplied in the regions of Europe, America, Asia and the developing countries of Africa. The Supply and distribution of the company’s products and service from the other segments mostly shares similar distribution pattern to the one of its core segment2.
By the end of the year 2011, the organization had employed a workforce approximately to over 50, 000 employees to undertake the various company’s duties and responsibilities necessary for the realization of its business goals and mission. The employees are located in hundred plus states, where they have their daily and/or annual duties allocated (The Linde Group).
Depending the kind and nature of products and services offered by the organization, Linde Corporation has a number of other companies which it works and relates together in its business operation. Some of the organizations which are linked together with it come from the same sector of industrial category, while others are far from its core industry foundation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organization provides basic raw materials to most of its closest competitors, mainly chemicals products. It provides the far and non-competitor companies with products for consumption, hence, most organizations in the food processing and healthcare industries supports the organization’s business through the consumption of their products and services.
The focus on broad and diversified business operations have contributed to the advancement and development of the organization on a yearly basis. In 2010 fiscal year, the organization recorded approximately 12.8 billion from sales (Bloomberg). This was an increase from the previous year’s recorded figure of 2009. The trend on sales increment are been kept within the organization with similar high sales figure being realized in the year 2011.
The company industry From the assessment of the business nature of Linde’s Company, the organization does not belong to a particular industrial category. It may therefore be evaluated through range of organizations belong to different industrial classification. The organization may precisely be placed under the group of integrated industries (Neely, 68).
Limiting the broad business nature of the organization to chemical and engineering industry, the company’s closest competitors include Air Products
Human Resource Bundles Expository Essay college application essay help
The relationship between organizational performance and human resource management (HRM) practices has been discussed and examined by scholars and business administrators. It is believed that the ability to motivate, train or empower workers can give a company a competitive advantage over other firms.
One of the issues that are often studied is the impact of the so-called human resource bundles on the business outcomes, namely productivity, profitability or retention of workers.
In this case, the term bundles can be understood as a set of aligned and interrelated practices and strategies that are supposed to bring mutually enforcing effects on organizational performance (Ahmad
Objectivity is impossible in journalism, especially in the face of atrocity and on a subject one is passionate about Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Challenges of striving for objectivity
Virtues of objectivity
Introduction Reputable journalists around the world desire to disseminate news in an unprejudiced manner. They focus on furnishing the public with information about local or international occurrences through minimal personal interference.
While the virtue, of reaching this goal is reasonable, the feasibility of attaining it is another matter altogether.
Challenges of striving for objectivity It is possible for people to experience the same reality, but their understanding of the same depends on their perception (Brooks 2006). A microwave may seem like an indispensable device to a restaurant owner, but the same item may be perceived as a box or an awkward piece of furniture by a bushman in the Kalahari Desert.
Alternatively, a person’s definition of intelligence may depend on that person’s cultural inclinations. Education, norms, and biases filter what people perceive in their worlds. It is these filters that cause people to have different religious standpoints, gender identities, personalities or economic opinions.
For instance, a group of people may witness a mob lynching in a part of town. A lawyer may talk about the possibility of a lawsuit by the concerned assailant; a politician may consider strengthening the city’s security laws; a clergyman may talk about God’s role in sparing the victim from death.
All these perceptions stem from old information that the viewers used to understand the new information. Since people subjectively construct the world, then even journalists perceive events against this backdrop.
Methods or platforms used to convey information are quite unsteady in the field. Journalists need to use words in order to convey information, yet words can mean different things to different people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the statement “Mergina is an exotic location bursting with native energy” could mean different things to different people. Does the word exotic refer to something bizarre or is or just another way of demonstrating that the location is exciting and different?
If it is different, then the author should specify his reference point. Native energy may be translated negatively by the people of Mergina who may assume that the term connotes primitivism. Therefore, journalists may intend on conveying factual information, but their choice of words and interpretations could betray them.
Even the sheer notion of doing conflict war zone reporting brings the matter of objectivity into question. An employer cannot force a journalist to enter a war zone unless the correspondent consciously chooses to do so.
This means that he or she must feel strongly enough about a certain story to put himself or herself in danger. At that point, the journalist will compromise on objectivity because he or she is passionate about the matter.
Reportage requires detachment, but this is close to impossible to achieve when journalists already feel so strongly about something.
When engaging in journalistic work, stakeholders must make numerous decisions on news reporting. They must decide on occurrences that qualify as news.
Not every event (religious meeting, violent interaction, political episode, and economic matter) that happens will make the news because editors often determine which ones journalists will report.
We will write a custom Essay on Objectivity is impossible in journalism, especially in the face of atrocity and on a subject one is passionate about specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although most editors have a lot of experience in the industry, this only proves that journalism pegs on experience as a filter of the newsmaker’s world. Reporters and journalists may dedicate a lot of time and effort towards to the collection of valuable information on conflict.
However, their efforts may be thwarted by media houses if they are not politically correct. For instance in the UK, some natives attacked and beat up Iranian girls for wearing Hijabs.
No local media outlets reported the incident, yet the matter received extensive coverage in Iranian media houses. It was the decisions of higher powers in those stations that determined what they transmitted. Numerous media houses tend to reflect the ideological preferences of their editors.
Although many of them try to show the other side of the story, the vast majority will endorse their superior’s ideologies. Journalists do not exist in a vacuum; they are part of their society and will often implement the perspectives embraced by established powers, political or government leaders (Jones 2009).
Aside from the decision process, even the process of reporting the news is quite difficult to perform for those individuals who have the responsibility to do so. Besides the choice of words that journalists select, the images they convey can also alter perceptions.
On television, cameras may zoom in on ten demonstrators and make them look like a large crowd. Alternatively, cameras may take aerial shots of a large crowd and make it appear as though it was a minor dispute.
Even the order in which news reports occur can determine viewers’ or readers’ interpretations. The amount of time dedicated to a story will determine how people will think of it. The reader’s tone of voice or facial expression may also change the way the public perceives the matter.
Journalists are quite human; they can get fully engaged in the conflicts or issues that they are covering if the issues affect them. When a reporter visits a missionary – operated orphanage, where children can only get food when they become Christians, then the journalist will most likely deplore that behaviour.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Objectivity is impossible in journalism, especially in the face of atrocity and on a subject one is passionate about by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Alternatively, if terrorists kidnap a correspondent in a conflict zone, then this can dramatically alter the individual’s opinion of the terrorists. Even the general experience of war causes many reporters to become empathetic about torture victims.
They may be prompted to condemn the atrocities that they witness, and this may undermine their ability to objective. A correspondent who faithfully records violent behaviour without criticizing it will be an upstanding journalist but not a decent person.
Dispassionate reports often yield dispassionate reactions from the public. Readers, listeners and viewers often respond to passionate and genuine stories. If journalists stick to news items, without showing their human side, then they may elicit negative responses from the public.
Emotions are what make people human, so audiences do not expect journalists to eliminate this aspect from their work. Furthermore, sometimes certain atrocities are so blatant that it comes naturally to take a stance against them.
If a journalist tries to use words such as alleged when the violent acts are so obvious, then the individual may fall into the trap of false objectivity. Sometimes a middle-ground approach may not be tenable.
Virtues of objectivity Numerous external parties may interfere in journalistic activities. Perhaps the most notorious ones are politicians. If journalists did not care about objectivity, then they would be reduced to political puppets.
In the government, loyalty to one’s group is more valuable than allegiance to the truth. A member of parliament would need to consult and support members of his party in order to get any piece of legislation passed. However, undesirable results would occur if journalists did the same thing.
Some governments have reduced media houses into propaganda platforms. If journalists in those countries committed to objectivity, then they would perpetuate the truth, even when this meant betraying their governments.
A case in point was the Nanking Massacre of China. This was an atrocity that occurred at the city of Nanking in 1938. The conflict involved the killing, rape, arson and torture of Chinese people by Japanese soldiers. About 300,000 casualties arose from the war with most of the victims being civilians or unarmed Chinese soldiers.
The Japanese combatants raped women and forced them to commit acts of incest. They looted their property and left them with nothing. When stakeholders revisited the matter in the 2000s, some Japanese politicians, such as Mayor Kawamura of Nagoya, Governor Ishihara of Tokyo and Japanese LDP party members, claimed that the Massacre never occurred.
Others who acknowledge its existence have tried to play down the magnitude of the atrocities. Journalists who report these events have also fallen victim to the above sentiments owing to the need to obey authority. If they stayed committed to objectivity, then they would have focused on both sides of the conflict.
They would have discussed the varied interpretations of the matter and the need for apology from the Japanese government. As such, their biased journalists have fanned Chinese-Japan mistrust and general relations (Gallichio 2007).
Members of the media industry also have the unique challenge of handling stereotypes. Human beings tend to focus on facts that confirm stereotypes and ignore the ones that contradict them.
Objectivity in journalism is essential in order to reduce this preference for stereotypes. Therefore, the possibility of staying objective can be considered in this industry.
Journalists reporting about violence, conflict, or atrocities have several reasons to strive for objectivity; therefore, this illustrates that there is a possibility for existence of objectivity. First, atrocities rarely occur in isolation; this means that every conflict has a context that led to the culmination of violent behaviour.
A warring society may have undergone decades of polarisation and unresolved issues; it may possess structural issues that perpetuated the violence. Issues such as government neglect, military oppression, and poverty should receive just as much attention as the personal atrocities committed by individuals.
Journalists who strive for objectivity would not just focus on irrational aspects of atrocities; they would also explain the factors behind the violent behaviour. It is necessary to suspend judgements when making these calls, no matter how divergent the issue is from one’s worldview.
A journalist who endeavours to become objective will not just concern himself with issues that support his perspective; he will try as much as possible to look at all the facts.
De-contextualisation of violence necessitates working towards objectivity. Conflicts or wars are usually quite complex. It is easy for journalists to fall into the trap of dualism.
Here, they may reduce the stakeholders in the conflict to just two individuals, yet other external parties such as multinationals may also play a role. For instance, international journalists reported the 1994 Rwandan atrocities as a conflict between the Hutus and Tutsis.
While the latter groups were the majority stakeholders, the UN, US, Belgian and French forces also contributed to the conflict. Furthermore, journalists downplayed their role in ending the conflict. If reporters at the time strove for objectivity, then they would not have ignored the role of these external players in the genocide.
Alternatively, when reporting about conflicts it is easy to present the most outstanding or dramatic aspects. Reporters may make violence seem like the only option, yet this is not always true.
Journalists ought to strive for objectivity by refraining for Manichaeism; a term that refers to the process of demonising one group and regarding the other one as chaste. No conflict is ever black and white; that is why journalists need to note all the negotiations that may occur in a conflict.
Furthermore, ceasefires may not always signify peace. If escalation occurs in a war, then journalists must explain the causes of the occurrence. Alternatively, if journalists ignore the views of the bereaved in news reports, then the public may not understand why an escalation or act of revenge occurred.
When reconciliation takes place, journalists have the power to perpetuate healing by showing images of resolution. In order for all these positive outcomes to occur, then journalists working in such environments need to strive for objectivity. Reporters who strive for this objective should exercise self control.
They need to suppress their own emotions in order to get to the truth. This means that they ought to embrace the possibility of being a little dull. Outright attacks against certain prominent figures may attract readers’ attention, but they do not necessarily indicate that the matter is true.
Most attacks tend to exaggerate the vices of an individual while ignoring the person’s strengths. Journalists should process all the information they have collected and put it in one coherent pattern (Holber
Recruitment and selection strategies for coffee shop Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction The following is a discussion on the best recruitment strategies that a coffee shop business will use to bring the best employees into the enterprise. The first part looks into the strategy of recruiting the employees and discusses why the method was chosen.
It then looks into the best communication method to reach the best applicants and attract them to apply for selection. The third part looks into the selection process where it describes the best criterion for selecting coffee shop employees.
In the other part, there are proposals on methods of assessment for selecting candidates to hold various positions in accordance with strategies used in staffing.
Recruitment strategies There are two types of recruitment strategies namely external recruitment strategy and internal recruitment. The external recruitment strategy is the process in which an organization prefers to pick employees from outside the organization.
The internal recruitment on the other hand is a process that focuses on getting employees who are within the organization. It is less costly as the organization does not need to spend on advertising.
On the other hand, external recruitment strategy involves advertising the vacancies to people who are outside the organization and inviting them to join the organization. For the coffee shop, the best recruitment strategy will be external strategy for a number of reasons.
The first reason is that the external recruitment will give the business an opportunity to choose the best from a pool of potential employees. It will also be advantageous because it will discover new talents, ideas and experience, which may not exist currently in the business since it is new (Boam, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Communication message to attract applicants to the open positions After determining the recruitment strategy, which in this case is external recruitment, the business managers must formulate messages that will reach the potential applicants and attract them to apply for the available positions in the coffee shop.
The communication message must attract attention of the potential applicants and persuade them that the coffee shop has the best employment opportunity. The communication message is imperative as it determines whether the organization gets the best team for the work opportunities.
Applicants who have experience in particular areas are very careful on the messages communicated by the prospective employees and they can check the messages to determine whether they are authentic or meant to hoax them.
To get the best employees, the organization must focus on communicating the vision and the mission of the business to the potential applicants. This informs the potential employees of the values that the business has and prepares them to align themselves with the business mission and goals.
A business that does not have values and mission does not brand. They determine what the outsiders think about the business. Is it customer oriented? Is it profit driven? Communicating such messages is imperative in building the business and ensuring that it is successful (Mayo, 2001).
When designing the message to communicate to the potential employees it is imperative to communicate the roles and responsibilities that the applicant or the employee will play in the achievement of the stated mission and vision.
Providing the details of the available job opportunities such as job description and job profiles attracts potential employees who have the capability to perform such roles. It is also important to communicate the qualifications needed for one to be considered capable of performing the responsibilities indicated in the job profile.
We will write a custom Essay on Recruitment and selection strategies for coffee shop specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also important to include the benefits that the job opportunity will offer to the successful applicants. Listing the remuneration offered for each of the available opportunities is imperative in attracting potential employees who may be interested in the job opportunities (Bratton, 2007).
Communication medium for the recruitment effort The communication medium to use to reach out to the potential employees will be the websites or online communication. This will involve placing targeted adverts on various websites that are accessed by people who are looking for jobs or people who are interested in hotel industry.
This communication method involves posting job vacancies on the company websites or other websites so that the interested candidates may apply for the vacancies. This method is cost effective as the posting can remain for one or two months for little amount of money.
It is cheap compared to advertizing in newspapers or organizing job fairs. However, the recruitment process is tedious as the website is likely to have too many applications and sorting them out may be difficult (Boam, 2006).
Selection process you will use for staffing the coffee shop While employee recruitment process encourages the potential employees to apply for the job the selection process is the process of eliminating potential employees who are not qualified for the job. Its aim is to ensure that the organization gets the best talent possible. Various organizations use different criteria to select the candidate for the job (Bunting, 2007).
The coffee shop business will use the written tests as the selection criterion for the best employees to include in the organization. The candidates do aptitude tests to test their basic knowledge and competence in the field, which they are applying.
In this case, applicant’s knowledge on hotel industry will be tested alongside the experience and basic knowledge on business operations of a coffee shop. This method is advantageous because it assesses the employee’s knowledge and experience.
It is also advantageous because it saves time and resources (Bunting, 2007). However, it is disadvantages because while it tests the employee’s knowledge and experience it does not show passion that the employee has for the business (Bratton, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Recruitment and selection strategies for coffee shop by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Methods of assessment The assessment will use three criteria. The first assessment relates to the academic qualifications as part of the assessment criteria. The second assessment criterion relates to the experience, where it will involve selecting the employees based on their experience.
The third assessment criterion deals with the passion that the employee has for the business. This is imperative, as it will determine whether the employees will be passionate for business (Bratton, 2007).
Conclusion The recruitment strategy brings in the employees that the business is looking for and this ensures that only strong skills are considered for the positions. Besides the skills, the strategy used in selection also looks into the experience and the passion the prospective employee has for the organization.
If the business wants new talents and skills like the coffee shop, external recruitment strategy is appropriate. The selection strategy adopted by an organization is vital in ensuring that the organization acquires the necessary skills. The selection criterion determines the people employed and their contribution to the success of the organization.
References Boam, R. (2006). Contemporary human resource management: Text and cases. New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Bratton, J. (2007). Human resource management: Theory and practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bunting, M. (2007). Skills, training and human resource development: A critical Tex. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mayo, A. (2001). Human value of the enterprise, valuing people as assets, monitoring, measuring, and managing. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishers.
Organizational Monitoring of Societal Demands Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How organizations monitor social demands
How Organizations manage their social response mechanisms
Discussion and Conclusion
Introduction Organizations exist in an environment that is constantly changing. They therefore have to adapt themselves accordingly in order to survive.
One way in which they can achieve this is by changing their culture so that it is relevant to the environment within which they operate. Over the last few decades, many organizations have recognized the need to align their interests with those of the society.
This has been caused by the increased importance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CRS). CRS is a concept that obliges organizations treat all their stakeholders in a manner that is both ethically and socially sound.
Emphasis on Corporate Social Responsibility has given European companies a competitive edge over the American multinationals that have for decades dominated the global market (Ariel
Marketing Concepts- Apple Inc. And Samsung Report essay help: essay help
Executive Summary The marketing concepts employed by Apple Inc. and Samsung are evident and considerable. They have helped both companies remain competitive in the market and enhance their competitive advantages in the electronics industry. Marketing concepts refers to how organizations analyze, understand, and meet the needs of their respective customers (Pride
Lord of the Fries Proposal writing essay help
The fast food restaurant industry is experiencing unprecedented growth globally. Fast foods include pizza, burger, chicken, sandwiches, fish and chips and various fatty ethnic foods.
The rising popularity of fast food restaurants is due to their ability to prepare delicious meals within a short time (Smith, 2007). However, most foods in fast food restaurants are not healthy.
People’s improved health awareness necessitates fast food restaurants to introduce more healthy foods in their menus. Lord of the Fries is one of the fast food restaurants that have adopted this strategy successfully. Mark Koronczyk, Sam Koronczyk, and Amanda Leigh Walker established Lord of the Fries in 2004.
Lord of the Fries restaurants are gaining increased popularity in Melbourne and other Australian cities. Increased popularity of Lord of the Fries restaurants necessitates it to venture into international markets to fuel its growth (Dempster, 2010).
Lord of the Fries should venture into the UK fast food market. The UK fast food market is one of the largest markets in Europe. The UK fast food market is twice the size of German fast food market, and thrice the size of the French fast food market (Humphries, 2005).
The UK fast food market is growing rapidly as the younger generation are embracing fast foods (Carter, 2004). Therefore, successful entry into the UK market would enable Lord of the Fries reap huge financial rewards.
To ensure successful entry into the UK fast food industry, Lord of the Fries should collaborate with Pret a Manger, one of the leading sandwich retail chains in the UK (Aaker, 2011). Jefrey Hyman established Pret a Manger in 1984.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company opened its first shop in Hampstead, London. However, its current headquarters is in the City of Westminster, London. Pret a Manger has more than 200 chain stores in the UK. The company also has several stores in New York, Chicago, Washington, DC, and Hong Kong (Dimant et al, 2011).
Most operations of the company are in London, where the company has over 70% of its restaurants. Some of the meals in Pret a Manger’s restaurants include sandwiches, soups, coffee, salads, and various deserts (Gifford et al, 2007).
Pret a Manger targets the high-price-high-quality segment of the fast food market. The company targets urban professionals who have little spare time and are willing to pay more to access high quality meals within a short time.
Therefore, Pret a Manger gives special emphasis to the speed of preparation and quality of its meals. Customers spend an average of 90 seconds from the time they enter the Pret a Manger restaurants, to the time they leave after receiving their meals.
Pret a Manger offers a mix of expensive and cheap products in its menu. This helps in satisfying the heterogeneous needs of its heterogeneous clientele (Dimant et al, 2011).
One unique feature of Pret a Manger is the fact that it does not advertise its products. Pret a Manger relies on word of mouth advertisements by its customers. This saves the company huge finances that it would have used in advertisement.
However, for this strategy to work effectively, Pret a Manger strives to satisfy the needs of its existing customers, as retaining existing customers is much cheaper than attracting new customers (Dimant et al, 2011).
We will write a custom Proposal on Lord of the Fries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pret a Manger also strives to meet the needs of its employees to enable them offer high quality services. In fact, Pret a Manger is one of the best companies to work for in the UK (Daft, 2007)
The ideals of Pret a Manger and those of Lord of the Fries are almost similar. Lord of the Fries also gives special emphasis to the quality of meals and services in its restaurants. The company gives special emphasis on the nutritional value of its meals.
The high quality of meals in Lord of the Fries restaurants has led to the increased popularity of the restaurants in Melbourne and other cities, despite the company not engaging in extensive advertising campaigns. Lord of the Fries relies on word of mouth advertising by its loyal customers.
In addition, Lord of the Fries and Pret a Manger target the same market segment. Both companies target young professionals who are willing to pay a little more to access high quality meals quickly.
Lord of the Fries would collaborate with Pret a Manger by forming a joint venture. Lord of the fries would engage in making delicious healthy fries and vegies, which are popular among the restaurant’s customers, whereas Pret a Manger would make sandwiches, soups, and salads.
The joint venture would satisfy the needs of customers who want to access meals quickly and those who would like to spend more time in the restaurants while taking their meals.
For the ultimate success of the joint venture, it is critical to develop a marketing plan. The internet, company records, and personal interviews with employees of the companies will provide vital data for conducting the research.
The internet will be the major source of data for Pret a Manger, whereas a combination of internet of internet sources, company records, and personal interviews with employees of Lord of the Fries would provide data for the marketing plan of the joint venture.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Lord of the Fries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The total time for compiling data for the marketing plan of the joint venture would be three weeks.
References Aaker, D.A. (2011). Brand relevance: making competitors irrelevant. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley
The Neglect of the Elderly Essay essay help
Elderly neglect is an overlooked problem in the society (McAlpine, 2008).When people get old, they may not think, see and hear as they used to. These weaknesses create room for immoral people to exploit them.
Therefore, elderly abuse by family members and other caregivers exists in frequencies and rates slightly lower than child abuse (Quinn and Tomita, 1997). This makes it one of the most common forms of domestic abuse.
Although governments and other agencies have taken great strides toward ending this ungodly act, more should be done to eradicate or lower cases involved. According to McAlpine (2008), spotting victims and providing timely interventions are some of the measures aimed at curbing elderly neglect.
Additionally, there should be mandatory training and recognition of caregivers and professionals working in this area (McAlpine, 2008). Stiffer penalties should also be imposed on caregivers who fail to meet their obligations. This essay gives an insight into the neglect of the elderly.
Latest statistics show that tens of thousands of elderly people face abuse by people trusted with their care (Helpguide.org, n.d.). Helpguide.org (n.d.) also reaffirms that more than half a million cases of elderly abuse reach the authorities yearly in the USA alone.
Surprisingly, millions of other cases go unreported. Elderly neglect makes up more than half of these cases (Helpguide.org, n.d.). In this context, elderly neglect is the failure of caregivers to discharge their responsibility appropriately (helpguide.com, n.d.).
This can be from the failure to provide the elderly with basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. In most cases, the affected elders are distressed. For that reason, psychological disturbances are the main symptoms of elderly neglect.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More International agencies and governments have devised a number of initiatives to curb and create awareness on elderly neglect. For instance, there is a world elderly abuse awareness day celebrated annually. Therefore, it is true that majority of elderly people are not completely neglected.
However, more effort should be directed towards the few caregivers who still practice the vice. This can be done by a number of ways. Firstly, victims should be spotted early enough and timely interventions provided (McAlpine, 2008).
Secondly, mandatory training should be given to caregivers and professionals working in this area (McAlpine, 2008). Thirdly, caregivers and other people working with the elderly should be given proper recognition to boost their morale. Lastly, stiffer penalties must be imposed to deter people from abusing and neglecting these fragile people (McAlpine, 2008).
In conclusion, it is agreeable that people take no notice of elderly neglect in most cases. However, elderly neglect is a serious and deeply rooted issue in our society. Additionally, only child abuse occurs in rates and frequencies higher than elderly neglect (Quinn and Tomita, 1997).
This makes it one of the most recurrent forms of domestic abuse. Furthermore, governments and other agencies have taken bold steps towards ending this shameful act. Nonetheless, more should be done to minimize cases involved.
Spotting victims and providing timely interventions are some of the ways of restraining elderly neglect (McAlpine, 2008). McAlpine (2008) also adds that mandatory training and recognition of caregivers and professionals working with the elderly can alleviate the vice too.
Giving offenders stiffer penalties can also deter people from abusing the elderly. Eventually, these interventions will result into more years for the elderly on the earth.
We will write a custom Essay on The Neglect of the Elderly specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Helpguide.com. (n.d.). Elder abuse and neglect: warning signs, risk factors, prevention, and help. Web.
McAlpine, C. H. (2008). Elder abuse and neglect. Oxford Journals, 37(2), 132-133. Web.
Quinn, M. J.,
Implementation of a Diversity Management Strategy in the Workplace Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Schneider Electric in Paris
Introduction Diversity management is an organizational program developed and designed voluntarily. It ensures that there is more inclusion of all individuals into both the formal and informal organizational programs.
Kellogg Company The age, gender, race, and ethnicity, and language of employees is pre-determined, the organization can have no control over these criteria. This company has found the need to transform the human resource system due to the dynamic labor force.
At the same time, this company is undergoing major changes in the nature of employment relationships. The management of this organization has realized the importance of increasing diversity in the workforce.
This company has moved away from the traditional human resource systems that were largely designed for a harmonized workforce.
The organization is undergoing challenges regarding the integration and design of some specific human resource policies such as selection and compensation, in support of the implementation of a diversity management strategy in the workplace.
Experts from diverse policy areas have come together to develop views on the significance of diversity in the workplace. This company and some other companies have been trying to improve the inclusiveness of minority employees in the workplace.
This has been achieved through positive efforts by the organizational management to improve the diversity of employees in the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Diversity is also crucial in the top management team. This will determine the extent to which top management is heterogeneous with respect to the employees.
According to research, there is a significant distinction among the different kinds of diversity. Qualitative data from four different organizations indicate that the understanding of diversity is based on how the socio-demographic differences of employees affect the performance of the company.
The socio-demographic can either contribute to or hamper the performance of the organization. These understandings of diversity shape the companies approach to diversity management.
Schneider Electric in Paris According to Schneider Electric in Paris, diversity management is the range of managerial practices that promote the career development of the minority groups. Many companies including Schneider Electric in Paris run diversity programs for minority groups.
These programs are aimed at improving recruitment, employment, retention and promotion of employees from the minority groups. These companies have also changed the ethos of the organization in relation to the diversity of the workforce.
This organization faces a paradoxical situation. If the company shuns diversity, it risk losing it competitive advantage; on the other hand, if they embrace diversity, they may experience work place conflicts. This calls for the company to weigh keenly the advantages and disadvantages of diversity.
This organization has experienced diversity as a source of innovation and creativity. Diversity has provided a basis for competitive advantage. Diversity has also been a cause of suspicion, conflict, and misunderstanding.
We will write a custom Essay on Implementation of a Diversity Management Strategy in the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has a hampering effect on the general performance of the organization. This is because the employees experience low morale and thus there are many cases of absenteeism, and poor work quality. This leads to a loss of company competitiveness.
These organizations have achieved positive results as a result of the diversity management. Diversity management in these organizations has increased the problem solving capabilities of these organizations.
As a result, diversity management has helped to increase the range of diverse customer base in the organization. This has played a significant role in improving the creativity of the workforce.
References Kellog’s. (n.d) Diversity Strategy. Web.
Schneider Electric. (n.d). Managing diversity in the workplace: competitive advantages for companies. Retrived from https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/observatories/emcc/articles/managing-diversity-in-the-workplace-competitive-advantages-for-companies
Evaluation Report: Theories of Occupational Health and Safety Report custom essay help
Executive Summary The issue of occupational health and safety covers a wide array of factors that influence the health and personal safety conditions in the workplace. The theories that form the basis for consideration of the issues of the La_Camera Restaurant include the classic deterrence model, the responsive regulation model, and behavior reasoning theory.
The methodology used in the paper included the application of these theories in the situation at La_Camera to determine the theoretical impact of their application and the potential to improve operations.
The recommendations offered for La_Camera include the use of more positive methods of enforcing occupational health policies, reduction in the use of the punitive measures, and the implementation of the measures to mitigate not just safety risks, but also health risks affecting the employees.
Introduction Framework for the Report
The issue of occupational health and safety is a wide body of knowledge that deals with safety in the workplace. Employees have a right to work in a safe environment that guarantees their personal safety and health.1 The focus on occupational health and safety is not just accidents that occur in the workplace.2
It also includes diseases that people get when they are at work, depending on the working conditions. Working conditions can cause health deterioration among workers, apart from workplace injuries. This report focuses on occupational health in the context of the La_Camera Restaurant. A previous examination of the operations of the restaurant showed that there were some theoretical possibilities to improve the occupational safety and health practices.
The report identified various ways that the restaurant could use to improve its work. The original report looked at the three theories, and it examined one in detail. The purpose of this work is to look at different ways of implementing this theory in the context of the La_Camera Restaurant.
The three theories that formed the backbone of the previous report were the classic deterrence model, the responsive regulation model, and the behavior reasoning theory.3 The classic deterrence model states that the best way to reduce accidents in a workplace is to deter people from committing the accidents by implementing the punitive measures.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The responsive regulation model sought to bring in the positive motivation aspect in it by creating rewards for people who were reported to take occupational health and safety risks. The third theory, the behavior reasoning theory, assumes that people act based on certain reasons hence if the employees get good reasons to observe high standards of safety in their workplaces, then there is a good chance that they will uphold the required standards.
These three models informed the study of the application of occupational health at the restaurant. In addition to these, there was an effort to investigate the operations of the restaurant, in order to determine how well the models applied work in the restaurant.
This involved the examination of the relationship between the restaurant waiters and the managers to determine whether they were predisposed to better occupational health and safety operations.
In addition, the report looked at some of the policies relating to the sources of injury and risk that seemed to have an influence on the practice of occupational health and safety. The other issues that informed the study included the role of regulators and clients at the restaurant.
This exercise will look at the theories afresh in order to identify clearer strategies of their implementation. Without invalidating the classic deterrence model, this work will focus more on the other two theories. The reason for this is that the scope of the responsive regulation model covers the implications of the classical deterrence model, hence there is no need to revisit the implications of the theory in detail.4
On the other hand, the behavior reasoning theory forms an important viewpoint to help in understanding the responsive regulation theory. This makes it important as a part of this detailed analysis of the implications of these theories in the La_Camera Restaurant.
The second element of the method applied for this study is that there will be another look at the relationships between the staff of the La_Camera Restaurant to create a concise picture of the occupational health and safety issues in the restaurant. The final element of the methodology is the comparison of the occupational health and safety practices at the restaurant with other establishments to identify the lessons that the La_Camera Restaurant can adopt.
We will write a custom Report on Evaluation Report: Theories of Occupational Health and Safety specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discussion Research Findings
The findings of the previous research fall into three major categories, along in line with the three theories. Under the classical deterrence model, it was clear that there were measures instituted at the café to ensure that the members of staff found it easier to conform to safety standards than to risk to have the penalties of violation.
For instance, the restaurant charges broken cutlery to the waiters responsible for that, hence it is in the interest of every waiter to keep the utensils from breaking. One of the unintended consequences of this policy is that when no one witnesses the breaking of the utensils, then no one owns up to the loss because of the penalties imposed on the offender.
Secondly, the responsive regulation model was not in full use at the restaurant. There were no clear incentives for the staff to participate willingly in the development and implementation of the occupational health and safety standards. The attractiveness of this model came from the fact that while it allowed people to interact freely, it alienated the leadership, making it difficult for the staff members to volunteer information.
Thirdly, there is sufficient verification for the behavior reasoning theory because of the occupational health and safety theories at work at the La_Camera. It is not difficult to find reasons for each of the prevalent attitudes towards reporting incidents that have an influence on occupational health and safety.5 The fact that the policies of the company tend to punish employees that enhance risk factors makes it unattractive for them to report such incidences.
Despite the problems with the manner in which the restaurant approaches occupation health and safety issues, it is nonetheless clear that the restaurant puts a premium on safety issues. Its policies actually came up to protect the employees and the customers that patronize the restaurant.
The existence of the strict codes still makes it a safe environment to work. The only issue with it is the negative notions that the codes seem to evoke among staff caused by the safety procedures. Another strong point of the system is the fact that it allocates responsibility of addressing the risk factors in a logical way, having a clear chain of command.
It is the responsibility of the staff member responsible for spillages, breakages, and minor personal accidents to deal with the cause immediately. The responsibility moves upwards to the supervisors and then the managers. This feature of the occupational health and safety procedures makes it very easy to stop any further risk to the rest of the staff members.
Analysis of Findings
The findings are consistent with the predictions of the theories of occupation health. It is true that many organizations tend to use negative motivation to address health and safety issues in the workplace. The reasons for doing this vary, but they seem to make sense. However, the best practices in occupational health and safety seem to be counter intuitive.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Evaluation Report: Theories of Occupational Health and Safety by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead of seeking to keep things safe by using threats, it is better to use encouraging methods because people respond better to encouragement rather than punishment. This does not mean that there should be no recourse for negligence or willful actions likely to threaten the safety of the workplace.
It means there must be a system that encourages the reporting and documentation of the occurrence of the safety risk factors in order to control them. One of the approaches is to give a monetary reward to employees with good safety records, or to base performance pay on safety activities.
It can also include having rewards for employees that come up with ideas that can help improve the safety of the place as they aid in identifying risk factors that the restaurant does not formally recognize. Another option is to put up some kind of reward for the safest shift to encourage teamwork in the area of occupational health and safety.
One of the best practices at the La_ Camera is that there is a very clear chain of command when it comes to occupational health and safety. The restaurant reporting lines also serve as the chain of responsibility when it comes to the assessment and elimination of safety factors. This clarity helps a lot in cases of emergencies and enforcement of policies. It is the best practice recognized in occupational health and safety field.
As it is common in many workplaces, there is too much focus on the safety of the employees and patrons at the restaurant, and very little focus on the health concerns that come about in the course of duty.
The research showed that many organizations tend to focus on safety and completely ignore the health component mainly because health issues are more difficult to detect and relate to the workplace. The La_Camera does not have clear protocols or policies relating to the health the workers especially concerning the health problems that activities at work can cause.
On the one hand, there are strict regulations that govern the entire hospitality industry relating to communicable diseases because of the risk of spreading them to clients.6 However, there is very little attention to the health risks the staff faces on a daily basis. For instance, chefs spend a lot of their time in smoky and humid conditions as they prepare dishes. Waiters do not have many options when it comes to serving smoking clients in the sections of the restaurant for smokers.
Examples of Application of Occupational Health and Safety Theories
A study on occupational safety showed that one of the most prevalent health complications that are the results of workplace injuries all over the world is the musculoskeletal disorder.7 This is an injury of the muscles, tendons, and nerves. The leading cause of these disorders is poor ergonomics.8
The working conditions require the repeated use of certain body parts that experience inordinate strain over time. Some industries have more risk of these injuries as compared to others. However, virtually all workplaces have factors that predispose workers to these conditions. The risk factors are not very severe in the hospitality industry, but some aspects of working there can result in health deterioration of the workers.
Waiters and chefs tend to spend many hours running their feet off moving about the kitchen and the restaurant hall. In addition, waiters carry several pounds of weight on each trip, either carrying food to the customers, or bringing back used utensils. These actions, continued for many years, can cause severe back pain. In addition, if the waiters and chefs use inappropriate shoes, than it can cause or aggravate lower back pain.
This case shows that there is a need to enforce certain working conditions such as the length of a shift and the weight that a serving tray should not exceed. This is easier to implement by limiting the size of the tray used by the waiters. In addition, the restaurants should determine the best type of shoes adapted to work for long hours for both waiters and chefs. This measure will result in less strain during working hours and lesser risk of absenteeism from work.
To illustrate the application of the responsive regulation model, there are documented evidences of cases when workers developed terminal lung disease because of working in a popcorn-processing factory.9 Occupation health practitioners related the disease to a particular chemical used to line popcorn flavoring.
he chemical, diacetyl, is one of the known causes of bronchiolitis obliterans, a rare and poorly documented lung ailment. This chemical caused death of a number of employees who worked for Jasper Popcorn Company by inducing brochiolitis obliterans. At the time the employees became ill, it was not yet clear that it was the cause of infection.
The chemical occurs naturally in milk and vegetables in trace quantities. Hence, it did not seem to present any serious risk to the employees. Jasper Popcorn company decided to increase the quantities that were used to line its popcorns because it improved the butter taste in popcorns. Upon identification of the chemical as a possible cause of lung disease, there was little intervention from the authorities because there were no procedures to deal with the issue.
It took litigation efforts to bring the issue to public attention precipitating redemptive actions. In this sense, the lack of procedures to deal with unforeseen consequences in occupational health led to the unsatisfactory management of the diacetyl problem, which ended up causing the death of many employees in the popcorn industry.
The lessons for the La-Camera Restaurant from this situation is that there is a risk of causing harm to employees provided there are no procedures for dealing with the issues. It should encourage the restaurant to take its time to develop procedures that take into account the health of the employees in the workplace.
The third occupational health case study is the place of occupational health in the construction sector.10 This sector is one with the highest safety risks, and normally requires the use of various safety measures.11 The focus of construction on safety comes from the fact that the industry has many risks associated with the safety of the workers. Workers face risks from falling objects, machinery, heavy lifting, and related physical processes.
This greatly reduces attention to the health risks that come with construction. In addition, construction projects do not last long enough for the full impact of the health risks associated with the work to manifest. This situation illustrates the need to focus on responsive regulation for such conditions. The La-Camera Restaurant should be careful to take into consideration both safety and health concerns of the employees.
Conclusions and Evaluation Summary of Findings
In conclusion, the practical application of the responsive regulation works better that the single application of classic deterrence model in occupational health. Using deterrence alone makes people develop resistance to the process, and it requires a constant input of pressure to make the process effective.
Responsive regulation is central to the effective implementation of occupational health measures because of its capacity to develop both deterrent and encouragement measures. Secondly, there is a necessity to make up a balance of health and safety measures that an organization puts in place to deal with its occupational health and safety concerns.
Overemphasizing one at the expense of the other can lead to unfavorable long-term consequences. Focus on health alone would cause casualties in the area of safety. Lack of safety can be fatal in a very short time. However, lack of measures to protect the health of employees can lead to long-term consequences threatening business continuity.
The third theory evaluated in the exercise, the behavior reasoning model, relies on reasons as the basis for action in occupational health. It assumes that everything people do comes from a reason or a combination of reasons. Therefore, it seeks to provide people with the reasons they need to practice effective occupational health and safety standards.
Its impact is not unique apart from the other theories. Therefore, its impacts fully lay within the purview of the responsive regulation framework. In this sense, it is useful as a supporting theory, but is not an essential theory in the development of an effective occupational safety and health framework.
In relation to the La_Camera Restaurant, there is an opportunity for it to improve its occupational health and safety operations by using the responsive regulation model. In particular, the restaurant needs to explore more ways of encouraging the staff to observe high health and safety standards without the undue fear of reprimand. This will create a positive working atmosphere and a less acrimonious place to work.
Evaluation of the Research Process
The process used in this research had two main thrusts. First, there was the development of a theoretical framework to examine the occupational health practices at the La_Camera, and then there was a process to determine the application of these theories to identify loopholes and opportunities for improving the current implementation platform.
The process relied on the theories to develop ideas to be used at the restaurant. The recommendations made from the theories make it clear that the use of theories can help develop useful models for planning the application of occupational health and safety strategies. This approach integrates theoretical development of concepts with their practical application in the field of occupational health and safety.
Reference List Bluff,E, N Gunningham,
Evaluation Report for Ped’s Kafe Report college essay help online: college essay help online
Executive Summary This paper relates to the examination of research findings on Peds Kafe’s application of communication theories. The report found out that there are opportunities for Ped’s Kafe to increase its customer base by using social media as an avenue for communication with its clients.
The recommendations offered to Ped’s Kafe based on the information integration theory and the uncertainty reduction theory is to determine the appropriate level of involvement in social media either as a predictive practitioner, a creative experimenter or as a social media champion. These options have an increasing commitment to social media participation
Introduction Framework for the Report
The need to integrate day-to-day experiences into learning is becoming more important with the rapid changes affecting the world of information. More and more, people find it impossible to take time to reflect on the information they get simply because of the rate at which research reports reach end users.
The internet is working to remove all barriers of information exchange.1 It is possible to deliver a book to all parts of the world in a matter of seconds. The basis of this report is to provide the opportunity to give a greater amount of reflection on the issues uncovered in a previous research on the application of communication theories. The research focused on the theories of communication and sought to uncover the application of these theories at Ped’s Kafe in Australia.
The cafe is a not a large establishment. Is has a small number of staff members. The application of the theories focused on the interaction among the staff, and the interaction between the staff and the café’s clients. It is the objective of this report to investigate the findings of the report further to derive both academic and practical conclusions. This report will also use external sources to illustrate any assertions, and to confirm any of the conclusions it develops.
The report that this work evaluates focused on communication theories and their use in the workplace. The report looked at various theories relating to communication, which fell within the broader framework of the research question.
While more than seventy theories relating to communication appeared in the course of research, only a handful of the theories were relevant and significant enough for inclusion in the final report.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theories included the information theory, the attribution theory, groupthink theory, information integration theory, and the uncertainty reduction theory.2 These theories formed a consistent body of theories for use in the evaluation of the communication processes at Ped’s Kafe.
This report will focus more on how to actualize the potential benefits that accrue from the insights gleaned from the theories. Studying theories apart from real life application at best makes the process an academic venture. Industry requires people who have both the theoretical understanding of their profession, but also the skill to translate it to practical applications. Ped’s Kafe will once more provide the basis over which to apply the theories.
In order to determine the benefits that the theories can bring to Ped’s Kafe, it will be important to start the exercise by examining the research findings of the paper under review. The focus of the exercise will be the identification of critical theoretical findings and practical implications of these findings for Ped’s Kafe.
This process will give way to an analysis of those findings to clarify further the benefits identified in the first report. The result of this exercise will be to clarify the findings of the report for Peds Kafe. Appropriate evidence from other scholars will come in handy to support the findings.
There will be an attempt to develop a prioritized method of implementing the recommendations. The final process will be identifying relevant examples of the operation of strategies based on the theories discussed. This should provide Ped’s Kafe with operational models of the theories at work. The objective of the exercise will be to clarify that the theories have value and that their application in real life situations can yield certain benefits.3
Discussion Research Findings
The major findings made from the research carried out earlier included the identification of five interrelated communication theories. The information theory deals with the fact that all types of communication suffer from noise. Noise is anything that affects the effectiveness of the communication process by reducing the clarity of the message.4
The attribution theory postulates that people tend to draw inferences relating to other peoples character based on how their communication style. It explains the numerous instances of people developing attitudes towards other people based on their communication style.
We will write a custom Report on Evaluation Report for Ped’s Kafe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third theory, groupthink, explains the tendency of closed groups to look at problems from the same direction and to have a high degree of agreement over issues.5 The group members tend to look at disagreement as dissent, hence the high level of agreement.
Last two theories are the information integration theory and the uncertainty reduction theory. Information integration theory came from observations that people tend to make decisions based on the sum total of the information they receive about an issue. This means that decision-making is not necessarily an objective process, but is the result of exposure to evidence.
Whichever evidence occurs more often tends to win the day. Uncertainty reduction theory states that people seek to reduce uncertainty during decision making by gathering more information about the issue. There is a certain amount of information required to break the uncertainty threshold.
The findings related to Ped’s Kafe included the fact that Ped’s Kafe uses the telephone and the internet as the main means of external communication with suppliers and for social media interaction.
The main recipients of communication from Ped’s Kafe are target clients via social media platforms, and business suppliers via email and telephone. Internal communication processes at Ped’s Kafe involve the staff, supervisors, and the restaurant manager. Arguably, the most critical communication occurs at the café’s floor when the waiters interact with the clients.
The opportunities for improvement at Ped’s Kafe identified in the report included the need to encourage staff to speak up regardless of how well their views conform with the rest to avoid the dangers associated to groupthink. Secondly, Ped’s Kafe has the opportunity to strengthen its marketing efforts by utilizing social media and internet marketing opportunities.
The thinking behind this proposal came from the realization that if there is sufficient positive press on Ped’s Kafe on appropriate online platforms, then Ped’s Kafe can improve its market share. Based on attribution theory, it is important for the staff at Ped’s Kafe to treat all customers equally based on a polite disposition because of the risk of making character judgments on customers that may influence service provision negatively.
Analysis of Findings
The goal of this paper is to examine the findings more closely to determine the workability of the theories in the areas identified in the previous research. In particular, there is need to examine the need for the application of the information integration theory and the uncertainty reduction theory in the context of social media and electronic communication to improve the customer base of Ped’s Kafe.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Evaluation Report for Ped’s Kafe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ped’s Kafe positions itself as a middle class restaurant aiming to serve professionals from nearby commercial facilities affordably in order to retain them as long-term clients. Serving the target market calls for the preparation of good quality yet affordable food. The clientele is sensitive to hygiene and service standards, and while they cannot afford to pay premium prices on a regular basis, they still would like access to such services occasionally.
Young professionals in the area, like the rest of the country, are avid social media users.6 They use social media to communicate ideas, to share jokes, to plan events and even for personal messaging. They find messages on social media platforms light and informal hence it is a welcome relief from the rigidity and official aura of email.
Ped’s Kafe needs a communication strategy that will take into account these demographic characteristics. The design of the message should portray Ped’s Kafe as a professional yet informal establishment. The target market should perceive Ped’s Kafe as a place to relax and eat. Since young professionals are sensitive to price, appropriate pricing must be part of the message.
The use of social media in this case refers to the use of Facebook and Tweeter. They are the most popular social media outlets used by young professionals who form part of the target market. Peds Kafe will need to open and maintain the content of the social media pages current.
The relevant information includes choice menus, special price offers, and house specials among others. The objective of the social media strategy will be to ensure that there is good press about Ped’s Kafe. The other reason for it is that social media will allow the clients to respond to any offers made there, and there is a good chance that they will leave a review of the services offered at the café.
On the other hand, there is need to ensure that the communication that goes out to clients and suppliers remains official in tone, and that it remains brief. The reason for this is that people get too many messages on any single day hence if Ped’s café sends very long messages, then the recipients will ignore the messages.
Examples of Application of Communication Theories in Social Media
The use of social media to place appropriate information about an organization is quite widespread. Many businesses, non-profits, and charitable organizations use social media outlets to reach their stakeholders in a relaxed atmosphere that allows for unfiltered feedback.7 We will consider three organizations that Peds Kafe can benefit from.
Three types of organizations use social media strategies to market the products. The classification includes, “predictive practitioners”, “creative experimenters”, and “social media champions”.8
Predictive experimenters limit the use of social media to specific aspects of their business. Those who fall under this category tend to be businesses that are new to social media hence are not ready for full-blown social media campaigns. Others in this category are organizations that want to limit their risk exposure in the social media scene due to historical reasons, or simply because of the perception clients may have if the organization becomes too active in the social media.
Clorox is an example of a company that falls under the predictive practitioner category.9 The strategy that Clorox used was to post specific question on its social media platforms stating that they were developing a particular product, hence what type of features were the clients interested in seeing in the finished product? The company also gave points to people who responded to the queries hence creating some competitive value in its postings.
The lesson for Peds Kafe from this example is that if it feels it risks negative exposure if it develops a comprehensive social media campaign, them it should use a predictive practitioners approach. It can give freebies such as free lunch or subsidized lunch to the most prolific participants.
Creative experimenters use social media to conduct different types of tests to uncover the needs of their clients before engaging in fully-fledged social media outlays. The thinking that guides creative experimenters is that there is a need to identify the strategies that will work for them by experimenting with different approaches before settling for one long-term solution.
On the other hand, some use it for creative experiments to keep the image of an innovative company in order to retain clients who value that aspect. A good example of a creative experimenter is EMC. The company developed an internal platform for its forty thousand employees to use social media to locate skills they needed within the company. The experimental platform led to savings in excess of forty million in its first year or operation.
The experiment is now a permanent feature of the company’s collaboration strategy. The lesson for Ped’s kafe is that it can develop experiments in social media among its clients to generate the feeling that it is innovative and that it listens to its clients. For instance, it can have a competition for recipes and share proceeds with the owner for a month. This will increase the interest of those who take pride in developing recipes, and those that enjoy trying out new dishes.
The last category of social media users is the social media champion. The main feature of a social media champion is that the social media strategy comes from a deliberate design with very predictable results. It is often very large in scope and may include huge offline investments.
The Ford Fiesta Movement of 2009 was such an outlay. The idea Ford developed for its reintroduction of the Ford Fiesta was to give away one hundred Fiestas for half a year to people that would relate their experiences in social media platforms. Within that time, the drivers posted more than sixty thousand items on social media platforms and the related YouTube videos had more than four million views.10
If Ped’s Kafe wants to be a social media champion, then it needs to identify its purpose for participating in social media and then develop the requisite following to conduct such large-scale marketing efforts. Ped’s Kafe can create a special group of clients, say fifty of them, who should undertake to make predefined social media postings on Ped’s Kafe’s social media platforms.
The incentives that Ped’s Kafe can use include charging them half price for their meals, or giving them a free meal once a week of a certain value. The options for this are many. Ideally, it should be something that encourages them to eat and review the meals and services at Ped’s Kafe.
Conclusions and Evaluation Summary of Findings
Ped’s Kafe needs to develop a consistent communication strategy that takes into account its target market.11 It is clear that the target market for Ped’s Kafe includes the young professionals that work near the restaurant.
Their needs include having a place to eat that does not carry a very formal feel. However, they also require an establishment run professionally. This clientele is very active on social media hence there is potential benefit in reaching them using social media platforms.
There are many opportunities for Ped’s Kafe to improve its market by using the uncertainty reduction theory and the information integration theories. Social media provides an inexpensive platform for Ped’s Kafe to apply the uncertainty reduction theory and the information reduction theory.
It can use the social media to reduce the level of uncertainty about its service online thereby increasing the confidence the customers have with the services offered at the café. The theory points out that people try to find information to reduce their degree of uncertainty to increase their level of confidence by researching.
On the Information Integration theory, if Ped’s Kafe does not endeavor to develop positive press for its services in online platforms, then it risks losing clients who will make their judgment based on the information available to them. If the information is negative, then it will be very costly for the café.
Ped’s Kafe can use a variety of approaches in its social media efforts aiming at increasing its client base. There are three options available for Ped’s Kafe to engage in social media strategies to engage its clientele. It can do so as a predictive practitioner, a creative experimenter or as a social media champion.
Using social media as a predictive practitioners will some from the need to keep social media interaction minimal and within highly defined boundaries. An approach in this sense is marketing of a daily special. Using social media as a creative experimenter will mean that the café uses social media for experimental purposes, or as a means of maintaining the image of an innovative company.
This can take the form of creative recipe competitions for the reward of a free or subsidized meal. In the case of using a social media champion approach, the café will develop an elaborate marketing plan that will include a group of clients it can offer free or subsidized meals in exchange of reviews and other postings on social media platforms. It will be important to keep the information publicly available to reduce chances of accusation of unethical business practices.12
Evaluation of the Research Process
The research process involved in the development of the recommendations that Ped’s Kafe can use to increase its customer base has been useful in the development of several viable options that the café can use to increase its market share.
It shows that there is real value in pursuing theoretical research to develop practical leads to answer business concerns. The comparison of strategies used by companies in different sectors provided a wider horizon for looking the potential approaches and benefits that an organization can derive from using social media as a platform.
Reference List Braunack-Mayer, AJ, “What Makes a Problem an Ethical Problem? An Emperical Perspective on the Nature of Ethical Problems in General Practice,” Journal of Medical Ethics, vol. 27, 2001.
Corson D, RL Heath,
Horticultural Therapy in Alternative Medicine Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Currently, the use of horticultural therapy as an alternative form of treatment is being acknowledged in our society unlike in the past. This has led to the establishment of more therapeutic gardens.
When setting up these gardens, certain considerations should be made concerning the capturing and engaging of client’s five senses. Because of their varied and distributed clientele, modern therapeutic gardens have been customised to meet different client’s taste and preference.
Normally, these gardens are designed for people with impairments or various dysfunctions in the society. Such people include patients with Alzheimer’s disease, prison inmates, patients in hospital care facilities and physical handicapped people. Due to the need to cater for the needs of various clients, horticulture therapy programs are also availed in most health care centres.
Horticultural therapy is known to be an effective way of reliving stress for depressed individuals. However, not all horticultural practices and gardens are designed for horticultural therapies.
Some of them are meant purely for farming or demonstration purposes. In order for any horticultural practice to be considered as a therapy, it must meet three basic requirements. These requirements are specified based on clients’ goals and treatment task. Horticultural therapy clients vary in nature in that not all patients have the same disabilities or sickness.
An historical overview reveals that geriac patients were the first to use horticultural therapy. The second group to embrace this therapy constituted of individuals in nursing homes subsequently followed by people in retirement homes.
In horticultural therapy, different clients have diverse needs that must be considered. For instance, people with mental problems and mental injury are taught on the enhancement of job employment skills.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is no defined boundary between horticultural farming and horticultural therapy. As a result, any horticultural farm can be modified to meet the requirements of a particular client.
In the therapy farms, treatment is administered through various farm activities. These include harvesting of flowers, intermixing of various plants to provide a varied view, and weeding.
Some activities like flower sorting and plant propagation are known to have a motivational impact on clients. For effective therapy results, some patients’ behaviours have to be stimulated.
This is normally achieved by adjusting the therapeutic settings in several ways, which include enhancing the proximity of the plants, organising the program activities in a scheduled manner, and clearly identifying the garden’s territories. Moreover, the garden’s setup should be appealing to the client.
Through therapeutic gardens, individuals are provided with an appealing environment, which nourishes them in numerous ways. The gardens provide isolation and comfort to those who want to avoid external disturbances. Appropriately defined boundaries enable visitors to move around the gardens without having to seek for the assistance of a guide.
The plants choice in a therapeutic garden is selected specifically to stimulate the sense of touch, smell and hearing. Furthermore, various architectural designs in the garden help to realize visual pleasures.
In this regard, some visitors recalling memory can be stimulated. In addition, their social interaction becomes enhanced. However, the presence of plants in the gardens compromises the space needed for social interaction around the gardens.
We will write a custom Essay on Horticultural Therapy in Alternative Medicine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Occasionally, horticultural therapy is fused with other treatment procedures. This ensures that the programs’ design eventually achieve their required goals.
Each horticultural program has been designed to achieve certain desired goals for a certain client. With its soothing capability, horticulture therapy is expected to cater for the needs of diverse clients.
Free Trade and National Policies Research Paper college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Debate concerning whether to encourage free trade remains a controversy. Some countries favour free trade while others underscore the benefits that accrue from free trade. Trade plays a vital role in ensuring economic growth and a decline in deficits.
Free trade function perfectly compared with fiscal and monetary policy adopted in counteracting the effects of subprime crisis. Additionally, regional trade and international trade experience barriers to trade.
Different states and countries have barriers that restrict trade from going on smoothly. The degrees of the restrictions that prevail in an economy are in relation to the movement of services and goods across territories.
The two-trade experiences a considerable number of restrictions such as exchange control, tariff duties, and quota restrictions among others.
As such, the economy experience similar problems, as a result, of the tariffs that are being imposed by the countries involved. The governments, therefore, should favour free trade against national interests (Cavusgil
Poverty Indicators in Developing Countries Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Poverty Indicators in Developing Countries
Types of Industries that Characterize Impoverished Countries
Actions to Spur Economic Development in Poor Countries
Poverty Indicators in Developing Countries The World Bank produced its first global poverty estimates for developing countries. These estimates are found in the world development report of 1990, which used house hold survey data for 22 countries (Ravallion, et al., 2001).
By incorporating data collected during the last fifteen years, that database has expanded considerably and now it includes 440 surveys representing almost 100 developing countries (Jimenez, 2007).
The commonly used ‘a dollar a day’ standard indicator for determining poverty rates at the household level was instituted in the 1990 report. Because this indicator failed to effectively capture the different economic situations of many poor countries, another yard stick for measuring poverty in poor countries was formulated.
This standard is known as ‘purchasing power prices’ (PPPs). It was chosen by the World Bank for use in determining the poverty rates of poor countries.
The most used Poverty indicators for developing countries includes according to world bank includes; percentage of poverty gap at national level, percentage of Poverty gap at rural level, ‘Poverty headcount ratio at 1.25 dollars a day (purchasing power prices) of the percentage population’, ‘Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty level of the percentage population, Poverty headcount ratio at rural poverty level of the percentage rural population and lastly poverty headcount ratio at urban poverty level of the percentage urban population.
Types of Industries that Characterize Impoverished Countries Developed nations gain from their trade because they produce and export industrial commodities, whereas the poor countries specialize in primary goods production and lack enough commodities for export. Technological progress in the world seems to work to their disadvantage (Singer and Ansari, 2004).
The essential difference between the rich and poor countries is not that they produce different types of commodities but the main difference between the two is that, the rich nations produce a different mix of goods and services while the poor countries produce a single mix of goods and services (Singer and Ansari, 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In many poor countries of the world, national income and productivity usually increase at a very insignificant rate. These two factors hinder poor countries from taking on new investments, increase their production rates and lower their imports (Soubbotina, 2004).
Most poor countries are affected by political instability which hinders investors from investing in those countries. This also makes the already established industries in those countries to relocate to much stable countries. All this negatively affects the economic growth of the poor countries.
Actions to Spur Economic Development in Poor Countries Based on the review of the experience of the last decade and extensive research on the nature and causes of poverty, a multidimensional approach to poverty reduction is recommended to liberate the poor nations from poverty (World Bank, 2002).
Poor countries should develop an expanded framework with actions at the country level planning. They should do all they can to create vast economic opportunities for their people, empower their citizens and enhance their security development (World Bank, 2002).
Opportunity is crucial to the creation of opportunities which are actions that support healthy economic growth. Empowerment means strengthening the capacity of poor people to affect decisions that have a bearing on their lives and removing barriers that prevent them from engaging effectively in political, social and economic activities.
Security is the resilience and preparedness to shocks such as illnesses, disasters and economic downturns. In order for development in poor nations to be fast tracked, it is necessary for the Nations to collaborate with industrialized countries, international organizations, private companies, research communities and other global players across abroad spectrum.
Conclusion It can be noted that, the World Bank whose mandate is to improve the world’s economic status has been able to offer assistance to several countries in the world. Poor countries are given first considerations in programming and implementing of the World Bank’s projects.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Poverty Indicators in Developing Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most Non-Governmental Organizations and Donors have also been at the fore front of alleviating poverty and human suffering in poor nations. It is therefore upon the leaders of the poor nations to initiate an enabling environment for development to take place.
References Jimenez, E. (2007). Development and the next generation. Washington, DC: World Bank Publication.
Ravallion, M., Galasso, E. and Salvia, A. (2001). Assisting the transition from workfare: A randomized experiment. Washington D.C: World Bank Policy Research Working Papers Series. Print.
Singer, H. and Ansari, J. (2004). Rich and Poor Countries: Consequences of International Disorder. USA: Routledge.
Soubbotina, T. (2004). Beyond economic growth: an introduction to sustainable development. Washington, D.C.: World Bank publication.
World Bank. (2002). Poverty reduction and the World Bank: progress in implementing WDR 2000/2001. Washington D.C: World Bank corporation.
Employee Use of a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Essay college essay help near me
It is difficult to notice the work related effects that health care practitioners go through. Health care personnel who take care of mentally or physically ill patients tend to experience symptoms which resemble post traumatic stress disorder.
This happens because of the trauma that employees develop as a result of investing long hours at the workplace and dealing with stressing situations in the workplace.
Many employers think that by providing their employees with attractive benefits and services, they will be able to motivate and retain their workforce.
This at times results in low morale, decline in job performance and high rates of employee turnover, absenteeism and taking of sick leaves (Cohen, Ruggie and Micozzi, 48). If all these setbacks occur even after employers provide work incentives, what could be the underlying problem?
Most of the time, it is the welfare of victims that is taken care of when there is a disaster. Even during war, the injured are the ones who receive urgent medical attention. The priorities of medical personnel who work in military medical facilities are to selflessly devote their time and efforts towards saving the lives of soldiers who are injured during wars.
They attend to soldiers who have had their legs torn off by landmines as well as those who received bullet wounds. The medical personnel also attend to those who fall sick while in the jungle and soldiers who are rescued from kidnappers.
Medical personnel who attend to these victims and patients devote their full attention to their work so that they are able to help the wounded recover fully. The families of these victims are also taken care of by being accorded all the necessary support when they are bereaved or their members affected by disasters.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above findings indicate that victims of disasters and their families are often well taken care of. But what about the personnel who take care of them?
The plight of this category of individuals is usually ignored since employers assume that their employees are well trained and capable of handling all kinds of situations.
Employers however fail to remember that their members of staff are also human and that they also develop side effects from dealing with people who have undergone disasters (Leach, 402).
It is not only the people that have been affected directly by disasters who develop traumas. Many medical personnel have developed work related secondary traumatic stress as a result of dealing with sensitive cases while discharging their duties. Is the welfare of such kinds of employees taken care of?
Many organizations are slowly adopting the idea of providing on-site services such as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their employees.
These investments are not a waste of funds since wellness clinics produce good results when they are implemented effectively. Surveys have revealed that wellness clinics produce positive results in employees.
For instance, Duncan et al. brought out that employees who attend wellness clinics and CAM reported that they developed improved nutrition, sleep, self awareness, moods and cognition (812).
We will write a custom Essay on Employee Use of a Complementary and Alternative Medicine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They also exercised more, increased stress reduction practices and reduced the use of addictive substances that were previously used to deal with the trauma (812).
Benefits and services are not enough if employers are to retain their workforce. That is why there is increased investment in on site child care, on site food and on-site CAM wellness clinic.
Works Cited Cohen, Michael H., Ruggie, Mary and Micozzi, Marc S. The practice of integrative medicine: a legal and operational guide. New York: Springer Pub. Co., 2006
Duncan, Alaine D., Liechty, Janet M., Miller, Cathy et al. “Employee Use and Perceived Benefit of a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Wellness Clinic at a Major Military Hospital: Evaluation of a Pilot Program.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 17.9(2011): 809–815
Leach, Robert A. The chiropractic theories: a textbook of scientific research. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams
Technology Progress in Realising Sustainable Economic Growth Essay college essay help online
Technological progress is the main factor that drives an economy to sustainability. Over time, Asian countries have embraced technological development, which has contributed significantly to the growth of most of their economies.
Because of the need of innovation to foster economic growth, most Asian countries have undergone a transition from being adopters of technologies to become independent technology innovators. Previously, the Asian countries used the United States and Europe’s technological innovations and inventions without emphasizing the need to advance such technologies themselves.
Upon realising that innovation is a key factor concerning the realisation of long-term economic growth, these countries have adopted the current technology in all aspects of their production (Nelson 2005, p. 125). The innovation process must be supported by a complex set of social institutions for it to be the main pillar of growth.
Because of the growth theory and the development theory having fostered the process of technological advancement as the core reason for economic growth, most of the Asian economies have embarked on the initiative. It is now understood that unlike in the past where technology was a sub-segment of economic growth, it is central in the realisation of economic development.
Consequently, in this regard, economies have embarked on the evaluation of the importance and means of attaining technological advancement. This has necessitated the adoption of technological progress as an endogenous element in the realisation of economic growth (Ting 1985, p. 74). In this regard, it has been possible to identify the two fundamental modes of technologically progression.
These are innovation and adoption. Innovation refers to the process of establishing new and unique technologies based on the improvement of old technologies.
On the other hand, adoption entails the introduction of technologies, created in a different location, in a new economy. Any economy needs to utilise the two modes of technology improvements in a balanced ratio for it to become technologically robust.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The analysis of the two modes of technology indicates that countries that opt for innovation as their ingredient for technology are more economically empowered compared to the adopters. Essentially, most Asian countries chose adoption to progress their economies by improving the living conditions of their citizens.
In this regard, Asian countries noted the lags created by the adoption of technology over their counterparts who were innovating. This implied that the continual adoption of technology from the innovators resulted in an increasing gap between the adopter and innovator in terms of the income per capita.
Furthermore, there existed multiple barriers for an adopter concerning technology advancement due to the limitation provided by patented innovations. In this regard, several Asian economies sought to achieve the level of technology innovators. The process of the transition from a technological adopter to a technological innovator was the main conduit to economic growth and technology independence (Carayannis 2006, p. 146).
Nevertheless, numerous challenges were encountered since technology innovation is a cumbersome and involving task compared to adoption. Additionally, the earlier nature of the Asian economies being effective adopters affected the transition process. Repeatedly, the Asian economies were viewed as having little innovativeness capacity.
This necessitated the establishment of numerous infrastructures to enhance innovation. The main initiative of this focus was to attain a technology advancement that sought to narrow the gap between developed countries and the Asian countries in terms of the income per capita.
Meanwhile, the market was established to have a considerable influence on the innovation process. This is because innovation on its own cannot survive without the contribution of the output technology’s demand and supply forces. Nevertheless, technological innovation in Asia has been on the rise since it is not a market-driven phenomenon.
In this regard, such economies have integrated the market and non-market institutions to contribute significantly to the process of technological innovation. Additionally, this process requires the formulation and adoption of innovation strategies that promote high innovative economic systems for it be successful.
We will write a custom Essay on Technology Progress in Realising Sustainable Economic Growth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Notably, the realisation of the innovation strategy’s need has been witness more in Asia than in any other part of the world. The fact that the Asian economies demand a completely new approach to technology since it is on the verge of development has significantly facilitated this process (Gapinski 1999, p. 154). As a result, most economies have tried to discover the crux of the innovation process and its contribution towards economic development and growth.
Since innovation is the main factor of technological process, it has several characteristics concerning its interactive nature with the mix of the market and non-market institutions. Initially, the innovation of technological structures is believed to be a science-based process.
In this regard, the elements of higher education must have the appropriate attitude and capability to contribute towards the success of the innovation strategies set by governments. Consequently, governments must place considerable investments in the higher education while adopting the latest education systems to enhance the realisation of innovation.
In this regard, major institutions can adopt technological inventions in their countries while fostering the advancement of such ideas. Notably, the Asian economies realised this fact and inputted a significant amount of capital towards the higher education.
Evidently, the combination of this move with the right structure and mentality adopted by the people, has led to the witnessing of technological progress by the Asian economies.
Site specificity is as a crucial component for the successful technology adoption or innovation process. The undertaking of any technological improvements to address the local challenges should be in consideration of a country’s local conditions. In this regard, the Asian economies valued their own ecological characteristics and adopted or developed the technologies that suited their needs.
On this note, any challenges whether health, agriculture, energy use, culture or infrastructure were addressed in relation of their capabilities and convenience to the available technologies (Babu 2005, p. 106). This implied that not all the technologies innovated by the Asian countries’ counterparts whether in the United States or Europe were suitable to their needs.
The process of technological innovation entirely depends on the market-based incentives considered and the capacity of the market itself. On this note, the extent of the market determines the success an innovation strategy and its contributory elements to the economy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Technology Progress in Realising Sustainable Economic Growth by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Considering the fact that the implementation of any innovative idea demands a one-time and irreversible amount of capital, it is vital to analyse its output critically to regain the invested capital through subsequent sales.
Additionally, a limited market for technological output would be insignificant. In this regard, the Asian economies have realised this concept and adopted open economy systems contributing immensely to technological progress.
Additionally, the fact that most Asian countries are export-oriented has enabled them to access the global market with ease. Notably, closed economies have a little access to foreign ideas as well as a limited market for their innovation outputs.
At stake is the notion of idea sharing for technological improvements and innovation. Ideally, when people share ideas, the ideas are not lost to the first person, but provide room for the refinement and improvement of technology.
As a result, everybody can participate in the expansion of the technological knowledge without depriving others of their ideas and inventions. Due to lack of rivalry, the society as a whole benefits from the dissemination of new and critical ideas, which contribute to economic growth.
Notably, any economy that attaches value to knowledge promotes the widespread diffusion of basic technological knowledge that aims at fostering economic growth (Pak 2003, p. 128). Certainly, on analytical and critical view, this notion would cause the disappointment and non-satisfaction of the inventors of new ideas due to the free and broad distribution of their ideas.
This implies that to restore their morale and self-esteem, these individuals must be recognized and rewarded. Moreover, their inventions ought to be patented to avoid the duplication of similar ideas.
In this regard, the Asian countries have embarked on the process of encouraging their scientists through social status, prizes, fame and direct market incentives. Thus, technological scientists have been significant in the tussle of realising economic development in such economies.
Innovative technological ideas demand specific forms of organisation that develop, examine and prove them. These organizations include universities, government research laboratories, and private companies engaged in scientific studies.
In this regard, innovation requires the consolidation of numerous ideas. Therefore, it demands the entrepreneurs within any organisation to exercise their risk-taking skills in experimenting new ideas in the market (Ting 1985, 184). Entrepreneurs must initially engage in the learning and mastering of new ideas before implementing them for this initiative to be productive.
Notably, it is known that the courage to take risks allow entrepreneurs to invest heavily in their companion’s knowledge in the attempt to market the output of their ideas. This unique phenomenon is exhibited by the economies with the urge for economic growth, a situation that was rare in the traditional economies. Importantly, the Asian countries have appropriately adopted this concept.
The achievement of the technological progress for a sustainable economic growth demands financing mechanisms that accommodate knowledge in both the public and private sector. Definitely, these institutions should provide capital to such initiatives despite being intangible and non-collateral.
Noting that the major financial institutions like banks do not lend funds to people with creative ideas, new financial providers should be established to offer such individuals a chance. In this regard, the need of venture capitalists becomes very essential. These venture capitalists provide capital to non-collateral ideas with the anticipation that the new ideas will become commercially viable when implemented (Itō 2005, p. 104).
For the Asian economies, this element of financing has been identified and a lot of capital allocated to them. This implies that venture capitalists have been on the process of identifying individuals with realistic and achievable ideas.
As a result, most individuals with practical ideas have been given the opportunity to implement their ideas. Furthermore, people have been considerably encouraged thus boosting the efforts towards the realisation of technological innovation and economic growth.
It is essential to set up effective intellectual property rights system for any government to provide the protection of its citizens’ technological innovation. The core issue on such matter is that the judicial system should be an independent institution that promotes the rule of law.
On this note, the intellectual property rights within the constitution can protect scientists’ inventions and innovations. In this regard, several Asian economies have established judicial systems that are independent from any political disputes or intellectual rights regimes.
These legal institutions have marked a crucial motivation towards the long-term development of most of the Asian economies. As a result, scientists’ are motivated to work towards embracing the set legal guidelines concerning the innovation of technological ideas.
Through the creation of a conducive and convenient administrative structure that enhances business start-ups’ conditions, many ideas can be presented to the market. Despite the Asian countries insisting on technological innovations, several have focused on making innovations available in the market to realise the input costs.
On this note, the major financial institutions and venture capitalists provide the start-up capital for such individuals (Carayannis 2006, p. 165). As a result, the government can earn benefits from the long-term application of the available knowledge whether in business or science. The government or a private orgnaisation should monitor any business enterprise offered with a start-up capital for the effective use of funds.
In this regard, the firms emerging because of innovation should have a clear and effectively structured business plan. The matters of interest in a firm are organisational structures, which include delegation approaches, productivity-based compensation, and the improvement of knowledge and skills within an enterprise.
This implies that a business would focus on its core objectives of profit making while offering chances to its staff for knowledge acquisition or improvement.
Economically, technological advancement is critical in the realisation of the long-run economic growth. In this regard, researches indicate that although technological diffusion is vital for economic development, it is essential to note the significance that innovation plays in an economy.
In this regard, the Asian economies should realise the need to transform from being technology adopters and become innovators as a sole drive to technological advancement. Notably, the proper social systems should be set up to enhance the realisation of technological improvements.
Nevertheless, the individuals within the economies should be imparted with the appropriate mindsets through education on the importance of technological advancement and the means of achieving it. Additionally, the usage of such technologies should be appreciated with continual improvements (Rondinelli 2007, p. 110).
Overtime, the process of innovation has presented numerous challenges for countries that have attempted to realise this goal. The main challenges have been the lack of appropriate creativity and financial capacities of some of the Asian countries.
As a result, most economies have resorted to the adoption of technology from developed countries that have limited commercial outputs and rewards for the participants. Concerning the financial aspect of these countries, a lot of finance is placed at the risk of new ideas, which in most cases may not be practical.
This is influenced by the fact that any tested knowledge or idea cannot be ascertained whether its output will be effective. Similarly, since most of the innovations financed could only be viable in the domestic market, the cost of the input will outweigh their benefits. Another factor influencing innovation is the population size of the Asian economies.
Because of the large population sizes, the balance of knowledge acquisition by all individuals becomes a hindering factor in the achievement of technological innovations. Most individuals attain a moderate level of education, which cannot guarantee a majority of them to engage in innovations.
Regardless of the fact that the innovation process is a challenge to economies due to the need of utmost focus, attention, and institutional creativity, proper measures will boost its attainment. Considering that Asia has the necessary resources and knowledgeable workforce, it can become the center of science-based innovations.
In this regard, the most populated countries in Asia such as China and India will considerably contribute to the economy as a whole. As a result, the structure and perception of these economies will be positively transformed. Similarly, the 21st century will be well endowed with the best technology that will improve the living standards of people and means of operation (Itō 2005, 172).
Nevertheless, knowledge acquisition would be generally accessible with the availability of the relevant materials. This implies that the gap between the developed and the developing countries due to knowledge or income per capita would be significantly reduced. As a result, it enhances the long-run sustainability of economic growth.
References Babu, S. C.,
Jean-Paul Sartre and Jules Ferry Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Imperialist ideology can be viewed as a distorted version of Western-European culture, because it emphasizes such values as liberty or dignity, but at the same time denies many people the right to humanity. This idea can be better discussed by analyzing Jean-Paul Sartre’s preface to the book The Wretched of the Earth written by Frantz Fanon.
Moreover, Sartre’s views can be compared to the arguments expressed by Jules Ferry who was an advocate of colonial policy. His speech before the French National Assembly in 1883 can be regarded as a defense of colonialism. The comparison of these two texts can highlight the contradictory nature of imperialism and explain how this political and cultural ideology influenced the countries that were under colonial rule.
One of the critical arguments put forward by Sartre is that many nations colonized by Europeans could see that the colonizers failed to live up to the ideals of humanism that they often proclaimed. The thing is that European culture lays stress on such values as liberty, equality, freedom, and dignity; however, those people, who speak about these ideas, can easily act in a cruel, biased, and selfish way. Sartre says, “The yellow and black voices still spoke of our humanism but only to reproach us with our inhumanity” (1961, p. 1).
To a great extent, this sentence renders the sense of disappointment that many African people had, especially after the atrocities committed both in Europe and Africa. They could not understand how the alleged values of colonizers could be reconciled with their actions. Jules Ferry also refers to the ideals of humanism; in particular, he says Europeans have “the duty to civilize inferior races” (Ferry as cited in Andrea
Theories about International Relations Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction International relations may be defined as the increased interaction between countries, states, government and individuals on the global front. International relation can also be defined as the study of relationships between various states, non-governmental organizations, individuals and multinational companies.
These interactions can either be interaction in public policy or academic interactions. A theory can be defined as a school of thought or an explanation as to why something exists.
Critical theories of international relations will always give the various thoughts about the idea of international relations (Baylis, Smith
Adam Smith Economic Theory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents The Invisible Hand Theory
Division of Labour Theory
International Trade Theory
Importance Adam Smith Theories
Benefits of the theory to the U.S. Economy
The Invisible Hand Theory According to this theory, Adam Smith points out his feeling about the operation of the economic society. He felt that each individual aimed at becoming rich with an intention of personal gain. However there must be sharing and exchange of commodities that one owns or what he produces.
This leads to advancement of the public interest through free market and public interest. Adam Smith is recognized as the father of economics and came up with all sorts of phenomenon for instance: environmental degradation, scientific progress and the game theory (Joyce, 2001).
Adam Smith linked the invisible hand theory to God’s creation of the universe that made human beings happy. Basing on this, he stated that the property rights must be very strong and people must respect and put into practice the social norms to minimize representations and theft.
According to smith theft was the worst crime to be committed although the poor can steal from the rich and they feel happy. According to him, the role of the government is to protect the rich from the poor.
He further states that the social norms are very important for any system to work to enable continuation of the exchange and enforcement of the contracts. This would enable people to get information about the availability of goods and services hence the rule of law must hold
He also explained how the theory works in the modern world. Adam explained a process that occurs through what he calls the invisible hand, which leads to the outcome of decentralized institutions with business contracts acting as agencies to economic transactions.
The entire process is not mandatory but is intentional with each party having some interests. However, the interests of the agents involved in the process are not similar and therefore not coordinated by the outcome of the process, which the exchange of goods and services. He said that the process is called invisible because it should be in progress even without the knowledge of the agents.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The free market, which other scholars call the market economy is mainly characterized by Adam Smith’s invisible hand given that market operators interact freely given their interests. Adam Smith assumed that consumers go in for lower prices but entrepreneurs venture into businesses of high profits.
He said that the demand of the consumers is identified by entrepreneurs through the market prices which give them a direction and an opportunity to invest in the production of various goods in a profitable industry. Put in mind that this is an industry that will produce high quality goods and services hence increasing the overall economic well being.
The most important part of the market based economy is that it put into consideration demands for other people. According to Smith, this was the good part of the invisible hand mechanism. He came up with two ways that can enable one to interact freely with others.
The first way is that they should always show the goodwill of others. Smith found out that to do this one must be repulsive which has limited success. The second way is to plea to the interest of other people
For Smith, his intention of proposing an exchange is to serve as an example to other people that what you can do is of benefit to other people. This is because when one carry out an exchange it shows that he value what other people have. This explains why the self esteem of a job is reflected in a person’s pay for instance a good pay is an indicator of how others value your contribution
Division of Labour Theory According to Adam Smith, the riches of a nation depend on its economic growth. He further states that growth is engrained in specialization of labour which simply refers to breaking down of the production process into various stages.
Specialization is significant because repetition of the same task improves on the workers efficiency. It also saves time because labourers do not move from one task to the other. Specialization enabled the Victorian industries to expand during the nineteenth century.
We will write a custom Essay on Adam Smith Economic Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They used the assembly line production to enable workers concentrate on a specific stage of the production process. However, Smith came up with various problems that were associated with this development. He found out doing the same task repeatedly makes labourers to be ignorant. Basing on this belief¸ he urged the government to take the role of educating workers.
International Trade Theory The major objective of Adam Smith on international trade theory was to analyze various ideas called mercantilism. Some mercantilists were of the view that government regulation was a necessary requirement of international trade for a nation to have favourable balance of trade meaning that exports should be more than the imports.
The term favourable balance of trade is used to explain a situation where a country exports more goods than what it receives where the difference between these situations is solved by making payments by use of gold (Smith, 2012).
A favourable balance of trade can only be favourable if one wrongly believes that the riches of a nation depend upon it having metals like gold. However, Smith argued that if a country can produce more goods than another country at a lower cost than it would be beneficial for the two countries to exchange their goods.
Each country would exchange the good that it produces at a lower cost for the good it produces at a relatively expensive cost. In economics, this is referred to as absolute advantage against foreign trade. This argument is not restricted to foreign trade. It can also be used in national trade.
In modern economics, as labour concentrates on the production of a particular commodity there is always a reduction in costs. He argued that the merits of international trade were based on increasing returns.
He realized that if two people were born with a particular talent and it does not change then it means that they will not benefit if they specialize and sell their goods. Smith recognized that each nation has the capability to gain absolute cost advantages in the creation of some goods and services through division of labour and specialization, and all nations could have an added advantage resulting from foreign trade.
Smith criticized policies made by the mercantilist because they evaluated the wealth of the country basing on the amount of precious metals it had instead of looking at the flow of goods. Smith hold that the government should set appropriate policies concerning foreign trade and the same should apply to domestic trade.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Adam Smith Economic Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A laissez faire policy would improve the level of economic growth of a country. Modern economics evaluated the economic ideas and found out that there is a difference between the mercantilists and the classical that had significance on free markets against the government regulation.
In modern economics, exchange is a game in which there should be a winner and a loser. To prove that all nations can benefit from international trade, one must prove that the production of goods has increased after exchange of goods and services has taken place (Bagehot, 1915).
Smith’s insight on international trade theory was that both nationals and international countries must gain from voluntary exchanges made. Its major aim was to ensure that the US economy thrives in the long run.
Importance Adam Smith Theories Specializations make workers to be experts in their fields of operation. As a result they become more competent in the production process which reduces the costs of production. Specialization is also very important because it leads to development of machines and tools that make workers perform their duties effectively.
According to Smith, division of labour must lead to production of valuable goods. Labour must produce more goods that can be used to produce more goods. Adam Smith identified the exchange and use value. Smith came up with a conclusion that labour is the major foundation of value.
The cost of a good is also known as its natural price. However, the natural price should not serve as a real value of the good in the market. Competition is expected to bring some changes in the market by either pushing the natural price up or down.
Benefits of the theory to the U.S. Economy Trade liberalization is assumed to be an influencing factor to economic prosperity and growth. Free trade is important in fighting poverty and aiming at expanding economic growth of a country. The trade policy legislation made it possible for America to advocate for free trade and the benefits associated with these policies. It was mandatory that lawmakers evaluate the trade initiatives.
Free trade earned the US economy $12 trillion. The total exports in the US in 2005 totalled to $1.2 trillion. These have created manufacturing employment opportunities in the US. The jobs were directly linked with an improvement in good pay from 13% to 18%. Foreign trade has a positive impact on jobs both in the private and manufacturing g sector.
Foreign trade creates employment opportunities in Ohio’s private sector. It also supports one out of 10 private sector jobs in South Carolina. Foreign trade also promotes opportunity. International trade also accounts for 79% in the service sector of the United States economy. The service industry also contributed to generation of job opportunities. For over 20 years the service industry had created about 40 million jobs in the large America.
Currently, the international economy provides unmatched opportunities for the United States economy to enlarge trade by eliminating barriers to services and goods. Free trade has increased on the level of competition in the modern market leading to production of quality goods, introduction of new markets, increasing labourers pay and increasing saving and invest% of global consumers stay outside the US. Free trade enables the United States to join the market and improve economic growth of America.
The United States has equally benefited from the reduction of trade barriers for more than five decades. This acted as an open door to economic growth and improvement of standards of living. Free trade has improved standards of living for Americans and is optimistic to bring more improvements if trade barriers are broken down.
The institute of global economics found out that trade liberalization has a positive effect of increasing income to an American household by $9,000 annually. Other benefits resulting from free trade are the Uruguay round of the world trade organization and the free trade agreement that generate yearly benefits of 1300 dollars to 2000 dollars for an American with a family with four.
Similarly, Free trade also avails goods and services to Americans at relatively cheaper prices, enabling families to save part of their income or purchase more goods and services. Adam Smith theories have helped the economy because these theories are associated with various benefits as explained in importance of Adam Smith theories.
I think Adam Smith would suggest free trade and trade liberalization as an economic plan for our economy. This is because according to him, free trade and trade liberalization are the major pillars to economic growth and improvement of living standards of people of America.
Adams1 smith Advice to the United States would be that it opens it economy even more and remove the protectionist barriers such as “made in America” policies. The current policies in the U.S. are not beneficial to the citizens. He huge debts that the government has accumulated have put more pressure on tax payers, unemployment is still high (Finnegan, 2012).
References Bagehot, W. (1915). Adam Smith and our modern economy. Web.
Finnegan, M. (2012). Romney pounces on Obama’s economic policies. Web.
Joyce, H. (2001). Adam Smith and the invisible hand theory. Web.
Smith, A. (2012). Free trade and international trade theory. Web.
Social Pressure and Change Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
XYZ Company manufactures agricultural chemicals. A year ago, the company experienced significant scandals including charges of stock fraud, harassment lawsuit against several executives and dumping waste into a neighboring wildlife preserve.
Why might such Pressure Cause XYZ to Change?
The external pressure facing XYZ might make the company to embrace change because the firm has to adhere to societal expectations in regard to environmental responsibility and general community involvement.
Recently, information and modern technology have contributed extensively to the growth of social pressure, since information regarding firms that do not conform to social standards spread quickly. Also, external members expect that companies conduct business fairly, maintain favorable working conditions for employees and carry out activities that do not harm the environment.
Failure to do so may spur demonstrations by community members or warnings by environmental pressure groups, in order to force the company to conduct activities that preserve the environment. Also, XYZ Company may face prosecution in a criminal court, due to stock fraud. Besides, failing to adhere to societal expectation will, ultimately, create an unhealthy reputation for the company, which might make customers obtain products from other firms that have similar products.
How does this affect the Organizational Ethics of Work at XYZ?
Outside pressure, regarding the above mentioned issues, will affect organizational ethics of work at XYZ. First, management practices must be adjusted to suit the needs of employers. As mentioned, in the introduction, a number of executives have filed harassment lawsuits against the company. This implies that organizational ethics have to be adjusted, in order to enhance worker satisfaction and productivity in the company.
Besides, XYZ needs to impact outside members positively, through stopping to dump waste products into the nearby wildlife preserve. This will create a positive public image, which is likely to attract new customers. Lastly, the company has to stop stock fraud, because the public may put pressure on legislators to impose existing regulations regarding stock frauds. The company should ensure that both internal and external auditors receive the right information regarding sales and stocks of the company.
What Change might XYZ Incorporate?
XYZ needs to establish an ethical workplace through creating, and constantly, improving the code of ethics. This will encourage ethical practices, in the firm, in order to ensure moral conduct and make potential customers and employees consider the company as ethical.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The managers, at XYZ, can also create a department entrusted with overseeing ethical practices in the organization. Such a department would denote to all external members that the company has committed to upholding ethical practices.
Another change that XYZ may incorporate involves training the entire workforce on new ethical practices that the company desires. Such training programs do not highlight all the practice that must be observed. Rather, the training enables managers to have a framework that they can use to judge whether some actions are ethical or not.
Besides, the company should incorporate social goals into the yearly planning processes. Such an approach of meeting social requirements indicates that a company is socially responsible.
Lastly, managers at XYZ should be accountable for creating and upholding conditions whereby people are apt to act ethically and reduce situations that promote unethical behavior. Managers, through taking charge of these aspects, can reduce the urge to perform unethical acts, as well as, promote social responsibility at XYZ.
In conclusion, social pressure affects how a company functions. Failure to adhere to such pressure may ruin the reputation of a business, or make a business cease to attract new customers.
Anthropomorphism Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Nature of anthropomorphism
Taxonomy of anthropomorphic claims
Introduction Human beings are generally characterized by traits and behavior, which differentiate them from nonhuman animals. However, it is possible to have a nonhuman being; a person who resembles an animal with regard to behavior and personality, described as rampant anthropomorphism. For instance, a person could be married but be given a name such as “baboon” to imply his or her animal-like personality.
This phenomenon has become quite common, especially in describing the social aspect and manifestation of an animal’s traits in a human being. This has been studied and developed by cognitive ethologists in the last four decades, a concept that is viewed as cognitive revolution.
It is this concern and diversion, which has augmented the relationship between human and nonhuman animals. This has contributed to the emergence of cases like mindreading, playing and rape in nonhuman animals (Keeley 523).
In this understanding, the question many people ask is whether the idea of anthropomorphism is a mistake or reality. Is it possible, realistic and correct to relate human behavior to that of animals like baboons, monkeys, insects and birds? Perhaps this depends on the stance taken in relating human and nonhuman nature of animals.
Keeley 2004 argues that anthropomorphism is a myth and that there is no fault in relating the behavior of human and nonhuman animals. Nevertheless, the case may be argued from different points of view, and there is no problem in describing anthropomorphism beyond attributes, which are known to be untrue.
It is important to underscore the existing relationship between human and nonhuman animals in order to appreciate the need for animals in certain areas of research like neuroscience and developmental psychology.
Despite the fact that cognitive science has remained comparative in its surveys, there is concern over the muted kind of approach accorded to anthropomorphism. It is imperative to have clear information and eliminate doubts that have always been held against animal models.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Anthropomorphism As implied in the above introduction, anthropomorphism revolves around the relationship between human and nonhuman behavior, and was introduced by theologians, as they explored the nature of God and gods with regard to human identity and behavior. The questions raised at that time sought to establish the truth behind the link between human characteristics and their gods.
For example, are human beings created in the image of God or do they create the image of God in their behavior and personality? The role of God is well depicted in the bible, where man interacted with God in several occasions in the Old Testament, according to the Christian faith.
In most instances, proponents of anthropomorphism lay emphasis on perfect qualities in human beings as the impact of God. This is mainly due to the fact that God is highly revered with perfection that is highly needed for a person to portray appealing and attractive qualities (Keeley 524). On the other hand, those opposed to the views of anthropomorphism believe that God and man fall in different categories, which do not allow their attributions to be compared.
Also, it is argued that the inability of man to understand God is because of his divine status, which outweighs that of human beings. This can also be viewed that God’s nature is complicated to allow human comprehension. Throughout the development of science, many studies have come to terms with the fact that anthropomorphizing God may cause people to stray and appreciate their attributions to animals.
Naturally, words carry human connotation, even though some of the motivation and purpose expressed might have no connection with the behavior of animals. In this case, it would be illegitimate to hold certain attributes to other species of animals like insects, monkeys and birds among others.
This school of thought delinks the perceived connection between human behavior and that observed in animals. Whatever attributes observed in baboons do not denote the nature of human beings regardless of connotations that may exist in words used by human beings.
Arguments One important factor is that anthropomorphism thoughts can be ignored even though they are highly perpetuated by cognitive ethologists, who are viewed as heirs of olden scientists. Most of the arguments put forth concentrate on meta-scientific approach that does not appreciate the use of data in supporting scientific claims.
We will write a custom Essay on Anthropomorphism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, the focus is put on what could be considered as appropriate or inappropriate scale during data interpretation and the possibility of finding information outside the scientific scope. Moreover, cognitive ethologists have received backing from several quarters, due to their empirical work. They therefore need to be considered and engaged in discussions before their views concerning anthropomorphism are refuted.
Nature of anthropomorphism According to Keeley 2004, anthropomorphism cannot be assumed to be related to anecdotalism; the two are independent. It is argued that earlier efforts to associate the behavior of human and nonhuman animals’ behavior were based on anthropomorphic and anecdotal approaches. In most cases, their conclusions were based on the achievements observed among certain animals.
This was communicated in form of stories, which were adopted as true findings, relating the behavior of human beings to that of other species (Keeley 527). The lack of cues in most of these findings was enough evidence and reason to refute information collected from people in the form of stories. In essence, anecdotes cannot be considered as satisfactory evidence that can be used to make conclusions regarding the behavior of animals and their capabilities.
Although it might not be essential to understand the superiority between experimental evidence and anecdotes, it is imperative to emphasize the fact that the two sets of quality are independent. With regard to cognitive ethology, it is possible to have experimental evidence in the absence of anecdotal stories because of their distinct connection.
Taxonomy of anthropomorphic claims Like many other fields of study, anthropomorphism encompasses a wide range of senses, some of which might not be relevant in the analysis of some cases defining the behavior of human and nonhuman behavior. Different researchers therefore have an array of views in defining the concept of anthropomorphism. For instance, imaginative anthropomorphism relates the image of animals to human beings.
Importantly, a clear line has to be drawn to differentiate this from interpretive anthropomorphism, which argues that certain traits manifested in animals are caused by similar mechanisms recorded by human beings (Keeley 529). The latter approach can however be understood by considering two ways of analysis: the categorical anthropomorphism and situational anthropomorphism.
Categorical anthropomorphism involves the association of traits to nonhuman animals, which do not have attributions. On the other hand, situational anthropomorphism focuses on cases where the behavior of an animal is misinterpreted depending on the existing circumstances.
Interestingly, opponents of anthropomorphism do not always consider the above situational case as the only mistake, since a situational error can only be identified by use of empirical methods. This differs from what is supported by opponents of anthropomorphism.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Anthropomorphism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On this basis, there is no need of carrying out an ethological study to find out the relationship between the display of bared-teeth and smiling in chimps as purported by some scientists. This ought not to be the case since the animals in question are chimps and not human beings; the two are not connected (Keeley 529).
Similarly, the concept of categorical anthropomorphism can be analyzed deeper to determine further distinction. For instance, there are unwarranted attributions of human behavior to certain animals. A good example is “rape” in flies. How can this be possible? It would be ridiculous to adopt search an approach since insects cannot have human behaviors. Nevertheless, such an argument could probably be conceived when dealing with chimpanzees.
This is based on the likelihood of considering insects versus chimps. From this perspective, it is essential to underline the fact that the issue is never the kind of species being considered but rather the traits being attributed to these animals with regard to human beings (Keeley 529). In other words, human behaviors could be attributed to some animals but not to all nonhuman animals.
Another important factor of consideration is that anthropomorphism is not always defined within psychological confines. Such an approach may limit a justified attribution of human behavior to certain animals.
From the above analysis, it is clear that anthropomorphism is a concept that has received a wide range of views throughout history. It is vital to consider several points of view in establishing the relationship between the traits of human and nonhuman animals.
Works Cited Keeley, Brian. “Anthropomorphism, primatomorphism, mammalomorphism: understanding cross-species comparisons.” Biology and Philosophy 19 (2004): 521–540. Print.
Transpiration Process in Plants Essay online essay help: online essay help
Transpiration refers to the loss of water by plants through tiny pores called stomata. In addition, at times, plants lose water through stems, flowers, branches, or roots. Depending on the particular plant’s adaptation, the stomata location on the leaves surface varies. For most plants, the stomata are located on the undersides of the foliage to minimize the rate of loss during harsh climatic conditions.
Additionally, the stomata have guard cells, which open or close to regulate the transpiration level. Transpiration facilitates the cooling of plants. In addition, the process regulates the rate of absorption of water in the roots, intake of mineral nutrients, and the osmotic pressure within the plant. Some of the factors, which influence this process, include temperature, low humidity and other factors that induce transpiration (Böhm, 2010).
Capillary action facilitates the flow of water from the roots to the shoot in plants. Initially, the roots absorb water by the process of osmosis due to the variation in the concentration of the water level between the soil and roots. For tall plants, the movement of water and nutrients to the upper parts is facilitated by the plants’ reduction of hydrostatic pressure. In this regard, the pores between the soil particles are large compared to the roots pores.
Therefore, the plants absorb water and maintain a consistent supply. Because of the availability of water at the leaves, plants attempt to regulate their moisture content with respect to the surrounding conditions. The main sources of energy for this process include temperature, humidity, wind and incidence of light (Mansfield, 1993).
Temperature levels influence the rate at which transpiration occurs. At high temperatures, plants receive heat, which creates the need for cooling on the upper parts of the leaves. Because of this process, the plants moisture content decreases, and water moves through the pores causing cooling. As a result, the heat vaporizes the water leading to its release into the atmosphere.
Low humidity leads to a difference in vapor concentration occurring between the leaves’ surface and the atmosphere. Water moves by the process of diffusion between two regions with different concentrations. This is influenced by the decrease in the moisture content in the upper side of the leaves. The water release out of the pores is lost to the atmosphere leading to the maintenance of balanced humidity between the leaves and the atmosphere.
Wind refers to the movement of air. Concerning plants, winds play a crucial role in facilitating the process of transpiration. The movement of air causes the difference in water concentration between the leaves and the atmosphere. This is due to the decrease of moisture concentration in the leaves upper part. As a result, water is lost through the wind energy to the atmosphere.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The incidence of light causes heating on the surface of leaves and the decrease in moisture level. The moisture in the leaves is lost through the pores on the upper surface. This causes cooling. The moisture is lost to the atmosphere through the transpiration process.
With the analysis of the sources of energy that influence transpiration, the rate of transpiration depends on the adaptation of a particular plant (Smith, 2006). Regarding the plants in a high-moisturized environment, they have a large number of stomata, which contribute to the high rate of transpiration facilitated by the sources of energy. On the other hand, plants in a dry environment have adaptation characteristics that facilitate low levels of transpiration.
References Böhm, C. (2010). Transpiration. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Mansfield, T. A., Davies, W. J.,
Fire Prevention at Waste Handling and Control Classification Essay essay help
Table of Contents Solid Waste Management Systems
Waste Chutes and Handling Systems
Codes, Regulations, and Standards
Solid Waste Management Systems Waste management systems cover processes of collection, temporal storage, internal transportation, treating, and finally the goal of garbage disposal or remains generated from garbage management procedures (Douncet
Confucians and Judeo-Christians Essay essay help
Part 1: The Ethical Conflict between Indulging Individual Freedom and a Well-ordered Society
This conflict can be seen in the case of Confucians against Western democracy or Judeo-Christians. Western countries including Europe and America seem to observe individual freedom at the expense of the entire society unlike Asian countries, which embrace the notion of a well-ordered society.
For instance, enhanced standards of living, in countries that embrace individual freedom, such as America and Europe, are likely to be viewed in light of the size of the yard that an individual’s home covers and the number of channels that one can access from his TV. On the other hand, enhanced standards of living, in countries that embrace the notion of well-ordered societies, such as Asian countries, are likely to be viewed in light of societal issues like night security and the capacity to limit undesirable media content to children.
This conflict is as a result of realization, by Asians states, that they can do things equally with other cultures. The majority of present Neo-Confucianists spent their early lives in Asia, where Westerners ruled predominantly. At present, Neo-Confucianists want to overturn the cultural flow, in order to see the Americans concurring with them on some notions.
Part 2: How Different Religious and Philosophical or Cultural Perspectives Shape Moral Perceptions and Discernment
Confucian and Judeo-Christian ideas shape views of leaders in different ways. Lee, the leader of Singapore and a Confucian, feels that the Americans have deserted the ethical foundations of society. Therefore, he does all that he can, in order to ensure that such a situation does not show up in his territory. Besides, Lee orders policemen to keep a vigilant eye on Singapore, in order to ensure that people do not commit crimes such as littering and chewing gum (Reid 3).
The government of Lee, also, controls the savings of citizens by ordering them to secure a certain amount of their money and no one opposes this act. A number of Neo-Confucians say “the government of Lee is a pervasion of the sage’s teachings” (Reid 3). The same critics argue that Lee of Singapore and Mahathir of Malaysia twist Confucius ideals, in their territories, in order to safeguard their personal power.
The standpoint of Reid is that the authoritarian rule employed in Singapore is not part of Confucianism (3). This is because South Korea, which also embraces Confucianism, is a noisy and polluted state. However, Koreans claim to be no lesser Confucians than Singaporeans. Therefore, the outlook of Lee on Confucianism or Asian culture is for personal gains, because Confucians appreciate democracy.
On the other hand, Thomas Jefferson and Washington got influenced by Judeo-Christian ideals. Judeo-Christian virtues allow democracy since they embrace the virtue of individual freedoms. Besides, both leaders promoted activism during their reign, as an influence of the Judeo-Christian ideas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Part 3: Reasons for a Course of Action Consistent with One’s Personal Moral Values
Obtaining the right balance between individual freedom and social order requires enjoying individual rights while not interfering with social order. For instance, adults may be allowed to view any TV channels that they desire, while limiting the content that get exposed to children. This can be a feasible way of balancing social order and individual freedom, as individuals will enjoy their freedom while maintaining a well-ordered society.
A well-ordered society, in this case, will appear because children will not be exposed to in appropriate material, such as violent video games and pornography, which are likely to cause undesirable behaviors like violence and crime, in the society. Such balance can be obtained from societies that embrace individual freedom, such as, Europe and America, since children’s rights to protection from abusive media can easily be incorporated into individual rights.
Part 4: The Alternate Perspective
Conversely, it would be hard to balance individual freedoms and social order in a Confucius society. This is because a Confucian, such as, Lee of Singapore leads by autocracy, and may not tolerate the notion of individual freedoms. Hence, it would be difficult to maintain a well-ordered society that, also, embraces individual freedoms, in such a territory.
Besides, it would be difficult to balance social order and liberty in a country like South Korea, which is extremely disorganized. South Korea, which also embraces Confucianism, is a noisy and polluted state. Hence, although South Koreans have democracy, it would be extremely difficult to balance individual freedoms and social order in a disorganized state.
Bibliography Reid, TR. “Confucius Says Go East, Young Man: Many Asians Now Think Their Lives and Values Are Better Than the American Way.” The Washington Post 19 Nov. 1995: 3. Print.
Correlation Coefficient Analysis Case Study online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Correlation coefficient analysis is used in exploring relationship(s) between variables where there is interest in examining the strength of a relationship between variables. A correlation coefficient is a numeric measure of the amount of strength of the association or relationship between variables.
In this case, the variables are GDP per capita, economic freedom and property rights. The current case study aims to look at the statement, “the nations’ wealth appears to be highly related with a level of economic freedom and property rights” and establish its consistency or otherwise with the collected data.
Consistency or inconsistency of the statement with the data The table below shows three countries that had the highest GDP per Capita value, Economic Freedom, and also Property Rights. The table also shows the countries with the lowest GDP per Capita value, Economic Freedom, and also Property Rights.
Country GDP per Capita (2011) Economic Freedom Index Property Rights Index Austria $40,624.85 70.3 7.8 Denmark $47,284.65 76.2 8.2 USA $42,448.43 76.3 7.5 Nepal $370.97 50.2 4.4 Madagascar $270.99 62.4 4.1 Uganda $440.52 61.9 4.9 Source: Author (2012)
From the above table, it can clearly be seen that there exists a strong relationship between a nations’ wealth (GDP per Capita), Economic Freedom, and Property Rights. From the economic performance of the selected countries, it can be observed that increase in economic freedom results in increased GDP per Capita. Similarly, increase in security of a person’s property results in increased GDP per Capita.
Therefore, there is a positive correlation between the dependent variable (GDP per Capita), and the Independent variables (Economic Freedom and Property Rights). This means that an increase in the independent variable results in an increase in the dependent variable resulting in positive correlation. However, the correlation between GDP per Capita and Property Rights is stronger with a correlation coefficient of 0.8045 compared to the lower correlation coefficient of 0.6860 between GDP per Capita and Economic Freedom.
Countries that have free economic freedom and the most secure freedom rights have large GDP per Capita. This can be Denmark has the highest GDP per Capita ($47,284.65) and also the most secure property rights (8.2). This country also has a high index economic freedom coming second to USA with an index of 8.2. Increased security in property ownership and rights of use means that people are more confident of the future and can invest without fear of loosing their property and hence investment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will therefore spur growth and results in the growth of a nation’s wealth (GDP per Capita). At the same time, secure property rights regimes means that more new investors whether domestic or foreign will be willing to invest in the country. This will result in growth in the GDP. When people feel insecure about their property, they do not invest and in extreme cases may even to get out of earlier investments resulting in a decline in GDP per capita.
This was the case in Uganda when the dictatorial government of Id Amin seized foreign owned property (of mostly immigrant Indians) consequently plunging Uganda in an economic crisis that has yet to recover fully. Economic freedom does not only make trade easier, but also allows healthy competition. This completion is good because it ensures that high quality products that are affordable to the customers are in the market.
This will therefore result in increased GDP per Capita. Economic freedom is also associated with reduction of the process of licensing of new enterprises. This removal of unnecessary barriers to trade encourages new people to venture into business resulting in increased GDP per Capita.
Etiquette in France Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Greeting and Meeting
Dining and Entertainment
Introduction The French people always adhere to harmonized and strong values set by the country. They normally take pleasure in their language, culture, cuisine and history. This is one of the reasons why France has been a leading nation in fashion, architecture, art, food and wine.
The French people embrace originality and new ideas in all sectors of business. The French people also value etiquette and mannerism in the corporate world, eating, and dressing. This paper is mainly about etiquette in France addressing, eating, business as well as persona etiquette.
Greeting and Meeting The French people normally shake hands each time they meet. When it is the first time that a French person is meeting you whether for business or friendship, they normally consider shaking hands with you.
Shaking of hands is also a common practice every morning when people arrive at work whereby colleagues get to greet each other by shaking hands. This can also happen when they are leaving work in the evening. Families or close friends in France usually kiss their loved one at the cheeks as a sign of greetings (“Etiquette in France,” 2012).
Corporate Culture French business people do value professionalism at a very high rate since it is the means through which outsiders such as customers are accepted. French people respect and admire hard work in business but they are against workaholics. French people enjoy and encourage well-educated and trained labor force. This is one of the reasons why France a country is successful when it comes to business.
Keeping time and punctuality is one thing that French people value and appreciate in business. This has promoted effectiveness especially when it comes to serving the customers. French business people are usually conservative and most of the time they like being formal. Most business affiliations are mainly professional, accurate and organized.
Every person who goes into any organization in France is expected to provide their business cards to the secretary or leave it to the receptionist when you arrive in the office. All the print cards or academic degree are done either in French or English. This is because majority of people in France speak English and French.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The French government performs a major part in many businesses in France. Whenever you need help with regulatory obstacles, local representatives such as lawyers and bankers are always there to offer you with whatever directions you need. Most business people in France do not normally share their personal life especially with those they do business with.
They normally keep their private life away from business (France – French Culture, Customs and Etiquette, n.d.). This means that nobody is allowed to introduce their personal life in business especially when they are found in mistakes or in cases whereby they have been coming to work late regularly.
French people are quick and that is why they find it easy to get into a business. However they are slow when it comes to decision making process since they normally take their time to reflect on the way the business will go about and how to make it prosper. When it comes to economic planning, French business people lead. This is because they normally make up plans which are detailed and comprehensive which normally lead to success.
Most business institutions in France are federal and they have chief executives who are very influential. Most managers in these organizations are authoritative and domineering. There are specific rooms within the organizations that are selected such that only those with specific ranks are allowed to seat or even enter the room. Anyone who is below the rank is not allowed to set foot on the room unless they get permission from the authority.
When most organizations carry out meetings, they normally follow a set up format which every individual must honor and keep time. The main agenda to be discussed in the meetings are usually detailed and to the point. This helps in time saving and eases the whole process since everyone is aware of the main agenda to be discussed in the meeting. French people are disciplined; they cannot debate or disagree in public forums. They normally control their debates making them more enjoyable and lively.
One of the reasons why business meetings are held in France is to clarify and brief the staff and subordinates concerning certain issues. The intentions are usually stated openly, clearly and directly so as not to confuse the people (“Etiquette in France,” 2012). Before any presentation is conducted, it is usually well written and organized in a clear and comprehensive way before it is presented in professional and formal manner. One of the things that French people dislike most is the hard sell method.
French people value connections and group work. Business meetings held before two weeks or during August, Easter period and Christmas time is usually discouraged in France because during these particular periods of time, most people will want to be with their loved ones hence some may miss the meeting or those who will attend will not be that attentive. Most French business persons do not like to be called at home except if it is an emergency such as fire outbreak or theft cases.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Etiquette in France specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dining and Entertainment French people will consider anyone who does not value eating rules to be discourteous. Foreigners are therefore expected to master French table manners. In France, they do not expect anyone to carry flowers to the dining table; they should be either sent before the event or after. Carrying pets or close friends to the dining without permission is highly prohibited in France. The host of an event should be informed well in advance if anyone is to carry a pet or bring a friend for diner.
It will be considered a dishonor if any guest refuses to take the foods prepared for dinner. The only two meals that guests are accepted to reject are curry and oysters. However, the hostess is required to find out the type of meal that the guests would like to take before they begin to supply food.
A normally dinner in France usually takes about two to four hours due to a wide variety of means served separately. All the guests present are expected to eat at least each small portion of the meals served at the table. A glass of French wine cannot miss at the dining table and every guest is expected to serve it. More wine will be added to those people whose wineglass is not full.
The French people love to use knives and forks to eat their meals. Meals such as fish and chicken should be first slashed into pieces and then collected for consumption using particular type of table gadgets such as fork.
The art of using knives and forks by the French people have gone as far as using them to consume fruits. The salad is not to be slashed into pieces instead it should be properly crinkled before consumption. The dining table is usually set with salad knife but guests should not utilize it unless it is the last choice available.
Resting your elbows on the dining table is not allowed and is considered as unethical when it comes to table manners. You should place your hands where they are visible (“A guide to French etiquette,” 2008). The hands should not be placed on the lap.
Those people who are still eating are expected to traverse the equipments they were eating with by placing the fork above the knife on the plate. French people hate unexpected visitors. Friends should inform each other before they come for a visit. Making phone calls before 10am in the morning and after 9pm at night is highly prohibited in France.
It is unethical to ask for a scotch or a martini before they prepare dinner. French people consider those who do this to be palate numbing. After every meal, French people usually serve their guests or family members with liqueurs. Most business people in France usually take their breakfast and lunch while working. However, lunch time is still regarded as private time.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Etiquette in France by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At dinner time, French people do not always talk about business. This is because they see diner time as communal event and period for taking pleasure in the nice meal prepared. There is however some dinners mainly organized to discuss business and in such occasion, spouses are not always incorporated. Male and female guests do not always sit together; the female is expected to sit at the right hand side of the host while the male is expected to seat at the left hand side of the hostess (“France,” 2012).
All the guests are not allowed to taste anything until their hostess or hosts have done it. If in any case there is a toast to be made, you should be patient enough not to drink the wine until the toast has been made. Nobody is expected to smoke during dinner or lunch time when people are taking meals. French people consider it ill-mannered to depart without clearing your food. It is proper to thank the host or hostess after the dinner or lunch meal.
Dress The French people dress with heed and concern hence expects every person in the country to do the same. France as a country are leaders in fashion which means that they are conscious about fashion and that is why they dress in understated and conservative way. It is inappropriate to be seen in the city with casual attire. Everyone should be elegant and tidy every time and every day.
This means that French people are fond of good things and that is also the reason why you find that most people put on valuable accessories. To create a good impression in the public, men are expected to wear conservative suits which are dark in color. On the other hand, women are expected to put on elegant dresses or suits which are stylish but have soft colors. The suites or dresses should be sophisticated with no cleavages and they should not show off their thighs.
In conclusion, the French people always adhere to harmonized and strong values set by the country. They value etiquette and mannerism in the corporate world, eating, and dressing as expressed above.
References A guide to French etiquette. (2008). Web.
Etiquette in France. (2012). Web.
France. (2012). Web.
France – French Culture, Customs and Etiquette. (n.d.). Web.
Jane Austen and Convention of the Gothic Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How Jane Austen challenges conventions of gothic novels
Introduction The novel Northanger Abbey adversely mentions gothic literature; it even influences the main characters’ actions and decisions. However, the use of this genre is done to mock and trivialise the genre.
How Jane Austen challenges conventions of gothic novels As one reads the novel, one comes across a series of gothic titles throughout the narration. The characters talk about and reference various pieces in the book. Catherine meets with Isabella at the beginning of her adventure at Bath. Their main topic of conversation is gothic literature. These two ladies especially mention the Mysteries of Udolpho, by Ann Radcliffe, but their fondness for the books makes them appear one -dimensional and detached from reality.
Jane Austen also mocks gothic literature by selecting a very unconventional heroine. Gothic novels usually feature beautiful young women as main characters. Catherine is average-looking at best; sometimes, Austen leads readers to believe that her main character is even unattractive. The first page states that Catherine had “an awkward figure, sallow skin colour, dark lank hair and strong features” (Austen 1817, p.1).
In eighteenth century Britain, strong features and sallow skin were undesirable traits. Jane Austen wanted to defy conventional expectations of gothic literature by choosing an individual who had little physical appeal. Furthermore, Catherine’s social background was nothing extraordinary. She came from a large middle income household, yet most gothic novels either focused on incredibly poor or exceptionally wealthy heroines (Rose 1993).
Furthermore, Catherine was not talented in the conventional ways of English society at the time. She could not draw or paint, and neither could she write. Even Austen remarks that she was “a strange and unaccountable character” (Austen 1817, p.6). Catherine appears to have challenges with social interactions as well. She does not seem to understand people; yet this is a predominant quality in most gothic books.
Catherine did not know about Isabella’s true intentions until the situation had gone overboard. She could not hide her suspicions about Henry’s father from him. Furthermore, she fails to realise that she was leading-on John Thorpe. Catherine lacks social experience, which was a quality that was hard to miss in the gothic genre. In choosing such a heroine, the author wanted to challenge stereotypes of women in romantic literature, of which gothic novels belong (Summers 1964).
In the narration, the main character appears to grow and learn about the workings of English society. This was not initially true at the beginning. In fact, one detects Catherine’s naivety when she first visits Bath. She seems to have an overblown imagination about the way the world works. Catherine looks at the world through the eyes of the characters in gothic novels (Glock 1978).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In these books, seemingly ordinary events can lead to terrible occurrences in the future. The main character thinks of Mrs. Tilney’s death as one such tale, but later realises that she had distorted reality. Jane Austen wanted to demonstrate how gothic novels can feed the mind with unrealistic and fantastic expectations. For instance, when Henry drives her out to Northanger Abbey, he indulges her imagination:
“In one perhaps there may be a dagger, in another a few drops of blood, and in a third the remains of some instrument of torture; … your lamp being nearly exhausted, you will return towards your own apartment. In passing through the small vaulted room, however, your eyes will be attracted towards a large, old-fashioned cabinet of ebony and gold, which, though narrowly examining the furniture before, you had passed unnoticed.” (Austen 1817, p. 144)
Catherine is quite gullible at this point because she expects nothing short of gothic mystery in the place. She is deeply disappointed when she realises that Henry’s home is quite ordinary. The house possesses none of those concealed spaces that she read about in the gothic tales.
Clearly, Catherine is deluded by these readings; the author wanted to show that such exaggerations can impede one’s functioning in society. Catherine paid a heavy price for these wild imaginations when Henry discovered that she thought that someone has murdered his father. Some critics summarise this depiction through the following summary
“Again and again we see the kind of malediction novels confer on Catherine, teaching her to talk in inflated and stilted clichés, training her to expect impossibly villainous or virtuous behaviour from people whose motives are more complex than she suspects, binding her to the mundane selfishness of her contemporaries” (Gilber and Gubar, 2000, 132).
Although Austen satirises gothic novels through Catherine’s extreme indulgences, one must realise that the main character still sensed the pretentiousness of the people around her. She was right about questioning General Tilney’s character, because he turned out to be mean spirited and elitist. The author of the book wanted to show that gothic elements can skew one’s reality, but may lead to unconscious revelations about such people.
As such, Austen did not completely write-off gothic fiction. She wanted to satirise its flaws, but also acknowledge that it did possess some insights. The writer defied conventions of gothic novels by starting with a naive character, and then developed and nurtured her to the woman that she becomes at the end of the novel.
We will write a custom Essay on Jane Austen and Convention of the Gothic specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In most gothic works, the heroines of the narrations are highly perceptive. They are well experienced in the world, and know what to expect from people. These are all qualities that Catherine lacks at the beginning of the book (St.Clair 2004).
Catherine is not the only character in the novel to defy conventional gothic depictions: General Tilney also signifies this indifference to the status quo. At the time when Austen wrote her novel, most gothic novels had villains that were forceful, violent or even murderous. However, Northanger Abbey has none of this; in fact, the villain does not seem to possess the typical traits of such a character (Sadlier, 1944). Nonetheless, Austen depicts his undesirability through his intentions and interests.
The General is overly concerned about Catherine’s wealth regardless of her admirable qualities as a person. A woman’s social status is so important to the ‘villain’ that he is willing to ruin his relationship with his son for it. Henry Tilney chooses to defy his father rather than abide by his dictatorial rules. One can perceive that Jane Austen wanted to speak out against the ills of male patriarchy in her society (Varma 1966).
She, therefore, preferred to use this role in order to advance her themes rather than to advance her plot, unlike the case is in eighteenth century gothic literature. Perhaps even the treatment of General Tilney as an antagonist is misguided in this analysis. He comes off as a man who cares too much about money and reality. The General is so concerned about maintaining his status that he meddles into the affairs of his children. Austen opted to mock gothic books by having a character that takes the shape of villain, but is not really one.
Sometimes gothic pieces focused on man’s weaknesses and his inability to control his surrounding. Rarely did they caricature society’s flaws (Levine 1999). Northanger Abbey was the exact opposite of this propensity. It satirises society’s obsessions with power and wealth through its plot as well as its characters. One such individual was Isabella who claims to care for nothing more than love.
However, she gets very frustrated at her fiancée when she realises that he is not as wealthy as she had presumed. She causes James great anguish when he realises that she was flirting with another man. Additionally, General Tilney is quite hospitable to Catherine when he thinks that she comes from a wealthy family. However, he kicks her out when John tells him otherwise.
These people were all depictions of what society can become when it places too much emphasis on wealth. Jane Austen challenges conventions of gothic literature by going in this direction. One should note that most females in the late eighteenth century had minimal economic or social options. Writing was one of the few professions that individuals could use in order to earn a decent living (Kate 1993).
They were not politicians or property owners, but they had an opinion and needed to express it somewhere (Todd 1980). The author of the novel chose to mock societal practices through the use of a common literary genre, that is: the gothic novel. While the main character of the book is unattractive, Isabella is beautiful and charming.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Jane Austen and Convention of the Gothic by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The author used conventional qualities of protagonists in gothic literature to satirise Isabella’s obsession with material wealth (Monaghan 1981). This choice in character traits may seem unintentional, but it reaffirms the fact that the book is indeed a parody of gothic work.
In order to mock certain elements of fiction, some authors may choose to mirror the stylistic devices of their parodied work in order to achieve this objective (Dentith 2000). Likewise, Jane Austen does the same thing with her novel. She integrates gothic elements in her piece in a manner that satirizes them rather than validates them. Most gothic novels have an air of mystery about them.
They tend to cause suspense by leaving out vital pieces of information. Readers often read on in order to discover what will happen to the main character. Austen uses mystery in her novel as well, but this achieves different objectives. For instance at some point, Henry describes Abbey exaggeratedly to Catherine. Of course she realises that Henry is fooling around.
However when she finds a manuscript, she presumes that she can uncover some proof about her suspicions. However, darkness engulfs her and she hears “receding footsteps… and the closing of a distant door” (Austen, 155). She cannot validate the significance of this piece of paper until morning. When morning comes, she soon appreciates that it was nothing but a laundry list.
The passage about the dark room may fill a reader with suspense. Nonetheless, when one discovers the reason behind her fear, one realises that there was no mystery behind it. Jane Austin employs gothic tactics to satirise the genre by showing that all the mystery was created in the mind of the protagonist.
Most gothic novels often focus on oppressed individuals. These situations may elevate readers’ perceptions of the main characters after they triumph over their adversaries. Usually, such heroines will scream and act in terror. Sometimes them may cry and faint over an issue. Others may appear overly emotional or too sentimental (Mandal 1999). It is through their sorrow and anger that the readers get to connect with them.
In Northanger Abbey, Jane Austen also uses sentimentality as a trait, but only as a mechanism to defy the oppressed-heroine stereotype. In one instance Catherine seems to have lost it all; her potential father in law sends her out of his house. It is almost as if her whole world has been shattered, although John Thorpe was partly to blame for this occurrence.
Regardless of these circumstances, the reader does not necessarily think of Catherine as a damsel in distress. Furthermore, things change for the better when Henry pays her a visit in her hometown (ART 2008. General Tinley eventually consents to the marriage, so she ceases to be the oppressed victim. In another scenario, the death of Mrs. Tilney preoccupies Catherine’s mind when she suspects that her husband killed her.
However, little proof exists for her to validate this statement. She seems deeply disturbed by these issues, and one may even assume that she is living in a dangerous place. Later on, she realises that there was nothing to these suspicions. “The absurdity of her curiosity and her fears… could they ever be forgotten? She hated herself more than she could express” (Austen 1817, p.183). Austen mocks this aspect of victimisation in gothic literature by dismissing off ‘dangerous situations’ as misguided thoughts or delusions.
Conclusion Jane Austen satirises gothic literature by using unconventional characters in her novel. The protagonist is not a damsel in distress, unattractive or even talented, yet one cannot miss these qualities in the gothic genre. Additionally, the villain does not fit conventional gothic depictions because he commits no explicit wicked acts.
The author also uses her characters to mock society’s obsession with wealth; an uncommon trait in gothic work. Even the stylistic devices she borrows from the latter genre are designed to dismiss such works as remote from reality.
References ART, 2008, ‘Northanger Abbey and Persuasion’, Quarterly Review, vol. 24 no. 3, pp. 48.
Austen, J, 1817, Northanger Abbey, John Murray, London.
Dentith, S, 2000, Parody, Routledge, London.
Technical Communication Summary Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Social exchange theory as an example of principle of interpersonal communication, proposes that people tend to weigh relationships by putting into account the ratio of their returns to that of their expenses. Communication within an organisation has been used by writers to draw conclusions of the theory for places of work. Insightful assumptions can be drawn through the application of this theory to work relationships.
Some relationships have to do deal with status benefits, self-esteem, or satisfaction in communication. Costly relationships have higher chances of dissipation over time, while worthwhile ones are probably more enduring. If there is a need to enhance beneficial relationships in the work place, one has to consider ways that can intensify the perceived benefits they carry along.
There is an implication of social exchange theory that if effective relationships are to be established and maintained, rewards have to be used in those situations. Similarly, continuity in relationships of a communication environment can be achieved through the development of superior communication skills.
Interpersonal communication’s research puts into consideration the relationship maintenance factors. These researches have concluded on some elements that are deemed important. They include assurance giving, positive communication, networking and openness.
Skills for managing interpersonal communication range from those having an influence on communication climate to those creating awareness of individual communication approach. Message is an element that has been emphasised most by scholars as compared to other elements.
Research has shown that simply speaking the right words is not enough. Communication climate is a contextual element referring to those conditions present at the immediate communication setting. This element influences the feeling of acceptance and other emotions concerning relationship. The following formula is helpful in understanding it: Communication = Content Relationship.
Exchange of hurtful messages creates difficulties in building healthy communication climate. Supportiveness, non evaluative communication, spontaneity and openness are conditions essential for building a communication climate. Supportiveness entails encouraging, loyal and considerate communication. Non evaluative communication involves constructive criticism that aims at understanding first before judging.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Immediate evaluation and critique smothers interpersonal communication faster than any other factor. In addition to this, communicating with descriptions and observations of behaviours, rather than personal interpretations are useful for the success of interpersonal communication. Examples of non evaluative communications include communicating mostly feelings, communicating mostly observations and communicating more behaviours than observations.
The use of spontaneous rather than rehearsed messages is another factor which enhances positive communication climate. Spontaneity occurs when one uses a lively tone of voice, makes eye contact, smiles and takes turns with the communication partner. Turn taking involves moving into new conversational topics of relevance to others instead of fixing individual favorite topics. Listening carefully and then speaking using less ‘canned’ language enhance interpersonal communication skills.
Being open minded and receptive to innovation have greater contributions towards successful communication climate. Maintenance of openness and avoidance of dogmatism can be eliminated using the so called ‘cushion statements’ which helps in making dialogues more sensitive. However, cushioning of statements do not imply that one cannot say what he/she intends rather than being aware of peoples’ comfort levels when agreeing or disagreeing with them.
Interpersonal communication concerns two areas of awareness: self awareness and awareness of others. Areas of awareness are either known or unknown to other people and comprises of four quadrants of the model.
The North Haven Fire Department Report online essay help
Introduction The North Haven town is located ten miles from Yale University and New Haven and ten miles from Long Island Sound in Connecticut, United States of America. It is about seventy six miles from New York City. This town has an estimated area of about twenty one square miles whereby almost twenty square miles consist of land while the rest is covered by water. According to the census report of 2005 it was estimated that The North Haven town had a population of twenty three thousand nine hundred and eight people.
This town is home to various learning institutions like Quinnipiac University graduate colleges and schools and other New Haven based learning institutions. It derives a lot of fame through its developed infrastructure with a huge manufacturing and retail businesses employing about twelve thousand six hundred and forty people. This report aims at outlining various aspects in the structure and functioning of The North Haven Fire Department which plays a major role in rescue and emergency services.
The history of The North Haven Fire Department dates back to more than forty years ago when it was a constituent of a SAFER donation from the Federal Emergency Management Agency. However, in 2009/2010 there were major changes in this department and it was allowed to develop its fire fighting abilities through investing in career development of its workers.
This plan was successful courtesy of the grants obtained from the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the immense support from the community during a budget referendum to put the grant into consideration (The Library Director). This played an important role of ensuring there were enough resources to train their staff as far as fire fighting was concerned. The North Haven Fire Department consists of thirty four employees.
These employees are categorized as administrators who comprise of one Fire Chief, Deputy Fire Chief and four Lieutenants who also act as shift controllers. The other group of workers is referred to as the fire fighters and it consists of twenty eight workers. This department is further aided by other volunteer companies that include Montowese, West Ridge and Northeast companies that are allowed to have a maximum of thirty five workers.
These volunteer companies consists of a Captain, two Lieutenants and two Foremen while the Fire Police Division are supervised by Police Lieutenants assigned to each company and are answerable to the Chief of the Department. This Department has an elaborate system that enables all their plans to be carried out effectively (The Library Director). The management does not solely perform the administrative roles but rather allocates some of these duties to the managers of volunteer companies.
Through this division of labor it becomes very easy to offer quality fire fighting services to the residents of The New Haven town in terms of public awareness on fire fighting equipments and the steps to be taken in the event that there is a fire outbreak. Planning is an essential element in the process of delivering quality services to the people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The office of the Fire Marshal has an elaborate plan that involves new activities and reviewing the existing practices. These activities include routine inspections of fire fighting equipments in homes, institutions and all other areas that have been considered to be risky in the event of fire breakouts.
All new and renovated buildings are visited to ensure they conform to the standards stipulated by the CT Fire Safety Code. Training of fire fighters is a mandatory practice that all disaster management organizations must adhere to in order to ensure the fire fighters and the victims are safe during rescue operations while ensuring there is no damage to property.
It is a requirement that all career and volunteer members of The North Haven Fire Department attain a minimum of Firefighter 1 level in order to handle medical emergencies and respond effectively to situations that require systematic rescue procedures.
There are daily training sessions by the career fire fighters using a time table prepared by the chief’s office and supervised by officers commanding these sections. In the volunteer companies training is done every week to ensure all fire fighters have the required skills and to inform them on how various equipments are used.
There are indoor sessions that offer basic and technical knowledge to all fire fighters to enable them develop and sharpen their field skills in order to have a wider knowledge on how to approach various disasters in the town. There were certification classes organized by the department to build on the skills of staff members in fire fighter 1 and 2 curriculums.
In addition, four members received higher training on Hazardous Material Technician Level (HMTL) to ensure they have skills that will enable them handle disasters in the Haz-Mat team levels (The Library Director).
It is very important that all fire fighters undergo regular training in order to build on their skills with regard to the inevitable changes that occur as a result of modernization. In addition, it is important for fire fighters to do routine exercises to ensure they remind themselves of the basic rules and guidelines that ensure effective rescue operations are conducted in the event of disasters.
We will write a custom Report on The North Haven Fire Department specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fire fighting and disaster management is a comprehensive activity that involves the use of physical, biological and mental assets of the victims and rescuers. It should be noted that the fire fighter’s safety is as important as the victim’s safety and without efficient equipments both of them will be subjected to great risks.
However, The North Haven Fire Department boasts of an elaborate network of apparatus that enable its workers perform their duties effectively (The Library Director). These equipments consist of a ladder truck, seven pumping engines, two rescue trucks and two vehicles that carry command functions.
There are other equipments for special cases like a boat for rescuing victims stranded in rivers and ponds and a gator for off road cases. Apart from performing rescue and evacuation services to the public The North Haven Fire Department offers public education on safety in schools, homes, companies and business premises through issuing educational brochures on safety topics.
The fire fighting department carries out periodic surveys on security matters in schools, homes and companies to ensure no one is exposed to any risk. In addition, they also help in supplying smoke detectors to homes that had faulty ones or none at all. This was made possible during one of the department’s campaign dubbed North Haven Cares that saw one thousand three hundred and forty three smoke detectors distributed in various homes that had faulty ones or none at all.
Conclusion The North Haven Fire Department is one of the largest successful enterprises in the United States due to their ability to handle various forms of disasters that citizens are exposed to. These disasters range from fire outbreaks to drowning on swimming pools. Effective rescue operations are determined by the level of training of rescue workers, equipments used and public knowledge regarding essential safety measures at personal and institutional levels.
Works Cited The Library Director. The North Haven Fire Department: The North Haven Town, May 2001. Web.
Apple Inc and IPhones 4 Market Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Apple Inc. is one company that for a long time has dominated smartphone market due to its exemplary technology and innovation. The company has built a formidable reputation that its competitors find virtually impossible to dislodge or ignore.
Apple Inc., spearheaded by dedicated management team, has remained keen to innovation and technological development, which are the bedrock of the company’s success. Success for Apple Inc. has largely come from a combination of brand development and loyalty, innovative products, superb marketing strategies, and exemplary public relations strategies.
Recently, the company launched the innovative iPhones 4 products, which will be the basis of this study analysis. It is perceived that exemplary performance of this product in the market depends on identifying the right marketing strategies through carrying out adequate market analysis.
Company Overview Apple Inc. was established in 1977 by three friends – Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne. Since its establishment, Apple Inc. has established itself in the market as a company that is involved in the design and production of innovative personal computer (PC) products and also developing its own unique operating systems to run its designs of Mac desktops and laptops (Porter and Norton 2009, p.335).
In addition, Apple Inc. boasts of numerous innovative products and services it has introduced in the market over the years. For example, some of popular products innovated by the company include: Mac computers, iPhones, iPod, Apple TV, Xserve, consumer and professional software applications, the Mac OS X and iOS operating systems (Reuters, 2011).
Other products and services include third-party digital content such as iTunes stores, and many more accessories, service and support offerings, all of which are geared towards satisfying identified market niche (Reuters, 2011). At the same time, Apple Inc. employs different market methods to dispose its products and services.
The most notable ones include retail stores, online stores, direct sales, third-party network carriers, wholesalers, retailers, and value-added resellers (Reuters, 2011). The market niche for the company’s products is diverse, but the most identified ones include individual consumers, small and medium sized companies, education fraternity, enterprise organizations, government, and creative markets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apple Inc.’s market segmentation has concentrated largely in five market regions that include America, Europe, Japan, Asia-Pacific, and Retail (Reuters, 2011). American market serves both North and South American markets, while the Europe market extends its network among Europe countries, Middle East, and Africa regions.
On the other hand, Asia-Pacific markets cater for all Asian countries including Australia and New Zealand, but exclude Japan, while the Retail market has big concentration in United States of America and selected international markets. Financial performance of the company remains healthy, and this can be attributed to increasing sales of iPhones units.
Since 2007, net income for the company has been on upward trend and by the end of 2010’s fourth quarter, the company posted improved revenues of $28.27 billion with net profit of 6.62 billion (Apple 2011).
Market Analysis for iPhone 4 In 2010, Apple Inc designed yet another innovative product in the market (iPhone 4) which immediately became a market ‘hit’, recording massive sales and enquiries. Since the introduction of the first iPhone 4 products, Apple Inc. has continued to improve the product and just a few weeks ago, the company introduced to the market, an improved version of iPhone 4 known as iPhone 4S (Gallagher, 2011).
Within three days after being introduced in the market, iPhone 4S sold 4 million units, surpassing records set by other devices (Gallagher, 2011).
PEST Analysis Political
China’s political climate remains conducive for local and international business activities. The country enjoys political stability where also, government has been initiating policies that tend to open up the country’s market for outside world, while protecting the home firms through balanced regulation of business activities and contracting requirements for foreign firms (Asian Market Research, 2003).
China is a growing economy where social classes are differentiated by economic position. Young people and students tend to have fewer resources to purchase products or satisfy their consumption needs.
We will write a custom Report on Apple Inc and IPhones 4 Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, they tend to operate on limited budgets while making purchases for smartphone products. Therefore, they tend to buy products that their budget constraints can afford, yet possessing the desired features and ‘smartness’.
China’s market is composed of different demographics that differ in consumption characteristics. With a population of over a billion people, China’s smartphone market remains dominated by young people and students who embrace latest technology at faster rate than older people do. However, the young population is limited by financial constraints in their consumption needs of smartphone products.
Technology remains the most avenue companies continue to battle especially as taste among different demographics tend to shift regularly and embrace technologically enhanced products. Apple can capitalize on its exemplary technological know-how to respond to consumer needs of Asian market.
Competitive Analysis for iPhone 4 Competitive market leverage emanates from market segmentation strategies, and this can be possible with Asian market (Sigal, 2010). Different market competitive frameworks can be used to assess Apple’s potential and suitability of penetrating the Asian market (China), which is one of the developing economies; this is in addition to how well the company can introduce the iPhone 4 products in this market.
Porter’s Five-force Model In 1980, Michael Porter observed that the profitability potential of an industry depends on five competitive factors, which possess the ability to influence return on investment of any given company (Henry, 2008).
The five competitive factors, popularly known as Porter’s five-force model include threat of new entrants, rivalry among competitors, threat of substitutes products, bargaining power of buyers, and bargaining power of suppliers (Henry 2008).
Threats of new entrants
At the moment, the smartphone market is gradually becoming complicated, given the increasing number of competitors such as Nokia and Samsung. This shows that as potential continue to grow in the sector and entrants’ barriers become loose, it is likely that in near future, there will be flood of new entrants into the market, especially in potential markets like Asia.
Rivalry among competitors
Currently, Nokia has established itself in the Asian market more strongly, given its concentration in low-end products; this endeavors the company to many consumers. Other smaller competitors are coming up, as market barriers reduce, and this is likely to complicate the market environment even further for Apple Inc.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Apple Inc and IPhones 4 Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Threat of substitutes products
Asian market, and specifically China, has a number of players producing market moving smartphone products. For instance, Nokia has the Nokia Oyj; Google Inc has numerous Androids, while Samsung also market numerous smartphone products. Therefore, substitutes to Apple’s iPhones are likely to be more as numerous competitors join the market.
Bargaining power of buyers
The smartphone market in China is highly competitive where many players offer a wide range of smartphone products to different consumer groups. As a result of many providers, consumers have become ‘price shoppers’, as they look for the best products at reduced price. This has increased consumer bargaining power, especially as constraints on the budget affect consumption needs of many consumers.
Bargaining power of suppliers
As competition increases and many players enter Asian market, there is tendency for competition among suppliers to source contract from various players (Apple, n.d). This aspect has led to reduced bargaining power of many suppliers in smartphone market, especially with tendency of many companies to reduce costs of operations and production.
Behavioral motivation for consumer purchase behavior Consumer culture
China’s culture abhors the concept of ‘face’, which is integral in the society. As a result, status consciousness is important to majority of Chinese. Among consumers, achieving greater status and prestige in the society is exhibited in the type of gadget can has and given the p[premium nature of iPhone products, majority of consumers have expressed desire and drive to purchase iPhones products not only for their usefulness, but also for the status it accord the user (Panzarino, 2011).
Consumer lifestyles and psychographics
China’s market for smartphone products is largely concentrated among young people and students who, given their trend, flashy and dot.com lifestyle tend to exhibit consumption behaviors for ‘smart’ products that propel their lifestyle. Products that appeal, convenient in nature, perform multiple functions, and still provide the user with fame are most preferred in China’s market (Panzarino, 2011).
Attitude plays great role in consumption behaviors of many people and this is evident in China’s market. For a long time now, China’s social life is intertwined in their consumption behaviors (Chan 2011). A product with negative social approving is likely to get backlash in the market.
Social approving for products emanate from the capacity of the product to meet social, economic and cultural benchmarks of the larger China’s society. Smartphone products especially that integrate China social, economic, and cultural aspects tend to have greater acceptance given the overall improved consumer attitudes on such products (Panzarino 2011).
Emotional involvement, expressiveness and intelligence
Asian markets are characterized by consumer attaching great emotions to products they use. The products become part of the consumer emotion expressiveness. Majority of Chinese students and young people can be described to have great emotion involvement, especially on products that meet their needs and expectations.
Smartphone products are used for educational purposes, social life, and all life activities, hence they have become part of emotion expression on part of consumers.
Recommended marketing mix for iPhone 4 Product
Apple Inc valued products exhibit innovative technologies that integrate consumer needs and wants. Apple’s products are preferred and they have dominated the market, given their ability to remain flexible, unique, and technologically accepted to different demographics.
Therefore, to appeal to China’s market that remains front for competitor battle, this will require Apple Inc to design iPhone 4 products that have faster chip, possess higher resolution camera and possess software capabilities to meet customer needs as compared to competitors. In addition, the products should remain innovative, compatibility, easy-of-use, upgradeable and quality in nature (Maxwell, Lee, Suen,
Geology of Palouse Falls Exploratory Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Structures and interesting landforms visible on the geologic map
Geologic History of the Palouse Falls
Introduction The Palouse Falls is found southeast of Washington, US, on the Palouse River as it enters Snake River. Although a series of falls were formed along the river, the Palouse Falls is today the only one surviving, dropping water through a distance of an estimated 200 feet.
The waterfall is a breathtaking site visited by thousands of people annually. The Palouse Falls is thought to have been formed as a result of the heavy flooding which occurred upstream when the glacial Lake Missoula burst, releasing massive volumes of ice and glacier.
The flood material cut long and deep channels, called coulees, that formed 3 waterfalls at the confluence of the Snake River and the Palouse River. With each flooding, the waterfalls moved upstream until the present day structures were formed.
Palouse Falls contains many different types of rocks that were formed from glacial floods during the ice age era just before the Palouse River entered the Snake River. The rocks, of which basalt is the most common, are mostly metamorphic and were formed as a result of the cooling of floodwaters and ice.
These rocks were formed from the floodwaters from Lake Missoula that flowed across eastern Washington during the Pleistocene era (Alt 23). The basalt rocks are estimated to be around 15,000 years old.
Structures and interesting landforms visible on the geologic map Palouse River was formed as a result of glacial floods that originated from the glacial Lake Missoula, however, little evidence is left of this massive activity of which the most visible is the Palouse Falls. Today, the water has eroded the walls of the rocks, exposing layers of basalt rocks.
The basalt is formed of layers from flows at various periods, some of which are nearly 100 feet thick. Another structure is the plunge pool. The plunge pool is formed as the dropping water erodes the rock below and the side of the canyon where it originates, this continuous abrasion and erosion causes the base of the waterfall to move backwards as seen in the Palouse Falls base (Alt 12).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This eventually causes the rocks in the upper parts of the waterfall to fall off, consequently making the whole waterfall to move upstream. Various structures can be seen on the rocks surrounding the Palouse Falls that explain its geology, including plunge pools, kolk created potholes, hanging coulees and rock benches. These structures draw thousands of visitors to the park area.
Surrounding the Palouse River are the Palouse Hills that were made out of fine particles deposited by winds during the last phase of the Pleistocene era. Outcrops of basalt rocks are also visible in the surrounding area. These rocks are volcanic and reflect the huge eruptions that occurred in the area during the Miocene period.
These eruptions occurred in present-day central Washington and resulted in the release of large volumes of lava to the surface. From the different layers of these rocks, geologists have concluded that the eruptions and subsequent laval flows occurred more than once (Bacon 61).
The basalt rocks have turned orange (clay colored) due to weathering processes that occur when the rocks are exposed to weathering agents such as water and air.
The size of the ‘bowl’ into which the Palouse Falls drops its water is many times larger than the river itself and this suggests that a force larger than the river carved it out. Geologist studies have determined that this bowl was created by huge outburst flooding of the glacial Lake Missoula as massive ice volumes from the lake moved along (Carson para. 2).
The series of floods were at first triggered when glaciers from the north advanced, or the ice broke due to its weight, letting the glacial lake to burst out, pushing everything on its way downstream. The moving ice and debris cut across the land creating long and deep coulees. These structures dot the area around the Palouse Falls.
Geologic History of the Palouse Falls The area around eastern Washington, in which the Palouse Falls is found, was shaped by two major events in history. First was an enormous basaltic lava flow that occurred around 15 million years ago followed by massive flooding due to glacier outbursts around the area during the ice age (15,000 years ago).
We will write a custom Essay on Geology of Palouse Falls specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This area is bound to the east by the Rocky Mountains, the south by the Basin and Range Province, and the west by the Cascades. The main tectonic structure in this area is the north-west-skewing Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL) that is partially a strike-slip fault and aligns with a number of anticlines found in the Yakima fold belt (Carson para. 7).
Between the Columbia River and the Blue Mountains, the OWL can be seen in form of a 200m high escarpment that marks out the Wallula fault zone; a chain of sharp pointed faults that show evidence of both dip-slip and strike-slip movements (Carson para. 7).
Another fault line, the Hite fault, crosses the OWL at almost 90 degrees southeast of Walla Walla, and disappears on the Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River. An earthquake of magnitude 6.0 was recorded in the area on July 15, 1936 (Bacon 68).
Works Cited Alt, David. Glacial Lake Missoula and its Humongous Floods, Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press, 2001. Print.
Bacon, Charles R. “Eruptive history of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake caldera, Cascade Range, U S A.”, J Volc Geotherm Res, 18 (1983): 57-116.
Carson, Bob 2012, General Geology of Southeastern Washington. March 21, 2012.
Online gaming and behavior Research Paper college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Over the last three decades, technology has drastically changed and so has technology-based games. The rapid increase in popularity has been due to development of the internet infrastructure, which can now support online games that can be accessed from any geographical location.
As a result, the effects of computer games can be seen in almost all aspects of today’s lifestyle, from politics, music and Hollywood.
Body Technology’s influence on the gaming community has continued to grow at an alarming rate and with its increase in popularity there have been social and psychological problems that have resulted.
Research shows that online gaming activities are one of the most sought after form of lifestyle by kids and young adults, a behavior that is carried along into their adult life. Though the games are popular across all genders, the male gender is one that is affected by the games more than the female gender.
Research has shown that due to their nature, online games have an impact on the human brain as they spend most of their times indulging in the game rather than indulging in outdoor activities which are more interactive.
The addictive nature of the games can be attributed to the nature of the game that results in the player being indulged in mindless amusement, reduced social interaction, sexism and several antisocial behaviors (Wan
Dajoji Inc.’s Obsession with Functionality has a New Design; Organic Cotton Chef’s Jackets Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Vancouver based Dajoji Inc. has unveiled a new design of chef jackets made of organic cotton, with the aim of redefining sustainability in restaurant kitchens. Dajoji Chef Jackets brings eco-fashion awareness on kitchen apparel. Dajoji Chef Jackets are also stylish and as well as having enhanced functionality to improve the chef’s performance in the kitchen.
Vancouver, BC, March 11, 2011— It is increasingly becoming a common occurrence for restaurants to serve menus not laced with pesticides or antibiotics. However, such sensibilities are not extended to the type of apparel worn by chefs.
As a result Dajoji Inc. aims to extend the same eco-friendly sensibilities to chef’s apparel. Cotton grown under conventional methods involves use of hazardous pesticides. Thus, Dajoji Inc., a Vancouver-based company, in collaboration with Texas Organic Cotton Farmers Cooperative, designs stylish organic chef jackets from organic cotton in efforts to extend these sensibilities to the chef’s apparel.
According to Dajoji Inc. founder Anthony Nicalo “sustainability is important, but not the driving force behind Dajoji’s coats”. Nicalo wonders whether it is possible to see a “chef meticulously plating her latest 100-Mile Diet creation wearing something akin to a paper sack” (Robinson par 4).
This underlines Nicalo’s motivation to create jackets designed on functionality rather than on sustainability. Such a motivation emanates from the need to design chef jackets that enable chefs to easily operate in fast-paced environment that is characteristic of a professional kitchen.
Nicalo’s creations are informed by his first hand experienced in a fast paced kitchen. Having worked 14 hour a in a busy Chicago restaurant, Nicalo grew tired of the conventional jackets; they were uncomfortable and made the wearer feel boxed, thus the desire to design organic jackets that also improves performance.
Having relocated to Vancouver, Nicalo found his match in Leanne McElroy, an ethical fashion designer. Together, they collaborated in creating organic cotton chef jackets, designed to enhance movement; the jackets had “an athletic fit, a bit of style and lots of comfort” (Robinson par 6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dajoji’s ties with Vancouver go beyond collaboration with Elroy Apparel; Dajoji Inc. has established ties with other niche market fashion labels such as lululemon athletica.
Dajoji Inc. adds value to its products through the expertise of experienced partners such as Jessica Robinson. Robinson, a yoga expert, and brings in keenness and attention to detail and explains; “I love food and wine, which is how I met Anthony, but I’d never thought of crossing that with my love of, and education in, fashion. Kitchen apparel and chef coats in particular are truly in need of change and innovation,” (Robinson par 9).
Dajoji’s eco-fashion approach is not merely limited to the fabric, but extends to packaging and production. Dajoji’s eco-fashion mindset extends to, thanks to Jessica Robinson’s obsession with details, the finest particulars such as buttons on the men’s jackets.
These are developed from eco-friendly materials such as tagua nuts, naturally found in South American Rainforest. The use of these materials generates economic benefits in Ecuador by enabling local gatherers to engage in eco-friendly alternatives other than clearing rainforest.
Dajoji Inc. aims to make Dajoji Chef Jackets available for both male and female chefs. Thus, it is offering them at a discounted rate of $100CAD (Robinson par 13).
For further information on Dajoji Inc., Dajoji Chef Jackets or any other query contacts Jessica Robinson via www.coolcoats.com. All Dajoji products can be purchased through the website.
Works Cited Robinson, Jessica. Dajoji Chef Jackets Bring the Earth-to-Table Ingredients Approach to Kitchen Performance Apparel. 2009. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Dajoji Inc.’s Obsession with Functionality has a New Design; Organic Cotton Chef’s Jackets specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
University Assessment: Grice’s Cooperative Principle and the Turn-Taking Mechanism Essay essay help online free
Introduction The use of Grice’s cooperative principle and the turn-taking mechanisms are two of the most used and discussed principles of communication.
Generally speaking, the cooperative principle refers to a communication code used mostly in linguistics and social studies to refer to a certain set of principles (maxims) set by Paul Grice to help govern people such that they can communicate effectively(Grice, 1975).
According to Grice, communicators should strive to ensure that they contribute relevantly as is required of them during communication while intermittently making certain that during the exchanges in a given discourse or dialogue, the necessary purpose of communication is objectively achieved (Isenberg, 2008).
Even though Grice’s cooperative principle is usually viewed more as a prescriptive command, the main purpose of this principle is usually to describe the real nature of normal conversations and how people should behave when communicating with one another (Bach, 2005).
On the other hand, turn-taking simply refers to the instance in conversation whereby the communicators take turns when communicating. According to Isenberg (2008), turn-taking is a key aspect of any given social interaction as it creates a forum on which people get to express their opinions or ideas as is required during conversation.
However, in order for the turn-taking mechanism to take place in an objective manner, it is important that some principles are keyed in (Ladner, 2009). It is at this point that Grice’s cooperative principle, and other related principles, come in. A discussion of these two principles is done below with relevant explications being given from our sample dialogue.
In discussing Grice’s cooperative principle as well as the turn-taking mechanism, with special regards to the sample transcript conversation given; these two facets of language and communication will be looked at differently, at first.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Then once their intricacies have been individually outlined, a rejoinder will be given analyzing both of them and how they relevantly contribute to proper communication—with regards to our sample case.
Grice’s Cooperative Principle
Preliminarily, it is elemental to state that Grice’s Cooperative Principle is usually divided into four maxims namely: the Maxim of Quality, the Maxim of Quantity, the Maxim of Relevance and the Maxim of Manner (Grice, 1975).
In essence, all these maxims are typified variedly in conversations depending on the communicators and the nature of their communication.
However, as a standard rule, all these maxims primarily function to explain the important link between utterances in conversations and what people get to understand from them. In the sample transcript conversation, all these maxims play out variably—as is detailed below.
To begin with, the maxim of quality stresses on the value of truthfulness in any given communication (Grice, 1975). According to Grice, communicators should strive to be as truthful as possible and not just saying something for the sake of conversation even when we do not have sufficient evidence to back that which we say.
In the sample conversation between Lori and Michael, this maxim is repeatedly exemplified. For example, when Lori asks Michael if he’s a dog person, Lori says yes and when Lori goes ahead to probe further whether or not Michael is saying the truth; Michael says “Absolutely, 100% confirmed, dog person.
You bet.” This response goes a long way in asserting the fact that Michael is a dog person. And as we later proceed, this fact is ascertained through the various instances that Michael candidly talks of his experiences as a “dog-person.”
We will write a custom Essay on University Assessment: Grice’s Cooperative Principle and the Turn-Taking Mechanism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If Michael had lied about being a dog person, then the rest of the conversation would have been as good as nothing since there would be no objectivity in the conversation which, apparently, centralizes on the dog topic.
Based on the above example, it can therefore be said that the maxim of quality is a crucial part of any given conversation and, if objectivity is to be enhanced in any conversation, the communicators should strive to be as truthful as possible.
The second maxim, the maxim of quantity, is more-or-less similar and equally important as the maxim of quality. The variation here, however, is that the maxim of quantity stresses on the amount (quantity) of information.
To this regard, Grice says that communicators should make sure that their contributions in conversations are informative and insightful (Grice, 1975)). However, Grice warns that we should not be carried away to the extent that we give more information than is required of us just in the same way we should avoid not giving enough information (Bach, 2005).
In the sample case, the maxim of quantity is duly explicated both positively and negatively. On the positive side, when Lori asks Michael if he owns a dog, Michael says that “Yes, I have. Yes, I had — let me see, this would be about 10 years ago. I had my own doggy; I had a Norwegian Elk Hound.”
This response not only answers Lori in a candid manner but it also gives useful information about when Michael had the dog as well as the type of dog. On the negative side, when Lori asks the question “OK! Do you have a law in England or in your city that you have to pick up the dog poo when you’re walking your dog?”, Michael’s response seems too wordy and bit overstretched even to areas that were not in Lori’s question.
If the intended purpose of the conversation is to be achieved, it is inherently unavoidable that the communicators tailor their words in a way that only useful information is given while unnecessary verbosity and conversation fillers are avoided.
The third maxim, the maxim of relevance, just like the name suggests, stresses on communicators communicating relevantly using relevant words and expression.
Not sure if you can write a paper on University Assessment: Grice’s Cooperative Principle and the Turn-Taking Mechanism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Regarding this maxim, Grice emphasizes that the words and expressions that we use during communication should be relevant to the purpose and objective of our conversations. To a great extent, the maxim of relevance heavily relies on the maxim of quality and quantity (Grice, 1975).
Apart from the aforementioned instance when Michael seemed to have overstretched his answer, the conversation between Lori and Michael hugely emphasized on issues relevant to what they were talking about.
This, however, would have not been possible had the maxims of quality and quantity not been keyed in their conversation—with the elements of truth and quantity of information being emphasized.
The fourth maxim, the maxim of manner lays emphasis on the importance of clarity when communicating. Here, Grice stipulates that, during a conversation, the communicators should avoid things like ambiguity, prolixity and obscurity of expression while striving to be orderly and candid with their words and expressions.
In order to do this (ensure clarity in a conversation), it is advisable that simple and easily understandable words are used.
In the conversation between Lori and Michael, most of the words used were relatively simple and straight-to-the-point thus making it easy to understand what was being said.
Only in the instance where Michael mentions the 1970’s without any substantiation or any follow-up answers concerning what happened then, do we find his words somewhat far-fetched and kind of ambiguous.
Based on the differences in languages, rules of communication and manner of communication, among many other factors; turn-taking comes in a myriad of ways—as was earlier glimpsed. Nonetheless, there are some basic principles that are usually constant for most instances of turn-taking.
For example, according to Isenberg (2008), we can easily recognize the points in which people shift turns in a conversation through pointers such as pauses, speaker change, question intonation and sentence intonation.
In prescribed excerpts, however, it is normally much easier to pin-point the instances of turn-taking since names, letters or numbers are used to differentiate the people involved in the conversation (Miller, 1999). The above pointers outlined by Isenberg can be identified in the conversation between Lori and Michael—as shown below.
Lori: Would you consider yourself a dog person or a cat person?
Michael: Oh, I’m a dog person, I can tell you straight away.
In this example, the question intonation (signaled by the question mark at the end of Lori’s transcription) signals Michael that it is his turn to talk. And as we can verifiably see from the extract, Michael decides to respond soon after Lori’s question.
For turn-taking to go on smoothly, it is advisable that the communicators give each other time to respond adequately to questions. If this is not practiced, then the communication will be one-sided thus not giving a fully objective communication.
In the case of Michael and Lori, it is worth commending that the two managed to give each other time to talk, ask questions or even give responses. As a matter of fact, by the end of the conversation, Lori had talked 9 times while Michael talked 8 times.
Going by the observation that Lori is the one who initiated conversation, and it was therefore natural for him to end it; it can be said that turn-taking between them was duly balanced. This balance is furthered by the uniform sequence of LMLMLMLMLMLMLMLML where L represents the instances where Lori talked and M represents Michael talking.
In some instances of turn-taking, interjections can be used—especially in cases where one of the people involved in the conversation is going overboard with his/her talks. In turn taking, the interjections can be in form of a laugh or even interruption by chipping in with some words.
In the conversation between Michael and Lori, this form of turn-taking was not exhibited since the communicators were disciplined.
In finality, Wardhaugh (2006) states that most people who are close to one another tend to find it easy to easily take turns without the unnecessary long pauses or speaking at the same time thus creating distortions.
Other studies also indicate that good communicators can easily “read between the lines” of their fellow communicators and thus avoid any overlaps, distortions or miscommunications (Cameron, 2001).
Based on these studies, it can therefore be assumed that Michael and Lori are close friends (they know one another) or they are good communicators based on the smooth flow of their conversation.
Rejoinder of Grice’s Cooperative Principle and the Turn-Taking Mechanism with relevance to the Sample Conversation Transcript
As was earlier mentioned, Grice’s cooperative principle and the turn-taking mechanism function symbiotically towards the objective of good communication. If the cooperative principles outlined by Grice are followed; relevance, objectivity, clarity and truthfulness are enhanced thus making it easy relatively for the people communicating to take turns in the required way.
On the other hand, by following the key elements of turn-taking, communication pitfalls like ambiguity and lack of clarity are avoided thus sustaining the objectives of Grice’s cooperative principle.
This mutual relationship was hugely typified in the conversation between Michael and Lori. Nonetheless, if ultimate objectivity is to be enhanced, then it is recommendable that other facets and principles of language and good communication are keyed in the conversation (Cameron, 2001).
Conclusion In many important ways, Grice’s cooperative principle and the turn-taking mechanism have been repeatedly used in communication forums with many positive results found thereof by the communicators (Isenberg, 2008).
However, in looking at such aspects of conversations, it is important to keep in mind the fact that they are not all-perfect. For example, Keenan (1976) says that, just like most social behaviors, Grice’s Maxims are culturally dependent thus principles that apply in one place may not necessarily apply in another.
This, therefore, refutes the arguments that Grice’s cooperation principle can be applied universally. Maintaining a circumspectly keen eye on these principles is therefore paramount to avoid overstepping some language boundaries or misleading people during communication.
List of References Bach, K., 2005. The top 10 misconceptions about implicature. Web.
Cameron, D., 2001. Working with spoken discourse. London: Sage Publications.
Grice, P. 1975. “Logic and conversation”. In syntax and semantics, 3: Speech Acts, ed. P. Cole
Macroeconomic policy about population growth Report (Assessment) college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Comparison of population growth and economic growth
Factors that led to an increase in population growth
Introduction After the World War II, the new institutions such as World Bank and IMF were established so as to foster globalization. This in turn led to reduction of poverty, creation of industries, job creation, increase in economic growth, and improved living standards.
This resulted in an increase in population and reduction in infant mortality rate. In 1960’s and 1970’s countries started to embrace globalization which in turn gave rise to international trade (Mishkin, Giavazzi, Srinivasan,
Talent Management at Norvatis Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Section One: Summary of the Case Study Norvatis is a pharmaceutical company that came into existence in the late 1990’s. The company has made tremendous success in terms of increasing its global presence and increasing its profit margins. The company’s CEO, Daniel Vasella grapples with the idea of coming up with an elaborate system of performance appraisal and worker’s motivation.
Apparently, Norvatis has an organizational culture that supports hiring senior management executives outside the company’s human resource department. As such, Vasella articulates that there is the need for the company to identify employees and train them within the context of organization to enhance their managerial skills.
Although the CEO asserts that 78% of senior managers have ascended through the ranks of the company, Norvatis experiences a challenge regarding ‘pay for performance’ and other ways of motivating the employees. This implies a global talent management system.
At the outset, it is important to appreciate the role of any global talent management system. According to the CEO, the company’s ability to develop leadership skills among its employees is a critical objective of global management system. In fact, he asserts that the manager ought to establish an organizational culture by allowing the senior managers to have vast experience in the organization.
He asserts that the process of hiring managers outside the organization is expensive and it discourages a consistent organizational culture within the company. The CEO is also wary of the fact that the trained managers would need to reach to their places of work before other companies hire them and as such, it will become an expensive venture for Norvatis.
To avoid such an occurrence, it is important for the company to provide motivation for the employees. Indeed, he appreciates that money did not motivate the employees to the level that is necessary to retain them. He says that many employees do not work for money but instead seek to be a part of the company’s success.
To that end, the performance management system at Norvatis ought to reflect the organization’s values and incline the employees towards increased chances for success. Initially, Norvatis had a performance management system that it used to rate its employees in order to have a performance based method of motivation and compensation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company also insisted on the need to have a uniform standard of measuring performance across the world. Guided by such values as innovation and creativity, the company’s ratings would receive their respective performance ratings across the globe (Goldsmith
Is the international system moving away from US hegemonic power to a new system of international order? Essay argumentative essay help
Introduction Polarity in the context of international relations describes the way power is distributed within the international system (Walt 34). This can be either unipolarity, bipolarity, tripolarity and multipolarity, depending on the number of states between which the power is distributed (Raymond 102).
Uni-polar or hegemonic power refers to system where one state has the most cultural, economic and military influence (Brooks 103). The United States has dominated the world since 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed.
This paper seeks to establish whether the international system is moving away from the US hegemonic power (uni-polar system) to a new system of international order.
The paper will carry out an analysis on hegemonic states and state why this takes place or not, and if so, try to predict the new system that might emerge.
Hegemony In the last two decades witnessed assertion of hegemonic (uni-polar) power by the United States. This was mainly expressed through invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan (Cohen 60).
The unilateralism has continued to play through the endemic Global War on Terror (GWOT). The world has also witnessed globalization and the adoption of liberalism that is commonly referred to as “the American way” (Hurrell 133).
This paper will not ignore or underestimate the uni-polar role that the United States continues to play, mainly in global politics. However, times are changing fast and some analysts are concluding that a multi-polar world order is taking shape as more and more developing countries emerging as formidable economic powers (Koenig 10).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many others are emerging as important poles of growth to sustain the new world order. However, other analysts observe that the United States will still play a very important role in the coming years.
Two scenarios are developed in this paper, one is regarding the debate on the weakening of the US hegemonic powers and the notion that the US is still a global hegemonic power (Pape 27).
This paper will mainly focus on the assertion that the US is still a global uni-polar power. The first thing that should be done is an in-depth analysis of all definitions of the term “hegemony”.
For the purpose of this paper it’s important to give the various definitions of hegemony and give a concrete justification of its current importance in the academic arena.
The most accepted meaning of the term hegemony is “leadership, authority and influence, especially of one state in a group of states” (Walt 20).
From the international perspective, this role is often played by a country or state that has the military, economic and cultural capability to play this role, according to Cohen “the other states in the hegemonic system usually define their relationship with the hegemon” (28).
A realist theory can be used to describe a situation where one state dictates the conditions which other states are to follow in anarchical world order (Hurrell 45).
We will write a custom Essay on Is the international system moving away from US hegemonic power to a new system of international order? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another well known definition of hegemony was put forward by Gramsci. According to him, “hegemony is made up of a political power that flows from the intellectual and moral leadership, an authority as differentiated from that which comes from the armed forces” (Pape 36).
Analysis of the American hegemony through realist and neorealist theories This section will basically describe hegemony and its implications within the realist context. The section will further indicate how the United States still holds the global hegemonic power (Brooks 34). The argument will seek to show why the US still fits into this position.
One of the postulates of political realism asserts that the world is mostly ruled by anarchy (Walt 51). States cannot harmonize their interests since they naturally tend to conflict with each other.
In such cases however corporation is feasible, but only if it serves the interests of the different states in the power system. Indeed, politics is known to be a struggle for obtaining power and interest is described as a function of power (Pape 7).
In the realist perspective, the rationality of the competing power balance is usually enhancing the ability to take control over other states. The easiest approach is by attempting to amass resources.
Thus, the relations between this states is determined by their relative level of power which is determined by each individual state’s capabilities, both militarily and economic (Hurrell 89).
A classical realistic view puts emphasis on the use of sheer power to foster a vertical agenda. In this case, the military resources are the most important to ensure self security (Cohen 50).
Neo-realism, on the other hand, gives room to more horizontal agenda, as such, the economic issues are paid a greater attention and their resolution is of a prime importance (Brooks 15).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is the international system moving away from US hegemonic power to a new system of international order? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The typical features of realism can be used to determine the performance of unipolar states until the end of socialism in the eastern part of Europe (Brooks 18). Neoliberalism emerged as a better theoretical framework to explain the various dynamics of the United States hegemony.
From a theoretical point of view, the hegemon requires dominance over resources. These resources include raw materials, market dominance, as well as capital, in general, different benefits that are provided by the production of valued goods (Koenig 45).
As far as this definition is concerned, the United States is without doubt a uni-polar or a hegemon. The US do not however exert total control and thus the lexical meaning of the term ‘hegemon’ is not important in the classification of United States as a hegemon (Raymond 5).
Many people around the world perceive the United States to be a global power and are likely to continue doing so for a long time to come.
The US foreign policy stipulates the principles which are put in place to foster and maintain internal unity while carrying out the legitimized global hegemonic roles. In reference to the theory of hegemonic stability, the hegemonic state takes leadership for granted, with regard to particular issues (Brooks 8).
In this regard, if no hegemony exists then this may cause an escalation of the issue at hand that may in turn result into chaos. Therefore, according to Brooks, “the leadership that is provided by hegemonic states is very important in facilitating the achievement of collaboration among different states” (7).
With this features in mind, it’s important to recoup how the US has played a role in tackling the drug menace with Latin America, nuclear disarmament with Russia, oil revenues with Middle Eastern states, and high –tech with Asia (Koenig 20).
As mentioned earlier, there is a serious debate that seeks to point out that the US is weakening. Emerging economies such as China, India, South Korea, Russia and Brazil are said to play a very big role in the redistribution of global power.
These states are already playing some hegenomic role in their regions. It’s estimated that by the year 2025, this economies will collectively account for one half of global growth (Koenig 5).
As things are now, the US dollar is the most sought after international currency. The World Bank projects a multi-currency scenario in 2025 (Pape 29). This will be an extension, expected to reflect a multi-polar system of global power distribution.
China poses the greatest risk to the US hegemonic status. The US’s traditional allies in the euro zone have shrunk in the recent past and are expected to go further down in the coming years (Walt 7).
As things are now, these countries are in most cases advancing only on the economic front. This still have a long way to go to match with the United States’ ideals, democracy, liberty, self determination and national interest (Cohen 9)
It’s true that a new world order is in the offing, however, this will take place in the future but as things are now, the US is still a world hegemonic power.
Conclusion This paper sought to establish whether the international system is moving away from the US hegemonic power (uni-polar system) to a new system of international order. The paper also carried out an analysis and stated why this is taking place or not and if so, tried to predict the new system that will emerge.
The paper has established that as things are now, and in the near future, the US will still remain a hegemonic state. However, it’s true that the international system is shifting away from this and will lead to a multi polar system.
Works Cited Brooks, Stephen and William Wohlforth. “Hard times for soft balancing”, International Security 1 (2005):103. Print.
Cohen, Stephen. India, emerging power, Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 2001. Print.
Hurrell, Andrew. The United States and Latin America: neorealism re-examined, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print
Koenig, Archibugi. American Power in the 21st Century, London: Polity Press, 2004. Print.
Pape, Robert. “Soft balancing against the United States”, International Security 30.1 (2005): 23-44. Print.
Raymond, Aron. Peace and war: a theory of international relations, London: Weidenfeld
Issues Relating To Collaborative Working within a Childcare Setting Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Planning and Preparation
Child Development and Supporting Transition
Teaching Assistant’s Role
A teacher as a parent
A teacher as a motivator and talent developer
A teacher as an educator
A teacher as a disciplinarian
Teacher as Role Model
Managing Parents’ Expectation
Keeping Parents Informed
Information Sharing Within the Workplace
List of References
Introduction Childcare has increasingly grown popular in many countries across the world. United Kingdom in particular, has developed mechanisms that would ensure that it has a system that would support children from very tender age. Nussbaum (2002, p. 28) says that for a long period, the position held by children in the society has been regarded as a concern for individual families.
Although families have cherished their children, the society has not been able to look at the issue of childcare as a responsibility of the entire fraternity of the community. Childcare centers offer a forum where different parents come together, in collaboration with teachers and other professionals, to take care of children in a community setting.
Inasmuch as many families protect and care for their children at family level, there are families that have shown lack of concern to their children. Morrison (2008, p. 45) notes that parents who are drunkards, drug addicts or are just social misfits have abused their children in various ways according to the report by UK Department of Education 2004 (Morrison 2008, p. 64).
This has seen many children go without the basic needs of food shelter and clothing, not to mention education. This happens, not because the parent is not in a position to provide for this, but because in one way or the other, the parent is irresponsible (Darder
Conflict Mode Assessment Essay essay help
Introduction A conflict is a form of disagreement between parties leading to a confrontation. This arises in most cases due to people’s difference in ideology or lack of mutual interest in a certain activity.
Settlement of conflicts has to take place amicably in order to play down the harmful impacts that they may cause in an organization (Jellison, 2006).
The paper highlights conflict using a “job interview” scenario, where the person is supposed to solve a conflict arising due to unexpected challenges. Convectional wisdom is an essential requirement when solving conflicts of any magnitude to ensure sustainable relationships regardless of change.
The Thomas Kilman conflict model consists of five modes used when managing conflicts and changes. It based on human behaviors of assertiveness or cooperativeness as a form of action in adjusting to changes caused by conflicts.
Competing being the first mode, involves assertiveness and self-centered actions when handling conflicts. The intention is to use all channels available to triumph in a scenario.
It can engage individual using their rights in obtaining power of control in a situation. This action has a score of five in a continuum (Jellison, 2006).
Accommodating is not assertive, contrary to competing, the next party is considered in a conflict. It engages another’s point of view, normally awarded a score of nine in a continuum.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Avoiding, which is the third mode, also has a score of five is not assertive and is usually uncooperative. A conflict to be solved is neglected in this case either temporary or permanently.
Collaborative is a mutual mode of solving conflicts where both party’s interests are looked into (Jellison, 2006). It involves self-sacrifices where necessary when handling issues analytically, normally given a score of five, which translates to 40% using percentage.
Lastly, compromise is an intermediary form of conflict management, the agreement made satisfies both parties. Compromise addresses issues directly and is normally in a score of six.
Compromising mode is the preferred style of conflict management in the scenario above. There has to be mutual agreement amidst the parties involved due to unexpected situations.
The interview is of much benefit to one party while solving the accident is beneficial to all. An understanding might result to a solution that benefits all the parties using compromising mode.
It is only by the compromising mode of conflict management that a win-win situation is possible (Jellison, 2006). Compromising model minimizes the chances of conflict aggravating, since there can be a clash of interest amidst two parties.
This mode is suitable in solving problems of dynamic nature when under pressure. This mode allows for exploration of other channels when settling disputes, normally preferred in cases of emergency. Compromise reduces the sensitive nature of a problem at hand in this case the interview is of much importance than parking the car.
We will write a custom Essay on Conflict Mode Assessment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For the competing mode, there will be assertiveness in insisting on the right to parking. This overlooks other people’s interests. Collaborating mode will involve integrating the interests of the other party.
It will delve much into issues thus complicating the conflict auxiliary from the initial intention. Avoiding the conflict does not apply in this case since it will provide no solution when managing conflicts.
Avoiding is suitable when the issue at hand is of a smaller magnitude, thus negligible (Jellison, 2006). Accommodating will result to less solution for urgent cases requiring immediate solutions while benefits is to the other party more than self.
Competing mode is difficult to work with, since a good number of conflicts results from competition between parties. This mode generates unpopular decisions when sorting out problems and it is more self-centered limiting other people’s opinions that might be useful in the end.
This conflict mode is only useful in groups that uphold integrity and high values when conducting operations. It is much dependent on an individual as opposed to other models in handling conflicts.
References Jellison, J. (2006). Managing the dynamics of change: the fastest path to creating an engaged and productive workforce. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional.
Korean and Japanese Honorific Systems Essay college essay help online
Honorific is considered as an address form which portrays respect towards the addressee and are classified according to addressee’s title. Suffix endings such as Professor, Mister, Coach, Officer, Captain, Sir, and so forth are some examples which are commonly used.
Every language has these kinds of honorifics and Asian societies have honorifics which are essential elements of their cultures and the language. Asian societies are fixed to a Confucian value arrangement which underlines diffidence, humbleness and respect towards older people (Brown, 2011, p. 65). Most honorifics are applied when attending to kings, queens, landlords, and some respected persons.
The dislodgment of honorific is extraordinary in Asian languages; while both Korean and Japanese have preserved their Honorific forms and this paper would compare and contrast honorific languages in these two communities.
In Japan, traditionally, respect and honor is mostly treasured since both are still traditional joint country. Thus, honorifics are essential elements while addressing other people, where they have agglutinative language which they usually do not recognize gender. Nouns are also not considered and conjunction is not reflected.
Japanese languages contain three stages of respects which are applied: Keigo (Advanced Plain), Teineigo (Simple Plain) and, lastly, Kudeketa (Plain); these are stages of respects which are essential than the prefixes or suffixes which accompanies (Backhouse, 2005, p. 25).
Teineigo level is more inflectional arrangement and commonly applied for a person who is being spoken to, while Keigo are split into two different languages, Sonkeigo and Kensongo. Kensongo are usually used when addressing the group which may include sister or brother or workmate.
Sonkeigo is a polite speech used for somebody being talked about which may include bosses or a customer. Regular and irregular verbs are contained in Kensongo and Sonkeigo and they as well apply the prefix ¨o¨ or ¨go¨ to create a term honorific (Backhouse 2005, p. 25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Different from Teinogo, highly inflectional arrangement, both ¨ükagau¨, contained in Kensongo, and Sonkeigo apply interchange verbs to turn into ¨ükagau¨ in Kensongo and ¨ïrasshar u¨ in Sonkeigo and all stages of the languages possess its particular verb endings and vocabulary.
They considered that it is not the way you end the language that makes it very complex, but it important to understand which stage to use for a particular person. If a person needs to introduce the boss to another person of the same status with the boss, he or she would utilize the Kensongo to introduce the boss.
Another case is that a kid needs to apply Sonkeigo when addressing his grandmothers, but would apply Kensongo when introducing her to somebody else. The application of each of them relies on the idea of “Out groups” and “In groups” (Hasegawa, 2010, p. 140).
Hence, this language stage is corresponding with someone or situations which are being addressed or talked about. These language stages are distinguished by extended polite phrases like ¨¨ motasete itadaku¨¨ which can be translated as ¨¨can I kindly be permitted to carry…¨ in Kensongo (Hasegawa, 2010, p. 140).
On the other hand, Japanese usually has an inclination towards brevity, and this is shown in their sentence structure. Children are not provided to learn use of honorific language and they are usually expected to apply it, but it is just during their employment when he or she is openly taught.
Korean and Japanese languages share complex arrangement of honorific speech levels and they normally applied with Korean aristocracy (Yang bang). They contain prefixes like Sir, Doctor, etc. and also expressions for kinship. The suffix ¨¨ nim¨´ may be attached to a noun to create it more honorific and nouns can as well be substituted with these honorifics (Sohn, 2006, p. 132).
Contrary to honorific, polite words are there also and some verbs contain particular forms and terms like ‘I’ or ‘we’ pronouns utilize form. Speech levels are very significant in Korean language and these levels are applied to bring up narrators’ or authors’ addressees, while honorifics are mainly used for a subject.
We will write a custom Essay on Korean and Japanese Honorific Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gender group, he or she, is required to settle on honorific and speech level to apply, hence, not just the addresser who has an option regarding speech level, but gender group as well may select to attach the honorific.
Subject and predicate have to match while using honorifics and it is impossible to attach a marker to the predicate when the subjects are categorized as group of nouns which are not in agreement with the marker.
For instance, ¨¨ sensaennim I cip e ka-si-eyo (the tutor has gone home) has corresponded with verb ending and honorific subject, while “haksean I hakkyo e ka-si-eyo” (the learner has gone to school) is inappropriate in Korean language since the subject is not allowed to have honorific ending and it is not corresponding with the verb used in the sentence (Sohn, 2006, p. 132).
Korean language has more than seven speech levels and every speech level has a particular distinct arrangement of verb endings to show the level of requirements. Politeness and respect are represented by three ordinary levels of speech and the first one is ‘ta’, usually used to address somebody younger than the addresser.
Second one is polite (yo), normally used to address somebody older than the addresser such as employer, stranger with same age or older than addresser, older relative, and superiors. Third one is deferential (su), commonly used to address somebody who is superior to the polite yo (Sohn, 2006, p. 132).
The number of levels remains unknown but the bilingual persons argue that there are around seven distinct speech levels and these levels would be briefly discussed below. The first five speech levels are combined as jondaemal, whereas the last two speech levels are grouped together as banmal and every speech level has a particular distinct arrangement of verb endings (Bruno, 2011, p. 33).
These seven different speech levels portray respect and politeness to addressees and in Japanese language these speech levels as well make “In groups” and “Out groups.” In Korean language, honorific arrangement is exceptionally complicated and the issues are present in three distinct ways.
First, each expression must be marked for the triad engaged in dialogue, receiver, referent, and reporter and second, the guidelines need cautious choice of highly linguistic pieces (Bruno, 2011, p. 33). Third, addressers can change speech levels at any moment (Bruno, 2011, p. 33).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Korean and Japanese Honorific Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, if somebody desires to bring in a dialogue, he or she is required to choose which speech level to apply and the addresser is required to settle on status and age with the aim of selecting proper speech level to use.
Different from Japanese honorifics, which are classified as relative, Korean kinds of honorifics are considered as absolute and are applied not considering the person the speaker is talking to. Honorifics are also attached irrespective of “In groups” and “Out groups.”
Conclusion Language is just like something which undergoes evolution and changes and it is astonishing to observe the manner in which political and cultural transformations may change certain language. It appears that these honorifics originated from minor societies where people staying in those societies recognized everybody’s social status.
Japan appears to be experiencing much bigger problem regarding preservation of honorific language and it appears, from my view, that the Japanese are troubled as they preserve ¨face¨¨, the function of respectful language which is more influenced by changing western society and culture.
On the other hand, Korean seems not to be influence by the change of the western society regarding honorifics and appears that their honorifics, which are absolute, create it easier, while in Japanese language, honorifics are compared with the situation creating it slightly complex to apply.
Permanent honorific application, in Japanese language, will rely mainly on the way government is strict implementing its use in their newly introduced guidelines.
References List Backhouse, E 2005, The Lexical Field of Taste: A Semantic Study of Japanese Taste Terms, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Bruno, L 2011, Asian Honorifics, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Philadelphia PA.
Brown, L 2011, Korean Honorifics and Politeness in Second Language Learning, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam.
Hasegawa, Y 2010, Soliloquy in Japanese and English, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Philadelphia.
Sohn, H 2006, Korean language in culture and society, University of Hawaii Press, Hawaii.
Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Flow Next to High-Rise Buildings in Hong Kong Due to Air-Conditioner Heat Rejection Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
The article under consideration is titled “Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to flow next to high-rise buildings in Hong Kong due to air-conditioner heat rejection”. It is written by Bojic M., Savic S., and Nikolic D. in 2008 in the International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy.
This article presents the Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the situations when the Window Air-Conditioners reject condenser heat.
The authors of the research wanted to consider how the situation is going to develop under the particular conditions in order to prepare the basis for the further research connected with solving the problem of Window Air-Conditioners rejecting condenser heat and predicting its consequences. The article consists of several sections.
The introduction, the mathematical model: Computational Fluid Dynamics development, the simulation, the results with several subtopics (“flow and temperature field in the recessed space”, “flow and temperatures of the bulk flow in the recessed space”, “horizontal development of flow and temperature field with depth of a recessed space”, “bulk flow with depth of a recessed space – vertical development”, “flows to condensers with depth of a recessed space – vertical development”, “influence of plates on the bulk, buoyant airflow inside the recessed space”, and “influence of plates on the flow – flow of air through condenser units”), and conclusion.
The article is supported with the abstract, keywords, biographical notes, nomenclature, and reference list. The article is presented in the
The main idea of the article is to conduct a simulation of the situations when the Window Air-Conditioners reject condenser heat by means of the Computational Fluid Dynamics. The results of the research have provided two outcomes which lead to two results.
Thus, if the mass-flow rate is lower than the nominal condenser, however, the outdoors air temperature is higher, the energy losses are considered. Otherwise, if the mass-flow rate is higher than the nominal condenser and the outdoors air temperature is higher, the energy benefit is observed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These results allow to make sure that the depth of the recessed space does not have any connection with the average mass flow rates and at the same time does not impact the average temperatures.
One of the main ideas of the research was to extend the results presented in the Bojic, Lee, and Yik (2001, 2002,
Reward or Recognition Plan Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Rationale for Change
Reward and Recognition Plan
Safe Environment Creation Plan
Introduction As evident in numerous occasions, organizations experience different types of changes that include organization-wide versus subsystem change, transformational versus incremental change, remedial versus developmental change and planned versus unplanned change.
This piece seeks to address describe the current situation in organization, explain the rationale for change, design a reward plan that includes milestones and create a safe environment for change.
The paper focuses on implementation of a new process to deliver services affiliated with SunClean, which will serve as the case study. The company focuses on cleaning services for households and corporate bodies.
Current situation The contemporary operations of the company indicate that there is a request for customers to fill forms in a manual way before a customer care representative attends to them.
After this, they have to wait for three working days for them to access the services requested. Consequently, poor public relations become manifest and company profits reduce.
A survey conducted on customer satisfaction depicts that the majority of clients complain about length of time it takes to get services from the company. Furthermore, laxity amongst employees to serve customers is equally evident.
It becomes difficult for them to attend to clients because the company does not have suitable employee reward scheme. There is feedback from customers suggesting that customer care representatives ought to change their attitude.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is also lack of appropriate measures by Company Y management to impress clients and ensure their loyalty through various customer loyalty programs. Additionally, there are no discounts for customers who are still loyal after experiencing poor services.
Rationale for Change Change process starts with the identification of changes that ought to be made by the company, determination of major issues that need to be considered, obstacles that can arise in change implementation and accessing key stakeholders who will experience the change (Jellison, 2006).
Conversion of service forms from manual to electronic forms in order to save clients’ time. Additionally, customers will be contented as evident in the time taken to deliver services to customers and improving the quality of services offered by the company.
Indeed, filling forms online; thus, ensuring minimal interaction between customers and representatives who could still be rude after implementation change in the company is vital.
The forms shall be brief as compared to the previous manual ones. These will not require customers to fill unnecessary details that waste time.
Instead of clients waiting for three working days for the delivery of cleaning services to their homes and offices, delivery time will be short.
Clients who place cleaning orders over the weekend will have their places cleaned concurrently unlike previous times since they had to wait for the working days. There will be an improvement of quality of cleaning services and discounts offered to all premium customers.
We will write a custom Essay on Reward or Recognition Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, there shall be replacement and upgrading of current washing equipment to competent machinery. In addition, premium customers shall have discounts every third time they place cleaning orders at the company.
Reward and Recognition Plan According to Spitzer
Ethics of Death Penalty Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Do we need the death penalty?
Doing away with the death penalty
Analysis of the arguments and personal opinion
Introduction Every society must be guided by laws and regulations, and distinguished philosophers such as Kant have been quoted (Avaliani, n.d) to have said that no state or society can exist in the absence of laws. Violation of these laws attracts punishment.
Most states and justice systems employ the death penalty as punishment for crimes that are considered to be serious. Crimes such as murder, treason and most recently terrorism attract the death penalty. Many ethical issues are raised about the death penalty (Mosser, 2010), and this paper examines and analyses the ethical arguments for and against the punishment.
Do we need the death penalty? It is only the state that has a right to execute a person, and this execution must be premised on the decision of a court (O’Neil, 2012). The debate surrounding this issue is not about its legality but on whether it is ethical or not.
Most people agree that a person who violates the law must be punished, even those who argue against the death penalty. Kant argues that a society that does not punish those who violate its laws becomes the offender’s accomplice (Avaliani, n.d). Every individual has a right to life. Why then, should the state sanction the willful taking away of life by its agents?
Everyone who commits a crime against society puts himself in debt, and this debt must be satisfied in full (Vollum, Mallicoat,
Are Correctional Boot Camps Effective? Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Lack of Follow-up Support
Introduction Boot camps were introduced so that it can act as an alternative to jail for young offenders or criminals. Several studies have reported that the frequencies of recidivism for juvenile offenders who have been admitted in teen boot camps are extremely high, above 85% (Vito, 2005, p.65).
Boot camps may appear like the correct option for young people who have gotten involved in unlawful acts or are engaging in inappropriate conducts.
In Boot camps, they consider that terrifying and punishing the teens might discourage them from participating in illegal activities in the future, but this may be wrong. Most boot camps are considered to lack follow-up support, ineffective, and contain physical abuse.
Lack of Follow-up Support When teens have shown the signs of rehabilitation, they are allowed to go back home from boot camps. After that, boot camp providers would not make a follow-up so that they can help the teens create sense of what they have experience in the boot camps.
This lack of follow-up raises the chances of the teens or young people reversing into the previous conducts. Mostly, boot camp providers avoid follow-up so that they can reduce expenses.
Since children are instructed to follow and respect seniors or boot camp providers who use noisy and violent tones, it has been reported that after going back home, many teenagers would have difficulties adjusting to normal superior’s leadership ways.
Their teachers and managers usually are not aggressive to students and workers and many former boot campers experience trouble in respecting them since they do not scream and threaten them (MacKenzie, Wilson,
“Hope’s Boy The memoir” by Andrew Bridge Essay college essay help online
Andrew Bridge’s memoir “Hope’s Boy” has been ranked as a leading bestseller by the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Publisher’s Weekly, and The Washington Post. It is a moving memoir that illustrates the flaws that exist in the U.S foster care system.
The Memoir explores a childhood filled with horrendous sagas which are hardly spoken by many openly. The story is intertwined to bring out what the young in foster homes undergo while growing up.
This paints an elaborate picture of the America’s society dark side. Bridge was transferred to a foster home after experiencing her Schizophrenic mother, “slit her wrists and paint his name with her blood” (NPR 2008).
By then, Bridge was only six years and, according to the circumstances, he was placed under foster care for the remaining part of the blossoming childhood.
Despite the woes he underwent and witnessed in the foster care, Bridge fueled childhood influence in the university. Currently, Bridge has become a fulltime lawyer who specializes on matters concerning the welfare of children.
The memoir “Hope’s Boy” portrays the childhood experiences of Bridge which depicts the U.S foster care as one which is adversely disoriented.
Bridge, who lives in Los Angeles, has continued to fight in the war to ensure that kids under foster care receive proper treatment and even have conduct with the social workers if they cannot get in touch with their biological parents (Bridge n.d). Personal experiences greatly influence the future career choice of individuals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Personal background and atrocities can fuel the desire to pursue a certain career (Dietrich 1). For instance, Bridge is portrayed as a child from a poor family filled with devastating events.
For example, at the age of less than three years, his father and mother are jailed and, at the age of four, his father demands a separation (NPR 2008).
By the time Bridge was six, he was placed under foster care. Bridge having his childhood and parental love has vowed to fight for other children who undergo the same problems during their childhood.
This can be supported by the personal experience of Debbie Black, a parole officer, who notes that her family, experience and conflicts from within, shaped her career (Black 2008).
Having undergone divorce, living in the streets, and facing a difficult marriage, the experience is almost like Bridge’s. Although the life of Debbie was infringed when she was mature, the experience is the same as both face social injustices.
Bridge’s past has dictated the path to follow to ensure that no other child will have the same experience he had when he was young.
Anger and emotional feelings drive people to do what they think is right in their lives as a way of shadowing their past. For example, the childhood of Bridge is filled with anger and hatred for losing the only person who cared from him, his mother.
We will write a custom Essay on “Hope’s Boy The memoir” by Andrew Bridge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is depicted on the title of his memoir “Hope’s Boy”. Hope is the name of his mother in which he has dedicated his work to, despite the fact that she was not there but was willing to raise him.
The anger of his childhood leads to the belief that there is a hope that the future can be better. This drives Bridge to study law with the hope he can represent other children who undergo the same childhood as he did.
Bridge’s career choice has prompted him to give back to the society what he lacked love when he was a child. From his memoir, Bridge believes that “we can best keep kids with their own families’ safe and together with the folks who know and love them best” (NPR 2008).
The belief that something can be done right is what fuels people to choose certain careers. For example, Bridge believed that the best love a child could receive is from family members.
He believes that children can be loved best if they lived with their parents or folks. For this reason, Bridge has been championing for the welfare of foster children to live with their parents or, at least, get to talk with the social workers allocated to them once a month (NPR 2008).
From a personal point of view, some people follow intuition in order to make sure that they can solve problems in life. In other words, they believe that they are the ‘saviors’ who can speak out on the behalf of other disadvantaged persons in the society.
To sum it up, personal past experiences contribute a lot to the choice of career path they choose to undertake, the way people have been raised, the life they have been exposed to, and the belief that one can change the world.
Emotions fueled by anger, drive people to take careers to ensure that other people are not exposed to the same atrocities or past they underwent.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Hope’s Boy The memoir” by Andrew Bridge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is portrayed in the Hope’s Boy memoir which shows how the past can fuel one to develop a career that addresses the problems in the society. The same is shared by Debbie Black who strives to help others.
Works Cited Black, Debbie. 2008. Personal experiences influence career Choice for Debbie Black. 2008. Web.
Bridge, Andrew. Hope’s boy: A memoir. n.d. 2012. Web.
Dietrich, Cindy. “Decision making: Factors that influence decision making, heuristics used, and decision outcomes.” Student Pulse 2.2 (2010): 1-3. Print.
NPR. ‘Hope’s Boy’ a memoir of childhood in foster care. 2008. Web.
Solar Panels in China Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The growth of the PV industry has been on increase due to technological advancements and the support the industry has been getting from governments.
The industry has also witnessed remarkable growth occasioned by concerns on global warming. It has been projected that solar energy demand will continue to grow in China and other parts of the world (Tiwari, 200).
However, the energy form has still been expensive in comparison with other forms of energy. This is because the industry has been grappling with a shortage of raw materials used in producing the energy. For instance, demand for silicon which is used in the manufacture of solar cells has been increasing.
Background China has plans of developing large amounts of hydropower, wind power, biomass and solar photovoltaic by 2020. In order to accomplish this mission, the country requires at least 267 billion USD for it to invest in renewable energy sources.
Investment in renewable energies such as biofuels and wind energy has been slowed down by concerns of global warming. China has projected that by 2020, an estimated $ 40 billion would have been invested in solar energy. As part of the plans to have enough energy, the country has embarked on the use of solar energy.
Analysis The gross domestic product in china has been growing significantly thus stabilizing the country’s economic forecasts. As a result of this increased economic growth, the country’s demand for energy has been increasing thus prompting the government to come up with renewable sources of energy.
Due to the popularity of solar energy and its domination in the world market, it has been the most appropriate option for the country. This has led to stiff competition among several companies providing solar energy in the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, in 2007 four Chinese companies paved their way into the market and made huge profits. In 2006, two more companies had raised more than $ 500 million after joining the list.
These companies have been attracting investors since their prices have been lower than the prices offered by Western manufacturers (China solar, 2004).
The Chinese government has taken important measures in improving the environmental condition of the country. New laws on renewable energy sources have been enacted to emphasize on cleaner energy technologies.
The country has a target of raising the number of people who use renewable energy to 16% by 2020. The new law has various stipulations that should be followed by the companies involved.
To begin with, the energy authorities have been mandated to implement and manage renewable energy development. Secondly, the government establishes a renewable energy development that provides support including financial support to the relevant industries.
Thirdly, the government has been involved in setting the prices of renewable energy and supporting the generation of grid-connected renewable energy
Due to the sustainability of sola energy in china and its advantages over other alternative sources of energy, the Chinese government has embarked on constructing resource efficient villages.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Solar Panels in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The largest portion of domestic PV market in china which constitutes more than 40 % is rural electrification. The program aims at making electricity accessible to more than 20 million Chinese who live in 20000 rural villages.
10 million people out of the 20 million are residents of the Western provinces. The rural electrification program impacts millions of people living in rural areas by empowering them through access to energy. As a result, solar energy has been one of the most common and widely used renewable energy n China .
Argument Against Despite the widespread use and popularity of solar energy in China, there has been a negative side of the renewable energy resource. Constraints in the supply of silicon have remained one of the most challenging hurdles.
The silicon market has been so tight thus creating a disadvantage for a large number of players who have been unable to secure feedstock supplies.
The downside has been particularly experienced by the small scale solar dealers who have not succeeded in getting silicon supplies. This has led to lower rates of utilization, lower profits, and unmet growth plans.
Domestic polysilicon producers also have been facing problems such as less beneficial technology which uses 2-3 times the energy used in production of an equal amount of raw material than its oversees peers do.
Domestic polysilicon manufacturers have also been smaller in size when compared with the international players, something that has made it difficult for them to leverage the economic scales.
Initially, the overseas competitors were reluctant to transfer the knowledge to Chinese natives forcing the domestic enterprises to employ a high degree of innovation and independence in their work (Source guide, 2012).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Solar Panels in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Announcements have been made by companies with emerging technologies or commercial ambitions expressing their interest to venture in polysiliscon manufacturing.
However, such ventures have been faced by commercial, technology, safety and environmental risks. The commercial risk is that there has been a high degree of competition from famous and well known producers who have been in the business for long.
The technology risk comes in due to the presence of the well established and fully characterized Siemens which has been operating in the country.
There has also been a safety risk in that most of the intermediate gaseous chemicals used in the production of silicon can result into a spontaneous fire when in contact with air.
This is something that has caused fatal accidents in the past. Finally, there has been the environmental risk in that although production of silicon has been for green products, chances of pollution are also possible .
Despite the fact that China has been capitalizing on the lucrative IPO and the heavy investment, the market has been criticized of fatigue, especially at the mid heading downstream, while companies that have not been listed have found it difficult to differentiate themselves.
This has been recently indicated by the poor performance of some of the stock prices for the enterprises. However, it has been said that the market is yet to be exhausted since some Chinese silicon manufacturers are yet to join the market.
Recently, the grid companies have not been showing quick response to solar energy owing to its high cost. Alternatively, wind power has remained popular and a stronger substitute. The domestic market will not receive sufficient stimulation unless there is reduction in the cost and favorable subsidies provided.
Conclusion Solar energy is a green trend that has found popularity in Chinese market in recent days. The rapid economic growth in the country has increased power requirements prompting companies to look for ways of investing in alternative sources of energy.
Solar energy has been highly preferred because of its environmental friendliness as opposed to other forms of energy. The country has since embarked on projects of spreading the energy form to rural areas through rural electrification.
However, there have been concerns that solar energy is still very expensive when compared with other energy forms such as wind energy. As a result, more attention has remained on the other energy forms that are considered cheaper.
References China solar. (2004). China Solar Energy. Retrieved from http://www.chinasolarenergy.com/
NBSC. (2012). National Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/
Solway, A. (2009). Renewable Energy Sources. New York: Heinemann/Raintree.
Source guide. (2012). The Source for Renewable Energy. Retrieved from http://www.sourceguides.com/
Tiwari, G. (2009). Solar energy technology advances. New York: Nova Publishers.
Zheng, S. (2006). Solar Energy in China. Retrieved from http://www.ceibs.edu/
How Religion and Family Produces the Idea of Gender Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
How Religion and Family Produces the Idea of Gender
Introduction This article examines how religion and family produces the idea of gender. It presents an initial literature review on religion and family as these factors relate to shaping gender ideology.
Case studies are used in the article as reference to elaborate how family and religion interrelate to influence gender ideology.
How Religion and Family Produces the Idea of Gender Gender is the way society creates, patterns, and rewards our understandings of femininity and masculinity, or the process by which certain behaviors and performances are ascribed to women and men.
Gender is a form of social institution of sexual difference (Susan
Social Justice: Wray’s Essential Aspects of Biblical Law and Justice Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Various Interpretations of Biblical Laws and Justice
The Four Assumptions of Biblical Laws and Justice
Introduction The purpose of this paper is to evaluate Wray’s essential aspects of Biblical Law and Justice in light of what it offers religious educators for the classroom study of justice. A large portion of the Bible has been dedicated to the issue of law and justice.
Therefore, religious educators who teach about justice in classrooms today must go back to the Bible and look at biblical legal codes and justice.
Justice has become a matter of concern for many people in modern societies. Nevertheless, it is a concept that is socially constructed, meaning that it is subject to contextual interpretation.
Various Interpretations of Biblical Laws and Justice Wray has conducted an extensive study on the subject of social justice and suggests that students taking any course on law or social justice must go back to the origins of these laws and justice, in this case the Bible.
He maintains that biblical laws and justice should be taught in the classroom in a bid to tackle some of the prevalent issues affecting modern societies, including laws, prohibitions and injunctions (Wray, 2011, p. 161).
Indeed, the quest for social justice has been highlighted by many social philosophers for many centuries since the emergence of enlightenment and industrial revolution.
The industrial revolution and the emergence of capitalist economies gave rise to social decay and the erosion of social values as most people were subjected to hard social and economic conditions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The world is divided between the haves and the have-nots. In theory, social justice is an attempt to address the question of equity and fair distribution of income and resources.
The theory of justice implies that people should be treated equally (Miller, 1999). The concept of social justice is widely used today to refer to the fair distribution of resources amongst the members of the society.
For many centuries, this concept has been applied in various societies, but it is evident that even today discrimination of the poor from the market economy still continues (Miller, 1999).
However, regardless of what has been researched, written or formulated as part of our social policies, justice is far from being realized. Perhaps it can be argued that humanity have rejected the origins of these laws and regulations and came up with mere philosophies that does not address the real problems.
The best model for social justice is in the Bible which in Borg’s view is the foundation for political and personal transformation. Any attempt to fight for social justice must be based on the word of God because the Kingdom of God is the heart of justice (Borg, 2003).
Borg also argues that although the American society promotes the principles of individualism, all humans are part of a wider social-economic, political, cultural, and faith systems that promotes social lives in the community (Borg, 2003).
Borg goes back to the biblical account to show God’s passion for social and political justice. He maintains that Jesus’ teaching about the Kingdom of God in the New Testament is all about justice (Borg, 2003).
We will write a custom Essay on Social Justice: Wray’s Essential Aspects of Biblical Law and Justice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, views have been expressed by O’ Donohue who states that the biblical concept of justice is intrinsically connected to human relationship.
He argues that God demands for justice that does not appear in abstract, but the kind of justice that exists within our human lives. True justice emerges from the relationship between humanity and God and fellow humanity. It starts with the individual then moves on to society (O’ Donahue, 1977).
This is the line of argument that Wray has followed. In his view, biblical law and justice should be the main text for students studying social justice and other law related courses.
The most important part of these texts is that which deals with Torah on the Old Testament and the Kingdom of God in the New Testament.
These texts contain the golden rules upon which we derive our mannerism and ways of treating other people. The purpose of the biblical laws was originally given to regulate human behavior in a manner that was intended by God from the beginning (Wray, 2011).
Consequently, these laws have become the cornerstone for legal codes that governs modern civilized societies. This is not to say that the modern societies are perfect.
But regardless of their levels of civilizations crime, injustices and immoralities are still the order of the day. We still have many cases of rape, murders, theft, slandering, corruption, fraud, and lying, even as the bible prohibits such behaviors.
Our jails and prisons are full of people have been locked up for going against these laws. These laws have governed the world since the days of ancient Israel when they were first given to control humans but their behaviors are still the same (Berger, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Justice: Wray’s Essential Aspects of Biblical Law and Justice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This does not imply that these laws are ineffective. In fact, they are still unique and effective if applied appropriately. Wray laments that most religious educators and preachers do not discuss biblical justice with the laws of Israel.
This means that one cannot teach about observing the laws without first developing a relationship with the lawgiver, who is God. For instance, treating other people fairly, defending the poor and the weak can only demonstrate the existing covenant relationship with God.
The Four Assumptions of Biblical Laws and Justice Wray also outlines four main assumptions connected to the interpretation of the biblical laws and justice (Wray, 2011). The first assumptions that are commonly held by many people purports that the Ten Commandments were given by God and therefore God’s people are obliged to abide by these rules and regulations.
In Wray’s view, the ten commandments should be treated like’ formulaic prohibitions’ that controls human behaviors and legalizes how the community needs to relate with each other (2011, p.162).
He continues to suggest that the interpretation of the law should not be confined to the Ten Commandments only, but should include the entire Torah including other 600 laws.
However, there are divergent views concerning the interpretation and practice of Torah (biblical laws from genesis to Deuteronomy) between various Christian denominations and other world religions (Wray, 2011).
The second assumption suggests that when one breaks these laws then they are subjected to punishment which in Wray’s view has given birth to retributive justice.
The interpretation of this concept has brought lots of complications to the understanding of crime and punishment, commonly referred to in the bible as an eye to eye.
Wray claims that biblical laws are divided into two areas, the apodictic laws which include the Ten Commandments which in most cases are prohibitory nature.
He argues that this group of laws does not contain any elements of punishment attached to them, rather they were meant to deter the offenders from committing the offence.
In other words, they are precautionary or preventive rather curative. They are unique and different from any other laws found in Ancient Near Eastern regions (Wray, 2011).
However, Wray indicates that the second type of the laws can be grouped as casuistic because they are more of case laws which were common in the Ancient near eastern societies and commonly used in court cases in even in those days.
From his assessment of these two types of laws, Wray concludes the entire Torah were specifically give to the Children to regulate their devotion to God and control how they behave towards their human beings (Wray, 2011).
According to Wray, the third assumption supports and advocates for Golden rule. This rule suggests that we should treat others fairly and then expect the same in return.
He argues that the Golden Rule promotes justice and fairness in the society. It addresses the notion of fairness and justice and especially to the weak, oppressed and poor.
While the fourth assumption purports that justice is about caring for those people in the society who are less fortunate, socially disadvantaged and marginalized (Wray, 2011).
Conclusion This paper has attempted to evaluate Wray’s paper which suggests that the essential aspects of biblical law and justice must be taught to classrooms for those studying justice and law related a subjects.
Social justice is still a major concern for many societies and the solution is to go back to the basics. The author argues that justice is socially constructed; meaning that its interpretation differs from one society to another.
Wray argues that the biblical laws upon which our modern legal code and social values are based were originated given by God to govern human behaviors and regulate how they relate with God and fellow humanity.
Therefore, true justice must start with the individual’s close relationship with God and then be reflected and translated back to the society.
This implies that our view and practice of justice must begin with the individual person and stream down to the society. Furthermore, it supports the argument that religious educators must teach the individual students to change their own views and attitudes as individuals before they can go out there and transform the rest of society.
Reference List Berger, R. M. (2007). What the heck is social justice? Sojourners Magazine, 36(2), 37.
Borg, M. (2003). The kingdom of God: The heart of justice. In The heart of Christianity. pp. 127-148. San Francisco: Harper Collins.
Miller, D. (1999). Principles of social justice. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
O’Donahue, J. (1977). Biblical perspectives on justice. In Haughey, J. (Ed). The faith that does justice. pp. 68-112. New York: Paulist Press.
Wray, T. J. (2011). What the Bible really tells us: The essential guide to biblical literacy. Lanham, Md: Rowman
Business Memo: Impact of Technology on Quality of Work Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Implication of Technology on Work Quality
The current paradigm shift in technology has enabled organizations to be effective and efficient (Suematsu, 2004). Organizations can now compete favorably in the market as technology has enabled them to gain a competitive advantage.
Decision making in the workplace is now easy and information can easily flow from top management team to the subordinate staff. In addition, the information required can be generated and disbursed across several departments simultaneously.
Other than these benefits associated with the adoption of technology in the workplace, technology has other impacts on the quality of work both negatively and positively.
Implication of Technology on Work Quality Although the emergence of technology has major benefits, it compromises the quality of work (Suematsu, 2004). For instance, the social media networks like Facebook and twitter are among the leading addictive sites with nearly every employ spending some time chatting with friends and spreading office gossip (Turner, 2010; Balderrama, 2010).
This makes technology a problem as employees spend hours that could have otherwise been utilized to generate good ideas that would benefit the organization. Instead, valuable time is wasted carrying out tasks that are not related to office affairs.
As a result, the quality of work is compromised; time wasted, and resources wasted too. Office gossips through social networks or spread of rumors and lies may create disharmony in the workplace.
Chaos can arise which can easily be fuelled through the social media networks. For example, employees can plan and execute strikes and stoppages through the social media which may compromise the quality of the work (Turner, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Technology adoptions in the workplace jeopardize the privacy of the employees and that of work projects. Through information systems management, information on employees’ private life like salary, home address, marital status, credit card number, and benefits can be stored in the organization database.
The information can be accessed from any point in the organization hence compromising the employees’ privacy. In the event that data or information lands on private hands, then the information can be used for malicious issues.
Also, technology enables management to monitor all what employees are doing in the workplace. The quality of work can be affected by this as some employees do not perform as required under supervision (Blish
The Role of the Government Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Liberal vs. conservative
Introduction The paper is a critical analysis of the opposing views of the role of the government held by the liberals and the conservatives. It is evident that these two groups ideally hold varying views with regards to the role of the government as well as other important factors in governance.
Liberal vs. conservative Conservative is also known as the right or right-wing in the context of the United States. As suggested by Schneider 98 individuals in this category strongly believe that the government should work with the people and not over them, stand by their sides and not riding over people.
The government should have limited influence when deciding things. The key to prosperity is personal responsibility. This can be seen in the eyes of government trying to craft laws that would encourage Foreign Direct Investment between her and other friendly countries (Schneider 89).
This has seen to it that the citizens of involved countries seize the opportunities and set up businesses in other foreign countries. Another example can be seen when upon taking office President Bush called the Congress to pass laws and policies that would relief Americans from heavy taxation.
Ideally conservatives believe that the government should actively indulge and other relevant stakeholders before arriving at any conclusion particularly with regards to laws that directly or indirectly affect individuals.
It is the role of the government to ensure that right policies are in place so that the citizens feel secure. Similarly conservatives are of the view that once people exercise personal responsibility and the government has ensured desired freedom, the pie will be much bigger for everyone.
The government does not solve the societal problems; this is the role of citizen since the government has provided the desired degree of freedom. It is the role of the government to ensure that things remain the way they are or even returned to the previous state (Ballou 129).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, liberals are sometimes referred to as the left or left wing. Liberals are of the view that “it is the duty and responsibility of the government to achieve equal as well as equality for all” (Scott 74).
On the same note liberals hold that it is the duty of the government to direct resources and efforts towards eliminating the various social ills such as theft, murder and prostitution so that individuals are protected and human rights standards upheld.
It is worth noting that liberals see the government to be responsible in ensuring that no one is in need. The policies to be developed fully emphasizes that it is the role of the government to solve societal problems be they economic, social, environmental or political (Scott 42).
Decisions are usually made by the government without thorough consultations with other relevant stakeholders. A typical example of how liberals believe the government should work is by passing laws and policies that will help deter some social ills such as corruption, prostitution, murder among others.
It is no doubt that liberals believe that the government need to force individuals as well as organizations to comply with existing laws and policies (Scott 201).
Conclusion It is evident that liberals and conservatives hold varying views with regards to the role of the government.
Whereas liberal strongly believe that it is the role of the government to solve problems in the society, conservatives strongly believe that government should play a minimal role of only ensuring that the desired freedom is in place to ensure that individuals can realize their goals. Individual should exercise personal responsibility and solve problems.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of the Government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Ballou, Olivier. The Graphic Guide to Conservatism: A visual primer on the conservative worldview. London: Sage, 2011. Print.
Schneider, Gregory. Conservatism in America since 1930: A reader. New York: Wiley
“When the State Trembled” by Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell Essay (Book Review) college essay help: college essay help
When the State Trembled presents a comprehensive study of the history of the Canadian working class, labor strikes, and the country’s most famous industrial conflict .
The book is about the 1919 Winnipeg general strike that created a heat wave in the legal and historical arena regarding its impact on the nature of collective bargaining and a phase of social revolution.
The other strikes that the book discusses are the Regina Riot of 1935, Asbestos Strike in Quebec of 1949, and many other such movements in the Canadian labor history.
Kramer and Mitchell unearthed a large number of new archival records that helped them reconstruct the events during the strike in a completely new way.
The authors went on to analyze the Citizens’ Committee of One Thousand that comprised most of the powerful men of the city, used their power to bring into disrepute the strike.
The book uses the state “trembled” to represent two meanings: first is the threat posed by the unified city workers who went on a strike against the state machinery through their refusal to continue normal work and second, the congregation of the powerful businesspersons of the city who apprehended state authority to defeat the strikers.
The book, When the State Trembled, is about the famous Winnipeg General Strike of 1919. The event involved more than 30,000 labors and is considered to be Canada’s most famous strike.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the State Trembled presents the story of the strike from a different angle that had not yet been seen in the labor history i.e. through the point of view of the Citizens’ Committee of 1000.
The intention of the Committee was to regain normal working. However, the Committee, comprising mostly of the business class elites, failed to see the sentiment behind the strike, employed stern anti-strike measure, and ended up stigmatizing the strike as a criminal action. The root of the Citizen’s Committee lay at the pre-war antiunion mobilizations.
The Committee that was formed by all major businesses in Winnipeg, however, it was the core group of the Committee that directed the operations and decisions of the Citizens’ Committee.
Three lawyers who, through their legal knowledge, guided the Committee chiefly directed the Committee. Of the three, A. J. Andrews was the most influential and prominent leader. The book shows that it was A. J. Andrews and his tactical maneuvering helped the Committee attain victory.
Kramer and Mitchell in the book showed that the Citizens’ Committee took two distinct paths: first, are their similarities with the common Winnipeggers and the second, is the political wallop created by the federal policymakers.
The first consisted of the public propaganda conducted to discredit the strike. The authors unearthed the daily newspapers that were used by the Citizens Committee as a medium of propaganda during the strike e.g. Winnipeg Citizen.
They pointed out at powerful discourse of antistrike strike propaganda available through this particular newspaper. The authors point out the idea that the newspaper propaganda that could definitely demonstrate the actions undertaken by the Committee: “And only the Citizen could suggest the citizen’s best course of action.”
We will write a custom Book Review on “When the State Trembled” by Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main idea behind the book is represented by the single most ideal of the Committee to create a uniformed public opinion through the powerful discourse and project the strike as a harmful thing.
The authors have identified powerful discourses such as starving babies in order to prove the unconstitutional and derogatory status of the strike.
The presentation of the public documents by the authors is undeniable. The ignorance of the labor leaders led to their projection and comparison with those in Europe where a strike did lead to a revolution.
Handling problems such as food distribution and hampering of public health and work due to the strike led the Committee to replace the constitutional authority and negating the rising rhetoric in the pre-strike period of the downfall of capitalism.
Therefore, it was the strong discourse or propaganda of the led to make the strikers as communists and the Committee made racist attacks on the pro-strike war veterans accusing them of masterminding the strike.
The analytical approach of the authors also unearthed the private correspondence between A. J. Andrews and Arthur Meighen, the then acting minister of Justice:
Historians have mistakenly characterized Meighen … as the author of reaction, the antagonist in labor’s story. … However, during the Strike, Meighen and Andrews communicated regularly, and with the release (under the Access of Information Act) of the Meighen/Andrews correspondence, which previous historians had no access to, we can tell the full story of the Citizens’ Committee of 1000.
The private correspondence between Andrews and Meighen show that the federal government actually agreed to support the Citizens’’ Committee position of negating any form of negotiation with the strikers as it believed that the strike was a path to the European style revolution.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “When the State Trembled” by Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This led Meighen to give “loose” power to Andrews to deal with the strikers by appointing Andrews as the slackly defined delegate of the justice department to deal with the strikers.
This gave the Committee the leeway to decide on the actions to be taken against the strikers. Andrews took the opportunity to strongly deal with the strikers by doing what he and the other Committee members actually wanted i.e. to destroy the union.
Their main aim was to suppress the socialist extremism that was creeping into the working class of Winnipeg. Though Andrew regularly sent reports to Meighen regarding the proceedings and progress in dealing with the strike, he carefully manipulated the information he passed on in order to avoid any political awkwardness.
These letters of correspondence between Meighen and Andrews showed that the former was completed unaware of the ground realities and therefore, lacked control over the handling of the strikers. A communication of Andrews shows his judgment of the non-acceptable material:
Certain members of the Winnipeg Western Labor News Special Strike Edition have contained objectionable matter in that it is seditious, inflammatory and inciting to riot and this publication must be discontinued. NO more issues of this publication must be printed or circulated.
Andrew on the other hand was dedicated to finding evidence that would help in prosecuting the strikers. Andrews, determination to demolish the strikers, went ahead with the prosecution of the strikers under criminal law when the Immigration Act requested by the Committee proved to be too limiting.
He, singularly, convened a meeting of the Committee members and called upon a few government officials in order to make the list of the strike leaders to be detained.
Without any authorization given to him from the federal government, Andrews went ahead to arrest several leaders of the strike and started their trials.
Therefore, the authors point out that the private business houses had actually seized the wheel of state machinery and had started acting on their own accord to meet their own interests.
This therefore shows that the state was arrested by the private business houses comprising the Committee who wanted to do away with unionism and therefore, used this situation to meet their ends.
The most interesting part of these trials was that the federal government did not have any jurisdiction to arrest and put the strikers on trial.
Hence, these became private trials and neither the Committee nor the government wanted to explain such actions to the public. Therefore, the authors called Andrew as the “agent” of the government to hit against the strikers.
Kramer and Mitchell’s chronicle of the strike shows that it was the outright initiative of Andrews and few of his legal friends to be the reason why the Winnipeg Strike turned out to be the way it did.
By the end of the day, Andrews was a representative of the government but he ended up controlling the proceedings. Though his legal tactics were unconstitutional and unethical as he ended up fabricating a story of seditious conspiracy against the government and public long before the strike occurred.
The account presented by Kramer and Mitchell shows A. J. Andrews as the villain of the Winnipeg Strike who conspired and manipulated incidents, communication, and power to bring down a strong hand on the strikers to result in their consequent defeat.
Andrews was the mastermind behind the twisted stories, discourses, and manipulated communication to the Ministry of Justice demonstrating that the strikers were actively conspiring against the government.
The story of the Winnipeg strike is the most well known piece of Canadian labor history. Therefore, the question of its uniqueness in demonstrating a new angle to the strike is pertinent.
Does the book say anything new about the strike? Yes, the book does point out to a new aspect of understanding the greatest strike in Canadian history.
The book is different from the other accounts of the strike because Kramer and Mitchell re-write the story of the strike keeping the Citizens’’ Committee of 1000 at the heart of the events and making A. J. Andrews the leader of the anti-strike Committee.
The book presents that Andrews and two other colleagues Isaac Pitblado and Travers Sweatman, were lawyers but they had very close connection to the elite business class of Winnipeg.
Therefore, Andrews and the other’s neutral professional background helped them to pull a façade and helped in imposing bourgeois hegemony during the strike.
Andrews was a sharp trial lawyer, respected and feared, not so much because of his legal knowledge – which, as we will see, was sometimes faulty – but because he understood people.
Winnipeg’s leading businessmen would buttonhole him, looking for advice. When the General Strike dropped on Winnipeg, it wasn’t surprising that the acting minister of justice, Arthur Meighen – a lawyer … friendly with Andrews and Pitblado – would soon buy Andrews’s analysis of what sort of hell had broken out.
The intervention of the lawyers during the strike occurred at different levels. It was ideological, legal, as well as political and it was through the book it can first be observed that the success of the Committee, and mostly Andrews was in intervening in prosecuting the strikers and ending it.
The Committee achieved their goal of crushing the strike and prosecuting the strike leaders. Therefore, it reaffirmed the triumph of capitalism in a state economy.
The previous books on Winnipeg Strike of 1919 have usually been told through the point of view of the strikers and had focused mainly on workers, the leaders of the strike, and politicians.
This book shows how a strong elite public Committee (opinion) could manipulate the end of the strike. The Committee was a largely influential, but hitherto, unknown force in demonstrating the power of influence of the elite in negotiation with the strikers.
The Committee, which was previously an unknown side in the 1919 strike history, emerged as an important figure in the multi-sided interaction and communication between the federal government, intelligentsia, police, courts, and the strikers.
The book also shows that though the Committee was called Citizens’ Committee of 1000, there only a handpicked few who really enjoyed the real power and say in decision-making, and one of them was Andrews.
The book shows that in order to deal with a politically volatile situation it is important to undertake manipulation of the people with whom the real power vests; in this case, it was the two federal ministers Meighen and Gideon Robertson.
Andrews actually led a delegation to the Fort William and told the Meighen that a socialist style revolution was being staged at Winnipeg.
Andrews even persuaded Meighen to revise the Immigration Act to deport the British born strikers. The book recounts numerous stories of the Committee taking an active role in manipulating and influencing the decision against the Winnipeg strikers.
Are the claims of Kramer and Mitchell that the Citizens’ Committee of 1000 was the key influence to deal against the strikers overstated?
Probably note, as the members of the federal government were eagerly waiting for lobbyists and elites like Andrews and they secretly shared the same views.
The book presents the ideal setting for understanding lobbying, ideology, rhetoric, and power and how these can be successfully employed to negotiate with a striking community.
The book therefore, makes a compelling case of the state not managing the affairs of the bourgeois, but the other way round. They present a lot of primary sources to make a convincing story of the Committee successfully manipulating the government.
The Committee is demonstrated as a secret weapon of the business class elites who, through the core members like Andrews influenced the government and public opinion against the strikers.
This was done through the loose power vested by the government on a few members of the Committee who used it to demonstrate the strike to be a disorder, which was actually a “fictitious” fabrication.
The book closely relates to the course module as it presents a new way of looking at labor history in Canada. The book presents the real villain of the 1919 strike through the authors refuses to call Andrews as the villain as he worked with immense manipulative intelligence and insight.
The book presents a new light into the role played by lobbyists like Andrews who helped the business houses to meet their desired end by manipulation. The book is important for the course as it helps in unearthing the true story behind the relationship between the labors and business class elites.
Works Cited Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell. When the State Trembled: How A.J. Andrews and the Citizens’ Committee Broke the Winnipeg General Strike. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010. Print.
Diversity within Unity Essay best essay help: best essay help
Overview and Introduction Cultural diversity is a source of strength as well as weakness for many societies around the world. A multi-cultural society has the advantage of having a rich cultural environment but this diversity in culture can also be a source cultural tension and conflict (Fisher, 1994).
Educational institutions are the most affected by the potential negative impact of a multi-cultural environment, thus, creating the need to implement policies for dealing with cultural issues in schools (Freire, 1985).
The aim of this paper is to analyze critically the ways of dealing with cultural diversity issues facing educational institutions as presented in the article Diversity within Unity by Banks, Cookson, Gay and others.
The Concept of Diversity as Discussed in the Article Diversity in the article refers to cultural, ethnic and language differences in the context of the American society. The cultural landscape in the US is becoming increasingly diversified mostly due to the high number of immigrants that join the nation each year (Feagin, 1994).
This number is estimated to be around one million. Most of the immigrants are Africans and Asians who have different cultural and language backgrounds from those of the natives of the US.
A high percentage of the immigrants are youth who join educational institutions in the country including high schools, colleges, and universities and they only use English as their second language (Dahl, 1998).
Though this influx of new cultures has the positive impact of enriching the nation’s cultural environment it also harbors the potential effect of dividing the country along cultural lines.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is need, therefore, to emphasize the common aspects of all the different cultures in the US in a bid to foster cultural cohesion and create a united nation.
The best way to achieve this unity would be through encouraging multi-cultural cohesion in schools through both instruction and by emphasizing inter-cultural interactions among students (Fine, 1991).
Analysis of the Philosophical Perspectives Advocated in the Article The article identifies various principles which the management of educational institutions in the US should implement in order to promote cultural cohesion amongst students. These principles are as follows:
Professional Development Programs for Teachers
The article advocates for teachers and educators to undergo professional development programs in which they can learn how culture, language, ethnicity and social classes affect students’ learning and behavior.
By taking such programs, teachers and educators will be in a good position to prevent the negative influence that culture, ethnicity, social class and language background may have on learning.
Offering Equitable Opportunities for Learning
The article calls for schools around the US to offer equal learning opportunities to students irrespective of their cultural, ethnic or social background in order to foster a sense of equality amongst students.
According to the article, the current curricula that are being taught in the US schools should be changed and new ones developed which embrace all cultures including the minority groups. The current curricula are biased towards the majority groups in the country.
We will write a custom Essay on Diversity within Unity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Providing Equal Opportunities for Extra- and Co-curricula Activities
Extra- and co-curricular activities such as sports and academic associations enhance students’ learning and performance. Students of all cultures, races and ethnicities should be encouraged to participate in these activities so as to promote cultural interactions as well as learning.
Creation of Super Ordinate Groups
Super ordinate groups are groups whose purpose would incorporate all cultural groups. Such groups could be based on grade levels in school, age, sex, etc. Super ordinate groups create cohesion among different cultures.
Teaching Students about Stereotypes
Stereotypes result from categorization of people into groups and the belief that a person’s group is superior to other groups. It is crucial to teach students about the fallacies of stereotypes and how they develop so that students can avoid believing in them.
Teaching Common Cross-Cultural Values
There are some values which are shared by all cultures such as justice, equality, and fairness. Teaching these values to students in a multi-cultural environment promotes the sense of egalitarianism amongst them which enhances social cohesion.
Imparting Social Skills on Students
Helping students to acquire social skills is one of the best ways of promoting inter-cultural interactions. Teachers should encourage students to learn and understand the behavior of other cultures as well as how to resolve and mediate intercultural conflicts amicably.
Implications of the Principles in a Specific Educational setting According to the above principles, promoting cultural cohesion in educational institutions is necessary to avoid inter-cultural conflict. The way to achieve this is by emphasizing on the common aspects of different cultures and playing down the differences.
Recommendations and Conclusion Cultural diversity is beneficial to a society by virtue of cultural richness but at the same time it could be a source of conflict and social tension. This situation is most apparent in schools where cultural diversity is depicted at its best.
There are various strategies that could be used to promote cultural cohesion in educational institutions not only in the US but around the world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Diversity within Unity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These strategies or principles should focus on emphasizing the similarities between different cultures and underplaying the differences.
References Dahl, R. (1998). On democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Feagin, J. R.,
Corruption and Bribery in the Oil Sector of Angola Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Corruption and Bribery in the Oil Sector
Management of Oil Reserves
Introduction Corruption is one of the big problems in various developing countries that are rich in oil. It has been considered to be pervasive and an important element of resource curse. Corruption has always been extreme in Angola and Nigeria and billions of US dollars have been disappearing.
Most of the disappearing billions are from kickbacks, and this has led to the concentration of the wealth into few hands. Since the countries are endowed with resources, they are said to suffer from the resource curse. Angola is considered to be the second oil produce after Nigeria.
Angola receives a lot of money from various oil companies in the form of signature bonuses that are received before the signing of contracts. The oil wealth has been to line and oil the wallets of the elite and political class within the society.
Unbridled corruption is the norm in the oil economies. In Angola, the aid agencies have estimated that billions of dollars have been lost in royalty payments through corruption.
Corruption and Bribery in the Oil Sector A lot of oil revenues have disappeared from government coffers according to the reports by the Human Rights Watch and Global Witness. There has been evidence according to studies undertaken in France and Switzerland about the bribes that are given to the president of Angola Eduardo Dos Santos, and it is by no coincidence that he is the Richest Angolan.
Corruption is the main bane of the Nigerian development, and this has eroded the benefits of oil wealth. Corruption is endemic in the Nigerian economy with oil serving to distort the oil structure. The Nigerian domestic refineries have been laid into waste due to the rampant cases of mismanagement and corruption.
It is by no coincidence that Nigeria is ranked as the third most corrupt country in the world. The corruption in Nigeria is manifested in various media sources and tribunals that have been established to investigate some cases of financial impropriety on the government officials (Jerome, Adjibolosoo
Social Influence on Bullying in Schools Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction There is no globally agreed definition of bullying. Tattum (1993) defines bullying as, “the desire to hurt or put someone under pressure”.
Bullying is the most malicious and malevolent form of deviant behavior widely practiced in schools and yet it has received only scant attention from national and local authorities (Tattum
Calambra Oil Company Case Study essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
The marketing mix
Plan for the 1994 remaining oil
Introduction Frank Lockfeld faces the dilemma of deciding on the number of olive oil gallons to manufacture for the year 1994. Besides, Lockfeld has not assessed the viability of market of the preceding year sales, and thus has to rely on assumptions.
As such, this manuscript mulls over Calambra Oil Company, thereby assessing measures that Lockfeld may apply to minimize losses in his recent business endeavor.
The marketing mix The 4P’s of the marketing mix entails preparing the right goods and services, considering the needs of customers. It is evident that Calambra manufactures the best oil, as it has been voted in California severally.
Besides, the products ought to be at the most apposite price, whereby the intended consumers can pay for. This is a challenging issue for Lockfeld thus forcing him to make a well-informed decision in order to avoid looming losses.
In addition, the products ought to be in a proper place for customers to have adequate access. Additionally, business people ought to promote their products in order to have a niche, in the competitive market.
California offers a viable market for Lockfeld’s olive oil. Besides, he endeavors to expand the market to North California, along with other places.
In my opinion, Lockfeld has successfully applied the correlation of the 4P’s in the marketing mix. Though he has not assessed the 1993 sales, it is evident that his company’s name has created its name in the available market. As a result, this has given him a major boost in the competitive Californian market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Market Viability The Californian population provides a steady market for the Calambra Company olive oil due to its excellent quality, owing to the use of the premium black olives. Besides, the oil acquired the first position, beating 21 competing oil manufacturers.
However, stiff competition still poses a great challenge for the firm, since it places its products at a high price. Fortunately, the firm boasts of steady and loyal consumers thus giving Lockfeld a niche over his competitors. Besides Lockfeld’s accentuated that the oil is from California, boost his markets, owing to the fact that local people are willing to promote more local products.
Gallons Quantity The number of gallons that Lockfeld should produce poses a serious dilemma to him, since he dreads incurring losses in his new endeavor. As such, he has to make careful and well-informed decisions. His decision on the quantity of gallons to order will be based on various aspects.
For instance, though he has not received the 1993 sales information, he may project on the current 1993 sales. Moreover, he ought to project on the current 1994 market viability. Lockfeld plans to purchase about 3000 gallons as part of the viability test, based on his projection.
Plan for the 1994 remaining oil It is clear that the firm will not sell all its oil. As such, it is crucial to pre-plan for the remaining oil. This will aid in playing down the losses that it may experience. Lockfeld should set preservation measures for the remaining gallons. Besides, they may be sold at a lesser price and thus reduce the involved reduced earnings.
The Profit and Loss Assumption