Seven Years in Tibet is a 1997 movie based on a true story of an Austria mountain climber, Heinrich Harrer. The director of the movie is Jean-Jacques Annaud while Becky Johnston is the screenplay writer. The three main actors are Brad Pitt, B.D. Wong and David Thewlis.
The movie tells the true story of Heinrich Harrier, who with his great passion and courage, journeys for several years from Austria to the city of Lhasa in Tibet to meet Dalai Lama, a spiritual leader of Tibet. Heinrich Harrer leaves his pregnant wife, Ingrid and sets out for an expedition quite reluctantly since, he resents leaving his wife and being under commands of Peter Aufschnaiter, who is the leader of the expedition.
The journey begins in 1939 at the start of the Second World War when Heinrich Harrier and Peter Aufschnaiter together with other members of the expedition group, board a train headed for India on their way to Tibet. The expedition group starts its journey by climbing mount Nanga Parbat. During the mountain climbing, Heinrich Harrier injures his leg and even though he hides it from the expedition group, he attributes it to the failure of the expedition leader Peter Aufschnaiter to rescue him.
After climbing down from mount Nanga Parbat, Heinrich Harrier meets a Tibetan explorer who hands him Dalai photograph to be a sign of protection on his journey to Tibet. Unfortunately, British soldiers arrest and imprison the expedition group at the Dehra Dun camp. Heinrich Harrer informs his wife in Austria by writing about his arrest but she furiously replies that she is divorcing him and remarries since their son Rolf is two years old.
After making several vain attempts to escape from the Dehra Dun camp, Peter Aufschnaiter devises a way out by stealing British soldiers’ uniforms and distributing them to other captives so that they can sneak out of the camp. Their escape divides them as everyone runs for safety in different ways with Heinrich Harrer leading his group into northern India where he experiences great hunger and steals food from a church, which makes them sick.
When they recover, they embark on their journey towards Tibet, but crossing the border pose great challenge to them since Tibet strictly denies immigration and Tibetan soldiers watchfully patrol the border. Peter Aufschnaiter tries to convince the soldiers that he can speak Tibetan language while Heinrich Harrer attempts to bribe a soldier using Dalai Lama’s photo but they do not succeed.
Failing to cross the border, Heinrich Harrer and Peter Aufschnaiter devise a way of sneaking into Tibet despite tight surveillance of the border by the Tibetan soldiers and impending war between Tibet and China. They trick a soldier to wear heavy boots so that they can sneak through the border because the soldier is unable to run after them. They begin their hard journey to Lhasa in the company of pilgrims who cover them from being recognized by the Tibetan soldiers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On arrival to Lhasa, Ngawang Jigme welcomes them and orders Pema Lhaki, a tailor, to make new clothes to Heinrich Harrer and Peter Aufschnaiter. Spending years on their journey without seeing any women, Pema Lhaki attracts their attention but Peter Aufschnaiter finally wins her. Dalai Lama in his Potala palace learns that foreigners are in the city of Lhasa and he welcomes Heinrich Harrer into his palace. After praying together, Dalai Lama gives him a music box and he returns to Austria to meet his family happily.
The Climatic Condition of San Francisco and Key West Analytical Essay essay help online: essay help online
Climate refers to the weather condition of a certain given area over a long period of time, usually after a period of 30 years. The climatic conditions are arrived at as a result of several factors such as nearness to large water bodies, latitudinal factors, the altitude patterns, human activities, the relief, and distance from the equator, direction of wind and the flow of ocean currents to a given area. This paper explores the climatic condition of the city of san fransisco, CA and Key West, Florida.
San Francisco is a county in California State. It’s among the most populous regions in California with varied socio-cultural prospects and a robust economic platform. The city sits on the north of the peninsular where it borders Pacific Ocean and San Francisco bay to the west and northern end respectively.
Francisco city is a renowned world’s tourist destined site, thanks to its exclusive prevailing weather patterns courtesy of the climatic condition. The climatic pattern is the Mediterranean climate; group Cs, which is a sub type of the temperate climate according to the koppen classification. Many factors contribute to the climatic condition. Due to proximity to sea, ocean currents flow to and fro thereby bringing about the cooling effect.
It’s because of these cool currents that produce humid conditions of warmth and small variations of yearly temperatures. The city undergoes dry intervals between the May all the way to October then giving way to the start of the rains from November to the April. During the rainy period, rain falls slightly more than one week which makes about 5 percent of the annual total rainfall that occurs.
The rain pattern is prompted by the air masses from the warm north-west front and the cold front from the Alaskan gulf. Thus, the city endures a maximum average temperatures of 60º F and 70ºF and minimum of 50ºF and 55ºF during summer with cool sea breeze and foggy conditions .On the other hand, winter is characterized by much fog and even transport operations may be disrupted during such periods.
The city also experiences the spring and fall seasons. At such times, the skies are usually clear during the shift from summer season to the more cold winter period defined by heavy rainy clouds. It is also during this period when dry offshore currents oust the sea currents from the pacific resulting in the alteration of temperature thereby making it the hottest period in San Francisco city.
Due to latitudinal differences, the precipitation patterns of San Francisco vary from one area to the other. This is depicted by the relief of the area which anchors on the terrain, which is dotted with a number of hills. As a result, air from the pacific gets lifted upward over the high topographical features.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The outcome of such movement across the different contours between a maximum of 22´ and 18´ produces an effect of open variation in precipitation pattern. Precipitation patterns on an average yearly basis stands at about 500mm and certainly takes place from November through to April when rainfall is experienced and this is equivalent to 20 inches (Gabler 49).
Vegetation refers to the plant concentration in an area. The topographic convention of San Francisco city is marked with several hills. The terrain and proximity to the sea front produce several features associated with a variety of native vegetation. These range from wild flowers to woodlands.
Take for instance; areas close to the sea front is almost bare as it is mainly dotted by sand dunes. The numerous hilly areas typically are cooler thus the vegetation becomes denser .San Francisco is perceived to be a major urban centre in California, unfortunately, the native vegetation is quietly and quickly giving way to the rapid urban expansion as a result of the human activities involved. San Francisco city’s climate can be described as, Csb according to the koppen climate classification system.
Finally, Key West is a city in Monroe County; Florida. It covers Key West and stock isles. This city is also a major tourist destination due to its characteristics cruise ships. Its geographical map can be defined by 24º 33´North and 81 º 03´West with a maximum height above sea level standing at 6m or 18 feet. It’s also in this region that tropical cyclones are more prone because most of the topographical features sit at no more than 20 feet.
This system affects wind movement and alters rainfall patterns which causes unpredictable warming of water surface thereby forcing moisture into the atmosphere through the immense energy produced hence causing tornadoes and even forest fires. The Florida Keys manifest to a process of glaciations hence sits on a coral base (Gabler 57).
These phenomena point to the existence of limestone beds along the peninsula and the coral reef to the west that has since been covered with sand. According to koppen classification system, Key West city has a relatively mild nature, tropical climate. This is so because Key West lies close to the equator which is also a major factor that can determine the climate of an area as it receives more sunshine.
This type of climate can be credited to several factors too. Take for example, the Gulf Stream and the Gulf of Mexico that borders the city to the north and to the west contributes to the average humid conditions linked to this region. Due to the closeness of this area to the sea, the currents bring about the cooling effect as they flow from the sea front onto the mainland.
We will write a custom Essay on The Climatic Condition of San Francisco and Key West specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This attest to the fact that, cold currents meet with the warm fonts from the northern part during winter. Because of this situation, the temperatures in this region always maintain a figure not less than 10 ºC or 50 ºF.The month of July is usually accompanied by 26.4 ºC and 31.9ºC at an average of low and high temperatures in that order.
Here, there are two major highlights of climate. The two climatic seasons run from June to October marked by hot and wet, plus humid conditions. The other season commence from the month of November to May. This period features both dry and cool weather circumstances that further explain the reason for the state of the summer conditions. As summer approaches, the heat is moderated with easterly winds and the current from the sea hence forming humid weather patterns (Gabler 54).
The hot season between November and April experiences little rain with abundant sunshine, while the wet season of May and October receives slightly higher rainfall annually compared to the former with occasional thunderstorms due to the easterly winds. This regulates the precipitation patterns hence the outcome of this process produces low precipitation on average. Thus, making Key West as the city with the most pronounced dry conditions in the state of Florida.
The vegetation of Key West is as varied as the topographical features are concerned. Generally, the environmental features resemble that of the Caribbean even though the Key West islands were formed as a result of sea animals and water plants. The vegetation landscape takes after natural habitats found in areas of high altitude mainly occasioned by upland forests such as maple, pine, oak and tropical species like mahogany and many others.
The sea shore exhibit varied vegetation too, like coconut palm, hibiscus trees, and the bougainvillea and papaya species. Exotic species can also thrive here because of the favorable climate that supports their growth. Consequently, the climate of Key West area is therefore Aw, according to koppen climate classification system.
Works Cited Gabler, Robert. The Fundamentals of Physical Geography. California. Barnes
Global Warming Exploration Essay college essay help near me
Despite the controversy that surrounds the causes of global warming, human beings are slowly beginning to appreciate the fact that much of the heating up of the earth’s surface is attributable to their activities. Given the fact that the causes of global warming are seemingly apparent, one wonders why it has taken man decades to appreciate this fact. In a nutshell, global warming can be defined as the overheating of the earth’s surface with time.
It has affected our planet very negatively by, among other things, changing the climatic conditions, affecting biodiversity and causing natural disasters like floods, hurricanes etc. These effects on the planet have an adverse effect on life, especially human life. People lose their lives during disasters, lack basic requirements after the environment and infrastructure is damaged. This paper is an in-depth exploration of global warming as a subject of concern to human beings.
Global warming has been known to exist since the nineteenth century. In fact, scientists had given the suggestion that human activities were contributing to global warming from as early as 1880. This is despite the fact that the hypothesis remained unclear as people viewed it to be too scientific. It had been suggested that burning of fossil fuels led to an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which in turn led to global warming.
The hypothesis was further viewed as a curiosity since the predictions for the early 20th century that by 1940, the world would have experienced a one-degree Celsius rise in temperature did not hold. However, studies starting from 1980 gave interesting revelations about the relationship between human activities and global warming and thus global warming was demystified (Russel 33). Global warming is having the worst effects in vulnerable parts of the world like the Polar Regions which are made up of snow.
The ecosystem of these regions is used to the snow conditions an thus when snow melts in these regions due to the effects of global warming, the regions become, somehow, unfavorable for the species living there. Other parts being adversely affected by global warming are low altitude areas like Indonesia that are experiencing disastrous floods with shocking frequency. There are also a number of other areas being affected by global warming effects like the hurricanes, high temperatures etc.
Global warming has had very destructive effects on biodiversity. Less resistant species have already become extinct and the menace is still threatening more species. The species which have been able to cope well with global warming are those with a high degree of mobility.
That it, when the ecosystems of such species become difficult to live in due to the effects of global warming, the species move to far off places in which the effects of global warming are not as harsh. For instance, when the grass on which animals in forests thrive on dries up due to increased temperatures, the animals can move to places where the grass weather is cooler because they will be able to find food there (Weart 31).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This implies that, the animal species that will not be able to cover long distances in search of favorable ecosystems will die from the effects of global warming. This could lead to extinction. Plants are affected less than animals by global warming due to the fact that they are able to adapt to harsh temperatures. Additionally, despite the fact that some plants grow in specific ecosystems, plant-species extinction is not as easy as the extinction of animal species.
Different environments are affected differently by global warming. For instance, polar ice caps are continually melting and creating an unfavorable ecosystem in these regions. The melting of the ice caps also accelerates global warming since the ice plays a very important role of reflecting heat back into the atmosphere. Once they melt, the heat is absorbed on the earth’s surface leading to more warming. In the same way, glaciers are continually getting molten. This leads to a problem since some marine species can only thrive in cold conditions.
Once the glaciers melt, such species are forced to go deeper into the ocean in search of favorable living conditions. The melting of glaciers is also leading to a rise in the sea level as more water is coming from the molten glaciers. The heat from global warming is also leading to the death of planktons and other marine life forms. This is a challenge to marine species like fish since most of them depend heavily on the planktons for food. With the rise in sea levels, islands are increasingly vanishing and others becoming smaller (McHenry 36).
Continents, on the other hand are being consumed along the coastline since the ocean is advancing towards continental landscapes. As stated in the discussion above, continental animals are being affected due to the effect of global warming on their ecosystems. Therefore, if grass dries up and rivers dry up, the animals have nothing to live on and they end up moving. The most affected are those which are not sufficiently mobile.
A number of explanations have been put forward to explain the reason for the occurrence of global warming. For instance, some people believe that the phenomenon of global warming is as a result of natural causes that cannot be deciphered by man. Others try to explain this by suggesting that the sun is continually becoming warm.
These people therefore do not support the thought that global warming is as a result of the activities of man. There is also the defense that the world can never produce enough carbon dioxide that could have such adverse effects on climate as we are experiencing.
However, the latter argument is based on the misconception that carbon dioxide is the only green house gas and it also does not put the cumulative effects of emission of these gases. As stated, there are a number of greenhouse gases. These include carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. These greenhouse gases are released to the atmosphere by burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and bacteria in oceans, soils and organic matter (Samuelson 22).
We will write a custom Essay on Global Warming Exploration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Among the measures that are productively being employed to curb global warming is the practice of recycling organic matter. This ensures that the organic matter does not pile up and be broken down by bacteria and thus the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are reduced. This is because one of the sources of greenhouse gases is the organic matter broken down by bacteria to release methane to the atmosphere. People are also being advised to embrace a culture of car pooling or use low emission vehicles.
This is because a large percentage of the carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere comes from automobile emissions. This combines with emissions from factories to increase the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and consequently increase the rate of global warming. Low emission vehicles can therefore go a long way in reducing the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which will in turn reduce the rate of global warming (Hansen 21).
Among the efforts being undertaken to reduce the rate at which the earth is warming is the increased advocacy for reforestation. This is particularly helpful since forests absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and thus planting of forests is bound to reduce the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This will in turn reduce global warming.
Governments are trying to raise money in a bid to reduce the effects of global warming in developing countries. There has also been an increase in the number of NGOs emerging with an interest in the global warming phenomenon. Agreements are also being reached which are meant to make countries operate in suggested environmental precautions that will ensure that the global warming problem does not escalate.
For instance, 190 countries agreed to operate under the Kyoto protocol that dictates that countries should reduce their emissions and also assist developing countries to use cleaner energy sources. Some of the governments which are actively involved in this are the U.S, England, South Africa and Japan among others. Developing nations, most in Africa, are thus benefiting from the generosity of these governments in the funding of efforts in mitigating effects of global warming and also in efforts to reduce the phenomenon itself.
Works Cited Hansen, James. Climatic Change: Understanding Global Warming. Journal of Biodiversity, pp. 17-41
McHenry, Gary. Effects of Global Warming. Journal of Environmental Studies, pp. 23- 57.
Russel, Randy. The Greenhouse Effect and Greenhouse Gases. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Warming Exploration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Samuelson, Gay. Humans as the cause of global warming. University of California, pp. 13 -28.
Weart, Spencer. The discovery of global warming. New York. Wadsworth Publishing, 2004. Print.
Avatar movie analysis Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Nowadays film production industry is one of the most profitable. Perhaps, the main reason for the success is that it provides people with what they long to have, i.e. the ability to dream creating entire new worlds in their imagination. It goes without saying that the industry has undergone many changes throughout decades.
Filmmakers try to use new techniques, develop new topics and create new fairytales. One of the most unpredictable wizards of the world of movies is James Cameron who never stops astonishing people worldwide. This is the person who manages to create something better each time. Each of his best movies is more successful than the previous one. Thus, his Terminator 2 became a sensation.
His Titanic became one of the glorious epic movies in the history of the world cinematography. Admittedly, his latest movie Avatar is a revolutionary creation which opened up new horizons for the overall industry. Moreover, it also influenced many other industries and changed people’s conventional perception of art and technology.
Reportedly, James Cameron had an idea of creating Avatar right after he completed his glorious Titanic, having written a treatment for the movie in distant 1996 (Jensen, 2007). As Cameron stated he was inspired by many science fiction writings and some non-fiction books to create the world of Pandora.
He singled out two authors whose books had the greatest impact – Edgar Rice Burroughs, H. Rider Haggard — who can be characterized as jungle adventure writers and pointed out: “I wanted to do an old fashioned jungle adventure, just set it on another planet, and play by those rules” (Jensen, 2007).
Interestingly, James Cameron had two approximately equal projects in his mind. He had two stories to be made using the latest technology: Avatar and Battle Angels (adaptation of Japanese comics). In fact, he wanted to realize both projects and only needed to decide what story should go first (Jensen, 2007). Thus, instead of Pandora people could have admired some other world and other characters.
One of the decisive factors while picking up the story was the consistency of the script. Eventually, Cameron had to choose Avatar since he was not satisfied with Battle Angels script: “It was the kid in the candy store problem — too many good ideas and no story” (Jensen, 2007). Thus, they started working on Avatar in September 2005. It took them four years to create the film which was destined to become a breakthrough in the movie production industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Admittedly, Avatar was not the first film to use computer technology in film production. For instance, in one of the interviews Cameron denoted that he was sure in the success of his project since he saw what characters and settings were possible to create with the help of technology: Gollum from The Lord of the Rings, King Kong and Davy Jones from Pirates of the Caribbean (Jensen, 2007). Thus, Cameron believed he could manage to create fully CG images.
It is necessary to point out that Cameron revolutionized the production of digital films. Thus, he did not the common practice of shooting actors and then processing those images with the help of computer technology. James Cameron had special cameras (produced by Sony) which could shoot the complete picture, i.e. the digital images (Siegel, 2010).
Actors had specific censors to capture every movement of their body, every expression of their faces. As far as facial expressions are concerned Cameron also used quite new approach using rather common technique. Apart from censors the actors had specific skull cap which had a camera which transformed every facial expression (Honthaner, 2010).
The actors were performing on the green background which was turned into the beautiful jungles of Pandora already inside Cameron’s cameras. Another peculiarity of this movie production is that two cameras were used to take the same scene creating 3D effect (“Avatar 3D Film Employs Cutting Edge Visual Effects”, 2009). Basically, there are two pictures for each eye captured by two cameras. In fact, this can be called a truly 3D movie.
Of course, it is necessary to point out that Cameron used really latest software to create the world where every leave, every vine were a realistic pieces of art. It goes without saying that such precision presupposed enormous amount of information, a petabyte (1 million gigabytes) to be stored and operated (Siegel, 2010). Cameron addressed Microsoft to handle this really serious issue which could destroy the entire work claiming:
I always have this horror that the best thing we create winds up like the Ark of the Covenant at the end of ‘Indiana Jones,’ being put away in some warehouse where we never find it (Siegel, 2010).
Fortunately, Microsoft team managed to cope with this problem and the digital world became a real one on the screens of numerous cinemas.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Avatar movie analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is worth mentioning that at the period of the movie production there were no many theatres which had the necessary facilities to show 3D film so there was no haste in the movie production, since James Cameron understood that the more time passed the more cinemas would be available (Siegel, 2010). It was very reasonable since the film could fail to become such a success if only few cinemas could feature it.
Apart from the use of the unique cameras and software which were used to create a new world, Cameron resorted to professionals to create a new language for the people of Pandora. Thus, Paul Froemer who is “the head of the linguistics department at USC” created a new language which actors could pronounce but which at the same time sounded very exotic to viewers (Jensen, 2007). Thus, people of Pandora speak a language which is, actually, a mixture of Polynesian and African languages and dialects.
Admittedly, James Cameron remains a person faithful to details. Perhaps, this is the main secret of his success. Thus, Avatar won several Golden Globes and Oscars, and became “the fastest movie ever to achieve $1bn (£619m) in ticket sales around the world” (“Avatar Overtakes Titanic as Top-Grossing Film Ever”, 2010).
Reputedly, the movie budget is about $300 million. Admittedly, the revenues are much larger. However, it is impossible to simply state the figures to assess the production costs and evaluate the financial success of the film. First of all, according to Vanity Fair the budget of $300 million did not include marketing expenses.
The production costs were shared by Fox, Dune Capital Management and Ingenious Film Partners which was a very good option to “hedge the risk” (Keegan, 2009). Apart from this James Cameron invested quite a lot of his own money to start the production of the film. Of course, he encouraged some other investors to participate in the project.
The main focus was made on the use of revolutionary technologies. In fact, some people called it technological gambling which turned out to be success. The film gave a great push to the development of many other 3D projects and the development of 3D facilities which were beneficial for many investors and companies.
For instance, many films acquired a new life in 3D format (fiction and non-fiction), 3D technology entered many cinemas and even households. The success of the film enabled James Cameron to launch several projects concerning the film which brought additional financial benefits (for instance, 2 edition of the film with additional minutes).
Apart from wise technology use, James Cameron made other effective decisions. Thus, the live scenes shooting was mainly implemented in New Zealand which saved the filmmakers about $30 million (Keegan, 2009). Of course, there were no many stars featured (in fact, there was only one celebrated figure – Sigourney Weaver) which also enabled to save funds (there was no enormous cast salaries).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Avatar movie analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, the use of technology was the most important factor which led to great success of the epic film. Thus, only in the first six weeks the worldwide taking of the film reached almost $2bn ($1,859bn to be more precise) (“Avatar overtakes Titanic as top-grossing film ever”, 2010).
People wanted to see the “artificial” digital world with “digital” actors performing. The precision of filmmakers was rewarded since everyone was impressed by the film and went to cinemas several times to feel that peculiar impression of digital reality. It is necessary to add that many people were talking about rather poor story and many borrowings from other films (when speaking of Pandora world creatures). However, the visual effects were still admired.
This admiring can explain the exclusive popularity not only of the film but other products related to Pandora. In the first place, it is possible to single out several version of the film itself (first 3D version, DVD 3D version, the second 3D version, 2D blue rave version). Apart from this the official site of the movie presents Avatar games available for computers or I-pods.
The site also provides the visitors with possibility to purchase toys associated with the film (avatars, robots, machines, etc.). Of course, many other games exist. In fact, the Internet is an affluent source of various games – Avatar versions. Admittedly, the quality of those games differs. Unsurprisingly, Cameron’s Avatar game astonishes with the high quality and is, in fact, a kind of controllable film. The characters of the film should fulfill some tasks and accomplish certain missions.
Notably, it is not a repetition of the film scenes it is a completely new story, or at least some more detailed description of the life on the distant planet. Moreover, the world created by Cameron evokes many discussions and there are many books concerning Pandora and ideas articulated in the film (Mahoney and Carmine, 2010). It goes without saying that the abundance of related products brings financial benefits to the filmmakers and James Cameron, in particular.
It is impossible to overestimate the importance of Avatar for the development of the cinematography industry. Before this project filmmakers only partially resorted to the latest technology.
There were some images or some parts of settings, but no one dared to make a completely digital movie. It is necessary to stress that only Cameron with his precision could become a successful pioneer. He created a completely 3D world using the latest technological facilities instead of digitizing real world setting. As Jon Landau, the film producer, claimed:
What I believe Avatar has done as much as anything is it’s opened a small crack in the door to let other filmmakers know that stories that could not be told in the past can now be told. No longer do they reside in your imagination or only in the pages of great literature, but you now have the technology to realize them (Siegel, 2010).
So, nowadays filmmakers can use the same technology in their projects. In fact, many filmmakers do use such technologies nowadays. Moreover, the majority of the most successful films are produced in 3D format. The popularity of this kind of technology and its affluent opportunities led to realization of many great projects: screening myths and favorite tales.
Of course, not only industry has benefited. Cameron gave people the opportunity to enter new reality, the reality of the genuine 3D world. Now people believe that there can be no boundaries in the fiction world. They become physical observers of events happening around them.
Thus, viewers get what they want to see and to feel: an illusion, a beautiful dream. The use of 3D technologies in Avatar made people understand that their expectations from a dream world can be met since the contemporary technology enables filmmakers to create something bigger.
Apart from the esthetic impact of the film it is possible to point out the great influence Avatar produced on the development of technology itself. Thus, nowadays companies are interested in developing facilities for 3d filmmaking and such films viewing. Thus, the development of the equipment in cinemas is astonishing.
Besides, people are eager to buy 3D equipment to watch 3D films at their homes. Of course, the development of such technology was a potent impulse for the further development of the corresponding software. So, it is possible that in the nearest future filmmakers will present some new technology.
It is also important to mention that the film evoked quite important discussion of the environmental issues. People could see the world of harmony and what can happen to it if people continue their destructive activities.
Some may argue that it is just a fictional film which cannot have great impact on people’s mind, but it is necessary to remember that these are works of art which make people think of their lives. Thus, the prospects are that Avatar has contributed greatly to the development of people’s understanding of their purpose and destination on the Earth.
In conclusion, it is necessary to point out that James Cameron created a new world which has had a great impact on the existing one. Avatar became a revolution in the industry of filmmaking which influenced the development of technology and opened up new horizons for many people. Thus, the film proved that people have many great opportunities to consider new topics and reveal new worlds which can contribute to the development of the entire humanity.
Reference List Avatar Movie Official Site. (2010). Web.
“Avatar 3D Film Employs Cutting Edge Visual Effects”. (2009). BBC. Web.
“Avatar Overtakes Titanic as Top-Grossing Film Ever”. (2010). BBC. Web.
Honthaner, E. L. (2010).The Complete Film Production Handbook. Burlington, MA: Focal Press.
Jensen, J. (2000). Great Expectations. Entertainment Weekly. Web.
Keegan, R. (2009). How Much Did Avatar Really Cost? Vanity Fair. Web.
Mahoney, K. P. and Carmine, A. (2010). The Ultimate Fan’s Guide to Avatar, James Cameron’s Epic Movie. London: Punked Books.
Siegel, J. (2010). Cameron Says Microsoft’s Role in ‘Avatar’ Was Key. Web.
Must gay marriage to be legal? Research Paper custom essay help
Introduction The issue of same-sex marriages provides a heated debate due to lack of neutrality and diversity of opinion among writers and everyone else in the society. There is huge religious opposition of extending the laws on marriage to cater for gay marriages.
Based on these grounds, homosexuality face secularly based moral objection, rejection or only partial acceptance and this paper will base the argument on this indications. The dispute against same sex-marriages is also depends on various worldly arguments in relation to the moral principles, ethical and religious values.
The debate is either a double-sided sword that supports or opposes discrimination against bisexuals and homosexuals. This paper supports that people are generally entitled to right of protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation. There must be equal benefits over protection by civil laws. Both the opposite and same-sex couples require legal recognition but this does not mean the argument herein is a one sided support for need to change the meaning of marriage to incorporate gay marriages.
Arguments Against Gay Marriages In line with Somerville (p 3), the nature of marriage is a presentation of a societal institution that symbolically protects human nature of reproduction through advocacy of opposite sex marriages in terms as inherent relationships. The development of the society depends on the institutions such as religious societies that guide on various matters such as marriages and major argument against gay marriages have foundation on these religious institutions.
Since time in history, the religious definition of marriage is an institution of putting together and upholding social and cultural values that govern the transformation of human life such as the procreation matters. To date, marriage in the religious setting presents an institutionalized situation that transforms human life from a generation to another by nurturing and protecting life. The inherent capacity to transmit new life makes the relationship between man and woman viable as opposed to the same sex relationships.
The outline of marriage therefore takes the natural course and alteration of this definition to integrate same-sex relationships would jeopardise the functionality as outlined religiously (Somerville, p 4). The situation would no longer support the inherent proactive relationship that represents opposite-sex relationships. Homosexuality would definitely change the fundamental nature particularly the norm governing procreation or reproduction.
On the other hand, culture makes human to be similar and distinctive from the other animals and technological-intelligent systems. There are various difficulties connected to the issue of forming consensus in the secular society unless one is in a position of creating a society that supports the cultural paradigm that comprises of the social values, myths or believes and attitudes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main aim of such a belonging is to emphasize on the true meaning of life for individual and society in general. Marriage is part of culture in support of cultural attitudes, believes and values that are concern with reproduction (Somerville, p 4). The importance of legal recognition of marriages is to establish secular means of supporting a culture that relates to support of life like the religious setting.
There is need to limit marriages to the opposite-sex relationship, considering the current technological advancement where it is possible to support existence of human life by use of asexual replication also known as cloning. Without a proper safeguard of marriage, there are possibilities of sabotaging the social-cultural ecology concerns with such procreations of human beings.
People often consider decisions concern with reproduction as individual matters and therefore decisions concerning reproduction are private or confidential (Somerville, p 7). This is a wrong impression because the state has a right to interfere with relationship matters through the law.
Marriage involves the state as a third party as well as God if it is a religious vow. It is not a private decision, but a concern of the society because a divorce certainly requires decisions through a family court. The society therefore has to involve in marriage decisions through the law.
Definitions of Marriage
Marriage commitment is for the reason that eventually it should promote the well-being of the society or family through procreation and support of human life. Culturally, marriage is therefore not an affiliation for its own benefits and interests, or that of the partners but for family and societal gains (Man Yee Karen, p 62).
Would this notion be attainable if the institution extended to involve the same-sex relationships? Marriage is therefore primarily an important concept in the society due to dependence on the expectations of human existence. This is a great fact that people often miss and the current individualistic society looks at the importance of marriage as a formation close or intimate to relationships among couples.
This is truly a strong basis for the formation but a weak link in support of future prospects of life. The same sex couples advocate for recognition on the same grounds of public recognition and intimacy. The fight for heterosexual or homosexual relationships therefore depends on the definition of the term ‘marriage’.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Must gay marriage to be legal? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Is the main purpose of marriage to protect intimate relationship or protection of inherent procreative affiliation? If marriages were for the purpose of procreative relationship, then other definition of the term would not be necessary. This means that we are trying to re-define marriage in fight of incorporating same-sex relationships. According to Man Yee Karen (p 62), marriage is what defends the procreative form of relationships.
There is need to emphasize that exclusion same-sex marriages is for the reason that these forms of relationships lacks the inherent procreative ability. By recognizing the existence of homosexual and heterosexual marriages, there is compromise or change of this major function of marriage.
There are possibilities that today’s gay couples are in a position to reproduce through techno-science and therefore advocate for recognition as institutions that procreates and protects life, based on religious definition of marriage. In line with Man Yee Karen (p 64), there are various social functions gay marriages would seriously harm, if they are lawfully permitted. Marriage combines various values and societal norms relating to reproduction as well as support of generation growth.
Arguments for Gay Marriages There is evident recognition of equal rights in support of every human being in a straight or of gay relationship. The issue of equality ends when one starts to argue for gay marriages. The reason why there are sharp critics against gay marriages falls upon the fact that people have a huge misunderstanding of homosexuality and meaning of marriage. To most people homosexuality means lack of serious commitment and promiscuity.
In argument over un-lasting relationships, like the straight counterparts, gay people lack seriousness during the young age but the old are often devoted, monogamous and royal to their partners. People only point out to the weak side of the story. People in gay relationships have value for family, societal safety, law and are good contributors to social growth as good citizens, but all over again, people fail to recognize that gay people take full commitment to relationships to make lives better in the community.
Comparison to Heterosexuality
Like most straight marriages, gays’ shows commitment to one partner and discourage promiscuity thus assisting in preventing the increase of sexually transmitted diseases. Various countries such as Denmark, has weighed the benefits and thus the sudden change of attitude over issues regarding legality of the gay relationships (Bidstrup, p 3).
However, there are still great assumptions over gay people being heterosexuals. In line with Bidstrup (p 3), homosexuality is closely related to the straight marriages because it is about commitment to love or affection and not about sexual perversions. There exist mutual appeals, friendliness and feel of affection that critics fail to notice. Like in opposite-sex marriages, sex is only one form of expressing affection to each other.
There is an argument that being gay is more profound compared to simple sexual affiliation Bidstrup (p 5). The gay relationship presents individuals’ core identity and a close comparison to being of a different race among majority. The heterosexuals fail to understand and appreciate gay relations mainly because it is a situation where the victimized are the minority.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Must gay marriage to be legal? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Support for Procreation
In some instances, the same sex marriages are able to support life through other measures in place of procreation. Today there is public recognition of same-sex spouse relationships and commitment to one another. There is also the technological or scientific means of supporting transmission of life.
There are various cultural changes in favour of same-sex relationships. This is a form of cultural dynamism over the years, which posses a possibility of a change in support of same-sex marriages. Traditional status of a woman shows great improvement/progress and today marriage is a commitment concerning union of equivalent partners, thus the need to consider this as a further improvement (Bidstrup, p 2).
Definitions of Marriage
The definition of marriage as an institution between people of the opposite sex rarely produces supportive arguments to deny gay people right to marry. Similar definition of marriage as meant for procreation lacks well-built argument. These are clear indication that major concern relates to the definition of marriage.
From the religious point of view, marriage is a term supporting procreation but contrary, what would happen to barren individuals or a couple who cannot or opt not to procreate? Does the getting together of such couples compromise the real meaning or symbolism of marriage in the religious setting? Marriage as a potential to support reproduction is a generalized term that lacks clear clarification at the individual levels.
Many marriages cannot meet the religious stipulation of reproductive symbolism for instance a marriage between couple who are past the childbearing age.
Do such marriages damage the symbolism like the same sex marriages would? If the definition of marriage is coexistence in support for transmission of human life, then procreation is presently not important because of the techno science in supports of life. There is also lack of law governing child-centred procedure of deciding, where children have the right to biological parental nurturing (Bidstrup, p 6).
The hearted debate also argues that same sex relationships are not the optimal situations for raising children. If children were a top priority in considering these types of relationships, then the law should not allow child molesters into relationships right to have children. Various studies indicate that gay couples are able to raise children in a good manner like those in straight relationships, if not better (Bidstrup, p 6).
If marriage was as stipulated by the religious believes as the ability to ensure continuity of life, then the gay relationships are able to support the notion and uplift the human race. The gay relationships are therefore not for violating the sacredness that forms a connection to marriage institutions, but require protection by the rules of a country as opposed to religious regulations.
Works Cited Bidstrup, Scott. Gay Marriage, The Arguments And The Motives. 3 June 2009. Web.
Man Yee Karen, Lee. Equality, Dignity, and Same-Sex Marriage: A Rights Disagreement in Democratic Societies. Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 2010. Print.
Somerville, Margaret. The Case Against “Same-Sex Marriage.” McGill Centre for Medicine, Ethics and Law. 29 April 2003. Web.
The Genre of Crime and Gangster Movies Essay college application essay help
Crime and gangster movies always exhibit a correlation in sense that they are both developed from the sinister actions that are always associated with gangsters. A gangster is a broad term that is used to generally used to refer to those people who do not operate within the boundaries of the law; for instance bank robbers, drug traffickers, underworld figures, outlaw hoodlums who are involved in constant killing of the innocent and many more.
The gangster movies always tend to idolize the gangster figures with a relation to the sinister activities that always define crime and the lifestyles of the gangsters (Dirks par.1). It cannot be argued yet, but the crime culture can be attributed to the rapid revolution of the crime and gangster movies since they were first produced. The theme behind almost all gangster movies is always the same although the crime genre has seen a tremendous transformation over the years.
Gangster films often tend to highlight the life events of a crime figure or the victims of crime and in most cases they attempt to glorify a given criminal figure or gang in the cast (Dirks par. 2). The idolized gangster in the film or in real life situation is always presented as an outlaw hero who draws admiration due to his toughness to go against the system, and in some cases the criminal figure is portrayed as villain to the society.
Almost all gangster films have the same plot and theme characteristic; the film gangsters are always presented as being materialistic, and tough to outdo the legal system and procedures. The plot characteristic is always based on criminal or gang rivalries that attempt to outdo each other.
Crime culture and gangster films have been around since the onset of the 20th century. Among the first movies under this genre was the film by D. W. Griffith during 1912: The Musketeers of Pig, The movie was basically about organized crime. It marked history as the first significant gangster movie that has survived against the tales of time.
Other examples of early criminal movies included The Moonshiners which was produced during 1904, A desperate encounter between the Burglars and police (1905) produced by Edwin Potter and Mc Cutcheon Wallace, and the Black Hand (1906) by the same producers.
Their availability and significance was very problematic at the times and resulted to them not being a major hit at the box office during those times. The early gangster films made use of rebellious figure as the main center point of the film to challenge the system and the business ethics, through which the gangsters made a successful career illegally. This meant that gangsters were respectable in the society irrespective of the unethical means of wealth acquisition (Dirks par. 5)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During 1915, the gangster movie genre witnessed a different transformation; one characterized by street violence. This was evident in the movie the regeneration (1915); it depicted violence on the streets of New York due to a boy who was subject to social changes before becoming a gangster.
Still under the same generation, there were gangster movies that were produced such as the underworld; which is considered to be the first modern gangster movie. The movie had the various elements of crime and its production was basically from a gangster’s point of view. It marked history as the first gangster movie that won an Oscar award under the category of original screen play.
The dawn of the 30’s presented again a major shift in the history of gangster movies; it is commonly referred to as the era of the talking pictures. It was then that the gangster movies began to become entertaining and majority of the audience reported liking the violence on screen. The gangster movies of the thirties were actually based on criminal occurrences and the existence of actual gangsters rather than myths as depicted by the first gangster films.
This was the dawn for the criminal culture and so was the rise in popularity of gangster films (Horsley par. 3). One of the key factors that made crime genre in film industry more interesting was due to the fact that the American gangster was portrayed differently and as a result, the cinema audience got much more satisfaction in terms gangster violence and violence against the gangster himself.
This made the audiences be of the view that criminal culture and rebellion was primarily due to the repressive social change in the United States. The outcome was that movie producers exploited this mythology to produce more gangster movies that could appeal to the audiences.
The sound era can be attributed for the rise of gangster movies as more sound effects could be incorporated to the films to make movie appealing to the audience. One such movie that incorporated all the video and audio elements was the City streets which were shot during 1931 by Dashiell Hammett.
Warner Bros. Studio was one of best known studios for the production of gangster films during the times. Some of the famous movie stars in the genre of crime and gangster films included: Edward Robinson, James Cagney and Humphrey Bogart. Early gangster movie stars included Raft George and Muni Paul.
We will write a custom Essay on The Genre of Crime and Gangster Movies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The three great gangster movies that were produced during the thirties are: the little Caesar which starred Edward Robinson and was produced Mervin Lerroy in 1930; the public enemy which featured James Cagney as a brutal outlaw gangster: the Scarface, which featured Paul Muni and was shot in 1932. This films depicted gangsters as being too brutal and specially, the Scarface: the shame of a nation (1932).
The Scarface was one of the greatest gangster movies of the times. The gangsters in the movie were portrayed ill-mannered criminals who did not understand the gravity of their acts. The Scarface was based on the actual criminal figures and the criminal events of the thirties; Tony Camonte was portraying the infamous criminal Al Capone, Johnny Lovo portrayed resemblance to the infamous Johnny Torrio.
The Scarface is one of the most brutal, potent and violent gangster movies ever to be produced. The movie narrates the rise and fall of an infamous gangster figure; the movie laid a framework for the release more violent and brutal gangster movies by Warner Bros.
The movies provided a depiction of the trends of gangster culture and as a result it was banned in majority of states which resulted to it performing poorly in the box office. This kind of portrayal of gangsters was subject to criticism in terms of content of the films (Dirks Part 2 par. 12).
The thirties marked the end of glorifying the gangster’s criminal culture and indeed focused on approval of ruthless fights against the gangster way of life. This led to the rise f the censorship codes in order to counter balance the effects of the gangster movies on the society through the enhancement of violent crime that gangster films always depicted.
The struggles in content and release of gangster movies son led to the birth of gangster as cop subgenre under the crime genre. The movies under this sub genre attempted to portray the good side of the gangsters whereby they were part of law enforcement bodies such as the FBI to help fight criminal activities.
A perfect example of a gangster movie under this category is the G- men, which featured James Cagney as an undercover FBI agent, although he played the same gangster behaviors while carrying out his regular duties. Other movies in this sub genre included: the bullet of Ballots (1936), the Amazing Dr. Citterhouse (1938), I am the law and the T-men (1947).
The developments in the gangster genre also incorporated the prison sub genre; which primarily revolved around the prison crime activities. They portrayed the prison as an avenue for giving birth to gangsters through transformation of innocent victims to highly feared criminal figures.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Genre of Crime and Gangster Movies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The prison movies also portrayed the various ways of prison evasion, attempted ways to escape from the prison and in some cases the imprisoned victims wanted to prove their innocence (Dirks part 2 par.1). Examples of the gangster films under this sub genre included the defiant ones (1958), the birdman of Alcatraz (1962) among many more.
Another shift in the gangster movies was through the organized crime gangster movies of the 1950’s. these films portrayed gangster attitude with a correlation between the organized crimes taking over which was characterized by tense action, immoral and corrupt gangsters who viewed the society as a sick lot and presented an opportunity for them to conduct their businesses.
They depicted the gangsters as more of businessmen who were out to enrich themselves through illegal activities rather than rampant killings and the gang wars that were a common characteristic of the earlier gangsters. Some of gangster movies under this classification include the God father series (I, II and III).
The Godfather I (1972) and The Godfather II were the most celebrated of the trilogy. The Godfather sequel is rated r for its graphical content and language and was credited with three Oscar awards. The Part II won seven Oscars while the third sequel did not win any Oscars.
The Godfather sequels presented an epitome of violence, honor, corruption and power associated with criminal culture in the United States (Dirks, par. 8). The epic film depicts the history of a mafia family over a span of 10 years. The family’s dominance is threatened by the rise of a new trend in crime by then: illegal drug business.
The movie narrates the rise and the downfall of the family through family loyalties and vengeful bloody scenes. The movie recorded over 53 deaths in its screen play; given that figure, the movie was rated s ultraviolent. These phenomena laid framework for the modern day gangster and gangster movies; associating gangsters with business through involvement with top notch lawyers, government officials and well known business men.
The gangster movies of the 1970s were basically based on the same plot characteristics of the gangster movies of the 1930s; which entailed ruthless gun killings and other violent criminal activities. Another movie of the seventies with the same plot was the getaway (1972) which was from the directors of the famous gangster movie the Italian job (1967).
The 80s depicted a completely different genre of the crime films; one characterized by serial killers who were out on a killing spree for the sake of their own purposes. Serial killer movies drew an inspiration from the real life events of serial killers that existed. One such movie was the sequels of the man hunter (1986) that was directed by Michael Mann (Dirks part 2 par 13).
The gangster movies of the 90s depicted different approach whereby they were based on the poor social settings that depicted poverty and as a result the involvement of crime and the crime culture. Examples of such movies are the Natural Born Killers (1994) and set it off (1996) that was directed by Gary Gray.
Conclusion The criminal culture has seen a tremendous revolution, from the early portrayal of ultraviolent gangsters to the modern day business minded gangsters. The future of gangster movie will revolutionize how a gangster is to the society, from the ultra violent individual to the top notch corporate who attempts to practice decency while undertaking his daily gangster duties.
Works Cited Dirks, Tim. Crime and Gangster Films. 2009. 7 January 2010 .
Horsely, Lee. Introduction to the Gangster Films of the 1930s. 2002. Web.
Recidivism and Incarceration Analytical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Role of prisons
Reasons for recidivism
Factors affecting recidivism
The reason why criminals are sent to prison is to reform and discontinue their criminal life. However it does not always work that way. The Pew report indicates that cases of incarceration including recidivism continue even with incarceration (6).
Incarceration therefore does not yield the results that are hoped for with regards to reformation. Although incarceration offers some degree of deterrence the results are not long lasting. Imprisonment is one of the ways in which society punishes offenders. Prison terms are issued depending on various factors.
Role of prisons The nature of the crime committed is one of the greatest determinants. Other factors are background of the crime and offender and case specifics. The prison system reflects the legal values and system in that crime are placed in categories and depending on the crime the prisoners will be sentenced. Prison terms accompany felony crimes but other crimes may receive prison term or other punishments like fines. Much of what determines how much time an offender spends in prison depends on the state where the offender is tried.
Prisons have been in existence in a long time but more recently there are new centers coming up that offer incarceration while at the same time offering other service. These centers are like boot camps, detention centers for the mentally unwell and juvenile centers. This type of incarceration has been adapted to deal with the unique needs of the prison population. They aim at positive rehabilitation of the offenders and are a balance between punishment and care.
Another purpose that prisons serve is the opportunity to get justice for society. When people commit crimes they owe the society for their wrongs whether it is murder, theft or forms of corruption. Because of the crimes they need to pay in terms of time taken away from society. They therefore miss on certain privileges of being in the world. However the whole experience is supposed to teach them something so that they do not commit crimes anymore.
The structure of prison is made in a way that should allow prisoners to retain their dignity. It is not meant to give inhumane mistreatments. Phillips states that prisoners are still valuable to society and determined as such should be helped to self actualize (33).
Today there exist concerns about the role of prisons in the justice system and if really prisons are serving their purpose. The high costs of keeping prisons running has intensified questions about the effectiveness of prisons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If they are working as they should, shouldn’t there be fewer criminals in prison? And are the aims of incarceration being achieved? Given the growing numbers of prisoners and cases of recidivism, these questions pose serious concerns about the future of prison systems. Crimes seem to continue with or without incarceration.
Reasons for recidivism Significant numbers of prisoners find their way into prison because of drug related crimes. Once they leave prison the very circumstance they were living in before incarceration are still there. As a result many of them engage in drug use and in time they are involved in crime that lands them in prison. The cycle may keep repeating itself until the offender recovers from the addiction to drugs.
One of the reasons why recidivism is though to occur is because many of law breakers are given prison term when other methods might be useful in addressing the reasons as to why the criminals engage in crime. In many instances drug and alcohol abuse have been attributed to petty crimes. As a result those who have drug abuse problems will continue to be sent to prison while their addiction problems are not being addressed.
The justice system has not concentrated on the criminals but rather seems to be more concerned with getting offenders off the streets. The problem is that they keep reappearing once they leave prison. Intervention programs would be more beneficial so that the reasons behind crime can be addressed. That is why according to the Pew report; more states are opting to invest in better programs in prison than in capacity (17)
Wilson after conducting a study to evaluate incarceration costs in Oregon states that there is a direct link seen in the number of crimes and incarceration. Wilson concludes that it is only when methods of reducing crime are implemented that there will be fewer prisoners and also consequently cases of recidivism will diminish (4).
The study revealed that the rates of increased prison terms make little change to the crime rates, although they do decline. As a result other means of reducing crimes should be used instead of dependence on prison terms as a crime fighter.
According to Wilson, the reason why prison terms have found favor before is because they can assist to minimize crimes by containing the criminals as they undergo reformation (2). This does not reflect aspect of justice alone but rather as mere holding of the criminals to prevent them from committing further crime.
We will write a custom Essay on Recidivism and Incarceration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This also offers an opportunity to prevent re-offending (4). Another reason is that prison terms serve to deter potential offenders. As a result fewer crimes are committed. This is especially true for violent and sexual crimes. Different states have different measures they use which can increase incarcerations or reduce them. Wilson uses the case of Oregon which through its measures has dramatically increased its incarcerated population by calling, in particular crimes, for longer prison terms (4).
Prisons are supposed to get offenders off the streets but it is not an end in itself. First of all it is supposed to get them into reformation so that they will not commit other crimes. It is during the period of serving time that criminals can be informed about the crimes they commit and given a time to form new socially acceptable behaviors. The new behaviors will help them to get back into society and become productive and cease the life of crime.
Criminals who go to prison, especially for minor crimes, can become frustrated with the prison terms and feel victimized. This is especially likely when the prison terms do not seem to match up to the crime. First time offenders are especially prone to this effect.
According to King, states should thoroughly conduct analysis of their justice system to find out if the benefits of using certain measures are real (254). In doing that, the states can be able to use measures which are proven to be beneficial and can be financially supported well by the states.
Maintaining the prison systems has become increasingly expensive. They should therefore be used if they can be justified to bring the results that society wants (254).
King states that to avoid the large number of prisoners the country need to decide whether it can continue to dedicate required funds into the prison system. If the funds are cut there will be elimination of amenities and services that are necessary in prisons (255). However, as eliminating the services may be difficulty the other viable solution is to reduce the number of prisoners.
One of the areas in which the justice system is challenged in addressing the aims to reduce recidivism is in juvenile prisoners. This is because juvenile have the most potential to avoid crime life and reform their lives. Accordingly, there are ways in which recidivism can be measured and appropriate action taken. Particularly for juvenile the goals are to minimize cases of recidivism, increase programs that are helpful in assisting juvenile and ensure programs and services for the youth are well supported.
There have been recommendations that have been made in regards to incarceration to ensure that the future of the justice system is secure and that prisons play the role they are supposed to play. According to Gottschalk, this is especially important to the African American and Hispanic population since they have the highest population in prisons (669).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Recidivism and Incarceration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the recommendations according to Gottschalk is that the fiscal pressures ought to be placed within the right context before they are adjustments are made (670). This is because in some states, although the number of prisoners may arise with longer prison terms enforced, the states will benefit from reduced crimes and the budgets will reduce (670).
Prisons will be less crowded when they are reserved for serious crimes. Many of the prisoners commit crime under the influence of some drugs which has led for calls to deal with drug addiction within the prison population. According to Gottschalk, if crimes attributed to drug addiction are reduced, there will be less prisoners in prison and fewer cases of recidivism (680). This approach is particularly adaptable to non-violent criminals. At the same time the society will be kept safe while the offenders undergo rehabilitation.
The current programs for rehabilitation have not been adequate to deal with the problem of addiction. Phillips in their book agrees with the ides that prison should not be a place of condemnation for prisoners but a place from which they can emerge as better persons and citizens (199). From the letters of the Dhamma brothers, it is clear that prisoners have high hopes for themselves. A system that does not recognize this or use it for reformation is wasting resources (200).
The budget cuts in incarceration systems has meant the services that would be most beneficial to prisoners. These include vocational training, drug abuse programs and education. Unfortunately these services present the prisoners with the best opportunity for better lives after leaving prison. It is these programs that the government should dedicate more funds to if lasting changes are to be made in the justice system. Punishment alone will not reform prisoners.
Gottschalk also recommends early releases of prisoners who show good behavior. This will decongestant prisons and petty criminals can have an opportunity to leave prison early and avoid getting entrenched in crime. Supervisions can then be conducted outside prisons. This will additionally keep records on criminals and assist them with what they need to stay off crime. One assistance could be drug programs for relapse addicts or assistance with getting jobs.
Gottschalk states that those who commit crime for the first time have better chances to avoid a life of crime if they do not reoffend (284). Unless the first timers engage in violent crimes their sentences could be capped. The three strikes measure has been responsible for increased prisoners. The role that the measure was meant to play has taken time to show the benefits. Because of crowded prisons states are coming up with ways in which they can reduce prison populations.
For first time offenders the more they are kept away from hardcore criminals the better. This is because prison environment plays a big part in how those inside perceive themselves and their behavior. If prisoners are recruited into gangs and develop gang mentality it will increase their chances of reoffending once they get back into society. It is therefore critical that the prison environment does not aid in creation of gangs and learning of criminal activities.
In order to reduce the impact of heavy penalties against crime, the new reforms could be used to sentence afresh prisoners who committed crimes under the influence of drugs. The move would reduce prisoners and leave more funds for those left behind to engage in programs aimed at rehabilitation. Consequently those who go through the programs and leave prison will have a better chance of avoiding recidivism.
Additionally there could be changes to way parole violations are addressed. In instances when no crime is committed, those paroled could be spared prison term. In this way only real crimes will be used to send offenders to prison. It will avoid paroled individuals from giving up and getting more into crime when they feel that they will always be in the system.
Factors affecting recidivism According to Delbert, the factors that contribute the most to crime especially for juvenile are lack of education and poverty (83). Lack of education has been associated with bad decisions and especially for those who start crime at a young age.
Most of juvenile offenders lack in good education, as a result they may engage in crime without an appreciation of the impact that criminal record will have on their future. As a result, when they get a criminal record they find it harder to get jobs. Having no steady means of income often leads to more crime as they try to maintain themselves.
Failure to get education also affects the rates of recidivism in that juvenile do not understand the criminal system and may not facilitate at their own defense. Many of the juvenile do not appreciate the system and therefore do not know how to defend themselves if they are accused of crime. This leads to high levels of juvenile who are caught and brought to justice.
Delbert also cites that most of the juvenile offenders are part of sub culture that supports crime and which allures to them (85). As a consequence they find it hard to give up crime. The power of pee pressure and the dictates of gangs can undermine the efforts of juvenile who are trying to leave a life of crime. Additionally as the juvenile gets involved in crime they keep progressing from petty to serious crimes which lead to longer prison terms.
With longer prison terms and few opportunities to reform the juvenile soon become adult offenders who are caught up in recidivism (84). The juvenile stage is there seen as very important in that if the offenders are reformed at this time period they will be assisted to avoid a life of crime later on in their lives as adults.
One of the contributing factors to recidivism according to Delbert is the lack of social support for juvenile. This coupled with other factors make it hard for the juvenile to reform. Lack of support especially becomes an issue when the juvenile comes from an uneducated family that is poor. The family members and especially the parents may already be involved in crime or provide little economic support for the children leaving them to fend for themselves.
In this manner poverty becomes a cause of increased cases of recidivism. Poorer families involved in crime in one way or another are also less likely to provide juvenile with the motivation to change life. The defeatist attitude of the parents and sense of hopelessness which permeates make the juvenile settle for a life of crime without feeling that they have other choices. Parental influence is an important factor in crime and it is this factor that perhaps best illustrates the discrepancies between numbers of white and black juveniles in prison.
Children coming from white families get more education and as a result do not find their way into prisons the way children from African American and Hispanic do. One way to give juvenile a chance at a better life and to get them to avoid recidivism is to get them better education, means of social control and social support so that they can give up a life of crime which will greatly enhance their opportunity for a good future (86). Uneducated adults also reveal higher chances of recidivism than their educated counterparts.
Prisons can not fully deal with the issue of crime unless drug abuse and addiction are resolved. In a study of 105 drug addicts conducted by Johnson, et al., addicts often get involved in crime to make money for their drug cravings (186).
Johnson, et al. also found that because the addicts had other needs as well they spent some of the money on food and buying items that they desired (190). Addiction was therefore taken as one of the reasons why people engage in crime and especially to explain cases of recidivism. If drug addicts do not receive treatment, despite their best efforts they will still resort to crimes in order to maintain their drug addiction.
Drugs have also been attributed to broken families which can lead to juvenile crime. Addicted parent s do not attend to their children in a manner sufficient to give social controls, support so that it becomes easier for the youth in families with addiction to join crime. Drug addiction present cases of absent parents which encourages juvenile to join groups which could be gang related or antisocial.
Drug addiction is therefore a legitimate force in causing crime and in encouraging recidivism. Until drug addiction is treated, many addicts will keep finding their way to prisons time and again. In the long run the treatment has more positive results as it doe not only reduce crime but helps criminals to turn their lives around and become productive members of society.
Conclusion While prisons are necessary in every society there is need to assess their roles and how well they are living up to what they are intended to. In America today thee is general consensus that prisons are not producing one of their roles which is reformation. This is in turn causing other problems including recidivism. It is important to find out ways in which the prison department of corrections can effectively help those who are sent to prison to leave a life of crime.
In addition there is reason to find out why there are so many crimes in society today. With that understanding crime can be deal with in a preventative way. Attention to drug addiction, poverty and lack of education can yield new ways of attacking crime while redeeming the offenders and criminals.
Works Cited Delbert, Eliot. Environmental Factors Contribute to Juvenile Crime and Violence. In Juvenile crime: Opposing Views by A. E Sadler and Scott Barbour. Eds. San Diego: Green Haven Press, 1997. Print.
Gottschalk, Marie. Dollars Sense and Penal Reforms: Social Movements and the Future of the Carceral State. Social Research. 74. 2 (2004): 669-694. Print.
Johnson, B., Anderson, K. and Wish, E. Day in the Life of 105 Drug Addicts and Abusers: Crimes Committed and How the Money Was Spent. Sociology and Social Research. 72.3 (1988): 185-191.
King, Ryan. Changing direction? State Sentencing Reforms 2004-2006. Federal Sentencing Reporter. 19. 4 (2007): 253-260.
Phillips, Jenny. Letters from the Dhamma Brothers: Meditations Behind Bars. Onalaska, WA: Parayatti Publishing, 2008. Print.
The Pew. One in 100: Behind Bars in America. 2008. Web.
Wilson, Michael. Oregon Calculates the Cost of Incarceration. 2010. Web.
The American Dream Essay college admissions essay help
Abstract Since those times when America was discovered, many people overflowed to this continent in search of a better life. Those emigrants who hoped to find in America better political, economic, or private life, wanted to realize American Dream. The word “movement” has a figurative meaning connected with those emigrants from Africa, England, Ireland, Mexico, etc., who arrived in the USA, chasing American Dream.
What is American Dream? It is a phenomenon that symbolizes the ideal life of the USA population. American freedom includes success and prosperous life for everyone, regardless from the person’s origin or a social class. This idea is based on the United States Declaration of Independence which states that all people are equal, and have equal rights.
The practical realization of this dream is one’s own house, built on a private land. American Dream is tightly connected with the concept of “self-made person” that means a person who, with the help of individual hard work, achieves success in his/her life (Schnell 2).
Most of the emigrants, who arrived to the USA chasing their American dream, faced hard life, full of challenges and difficulties. Their American Dream was not realized, and they either died or resigned themselves to the dreadful way of life.
Thesis: The evasive American Dream rouses people to the unfulfilling reality.
Introduction The American Dream is United States’ national ideal. It offers freedom and a promise of prosperity in which life should get better and richer for everyone. It promises a fair chance for everyone with ability, without regard of social class or birth. Jennifer Hochschild succinctly defines the American dream as a set of “tenets about achieving success”.
According to President Bill Clinton, the American dream requires an individual to work hard to get a chance at advancement. Simply put, it is a persons’ attempt to achieve wealth and success through hard work and thrift. However, the American dream has remained difficult for many to achieve for a wide variety of reasons (Cullen 124).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Living the American dream is the ultimate dream for most of the American citizens and those aspiring to acquire American citizenship. However, the American dream has turned out to be a nightmare for them.
For many nowadays, the American dream has been rendered dead. Many who opted to get decent jobs better housing better health facility formal education etc. have languished to deteriorated living standards. Wages for many of the citizens have stagnated or fallen. Many authors have expressed failure of the American dream in their works. This theme is also very common in many contemporary works.
Education, Employment, Healthcare, Housing and the American dream Many of those who sought better education resorted to working instead of studying. Financing education for many of the American citizens has become a heavy burden for them. US has the best education facilities and the best education system together with high technology, hence accessing this is quite an uphill task to those wishing to access this.
Unemployment has been the nature of the day many American citizens facing layoffs due to economic recessions. In addition, they are left to seek casual jobs to meet their end needs. With the minimal income of up to $40000 per year, they are unable to keep up with the high taxation bills and mortgage. This is due to the difficulty in economic mobility in the US. Many employed citizens have stagnated and unable to climb the economic ladder. Nevertheless the rise in economic inequality has contributed too many citizens missing out on the economic reward that comes with success.
Health services are also a serious concern. Even though America has the best health facility in the world, health care is a chronic problem to many American citizens. For those who are uninsured it has been a nightmare accessing these health facilities. Very few citizens are provided with this basic necessity by their employment companies. This has resulted to the sprouting of two health care systems for the haves and the have-nots (Bloom 93).
Housing is another factor that makes the American dream hard to achieve. Hunger and homeless is increasing every day street families are on the rise daily. As a result, they sleep and depend on the garbage sites. The state has constructed home for the poor to cater for these street families.
This has done little to reduce their ever growing numbers Poor housing state has hit almost one quarter of the US citizens. It is extremely difficult for the US citizens to own homes; this has prompted them to rely on mortgages. Many of them are unable to keep up with the mortgage hence face being evicted from their homes. Others spend the rest of their lives paying up the mortgage. The housing policy in the US has failed to provide a level ground for all citizens and those aspiring to acquire citizenship there to acquire this basic need.
We will write a custom Essay on The American Dream specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More American dream and the works of Denis Johnson and Raymond Carver Jesus’s Son – Denis Johnson
Jesus’ Son is an anthology of eleven interlinked short stories, which are all narrated by the same character; a broken alcohol and heroin addict. The narrator (and protagonist) interacting with disturbed, drug addicts. Ultimately sympathetic characters of these linked stories. We follow the narrator through eleven short stories that revolve around wild incidents under the influence of drugs.
Car Crash While Hitchhiking
This is the opening story in the book. The narrator is involved in a traffic accident while hitchhiking. This bleak story takes a positive turn when the narrator rescues a baby trapped in a wrecked vehicle. He ends up in hospital.
The narrator describes a fight with his girlfriend at the start of this story. He then meets an interesting character named Wayne in a bar. He goes on a job with Wayne to tear down the walls of his old house to take out the copper wires and sell them. While so engaged, they see a naked red headed woman hang gliding. She is Wayne’s wife. Beverly Home
This is the last story in the collection. This story follows the narrator’s life after he has undergone drug rehabilitation. The narrator works as a newsletter writer in a nursing home. With all the patients suffering in some way, the narrator seems to have found a place to fits in. He is obsessed with a Mennonite woman he overhears singing.
As a result of his occupation at the home and his relationship with the Mennonite lady, the narrator finds acceptance. The narrator seemed destined for an incongruous ending. The story has an interesting and poignant ending. Through all of these stories, we see a hidden spirituality in the characters and so the ending of the book, while surprising, is inevitable.
The stories take place in different settings and give the reader a detailed description of the narrator’s outcast friends. We see him in myriad predicaments and at all stations of his life. The characters in these stories are all addicts in some way. These drugs and alcohol are the only certain factors of the narrator’s life. The settings of the stories are as varied as the narrator’s friends. The settings cover from Iowa, to Seattle to Phoenix.
The narrator does not reveal anything about his past to the reader. The narrator only divulges aspects of his self through his words and his many incarnations. He surrounds himself with a coterie of lowlifes who dwell in a bleak and violent American reality. The surreal quality, the intense fragility, of the narration is striking in Jesus’s Son. This voice does not seem to alter even when narrating the violent episodes that litter the stories.
Cathedral -Raymond Carver
This narration short story opens with the narrator anticipating his wife’s blind visitor. He has many reservations about the visit. His narration reveals his prejudiced nature. He does not make any effort to engage the blind man, Robert, in conversation, and choses to remain aloof.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The American Dream by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Not unlike the characters in Carver’s stories, the main character in Cathedral is subconsciously alienated and lonely. The narrator is unsatisfied with his occupation, and has petty resentments towards his wife. He does not get attached to people. The narrator is essentially blind, unaware of his actions and their effect on others. He lives in unique oblivion, isolated from others by his prejudice and beliefs.
The narrator disdains his visitor for no other reason but his sightlessness. He carelessly throws rude stereotypes into the conversation. This bias, to the extent that he refers to the visitor simply as ‘the blind man’, reveals his misplaced feelings of superiority.
The narrator betrays his opinion that Robert’s life must be far inferior since he has no sight. The narrator finally comes to realize that he, and not Robert, is actually blind. Despite his handicap, Robert has made the most of life. He has travelled and educated himself by listening to educational television programs and reading books.
Robert continues to better himself, unlike the narrator who has stagnated in his smug self-satisfaction. The narrator appears unmotivated, is a habitual drug user and does not seek to improve himself. The narrator sees Robert as a temporary imposition on his life, a trifling inconvenience. Robert, however, enables him to become self-aware. The narrator attempts to describe a cathedral he has just seen on TV to Robert.
Robert asks him to draw it with him instead. It is here, with narrator closing his eyes and Robert holding his hand, that the narrator experiences an epiphany. By drawing the cathedral with Robert, the narrator has become open to a completely new world. Before the drawing, the narrator had a strong bias towards Robert. Yet this time the narrator feels a difference between the two.
The narrator feels liberated saying, “I didn’t feel like I was inside anything” (Carver 13). The narrators experience with Robert allows him to view his life from an entirely new vantage point.
When the drawing is complete, the narrator keeps his eyes closed and continues to use the experience as an awakening. The narrator now realizes that life is “really something” (Carver 13) and he would benefit from changing his lifestyle. Ironically, it is through his experience with a visual impaired man, that Robert is introduced to an entirely new perspective on life.
Raymond Carver’s “Preservation” and the American dream.
Preservation by Raymond Carver is a story about working class white Americans who are bemused and fed up with the American dream that they see on the television. These working class Americans have always hoped to achieve this dream, although so far in their toil they have never even set their eyes on it.
The characters in this story have never protested against these disappointments and disillusionment in the American dream. Instead, they channel their views and anxieties of the dream to drugs and alcohol. They have focused their attention to the day-to-day details of their lives as opposed to struggling to achieve the American dream.
In Caver’s story, Preservation, lacking a job in America implies lacking a name. The unnamed husband in the story, who is also unemployed, has recently been retrenched form his job that involves putting up roof tops on new houses.
He was having difficulty finding a new job “His face began to sweat as he tried to describe to Sandy the milling crowd of men and women down there in the unemployment office” (Carver 36). The husband in this story becomes numb, and Sandy, his wife, just stands there helpless. She observes her husband as a compilation of body parts that are becoming less powerful by the minute:
“Her husband’s bare feet stuck out from one end of the sofa. At the other end, on a pillow which lay across the arm of the sofa, she could see the crown of his head. She saw his head down on the pillow that lay across the arm of the sofa. He adjusted the pillow under his head and put his hands behind his neck. Then he lay still. Soon she saw his arms move down to his sides…. His eyes were shut. His chest seemed to rise and then fall” (Carver 44).
Each time Sally looks at her husband, repetition of the words hands, sofa, head, feet, and TV occur. These words together with the husband’s body parts are depicted like having equal weight. His arms or eyes’ depiction is not any different with the sofa or the newspaper.
This lack of distinction between her husband, who she sees as body parts, and the nonliving objects around him is the leading conflict in this story. “Her husband- who is almost reclining, living now in the living room- is becoming a vegetable, an object, separated into parts, in the field of their home” (Carver 46).
Sandy’s memories, of men who contribute nothing in the lives around them, are used metaphorically to relate to her husband who is slowly getting into that category. She recalls of her friend’s story about an uncle who went to bed at 40 and was still alive 63 years later.
The uncle used to cry each day winning about his fear of getting old. She also recalls he father, who after divorcing her mother, bought a car in an auction and later died in it after inhaling carbon monoxide from the car (“He stayed in the car until someone found him a few days later.”) These memories follow one another and put emphasis on the failure of the American dream, making men useless in front of their families.
The husband in this story is preserved by lying on the sofa, although he has no job. His wife realized just how useless he has become, how apart they are drifting from each other, and how his job, Freon and energy has been lost. In as much as families have gained a massive amount of disillusionment in the American dream, they still hope that something will happen and make that dream a reality. Sally hopes that someone might turn up and offer her husband a job, or that she might buy a new refrigerator before everything in the house spoils.
Conclusion The American dream is a public vision that involves America’s identity. The American dream has turned into a myth that is inconsequential as far as the socioeconomic identity of America is presently concerned. The American dream refers to the act of pursuing happiness by every person as shown in the Declaration of Independence. The American dream is more of an ideology that is rooted in the mind of people. With thus the American dream is just a mere mirage to the many people aiming for it around the world (Palecek 58).
Works Cited Bloom Harold. The American dream. Kansas: Infobase Publishing, 2009. Print.
Carver, Raymond. Fires: Essays, Poems, Stories. New York: Random, 1972.
Cullen, Jim. The American dream: A short history of the idea that shaped a nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Palecek, Mike. The American Dream. New York: CWG Press, 2006. Print
Schnell, Hildegard. The American Dream. GRIN Verlag, 2010. 1-3.
Catching a Train That Leads Nowhere: The Psychology of the Inevitable Essay college essay help: college essay help
Since people have always wanted to know what their future is, they have been craving to look under the curtain that divides the present and the on-coming. The interest always kept high as a sky, it has been a wonder why it is always so intense. A philosopher of the past, the great David Hume, tried to explain the reason for people to be so curious, bringing an upsetting conclusion together with his wise explanations.
According to Hume, there is nothing so desirable and so unachievable as the future. the cause of events is something that people are constantly trying to evaluate and predict, but however hard they are trying, their efforts are doomed to failure. Could there be any explanation for such a sad state of affairs?
Hume exercises the idea that the knowledge that we possess results from the previous experience and the situation that a man used to be in once. Hume considers such situations as the only way to cognize the world and its inner mechanism, as well as conduct the analysis of the present state of affairs. (Hume 47)
This makes his point explicit. Since these are only the life situations that people take their experience from, ands there is no other way to gain knowledge, because there is actually no other source that could help, people cannot know the results of their actions, because they have not modified the situation yet. It is only the aftertime when they finally understand the value of their deeds, but before they can only guess.
Hume asks his audience,
Of what nature is the future, then? To say it is experimental, is beginning the question. For all inferences from experience suppose, as their foundation, that the future will resemble the past, and that similar powers will be conjoined with similar sensible qualities. If there is any suspicion that course of nature any change, and that the past may be no rule for the future, all experience becomes useless, and that can give rise to no inference or conclusion. (Hume 26)
This point makes the essence of the theory of determinism, which dictates the law of the events bound with each other in the circle of life. This also presumes that, to cognize the result of the action that a man undertakes, he or she is bound to know every circumstance that is connected with their action; every single detail must not escape their attention. This is practically impossible, not only according to the determinism theory, but also according the common sense.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The philosophy of Hume also presupposes that, because of the fact that a man cannot know the result of his actions, he also cannot control the future, not for a single moment (Hume 79).
The incredible sense for a human’s psychology leads Hume to the fact that a man cannot operate with the knowledge of the future since it is something that lies beyond a man’s reach. It is not that he doubts that a man can work out a skill to foresee the events basing them on the previous experience that he or she has acquired after getting into the similar situation.
The idea that he is trying to convey is that a man cannot construct al, the possible theoretic models of the future course of events. the elements that a man is unaware about might influence the current state of affairs so much that the consequences they will drag will turn out opposing to what has been expected.
However, Hume still takes the role of experience into account – it is just that he makes it more insignificant than the other conceptions do:
Thus, Hume’s supposition concerning people’s being unable to predict the future is partially explained. However, it is important to note that most of Hume’s theories are based on the idea that a man’s previous experience is not to be taken into consideration. This fact drives to another important conclusion about Hume’s understanding of the role of experience and the basic concept of the world.
Tracing his thought, one can say that Hume exercised the theory of the events happening as something single that cannot be repeated anymore.
It also becomes clear that Hume supported the theory of skepticism that was earlier created and developed by John Locke. The doom plays the most important part in this play, and a man is left with a couple of replicas, if paraphrasing the theory in poetic words. The fatalism that Hume expressed in this topic is most explicit as the core idea of his theory of events is unwound.
We will write a custom Essay on Catching a Train That Leads Nowhere: The Psychology of the Inevitable specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, not all scientists took Hume’s ideas with enthusiasm. Some found his theories full of contradictions.
It can be suggested that the great philosopher overestimated the role of fate in people’s lives, but still his idea is something that cannot be denied. A man is incapable to trace all the clues that lead to the solution of the situation, and that makes him or her unable to predict what will happen in the nearest two minutes, not to mention the nearest two years.
However sad this might sound. People will never be able to look into the crystal ball of their future. There are far too many things that determine it. But there is still hope that, instead of tracing our future, we will try to be responsible for the actions we take and the results they bring.
Works Cited Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Newcastle: Forgotten Books Publishing. 2008. Print.
The First Barbary War Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction The first Barbary war in America was fought between 1801 and 1805.The war took place between the United States and the Muslim North African countries – Tripoli, Tunisia, Algiers and Morocco. The four countries collectively were refereed to as the Barbary nations. The Barbary nations became a foe to the United States because of ransom demands on American crews captured at the Mediterranean Sea.
The rulers of the four countries had become very wealthy and built a strong naval power through the ransoms paid for the captured crews and tributes paid by European nations doing commerce at the sea. The pirates also sold some of the crews into slavery. The pirate ships had the ability to take over the American merchant ships that were undefended. America had to act and protect its citizens from the pirates’ menace at the Mediterranean Sea.
Background of the war When the United States gained its independence in 1783 through the Treaty of Paris the British troops left the country. Thus, the American merchant ships no longer had the protection of the Royal Naval and they become an easy target by pirates. Many American merchant ships were seized in the Mediterranean Sea and ransom demanded by the pirates for the seized crews.
The US congress made a decision to pay tribute to the Barbary nations to protect the American ships because the country was still at war with France and involved in Indian wars therefore she had no resources to spare. The treaty was signed amongst Morocco, Tripolitania, Algeria and Tunisia. The treaty gave the American ships a guarantee against corsair attacks. The United States paid ransom and tribute running into over $2,000,000.
The amount was about a fifth of what was expected and thus the corsair attacks resumed. Consequently, the then president Thomas Jefferson halted tribute payments in 1801. The attack of the straps and stripes by Pasha was taken as assign of war declaration and the first Barbary war began in earnest in May1801.
The war Thomas Jefferson did not agree with tribute payment anymore because he felt this was not going to end piracy. While serving as a minister to France Jefferson wrote about his thoughts concerning piracy in the Mediterranean sea to John Adams who was serving as a minister to Great Britain in 1978 and expressed that he felt war was the only war to attain peace”.
In 1786, he still held the belief that war was the only way of achieving peace. He wrote to James Monroe who was then serving in the a congress and told him that he felt that if American continued to pay tribute to the pirates their demands would only escalate thus a need to build a navy that would tackle the issue of pirates directly.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, after he became president he decided to take up arms against the Barbary pirates who were becoming vicious by the day when Pasha of Tripoli declared war. Alone Pasha was not strong enough to threaten the United States but there was the fear of the other Barbary nations joining forces with Pasha against America.
The United States sent the first military squadron out into the when the war began in May 1801. The motto of the mission was to use millions of dollars in defense and not pay out even a single sent to the pirates in terms of tribute to be accorded safety in the sea”. Edward Preble together with Richard Dale led the squadron.
President Jefferson informed the congress of the decision to send the navy to Tripoli. There was no formal approval of war by the congress, but gave the president the authority to instruct the leaders of the squadron to seize Pasha’s vessels together with goods. In addition, the navy could take all measures necessary as necessitated by the war. On August 1, the same year the war began, the American USS Enterprise won over the Tripolitan Corsair following a fierce battle.
Later, the president requested more authority to be able to deal with the pirates decisively and the congress enacted an act in 1802 for “the Protection of Commerce and seamen of the United States against the Tripolitan cruisers”. Through the act, the president had the authority to send American vessels to Mediterranean Sea to safeguard the American crews from attacks by the pirates even in other international waters.
Throughout 1802, the American navy did not face any challenges at the seas but President Jefferson continued to increase the pressure for a stronger military force and better naval ships to be deployed to the troubled seas. Consequently, more vessels were sent to the Mediterranean Sea such as USS Constitution, USS Argus and USS Philadelphia among others. Edward Preble organized campaigns against the pirates’ fleets to stop them from attacking American merchant ships. He also cordoned off the Barbary ports.
Battle of Tripoli
Unfortunately, the USS Philadelphia was taken into captivity in October 1803 when it beached patrolling the Tripolitan harbor. The Americans tried to float but their efforts were in vain and all the crewmembers captured. The captors in the harbor anchored the Philadelphia instead. Following this attack lieutenant Stephen Decatur together with a small marine contingent attempted to rescue the vessel on February 1804. The marine boarded the captured vessel and defeated the Tripolitan sailors. Eventually the marines set the Philadelphia ablaze rather than have the enemies use it. The brave action by Decatur earned him a place in America’s history and was the first military hero after the revolution.
Preble attacked Tripoli in July 1804 but the series of battles were unsuccessful. The USS Intrepid led by Captain Robert Somers was unlucky in its mission to destroy the Tripoli harbor with the explosives it carried on board when it was destroyed by the enemies and it exploded killing all members on aboard
We will write a custom Research Paper on The First Barbary War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The battle of Derna
The battle of Derna was the turning point in the first Barbary war between April and May 1805. Lieutenant Presley O’Bannon and General William Eaton led an assault against Tripoli consisting of marines from eight American states, Greek, Berber and Arab mercenaries. This attack was a success and America won for the first time outside its borders. The then ruler of Tripoli Yussif Karamani became weary of the attacks, blockade in Tripoli, and signed a peace treaty on June 4, 1805.
Conclusion The United States military reputation improved after the victory in the first Barbary war. The military was tested and passed the test. The victory showed that America was capable of handling a war away from home competently.
The fact that the eight states won the war by working together was a good example of how the United States should work together for a greater common good. Furthermore, the navy and the Marines became part of the United States history as well as a significant component of the American government. More importantly, this war set out a precedent that America has followed ever since of fighting wars abroad to date.
Reference List Breverton, Terry. The pirate dictionary. New Orleans: Pelican Publishing Company, 2004.
Gawalt, Gerald. America and the Barbary pirates: An international battle against an unconventional Foe.(n.d.) Web.
Keynes, Edwards. Undecided war. Pennsylvania : Pennsylvania State Press, 2004.
Pike, John. Barbary States. (April 27, 2005). Web.
Tucker, Spencer. Stephen Decatur: a life most bold and daring. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2005.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The First Barbary War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Footnotes Terry Breverton. The pirate dictionary. (Pelican Publishing Company, 2004), 11.
Gerald Gawalt. America and the Barbary pirates: An international battle against an unconventional Foe. (n.d.).
John Pike. Barbary States. (April 27, 2005).
Edwards Keynes. Undecided war. (Pennsylvania : Pennsylvania State Press, 2004 ), 191.
Spencer Tucker. Stephen Decatur: a life most bold and daring. (Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2005), ix.
How Prostitution Leads to Human Trafficking Research Paper college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Causes of Prostitution
Merton’s Strain Theory on Prostitution
Prostitution and human trafficking
Introduction Prostitution is defined as any act done to satisfy sexual desires in exchange of favors; these include monetary gain and any other benefit that accrues to the prostitute after the service has been done. This is a form of a business transaction that comes in the name of commercial sex either in the form of prostitution or pornography.
One of the elements of prostitution is that it is very addictive and it is hard to escape from. It is said that prostitution lets women to be seen as simple physical entities and mainly place more focus on their breasts and sex organs than the rest of the body.
Prostitution does not portray women’s attractiveness in terms of character, intelligence and even humor; it shows that the relationship between a man and a woman is only pegged on sex. Most importantly, it does not support long term commitment in love and does not produce a long term love and sexual relationships. Prostitution is said to be a victimless crime and those who do it do so at will.
This paper will look at the main causes of prostitution by using Merton’s strain theory. It will also look at the meaning and concept of sex trafficking and use prostitution and pornography as the main forms of sex trafficking. It will conclude by giving the measures that can be put in place to control this problem.
Causes of Prostitution Young people have resulted in sex trade to earn a living and support their parents; the influx of pornographic materials and the demand that they have also attracted some young people to the trade as they seek for income. This is the main reason that have been cited by many commercial sex workers although the truthfulness of the case has been doubted since there are other people who earn a decent life without engaging in prostitution.
The major cause of prostitution is poverty. Many young girls involve themselves in commercial sex as they try to provide for their families. Some are even forced by their parents to use their bodies so that the family can have food on the table. Most of these girls are ignorant of the activities they are involving themselves into and are not aware of the psychological trauma they might suffer afterwards.
However, there are some social factors attributed to the issue of prostitution, for instance, it is believed that men sexual urge is higher than that of women and thus there is need for an extra service if these men have to be satisfied. On the other hand, there are an increasing number of women who are not committing their lives in marriage set-up but want their freedom, they thus engage in sex with different men. The greatest number of these women is single career women or divorcees.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Merton’s Strain Theory on Prostitution The strain theory developed by Merton explains how social structures found in a society can influence an individual to involve him/herself in criminal behavior. According to Merton, some individuals are brought up in poor families others by a single parent and they find it difficult to meet the expectations of the society.
In such cases, an individual experiences a lot of pain and friction trying to meet his needs. According to Merton, deviant behaviors such as drug abuse, prostitution, and physical violence are a result of the strain an individual goes through while trying to please the society.
He explains that crime is not caused by a single person but it is a function of society structures and the desire to achieve societal goals. Merton argues that deviant behaviors and crimes are normal in a society although they do not in any way contribute to the progress of the society.
They are just means of achieving certain goals to an individual. He observes that there are so many inequalities in the society in terms of wealth distribution and opportunities forcing some people to involve themselves in criminal behaviors in order to fit in the society (Keel, 2008). In short Merton suggests that crime is a product of the social structure in the society.
These social structures place different pressures on different people who respond differently to these pressures. For instance, In America, the culture in the society provides both the goals and the means of achieving them. Almost everyone tries to achieve wealth in monetary value so as to fit in the “American Dream”. However, not all people have the means of achieving these goals and more often than not they involve themselves in deviant behaviors (Featherstone
Swahili-Speaking People Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Summary of the Arguments Provided by the Scholars
What Each Source Adds to the Understanding of the Topic
How Each Source Relates to the Original CRA Source
The main purpose of the paper is to consider three sources about Swahili speaking community and to understand whether the arguments presented in those works support or contradict the ideas presented in the article The Shirazi in Swahili Traditions, Culture, and History by Thomas Spear written in 1984.
The books under discussion are Being Maasai: Ethnicity
Nestlé Ethics and Social Responsibility – Report on Issues argumentative essay help
Today’s business requires social responsibility and excellent performance of companies. Ethical responsibility is the integrative element of social responsibility that is destined to satisfy costumers’ demands. In this context, there appear ethical problems of company’s business that can lower an ethical rating of a company and reduce its popularity among people (potential customers). Even multinational world companies have low ratings, and that is why are vulnerable to be blamed in unethical behavior.
It seems to be necessary to examine ethics of one of the multinational world companies to understand its ethical criteria and rate them. Nestlé’s company can be one of the examples to be illustrated: “in 1977, Nestle got embroiled in a controversy, when it was criticized for using unethical marketing practices endangering consumer health to promote its infant formula in developing nation”.  Since that time, this company was constantly criticized for unethical behavior and violation of costumers’ rights.
The research in the sphere of Nestlé’s ethics shows that the company has lots of low-rated ethical criteria to be accused of. Genetically modified (GM) food would not be an asset for many costumers. According to Lawrence’s on-line article, this company has overcharged prices that can not be accessible for the low-income group of people in the world. For example, the cost of the produced “Pure Life”, bottled water, is outrageously high for the Asian people for whom potable water is extremely necessary. Moreover, in the article, unfair labor practices were illustrated with examples. Coffee beans and cocoa in Nestlé’s company are the result of hard work of those who get them on African plantations. The author says that unfavorable working conditions and people’s exploitation with a child’s labor worsen the image of the company and proves its unethical attitude towards workers.
Ethical standards exist in each world organizations and nonconformity may affect badly on company’s reputation. Nestlé’s experience has proved that the company is lack of respecting of human rights and local regulations (laws for permission or prohibition of something) that can satisfy minimal demands of customers and workers. To be honest with the costumers is one of the unwritten ethical duties of all the companies. Maintenance of ethical standards satisfies costumers’ needs and makes them happy:
“As “happiness” is the only thing that is good in and of itself, the utilitarian needs to know the details of a situation and its possible consequences in order to decide what is ethically right and wrong”.
The author of the cited article is talking about ethical behavior in reference to consumers. Nestlé does not label GM ingredients of the products; consequently, can customers give credence to the company? The ethical code of this company should correspond to individual human rights and ethical attitude to customers they want to satisfy. Meanwhile, the company sets itself up with well-thought publicity, and shows attractive pictures of the products as if they measure up all the consumer’s needs.
If we proceed from the stated above the following table can show the ethical rating of Nestlé’s company, where one can see the ethical criteria and their possible consumers’ evaluations; A=excellent, B=good, C=adequate, D=requiring major improvement, F=failure.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More External image of the company in the world A Vended business’ ethical principles B Respecting of human rights C Ethical attitude to customers D Ethical attitude to workers D High priced of necessary products D Not labeled GM food F The presence of “C”, “D” and “F” shows the low grade of the company (so five last criteria have bad ethical performance), and 3 “D” show that several point require major improvement (ethical criteria with “D”). Thus, I grade this company as D=require major improvement. Nestlé is a low grade company and needs ethical performance improvement for the costumers, company’s workers, price strategy, and for the public weal.
The company should satisfy customers’ needs. Such principles like “do not harm” and “do more good” should be taken into consideration here; it should follow the human rights and embody ethical attitude in labeled ingredients (especially, with GM) of their products, favorable working conditions and fair prices for essential products. If such multinational world companies like Nestlé do not change their ethical image, human health may be affected, and distrust of customers in the whole world may be developed.
Works Cited Casillas, Daisy. “No More Water Wonderlands”. 2010: n.pag. Web.
Lawrence. “Ethical Dilemma in Today’s Business”. N.d.: n. pag. Web.
Footnotes Lawrence. “Ethical Dilemma in Today’s Business”. N.d., 3
Lawrence. “Ethical Dilemma in Today’s Business”. N.d., 5
Lawrence. “Ethical Dilemma in Today’s Business”. N.d., 7
Casillas, Daisy. “No More Water Wonderlands”. 2010.
The Cloning Controversy Argumentative Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Argument against cloning
Argument for cloning
Introduction Despite the promising future that cloning purports to forecast for the human race, the research projects have been met with fierce opposition from lawmakers to clergy men. Most of the opposition is on ethical grounds and while there is nothing unethical about using technology to save lives, opposition groups are far from being appeased.
Considering the fact that most of the controversy about cloning arises from misinformation or ignorance about the matter, this study shall set out to conclusively research on cloning and its merits so as to attest whether the lack of unanimous support for therapeutic cloning and explicit ban of human cloning is justifiable.
Cloning is described as the creation of genetically identical organisms by use of artificial means (Kfoury 112). Cloning is deemed as a form of asexual reproduction whereby a gene from one animal/human is transferred to another organism. The process by which this is carried out is often complicated and requires cutting edge technology.
The two major forms of cloning are the Reproductive and therapeutic cloning. Reproductive cloning involves the generation of animals that have identical DNA with previously existing animals (Mollard 1). Cloning of human beings would fall under this category. This procedure is carried out by copying the DNA information from the donor’s nucleus into a cell with the nucleus previously removed (Mollard 2). The cell grows into a replica of the animal which provided the gene once it is fully developed.
Therapeutic cloning follows the same steps as reproductive cloning only that the embryos development is not let to run to completion. Therapeutic cloning is mainly used to extract stem cells from embryos. After the successful retrieval of the cells, the embryos are inevitably destroyed (Kfoury 112). Research on stem cells has it that these unspecialized cells have the ability to transform themselves into any type of cell found in the body.
Argument against cloning There has been agreement by consensus that human cloning should be banned though the prospects of the same are at best distant. The major arguments in support of this assertion is the concern that cloning could lead to physically deformed children and furthermore pose a danger to the women who act as surrogate mothers to the clones (Pearson 658). It is noteworthy to point out that these fears are not unfounded since cloning of animals has resulted to some undesirable characteristics being exhibited in the clone.
Research shows that cloned animals that survive end up being bigger at birth than natural animals. This condition is not only hazardous to the mother but also can lead to breathing problems and a myriad of other complications (Pearson 658). The mortality rate of cloned animals is also observed to be very high with most of them hardly lasting through a few months (Mollard 2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More New cloning techniques open up the possibility of reproductive cloning hereby human beings could be created! Kfoury paints quite a bleak image on the outcome of cloning by alluding to a possibility that people could have clones and then use these clones to “harvest” organs needed to be transplanted into them when their own organs have failed or are sickly (113).
This scary possibility is further made real by the critical shortage of organs for such surgeries and the very questionable moral ethics of some governments which could assent with such outrageous practices.
Cloning technology as it presently stands is haunted by huge failure rates (Mollard 2). This is one of the facts that detractors to cloning are quick to point out in their arguments against the justification of cloning. In the first successful cloning of the sheep, it is recorded that 277 enucleated eggs were obtained and received nuclei from an adult mammary gland cell.
Of these, only 29 cells made it to the next blastocyst stage. The new cells were placed in the uteruses of 13 ewes but only one sheep was eventually born. This success rate of a mere 0.36% is seen as unjustifiable considering the efforts that go into the cloning process.
Another venue from which opposition to the cloning process is brought into light is by a woman’s study by Mollard (2). He asserts that while the debate rages on about reproductive cloning and step cell research efforts, women who supply the eggs for the cloning efforts are given no merit or credit at that.
The health risks associated with the egg extraction process are seen to be great and in light of the high rate of failure currently associated with the cloning process, Mollard contests that serious ethical implications are raised regarding the process (2).
Argument for cloning From a medical point of view, cloning also presents a new way in which research into diseases can be undertaken. It is articulated that animals that carry genetic defect that mimic human diseases can be generated through cloning (North Carolina Association for Biomedical Research 2). These “sickly” animals could then be used for the study of the diseases and the findings obtained from this would be of immense value in finding of effective therapies for treating the disease in humans (Wolfe 3).
We will write a custom Essay on The Cloning Controversy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sadly, majority of the people awaiting organs for transplant will end up not receiving the much needed organs. Therapeutic cloning presents a long term solution to this problem which is only set to escalate.
Cloning of individual human organs e.g. the kidney, heart, etc. presents a novel way of coming up with organs for transplant as patients will no longer have to rely on the altruist tendencies of fellow men, which cannot always be guaranteed (Lanza 283). In addition, this cloning will ensure that organ rejection is a thing of the past (Kfoury 113).
In addition to these prospects of creating high quality breeds in industrial scale numbers, there is also the possibility of modifying the DNA of the clones such that they posses some key proteins that are not normally present in the animal but are of huge benefit to human beings (Lanza 283). This can lead to the increasing in the nutritional worth of the animals and the presentation of healthier food products for people since the nutritional composition of the product can be “tweaked” to best suit the consumer. This will lead to a healthier nation.
While antagonism over the safety of cloned animal products has incessantly been questioned, majority of the people have began viewing cloning as one of the feasible ways of creating means of feeding a world whose population is constantly on the rise (North Carolina Association for Biomedical Research 2).
Cloning presents a way of ensuring that the precise quality of food can be harvested over and over. In light of the recent financial crises and the increased food insecurity issues especially in developing counties, such moves that promise adequate food supplies are welcome.
Conclusion This study set out on a quest to state if the banning of cloning research efforts was justifiable. Considering the numerous benefits that further research would have presented, I would view this ban as grossly unjustifiable. Should the ban on funding of cloning projects not have been made, one can only guess at the numerous groundbreaking achievements that could have been made by now.
The novel ideal of individual organ cloning would have alleviated the present problem that is so prevalent in the health care system. In addition, the global food crisis would be significantly averted among other benefits.
Works Cited Kfoury, Charlotte. “Therapeutic cloning: promises and issues.” MJM, 10.2 2007:112-120. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Cloning Controversy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lanza, Robert. “After Dolly: the use and misuse of human cloning (BOOK REVIEW).” The journal of clinical investigation, 117.2 2007: 283. Print.
Mollard, Richard. Reproductive cloning. Mar. 2005. Web. http://www.isscr.org/
North Carolina Association for Biomedical Research. Cloning. October 2006. Web. https://www.aboutbioscience.org/
Pearson, Yvette. “Never Let Me Clone? Countering an Ethical Argument against the Reproductive Cloning of Humans.” European Molecular Biology Organization, 7.7 2006: 657-59. Print.
Wolfe, John. “Gene Therapy in Large Animal Models of Human Genetic Diseases.” ILAR J, 50.2 2009: 107-111. Print.
Helping the Private Sector to Achieve and Maintain Infrastructure Security Analytical Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
The infrastructure security has always been on the highest level for the US government. Still, the September 11, 2001 was the breaking point which is considered to be the start for heightened interest in critical infrastructure protection, both in public and in private sectors. To understand the main purpose of the research, it is crucial to check the main notions which are going to be considered, critical infrastructure in private sector.
Critical infrastructure is the notion which identifies physical and computer-based systems, like telecommunications, banking, transportation, water and energy resources, etc. The private sector of the country’s economy is characterized by the organizations which are not controlled by the state, like private firms, companies, banks and other private non-government organizations (Radvanovsky and McDougall 5).
Thus, the main purpose of the research is to consider the main security strategies the private sector uses in the relation to the protection of critical infrastructures. The USA has a Department of Homeland Security which helps the private sector to cope with the problems it may face.
Critical Infrastructure Protection Challenges for Private Sector There are a number of different challenges a private sector should cope with the purpose to organize critical infrastructure protection properly. There are a number of different normative laws which are aimed at analyzing those challenges and offering some decisions to solve them. Considering the challenges in addressing
cybersecurity, the following key ones may be identified: the organizational stability should be achieved, the roles and capacities of the cybersecurity should be considered and the awareness should be increased, the efficient partnership with stakeholders should be considered, the information exchange should be on the high level (Powner 12).
Private sector also faces other challenges, like securing control systems. One the one hand, technological innovations are involved in the sphere and allow specialists to control the process by means of different facilities.
On the other hand, the specialized security technologies for control systems are not invented yet due to a number of reasons. Moreover, there are some ideas that securing control systems are not justified economically that create some problems. Finally, the security control systems may become the issue for conflicts on the basis of the priority notion (Dacey 18).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are a number of challenges private sector faces in the informational sphere. National Infrastructure Protection Center is the organization that helps the private sector cope with those challenges as the establishment of the correct information-sharing relations with the state is the first step for dealing with the problem.
These challenges should be faced both by the private sector and by the Department of Homeland Security, even though it is the state institution, the security is going to be on the highest level in the private sector only when the government supports it.
Introduction to Threat and Risk Analysis Models To conduct the critical infrastructure protection properly and on the highest level, the risk assessment in the sphere should be provided. Risk management and critical infrastructure protection in the private sector should be conducted on the basis of the assessment, integration, and management of such facilities as threats, vulnerabilities, and consequences.
To conduct the risk assessment in the private sector, the following steps should be considered in this succession:
The identification of the most critical infrastructures,
Identification, evaluation and assessment of the threats,
Consideration of the vulnerability of those critical assets,
Specification of expected risks along with the expected consequences,
The next stages should be followed to prioritize risk reduction activities. That is, the specialists should state and evaluate the ways aimed at reducing the risks which have already been highlighted and prioritize risk reduction by means of the risk reductions strategy.
The private sector should collaborate with the government with the purpose to be aware of the innovations in the critical infrastructure protection field and to count on the state and its help. The role of the government in the security of the private sector is crucial. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 and other administration documents are directed at helping the private sector to cope with the threats and minimize the risks to minimum.
Basic Principles for Critical Infrastructure Protection The fundamental principles for critical infrastructure protection may be based on the CARVER method. This method is based on six factors which influence the efficiency of the procedure. CARVER method is a military strategy which is used for identifying the targets for the attacks. It is reasonable to consider these principles for identifying the threats in the private sector directed at critical infrastructure.
We will write a custom Essay on Helping the Private Sector to Achieve and Maintain Infrastructure Security specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This method should be used to prioritize the targets which are considered to be the most vulnerable. Thus, the CARVER method is based on the following components, Criticality, Assessibility, Return, Vulnerability, Effect, and Recognizability. The main principle of this method is to identify the infrastructure with the highest value and to try to protect it by much attempt.
The main idea of the criticality is to identify the target which plays crucial role in the achieving the goal and the elimination of which will put a private company much behind. The accessibility means that the company should consider whether the target easily reached or not.
The critical infrastructure protection means high level of security and low level of accessibility. The company should check the return capacity of all the critical infrastructures and pay more attention to those which capacity to return is lower. The vulnerability of the target is really essential. The company should try to organize the work in such a way that all objects and targets which may be considered as vulnerable should be protected better.
The effects should always be predicted. It is important for the private company to understand the outcomes of the threat in order to prevent those in case of any problems. It is also important to understand that the recognizability of the critical infrastructure is also essential. The private sector should protect its points with the purpose to reduce the risk for the target to be recognized by the competitor and either copied or destroyed (Pavlina n/p).
Vulnerability Analysis Models Using the vulnerability analysis model, the company should follow the next steps to make sure that the competing agents are not going to reach the critical infrastructure and are not able to violate the company security. It may be concluded that the main purpose of the vulnerability analysis is to check and reduce the systems which may be available for natural and man-made damages.
Thus, the steps one should follow to complete this method are: a) to identify the gaps and research needs in the sector, b) to check the competitors which may be suspected in organizing the attack, and c) to develop the strategies aimed at reducing the threat.
The main purpose of this model is to encourage businessmen and entrepreneurs to protect their strategic objects better or, vice versa, to find faults in the critical infrastructure protection of the competitors and to use the information to combat them on the business arena (Catlin and Kautter 3).
Introduction to CI/KR Dependencies and Interdependencies The Department of Homeland Security has identified the Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CI/KR) which are protected by the government no matter whether public or private sector is involved in the affair. It is obvious that DHS cannot cope with all the CI/KR, so there are a number of other departments which help.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Helping the Private Sector to Achieve and Maintain Infrastructure Security by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To provide an effective protection of the CI/KR, the public and private sectors should establish good relationships based on the ideas and information exchanges, security planning with sharing the best practices, the coordinating structures should be perfectly established, the collaboration with the international community is important as well as the building of public awareness.
The DHS identifies the following CI/KR: agriculture and food, commercial facilities, dams, energy, information technology, postal and shipping, banking and finance, communication, defense industrial base, transportation systems, chemical, critical manufacturing, emergency services, healthcare, nuclear reactions, materials and wastes, and water (“Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources”). If any of those CI/KR are involved into private sector, the company managers should care greatly of its security.
Concepts of Continuity Of Operations (COOP) Plans and Continuity Of Government (COG) Continuity of operations is the notion which may be defined as a government effort to make sure that Primary Mission Essential Functions are going to work in spite of any incidents, including natural disasters, technological attacks and other accidents. The main purpose of COOP is to make the private sector, which deals with CI/KR, continue its work no matter what is happening in the country. The Continuity of Operations (COOP) Plan is a map for implementing the program designed by the Continuity Program (FEMA n/p).
The Continuity of Government (COG) is defined as the necessity for the government and all its structures and operations to function without paying attention to any of the incidents which happen in the country. The main purpose of the COG is to provide the constitutional protection to the citizens of the country and the constitutional form of the government (FEMA n/p).
In conclusion it should be stated that the proper functioning of the government is possible only in case if the private and public sectors work together and are able to collaborate with each others. It is crucial to understand that the critical infrastructure of the company should be properly protected.
This means that the CARVER method should be applied to make sure that the cyber systems as well as other engineering systems are properly protected. The vulnerability analysis is really helpful for maintaining security in the critical infrastructure. The Continuity of Operations (COOP) and the Continuity of Government (COG) are the document which state that all systems and projects essential for the state should function, no matter what is happening in the country.
Works Cited Catlin, Michelle and Donald Kautter. “An Overview of the Carver Plus Shock Method for Food Sector Vulnerability Assessments.” Federal state department of agriculture 18 July 2007. Print.
“Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources.” Department of Homeland Security. 2010. Web.
Dacey, Robert F. “Critical Infrastructure Protection: Challenges and Efforts to Secure Control Systems.” United States Government Accountability Office 30 March 2004. Print.
FEMA. 2010. Web.
Pavlina, Steve. “How to Prioritize.” Pavlina LLC May 22, 2007. Web.
Powner, David A. “Critical Infrastructure Protection: Challenges in Addressing Cybersecurity.” United States Government Accountability Office 19 July 2005. Print.
Radvanovsky, Robert and Allan McDougall. Critical Infrastructure: Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2010. Print.
Michael Jackson in Pepsi Advertising Essay argumentative essay help
The commercial where Michael Jackson “features” Pepsi (Jeraldi) as the indispensable attribute of the new generation is immensely effective, because it sets specific picture for the people who watch it. The advertisement pictures the new lifestyle which appeal to the youth, and that makes people buy the desired drink. The clue idea of the advertisement is that Pepsi is the feature of the new and better world.
Because of the tiniest psychological influence spilt on people from their television sets, the advertisement persuades people to buy the suggested product twice as efficiently as the advert in the newspaper or magazine.
What the very advertisement with Michael Jackson draws people’s attention with is a range of various ideas.
First, the people who created the advert were smart enough to use the image of the popular artist. The idea that underlies this image is that if a child drinks Pepsi, he will become just as brilliant a dancer and singer as Michael Jackson, and that the child’s life will be an easy street, where he or she will be free to dance and improvise.
The second important clue is the thought of the new generation. Children are always associated with something nice and promising, something that raises hope and spirits, and that is transferred to Pepsi in the given case, as it is the attribute of the new generation. The use of symbols in the advertisement is immaculate and worth making example of.
Then, it is quite clear that the advertisement explores the popular music as one of means to gain the audience’s attention. A catchy tune that one cannot help whistling all the way home after listening to it in a local café is something that will stay in people’s memory. The trick is that the melody is associated with the drink. From this time on, people start feeling that if one wants to be just as fashionable, elegant and smooth as the singer, if one wants to feel the rhythm of the city and move together with it, he or she is bound to buy the famous drink.
In addition, the settings can tell a lot about the trick of producers as well, them trying to promote the drink in the best way.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Have you paid attention to the fact that the whole thing happens on a hot summer day, when children are playing soccer? This was the original clue that was further on developed into the idea of Pepsi as the drink for sportsmen. The energy that is naturally pouring from the video on the audience is extremely contagious; it makes one hop and rush in the street to play football or whatever. The sports topic added the specific fleur to the advertisement, and contributed to its popularity.
However, this might also have been used as the way to show that Pepsi proclaims the healthy lifestyle.
Finally, the style that the whole advertisement is breathing with, the rhythm of the popular song that swings the crowd, adds to the overall impression of the small show. It is the beat that makes the whole mechanism work. Once people catch the tune, it will follow them and the things that are connected with it.
The trick of looking into the future is also a nice move. It makes the drink popular not only with the people of present, but also with the next generation, persuading people to use it for another twenty years more.
The advertisement with Michael Jackson has turned into something absolutely different from the rest of the ads as time has passed. It has become the symbol of the epoch that has gone, embodying the ideas of music and rhythm that are now almost forgotten.
And, taking into account that the drink is popular even more now, one has all grounds to say that this was one of the best shows of Michael Jackson.
Works Cited Jeraldi, Bob. “Pepsi Commercial”. Online video clip. YouTube. www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Md5lPyuvsk
We will write a custom Essay on Michael Jackson in Pepsi Advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Chicago: the Jazz Era of the Blazing Gun Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Because of the way he renders the reader’s heartstrings, Simon Baatz is now one of those people whose opinion is listened to and appreciated. Making a good use of it, the writer speaks of the most important events that have changed people’s attitude towards the world and the way the world spins.
Baatz’s novel For the Thrill of It: : Leopold, Loeb and the Murder That Shocked Jazz Age Chicago has made every single man who read it consider the bygone epoch from the angle that no one ever has before. It is truly amazing, since the author, in fact, a physicist who decided to become a historian, has incorporated both the thrilling story and the scent of the epoch in his stunning novel.
In spite of the fact that the book is referred to the class of the typical who-done-it story, a detective novel, the genre of the book is not that easy to define. Most literature critics consider the book a novel, though it combines the features of several genres, including fiction, psychology and detective. This is, probably, the idea of the twenty-first century that the book was written in to mix the genres into an eye-splitting blaze that cuts deep and hard.
A question of why is always the hardest one, but still it will be nice to sound it. Why did Simon Baatz write this novel? What made him to think of the events of the early 20ies? Did he do it just for the thrill of it?
The answer is short and persuasive. As time passes, things change, but people do not. Some eighty years after the tragic event, people still go on making crimes that shock with the brutality and violence – and, which is even more terrifying, with their senselessness. So this is probably the author to ask the readers why – why nothing has changed.
The spirit of the epoch that the murder was committed in was raving and mad, the city shot through with privilege and dirt. This was both grand and pathetic. The paradox was to be fixed, at least in the book. And the postwar shifts in the society were to be marked somehow (Lesy 2007).
Although Friedman considers the murder of a child or a woman as the action that is based on the idea of a man’s superiority twisted in one’s unhealthy mid (Friedman 1993, 215), it is still well understood that the bad family background is not the sufficient justification for the terrible crime.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though the court decision was not influenced by the inflamed speech of the barrister, the very fact that the two criminals had the chance to escape the death penalty was a fact to ponder. The injustice of what had happened struck the author and led him to writing the book.
Hixson suggests another viewpoint, which emphasizes the influence of the epoch on the overall mood. He makes it clear that but for the idea of inner freedom far beyond any possible limit is the factor that led the two criminals to commit the murder. Referring to the “manipulation of evidence” (Hixson 2001, 266), he assumes that those to blame are the people who were conducting the case and the legal system of the early 20ies, which nearly helped the criminals to escape their punishment.
Despite the shame that such case was impaled with, nothing could be done about it, since the society was not ready to admit that in terms of the cruelty and the violence reigning around, the reality had surpassed any fiction. The jazz era was the ear of walking on the edge and acting under the spur of the moment – just for the thrill of it. After all, is it true that “the act of crime is always accompanied by illness” (Baatz 2009, 4).
However hard it is to judge now whether it was the influence of the jazz era, or the bad family background of Leonard and Loeb, or anything else, it seems that a murder without a reason is the fact that there is something wrong not only with the culprits, but also with the society they live in. And the latter is the first not to be blamed, but to think hard why people act that way. Why killing helpless victims? For the sake of what cruel goddess do they do that?
Perhaps, just for the thrill of it.
References Baatz, Simon. For the Thrill of It: Leopold, Loeb and the Murder That Shocked Jazz Age Chicago. New York: Harper Collins, 2009. Print.
Friedman, Lawrence M. Crime and Punishment in the American History. New York: Vintage Books, 1993. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Chicago: the Jazz Era of the Blazing Gun specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hixson, Walter L. Murder, Culture and Injustice: Four Sensational Cases in American History. Ohio: University of Akron Press. 2001. Print.
Lesy, Michael. Murder City: the Bloody History of Chicago in the Twenties. New York: Norton and Co., 2007. Print.
Becoming Original: Truth and Death in Hawthorne’s The Minister’s Black Veil Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Truth and Death in Hawthorne’s The Minister’s Black Veil Sarah Margaret Fuller’s American Literature explores the fledgling identity of the United States of America at a time when the national identity, not to mention the American literary canon, was in its nascent stage.
Fuller depicts a particular quality that a quintessentially American literary work must possess: truth. “Before we can have poets”, Fuller writes, truth “needs to penetrate beneath the springs of action, to stir and remake the soil as by the action of fire…This is the one great means by which alone progress can be essentially furthered. Truth is the nursing mother of genius.
No man can be absolutely true to himself, eschewing cant, compromise, servile imitation, and complaisance, without becoming original, for there is in every creature a fountain of life which, if not choked back by stones and other dead rubbish, will create a fresh atmosphere, and bring to life fresh beauty. And it is the same with the nation as with the individual man” (Lauter 1843). What does Fuller mean by this statement? And what does it have to do with literature?
In a time when a national literature is under construction, Fuller asserts, “the only safe position is to lead” (Lauter 1844). A staunch commitment to truth, in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Minister’s Black Veil, becomes the undoing of its protagonist, Father Hooper. Yet, adherence to truth, at all costs, in Fuller’s reckoning, is what makes The
Minister’s Black Veil a genuine work of American Literature. Critical thought, both historical and contemporary, plumbs Hooper’s motivation for donning the veil in the first place. The emphasis seems to be on uncovering the secret. While the consensus appears to be that Father Hooper’s secret is sexual in nature, no one appears clear on the details of Hooper’s sexual transgression. Richard Fogle contends “Hawthorne holds out the suggestion that the veil is a penance for an actual and serious crime, while at the same time permitting no real grounds for it” (Fogle 36).
Paul J. Emmett suggests that Hooper puts on the veil to become a woman. He writes, “we’re never told why Hooper seeks feminization, or even if feminization is part of his motivation…but to deal with Hooper’s motivations for wearing the veil, we must, of course, ask what he wants, and in Hawthorne’s tale, what the minister wants is insinuated the same way as what the minister’s done.
Repetitions. With both the young lady and Elizabeth, it’s not exactly that Hooper wants to be female, it’s that he needs to be the lost woman. He needs to become, to incorporate, to take the place of the very woman whom he has separated himself from” (Emmett 104).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Carl Ostrowski defends a somewhat radical thesis. He understands the veil to be a means of camouflaging the ravages of syphilis on Father Hooper’s face. Ostrowski maintains the “diagnosis of Hooper [that he has syphilis] takes on added meaning in light of the problematic relationship between the minister and the young woman whose funeral he presides over, significantly, on the day he first wears the veil” (Ostrowski 203).
Ostrowski goes on to point to the old woman who witnesses Hooper, and “who is immediately discredited by the narrator as a “superstitious old woman” (which only calls greater attention to her observation), [and ]avers that the corpse “had slightly shuddered” at the instant when the clergyman’s face would have been visible to her” (Ostrowski 203). The veil then becomes the symbol of Hooper’s fall from sexual purity, and the syphilis becomes the punishment.
Criticism also explores the veil from the standpoint of religion. Timothy Montbriand offers a religious explanation for the veil when he states that “Hooper is struggling with doubts about his own salvation, and the beginning of that struggle is marked by the moment he first dons the veil. Forever after that, he must, necessarily, see the world in a different way, for his preoccupation with his eternal destiny cuts him off from fully participating in the joys of the world around him. The veil represents his isolation; it does not cause it” (Montbriand 1).
Still other critics read the veil as a form of psychological separation that Hooper adopts. J. Miller asserts that “[Hooper’s veil] interrupts a universal process absolutely necessary to all human society, community, family life, and face-to-face “interpersonal” relations – the process whereby we interpret faces as the signs of selfhood.
Hooper’s veil leaves no way to read his soul, his thoughts and feeling, from his face, no way to tell whether the person is happy or whether he has a secret sorrow or sin. In fact, there is no way to be sure that the minister, or anyone at all, is behind the veil” (Miller 44). Lastly, Clark Davis says that Hooper’s veil “implies some limitation within the relationship with otherness, a permeable barrier that re-resents a heightened awareness of distance” (Davis 14).
For the purposes of this essay, let us look instead on Hooper not as a man, not as a sexual being, but as living symbol of truth, a truth that none want to face: death. All that lives, dies.
Father Hooper adopts the veil to personify the truth of human mortality, and this truth relates to every facet of life that any civilization built on religion strives to suppress: the tenuous grasp all of us have on life. Hawthorne’s veiled minister is a simple, brutal symbolic representation of death. This is why he quickly becomes unbearable for the townspeople to witness.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Becoming Original: Truth and Death in Hawthorne’s The Minister’s Black Veil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hawthorne’s The Minister’s Black Veil embodies American Literature, by Fuller’s definition, because he creates in Hooper a protagonist that refuses to “bow to the will of the multitude” (Lauter 1844). Father Hooper indeed finds “the ostracism of democracy far more dangerous than the worse censure of a tyranny could be” (Lauter 1844).
In the creation and presentation of the true inevitability of death via Hooper’s veil, Hawthorne fulfills Fuller’s definition of the American writer as in possession of the “noble fearlessness [that] can give wings to the mind, with which to soar beyond the common ken, and learn what may be of use to the crowd below.
Writers have nothing to do but to love truth fervently, seek justice according to their ability, and then express what is in the mind; they have nothing to do with consequences. God will take care of those. The want of such noble courage, such faith in the power of truth and good desire, paralyze mind greatly in this country” (Lauter 1844).
Author Ernest Becker wrote, “man has a symbolic identity that brings him sharply out of nature. He is a symbolic self, a creature with a name, a life history. He is a creator with a mind that soars out to speculate about atoms and infinity, who can place himself imaginatively at a point in space and contemplate bemusedly his own planet…this self-consciousness gives to man literally the status of a small god in nature” (Becker 26).
Yet, as Hawthorne’s protagonist Hooper knows full well, and as Becker delineates, “man is a worm and food for worms. This is the paradox: he is out of nature and hopelessly in it; he is dual, up in the stars and yet housed in a heart-pumping, flesh-gasping body…a material fleshy casing that is alien to him in many ways – the strangest and most repugnant way being that it aches and bleeds and will decay and die” (Becker 26).
In The Minister’s Black Veil, Hooper sets about to rouse his parishioners from their collective delusion concerning their own mortality. The trigger for Hooper to adopt this role is the “funeral of a young lady,” which has affected him deeply, for reasons unknown (Lauter 2431).
When Hooper arrives at the home of the deceased woman, he wears the veil. The “relatives and friends were assembled in the house, and the more distant acquaintances stood about the door, speaking of the good qualities of the deceased, when their talk was interrupted by the appearance of Mr. Hooper, still covered with his black veil. It was now an appropriate emblem” (Lauter 2431). The irony of Hawthorne’s passage is not lost.
In the eyes of the townspeople, Hooper’s funereal shroud only maintains its appropriateness in the context of the young woman’s death. “The clergyman stepped into the room where the corpse was laid, and bent over the coffin, to take a last farewell of his deceased parishioner.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Becoming Original: Truth and Death in Hawthorne’s The Minister’s Black Veil by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As he stooped, the veil hung straight down from his forehead, so that, if her eyelids had not been closed forever, the dead maiden might have seen his face…A person who watched the interview between the dead and living, scrupled not to affirm, that, at the instant when the clergyman’s features were disclosed, the corpse had slightly shuddered, rustling the shroud and muslin cap, though the countenance retained the composure of death” (Lauter 2431).
Critics attribute this passage to Father Hooper’s relationship with the dead woman. Instead, let us reads this passage as the details of Father Hooper’s communion with death. Once Hooper leaves the dead woman, he passes “into the chamber of the mourners, and thence to the head of the staircase, to make the funeral prayer.
It was a tender and heart-dissolving prayer, full of sorrow, yet so imbued with celestial hopes, that the music of a heavenly harp, swept by the fingers of the dead, seemed faintly to be heard among the saddest accents of the minister. The people trembled, though they but darkly understood him when he prayed that they, and himself, and all of mortal race, might be ready, as he trusted this young maiden had been, for the dreadful hour that should snatch the veil from their faces” (Lauter 2431).
We see Hooper press his face close to death, and in so doing, he provides a visual representation of the story’s theme: life and death are always side-by-side. When Hawthorne notes the reaction of the townspeople to Hooper’s prayer, we see that they have understood his meaning. However, they choose to ignore it.
Hooper’s congregation reserves a time and a place for death: the funeral. Only in a death context can death exist, in their minds. Outside of the funeral, only life exists: weddings, engagements, church sermons, and gossip.
However, through the experience of losing the young woman, Hooper has become intimately acquainted with the reality of life. He now understands that death and life co-exist; they are partners in experience, and separation through social ritual defies that reality. There is no way to separate the two. The veil then becomes a visual depiction of this truth.
Later, when Hooper arrives at a wedding wearing the shroud, the townspeople no longer approve. “When Mr. Hooper came, the first thing that their eyes rested on was the same horrible black veil, which had added deeper gloom to the funeral, and could portend nothing but evil to the wedding.
Such was its immediate effect on the guests that a cloud seemed to have rolled duskily from beneath the black crape, and dimmed the light of the candles. The bridal pair stood up before the minister. But the bride’s cold fingers quivered in the tremulous hand of the bridegroom, and her deathlike paleness caused a whisper that the maiden who had been buried a few hours before was come from her grave to be married” (Lauter 2431).
In actuality, the funereal shroud is always appropriate, even during a wedding, since death can happen at any time. Death, in fact, always remains as close to us as our own lives. Freud alludes to this in a passage from Reflections on War and Death that asks, “Is it not for us to confess that in our civilized attitude towards death we are once more living psychologically beyond our means, and must reform and give truth its due?
Would it not be better to give death the place in actuality and in our thoughts which properly belongs to it, and to yield a little more prominence to that unconscious attitude towards death which we have hitherto so carefully suppressed?” (Freud 34). Father Hooper attempts to share the wisdom of this idea with his parishioners, to free them from their denial of death. As a result, he makes himself a pariah.
When Hooper attempts to share his understanding with the woman whom he believes loves him, he learns the limits of their relationship in a heart wrenching and poignant exchange. Elizabeth does see the truth, as evidenced herein: “her eyes were fixed insensibly on the black veil, when, like a sudden twilight in the air, its terrors fell around her. She arose, and stood trembling before him. “And do you feel it then, at last?” said he mournfully. She made no reply, but covered her eyes with her hand, and turned to leave the room” (Lauter 2431).
Elizabeth chooses delusion over truth, even though Hooper implores her to recognize the veracity of the veil, and the truth of their mortality, when he begs, “”Have patience with me, Elizabeth!” cried he, passionately. “Do not desert me, though this veil must be between us here on earth. Be mine, and hereafter there shall be no veil over my face, no darkness between our souls! It is but a mortal veil – it is not for eternity! O! You know not how lonely I am, and how frightened, to be alone behind my black veil.
Do not leave me in this miserable obscurity forever!” (Lauter 2431). Elizabeth, when she asks Hooper to remove the veil, shows that even though she understands the symbol that Hooper’s veil represents, she prefers to remain in denial. This marks the end of their love affair, and sets Hooper on his lonely course as the sole voice of truth in a landscape of lies.
Sarah Margaret Fuller believed that a truly American Literature denoted fearlessness, and that its purpose was to create an environment wherein “talent shall be left at leisure to turn its energies upon the higher department of man’s existence” (Lauter 1843).
Truly American writers, in her mind, did not shrink from speaking and writing the truth, despite that the fact that it is “not half so dangerous to a man to be immured in a dungeon alone with God and his own clear conscience, as to walk the streets fearing the scrutiny of a thousand eyes, ready to veil, with anxious care, whatever may not suit the many-headed monster in its momentary mood” (Lauter 1844).
Hawthorne knew that the appetite for truth, particularly in regards to the close relationship between death and life, was nonexistent in his time. In actuality, it has not grown much since.
Yet, Hawthorne created a protagonist, Father Hooper, who sacrificed his personal happiness, suffered public censure, social ostracization, and the loss of a woman he loved, all in an effort to bring his congregation to the light of truth – that life and death exist side by side, and that the simple acknowledgment of death as part of life brings a sense of unparalleled freedom.
Unfortunately, but not surprising, Father Hooper failed to impart his message, and so endured the rest of his days as a curiosity, until, on his death bed, his last words struck at the heart of the townspeople and the reality that they all face as mortal beings: “I look around me and lo! On every visage a Black Veil!” (Lauter 2431).
Works Cited Becker, Ernest. The Denial of Death. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973. Print.
Davis, Clark. “Facing the Veil: Hawthorne, Hooper and Ethics.” The Arizona Quarterly 55 (1999): 1-19. Print.
Emmett, Paul J. “Narrative Suppression: Sin, Secrecy and Subjectivity in The Minister’s Black Veil.” Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 25.1-2 (2004): 101-119. 19 November 2010. Web.
Fogle, Richard Hatter. Hawthorne’s Fiction: The Light and Dark. Norman, OK: UP Oklahoma, 1952. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Reflections on War and Death. Trans. by A. A. Brill and Alfred B. Kuttner. New York: Moffat, Yard
Body image issues and eating disorders in sport and exercise Research Paper essay help
Introduction Nutritional needs usually vary with age, sex, profession and many other factors (Dana, 2000, p.2). Different people in different times or conditions require specific diets so that their bodies can function as expected during that time. For example, at different stages of a baby’s growth, nutritional needs also vary.
The same case applies to people in the profession of modelling, where diet is the greatest thing to watch out lest you want to be disqualified (Novick, 1999, p.5150). People in sports are no exception since nutrition is also very dear to them hence the need for a sport’s nutritionist to give proper advice on the stipulated diet. This is due to the fact that sports are physical activities involving most of the energy loss from the body.
Background Information For sports people to perform well in their activities they have to be under the required diet (Dana, 2000, p.1). Thus, nutritionists come in to advise them on their bodies’ requirements before, during and after performance. Past research has indicated that most sports people have turned to the use of supplements in addition to food mostly because of the limited time they have.
In some cases, this may result to abuse of the supplements which results to various side effects. Other than this, most sports people suffer from a number of eating disorders. Some of these eating disorders include bulimia or anorexia nervosa (Novick, 1999, p.5150).
Anorexia nervosa is a psychological disorder leads to low intake of food by an individual. It is a syndrome that not only occurs in sports people but may also occur in expectant women, invalids, depressed and stressed individuals. On the other hand, bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder that increases appetite in an individual such that he or she overeats.
Most of the people who have this syndrome take the food after which they force themselves to vomit afterwards. This research is therefore of great importance in the field of Kinesiology which studies how the nutritional intake of an individual relates to the body movements (Picard, 1999, p.587).
Theoretical framework Human beings are said to be social animals who involve in a number of activities in their day to day life. As people socialise, they learn a lot from their fellows and the experience they undergo. This is what defines the social cognitive theory in human beings. The sports people are no exception in this since their profession gives them room to meet and interact with so many people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, self efficacy and perception is required during these interactions where an individual is able to trust their own actions as well as welcoming any form of motivation accorded to them. Such people will have inside motivation hence their performance will be better than those who lack self efficacy who will in most instances avoid the sport and attribute the poor performance to inability.
The achievement goal theory can thus be used as a theoretical framework where proper diet will be provided to the sports people thereafter monitoring their body image and performance. This framework will also be connected to the self determination theory since the study group will be monitored for any changes in the zeal and stamina to perform. A correlation of the performance and eating habits of the sports people will be done and especially those with eating disorders.
Hypotheses Are there any significant differences in the body image perception between the sports and non-sports people?
Is there a correlation between the nutritional intake and body image of sports people?
What is the importance of body image among the sports people?
These are some of the questions that are to be answered after conducting this research.
Results of various studies done on body image and eating disorders among sports people For a long time, the field of sports technology had been neglected until recently when sports began being recognised as part of economical development of any nation. This therefore made so many researchers to venture into this field to uncover any obstacles in a bid to improving sports in general.
Some of the researchers specialised in the diet of the sports people so as to find out if and how it affected their performance. Others ventured into research based on body image perception between gender types. All the research done was of help to the athletes’ federation as the results got could be used to advance the sport technology round the globe.
Just like the other professionals, people in the sports profession have their own different conception about body image (Fox, 1997, p.1). The body image perception further breaks down into gender type and the different types of sports.
A study carried out on the correlation of gender and participation in sports indicated that most female athletes developed a high esteem with regards to their bodies and themselves. This as a result made them view themselves to have higher masculinity as compared to their fellow females who did not participate in athletes (Long, 2002, p.3).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Body image issues and eating disorders in sport and exercise specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Body image is therefore very important in sports people as it acts as the motivating factor in their profession. As mentioned above that most sports will admit people on the basis of their body mass and weight, it becomes therefore necessary for an individual to watch out on the type of diet they need so as to have the desired body image (Ciervo, 1998, p.1901).
Another research based on a test model that specified the perceptions of body image in the two genders participating in sports showed that females in the aged 18 to 22 had a positive perception on their physical competence after exercises (Zucker, 1999, p.210). This therefore indicated it was worth educating females of this age other than men since they had a positive view of the outcome. It can also be argued out that during this age specification, the females tend to be more concerned about their body images.
Discussion The body image of an individual speaks so much about the person. Therefore in circumstances where one is not contended on their body image then psychological problems arise (Baum, 2006, p.23). These problems may have been brought about by poor eating habits in a bid to achieve a desired body shape or weight. As a matter of fact eating disorders play the greatest role in problems arising about body image. This is because eating disorders lead to a disorder known as the Body Dysmorphic Disorder.
The body dysmorphic disorder is a change in the body structure and appearance of an individual that in the end leads to distress and at times reduced functionality of the individual. This is very crucial to the sports people as effects in their functionality leads to an automatic decline in performance of the sport (Long, 2002, p.3).
Some of the factors that may lead to eating disorders in sports people include the following;
Performance pressure- This comes about when the people participating in sports are expected to perform in them. This may negatively influence an individual making them to concentrate on performance while neglecting their diet (Zucker, 1999, p.210).
When there is a misconception between body mass and performance- Some people in different sports may have the wrong conception on the relation of weight and resulting performance. For example a heavy weight doing athletes may have the notion that only light bodied individuals are eligible in this sport. This as a result may make such a person suffer from anorexia nervosa by declining food in a bid to achieving a slender body.
Weight based sports- Some sports like wrestling, boxing, taekwondo and others admit people on weight basis. An individual may thus be influenced by such a factor if at all they want to join such sports.
Demand in energy- Most sports require energy to perform, as a result most sports people may decide to be on an energy giving diet only hence neglecting the other food types.
Another potential cause of eating disorders among the sports people is the influence from peers who their judgement on body image may affect the eating habits of an individual. Close relation with people who have eating disorders may also be a potential influence, like in the cases of models who work to be size twelve by eating poorly.
Despite all these, with a strong social support network within the sports people eating disorders may be an easy task to work on. This is because people will encourage those with poor eating habits by educating them on the possible effects of eating disorders as well as the benefits of proper diet in sports and health.
Effects of eating disorders
The sports people are greatly affected by poor eating habits hence the need for a sports nutritionist to advise them (Ciervo, 1998, p.1901). The major effect is decreased performance in the sport. For example, a boxer who has a lesser body mass is most often out done by those with higher body mass who may be a little bit stronger as compared to them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Body image issues and eating disorders in sport and exercise by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another effect is disqualification from the sport participants which have great people who rely on sports to bread win their families. Last but not least is the psychological distress that accompanies unacceptable body image. The depression reverses back to the poor performance in the sport (Shelby, 2000, p.3292).
Prevention of eating disorders
Eating disorders may be prevented by frequently educating the sports people on the effects and possible dangers of the syndromes (Baum, 2006, p.23). It is also advisable that the nutritionist in charge watch out for the possible patients of these conditions. This can be done before, during and even once the performances have been completed.
It is a tradition that all sports people are checked on possibility of being under the influence of drugs or over intake of supplements (Sherwood, 2002, p.341). This is usually done with the intention of making sure that the sports people are under the appropriate diet. These syndromes have no medication as a form of treatment. Instead the only person who can eradicate it is the patient himself but after guidance from a psychiatrist or nutritionist.
Most studies done have also shown that eating disorders are common in the females more than they are in males. This is because females are very sensitive on any changes in their bodies. Their male counterparts care less and only get concerned once they have been asked to (Smolak, 2000, p.372). Because of this, it is thus necessary to put more emphasis on the male sports people who show little concern. By doing this, the whole sports team will be empowered with knowledge hence improving the general performance of the sport.
Conclusion The above discussion gives a clear indication of how serious the matter on eating disorders may be on the sports people. Most sports people also want to fit in the contemporary world and not the sports sector only (Katharine, 2004, p.1). As a result there is confusion on what body image to acquire depending on their priorities.
This commonly happens in female athletes who may want to retain their feminine image yet they want to participate in the sport. Further research has also shown that eating disorders among the sports people is not only individual based but at times the coaches play a significant role. The coaches may disregard people with certain body images and in turn greatly affect their eating habits.
Recent studies have also indicated that the situation at hand on eating disorders in sports people is now taking control. It has been found out that eating disorders have now shifted from the athletes to the non-athletes.
The main reason behind this is because of the high concentration on sports people so as to make sure their eating habits are up to date, while neglecting the other group of people. So much has been invested in the name of making sure the sports people get the proper nutritional guidance especially in nations that value sports (Katharine, 2004, p.1). This assumption is what has led to the current position of nutrition among people globally.
Reference List Baum, A. (2006). Eating Disorders in the male Athlete. Web.
Ciervo, L. (1998). Relationship between family environment and eating Disorders among female student-athletes. Dissertation Abstracts International. Vol 59, (6-A). p.1901.
Dana, J. (2000). Impact of Sports on adolescent development. Web.
Katharine, P. (2004). Body dysmrphic disorder: recognizing and treating imagined ugliness. Web.
Long, B. (2002). Eating Disorders in Athletes. Web.
Novick, R. (1999). A comparison of self-esteem, gender role orientation, and body image in adolescent female athletes and nonathletic. Dissertation Abstracts International. Vol 59(9-B), p.5150.
Picard, L. (1999). The level of competition as a factor for the development of eating disorders in female collegiate athletes. Journal of Youth
Madame C. J. Walker Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction Madam C. J. Walker was an African American businesswoman and a philanthropist who had a company that dealt with hair products for black women. Her company was known as Madam C. J. Walker manufacturing company and later on in her career life, she founded a beauty training school by the name Leila college for Walker hair culturists.
Leila was her daughter. She fits well in American business history because she was the first American woman to become a millionaire through her own efforts. She lived between 1897 and1919 and she became an orphan by the age of seven. She was named Sarah Breed love when she was born and later in her career life came to be called Madam C. J. Walker (Women in History, 2010).
The idea of hair products originated from a large black man who confronted Madam Walker with a formula that he alleged would be suitable for making a product that would eliminate baldness. The main reason for this was the fact that the man had observed that Sarah was experiencing hair loss like many American women in her era.
In her efforts to find a cure for the scalp disease, which brought about hair loss in order to have a healthier scalp for healthier hair growth, she tried many home remedies and the products in the market and she finally managed to make her own shampoo and ointment that contained sulfur (Women in History, 2010).
Madam Walker soon afterwards started selling her products to black women throughout USA and her business picked very fast and very well. Many whites claimed that she wanted to transform black’s hair to that of white but she insisted that her objective was to maintain a healthy scalp that facilitates hair growth for black women.
On realizing her potential, she became an inspiration to many black women through lecturing them to promote her business as well as to empower them into business. Throughout her career, she used to practice philanthropy by donating funds to National Association for the Advancement of colored People (NAACP), the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), black schools, organization, orphan homes, and homes for the elderly among others (Women in History, 2010).
Historical eras and circumstances experienced by Madam C. J. Walker and her manufacturing company Madam Walker had a big challenge of breaking hair and desperately tried many homemade and manufactured products to maintain her hair and to keep it straightened. In desperate circumstances when none of the products worked, she prayed that God might save her hair.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first experience came through a dream whereby a large black man appeared and told her the components to mix up in order to save her hair as she told a reporter of Kansas City Star. When she did the practical, it worked very well and that marked the beginning of her career (Oakwood Publishing Company, 2010)
In 1921, Madam Walker beauty culture contributed a lot to the transformation of the new Negro world. Her achievements together with those of other women of her era lead to a big challenge on the definition of beauty where by a University of Chicago anthropologist went ahead to claim that ‘there was no real beauty among white American girls’.
Her advert ‘A Million Eyes Turned Upon it daily’ was a clear indication that the black woman had made impact throughout the globe. The objective of her advert was to emphasize on global capitalist expansion but it also had a great impact on the black women re creation on the new Negro experience (Weinbaum, 2008, pg 69).
Madam Walker was an inspiration to many black women and she gave them lectures on how to start their own business as well as healing them to take proper care of their hair. Madam Walker’s husband and daughter played key roles in the growth of their company.
In 1906, they traveled throughout the country with her husband “promoting their products and training sales agent while their daughter Leila ran a mail order operation in Denver” (Women in History, 2010). In 1908, they opened a beauty school in Pittsburgh, which was closed in 1910 when they moved their business to Indianapolis to utilize eight major railway systems and still because Indianapolis was the countries largest manufacturing base (Women in History, 2010).
As her fame rose, she became a political figure whereby she encouraged black Americans to support the mission of World War 1 and fought for equality between whites and blacks in America. In 1917, she campaigned for lynching to be made a federal crime after the bloody race riot of East St. Louis, which made her a key speaker in many NAACP anti-lynching operations (Women in History, 2010. Bundles, 2001, pg 187).
How Madame C. J. Walker and her Company Fits in to the Context of American Business History The American business history is characterized by extensive entrepreneurship, globalization, conflict among competing groups and influence from the dominating political arena (Nelson, 1996). Madam C. J. Walker Company was the best of its time and its formation shook the whole cosmetic industry.
We will write a custom Essay on Madame C. J. Walker specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is reported that the whites claimed that Walker’s intention was to transform black hair into that of whites but she defended her objectives firmly. By the time of her death, Madam Walker was the first American woman millionaire through her own initiative. Her business ran nationwide and in her advert ‘A Million Eyes Turned Upon it Daily’, was a clear indication that her company was operating on the global community.
In her career, she developed her political ties and ran many campaigns especially for the racism that was prevailing in America in those days. She trained many sales agents who helped build roots for her business through extensive door-to-door marketing which enabled her live a very lavish life in posh apartments (Geisst, 2006, pg 481).
Unique Aspects of Madam C. J. Walker and Her Company in the American Business History Most of the American companies are founded on a strategic plan from professional in a certain field, through research or some sort of discovery. Madam Walkers Company originated from a dream whereby a large black man told her what to do and the results seemed to be useful.
She began her business by selling these products and demand increased sharply which lead to the birth of the company. She never had any prior knowledge on the cosmetic industry and she had not planned to build a company in future. This is a very rare occasion, which makes Walker a very outstanding businesswoman (Oakwood Publishing Company, 2010).
Madam Walker had a very harsh beginning but this did not hinder her from becoming the first African American millionaire. For instance, her parents were slaves, she became an orphan at the age of seven, her brother-in-law abused her, and she never had a stable marriage, among others.
Regardless of the racism that was prevalent in America during her time, she was able to build her career to the point of owning an empire. She ever worked as a house help and when she was venturing in to this business, she was working as a laundress (Oakwood Publishing Company, 2010).
During her time, law and customs excluded most African American from enjoying full citizenship for America. For instance, they were excluded from American Universities, corporations, professions, government positions and American women had no rights to vote. Madam Walker stood out as uneducated laundress from women who never dared imagine doing business to an empire executive (Bundles, 2010)
Madam C. J. Walker Company on the Global Economy Walker had many women participate in her empire as sales people and she lead an international sales force of many financially independent African American women. With time, Walkers principles of entrepreneurship enabled her expand her market beyond US to Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Panama, and Costa Rica (Bundles, 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Madame C. J. Walker by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Within the global economy one of her advert said that a Million eyes looked upon her company, products, and her efforts daily. This means that her hair products not only served the American blacks but the whole black race in the world (Geisst, 2006, pg 481). She encouraged the African American to support the cause for World War 1, which was a global phenomenon.
Conclusion From the history of the development of Madam Walker’s business from a community that never recognized women and worse still African American, it is a clear inspiration to all of us to the spirit of business. Madam Walker thrived on her entrepreneurship principles, which enabled her to be on the frontline marketing her product starting with her family and later on venturing in to extensive training of sales agent through out the country.
References Bundles, A. (2001). On Her Own Ground: The Life and Times of Madam C.J. Walker. New York: Simon and Schuster. Web.
Bundles, A. (2010). Diversity. Web.
Geisst, C. (2006). Encyclopedia of American business history. Volume 1. New York: Infobase Publishing. Web.
Nelson, D. (1996). The history of Business in America. Web.
Oakwood Publishing Company. (2010). Walker, Madame C. J. Web.
Weinbaum, A. E. (2008). The modern girl around the world: consumption, modernity, and globalization. NY: Duke University Press. Web.
Women in History. (2010). Madam C. J. Walker. Web.
Drug and Substance Abuse Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Physiology and Psychology of Addiction
Prescription Drug Abuse
Introduction Drug and substance abuse is an issue that affects entirely all societies in the world. It has both social and economic consequences, which affect directly and indirectly our everyday live. Drug addiction is “a complex disorder characterized by compulsive drug use” (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010).
It sets in as one form a habit of taking a certain drug. Full-blown drug abuse comes with social problems such as violence, child abuse, homelessness and destruction of families (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010). To understand to the impact of drug abuse, one needs to explore the reasons why many get addicted and seem unable pull themselves out of this nightmare.
Physiology and Psychology of Addiction Many experts consider addiction as a disease as it affects a specific part of the brain; the limbic system commonly referred to as the pleasure center. This area, which experts argue to be primitive, is affected by various drug substances, which it gives a higher priority to other things. Peele (1998) argues that alcoholism is a disease that can only be cured from such a perspective (p. 60). Genetics are also seen as a factor in drug addiction even though it has never been exclusively proven.
Other experts view addiction as a state of mind rather than a physiological problem. The environment plays a major role in early stages of addiction. It introduces the agent, in this case the drug, to the abuser who knowingly or otherwise develops dependence to the substance. Environmental factors range from violence, stress to peer pressure.
Moreover, as an individual becomes completely dependent on a substance, any slight withdrawal is bound to be accompanied by symptoms such as pain, which is purely psychological. This is because the victim is under self-deception that survival without the substance in question is almost if not impossible. From his psychological vantage point, Isralowitz (2004) argues that freedom from addiction is achievable provided there is the “right type of guidance and counseling” (p.22).
Prescription Drug Abuse A doctor as regulated by law usually administers prescription drugs. It may not be certain why many people abuse prescription drugs but the trend is ever increasing. Many people use prescription drugs as directed by a physician but others use purely for leisure. This kind of abuse eventually leads to addiction.
This problem is compounded by the ease of which one can access the drugs from pharmacies and even online. Many people with conditions requiring painkillers, especially the elderly, have a higher risk of getting addicted as their bodies become tolerant to the drugs. Adolescents usually use some prescription drugs and especially painkillers since they induce anxiety among other feelings as will be discussed below.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Stimulants Stimulants are generally psychoactive drugs used medically to improve alertness, increase physical activity, and elevate blood pressure among other functions. This class of drugs acts by temporarily increasing mental activity resulting to increased awareness, changes in mood and apparently cause the user to have a relaxed feeling. Although their use is closely monitored, they still find their way on the streets and are usually abused.
Getting deeper into the biochemistry of different stimulants, each has a different metabolism in the body affecting different body organs in a specific way. One common thing about stimulants is that they affect the central nervous system in their mechanism. Examples of commonly used stimulants include; cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines and cannabis. Cocaine, which has a tremendously high addictive potential, was in the past used as anesthetic and in treatment of depression before its profound effects were later discovered.
On the streets, cocaine is either injected intravenously or smoked. Within a few minutes of use, it stimulates the brain making the user feel euphoric, energetic and increases alertness. It has long-term effects such as seizures, heart attacks and stroke. Cocaine’s withdrawal symptoms range from anxiety, irritability to a strong craving for more cocaine.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is the most often abused drug familiar in almost every corner of the world, from the streets of New York to the most remote village in Africa. Although its addiction potential is lower as compared to that of cocaine, prolonged use of cannabis results to an immense craving for more.
It produces hallucinogenic effects, lack of body coordination, and causes a feeling of ecstasy. Long-term use is closely associated with schizophrenia, and other psychological conditions. From a medical perspective, cannabis is used as an analgesic, to stimulate hunger in patients, nausea ameliorator, and intraocular eye pressure reducer. Insomnia, lack of appetite, migraines, restlessness and irritability characterize withdrawal symptoms of cannabis.
Depressants Unlike stimulants, depressants reduce anxiety and the central nervous system activity. The most common depressants include barbiturates, benzodiazepines and ethyl alcohol. They are of great therapeutically value especially as tranquilizers or sedatives in reducing anxiety.
Depressants can be highly addictive since they seem to ease tension and bring relaxation. After using depressants for a long time, the body develops tolerance to the drugs. Moreover, body tolerance after continual use requires one use a higher dose to get the same effect. Clumsiness, confusion and a strong craving for the drug accompany gradual withdrawal. Sudden withdrawal causes respiratory complications and can even be fatal.
We will write a custom Essay on Drug and Substance Abuse specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Narcotics Narcotics have been used for ages for various ailments and as a pain reliever pain. They are also characterized by their ability to induce sleep and euphoria. Opium, for instance was used in ancient China as a pain reliever and treatment of dysentery and insomnia. Some narcotics such as morphine and codeine are derived from natural sources.
Others are structural analogs to morphine and these include heroin, oxymorphone among others. Narcotics are highly addictive resulting to their strict regulation by a majority of governments. Narcotics act as painkillers once they enter the body.
They are used legally in combination with other drugs as analgesics and antitussives but are abused due to their ability to induce a feeling of well being. Their addiction potential is exceptionally high due to the body’s tolerance after consistent use, forcing the user to use and crave for more to get satisfaction. Increase in respiration rate, diarrhea, anxiety, nausea and lack of appetite are symptoms common to narcotic withdrawal. Others include; running nose, stomach cramps, muscle pains and a strong craving for the drugs.
Hallucinogens Hallucinogens affect a person’s thinking capacity causing illusions and behavioral changes especially in moods. They apparently cause someone to hear sounds and see images that do not exist. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), which commonly abused hallucinogen, has a low addiction potential because it does not have withdrawal effects. They also affect a person’s sexual behavior and other body functions such as body temperature. There are no outright withdrawal symptoms for hallucinogens.
References Isralowitz, R. (2004). Drug use: a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Clif.: ABC-CLIO. Print.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2010). NIDA INfoFacts: Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/understanding-drug-use-addiction
Peele, S. (1998). The meaning of Addiction: Compulsive Experience and its Interpretation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Drawing Ability Development as a Reflection of the Overall Psychological Development of a Child Essay a level english language essay help
Drawing ability in terms of psychological development study. The development of a person can be traced on different levels. One of such levels is people’s ability to draw and the attitude to drawing. It goes without saying that if a person is drawing a bit worse than Leonardo da Vinci it is possible to speak about his/her mental disorders. Neither can we conclude that a person’s development is slow if the person does not like drawing.
However, the majority of scholars admit that drawings can be used as the reflection of person’s perception and behavior. As far as I am concerned, I should point out that drawing played an important role in my early and middle childhood since I liked drawing and devoted considerable amount of time to that activity. Interestingly, to date I can consider my psychological development on the basis of my child preferences.
Once I thought I was a very creative child, but now I should admit that I was one of many revealing common developmental patterns. Nevertheless, I can still assume that I am quite creative since I found some peculiarities in my drawing ability development. Of course, to consider these peculiarities it is necessary to start with the beginning of my artistic enthusiasm.
Early childhood drawing ability. Admittedly, all children start drawing development with scribbling imitating the activity (writing, drawing, etc.) of adults (Eng, 1999). Unfortunately, there is not much information about my early period (obviously, I do not remember that time), but few spoiled books which are still in my parents’ possession can justify that I started drawing like any other normal child, scribbling.
Moreover, it is important to add that my scribbling was initially placed in the center of the sheet of paper like in many other cases (Eng, 1999). However, my drawing skills developed and soon I started revealing distinct objects.
At this point I would like to stress that according to Eng (1999) many children should be motivated to draw, whereas others start drawing without any instructions and requests which can be explained by “inherited aptitude for graphical expression, and inborn tendencies” (102). I pertain to the second group which is the first peculiarity of my drawing abilities development.
Thus, the second period of my development can be characterized by two dimensional drawings of various objects: plants, animals and human figures. According to Malchiodi (1998) children at the age of 5-10 years draw in the same way (which is simple and ingenious) and after the age 10-11 years children start drawing in more, so to speak, sophisticated way paying more attention to details and realistic representation of objects. Thus, up to the age of eight I also draw quite simple pictures.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Trees, flowers, animals and people I drew were only schematically similar to the real life objects. It is necessary to point out that I tried to make the objects more real, but those were quite insufficient measures. Bremner (1999) revealed the common viewpoint that children only represent “a poorly developed version of the adult form” and usually are pushed by adults in the right “direction” (501).
This must be the case for my drawing ability development. In the first hand, I always wanted to draw in a realistic way and from the age of five started copying pictures from journals and books. Eventually, my parents noticed my inclinations and I started attending extracurricular activity – drawing lessons.
After several classes I learnt some basic rules and started implementing them while drawing. Soon I ceased attending the classes and just drew for my pleasure. Thus, I obtained some techniques from adults and this, to certain extent, proves Bremner’s point about the influence of adults. I started trying to draw three dimensional pictures at the age of eight which quite coincides with the theory depicted by Malchiodi.
Further development and learning. The further development of my drawing abilities was determined by copying other works. I tried to understand how this or that can be drawn by looking at drawings of professionals and trying to copy their works. Eventually, I started drawing my own images using the techniques I obtained by copying. At this point I would like to consider the arrangement of objects on my pictures.
Initially, I draw objects in the centre of the sheet of paper. However, very soon I started using the entire surface available for drawing different supplementary objects. Eng (1999) pays much attention to objects arrangements and stresses that synthesis is “a leading characteristic of a child’s thinking and talking, indeed of its whole mental life” (135).
Thus, according to Eng (1999) children who reveal the lack of synthesis in their drawings in their middle childhood are likely to have some mental disorders. Fortunately, I can assume that my development was absolutely normal and I can characterize my pictures by the necessary amount of synthesis. Moreover, I would like to point out that I tried to make each drawing as complete as it was possible. This peculiarity leads to another stage of my drawing development.
Peculiarities of my development and theoretical background. After the age of eight I started drawing not only single objects but revealed whole stories. Of course, at school I draw what I was told to depict. However, when I had spare time at home I liked drawing a story. It was a kind of comics without boxes and words, just pictures revealing significant events in the story. In the majority of cases the drawings depicted fairy tales, but I often invented my own stories and tales. This can be regarded as my peculiarity since not many children like drawing stories but rather depict some event or image.
We will write a custom Essay on Drawing Ability Development as a Reflection of the Overall Psychological Development of a Child specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In my childhood drawing stories was just for fun, but now I assume that those pictures could be examples of project drawing excessively used nowadays in psychological surveys. Moreover, my story drawing became one more prove of Malchiodi’s (1998) concerns about the interpretation of project drawings, especially children’s project drawings.
Thus, it is very hard to define objective reasons for child’s having drawn this or that object in this or that particular way. The child’s drawing does not necessarily reveal the situation at home (depicted symbolically) or previous experiences of a child.
A drawing can depict a story/tale once heard and/or child’s interpretation of the story/tale. Apart from this, I would like to note that separate objects in the drawing (clothes, accessories, etc), shape and color can be not a symbol of a certain disorder or mental peculiarity, but a simple copying what was once seen. For instance, a child could see the tree depicted in the book and decide that it was beautiful (or the child could hear from adults or peers that the tree was beautiful).
So, it is but natural that the child wants to draw something beautiful and copies the model accepted by him as ideal. These conclusions come to my mind in terms of my own drawing experience. Perhaps, my cotemporary drawings will enable me to understand some of my psychological peculiarities as well as my childhood drawing experience helped me to trace my psychological development on that very level.
Drawing abilities development can reflect overall psychological development of a person. In conclusion, it is possible to point out that my drawing ability development proves the major theories of child’s (normal) development. I, just as any other child, started scribbling and then developed the necessary skills to create more sophisticated drawings. Thus, scribbling was substituted by two dimensional objects, which in their turn transformed into three dimensional images.
Apart from drawing technique, the drawing development is also characterized by the peculiarities of objects arrangements. Children start drawing single objects in the center of the drawing surface at early age and when they become older start arranging the objects more deliberately. Drawings of children in their middle childhood are characterized by synthesis. If the synthesis does not emerge, certain mental disorders and distortion of development are observed.
Taking into account these aspects (drawing technique, arrangement, synthesis) I can assume that my development was normal. Of course, I can also state that I was quite creative child characterized by certain uniqueness (at least in terms of my childhood drawing ability) since I developed ,so to speak, sophisticated drawing techniques quite early, was eager to draw without any stimuli and started creating complete stories instead of depicting single objects.
Reference List Bremner, J.G. (1999). Children’s Drawings and the Evolution of Art. In Lock, A. and Peters, C.R. (Eds.), Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution (501-518). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Drawing Ability Development as a Reflection of the Overall Psychological Development of a Child by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Eng, H. (1999). The Psychology of Children’s Drawings: From the First Stroke to the Coloured Drawing. London: Routledge.
Malchiodi, C.A. (1998). Understanding Children’s Drawings. New York: Guilford Press.
Was Ernest Hemingway a Misogynist? A Sexism Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Short Life of Francis Macomber
Hills like White Elephants
Introduction The debate on whether Ernest Hemingway is a misogynist still rages with critics and adherents backing their side of the story. Nevertheless, an essay with a closer investigation into his books might give a hint or two concerning this controversial topic that has refused to exit from scholarly circles.
According to Johnson, “misogyny is a cultural attitude of hatred for females because they are female (1); therefore, a misogynist is someone who upholds this culture. From Hills like White Elephants to The Short Life of Francis Macomber, Hemingway’s style of writing is full of misogyny. It becomes effortless, therefore, to state with clarity Hemingway’s perspective towards women in general.
Firstly, in the majority of his short stories, unhealthy man-woman relationships are prevalent, characterized by imperfections and doomed to failure. Interestingly, in all these cases, women are to blame, as they appear nagging, inadequate, domineering, and selfish. Generally, in Hemingway’s eyes, women are utter failures plunged in emotional apathy by their inability to express their feelings. In short, Ernest Hemingway’ssexist nature is exposited in Hills like White Elephants and The Short Life of Francis Macomber.
The Short Life of Francis Macomber The main character in this story that turns out to be pathetic is a woman, Margot Macomber. As the story opens, Margot is domineering, literally dictating the life of her husband, Francis. Interestingly, when Francis wields courage to rise above his wife Margot, she cowardly takes his life. What a timid way of dealing with the struggle for power.
Nevertheless, in this case, Hemingway mentions that the only way women can remain in power is through intimidation. As aforementioned, at the beginning of the story, Margot is tyrannizing, while Francis is intimidated. Wilson, the hunter, is the only man who exudes any trait of manhood. Hemingway uses Wilson deliberately as an ideal man that Francis would be if Margot got out of the way.
Hemingway does not hide the uselessness of Wilson in the eyes of Margot; she only uses him as a toy, and even after they have sex Hemingway still questions it. He says, “What’s in her heart, God knows, Wilson thought. She had not talked much last night. At that, it was a pleasure to see her” (Hemingway 21).
Even Wilson feels his uselessness in this woman’s life as he concludes only God knows her intentions in taking him to bed. In this incidence, Hemingway depicts Margot as an emotionally incompetent being who cannot express her feelings freely and earn her place in a man’s heart by merit. She has to employ the only tool she has, intimidation. This is just but an introduction to many of Hemingway’s misogynist nature through Margot.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Francis finally starts to show gradual change towards reclaiming his position as the head of the family only to face a stubborn and scheming Margot. Being the man he is, Wilson sees and applauds Francis’ efforts towards becoming a man, albeit minimal. Pointing at Hemingway’s misogyny, Weeks offers, “Wilson… is the man free of woman and fear. He is the standard of manhood…His dominance over the lady is apparent from the moment she sees him blast the lion from which Macomber ran” (Weeks 120).
Not that Margot cares or even loves Wilson; far from it, she is only interested in the boldness, a trait of masculinity that he possesses. Unfortunately, due to her weaknesses, Margot cannot contain a permanently dominating man in her life; she can only have one on demand, and Wilson comes in handy in this case. Hemingway hates Margot by virtue of being a woman, and this underscores the misogynist he is.
Hemingway’s choice of words exposes his dark side, the grimy side of a man who would otherwise pass for a good writer of all the times. At the slightest show of Macomber’s courage, Francis becomes “clearly a changed being, one who will never allow his wife’s domination again. Complementing this reversal of roles, we find that Margot had been afraid during the chase, and now, feeling nauseous, wants refuge in the ambiguous and evasive shade” (Monk 136).
What more could a weak, insufficient, selfish, and emotionally pathetic woman do? Well, Hemingway knows better, and the best one can offer in reciprocation is hatred, which is something that he offers philanthropically. He hates women with passion; no wonder, Margot could only be a failure in this story. To cap her weaknesses, Margot kills Francis after realizing his growing dominance in their relationship. Evidently, Francis’ life is shorter than what Hemingway evokes in the title of the short story, courtesy of Margot.
Hills like White Elephants The unlucky woman in this short story is Jig, an incompetent woman incapable of communicating her feelings or making any independent judgment. Hemingway introduces Jig as ‘the girl,’ “the American and girl with him sat at a table in the shade, outside the building” (Hemingway 87).
Jig here passes for a nameless girl, at least in Hemingway’s perspective. Throughout the short story, Hemingway fails to bring out the “girl’s” emotions or attitudes concerning anything that happens around her. Hemingway paints Jig as a clueless, pathetic, and tasteless woman who cannot make simple decisions like what to drink. She admits that it is hot; nevertheless, she cannot state with clarity what drink to take.
Instead, she asks, “What should we drink” (Hemmingway, 87). As aforementioned, Hemingway deliberately chooses his words to belittle women at every encounter. The fact that Jig cannot take a stand and say I will take this or that opting to consult the American is a strong indication of how frail she is. Jig’s naivety comes out clearly; after it emerges that, she cannot even order the drinks, for she does not understand Spanish.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Was Ernest Hemingway a Misogynist? A Sexism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, she has to depend on the male figure in this case. One can conclude that feminism in Hemingway’s works is not present in any aspect. As opposed to The Short Life of Francis Macomber, where Margot is domineering, Hemingway uses Hills like White Elephants to show how voiceless and weak women are by their failure to stand on their own. The indecisiveness of Hemingway’s female characters stands out conspicuously when the issue of abortion raises in this short story.
Jig knows for sure she does not want to abort her child; however, she chooses to remain silent about the issue. When the American suggests, “I know you wouldn’t mind it, Jig. It is not anything. It’s just to let the air in” (Hemingway 90), Jig remains silent. She finally gives in citing, “I don’t care about me…I care about you” (Hemingway 90).
In this case, Hemingway gives the impression that women are indecisive, bound to compromise their principles in the name of love and care. If Jig does not care about herself, she cannot probably care about anyone else. One cannot give what she/he does not have. How can she care about the American if she does not care about herself? Hemingway uses this instance to ridicule women and satisfy his misogyny.
Reducing women to such humbling levels is tantamount to stripping them of their dignity and self-worth. Nevertheless, the reason why Hemingway does this is that he hates women with a passion for purposes best known to him. The reader can only speculate, and the only valid speculation here is that he hates women by virtue of being women, and this underscores him being a misogynist.
To some extent, Jig is also gullible. She keeps on changing topics even in the middle of a seemingly essential discussion. For instance, she keeps on referring to the ‘bead curtain,’ which is unrelated to the point in dispute; that is, abortion. Portraying women this way strips Hemingway of any respect for women exposing the misogynist novelist that he is.
Conclusion Whether Hemingway is a misogynist or not, is no longer a point of debate; his works speak it all as exposited in this writing. Women, just like anybody else, have shortcomings and strengths alike; unfortunately, Hemingway is blind towards the strengths, he can only see the weaknesses.
Consequently, he writes what he sees viz. weaknesses, and this explains why his writings concentrate on exposing women’s weaknesses. Margot, in The Short Life of Francis Macomber, rules her husband only to silence, inferiority screams that rage within her. On the other hand, Jig in Hills like White Elephants cannot make even a simple decision like choosing the drink to take. At his best, Hemingway is a misogynist, a woman-hater for no apparent reason.
Works Cited Hemingway, Ernest. The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Scribner, 2003.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Was Ernest Hemingway a Misogynist? A Sexism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Johnson, Allan. The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology: A User’s Guide to Sociological Language. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000.
Monk, Donald. “Hemingway’s Territorial Imperative.” The Yearbook of English Studies 8.1 (1978): 125-140.
Weeks, Robert. Hemingway: A Collection of Critical Essays. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1962.
Voodoo Secrets Research Paper online essay help
Voodoo as a religion has its roots in traditional African religions. It original name is Vodu, but that paved way for the more widespread name; Voodoo. Other names referring to it include “Voudou, Vaudau, Voudoux, or Vaudaux” (Tallant 9). Captured slaves from West Africa carried its essential ideology into Haiti, then to America.
The practice of Voodoo involves, “complicated rituals and symbols” (Riguad 7). It involves the worship of spiritual deities, with priests called papa loa, which means “father of the spirits” (Felix 21), and priestesses acting as intermediaries between the spiritual world, and humanity.
Some of them also operate as oracles, revealing spiritual mysteries to those who seek their services. The term Voodoo also describes a charm that has supernatural powers known as juju. Adherents believe that it acts as a protective force over them. They also use it to mete out revenge on their enemies. Voodoo therefore refers to an entire religious system and to certain specific aspects of its practice.
Voodoo picked pace from the practices of a snake cult in Haiti during the slave trade period. The cult came from West Africa and spread with slave trade, in the Americas and to Haiti. As new slave communities grew in the Americas, different religious identities amalgamated into a unified faith as the slave communities tried to forge a common belief system to unify them in their new locales.
Felix says, “Voodoo became the intermingling of essential attributes of all the religions of the different African tribes to which poorly assimilated elements of Catholicism were added” (20). Voodoo got its form in Haiti, which was an important station during slave trade.
Missionary efforts among the slaves saw them incorporate elements of Catholicism in practice of the Voodoo religion. In the process, some Voodoo spirits replaced catholic saints because of close relationships between their roles.
Currently, it is common to find prayers offered to Mary and other Catholic elements such as the Lord’s Prayer and the sign of the cross forming part of the Voodoo liturgy. In fact, many Voodoo adherents are staunch Catholics. In America, Voodoo practice first took place in New Orleans before spreading to other states. This was because of the role New Orleans played in slave trade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Voodoo belief system builds on the idea of an all-powerful impersonal Supreme Being responsible for creation of the entire universe, but who does not get involved in day-to-day running characterized by the affairs of men. The adherents worship lesser deities known as Loa who are animistic spirits. The initial practice of Voodoo revolved around slave communities that sought to retain the vital link with their ancestral heritage.
Present followers include descendants of these slaves spread throughout the Americas. In addition, tourists all over the world visit Voodoo priests and priestesses in America and Haiti to obtain special charms and amulets for all manner of purposes. Its practice involves praying, dancing, and ritualistic expressions. It is important to distinguish between faithful adherents who actually believe in power of Voodoo, and those who participate in Voodoo recreational purposes.
The use of dolls in Voodoo is the enduring image of the faith system though this is only a piece of the entire system. This view, propagated by Hollywood horror movies, depicts Voodoo priests as spiritual powerhouses using the dolls to control the outcome of an individual’s activities. There are a number of opponents to Voodoo who believe it is evil. Official catholic faith rejects Voodoo as demonic and considers use of saints in the Voodoo liturgy as syncretism.
The question of whether Voodoo is fact or fiction is hard to answer sufficiently using a scientific approach. It does not lend itself to purely scientific investigation to determine its efficacy. This is true for all faith-based systems. Evidence given by practicing Voodoo adherents does not meet criteria for objective study because they are likely to associate ordinary outcomes to their faith. It is difficult to dissociate outcomes of Voodoo mediated occurrences from random chance.
The Placebo effect also applies to Voodoo. Someone may actually experience a favorable outcome because of participation in Voodoo rituals based on their belief in the efficacy of the service received. Taking a healing portion from a Voodoo priest may result in better physical health. We can therefore conclude that Voodoo is effective to the extent that such outcomes portray a positive relationship to Voodoo practice.
Voodoo has had many tangible consequences in the world. The most notable was the drive towards independence by Haiti, which begun in earnest during a Voodoo festival, where all the participants took an oath to fight for independence. Consequently, Haiti became the first predominantly Negro nation to attain independence. Riguad also attest to some of the effects of voodoo practice when he says, “a curious moral consequence of the slave trade was the exaltation of the African religion by an increase of faith in the Voodoo divinities” (12).
Berry identifies one of the mystifying occurrences of Voodoo when he says, “One of the most spectacular features of Voodoo is ritual possession trance, in which saints (loa) enter into and “possess” the practitioner, who can either be a believer (with no special psychological problem), a patient, or a priest/doctor who seeks to heal”. This shows that Voodoo is not without its share of paranormal occurrences that science cannot fully explain.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Voodoo Secrets specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Berry, John, et al. Cross-cultural psychology: research and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Print.
Felix, Emmanuel. Understanding Haitian Voodoo. USA: Xulon Press, 2009. Print
Riguad, Milo. Secrets of voodoo. New York: Lights Books, 1985. Print.
Tallant, Robert. Voodoo in New Orleans. Louisiana: Pelican Publishing, 1983. Print.
Good Parent-children Relationship Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Relationships are a very important part of human life. Regardless of the success of any human being, relationships are an essential key to a better life and their ignorance could have the most serious repercussions. Family members should strive as much as they can to relate well with each other.
This is particularly crucial for children as regards their relationship with their parent since this relationship determines how a child undergoes psychosocial development. This paper looks into parent-children relationships to identify some of the challenges that this relationship faces and also suggests remedies to problems encountered by parents and children as they relate to each other.
A good society basically defines an environment that upholds the good morals that is universally acceptable. It is for this fundamental virtue and reason that good parent-child relationship can be realized within such society. Let’s therefore find out the meaning of good morals that fosters good relationships between parents and children in the society.
Through out the human history, communities have been concerned with what their children would become when they grow up, assessed by parameters of appropriate moral growth. This could only become as a dream because of the ever common and confusing results later seen in their behaviors. Good morals are therefore hard to achieve and they must be worked for in order to be realized.
It is hence, very apparent that the parent-child relationship embraces behaviours, feelings and expectations that are unparalleled to a particular parent and child. All these unique characters contribute to the full extent of a child’s development and growth. There are a number of factors that affect the relationship between children and their parents.
For instance, the relationship between a parent and his/her child may be affected adversely by marriage instability or the experience that the parent has in dealing with certain issues. Other factors include confidence of parents in the decisions they make affecting their children and the character of a child. Age in this case, specifies the cognition of setting good standards of behaviors.
Take for example; parents who have been married for quite some time tend to be patient and calm before delivering judgment to an errant child compared to their newly married colleagues. This is usually so, because such cases have arisen in such family settings before and going by such past experiences, have been successfully arbitrated upon. On the other hand, new couples are bound to act on the spot without considering the other side of the consequences that can spark rebellion from the children.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another instance, where wisdom through age demonstrates itself, can be seen on the ability to be understanding in a conflict. Come to think of this, sometimes children want to do something contrary to their parents’ wish. In such cases parents should be honest and open with their children by explaining why they feel the time or situation is not yet ripe or why the action is improper.
It is thus prudent, to approach certain conflicts between parents and children with caution so as not to blow it out of proportion in order for good relationships to blossom.
Such, can majorly be actualized through innate wisdom and knowledge majorly set by age .having seen that parenting is an important determination of good morals, stability in marriage is a major factor that equally contributes to a good relationship between parents and children. A happy couple would reason together, consult every now and then, keeps family secrets, plans and most importantly do not prejudice or incite the children against each other.
Parents who commit in house wrangles are bound to disagree on certain principles that are essential for the children’s development. It is an obvious factor that, ‘children learn by observation.’ children on the other hand are bound by nature to take hard line positions in support of or disapproval of either of the parent’s view. Parents need to agree on household issues and to stick to the rules relating to the family’s wellbeing.
Both parents should each time remember their resolutions and refuse to get compromised by the children who break such rules. Children gain a sense of security from parents who love and support each other. It is clear from this reason that unstable marriages would absolutely contribute to bad relationships between parents and children as opposed to stable marriages that fosters good relationships between parents and the children in the society.
Other key area that requires the parents’ full attention and intimacy for a good relationship with the children is education, which anchors more on the parents’ support to the children for its success. The outcome of this closeness is that, parents can make a spectacular difference in positively molding the future of the children. Religion on the other hand, can be a reality when parents have good relationship between themselves (Thera 1).
For achievement of a good relationship between parents and children, there is need for involvement of all stakeholders in the relationship. Close knit families are therefore formed in families where members understand each other and complement each other for achievement of a common goal.
We will write a custom Essay on Good Parent-children Relationship specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This comes as a result of, talking to the children, taking time to take them to bed, praying with them and literally driving their efforts based on family objectives such as hard work, respect, love and so on. This condition of closeness and stability eventually inculcates good relationships between parents and children.
Characteristics of the children compared to those of the parents can also influence the relationships between the parents and the children. Let us look at this factor pegged on four main stages of development. These are Infants, kindergarten children, school age and adolescence. It is common to note that as the children move from infancy, the parent-child relationship begins to change.
At this stage, the parents simply natures the relationship based on day to day care (Holman 60). For example, if parents show open pleasure in their children however much busy they could be, the toddler appreciates in a sub conscious way and reciprocates by forging good relationship with the parents.
In this case, the much a child is connected with the parent may be the determinant factor of the success the child will encounter due to reliable psychosocial development during childhood. The small pre school child becomes more cheerful, self-reliant, self-controlled and focused when the parents are permissive while children who are brought up by authoritarian parents tend to lack self-confidence and withdrawn.
This therefore affects the good relationship with the parents (Milordo 1). For example, where in a situation where parents and do not encourage negotiations with their children. The above stage enables the child to explore much of the environment and feel that they can get away with any behavior expecting not to be reprimanded. This stage calls for less rigid personality in addition to firmness so that the parent-child connection is not withheld.
At school-age stage, good relationship between parents and children is natured by congealing patterns of interaction between parents to children. Remember this is the stage where the child’s social world expands and they increasingly become interested in peers. It should not be misconstrued to mean that this is a sign of disinterest to the parent.
Even though, parents are supposed to be displinarians, they should not so much rely on physical punishment or withdraw their affection; instead, they should encourage and politely give direction so that a good relationship between the parent and child is yielded.Behaviourial changes at adolescence stage may also put strain on the relationship between the parents and the children.
A case of study would be, taking a child at this stage of development as one who bickers and challenges the authority of the parents. It must be known that adolescence stage provides a base for most teenagers to hold different views with their parents; albeit, it’s very poignant to reason in this manner. The concern to parents should be an absolute concession on essentials and limit tendencies of variations that can affect their relationships.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Good Parent-children Relationship by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From this essay, it is evident that the skills of a child’s parents in maintaining a good relationship with their child are very instrumental in the development of the child and it determines the child’s future. It is therefore of essence for parents to ensure that they do their best to achieve healthy relationships with their children since the benefits of the same may be more than they can imagine. All these attempts essentially improve the good relationships between the parents and children in the society.
Works Cited Holman, Thomas. The Family in the New Millennium:: Strengthening the family. New York. Barnes
Naturalistic Observation of Racial, Gender and Social Class Stereotyping in Serving Clients in Public Catering Term Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction The bright pages of the history of the 20th century are connected with the words “race”, “gender” and “social class”. Today, these issues remain burning ones and are actively discussed; contemporary science has also turned its attention to them. Race, gender and social class are the aspects of diversity that are in focus of researchers who work in the field of social psychology (Blaine, p.3).
Nowadays investigating this matter is of big significance: studying the issues of gender, race and social class in social psychology provide background for understanding conflicts and discrimination connected with them.
Considering that social diversity has not only inner impact on a personality (identification), but also on that outer (behavior) (p.17), the subject area of our study is external signs of gender, racial and social class stereotyping in everyday-life setting. The focus of our investigation is manifestations of gender, racial and social class stereotyping in serving clients in public catering: we will observe behavior of waitresses in “Café” and analyze it from the perspective of the mentioned aspects of stereotyping.
Literature Review High research activity is connected with studying racial, gender and social class diversity and its signs (Blaine, p.3). There are a set of questions that remain in the focus of perpetual study, such as the “ratio” of inherent and social influence on racial and gender stereotyping, connection between identity and behavior from the perspective of social diversity, influence of stereotyping on relations et al.
Much attention is paid to studying identity, stereotyping and influence of social diversity on behavior and relations at school. Fries-Britt and Griffin (2007) provide results of qualitative research that revealed difficulty that high-achieving Afro-American students had in disproving negative stereotyping.
Rydell, McConnell and Beilock (2009) found that reminding about negative stereotypes about groups that students belong to decreases their performance, which corroborates that identity influences behavior. Lott (2010) discusses the impact of race, gender and social class diversity on attitudes, relations and behavior. In (Chryssochoou, p.35-41), different social psychological theories of prejudice are systematized: the connection between diversity and behavior is emphasized.
Researchers pay significant attention to choosing groups that would give opportunity to get valuable knowledge on the mentioned issues. For example, in their article, Santon, Meyer-Lindenberg and Deruelle (2010) study such issues as racial and gender stereotyping. The peculiarity of the research is focusing on Williams syndrome children.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the main symptoms of the Williams syndrome is mental disability; this influences cognitive, behavioral and emotive processes, which makes the research of particular significance: these processes have important role in forming stereotypes, and in case the corresponding functions are depressed, the research will provide more “ingenuous” results of studying race and gender.
WS children have reduced social fear and tent to contact with individuals who would be considered not approachable by children without intellectual difficulties.
In contrast to the control group of children that showed high pro-Caucasian bias, the WS children group demonstrated no evidence of race bias. At the same time, both groups showed gender bias. The authors make the conclusion that social fear plays significant role in racial stereotyping and is not important for gender stereotyping.
The choice of our field of observation also gives us grounds to expect interesting and valuable research results, which will be discussed in the Methodology chapter.
Methodology The method used in the research was unobtrusive naturalistic observation. This method implies that observer does not intervene into the events and thus does not influence them (McBurney
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Symptoms of PSTD and coping strategies
Relieving traumatic events
Avoiding reminders of traumatic experiences
Blocking traumatic experiences
Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional / anxiety disorder that normally affects individuals who have experienced an extremely stressful or frightening ordeal. It is commonly a result of psychological stress.
McIntosh states that, trauma that really threatens one’s mortality and one that extremely compromises with the normal emotional health of an individual, is bound to cause post-traumatic stress (4). As the name of the disorder suggests, it is stress that happens after a person experiences extreme fear or trauma. Those who suffer from this disorder usually re-live or re-experience the ordeal that triggered the trauma.
These individuals often come up with defensive mechanisms that help them forget these experiences even though for a short period. Tim O’Brien’s novel In the Lake of Woods shows us the effects of the Vietnam War on a former American soldier called John Wade. He exhibits the characteristics of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. The rage that causes him to inadvertently scream “Kill Jesus” is suppressed to the “forgetting tricks” throughout the novel.
Background The novel tells of a sad story of post-traumatic stress disorder as experienced by John Wade, a Vietnam War veteran. The main concept of the book revolves around John Wade’s experience through flashbacks including his abused childhood. As John grew into a man, he became involved with a woman by the name Kathy.
In their relationship, both kept many secrets from each other. For instance, Kathy hated her marriage to John Wade, had an affair with the dentist of which John was aware and how John had the habit of spying on his wife. Thus, their relationship was built on deceit, concealment and illusions. Furthermore, during the war, John wrote letters to Kathy, he stated to her in pride of his involvement in a massacre of a village as well as his identity as the Sorcerer.
Symptoms of PSTD and coping strategies The three principal groupings of the most common characteristics symptoms of PTSD are re-experiencing/relieving the traumatic event, emotional numbing and avoiding reminders of the traumatic experience. Many occurrences in war happen suddenly and unexpectedly. These occurrences do not give the one experiencing them enough time to conform psychologically to the sudden change (McIntosh 9-11) thus leading to PSTD. Similarly, John Wade exhibits these characteristics after having gone through the Vietnam War.
Relieving traumatic events He relieves the traumatic event of the Vietnam War. Consequently, after John came back home from Vietnam, he gets a job in records within which he destroys any evidence of his involvement in the My Lai massacre. He concealed his involvement to gain a position as lieutenant governor of the state of Minnesota as well as a United States senator but lost miserably.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More John’s Vietnam ordeals continuously haunt the couple as they settle in their cabin house following John’s defeat. John even forces his wife to have an abortion even thou she really would love to have children. He kills his unborn baby just like those helpless villagers in Vietnam during the massacre.
Emotional numbing John exhibits emotional numbing and cannot feel what is going on around him. This is a coping strategy of victims of PSTD as Peters, in his article urges that the individual becomes ‘numb’ to the environment around him and the normal emotions experienced by a normal person become nonexistent to them (6-7).
As a symptom, to his depressing state, we find that he unknowingly carried the kettle of boiled water into the bedroom to watch his sleeping wife. “It was almost a fact, but not quiet, that he moved down the hallway to their bedroom that night, where for a period of time he watched Kathy sleep…” (O’Brien 188-189). John seemed out of touch with his actions as well as his environment. Apparently, John felt a numbness inside him that traveled to his mind and a feeling of not quite caring about his actions. “Odd, he thought.
The numbness inside him. The way his hands had no meaningful connection to his wrist” (p.50). This numbness, of not feeling the twisting of his wrist, indicates that he was not even aware of his destructive action of pouring the water from the kettle. He is not aware whether Kathy woke up or not. We as the readers are not even sure what is real or John’s figment of imagination. “In the dark she seemed to smile at him.
Then she jerked sideways, puffs of steam rose from the sockets of her eyes. Impossible, of course” (p.84) – this part particularly shows the level of disorientation that John suffered as he did not seem to understand his horrible action of burning his wife. The way John viewed the scenario in the dark was obviously so inaccurate that he mistook Kathy’s look of pain for a smile. He did not realize that the steam rising from her eyes was a sign of the burning that was taking place.
The book was written in John’s viewpoint and the use of words “impossible, of course” show that to him, the puffs of steam rising from his wife’s eyes were just unreal allowing his continuing of burning her to death. John was not even moved by his actions the next morning.
The following day he does an action so absurd that we are shocked. John did not even remember that he had dumped the body of his wife in the lake. His forgetfulness about killing his wife and concealing her body is a forgetting trick that the author uses in the novel to show us how the PSTD victims conceal or deny their actions. Thus, John avoids dealing with this possible horrific action.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Avoiding reminders of traumatic experiences People suffering from PSTD avoid reminders of the traumatic experience. In John’s case, he tries to avoid remembering the traumatic experience of killing of his wife by getting involved in a search team and questioning his neighbors about her whereabouts.
However, on pages 131 to 132, “He remembered the weight of the teakettle. He remembered puffs of steam in the dark…the steady lap of waves against his chest…Absurd, Wade thought”. At this point, John saw it as absurd that there was steam rising in the dark, a scenario that any normal person would have realized as coming from the extremely hot water he was pouring.
We have seen that a post-traumatic stress disorder victim has frequent periods of lapsing memory and a mind that is disconnected from the normal occurrences of life. Such an individual like John Wade will suffer disorientation throughout his life. Though having forgotten sinking his wife into the lake, he gets flashes of the events that occurred that night as time moves on.
Later he wakes up in the deep night and goes to the boathouse where he feels that something horrible had happened at that place only that he did not remember what it was. “…as sense of pre-memory washed over him. Things had happened here. Things said, things done…” (188).
On page 242, however, he seems to remember everything even where his alleged missing wife is “He didn’t think about it. Quick, he stripped naked and filled his lungs and dove to the bottom where Kathy was.” Disturbingly, John thought of his dead wife as he would if she were still alive as he swam towards her body.
“From the bottom of the lake, eyes wide open, Kathy Wade watches the fish fly up to swim in the land of sky blue waters…” (286). He thought that she was looking up at him and that she was swimming. “Kathy stares up at him from beneath the surface of a silvered lake…she swims in the blending twilight of it in between” (288).
On page 283, it seems that John is now aware of his actions but still has some sense of denial “Had he harmed her? Well no, but yes”. Of course, he knew he had harmed her but he seemed to justify that he had done it in his sleep meaning he did not mean to do it. “He was Sorcerer. He was guilty of that, and always would be….” Meaning he still identified himself with the person, he was in Vietnam. He still was the person who made things disappear and vanish. He still was the man who wanted to kill.
Blocking traumatic experiences The other coping strategy that PSTD sufferers use is blocking the traumatic experiences from the mind. Victims of post-traumatic stress disorder usually try to block out intrusive memories of the occurrence, feelings that re-animates that event into the current as well as feelings of severe anguish on recalling the traumatic event (McIntosh 9).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The traumatic experiences are pushed back into the subconscious and the victims often forget some of the traumatic events although this does not mean that the memories go away forever as they can be revived by watching horrific scenes involving war on television and some of the war veterans have suffered by seeing similar war horrors (Peters 4). Moreover, Vietnam War veterans are known to have memories and nightmares associated with the war experiences.
They become so caught up in these memories that they find difficulty in focusing on present and events around them. The veterans say that their dreams often involved terrifying memories of the Vietnam War and other horrible nightmares not related to the war. The veterans avoid people and events that remind them of the war even decades after the war ended. They attempt to block off these memories and distressing feelings arising from the memories.
This leads to withdrawal from the family circle, their friends as well as the entire society (McIntosh 9). This may explain why John withdrew into the Lake to try to escape from the haunting experiences although his bid failed. John tried to block out the memories of Vietnam and some of the horrific secrets about the war are buried deep inside in his memories.
However, the effects of war leave an indelible mark on the veterans’ minds and lives and John was no exception and often suffered from blackouts as well as nightmares. He would wake up yelling because of recalling horrors about the atrocities that he took part in during the Vietnam War. Eventually the horrors led him to kill his wife an action that he would otherwise not have likely committed had he not been haunted by the Vietnam horrors. He cannot escape from the undead memories of the war.
Conclusion War veterans suffer from PSTD and in most cases; they end up committing unforgivable acts. Most are unable to cope with the traumatic events that they experience while at war and thus there is a need to help the veterans overcome the trauma and fit into the normal life once the war is over.
John does not recover from the PTSD and kills his wife Kathy in cold blood. He symbolizes the horrors of war that continue long after the war is over. O’Brien captures John’s coping strategies- re-experiencing/relieving the traumatic event, emotional numbing and avoiding reminders of the traumatic experience- using “forgetting tricks” in a compelling way.
Works Cited McIntosh, Steven. “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and War-Related Stress” Information For Veterans and their Families (2000): 4-20. Web.
O’Brien, Tim. In the Lake of the Woods. New York: Penguin Books, 1995.
Peters, Roger, F. Casualties of War: Vietnam War Veterans PTSD and Depression. Human Focus Group, 2003. Sept. 13. 2003. Nov. 11. 2010. http://www.heas.com.au/downloads/casualties_of_war.pdf
Maintaining Academic Honesty Report college essay help: college essay help
How does a student feel when he cheats his way towards academic excellence? What are the consequences of academic dishonesty? Well, these are questions every student must put in mind before engaging in the diverse forms of academic dishonesty. In any learning institution, honesty is a fundamental concept in the process of achieving academic excellence. Thus, it is indispensable for students to sustain academic excellence.
Indeed, a student will achieve this by taking note of the elements that comprise academic dishonesty. It is evident that the skills gained by students through academics portrays their potential and measures up to their future success. Most importantly, students should be aware of the consequences they face from the knowledge center whenever they are caught in academic dishonesty acts. It is thus necessary to exemplify these acts thus plagiarism, cheating and falsification.
Plagiarism entails replicating the work of a different person, devoid of properly mentioning the sources, as a way of acknowledging the original work. It is fundamental to note that some students commit the offense deliberately while others do not grasp what it entails.
Plagiarism is thus a grave academic misconduct; furthermore, it is considered morally incorrect (Levy
Schizophrenia, Psychosis and Lifespan Development Term Paper best college essay help
Introduction There are many conditions and diseases that may affect a child and interfere with normal growth and development. Schizophrenia is a developmental condition characterized by psychotic symptoms as well as by some symptoms that affect adaptive functioning of an individual.
The condition develops in different phases and an individual exhibits different symptoms hence the reason why there are different categories and classifications of the same. With that background in mind, this paper shall focus on describing major classification of schizophrenia, psychosis and lifespan development. In addition, the paper shall also focus on cognitive, biological and behavioral component of schizophrenia.
Major DSM IV-TR categories of schizophrenia, psychosis and lifespan development Primarily, psychotic disorders include, schizoaffective disorder, shared psychotic disorder, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified, substance induced psychotic disorders, disorder caused by general medical conditions as well as five types schizophrenia.
The five subtypes of schizophrenia include catatonic, undifferentiated, paranoid, and disorganized and the residual type. Patients suffer from hallucinations usually described as condition that occur when a person is able to sense in absence of the right stimuli (Dziegielewski, 2010).
Various classifications of schizophrenia, psychosis and lifetime development As highlighted in the introductory part, there are five classifications of schizophrenia. As the name suggests, undifferentiated schizophrenia is also referred to as the garbage type and more often than not, it contains symptoms that are usually present in other disorders.
The residue type is a condition that does not display some of the symptoms that were evident initially. In the paranoid type, victims suffer from either one or more hallucinations marked by a single theme. Patients suffering from disorganized schizophrenia experience incoherence, disturbed effect and more often than not, there is lack of systematic delusions. Lastly, patients suffering from catatonic type suffer from negativism as well as disturbances of the psychomotor such as rigidity and stupor (Dziegielewski, 2010).
Although there are five different classifications of schizophrenia, the path physiology is almost the same but symptoms are varied. In the view of the fact that schizophrenia is a chronic illness, it progresses in different phases.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In many instances, patients seek treatment after experiencing symptoms for a period of one or two years. The first phase is referred to as premorbid phase and is characterized by symptoms such as coping difficulties, anhedonia as well as different perception problems. Nonetheless, it is important to note that in many cases, such symptoms are too mild to be noticed.
The next phase is known as the prodromal phase and is characterized by subclinical symptoms like disorganization, irritability, disorganization and perceptual distortions, to mention just a few. The middle phase is characterized by the same symptoms but they are usually more severe. In the last phase, the disease may stabilize or start all over again (Bustillo, 2008).
Behavioral components of schizophrenia According to American Psychiatric Association (2006), behavioral therapy is very effective in treatment of the disorder especially due to the fact that it is a chronic illness. In this type of a treatment, the disorder is viewed as a problem behavior which may be influenced by environmental factors like the relationships in the family of origin.
Behavioral family therapy is an effective method of treatment and is usually aimed at reducing or eliminating severity of the symptoms. This is due to the fact that research has indicated that negative behaviors that are directed to victims by their family members contribute greatly to the severity of the symptoms. Therefore, it is clear that if such behaviors can be dealt with, the problem can be solved.
Cognitive Component The condition of schizophrenia affects cognitive ability of a person hence the reason why victims suffer from poor perception of self and of other people in the society. Their thinking is also affected and that is the reason why cognitive therapy is used in treatment.
It bears noting that even though cognitive therapy is used to alleviate the symptoms of the diseases like distorted thinking, the disease is not completely eliminated because there are biological causes of the same. Therefore, cognitive component mainly focuses on treating some of the symptoms and thereby helps the victim to manage some of the life problems.
Biological Component According to Tsuang (2000), some of the genetic factors increase someone’s vulnerability. Further studies indicate that the main biological component of the disorder include complications incurred during pregnancy and delivery process. Studies have indicated that people having family members who have ever suffered from psychiatric disorders are always at a higher risk of developing schizophrenia. Although it is not clear how genetic factors contribute to schizophrenia, it has a great effect.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Schizophrenia, Psychosis and Lifespan Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Schizophrenia is a complicated condition not only due to its nature but also due to the fact that it results from a wide range of factors. It is classified into five categories mostly according to its symptoms. Since it is caused by a wide range of factors, there are several ways of treatment upon diagnosis.
Treatment methods are inclusive of antipsychotic drugs, rehabilitation and psychotherapy. The main aim of treatment is not only to alleviate symptoms, but also to enable the patient to continue functioning normally (Bustillo, 2008). Schizophrenia, psychosis and lifespan development conditions are serious and ought to be researched on comprehensively.
References American Psychiatric Association. (2006). American Psychiatric Association practice guidelines for the treatment of psychiatric disorders: Compendium 2006. Washington: American Psychiatric Pub.
Bustillo, J. R. (2008). Schizophrenia. Retrieved from https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/enteroviruses/poliomyelitis
Dziegielewski, S. F. (2010). DSM-IV-TR in Action. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons.
Tsuang, M. (2000). Schizophrenia: genes and environment. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 47 (3), 210-220.
The Fears Within: What Do You See in the Mirror? Creative Essay college essay help
Although fear is something that most people consider a natural thing, claiming that only fools don’t fear a thing, there are a number of fears called phobias that are taken as psychological deviations by the scientists and doctors. In such cases, the faster the patient is cured, the sooner the society gets rid of another maniac-to-come. The most obvious but not necessarily the most correct decision, it is still the prior one for most people in the modern society.
Cassie Harper never thought that her journey to the Solomon Islands would end at the psychologist’s.
“I am a programmer. I understand that this is not the very profession that a twenty-seven-year old blonde is supposed to have, but this is how the things went for me. If only you could imagine all those scornful looks that men used to cast at me as I only began working! But times changed, and they finally understood that this is something they should take for granted.”
Cassie stopped. It was understood that she had difficulties with explaining the nuances about her past. Whenever it was hard or not, it still was something she was used to and now deprived off.
Indeed, the life that she has abandoned now is something dreamy for a young lady of thirty, with all the prospects of a brilliant future ahead, and with the years to live for happiness and future adventures that might take her to whenever she wanted.
However, there could be something that a professional doctor could suggest her. But first…
The trip to the islands seemed to her a great idea. Without thinking much of what she should take with her, or where the trip would take her, Cassie had bought the tickets and soon was flying away to the islands where the world would be different for her, where the people will seem not the way she used to see them, and where she would experience the new traditions and customs that she had never heard of.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next few days were bliss, though getting accustomed to the new environment did take some time. She went to every single attraction that could be found there for the tourists hungry for impressions, and nothing could stop her from diving in the sea or trying the new national dish in the local café.
Then it was all about the fire.
Was it really the malfunction of the appliances? Or did someone left a cigar burning in te hotel while Cassie was sleeping in her bed, all tired after the yesterday’s looking for another set of impressions? Hardly anyone knows the answer to this question. Anyway, the hotel was set on fire, and, though Cassie managed to get out of the burning house and stay alive. Her face got terrible burns.
She was taken to the hospital immediately.
“We will do everything possible”, the local doctors said but the result of the operation drew Cassie nearly crazy. Her fade did not belong to her anymore. It was someone else looking at her from the bottom of the mirror, face twisted, all ugly and unrecognizable.
One might think that the next station for Cassie would be the lunatic asylum, but it is not the ending yet.
As she got home, there were no mirrors in the flat anymore.
We will write a custom Essay on The Fears Within: What Do You See in the Mirror? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since the insurance covered the plastic surgery, and the doctors in her home city did their best at restoring the ways she used to look. In fact, they succeeded with flying colors, and the only thing that could remind of the accident was the fear in Cassie’s eyes.
As she recovered, she tried to look in the mirror for the first time since the bad accident.
To her amazement, she could not do it.
The very shape of the glass made her tremble. As someone approached her with a looking-glass in their hands, she could not help gasping with terror.
From this time on, she opened a new page in her life, and this page was sewn with terror.
Every encounter with a mirror was a shock. Even going to the hairdresser’s would be a problem, making her think that in the end he or she will say:
“Now take a look at your new hairdo, ma’am!”
There was nothing that could help her to solve the problem, and that made her escape it.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Fears Within: What Do You See in the Mirror? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The job did not seem so wonderful anymore, and the sun did not shine that bright. It seemed a total madness, because she did have a normal look, and it seemed that there was nothing to fear! This was what her mind told her, but as she tried to overcome the fear and look into the shining surface of the mirror, each time she would avert her gaze.
Poor Cassie thought that it was high time for her o consult a psychiatrist or even address to the asylum.
“After all, they will take a good care of me the way no on else ever has,” she grinned. “And maybe then I will finally start to eat well and regularly.”
The clouds did not go by even as she tried to take a break from work and find a hobby to think about. The haunting fear was following her, and every shingle surface that held her reflection at least for a second drove her mad.
Finally, there came the day when she decided to take hold of the situation.
“Stop fooling around, a psychologist is not going to bite you,” she told herself as she passed the threshold of the private clinic.
The surrounding was inviting to relax, and the whole situation reminded of paying a visit to a friend rather than consulting a doctor.
As her turn came, she entered the doctor’s study.
Doctor Stamford was thinking hard. The case seemed far more complicated than he originally thought.
“I am afraid that when I look in the mirror there will be – someone else, not me. Or that there will be my face with all those terrible scars and burns which I had after the accident. Or – “
“Or that someone will pop out of the mirror and take me to the burning house again to spoil my face and my life once again.”
Indeed, the case was more than complicated.
Summing up the problems that Cassie and Doctor Stamford were to solve, these were the tragic scar that the arson left in Cassie’s memory, and then it was the catoptrophobia itself – the fear of mirrors. (Ronald 2008) And, finally, everything was getting even more complicated, because the plastic surgeons gave Cassie her face back, but did not kill the fear that was growing in here ever since.
It was like something that has been locked twice, or even thrice, and the process of recovery promised to be very long and wearing-out.
However, the patient was rather young, and that raised the hope that she would find the forces to fight the disease quicker than the doctor supposed.
Drawing the plan for the patient to be cured, Doctor Stamford marked the following stages.
What was truly amazing was the fact that the patient had already taken some steps to the recovery.
First, Cassie acknowledged that she was afraid of mirrors, while most people tend to conceal from the rest of the world and from themselves as well the objects of their fear. The reasons for that are multiple, but the main on is that they want to be considered as “normal”. Cassie already passed that stage, and that was something that made the doctor feel positively sure that the patient will be able to get over the phobia.
Then, it was a huge step that she made as she decided voluntarily to come to the hospital and be treated. Not fearing to show that she had certain problems, she was open enough for the doctor to conduct the necessary treatment.
And, finally, she began to realize what exactly made her fear mirrors. Unlike in most cases of people who had catoptrophobia, her fears were not connected with the superstitions anyhow. It was not the scary monster that she was afraid to see there, but the very image of her, distorted by the blind force of fire.
In spite of the fact that so many things have already been done, there was a lot of hard work ahead.
The steps that the doctor marked as the most necessary ones that have to be taken in the first line were the following, marked red in his notebook
The first paragraph read that Cassie had to realize that her fear was irrational. She was already on the way to this idea, and all she needed was a little push. These might be the conversations aimed at her realizing the fact, and the talks that were sewn through with the idea of her fears as a fake that bothered her life.
There should be something that could distract the patient from the gloomy meditations, the doctor though. The core idea was to make Cassie understand that a mirror is just an object that does not carry anything identifying her personality.
However, it is well understood that psychology is the science where there are no common cases and laws. Every patient is unique, with his or her unique problems, as well as methods to solve them. What might have worked with Mr. Doe, will be completely wrong to apply to Mrs. Roe. Dr. Stamford was to think of something that linked Cassie’s character and the ways to defeat the enemy within.
He analyzed the patient once more. A strong and determined personality she was, much of a man-like type. With the need for the new experiences and the new dangerous things to face and to handle, she needed a specific approach that would be focused on her temper. This was the typical case of the rat and the lever (Chance 2008, 138), where the necessary string to pull must be found.
Since the case was something completely special, there was supposed to be the according treatment. Basically, it should involve shaping Cassie’s attitude towards the fear that she was prepossessed with.
First of all, the following plan was to be adhered to.
Using the technology of shaping and chaining, the doctor was about to create a specific strategy that Cassie could adhere to. “The reinforcement of successful approximations”, which chaining is (Chance 2008, 141) involved basically meant that the doctor was to outline the so-called triggers that the patient would react to. The idea was that each step that she would take would be a kind of a mark that would encourage her to go further.
First of all, the doctor must shape Cassie’s reaction to the mirrors.
The things to pay special attention to were seeing the mirror, recognizing it as an object, recognizing its properties – in the given case, the property to reflect – and, finally, watching her own reflection.
Thus, the plan of chaining consisted of the following positions:
First, Cassie needed to get used to mirrors without looking into them. So it could be a good idea to place one with its backside up and ask her to look at it, touch it and maybe hold it for a while, not looking in the very mirror.
As the patient gets used to the idea that nothing bad happens after touching a mirror, the doctor will ask the patient to take something in her hand and bring it closer to the mirror. Cassie will see the reflection of the object, but will not see the reflection of her hand or fingers, for she is not ready for this yet.
After a number of tries, which will involve step one and step two, that is, touching the mirror and watching the reflection of an object there, it will be the right time for Cassie to see herself. Not fully, though. She will try to see the reflection of her clothes in the mirror – a sleeve, for example, or a scarf, or a glove – something that she has on.
The fourth element for Cassie will be watching her hand in the mirror. This will be a significant progress already, and as she comes to this stage, it could be said that she is halfway there.
Finally, the time has come for Cassie to see her own face. This might be only for a single moment, but this step is the most important one. The success of the previous actions that have been worked on for a number of times will drive her to the idea that nothing will happen if she takes a quick look in the mirror.
After making all these steps, Cassie will get rid of her phobia for sure.
The results were astounding. Cassie played the part that was prescribed to her with the diligence of a schoolgirl, starting from watching the reflection of a pen in the mirror to watching her scarf reflected in the mirror.
However, the final stage – watching her face in the mirror – did cause certain hesitations. She feared the last link in this chain hard, and the doctor invented specific behavior that she had to follow.
Cassie was told to smile as the mirror would be turned on her. And as she looked at her reflection, smiling broadly, she felt easier.
Now, a year and a half later, Cassie is a cheerful woman who cannot help looking in the mirror at least once an hour to fix her hair, or to apply the makeup, or simply to admire her gorgeous look.
The role of shaping and chaining in fighting with phobias cannot be exaggerated. It is one of those great discoveries that have helped people to understand the nature of a man’s psychology. The factors that make people accomplish a certain action have been unraveled with the help of these theories, and, despite the apparent simplicity of the procedure, it works right in most cases.
The pattern of treatment strategy that they give can suit to heal any phobia known to psychologists. Like any other means of treatment in the sphere of human’s soul, these can, and should be modified according to the kind of phobia and the character of the patient, but the core idea has to remain the same.
Programming a patient for a success I his or her actions, a psychologist gives him or her a pattern that they will remember as a successful one, and that will both make them believe in themselves and see that the phobia that they are possessed with is curable. With such treatment, there will be less and less people suffering from phobias, which is definitely a great prospect to pursue.
Reference List Chance, P. (2008) Learning and Behaviour: Active Learning Edition. 6th Ed. Stamford, CN: Cengage Learning.
Ronald M. D., Kahn A. P.,
The Role of Human Intelligence in the Country Security Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Currently, with the escalating wave of violence in various parts of the world, particularly terrorism attacks, the role of human intelligence is becoming increasingly important. It is an essential source of collecting intelligence information regarding various aspects of the security of a country, such as the intentions and the strength of attackers.
Since there are lots of constraints regarding the use of technology in collecting intelligence, human intelligence has become of necessity in accessing persons with pertinent information. Although there are many definitions of intelligence, the theory of multiple intelligences puts forth a broad definition of intelligence: “the ability to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequences in a particular cultural setting or community” (Anderson, 1999, p.140).
In this regard, human intelligence, or sometimes abbreviated as HUMINT, refers to the type of intelligence resulting from significant information gathered and provided by human sources through various means, such as interrogations and conversations. This paper discusses the various aspects of human intelligence.
Before HUMINT is conducted effectively, various considerations have to be made. Primarily, one needs to set precise requirements on the type of information that is to be gathered from the reliable human sources. This is important in drawing conclusive evidences from the data that has been collected by the HUMINT practitioners.
Next, proper considerations should be made such that the gathered sensitive information is properly assessed and changed into the most appropriate format for either immediate or future reference. Assessment assists in sorting out the gathered information according to its level of relevance. To achieve this, most organizations dealing with human intelligence have standardized systems that they employ in assessing the accuracy of the data collected by various informers and agents.
Another important consideration in information gathering appertains to the type of individuals who are going to act as sources of information. Since undertaking HUMINT is a risky endeavor, the sources of information must prove that they are ready to corporate for the success of the process. This calls for proper screening of the sources so as to ascertain that they are of value to the process (Pratt, 1999).
This can be achieved by using proper identification methods, checking the backgrounds of the sources, and verifying if their personal identification records match the basic criteria for undertaking HUMINT. The process of screening potential sources of information is intended to single out persons who are likely to provide the pertinent information that is needed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More And, if in any case they are not ready to give the information voluntarily, they can be persuaded to do so through other means. Consequently, the ones who are ready to give the information voluntarily can be debriefed according to the principles of human intelligence stipulated by the organization while the ‘tough’ ones may be questioned.
Although the respondents may be neutral, responsive, or aggressive, protecting them is also an essential consideration in sharing intelligence information. Sometimes, an organization may make a decision not to share information because doing this can compromise its sources.
That is why most non-trained sources want a guarantee of their privacy to be given before they can disseminate any information. Some of the most commonly sources in HUMINT include qualified diplomats, prisoners of war, refugees, relief agencies, military experts on a diplomatic mission, and personnel trained on intelligence data collection, such as the Special Reconnaissance (SR). However, people having training in intelligence are regarded as the best sources.
Since human intelligence is solely based on collecting of information from reliable individuals, various methods are usually used to achieve this. These are debriefing, interrogation, and, may be, elicitation.
Debriefing, as the systematic questioning of human sources not in the protection of the questioning forces, is usually carried out in all levels and in every operational environment (Department of the Army. 2006). Debriefing is more common than the interrogation method. In order to collect accurate information by debriefing, the intelligence collector should strive to ensure that the environment of the debriefing is as friendly as possible.
The approach techniques used for debriefing should take care of the “ABCs” of debriefing; that is, being accurate, brief, and clear. The use of this approach ensures that the human intelligence collector stays focused on the purpose as well as on the objectives of the exercise. In most cases, the information is usually collected face-to-face or by using the modern technologies such as video conferencing.
Contrary to debriefing, interrogation may be marked by hostile interactions between the human intelligence collectors and the human sources since most of them are usually in custody.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Role of Human Intelligence in the Country Security specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important to note that a source who tries to employ counter-interrogation techniques, for example, delaying or attempting to control the conversation may be someone who has been trained on intelligence, a terrorist, or someone who has been detained before (Department of the Army, 2006). Nonetheless, not considering whether the interrogation process can be hostile or friendly, the HUMINT collector should focus on the mission of the interview and avoid being sidetracked by irrelevant issues.
More over, since interrogation is a skilled technique, the HUMINT collector should be aware of his or her own style, strengths and weaknesses, and should also evaluate if he or she requires cultural advice. In cases where there may be language problems, appropriate arrangements should be made to recruit an interpreter with good linguistic skills, and if possible, one with training in intelligence information gathering.
In cases where the use of the traditional information collection techniques is not yielding any fruits, then the use of elicitation may be adopted. As much as is it is the least clear technique, it is a planned, methodical process that calls for careful preparation, since it is always used with a specific purpose in mind after the subject has been chosen based on the level of access to or the knowledge of the intended information.
Questioning is one of the important aspects of human intelligence; therefore, establishing and properly employing good questioning skills enables the agent or the informer to get accurate and pertinent information from the sources. In addition, it also ensures that the maximum amount of information in the least possible duration is obtained. This calls for proper knowledge of when and how to employ questioning in getting information.
In order to be successful, a HUMINT collector ought to present the questions in a logical progression so as not to leave out some important issues. During the questioning time, the HUMINT collector must keep in mind that his or her main objective is the gathering of accurate information; thus, non-pertinent discussions or debates should not be allowed (Sternberg, 1982). In some cases, the source of the information may not be of the same education level as the HUMINT collector.
This call for the adoption of systemic questioning method in which the collector lowers himself or herself to the level of the source without compromising on the information that he or she wants to obtain. In using the direct questioning method, the HUMINT collector should ask questions in this order: initial topic questions, follow-up questions, non-pertinent questions, repeat questions, control questions, and lastly, prepared questions.
There are various strengths and weaknesses associated with the use of human intelligence as a way of collecting information from sources. One of the obstacles of using HUMINT collectors is the intricacy of penetrating into areas that one is likely to receive a hostile reception when detected (Ramana, 2010).
In some instances, the intelligence information collectors have undergone cruel torture or even death. The worry of being double-crossed by an intelligence information collector is also another weakness of this technique. A HUMINT collector can be able to play both sides and lead to more harm than initially intended. However, besides the challenges associated with it, human intelligence is an indispensable aspect of gathering sensitive security information.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Human Intelligence in the Country Security by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In most cases, human intelligence is likely to give more present and future oriented information, it is unfiltered, information gathered is subject to content control, and it provides an easier opportunity for the assessment of other sources of information. Therefore, in conclusion, the use of human intelligence in gathering information can prove to be of much benefit for the security of a nation since it tends to be more accurate than the other secondary sources.
Reference List Anderson, M. (1999). The development of intelligence. Hove: Psychology Press Ltd.
Department of the Army. (2006). Human intelligence Collector Operations. Washington, DC: Headquarters Department of the Army.
Pratt, R. (1999). Human Intelligence: can it be trusted? Knol. Web.
Ramana, S. (2010, November). The Role Of Human Intelligence In Counter-Terrorism. Eurasia Review. Web.
Sternberg, R. (1982). Handbook of human intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Human Trafficking: Process, Causes and Effects Analytical Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Trafficking process
Causes of human trafficking
Effects of Human Trafficking
Introduction Human trafficking can be described as an illegal trade that deals with the selling and buying of human beings just like other kinds of trade. The human being are bought and sold for the purposes of forced labor or commercial sex (Strickland, 1). Human trafficking is a new term for slave trade and the victims are either sold by their family members or scrupulous business people who want to get money for the desire of being wealthy.
After drugs and arm dealing human trafficking comes third in international crime rankings worldwide. This kind of trade involving human beings is illegal but people use dubious means to continue their dealings. It is very hurting to know that some corrupt law enforcement authorities who are supposed to protect the general public against such inhuman practices are the same people involved.
The Trafficking process The enslaved people who may also be referred to as the victim are trafficked by being deprived their basic human rights. They are forced or enticed by being given false promises which are never fulfilled by the traffickers (Murphy, 1). They are promised good employment opportunities in neighboring countries but when they get there they are they are forced to work in brothels while others work in factories and agricultural farms.
The good salaries they had been promised they are no longer given and incase they are paid it is either too little to meet their needs or they are offered travel documents by corrupt law enforcement authorities and on arrival to their destination their travel documents taken away from them.
In this case they are forced to work there and do not have the necessary documents required to travel back to their homes in case of maltreatment. Likewise women and young girls are assured jobs that are well paying but on arrival to the Promised Land things are totally different.
They are forced to prostitution or sex trade where the victims are sexually harassed and the traffickers paid money the abuse. To make the matters worse they are abused and the money goes to the pockets of these greedy people as they are left empty handed after all the humiliation they go through. The victims are deprived the chance of going back to their homes or even communicating with their loved ones and relatives.
Causes of human trafficking The traffickers take advantage of the high levels of poverty among people. It is quite obvious that a poor person is willing and ready to do anything for them to get some money to maintain themselves (Laner, 1). Others also rent out a person’s labor for them to be able to repay a loan or debt.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ignorance or lack of awareness also causes human trafficking. People travel across borders looking for greener pasture with little or no knowledge about traffickers and their operations. Such kinds of people are usually prone to falling victims of this illegal and exploitive kind of business activity (Strickland, 1).
Other people are enticed by the material expectations. They desire high living standards and consumer products that are out of their reach. They envy what they see from others and wish them too were in the same social status with those they envy. This desire for achieving what they don’t have renders them vulnerable and hence traffickers take advantage of such people.
People with very little or no proper level of education are standing higher risk of being trafficked. This group of people has very few employment opportunities due to their limited education. They thereby migrate to search for employment opportunities and that is when they get trafficked and exploited.
Corrupt and weak law enforcement authorities play a major role in the lucrative trade of human beings (Hart, 20). Immigration and other law enforcement authorities are paid by the traffickers to overlook these criminal activities which it is their duty to fight such vices by protecting innocent human beings.
The authorities may also collude with the traffickers by providing delusive information on their travel documents and other identification documents to migrant workers leaving them defenseless to trafficking. In circumstances when such incidences of human trafficking are reported to the public administrators little or no action is taken. Instead if the culprits being arrested and charged in court they bribe the law enforcers and walk away scot free.
Young girls and women are lured into marriage by the traffickers who pretend to be tourist (Kloer, 2). They then promise them to take them to their countries to live with them there. On arrival to the foreign land they are abandoned in brothels to work as sex slaves and threatened not to leave. The military is also well known for sexual abuse in areas where they are sent to serve the public during times of unrest.
Effects of Human Trafficking This activity results in threat to human health. The victims are exposed to high risks of diseases such as HIV/AIDS and other STDs (Murphy, 2). This does not only affect the victims but also spreads to the sex clients and their spouses and the children given birth thereafter. For those victims that are taken into forced labour may also suffer from diseases caused by overworking and improper living conditions.
We will write a custom Essay on Human Trafficking: Process, Causes and Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Deprivation of the basic human rights is another problem the victims face. They live in conditions in which none of them likes to be associated with. They are denied the rights of communication with their relatives and other people. They also do not enjoy their work because they are forced to do it and that was not the work they had been promised earlier on. These people would work as beasts of burden where they worked beyond the normal working hours and the working conditions very severe.
Many victims lack trust and confidence in the law enforcement authority. They believe they are serving in slavery because of their weak and corrupt laws in their countries (Delta, 1). What hurt the victims most was the fact that the same people in charge of protecting their lives and ensuring that such incidences do not happen to them are the involved in the dealings.
Some people suffer mentally by being traumatized after the humiliation they go through in the name of the good jobs they had been promised. The victims also have the fear of being unsafe around everyone they come across. Those who manage to get their freedom tend to think that all people around them can do the same to them.
Conclusion In a nutshell human trafficking is a vice which should be done away with in our societies. To put an end to this wicked behavior it is a collective responsibility for the country as a whole. The government should start by punishing the law authorities that have been participating in the exercise and put in place tough repercussions for those found guilty.
The general public should also be eliminated about the effects of being involved and stop being so desperate in search for employment opportunities. If all this is done people will live in a friendly environment where such activities are a thing of the past.
Works Cited Delta, S. (2010). Human Trafficking Facts. Web.
Hart, J. Human Trafficking. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. New York, 2009.
Kloer, A. (2006). End Human Trafficking. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Trafficking: Process, Causes and Effects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Laner, S. (2005). Human Trafficking. Web.
Murphy, S. (2006) Human Trafficking and Immigrant Smuggling. Web.
Strickland, D. (2008). Human Trafficking. Web.
Media Effect on Islam as a Religion Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Media is a powerful tool of communication that has a great impact in changing the perceptions of the people worldwide. Since the media has earned credibility over time, the current society relies heavily on its information. Hague admits that, “the world has witnessed the powerful tool of the global media; it has been one of the major sources that questioned and defined cultures, social and political movements and has enabled the world to break through the barriers of differences” (2006, p. 1).
Despite breaking international barriers of differences, the global media has received severe criticism due to its biasness in reflecting dominant political and religious issues of the western world. Although the media has the ability to objectively shape the society, it has failed to reflect the Islamic religion objectively.
The media has demonized and portrayed the Islam as a religion of violence and terror in the society. The stereotyping of the Islamic religion as a religion of violence and terror in the whole world is due to the misrepresentation by the media.
Following September 11, 2001 attack on the Americans by the terrorists, the media has constantly attributed it to the Islamic religion and “it is now clear to the world citizens that the western media has launch a concerted campaign against Islam in the name of a campaign against terror” (Haque, 2006, p. 5).
The western media has influenced the world media in depicting Muslims and their religion as potential terrorists. According to Haque, “a major factor which contributes to Islamic stereotyping in the West is due to media’s selection of their words that describe Muslims. Some common names heard or seen in the news about Muslims are “extremist” or “terrorist” (2006, p. 7). The use of such negative words to describe Muslims has led to the worldwide perception that Muslims and terrorists are one.
Salient issues affecting the citizens are reported first by the media hence the media is very reliable in first hand and credible information. McLuhan argues that, “medium is the message that has great influence on the readers and audiences” (1964, p. 301).
Given the biasness of the media in depiction of Muslims as terrorist, it results into great negative influence on the minds of the citizens since any information from the media seems credible to the citizens. ”the media has virtually turned the world into a global village of communication and is more pervasive than ever before” (Haque, 2006, p. 4). The misrepresentation of the Muslim relgion by the media has far-reaching effects on the perception of the citizens.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the political arena, the media provides a fighting ground for powerful political figures in the course of addressing issues of the government. According to Harris, “the media do not necessarily tell us what to think, but rather what to think about” (2004, p. 35). The depiction of salient issues such as terrorism in relation to the Muslims triggers and set the political agenda that is based on the “credible” information of the media.
Since the government issues are addressed politically and politicians like the media have biasness in portraying the true religion of Muslims, then, what results is collective distortion of the Muslims and their religion. Haque argues that, “the media has been the singular most powerful tool of influence, mobilization and shaping of political, religious, economic and cultural agendas and discourse” (2006, p. 20). In terms of religious matters, media has successfully stereotyped the conception of Muslims as potential terrorists.
References Haque, F. (2006). Global Media, Islamophobia and Its Impact on Conflict Resolution. Islam and Media Journal. Retrieved from http://www.ihmsaw.org/resourcefiles/1260034024.pdf
Harris, R. (2004). A cognitive Psychology of Mass Communication. New York, NY: Routledge.
McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding the Media. New York, NY: Routledge.
Budgeting in USA: Property Tax Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Taxes levied on property acquired in form of land and buildings are a huge source of revenue for local government in U.S.A. The value to be taxed is resolved by an evaluator according to the market worth of the property. Avoiding tax is taken to be a criminal offence in America and every owner of property is required to pay to the state some money in form of tax in regards to his property.
Property can be taken to be land, immovable property such as buildings or movable properties. The tax imposed on property varies in different countries and jurisdictions and this paper will focus on how property tax works in U.S.A (Karp and Klayman, 2003).
Origin Of Property Tax According to Galaty and Allaway (2001), property tax dates back during the colonial times at the beginning of the Revolutionary War. During this time, the colonies had come up with different types of taxes which included capitation taxes, levied mostly on slaves and the male adults at a certain fixed rate; property taxes levied on enumerated items and according to their worth; faculty taxes levied on traders and tariffs imposed on imported or exported products.
During the war, there were complains that the taxes imposed were unfair especially property tax which was not taxed as per the value of the property but as per acre basis which favored rich land owners. It was not until the end of the war that the complaints were heard and most states started to levy taxes uniformly. Property tax began being levied on the property itself and not on the occupancy of the property owner (in rem).
Basics of Property Taxation In order to further understand the topic, it is important to go over the basics of what property tax really entails. Since way back, imposing taxes on properties has been met with a lot of resistance from property owners. The State on the other hand relies heavily on this tax revenue imposed on the property as it serves as a major source of its income to plan their budget. It is the role of the local and state government to collect taxes on property (Sarah, 2009).
In most states in USA, the tax levied on real estate is based on the value of the property and its ownership. The tax is levied on a certain tax rate of the given value of the property.
Individual property tax is imposed in many states where the value of private properties owned inside the borders of the state is assessed on a yearly basis. The personal property in this category includes all objects of value such as vehicles and boat registration fees. Only household goods are exempted from this kind of tax.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Calculating Property Tax The rate of property tax is calculated on a percentage or permille or millage rate. As earlier mentioned, tax on property in U.S.A is collected by the local government at both the county and municipal level. Rates vary between 0.2% and 4% depending on the state in which the property is situated in. The tax assessment officer, appointed by the local government assesses the property which is categorized into two categories. The value of the property can either be based on its improvement or the Land value itself.
To compute the duty to be levied on the assets, the calculated value is proliferated by the mill rate and then it is divided by a thousand. The tax is paid on an annual basis in most states.
The Advantage Of Property Tax In Funding The State And Local Government Services Tyler (2000) argues that the use of property tax to fund the local government’s services has been favored by most members of the National Tax Association. This is because of the several strengths that it has been associated with to support the government.
Its main strength is based on the fact that it is one of the oldest tax systems in America. Property tax has been in existence before the Declaration of Independence and the same has continued to play a dominant role in supporting the local government. The historical reliance of this tax was due to the fact that the government did not have an alternative to finance its projects.
This was because that the general sales tax was implemented after the Great Depression onset while the Income taxes introduced a generation after the general tax sales. The government relied heavily on the tax levied on property owners.
The other reason for the government’s reliance on this tax is due to its stability. Being the oldest form of tax, it has provided a stable pillar to the local government as a source of revenue. The property rate tax is fixed according to the state that the property is situated in and therefore cannot be changed.
The government is sure to get money from property owners at a particular fixed time which makes property tax more stable than wage or sales tax. Its stability becomes more significant to the state because of the fact that property value appreciates. The appreciation of the property increases the value of the public tax revenue. Due to its future stability, the government can adjust the level of services to the locals from time to time hence being the most flexible fiscal source of income for the government.
We will write a custom Essay on Budgeting in USA: Property Tax specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The administration and compliance of property tax is easy and not expensive. Compliance is easy since property owners cannot hide their property from being assessed by the local government making it impossible to evade. Moreover, the property becomes the security incase of default whereby a lien is placed over the property. The lien prevents the property owner from disposing the property and if the tax accrues, then the government can sell the property to recover its tax owed and remit the remainder to the owner (Tyler, 2000).
Property tax has further been referred to as a benefits tax. This is because the revenue raised is used to support the locals and public services that serve the tax payer. The local government therefore place policies that protects the property and those that lead to the growth of the value of the property located in their jurisdictions. The public services serve the tax payer and therefore it has been argued that the tax paid by the property owner reverts back to him as a beneficiary in form of services.
Its visibility is also an advantage especially to the local government as it ensures accountability. Unlike other taxes, property tax is paid at a lump sum and the tax payer is aware of the burden he has annually and how much he pays for it. This enable the tax payer to compare the tax he remits yearly with the services offered by the local government and determine whether the services are worth.
Disadvantage of Property Tax It is widely known that almost all American citizens are against property tax with most of them arguing that it is oppressive and not justified. In a poll activity held by Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR), it emerged that the property tax was the second tax that was disliked by citizens after the federal income tax. Several reasons have been given as to why the public dislike this tax (Cullingworth, 1993).
The tax, being more visible to the tax payer does not auger well with the public. The taxpayer receives a bill from the country each year with a lump sum amount required to be paid. The lump sum to be paid is not a voluntary act by the tax payer but rather an amount imposed on him merely due to his ownership of a property. The irony of visibility of property tax as discussed earlier is that though the tax payer dislikes it, it enhances the accountability of the local government on its spending.
Tax administration is another issue that creates distrust with the tax payers. The value of the property should be assessed as per the market value bearing the same tax burden. The issue that arises here is that some property values have been overstated for purposes of tax collection. The uneven valuations lead to inaccuracy of the exact value.
The other dissatisfaction of property tax is its shift from the commercial estate to the residential estate whereby the owners bear the larger tax burden. Many taxpayers argue that the increased tax burden does not compensate the services given by the council.
Limitations Of Property Tax From Performing Its Role The displeasure of the public as discussed above has had its effects on the role of the property tax to fund the local government. According to Cullingworth and Caves (2003), during the 1970s and 1980s, there was a property tax revolt that resulted to major limitations on property tax. There has also been a lot of political involvement which has been biased against the tax.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Budgeting in USA: Property Tax by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There have been laws imposed for limitation of tax rates. This laws act as a hindrance of imposition of rates over a certain period of time. The laws further set a certain amount of tax, for example in California the rate tax set is one percentage. This hinders the local government from raising the rate when it is necessary to do so.
Some states have also established a limitation on property tax revenue prohibiting the tax revenue from increasing above the set revenue levels. In case of a need to increase the revenue, then two remedies have been proposed by the states.
The first remedy requires that if the revenue exceed the set level, then the tax rates should be reduced or secondly, the assessments of the property should be reduced incase of revenue increase. This condition bears a significant limitation on the local government fiscal autonomy as it hinders its increased spending.
Some states have also imposed limitations on assessed property values hindering the property valuation conducted annually from increasing beyond the set statutory limits. In California State for example, the set assessment valuation is two percentages annually unless the property is transferred.
Research conducted over the past few years indicated a reduction on reliance on property tax nationwide by the local government as its source of funding and has instead relied on other alternatives of tax.
Property Tax Variation States in Northeast and Midwest have been known to rely more on property tax compared to the local government in the West or South. Some regions like New Jersey are considered to be the state that pays high amount of rate tax raising $16 billion in property taxes alone.
This is a high amount compared to the total revenue collected from the other taxes combined and it accounted for almost 46% of the total collection. New York on the contrary collected a minimal amount from the property tax collecting 59% of all tax revenues compared to New Jersey’s 98%. In Alabama, the state raised a mere 39% from property taxes while the Mississippi state collected 92% of their total revenue from property tax.
These variations have certain consequences in such that the citizens of the states that rely on property tax have more control over the public services of their state and stronger government systems. This acts to their advantage as they are able to control the services given by the local government in their states compared to their counterparts (Platt, 2000).
Conclusion Though it is evident that there is a lot of resistance from the tax payers over property tax, the government requires a source of income to plan its expenditure and failure to tax the locals will result to decline of public services. The law should however be flexible to allow more participation by the tax payers to run the affairs of the public services.
References Cullingworth, J.B (1993). The Political Culture of Planning: America Land Use Planning in Comparative Perspective. USA: Routledge
Chemicals in foods Research Paper argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Sources of chemicals in foods
Role of chemicals in foods
Protecting consumers from harmful chemicals in foods
Introduction There are various chemical components that constitute food, each of which plays a significant role in conferring health and nutrition to the consumers. Some of these chemical components of foods include carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, fiber, trace elements, and antioxidants, among others. The aforementioned chemicals components are naturally found in food, although their availability and composition differs from one type of food to another (Food Standards Agency para. 5).
These are the natural components of food and their consumption at the right quantities helps to improve the nutritional status and health of an individual. On the other hand, foods also have other chemical compounds that also occur naturally, such as solanine in potatoes, and cynogenic glycosides as found in cassava. These chemicals are often associated with certain toxic properties. Therefore, when consumed by humans, these chemical pose a danger to their health.
Sources of chemicals in foods A number of food processing techniques such as smoking of food are also known generate by-products that are toxic to humans. They include acrylamide or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Besides, there are also environmental pollutants that could be present in foodstuffs in differing levels. They include chlorinated compounds and lead. We also have toxic elements in the environment such as cadmium as found on the crust of the earth.
Others include algal toxins (for example, shellfish poisons and aflatoxins) and natural mould. These could also find their way into foods at differing levels. In order to ensure the safety and health of the consumer upon the consumption of foods, it is important to establish procedures that are in a position to assess the types of health risks that such compounds presents in food and the dangers this could pose to the consumers of these foods.
In addition, we also need to take into account additional sources of exposures. The presence of undesirable chemicals in foods could also be due to the absorption of certain material components by the food upon contact, like in the case of chemicals in food packaging material being absorbed by the food contained in the package.
The addition of chemicals into foods could also be with a view to achieving a certain technological function. For instance, we could ad chemicals into foods to impart color, accentuate flavor, or for purposes of preserving that food.
Besides, chemicals may also be available in food in the form of residues following their use in the day to day agricultural practices (for example, residues found in foods as a result of the use of veterinary drugs or pesticides). In these substances are to find use in food production, it is important to ensure that a detailed safety assessment of these residues is undertaken.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, in the environment, we have several chemical substances that may also acts as pollutants. Such contaminants could be available in the form of the raw materials that finds use during the process of the production and distribution of foods, albeit unintentionally.
As a result, we may not be in a position to avoid their presence in foods. The role of food legislation therefore is to help in the achievement of a balance between on the one hand, the benefits of the unintentional substances in foods and on the other hand, the risks that are associated with such substances. In addition, food legislation also aims at ensuring that contaminants of food are reduced drastically to the acceptable levels.
Materials used in the manufacture of food packages could also be of concern to the health of consumers if it penetrates into the food. For example, studies indicate that harmful chemicals from Styrofoam or plastic packaging have the potential to penetrate into foods. Consequently, they could also pose dangers to the health of the consumers, and some of these chemicals have been associated with causing cancer (Hunter 2).
In addition plastic wrappings as used in microwavable foods also have the potential to transmit the chemicals of their manufacturing process into the food during the heating process. It is important to have in place sound assessment procedures to examine the dangers posed by chemicals of packaging materials to the users. This way, we can then have in established limits of the levels of the chemical substances that consumers can tolerate with no risk to their health.
Role of chemicals in foods Chemical substances play a significant function in as far as the production and distribution of food is concerned. For example, food additives find use in helping to extend the shelf life of foods. On the other hand, food flavorings and colors are used in making food to appear more attractive to the eyes of the consumers. During the storage of food, issues of attractiveness and hygiene are very important.
As such, such food containers as plastics enable foods to remain attractive and hygienic. Although the aforementioned benefits justify the role of chemicals in the production and distribution of foods, however, the same chemicals are also associated with potential health risk to the consumers of such foods. This may be as a result of either the residues of such chemicals in the foods that they are meant to preserve, add color or flavor to, or other side effects.
The addition of preservatives in food is for purposes of ensuring that it remains safe for longer. Preservation therefore constitutes a key requirement for processed foods in order to extend its shelf-life (Food Standards Agency para. 5). The only time that preservatives may not be included in foods meant for extended periods of storage is if additional means of preservation such as canning, freezing, or drying, have been used.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Chemicals in foods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, ham, corned beef, and bacon make use of nitrates and nitrites as a preservative, to control bacterial growth. However, from a health context, nitrites and nitrates are thought to be carcinogenic. Sulphur dioxide finds use as a preservative in dried fruits to control bacterial growth.
Protecting consumers from harmful chemicals in foods There is the need to achieve high protection levels of the consumers’ health in as far as the issue of chemicals in food is concerned (Foods Standards Agency 2). With regard to food chemical substances, the following are the fundamental classes of food legislation:
– The principle of food additives legislation holds that their use should only be restricted to just those additives that enjoy explicit authorization. Even then, their use should be in specifics foodstuffs, and in limited quantities (Europa para. 3). Before the Codex Alimetarius Commission gives its authority on the use of food additives, they first have to undergo through an evaluation process in an effort to assess their safety levels.
-Limits are usually established by the current legislation on flavorings as regards the presence of otherwise undesirable compounds (Europa para. 4). On the other hand, in as far as the flavoring substances that have already been chemically defines are concerned, already, a large safety evaluation program is being executed. In this case, authorization shall only be granted to the chemical substances with a favorable outcome so that they can be used in foodstuffs.
-scientific principles and advice are useful during the legislation process of contaminants in foods. As such, the intention is to ensure that low levels of the contaminants are maintained within the most reasonable capabilities through the use of good manufacturing practices (Smith 6). Already, we have in place the maximum tolerable levels for a number of contaminants (for example, mycotoxins, heavy metals, dioxins, chloropropanols, and nitrates, among others) with the intention of ensuring the safety of public health.
– We also have authorization on veterinary medicinal product residues that finds use in animals meant for food production as well as in pesticides. In this case, a scientific evaluation has to be provided for prior to the authorization of the respective products (Europa para 7). – we have in place a provision of food contact materials with respect to legislation which states that the transfer of the components of such materials into foodstuffs should not be
-In such large quantities as to put to danger the health of humans (WHO para. 3), or appear to later the taste, texture, or composition of the foodstuff in question.
Conclusion It is important to ensure that harmful chemicals are not found in food meant for human consumption. Already, we have international bodies such as the IPCS (International Programme on Chemical Safety) that have established diverse activities aimed at assessing the safety of the components of foods, natural toxic constituents of foods, pesticide residues in foods, food additives, food contaminants, and veterinary drugs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chemicals in foods by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Europa. Chemical safety of food- introduction. 2010. Web.
Foods Standards Agency. Preservatives. 2001. Web.
Foods Standards Agency. Committee on toxicity of chemicals in food, consumer products and the environment cot addendum to joint statement of the committees on toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity on nanomaterial toxicology. 2010. Web.
Food Standards Agency. Chemical Safety. 2010. Web.
Hunter, Beatrice. Dangers of packaging chemicals getting into food. Consumers’ Research Magazine,76.12(1993): 2- 8
Smith, Eric. The international programme on chemical safety. An overview. 2010. Web.
WHO. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Chemicals in food. 2010. Web.
Hills Like White Elephants – Ernest Hemingway Analytical Essay college essay help: college essay help
People often face situations that require them to make tough decisions and they have to live by them for the rest of their lives. In the story Hills Like White Elephants, Ernest Hemingway writes about a couple that is in a dilemma about an unborn child and they have to decide on the best decision to take regarding the pregnancy.
Jig and his companion the American are in Spain at a rail station taking drinks while awaiting a train. The American tells Jig to abort the fetus because the procedure is simple. He does not entertain the thought of becoming a parent. After, the deliberation on the issue, Jig decides to carry out the procedure.
Jig and the American man is an unmarried couple who have consummated their relationship and as a result, Jig is pregnant. Her boyfriend the American tells her to get rid of the pregnancy even though the author does not use the word abortion we can deduce its meaning from the conversation, “It’s just to let the air in” (Hemingway 1). The man tells Jig, “It’s really an awfully simple operation. It is not an operational at all” (Hemingway 1).
The American wants the fetus aborted because he does not want it to interrupt his adventurous lifestyle. He is a man who likes to travel from one place to another, their travel bags had labels from the various hotels they had checked into during their travels (Hemingway 1). On the other hand, Jig wants to have the baby as she hints in the conversation. She seems to be tired of the adventure and wants to settle down.
The American man manages to manipulate Jig psychologically by telling her not to abort if she does not want to because he senses her hesitance, “I think it’s the best thing to do. But I don’t want you to do it if you don’t really want to” (Hemingway 1). He tells her that after she aborts they can have everything they want in the world.
However, she does not agree with him and tells him that, “No, we can’t” (Hemingway 1). She is aware that once she loses her child she can never have it back, “And once they take it away, you never get it back” (Hemingway 1). In spite of that knowledge, she seems like she is willing to go through with the procedure not to lose her American. Jig seems afraid of losing the American man “And if I do it you’ll be happy and things will be like they were and you’ll love me” (Hemingway 1)?
The question shows that she is not ready to lose him and says, “Then I’ll do it. Because I don’t care about me” (Hemingway 1). The only thing she cares about is being with him and his love. She also wants to make him happy and reduce his worry because he says the only thing making them unhappy is that baby. Therefore getting rid of the baby will remove the hurdle to their happiness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She also decides to abort because maybe she knows that marrying a man who is not wiling to settle down would only mean a difficult marriage. The American hints that he is ready to settle if she decides to keep the baby,
“You’ve got to realize …that I don’t want you to do it if you don’t want to. I’m
perfectly willing to go through with it if it means anything to you” (Hemingway 1).
This does not reassure her because the American keeps bullying her into procuring an abortion by drumming in the message that the procedure “is perfectly simple” (Hemingway 1). Thus, she chooses to have the abortion as it seems as the only way out of her current predicament. They do not discuss other options of dealing with the pregnancy such as giving up the baby for adoption and hence she might have decided to abort.
Finally, I think Jig should not abort simply because I belief that abortion is morally wrong. She does not seem to have her own voice. She is controlled by the American because she is willing to go along with his suggestions even if she does not agree with them.
She should keep the baby because she hints that she knows of people who have gone through the procedure and they are not happy. If she goes through with the procedure, she will live with regrets for the rest of her life because she will never be able to bring back her dead child to life again as most of the women who have gone through the procedure attest.
Even if, keeping and raising the child will be a burden she should be willing to bear the consequences of her actions instead of trying to look for an easier way out. She should be firm and tell the American that she will keep the baby and that it is time they stopped their adventurous lifestyle. On the contrary, if she goes through with the abortion she should take precaution not to become pregnant again by using contraceptives because she will find herself in the same predicament yet again.
We will write a custom Essay on Hills Like White Elephants – Ernest Hemingway specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Hemingway, Ernest . Hills Like White Elephants. gummyprint.com. n.d. Web.
The dark side of life in America Critical Essay essay help free
With the challenges of modern day living, most individuals have to go to all possible lengths to earn a basic living. This is an element that has been well presented in authors Barbara Ehrenreich and Lars Eighner in their essays titled Nickel-and-Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America and On Dumpster Diving respectively.
Ehrenreich assumes the life of a struggling low-wage earner while trying to find out how individuals in such levels cope with life. Eighner on the other hand finds himself in a tight spot after losing his job and has to contend with feeding off other people’s rubbish.
His essay is more of a guide on the ‘profession’ of dumpster diving and he tries to present the lifestyle in positive light. However, the unifying theme for both essays is poverty and the challenges that it brings along. The two authors spend a great deal of time trying to show how average and lowly individuals get by in life with or without a well defined income. This theme is well presented using such literary elements as style of narration and progression.
As far as the progression of the narrative is concerned, both authors begin by providing the readers with an explanation of how they find themselves in their current situation. Eighner dedicates a number of paragraphs explaining that she is a successful writer who however prides in experiencing the challenges that befall her subjects of study from a first-person point of view.
She goes ahead to explain the flow of events between the time she leaves her home and gradually takes the author through her experience as a low-income restaurant waitress upto the time that she throws in the towel and goes back to her old life.
The challenge of finding a decent place to live in at her income as is testament of how average unskilled female Americans have to contend with deplorable working conditions just for basic sustenance. The process of finding a job is equally tasking and it takes the author through disappointment after disappointment (Ehrenreich 174-175).
She answers the numerous call-outs for which she qualifies basing on the fact that she has no previous experience whatsoever and it takes some waiting before she secures one. The job search reveals the rot in the human resource departments of various companies when she learns that most of the job call-outs in newspapers are placed by companies as a way of finding easy replacements for the members of staff who quit or are sacked.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Eighner’s story has an equally well laid out narrative structure and he starts by elaborating his fascination with dumpster’s leading to a proper transition to the revelation that he went into dumpster diving even before he became homeless.
He then directly jumps into offering tips on how to successfully partake in the activity and he adopts a humorous approach that makes it easy for the reader to go through the journey of dumpster diving in a more relaxed way. The opinion of society as regards to poverty is elaborated when he explains how challenging it was for him to start out in the field occasioned by self-loathing and fear of mockery from friends and relatives.
The mistrust that most people have in regards to decisions made by the poor is manifest by how individuals have second thoughts pertaining to the quality of food items handed to them by the author “From time to time one of my companions, aware of the source of my provisions, will ask, “Do you think these crackers are really safe to eat?” (Eighner 167). It is definitely clear that the same individual would not question the safety of a mould-covered food item were it handed to him/her by a wealthy person.
Both stories provide thematic emphasis by having the narration from a first-person point of view. This works well especially because the two authors personally experienced the events in the narrations and only they are best placed to detail what they were going through at particular instances.
For instance, when Ehrenreich tells of her disappointment at failing to secure a job after numerous attempts, the reader can easily relate with her as she gives her heart-felt opinion using the same words that she would use were she to verbally narrate the story.
The same effect is created by Eighner’s assertion that he is “…not here by chance; the Dumpsters in this area are very rich. Students throw out many good things, including food. In particular they tend to throw everything out when they move at the end of a semester, before and after breaks, and around midterm, when many of them despair of college. So I find it advantageous to keep an eye on the academic calendar” (167).
In conclusion, it is worth noting that with the social aspects of urbanization and modernization, more and more individuals are finding it increasingly challenging to secure meaningful employment and most of them have to do with harsh working and living conditions. This has been well presented by two authors who narrate events from different perspectives but still succeed in trying to show the effects of poverty on the social fabric.
We will write a custom Essay on The dark side of life in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Ehrenreich, Barbara. “Nickel-and-Dimed: On (not) getting by in America”. English Composition II: Writing about Nonfiction Prose. Slavicz, Susan, et al. Boston: McGraw‐Hill Learning Solutions, 2007. Print.
Eighner, Lars. “On dumpster diving”. English Composition II: Writing about Nonfiction Prose. Slavicz, Susan, et al. Boston: McGraw‐Hill Learning Solutions, 2007. Print.
Challenges of the Grant Administration Research Paper essay help free
During this period of grant administration, several challenges were encountered. For instance, Oakes Ames and Massachusetts who were known to be the representatives and top most stockholders in the union had an idea of forming a credit mobilier. This was a company which was initiated with main aims of completing the 600 miles of railway which was remaining.
During the process of conducting the work which was planned, both the stockholders and the national government were taken advantage of millions of dollars. Some plans of carrying out the investigations were initiated but Ames bribed the most influential people in the plan. Later in the year 1872, the deception action was exposed that Colfax who was the vice chairperson was the one who received some form of bribe.
During the elections of 1868, Grant had a major challenge of lacking strong political assurance and people considered him as a person who loved money and luxury. Grant faced a great challenge from people as they regarded him as a drunkard and Negro-lover. During Grant administration, United States had a public debt. This debt was incurred as a result of pension payment and in the process of insurrection.
Another major scandal was the black Friday. During the year 1869, some two opportunists Jim Fisk and Jay Gould tried to embezzle the trading place of gold which was used. These two opportunists enrolled the assistance of Grants brother in law, who was volunteering to put all the needed effort from preventing the chairperson in ruining the plan. These schemers went to an extent of developing their plans by buying massive amounts of gold which resulted tom the price of the commodity hiking.
Their main aim was discovered that it was to enjoy huge amount of profits. It was later noted that Grant relative was contributing much in causing harm to the nation. As a result, Grant commanded for an urgent sale of the government gold of about $4.5 million. This was very positive as it resulted to prices going down. On the other hand, a large number of people started suffering from great financial losses. Fisk and Gould avoided these losses by declining to reimburse their commitment.
The whiskey ring was another challenge which was experienced during the grant administration. During the civil war, a lot of expenses were incurred which left the cost of fighting being very high. For the government to compensate the incurred loss it decided to increase liquor taxes. These taxes were made extremely high which many distillers could not afford to cater for. This led to many distillers conceiving an idea of bribing the top personnel in the treasury sector.
During the Grant administration, was a secret organization known as ku klux klan, which began as a social organization but later turned to fight against the reconstruction and also against the government leaders. This secretive organization operated between 1867 and 1871. During the time of Grant administration, the government had a great challenge of debts. Some of the debts were genuine while others were as a result of illegal activities like bribery which was practiced by officials in the treasury sector.
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Constitution and Government System Cause and Effect Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Constitutional challenges and the Watergate scandal
Federalism in USA
This paper is divided into two parts. Part one discusses ways in which the Watergate scandal challenged the constitution of the United States. To achieve this objective, the paper explains President Nixon’s acts which led to various arguments which had significant constitutional issues. Part two discusses the issue of federal system of government in the United States. This is done through elaborating on its history, how it is exercised and how it is evolving with time.
Constitutional challenges and the Watergate scandal The beginning of Watergate scandal was marked by burglary activity at the “National Committee headquarters in June 1972” and it ended when Gerald Ford, the then president, forgave his predecessor, Richard Nixon, during the month of September 1974 (Cox 1). The whole process of Watergate outrage confronted the US laws in several ways.
Two significant issues were raised and they included president’s subjectivity to the legal procedure and the extent of his documents’ immunity (conferred by executive advantage) when undergoing investigations.
In the preliminary stages of the judicial process, Richard Nixon and his mentors denied any knowledge concerning the occurrence of the burglary activity. However, the cover-up was short-lived as some of the accused pledged guilty and informed that both the president and the White House had a prior knowledge of the criminal activity (Cummings and Wise 440).
This led to appointment of a specific prosecutor to facilitate the hearings. At his capacity, the prosecutor solicited for tapes recorded in the president’s office but Nixon dishonored the request.
The prosecutor continued to search for justice but Nixon tried to kick him out of office. However, his efforts were futile as the ‘attorney general’, Richard Kleindienst, the man in-charge of terminating prosecutor’s contract failed to do so and instead quit office. Another attorney general was appointed and refused to sack the prosecutor and resigned as well. However, the attorney general who was installed after the second one sacked the prosecutor and appointed another one.
These happenings brought up some issues regarding the constitution of the United States. At first, to what extent is the president of USA “subject to the rule of the law- to constitutional and other legal restrictions and obligations adjudicated by courts of law?”(Cox 1). According to the United States constitution, the courts have jurisdiction over individuals attached to the area where such courts are located.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, a court has authority over all the individuals in its area of jurisdiction. However, Nixon’s acts challenged constitutionalism and tested people’s morality and political will to implement the laws of the land. The president is the chief executive of the country and he should act as a role model for others through respecting the rule of the law. Furthermore, the president must be treated by the law just like any other individual. However, in this case, Nixon tried to interfere with the judicial process right from the beginning.
The other issue questioned the president’s responsibility in providing evidence to the courts and the parliament when required to do so. At first, the president was unwilling to give the tapes although he finally accepted, but, what if he completely denied access to them? Also, the level to which the president is shielded by executive advantage against such interrogations may be questioned although he has to act in the best interest for the nation (Cox 1).
Such issues made people to seek clarification on the nature of presidency as well as its relationship to other executive institutions. Additional constitutional difficulties constituted defining crimes, intents and acts which may lead to impeachment. This was necessitated by Nixon’s refusal to provide evidence. Further, it was questioned if “a subsequent President can issue a pardon in the absence of either a conviction or an indictment” (Cox 7). Currently, the main question is whether the constitution was effective in this case or it failed.
Federalism in USA Federalism is the embryonic rapport “between the states and the federal government of the United Stases” (Cox 18). Patrick et al (234) says that federalism is “the division of governmental powers between the national and state governments.” The regional administrations must always respect federal government laws in accordance to the constitution.
In case of differences, the superiority clause states that federal laws are absolute. The powers of federal administration are officiated in the constitution and the rest belong to regional governments. The regional governments exercise their authority over a demarcated geographical area while the national government encompasses all such states. Therefore, a USA citizen belongs to both the regional and federal governments.
Federalism in the United States has 5 distinct attributes. As such, it enables separation of power between “regional and central government” (Cox 18). However, overlap arises in some situations but the two forms of government still remain. In addition, regional governments are seen as subordinates of central administration in international issues and control of trade between states (Cox 19).
Furthermore, federalism enhances productive collaboration between regional and central administrations in activities like environmental conservation, education and infrastructure construction among others. Moreover, federalism enables individuals to enjoy dual citizenship and they are protected by laws of both the regional and central governments. Finally, federalism requires Supreme Court to settle cases involving the national and regional governments.
We will write a custom Essay on Constitution and Government System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People in the USA express varying views regarding the effectiveness of federal and state governments. Some argue that regional governments are more effective in addressing “public policy issues” while others say that in times of major disasters, regional governments are incapacitated and they need help from national government (Patrick et al 233).
The pros of regional rights and autonomy argue that “the constitution is a compact between the states and the federal government” while the supporters of dual federalism argue that central administration cannot interfere with the powers conferred to state authorities (Patrick et al 222). However, the concept of federalism in the US keeps on evolving.
The standards established by federalism in United States in the 18th C were audacious and significantly influenced the United States history. The effects are still being felt today (Cox 20).
Towards the end of 1970s, there were heated arguments between “Federalists and Anti-Federalists” concerning the endorsement of the constitution which had some impacts on privileges and authority of regional governments in relation to the central administration (Patrick et al 221). The ideologies contained in ‘federalists’ work serves as foundations of civic culture in the US and such ideas are highly copied in foreign nations.
Since the inception of federalism, changes related to distribution of power between the two governments have been witnessed. According to Patrick et al (221), authority of federal government has been extended by “Supreme Court decisions, constitutional amendments, executive orders, and federal statutes.”
However, he notes that ‘new federalism’ observed from early 1970s to 1990s has tried to give more power to the regional governments as opposed to national government. Clinton’s administration conceded more power to state governments in 1996. As such, regional governments could have total control over their economy and social wellbeing.
Conclusion Proper interpretation and application of the constitution is integral to effective functioning of any administration. Based on the principle of equality, all individuals should be treated equally under such laws regardless of social status, race or religion. In addition, good comprehension of the constitution is important for proper functioning of a federal type of government. This type of government is important as it enhances devolution of power and thus active democracy.
Works Cited Cox, Archibald. “Watergate and the U.S. Constitution.” British Journal of Law and Society 2.1 (1975): 1-13. Print
Not sure if you can write a paper on Constitution and Government System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cummings, Milton C. and Wise, D. Democracy under Pressure: An Introduction to the American Political System. United States: Wadsworth Thomson Learning, 2001. Print.
Patrick, John J., Richard M. Pious, and Donald A. Ritchie. The oxford guide to the United States government. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.
Small Business in South Africa Report custom essay help
Introduction With the world population increasing at an alarming rate, the rates of unemployment are expected to increase and people will have to find alternatives to the formal employment by finding other means through which they can make a living.
From all spheres of the world, it has been lately discovered that creation of small businesses is one of the way through which a country citizens can reduce their reliance on the nation and that small businesses play a very important role in the economic, political, and social development of a country. This sector however has been faced with many challenges on their establishments particularly in the developing countries such as in the Asian and African states.
The small business faces quite a number of challenges from taxation issues to lack of funding and corruption. The objective of this study will be to analyze the challenges small businesses face in South Africa and recommend on the likely solutions to these challenges. The reason for choosing South Africa rather than Sudan is the fact that in South Africa small business enterprises are very important particularly to the majority of the low skilled population.
It is a fact that:
“Small, medium and micro-enterprises (“SMMEs”) contribute 36.1% of the country’s gross domestic product (“GDP”) and employ 68.2% of the workforce in the private sector. In the agriculture, construction and retail sectors, SMMEs employ more than 80% of the total workforce. Over the last few years, the growth in employment by SMMEs has exceeded the growth in their contribution to GDP, highlighting the job creation potential of this sector of the economy”.
That is the reason why many refer small businesses as the development engine for most countries as they aid in economic growth and job creation. In the last few years, they have been the sole means which has accelerated growth in rather poor economic conditions as most of them create employment and enhance poverty reduction.
Definition of Small Business It is a very difficult process of defining what a small business is because it all depends on the perspective you look at it. The few characteristics one may look when defining a small business include the potential market size, the management, the size of the employees and many other factors. Some people define a small business as a business having less than 20 employees, categorizing them as non employing businesses, micro businesses and other businesses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Others define small businesses in terms of ownership and management characteristics. These classes of small businesses include the independent owned, close control by owners and partnerships. In consideration that this study is based on South Africa, we will use the country’s definition according to the National Business Act that a small business is a business with not more than 50 employees with the turn-over rates varying according to the sector.
There is quite a big distinction in small businesses between service and manufacturing small businesses. The policy makers and business owners of small manufacturing businesses attribute old technologies and management strategies as some of the challenges they face on their way to growth while the service businesses are all about one’s attitude and adaptability of the business.
In terms of size, the service industries are also known to be larger than the manufacturing businesses and their out put per worker is higher compared to the manufacturing businesses due to the simple fact that while manufacturing rely on physical capital service, businesses rely on human capital which can be increased or decreased according to the situation. Small services businesses are also not entitled to registration for taxation in contrast to the manufacturing businesses which have to register and pay taxes.
For example, a small manufacturing business will require capital to buy the plant machinery while a service industry such as the hair salon requires the human effort only to earn the money. Another challenge lies on the differences in the costs of acquiring assets. It makes it more beneficial to start a small service business rather than a manufacturing one.
According to the South African law “”small business” means a separate and distinct business entity, including co-operative enterprises and non-governmental organizations, managed by one owner or more, which including its branches or subsidiaries (if any) is predominantly carried on in any sector or sub sector of the economy”
And the amendment of the bill in 2003 classified small businesses under the following categories (see appendix for the table).
Overview of the Small Business Context Small businesses in South Africa do not contribute more to the GDP compared to other developing countries due to several challenges which include the high unemployment rate and inflation. Many studies show that the small business sector contributes 30 to 50 % of the country’s GDP. SEDA puts the figures at 42% as of year 2002, 46% as of 2004 and at 30% as of 2007.
We will write a custom Report on Small Business in South Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aswani estimates south Africa had 2.5 million enterprises as of 1999 with 45% of south Africans working in the sector which represented 4.8 million people and at that time the small businesses contributed about 50% of the GDP. With the poverty rates having risen from 15.5 % in 1995 to 30.5% in the year 2002, the small business contribution has since reduced to the above said level. To the employment, the small business sector absorbed 57% as of 2002.
Constraining Issues As in any other sector in the economy, the small business sector faces quite a number of challenges as they try to improve and increase their contribution to the south African’s GDP. According to the SADE SMME (Small Medium and Micro Enterprises) development and support plan, the major factors hindering the growth of small businesses are:
“Finance, structural demands, intensity of competition, cost of labour, labour legislation, managerial skills, and managerial style”.
These above constrains will be covered in this study as under infrastructure, corruption, inflation, lack of credit and the human resources.
Corruption: (Legal – Political – Economic)
The act of unfair or illegal influence in decision making process by use of power or wealth, for example, the act of giving or receiving a bribe in order to give service or an illegal substance can be described as corruption. This vice occurs in every country in the world and in every level be it in the private or the public sector.
The giver and the receiver of the bribe are beneficially of the crime and thus both need to be punished by the existing laws. Instance of corruption have been reported in south Africa for example in places where crime rates are high, small business owners are reported having given policemen money in order to access their protection from the criminal activities.
If the small businesses are not protected from the criminals, they will continue losing their millions of investment but paying policemen in order to acquire their services (while that is the job they are assigned to do) amounts to corruption and losses to the already endangered small business enterprises.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Small Business in South Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Implication:
Corruption in South Africa is a major hindrance to the country’s small business sector and action need to be taken against corruption as it reduces the productivity capability of the small businesses.
Small businesses are also vulnerable to the low inflation rates which increase the cost of doing business and leads to a probability of businesses making huge losses as a result of the decreased prices. In the year 2010 the country recorded a 3.2% as of September this is very risky for those doing business within.
When inflation is at very low rates it reduces the chances of recovering the borrowed capital. For example, let’s say you bought an item for 10 Rands and then next time the price falls to 5 Rands that means if the money was from a borrowed source you will have to find ways of sourcing for 5 Rands per item and this makes the banks to take higher precautions when giving out loans.
Low inflation rates while they may be healthy for the population as a whole do not favour businesses in realizing their profitability due to the decreased prices of commodities.
Infrastructure: (Technological – Economic)
Despite the good infrastructure network in South Africa, a research based on Soweto youth entrepreneurs shows that infrastructure is a major barrier to the success of small businesses in that area.
They cites examples of the city of Johannesburg making some efforts in tarring the roads and providing taxi facilities but the report also complains that the city is doing nothing to support business activities in Soweto. The report also indicates that improvements in the transport sector would allow more people to move easily within the Soweto area and this could enhance their business activities.
If the infrastructure connecting major towns and rural areas such as Soweto could be improved, the small business sector could improve a lot as this would enhance cheaper movement and exchange of goods and services between the major and the minor players in the business sector.
Poor infrastructure increases costs of conducting business in any place and thus to increase the contribution of small business sector in South Africa infrastructure need to be improved in all places.
Lack of credit funding: (Economic)
Commercial banks and other financial institutions are unable to fund small businesses due to internal capacity problems. Most of the small business owners requiring financial assistance from the finance and banking sectors are unable to provide the banks with adequate reliable information which can allow their evaluation on their credit worthiness.
This makes the commercial banks in South Africa provide credit facilities to only those businesses which provide reliable information fulfilling the credit worthiness criterion. Offering loans to small business owners is also difficult in South Africa as most banks offer loans with high return rates and this increase the cost of borrowing in the country. Information from Investors Network indicates that on average when people present their business plans to financial institutions this is what happens:
“60% are rejected after a 30 minute review
25% are rejected after a 3 hour appraisal
10% are rejected after a full day evaluation 3% are rejected following failed negotiations
2% succeed in raising funds
Yes, read it again, only 2% of businesses seeking private equity are successful.”
With the high costs of borrowing most of the South African small business owners are unable to source for extra capital that may be required to expand their businesses and also the low probability of accessing loans in south Africa makes it hard for small businesses to succeed as in other countries.
The small businesses in the country will continue to suffer unless legislations are enacted which can allow most of the small business entrepreneurs access loans without much scrutiny as far as there are collaterals to the loans.
Human Resources: (Social Culture)
There is the inability of small businesses to obtain well trained and qualified personnel as they are unable to provide comfortable and better pay working conditions and most of the time they offer wages which are way below the current market rates . As a result, larger businesses remain way above small businesses.
Most small businesses as we saw with the country’s guidelines are made of few employees thus higher chances of understaffing. The apartheid era employed an inferior education system and unfair patterns of population settlements. Thus, it has been evident that most of the South Africans of the African origin are inadequately skilled in any field they are participating in and this has been a major challenge as they start up and run their small businesses.
The low education among the South Africans of African origin is one of the major causes of the limitation of small business staffing particularly those owned by the blacks. Understaffing is also a major problem as most small business want to gain higher profits; the result is exhaustion and poor workmanship.
As long as the small businesses are understaffed, their productivity will always remain low compared to the large business enterprises.
Recommendations To improve the small businesses situation in South Africa, the small business owners need to access funds for their business activities. The government and the banking institutions need to agree on the requirements one has to fulfil when acquiring loans.
To the question about infrastructure, the government should ensure that the transport network is well established in all places whether in the major towns or in the ghettos so as to promote the growth of small businesses in the country. The challenge of inflation is more of a global issue but the central bank in the country should control its releasing and hold up of money so as to avoid high inflation or deflation rates on the country’s currency.
To reduce inflation the government should design policies which enable its currency value to be at a stable position to avoid unexpected changes in prices. For the corruption part if the country authorities could ensure that every citizen is safe when doing business and that bribes are not given out in order to gain favours, small businesses will move miles ahead.
Understaffing is brought about by the inability of small businesses to acquire enough capital to run the business and thus by enabling small business owners access loans at lower costs will enable them hire more working personnel.
Conclusion The small business contribution to the country’s GDP is very low compared to other countries and thus for their contribution to be higher, challenges they face such as corruption, poor infrastructure, inflation and inadequacy in human resources need to be addressed and a good solution reached.
Bibliography Anonymous. “Small business in Australia.” Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009. Web.
Aswani, Frank. “Barriers and facilitators to transitioning of small businesses (SMME’s) from the second to the first economy in South Africa: Gordon Institute of Business Science.” University of Pretoria, 2007. Web.
Centre for Development and Enterprise report. “Young Soweto entrepreneurs.” CDE, June 2007. Web.
Foreign Investment Advisory Service of the World Bank Group. 2007. South Africa.
Investors Network. “Private Equity Financing for SMEs in South Africa.” Investors Network. Web.
Minnaar. “BUSA Anticorruption Working Group.” Newsletter, 2008. Web.
Molapo, Sekoala. “Financial sector support for small business development.” University of Johannesburg, 2007. Web.
National Small Business Act. Republic Of South Africa, 1996.
National Small Business Amendment Bill. Republic of South Africa, 2003.
Newham, Gareth. “Tackling police corruption in South Africa.” Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, 2002. Web.
Stone Butch Blues (1993) Critical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Stone Butch Blues is a novel authored by Leslie Feinberg that presents the day-to-day struggles of a transgendered individual by bringing to light the practices through which sexual and gendered identities are culturally generated and imposed in an orderly manner.
At first glance, the novel appears to be a fictitious narrative about a lesbian by the name of Jess Goldberg but on a closer look, a reader realizes that the book explores the lives of average working-class transgendered gays within the Northeast urban areas and showcases the conflicts and struggles they face in the society. The author utilizes narrative friction to portray the interrelationship of constraints associated with gender and class structures.
Stone Butch Blues may not be the first novel to explore the issues affecting transgender individuals but it is among the first to put an identity to transgendered individuals. Feinberg addresses the subject of female-to-male (FTM) transgendered by clarifying that FTM is a complex identity which should be recognized just as the male and female identities are. Feinberg argues in this novel that any individual whose expression of gender does not fall under the male or female gender is drifting towards the opposite gender expression.
In the novel, Jess is faced with a lot of challenges which she thinks are connected to her gender status and as such, she decides to take a few steps towards defining her gender including undergoing a breast-reduction surgery and putting herself on male hormones.
Ironically, instead of living an open life free of lies and deceit, the sex change further pushes her adrift from the kind of life she desires. Jess had hoped that the sex change would allow her more breathing space living as a transgendered individual but she gets the opposite from the society.
In presenting the life of Jess, Feinberg illustrates that gender issues and sexual identity entail social constructs which characterize the numerous humiliating and vicious punishments that transgendered individuals, including Jess, are put through for not confirming to the expectations of the society. It seems as though Feinberg is blaming the society for not accepting transgendered individuals for who they by subjecting them to unfair treatments on the grounds of their sexuality.
Jess is also shown as identifying with her male colleagues at the factories and warehouses where she works instead of the middle-class feminists. She also befriends oppressed individuals in the society who include African Americans and drag queens. From the people Jess seems to be befriending, it seems as though she is attempting to foster an amicable coexistence. From this, it is apparent that the author is questioning the revolutionary class consciousness-racism-sexism relationship in the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Feinberg’s work of fiction examines the issue of gender identity from a different perspective by stating that when an individual is not comfortable with his or her assigned gender identity, it is not the cultural institutions that assign the gender identities that are on the wrong, but on the contrary, it is the individual.
Thought the novel, the author presents situations in which Jess views her identity as not only being fixed, but also essential for her existence. Interestingly, the author shows Jess as engaging in relationships and acts that go against this identity. This is the author’s way of stating that transgendered individuals who are uncomfortable with their sexual identity have something wrong with them.
In conclusion, this article has explored only a few of the unfair treatments that transgendered individuals are subjected to. From this novel, it can be concluded that the author does not agree with the way the society treats transgendered individuals and wished the society would accept their sexuality. The author also criticizes the transgendered individuals for attempting to change their identity.
Beauty within the Music Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Diana Ross – a personification of beauty.
Diva’s beautiful and unique voice
Diana Ross is the icon of glamorous beauty
The significance of the pillar of beauty in music
Diana Ross – a sparkle of beauty and style
Diana Ross – a personification of beauty. In 2007 the Kennedy Center awarded the gorgeous Diva of pop music, Diana Ross, for her “lifetime achievement in the performing arts” (Lee “Kennedy Center Names Five Artists to Lifetime Awards”). This is only one of numerous rewards which prove the recognition of Ms. Ross as a magnificent singer, talented actress and glorious woman who became an icon for millions.
Apart from the beauty of her sweet vibrating voice which made her romantic blues even more touching and sincere, Diana Ross was a personification of female beauty and style. This image inspired many women who realized that they want to be as attractive as that little women dressed in gorgeous gowns. Thus, Diana Ross has always been one of those bright sparkles in the world of music and, in fact, in the entire world of performing art.
Diva’s beautiful and unique voice It goes without saying that Diana Ross was a very special teenager who felt the strength inside her heart and knew the value of her talent. Her beautiful “girlish” voice won the recognition of one of the most famous labels Motown (Louie 120).
Initially, Ms Ross was a member of girls’ band the Supreme which in a few years became one of the most successful pop bands in the United States, and even worldwide. However, from the very start her unique bright voice and quite a huge ambitiousness brought her to the front in the group. She became a kind of solo singer within the group.
Someone called her too assertive and were rumoring about her relationship with Berry Gordy which enabled Diana Ross to play a leading role in the group. However, her success is determined by her constant challenging herself since she never stopped and tried something new to become better. When she was one of the Supreme singers she was constantly competing with Mary Wilson.1 In several years the beauty of her voice transformed the Supreme into “Diana Ross and the Supreme”.
After becoming the supreme within the Supreme Diana Ross understood that she can do more and she did. Her career as a solo singer was as successful (or, maybe, even more successful) as her previous career. Everyone knew her beautiful voice and wanted to listen to their idol. Of course, even in her seventies this greatest female singer ever continues pleasing her fans with her candy-sweet and at the same time strong vocal.2
Diana Ross is the icon of glamorous beauty However, not only specific voice made Diana Ross an icon of the culture of the sixties. In the very beginning of the Supreme, the girls were taught by Maxine Powell, former model. Gordy wanted to make the girls “black ladies” to attract more audience, especially among white people (Bloch and Umansky 155).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, Powell taught girls how to dress, how to move “gracefully”, how to behave “correctly” on and off the stage.3 The Supreme became a unique band of African American female pop singers who were exquisitely dressed in beautiful gowns. Of course, soon these girls became icons of style. However, Diana Ross stood out of this posh group. She has always had her own style was a queen wherever she appeared.
Her costumes even now impress people with their deliberateness and perfect taste. She brought about glamour and beauty into the culture of sixties which influenced the following decades greatly. It is necessary to add that this gentle little woman became the ideal of female beauty. However, not only physical attractiveness made Diana Ross commonly recognized queen. The beauty and strength of her spirit were those features which conquered everyone.
Ms Ross was not a mere pop singer or attractive pop idol, she was an active modern woman who created herself and her life. People could not but surprise how this remarkable woman could combine that determination and remain vulnerable at the same time. By all means, this enigmatic peculiarity of Ms Ross contributed to her development into a pillar of beauty within the pop culture.
The significance of the pillar of beauty in music At this point it is but natural to dwell upon the significant role Diana Ross played in the culture of the United States. First of all, it is necessary to point out that Ms Ross made a great contribution into the development of the music, and blues in particular. Her 70 hits are great illustrations of her profound influence on the minds of people.
Her iconic singing is now studied by many people to find the formula of success in music. Her lasting success in the world of performing art is the source for inspiration for many generations.4 Apart from this, the beauty of Diana Ross and her perfect style brought great changed as well.
First of all, many females followed the singer in the manner of dressing and behaving. The story of success of diva made many women understand that they should not be confined to household duties only. Females understood that they could do more than that. In fact, the logo that beauty will save the world is true in case of Diana Ross.
Diana Ross – a sparkle of beauty and style Thus, Diana Ross is an iconic symbol of beauty within the world of culture. She started her ascent as an ingenuous but ambitious teenager and reached the highest top of show business. Her beautiful voice, good looks and the strength of her spirit caused considerable changes in the cultural life and the entire society.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Beauty within the Music specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She became a symbol of female strength and success, profoundly talented artist and independent woman. The way of her performing and the way of her life are inspiring. Notably, the changes can be still traced since many contemporary stars have been inspired by the great little female pop singer. To date it is impossible to imagine the stage without its greatest queen Diana Ross who is still a sparkle of beauty and style in the contemporary world.
Works Cited Bloch, Avital H. and Umansky, Lauri. Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960’s. New York: NYU Press, 2005.
Lee, Suevon. “Kennedy Center Names Five Artists to Lifetime Awards.” Arts. The New York Times, 12 Sep. 2007. Web.
Whitall, Susan. “From the archive: Diana loves Detroit. Diva brings her Motown spirit home for visit.” Media Prints. International Diana Ross Website, 9 January 2009. Web.
Louie. “Why Rumors Become Reality When Diana Goes Solo.” Ebony Feb. 1970: 120-126.
Sonneborn, Liz. A to Z of American Women in the Performing Arts. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2002.
Therapeutic Recreation – Prader-Willi Syndrome Report custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
People affected by the syndrome and its prevalence
Relationship to other medical disorders
Historical information and current research conducted
Significance of the syndrome in the recreation and leisure field
Introduction The prader-Willi syndrome results from the deletion or lack of expression of seven of the genes found on chromosome 15. It is as a result of disruptions in the paternal chromosome 15. Disruptions in similar regions of the maternal chromosome result in the Angelman Syndrome (Eiholzer, 2005).
People affected by the syndrome and its prevalence The syndrome’s incidence falls between 1out of 10,000 and 1 out of 25000 births that are live. It affects young children, adolescents and even adults. In some cases, it may affect fetuses developing in their mother’s wombs. Children suffering from the syndrome exhibit lethargy, retarded growth and coordination difficulties.
They also sleep a lot and often experience difficulties during feeding. Adolescents may become obese and show slowness in development. Adults suffering from the syndrome also exhibit obesity and have a high tendency of suffering from diabetes mellitus (Whittington,
How the First Four Commandments Separate the Jews from the Pagan World Report best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Worship no gods other than Yahweh
Make no graven images
Do not take the name of the Lord in vain
Keep Holy the Sabbath
The Jewish people originate from Israel and Judaism is their traditional faith, religion, and way of life. A pagan on the other hand can be termed as a person who has little or no religion. Pagans believe in many gods, goddesses or deities though one is chosen as a chief or supreme one to be worshiped. Although it is difficult to distinctly differentiate the Jews from the pagans, there are some distinct differences that can be seen according to their practices and beliefs.
For example, Judaism professes one God while paganism teaches of many or no god, Judaism teaches that the bible contains God’s words and messages to mankind while paganism does not have a main religious text or set of beliefs to follow and finally, the Jews believe that Jesus the son of God came on earth, died on the cross for the sins of the whole world and resurrected or rose to life again while some pagans believe in Jesus as one of the gods and do not give importance to Him as the Jewish do.
The Mosaic Law is regarded as a very essential tool in the Jewish way of life as it is viewed as a basis of their identity. The first four commandments distinguish the Jews from the pagans on the basis of how they interpret or believe in certain things (Cunningham and Reich 11).
Worship no gods other than Yahweh There is a great difference between the Jews and pagan beliefs on this issue. The Jewish people believe that there is only one Supreme Being, God, who should be worshiped solely and no other gods whatsoever. The Jews got this idea from the creation story in the bible where God created everything and nothing was created as a god. Most pagans believe that everything has a spirit and therefore it can be worshipped.
Make no graven images The Jewish believe that under no circumstance should an image be made to represent God or to be worshipped. Although the Jewish people were involved in artistic work like making of images and sculptures, they never used them to represent God and never used them as a worship item but for aesthetic and beauty value.
The idea is that no images should be worshipped or viewed as God. Those that don’t follow the Mosaic Law like the pagans may make or model some form of art/ images that stand for their gods, goddesses or deities and use them in worship.
Do not take the name of the Lord in vain Jewish people regard God as being transcendent. They believe that God is beyond the world and not part of it. It is therefore taken as a sin to use the name of the Lord lightly and with no supreme importance. The Jews believe God is invisible and it is not possible to physically interact with Him.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most pagans on the other hand believe that they can easily intermingle with their gods and goddesses as they are part of, not above the world. For example they viewed heroes and leaders as gods or goddesses with the believe that they descended from the gods (Cunningham and Reich 18).
Keep Holy the Sabbath Both paganism and Judaism recognize the Sabbath, the difference lying on how they carry out their practices. Jewish people take the Sabbath to begin on Friday evening to Saturday evening, the day was meant for prayers and meditation as they believed Yahweh was not materialistic but required holiness of the soul.
Pagans also honored their gods through celebrations and feasting since the gods were physically together with them in the celebrations. The Jewish and pagan cultures are quite different and each culture view the other as being inferior or not following the right path since each one of them believes in themselves. All in all, different cultures should be respected for what they are.
Works Cited Cunningham S. Lawrence and Reich J. John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. 7th ed. New York: Cengage Lerning Publishers, 2009.
Country Analysis: China Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction China has a vibrant economy that forms potential for many investors. The government of China has improved the infrastructure of the country to ensure that investors have a good business environment. The legal systems of the country are favorable for conducting business.
The economy of the country has been good and this forms a good foundation for performing business activities. In addition, the political and legal systems support business activities in the country. China has a viable business environment and investors should consider establishing investments in the country (Harper
Running Head: Juvenile Justice System and Rehabilitation Research Paper online essay help
Introduction Juvenile justice is a justice system that operates under the juvenile law, which aims at trying the offenders who are mainly between 10 and 18 years (Maggio, 2010). The operation of the juvenile justice system takes into account the differences that exist between the youth and the adults in terms of accountability as well as room for rehabilitation. It operates on the basis that the youth can be successfully rehabilitated, hence improve security in the community.
Why Should the Juvenile Justice System Adopt Rehabilitation Program Due to a number of reasons, many children and teenagers engage themselves in criminal activities that make them end up in courts. United States being one of the countries that have a high number of child/teenage crimes in the world has been engaged in major debates on how to put in place a system that will help to curb the high rate of child/teenage crime (Cole
Idleness and the Reasons Why It Goes on Undetected Expository Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Idleness is a vice that normally does not raise eyebrows because it predominates in the lives of people and often goes unsuspected. The author in the article Idleness of November 18, 1758 talks about idleness and the reasons why it goes on undetected. He says it does not cause harm directly to the people such as fraud does or like pride which people notice because it dwells in demeaning others who are deemed inferior.
On the contrary, idleness has a peaceful quality and it is silent. I think this is the reason why not many people talk about idleness because they do not even notice its existence especially with people who have plans just as Mr. Sober who is an idler. Idleness takes many forms, some people know they are idlers while others appear busy but in the real sense, they are also idlers. Mr. sober embodies idleness.
Idleness is a power to reckon with because it ensnares people. Too much sleep is not good for anyone because it is a sign of laziness. He talks of people who do nothing apart from sleeping until they can sleep no more and wake up only to go back to sleep.
These people would rather have twenty-four hour nights and will prolong the nights using double curtains to keep out the sun light beans, which interrupt their sleep. Lazy people become accustomed to idleness that it becomes difficult for them to do anything. Thomas says that some are even proud of being idlers and take pride in doing nothing.
However, in idleness people waste their lives, which would have been used in doing meaningful things for themselves, their families and the society. In addition, Lumusa notes that apart from idling in form of sleeping some people make plans that they never get around to implementing. There is a popular saying that failing to plan is planning to fail. However, to the people who only concern themselves with making plans and not doing anything about them they are just as good as idlers.
Planning or having plans does not necessarily mean that one is not idle. Planning is a good cover up for idleness because one appears as if they have made a schedule and thus have some things to do and so no one considers them idlers. These people are under the control of idleness and thus cannot bring themselves to abandon this vice and work like he rest of the people.
Idleness can be a full time job. Thrasher observes that, some idlers have made idleness their main occupation. These kinds of people have many things going on but they master none. Mr. Sober is a good example of a person who does so many things to occupy himself and shut out the thought that he could be idle.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, Mr. Sober knows about so many jobs but he does not do even one of them perfectly. Instead, he occupies himself in gaining knowledge about the various jobs. He prefers talking just as many idlers do because talking is easy and not very tiring because one can talk without engaging one’s brain. Mr. Sober does everything yet ends up accomplishing nothing. These kinds of people though they appear occupied they are as guilty as the idlers because they do nothing meaningful.
Idlers prefer to do useless things to meaningful ones. Mr. Sober knows he is an idler and occupies himself with meaningless activities. For example, he likes chemistry and does distillations in his small furnace yet he knows the experiments are of no use and spends a lot of time at them.
This useless activity helps him to pass time that he would have used to do something meaningful things like gainful employment. McCann, sums this up by saying that idlers know the right thing to do but choose not do it. Instead, they prefer to fill their time with sleep and hobbies. Moreover, they manage to getaway with idleness because in their meaningless occupations do no affect other people hence no one bothers with what they do.
Yang says that idlers manage to string along in life because idleness is silent. Some do not even realize they are being idle because all day they are occupied with so many activities. They have all the time to do things that are not helpful yet never find time to engage in real activities. Choosing to engage in hobbies and other acts of laziness, the idlers forego their chance of engaging in real employment.
Finally, idleness is a vice just like any other. It must be fought against because it robs people of the time they would have used to get involved in meaningful activities. It is also important to note that idleness is not easy to detect as the author says it is silent. People are not bothered by idleness because many times it goes unnoticed thus by failing to detect it the vice continues to grow silently.
People must recognize the signs of idleness to able to overcome it and be bold enough to tell those who are idling to get up and work like the rest. Surely, idleness should not be a trait that anyone should be proud of possessing.
Documentary Film “The Big One” by Michael Moore Essay college admission essay help
The Big One is a documentary film by Michael Moore that was released to the public in 1998 as a follow-up to his 1989 film called Roger and Me. The film was produced during Moore’s tour around the U.S. in forty-seven towns to promote his book called Downsize This!
His visits made him to discover the unprofessional conducts of several American big businesses that they use as a means of cutting costs. The riveting and humorous movie also exposes the wrongs of some callous politicians in the United States. The main theme of the film centers on the economic conditions of our times.
The movie exposes a familiar pattern as appertains to the global assembly line. Company after company, in spite of recording high proceeds, has resolved to go south near Mexico, or to other places around the world so as to pay minimal wages, provide minimum employee benefits, and prohibit the employees from joining trade unions.
Moore and his crew discovered that because several smaller towns are actually dependant on a small number of huge companies, the loss of any one of them brings overwhelming consequences on both the economic and social infrastructure of the town; consequently, the remaining companies use this situation to oppress the employees.
Following a series of successful and unsuccessful interviews in various companies across the U.S., the film brings it home once more by ending at Nike headquarters with an interview with the company’s Chief Executive Officer, Phil Knight. This is interesting because Knight was the only corporate executive who agreed to meet Moore face-to-face. Moore gets the CEO to confess casually that he has never gone to the company’s plants in Indonesia in which its corporate image has been ruined by employing under-age workers.
In Indonesia, workers, as young as fourteen yeas of age, are making the company’s most fashionable athletic shoes. Perhaps, Moore reveals that the unfavourable business practices of Nike make it to be the “biggest one.” Even though the meetings were tense, Moore conversations with Knight were good-natured, and they were one of the most riveting, successful feats Moore has ever pulled off.
The theory of development that best describes Michael Moore’s viewpoint in the movie is the Marxist theory. The Marxist theory tends to give a materialistic interpretation of the society by criticizing the notion of capitalism. The social theory, proposed by Karl Marx, posits that in a capitalist society, like the one in the United States, an economic minority tend to take over and oppress an economic minority.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the system of capitalism is exploitative since the arrangement in which there are two opposing classes, the employers and the employees, the former tends to make huge profits by paying the latter meager wages. As pointed out in the earlier sections of the paper, Moore portrays various unfair practices by America’s big businesses to increase their profits. Perhaps he might not be aware of it, but this reveals the film’s director as a flaming Marxist.
On the other hand, other social theories, such as liberalism, which stress that individual liberty and equal rights are significant in the society, does not seem to represent the director’s viewpoint. Since liberals hold that the system of society ought to be the outcome of processes, this notion seems to justify the unfair practices of the corporations; therefore, this cannot fit with Mr. Moore’s ideologies.
Declaration of Independence Definition Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Declaration of Independence is a document that is most treasured in United State since it announced independence to American colonies which were at war with Great Britain. It was drafted by Thomas Jefferson back in July 1776 and contained formal explanation of the reason why the Congress had declared independence from Great Britain.
Therefore, the document marked the independence of the thirteen colonies of America, a condition which had caused revolutionary war. America celebrates its day of independence on 4th July, the day when the congress approved the Declaration for Independence (Becker, 2008). With that background in mind, this essay shall give an analysis of the key issues closely linked to the United States Declaration of Independence.
As highlighted in the introductory part, there was the revolutionary war in the thirteen American colonies before the declaration for independence that had been going on for about a year. Immediately after the end of the Seven Years War, the relationship between American colonies and their mother country started to deteriorate. In addition, some acts which were established in order to increase tax revenue from the colonies ended up creating a tax dispute between the colonies and the Government (Fradin, 2006).
The main reason why the Declaration for Independence was written was to declare the convictions of Americans especially towards their rights. The main aim was to declare the necessity for independence especially to the colonist as well as to state their view and position on the purpose of the government. In addition, apart from making their grievances known to King George III, they also wanted to influence other foreigners like the France to support them in their struggle towards independence.
Most authors and historians believe that the main influence of Jefferson was the English Declaration of Rights that marked the end King James II Reign. As much as the influence of John Locke who was a political theorist from England is questioned, it is clear that he influenced the American Revolution a great deal. Although most historians criticize the Jefferson’s influence by some authors like Charles Hutcheson, it is clear that the philosophical content of the Declaration emanates from other philosophical writings.
The self evident truths in the Declaration for Independence is that all men are created equal and do also have some rights which ought not to be with held at all costs. In addition, the document also illustrated that government is formed for the sole purpose of protecting those rights as it is formed by the people who it governs. Finally, if the government losses the consent, it then qualifies to be either replaced or abolished. Such truths are not only mandatory but they do not require any further emphasis.
Therefore, being self evident means that each truth speaks on its own behalf and should not be denied at whichever circumstances (Zuckert, 1987). The main reason why they were named as self evident was to influence the colonists to see the reality in the whole issue. Jefferson based his argument from on the theory of natural rights as illustrated by John Locke who argued that people have got rights which are not influenced by laws in the society (Tuckness, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the truths in the Declaration for Independence is the inalienable rights which are either individual or collective. Such rights are inclusive of right to liberty, life and pursuit of happiness. Unalienable rights means rights which cannot be denied since they are given by God. In addition, such rights cannot even be sold or lost at whichever circumstance. Apart from individual rights, there are also collective rights like the right of people to chose the right government and also to abolish it incase it fails achieve its main goal.
The inalienable goals are based on the law of nature as well as on the nature’s God as illustrated in the John Locke’s philosophy. It is upon the government to recognize that individuals are entitled to unalienable rights which are bestowed by God. Although the rights are not established by the civil government, it has a great role to ensure that people are able to express such laws in the constitution (Morgan, 2010).
Explaining the purpose of the government was the major intent of the Declaration for Independent. The document explains explicitly that the main purpose is not only to secure but also to protect the rights of the people from individual and life events that threaten them. However, it is important to note that the government gets its power from the people it rules or governs.
The purpose of the government of protecting the God given rights of the people impacts the decision making process in several ways. To begin with, the government has to consider the views of the people before making major decisions failure to which it may be considered unworthy and be replaced. Therefore, the decision making process becomes quite complex as several positions must be taken in to consideration.
The declaration identifies clearly the conditions under which the government can be abolished or replaced. For example, studies of Revolutionary War and Beyond, states that “any form of government becomes destructive of these ends; it is the right of the people, to alter or abolish it and institute a new government” (par. 62010). Therefore, document illustrated that the colonists were justified to reject or abolish the British rule.
The declaration was very significant especially due to the fact that it illustrated explicitly the conditions which were present in America by the time it was being made. For example, one of the key grievances of the thirteen colonies was concerning the issue of slave trade. The issue of abolishing slavery was put in the first draft of the declaration for independent although it was scrapped off later since the southern states were against the abolishment of slave trade.
Another issue which was illustrated in the declaration was the fact that the king denied the colonists the power to elect their representatives in the legislatures. While the colonists believed that they had the right to choose the government to govern them, in the British government, it was the duty of the King to do so.
We will write a custom Essay on Declaration of Independence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Attaining land and migrating to America was the right of colonists to liberty and since the King had made it extremely difficult for the colonists to do so; the Declaration was very significant in addressing such grievances. There are many more problems that were present that were addressed by the Declaration as it was its purpose to do so.
References Becker, C. L. (2008). The Declaration of Independence: A Study in the History of Political Ideas. Illinois: BiblioBazaar, LLC .
Fradin, D. B. (2006). The Declaration of Independence. New York : Marshall Cavendish.
Morgan, K. L. (2010). The Declaration of Independence, Equality and Unalienable Rights. Web.
Revolutionary War and Beyond. (2010). The Purpose of the Declaration of Independence. Web.
Tuckness, A. (2010). Locke’s Political Philosophy. Web.
Zuckert, M. P. (1987). Self-Evident Truth and the Declaration of Independence. The Review of Politics , 49 (3), 319-339.
African-American Students and Mathematics Achievement Gap: Stereotype or Reality? Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Existence of Math Performance Gap
Causes and Explanation of Math Performance Gap
Introduction The belief that Black students have worse performance in math in comparison with their White classmates has taken root among teachers, students, curriculum developers and researchers.
It is possible to assume that it rises from the first years of the “post- Brown v. Board of Education case” period when the “separate but equal” doctrine and segregation in education were declared unconstitutional (Martin 121), and when Black and White students began to learn together. Today many pedagogues have accepted this statement as given and adapt their teaching activity to it.
Nevertheless, today the question of Black students’ poor achievement in mathematics remains burning: understanding its validity and, if it is valid, its essence and source is very important, as it may give teachers valuable background for developing appropriate approach to teaching Black students. Besides, this knowledge may be valuable for Black students themselves to enhance their self-efficacy.
The purpose of this research is to find whether there is the evidence of the math performance gap between Black and White students and, if we find that it exists, to throw ling upon its origin. There are several hypotheses that we need to check:
The mathematics performance gap between Black and White students exists.
The existing gap between Black and White students is caused by cultural or cognitive peculiarities of Black students’ thinking and learning.
The existing gap between Black and White students is caused by Black students’ low motivation to studying mathematics.
The existing gap between Black and White students is caused or aggravated by the commonly accepted negative stereotype.
The existing gap is caused or aggravated by some other factors.
We will observe sources devoted to the topic of our research and test these hypotheses.
Existence of Math Performance Gap Several studies corroborate the statement about existence of the math performance gap between Black and White students; quantitative evaluation of their performance had been carried out for several decades. According to Rothman, the gap has reduced substantially during the 1970s-80s, but in the late 80s, the progress “stalled” (cited in United States Commission on Civil Rights 9).
In 2000, the gap still existed: while about 40 per cent of white 4th grade students’ math performance was at or above proficient, only 5 per cent of Black students performed at the same level (10). Moreover, Fuetsch and Ware (in Hayman and Ware 307) state that during the investigation carried out between 1995 and 2004, each year the gap was bigger than in the beginning of the observation at least in one of the observed grades.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We may also allude to the fresher data on the discussed problem. According to the results of the 2006 investigation of school students’ tests results presented in (Anderson), Black students were 41 points behind non-Hispanic students.
Paige and Witty (35) state that in 2007, the difference between a number of White and Black fourth graders who performed at or above the proficient level was 51 per cent White versus 15 per cent Black; in the eighth grade, 82 per cent of White students performed at or above the basic level versus 47 per cent of Black students.
Besides, the investigation in (Anderson) demonstrated that there is no strong correlation between age and performance in math: the gap varied in different grades. Finally, the gap in math was bigger than that in other subjects, which makes studying of math achievement gap apart from gaps in other subjects reasonable.
This gives us opportunity to state that there are certain factors beyond ethnicity itself and students’ age that impacts Black students’ performance in math. Some suggestions on these factors were expressed in the hypotheses formulated in the introduction. We will discuss them in the next chapter.
Causes and Explanation of Math Performance Gap First of all, it is necessary to mark that today there is no single answer to the question on causes of the math performance gap. The range of opinions lies in different dimensions, even in such as ideological, racial and political. As for the scientific research, the given issue is mostly studied from sociocultural, socioeconomic, pedagogical and genetic perspective (Paige and Witty 59).
One of the existing theories is the “socioeconomic disparities” (60). According to this theory, the long period of slavery impacted Black citizens’ performance in math. Black people had no opportunity to study for centuries, and the consequence of this situation is today’s achievement gap. Paige and Witty state that the difference in “parenting” skills between parents of different social classes and professions has been corroborated by several researches (61).
However, not only past conditions are considered to impact Black students’ math performance. According to August 2000 NAEP report (in United States Commission on Civil Rights 10), the math achievement gap has connection with students’ current social condition: economically disadvantaged students perform poorer.
We will write a custom Research Paper on African-American Students and Mathematics Achievement Gap: Stereotype or Reality? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another significant question to discuss is Black students’ motivation to studying math. Significant investigation was carried out by Rech (1994 212-220): the researcher found that the attitudes of Black students, even those having high performance at school, are poorer than those of White students.
Rech argues that Black students demonstrate anxiety towards mathematics and have doubts about importance of learning it. To some extent, this can be linked with the “socioeconomic disparities” theory: analogically to parenting skills, parenting behavior also takes place in families (Paige and Witty 60).
Thus, it is possible to state that Black students have low motivation to studying math. This should be considered by math teachers, as studying mathematics is important for students’ career prospects. Wilkens (in Irons 340) states that this problem has now been taking shape in our society; to get prestigious high-paid jobs, Black students who are the future employees should acquire necessary background and skills in math.
Negative stereotypes and emotional environment also prove to be the factors that aggravate the math achievement gap. Haynes, Ben-Avie and Ensign (94) state that emotional environment is one of the strongest factors that impact Black students’ performance in math.
They emphasize that in many cases teachers have prejudice about Black students’ math skills and expect them to fail, which actually influences their performance. This statement is confirmed by the research carried out by Rydell, McConnell and Beilock (949-966): when Black students were reminded about negative stereotyping about their performance in math, they began to actually perform worse.
The research by Schweinle and Mims (501-514) also showed that Black students have lower math self-efficacy. Thus, there is one more point to consider for math teachers who work with Black students: motivation and self-efficacy in math are the issues that require working on beyond improving math skills themselves, and it is important to struggle against negative stereotypes and anxiety to cope with this task.
Finally, one more assumption about gap in mathematics achievements is that there is certain inherent cognitive difference between Black and White students that is caused by race. Finding the answer to this question is a very difficult task, as studying cognition is much more complicated than studying motivation and attitude.
Thus, despite a series of researches have been fulfilled, there is still no universal opinion on this issue. In (Cwikla 3), we see the comparative histogram of performance of students of different race in regards with different aspects of studying math. White, Black, Hispanic, Asian and other students are compared in being good at measurement, geometry, number sense, probability and statistics, and algebra.
Not sure if you can write a paper on African-American Students and Mathematics Achievement Gap: Stereotype or Reality? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The histogram does not provide clear answer to the question. On the one hand, the author emphasizes that the absolute difference between White and Black students varies in different areas, which may be interpreted as the evidence of cognitive difference between students of different races.
The research results demonstrate that Black, Hispanic and White students had their best performance in algebra, Asian students performed the best in geometry (9). On the other hand, we may notice that despite the absolute difference varies, the general trend is quite neat: Asian and White students have the best performance in all areas; other students have the third place; Hispanic students have the fourth place, and Black students the fifth; exception is probability and statistics where the performance of Hispanic and Black students are quite high and almost equal; besides, there is slight difference in algebra performance. Thus, the difference in performance in different areas exists, but is seems somewhat blurred.
One more point that should be considered is that there is the difference between the notions “cause” and “influence”. Despite we have outlined several factors that prove to impact Black students’ performance in math, it is difficult to state whether they cause the math performance gap or just aggravate it. Answering this question requires further study. Besides, it is important to take into account that these factors may be connected and influence each other.
For example, if the factor of heredity exists in regards with math skills, low motivation may be also “inherited”; negative stereotypes may impact math self-efficacy and thus cause anxiety; finally, social environment may “persuade” economically disadvantaged Black students that they have no opportunity to get high position and well-paid job and that there is anyway no need to learn math.
Conclusion Having observed the sources devoted to the gap in math performance between Black and White students, we can make the following conclusions:
The gap in math performance between White and Black students exists.
The gap in math performance is bigger than the gap in performance in other subjects.
Despite after elimination of racial segregation in education the gap was reducing quite rapidly, today this reduction has almost stalled.
Several approaches to explaining the gap in performance in math exist, and no one of them has been recognized the only correct.
There is the evidence that math skills and math behavior are “parented” in families.
Black students have low motivation and strong anxiety towards math.
Negative stereotypes influence Black students’ math self-efficacy and performance in math.
The question of inherent cognitive difference between Black and White students remains open.
The points discussed above should be considered by school teachers, as, regardless of causes and factors of the gap in math performance, their task is to make this gap as small as possible.
Works Cited Anderson, Nick. “Performance Gap on Tests Uneven for Black Students.” Washington Post. 2006. Web.
Cwikla, Julie. “Differential Mathematics Performance on the TIMSS-R across Delaware Students of Color.” Triangle Coalition. PDF File. Web.
Hayman, Robert L., and Leland Ware. Choosing Equality: Essays and Narratives on the Desegregation Experience. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009. Print.
Irons, Peter H. Jim Crown’s Children: The Broken Promise of the Brown Decision. New York: Viking, 2002. Print.
Martin, Waldo E. Brown v. Board of Education: A Brief History with Documents. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1998. Print.
Paige, Rod, and Elaine P. Witty. The Black-White Achievement Gap: Why Closing It Is the Greatest Civil Right Issue of Our Time. New York, NY: AMACOM, American Management Association, 2010. Print.
Rech, Janice F. “A Comparison of the Mathematics Attitudes of Black Students According to Grade Level, Gender, and Academic Achievement.” Journal of Negro Education 63(2) (1994): 212-220. Print.
Rydell, Robert J., Allen R. McConnell, and Sian L. Beilock. “Multiple Social Identities and Stereotype Threat: Imbalance, Accessibility, and Working Memory.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96(5) (2009): 949-966. Print.
United States Commission on Civil Rights. Office of the General Counsel. Closing the Achievement Gap: The Impact of Standards-Based Education Reform on Student Performance: Draft Report for Commissioners’ Review. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Office of the General Counsel, 2004. Print.
Schweinle, Amy, and Grace A. Mims. “Mathematics Self-Efficacy: Stereotype Threat Versus Resilience.” Social Psychology of Education 12(4) (2009): 501-514. Print.
Parthenon in Athens Essay cheap essay help
Parthenon was an ancient place of worship that was built in 438BCE on the acropolis of Athens by Phidias, who was a renowned sculpture. It was built as a dwelling place for the goddess known as Athena who was perceived to be the administrator of Athens.
Although the state of its structure has deteriorated there are still remains of what it used to be such as columns and roofing. It is easy to spot the temple in acropolis because it was built on a higher ground. The temple was later damaged during the battles that took place between Greece and her enemies.
Whitley explains that the temple was used as a place of worship by ancient inhabitants of Athens. This was evidenced by the marbles that were collected from the temple soon after the battles were over (35). Among the most important artifacts of the temple included the sculpture of the goddess Athena which had a very unique finish because it was composed of ivory.
The statue was later stolen by a roman emperor who took it with him to modern Istanbul but after a few years it was damaged during numerous battles that were experienced between the Roman Empire and her enemies that were aimed at forcing her neighbors to convert to Christianity.
In the years that followed acropolis was invaded by Ottoman who later used the temple as an Islamic place of worship and also as a store for keeping weapons. In September 1687 a shell busted which made the entire roof to cave in .The intensity of its smash up was so deep such that it could not be rebuilt.
The damage of the temple made some people to steal the artifacts that used to be housed in the temple. The early visitors to Athens included the ambassador of Britain who requested the Athens authorities to allow him to gather the artifacts of the temple. The ambassador assembled artifacts from the scene of the temple’s destruction and also bought some from the locals of Athens and later moved them to his country where they were and still are exhibited in the museum of London.
To this date Greece still insists that those artifacts should be returned to her but this has not gone down well with London because it does not wish to comply with the orders from Greece. The art in this temple reflects on the culture of Greece which is based on conflicting ideologies that are presented evenly. They include principles of light and darkness among many others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Neils, the columns of the temple appear to be bending at the middle perhaps due to the stress exerted by the roof. They are well spaced from each other to allow the light to penetrate (63). Different points of view illustrate the evenness between light and darkness. There are no straight lines in the structure of the temple because the entire lines look distorted.
The temple is used to display the skills of ancient artists in the ancient days. The finishing of the temple is rough because one can still see the marks that the masons chisel made as he tried to dress the stones to create a uniform shape. The temple could have lasted longer were it not for the battles and the changes in climate that has led to erosion of its surface.
The walls of this temple look so bare but one can not tell whether its plaster was eroded by weather or was simply was not there. The columns of this temple appear to have been erected on the stylobate. The columns are of the same length and they tend to protrude outwards to shield the verandah from rain water.
The construction of Parthenon is said to have taken the longest duration due to the time taken to avail the building materials because they were not within close proximity to the temple hence more time was spent in ferrying the materials. Actually the decorations that are seen on its walls were done much later after the construction of the temple had been fully completed
The panes of this temple were chiseled in high relief which was common in a majority of such buildings during ancient days. They were perfectly mounted onto the outside of the walls and they were used as decorations as well as mediums of illustrating the confrontations that took place among the gods.
The temple also served as a bank because there was a designated room that was meant for storing money. Frieze was used to decorate the exterior walls of the temple and also illustrate the rituals that were practiced by the ancient inhabitants of Greece.
The east panel employs sculptures that illustrate how the goddess of Athens came into existence. The panels indicate that Athena was fathered by another god called Zeus. Athena is said to have been conceived in the head of his father Zeus and when his time was due for delivery he experienced a sharp headache on his head. He therefore instructed other gods to hit his head which caused his head to disintegrate and Athena was extracted from his head during this process.
We will write a custom Essay on Parthenon in Athens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The western panels illustrate the struggle for supremacy that revolved around Athena and Poseidon because each of them wanted to be recognized. The panels are no longer present because they were eroded by weather.
Works Cited Neils, Jennifer. The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present. Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.
Whitley, James. “The Archaeology of Democracy: Classical Athens.” The Archaeological of Ancient Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Print.
Global Management Operations – Managing Resources writing essay help: writing essay help
PPQ Parts is a distributional company which aims at providing international expansion to Germany and Japan. There are a lot of different purposes and strategic goals which should be met to reach this aim. The strategic management plan provided in this report is going to cover some specific areas, like location consideration, managerial and financial strengths and weaknesses, economic, competition, and political environment, and short-term and long-term strategic goals of the company.
Environmental conditions in the sphere of global expansion including economy, competition, and political stability Being a distributional company, PPQ Parts works only on the territory of the USA but wants to provide its influence all over the world. Conducting an analysis of the economic position in the whole world, it should be stated that the crisis effects are reducing that makes it possible for the economy development.
Thus, if the real GDP growth in the world was -0.9 in 2009, not it is 3.8 and the forecasts show that it is going to be 3.5 the next year (Economic forecast, 2010). The distributional institution at the international arena is really necessary for the long term periods as the demand on different products increases. Moreover, the residual effects of the economic crisis allow this kind of business to develop and flourish in a number of reasons. It is crucial to state that demand plays a vital role in this process (O’Hara, 2006).
The competition in the sphere has always been strong, so much effort should be made to enter the international distributional market. Moreover, the company which enters the international market for the first time always feels more tension from the side of other members of the market than those who have already entered it.
The world market members unwillingly allow new entrants to become the part of their business as this increases the competition and makes some companies leave the market. In the relation to political environment, it supports the international business development. In spite of the fact that political environment in most cases is strong and tense, the current situation is stable and there are no essential hazards that can influence the distributional business.
Managerial and financial strengths and weaknesses The international expansion involves a number of different challenges which may be faced. The international arena involves the notion of the multiculturalism. Thus, managers may face the problem of multicultural barrier in the work at the world market. It is crucial to consider the main principles of work with clients and running business in the counties where the company wants to expand to, Germany and Japan in our case.
Germany and Japan are the countries which development may be identified as stable and successful. Still, there are some tendencies which may create a number of problems. Therefore, Japan development is unbalanced that may create a number of problems in the future. It is important to note that the developed countries invest in the business on their territory and invite the international companies if the local ones do not cope with the amount of work which should be done.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main weakness of the managerial and financial sphere is that it is more difficult to organize the business on the distance. The main office should be created in the country for running and monitoring the business. When the work will be completed and arranged, the office in another country is going to be the company strength.
Short-term and long-term strategic goals Planning to enter the international market and to increase the global expansion, PPQ Parts is planning to reach the following short-term and long-term strategic goals. Firstly, it is natural that the increase of the company influence presupposes the increase of the employees. Thus, the company is planning to increase the number of employees from 5,000 up to 10,000 in four years. Secondly, it is obvious that the international expansion requires from the company to increase its building potential worldwide.
The warehouses in different countries are extremely necessary for the international distributional company. Thus, the company is working on the increase of buildings which are going to be used beyond the territory of the USA. Entering the international market, the company is planning to increase its small SUVs market share from 5% up to 9% in the next four years.
Within this problem, it should be stated that the current stock price is considered to be $10 per share, while the company’s goal is to increase it up to $22 per share. Having a 6% profit margin in 3 year average, and the same level of industry average during this time, the company wants to reach the activity of 13% in four years.
The industry average activity of the employee turnover comprises 25%. It should be mentioned that the employee turnover in the company has been 28% for the last 3 years. This activity should be reduced and the company wants to lower it up to 17% in the nearest 4 years.
The company supports local communities and contributes to their business. The company donates 0.5% of its profit to this sphere. Being a company value, it wants to increase this charity rate up to 5%. Thus, here are the short-term and long-term strategic goals the company wants to reach with the help of the chosen strategy of entering the international market.
Location benefits and limitations Having considered some information, it is possible to state that the labor power involved in the distributional sector in Japan is much lower than that involved in the USA. It may be concluded that the location of the PPQ Parts in Japan is a successful decision due to the fact that this territory needs more distributional companies (Miwa, Nishimura,
Description of Conflict Essay writing essay help
Broadcast company decided to launch a new project aimed at enhancing the media coverage and improving the quality of transmitting information. According to the managerial stuff, particularly CEO Harrison Gatsby, the company should create a group composed of members from different departments to provide their plans for this program. They believed that the cooperative work of several departments would provide creative ideas and consistency in presenting the project.
However, the project leader, Tom Brown, the marketing managers faced challenges while making decision and coming to an agreement with other members of the project team. The major conflict burst out between Tom Brown and Gregory Fleming, research and development managers.
Both managers did not want to compromise. Hence, Mr. Brown was stand firm on the ground that it is necessary to make a focus on customers’ demand and market segmentation whereas Mr. Fleming was more concerned with innovation and creativity because this always determines supply and demand.
Three approaches to resolving the conflict situation To begin with, this intergroup conflict can be resolved through smoothing techniques. In other words, it is necessary to achieve the balance and harmony between the conflicting parties. This can be carried out through reasonable allocation of functions. Mr. Gatsby, therefore, should re-evaluate the established goals and consider other solutions to the existing problems.
On the one hand, such an approach can foster the process of decision making and enhance the success of the project. On the other hand, if the conflict is not serious, there is no necessity for smoothing it because it can contribute to a healthy development of creative and innovative ideas.
A second viable resolution of the conflict can be compromising. It means that either sales manager or research and development manager should yield to some of the principles. For instance, Tom Gatsby should pay attention to innovative ideas proposed by Fleming and take some of them into account if they do not contradict the main scope of the project.
Besides, the sales manager should keep in mind that technological advancement is a key condition for successful media coverage. One the one hand, compromising can trigger other members of the team to express their concerns about the project and, at the same time, they will have an opportunity to consider other members’ goal. On the other hand, compromising can weaken the authority of project leader who should be the first to analyze the proposals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the third resolution to the conflict under consideration is creating an opposing force. In our case, Mr. Gatsby should be more concerned with the project outcomes rather than with personal preferences and ambitions. In particular, the project leader should bear in mind that if the project is not successful, this failure can negatively influence the company’s revenues. When focusing on the idea of competition, the group work can be enhanced that will also contribute to the effectiveness of the company’s performance.
However, such an incentive can negative influence the cooperation and decision-making because excessive pressure can prevent the congruence of work. What is worse is that the team member can become depressed by the process of working. As a result, the performance can be considerably diminished. In this case, the manager should take care of the process itself and make everything possible to strike the balance between the active work and competitive conditions.
Communications in Management: Information Campaign and Managerial Engagement Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction to the Problem
Pros of Information Campaigns and Management Engagement
Cons of Information Campaigns and Management Engagement
Conclusion and Recommendations
Introduction to the Problem One of the most beneficial sets of information received by managers comes from employees by means of individual reports on the errors occurring in the process of working activity, certain difficulties, and recommendations and suggestions for improving the ways of communications within the organization, and methods for solving problems.
As suggested in the study by Adler-Milstein, Singer, and Toffel (2010), information campaigns within organization can be as useful as public information campaigns aimed at reducing the number of smokers and other different issues that can be discussed in public.
Pros of Information Campaigns and Management Engagement The importance of management engagement is very high because a manager should know about the difficulties experienced by employees in the workplace while performing a particular task. Adler-Milstein et al. (2010) report about opportunity given to managers by employees via reports about errors and certain suggestions on possible ways for improvement.
For instance, Quinlan and Sokas (2009) provide a thorough analysis of the public information campaigns in different countries and a right of employees to know about certain harms. In this respect, a manager is the first person to learn about some errors occurring in the organisation and take measures to fix everything.
Every employee should know his/her responsibilities in detail and be able to explain the necessity of making some decisions that could have caused some errors and difficulties. In this respect, an employee should not be afraid to speak up and report directly to the supervisor, manager, or another person who is responsible for the team work (Ruskin, 1993, p. 78).
So, the employee should not fear the reaction due to his/her immediate response to the error in the form of a report. Though some employee rarely happen to report about their failures to the supervisors, it should be a ‘must-to’ rule for every employee because it facilitates the development process guided by managers who state the research and development objectives based on the reports of employees about errors and difficulties.
Cons of Information Campaigns and Management Engagement The disadvantages of the speaking up in the workplace include the fear of aggression and occurrence of other stress factors that can contribute negatively to the effectiveness of performance and the working environment. As suggested by Barling et al. (2005), employees can be afraid of workplace aggression caused by exposures to representatives of the managerial.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, aggression of colleagues or supervisors can be the stress factor for the employee who reports to managers about errors occurrence and difficulties experienced and those who work with him/her. So, reporting can be one of the most influential disadvantages hence leading to inability of managers to build an objective picture of changes to be implemented.
Conclusion and Recommendations An employee should report about certain failures when he/she believes this absolutely necessary, especially when employees are demanded to report about the slightest errors occurring in the organisation in their individual tasks or during performance of team tasks.
Each employee has a right to make suggestions of possible methods and techniques that can be applied to certain areas of the working process to improve the management or facilitate certain operations. In other words, reporting can be effective though employees can be afraid of immediate egression experienced in the workplace and other negative consequences of reports.
Reference List Adler-Milstein, J., Singer, S. J.,
Human Resource Management Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Background Information Effective human resource management is essential for any company to succeed. This entails efficient management of the workforce in order to promote the performance of the company. The human resource at Proctor and Gamble is charged with the responsibility of ensuring excellent service delivery by the company’s employees and this positively impacts on the company’s remarkable global performance and this can partly be attributed to efficient management of the business (Anonymous 2010).
The company’s human resource sector aims at maintaining a skilled workforce as well as attracting the best talent to join the company’s workforce in order to ensure it enjoys high and efficient output from its human capital, which is essential for the good performance of the company.
Further, the organization puts more emphasis on evaluation and measurement of employees’ engagement and commitment to the roles assigned to them and has in addition established initiatives to promote involvement of the employees in the company’s strategic activities as well as sustenance of benefits.
To ensure that it achieves high standards of human resource management, the company has established and developed a human resource department that comprises of change agents, team builders advisors among other human resource specialists who constantly engage in activities aimed at motivating employees and promoting their welfare as well as ensuring the provision of a skilled pool of labor to the company through transparent recruitment of new qualified employees.
Human Resource Requirement for Service Being part of Proctor and Gamble human resource team entails the responsibility of developing systems and tools that are directed towards attracting a skilled pool of labor, reward and motivation of the existing employees as well as challenging the employees in order to promote efficiency, innovation, and invention (Anonymous 2010).
The human resource management is expected to promote and protect the company’s values, purpose, and principles through inspiring, enabling, and engaging the company’s employees as well as acting as change agents in order to drive towards positive transformation of the company and provide a solid foundation for the company’s culture, external environment as well as company’s goals (Anonymous 2010).
The Human resource manager is not only expected to be academically qualified in the field but also has to possess qualities of good leadership coupled with social responsibility which is necessary when dealing with people from diverse backgrounds and social settings who make up the workforce.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consultation with Stakeholders Proctor and Gamble ensures involvement of the human resource sector as an ultimate business partner in order to promote increase in the company’s growth. This is because the human resource sector ensures that there is simplification of work processes in the company and promotes the creation of a culture that focuses on innovation through pro active labor relations (Anonymous 2010).
In addition, the human resource sector in the company seeks to understand and address the needs and wishes of potential employees as well as the current employees in order to strengthen the company’s position as an attractive employer (Anonymous 2010). At Proctor and Gamble, developing the employees into future leaders is one of the major long term strategies of the company.
Options required for delivery of service Being on the forefront towards provision of intensely competitive consumer goods in the market, P
Vietnam War: The Battle Where There Could Be no Winners Expository Essay scholarship essay help
In spite of the fact that history is constantly repeating itself and the sad lessons that then next generation is about to learn, in fact, do not differ from the ones taught to the ancestors, people go on and on making the same mistakes. That goes for all wars that have ever been carried out on the Earth, and the Vietnam War is of no exception. One of the hardest questions that have ever occurred as the war broke out was why – why it all had to start. It was needless, useless and frightening; yet it was, as shocking and daring as it could be.
There are many points of view on what has happened during the long eleven years of fighting. It could be a good idea to take a closer look at all of them, analyzing the ideas that underlay them – if war could have something that underlay it. The brilliant scheme worked by Napoleon was supposed to be of great help to the general, the commanders and their troops.
Starting from the very bottom of the army roster, that is, from the soldiers, it would be important to say that these people fought basically because they were said to do so. Inflamed by the ideas of the patriotic behavior and the mission of protecting the interests of the native land, the American soldiers were eager to start the battle. However, they soon felt that there was something wrong about the whole situation.
With Moss’s book, it becomes clear that the battalion commanders knew only what was going on below, where the warriors were serving their country and doing their prior duty. They were merely the people who were acting according to the orders that were coming from the upper circles.
The same went for the individual commanders. They were aware of what they were supposed to as it came to the war and the strategy of the future actions, but that was as far as their plans went. The individual commanders were supposed to create the plans that would make the warriors stronger and create the system of the actions that could make the American troops benefit in the battle. Their prior goal was to build up a strong army of soldiers that could fight decently and make the country win in this fight, wherever it could take them.
It was a bit more complicated with General Westmoreland. In fact, he was the backbone of the whole idea and it was him to command to the whole army and the officers. The commanders followed his orders, and he was the brain of the tactics of the war. However, that did not mean that he persuaded the economical interests that actually lay in the basis of the war.
What was the goal that he pursued? Was it just making an advertising campaign of his own personality, as Moss suggests? For there was no actual reason for the war to get started. As Addington suggested, this could be an extremely complicated strategy of the general that put the campaign at such risks and proved wrong for the thousands of people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By the time President Johnson had decided to commit a large American ground force to the defense of the ROV, Westmoreland had conceived of a three-stage strategy for using it. (Addington 2000, 88)
Why did it end in the failure? Was it the fact that the soldiers were not trained well enough? The very fact seems absurd. Just as insane sounds the idea that the equipment of the American soldiers was worse than the one of the Vietnamese. Perhaps, that was the lack of certain something that the Vietnamese had. It is not for the sake of the word that Moss emphasizes,
From the gaining of their independence in 939, the Vietnamese endured a precarious national existence. They were threatened eventually by powerful foes, particularly China, the colossus of the North. Internally, Vietnam was frequently ruled by inept leaders, riven by civil wars, and suffered from a fragmentation of power. But the Vietnamese managed to maintain their independence for over 900 years. (Moss 2010, 6-7)
It all started to fall apart when people understood that there was something unsaid about the whole business.
“I cannot seem to convince the embassy that this is Vietnam – not the United States”, said Diem at the beginning of August 1963” (Moyar 2006, 229) – this phrase was the first sign of the fact that there was something deeply wrong about the whole idea of the war.
Every single citizen in the US started having doubts of whether the war was held the way it was described. The tragic consequences have not been forgotten, but in the light that Moss has shed on the war and its idea, they seem in quite different way. What goal did Robert McNamara pursue in this puzzle? What was his prior aim?
McNamara was desperate to end the war, and repeatedly implored me to extract from my invisible interlocutions any hint, however oblique, that would enable him to promote the cause of a negotiated outcome. (Kissinger 2003, 42)
We will write a custom Essay on Vietnam War: The Battle Where There Could Be no Winners specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A brilliant strategist, President Johnson was the Napoleon in this game for the power. Lyndon Johnson was the one who knew exactly every single detail about the idea of the war and the goals that the country was pursuing. He thought that he had calculated everything, but, unfortunately, his plans went wrong when he did not suppose anything or anyone to fail.
The Colossus took a step on his feet of clay, swayed in the air for a second and collapsed with a terrible racket. That was the battle that could not end in victory. The stakes were high, but there were too many things that the government did not take into account, among then the mentality of the people that they were going to fight with.
The idea of the orders delegated from the upper part of the governmental pyramid to its bottom, the basis of the war – the soldiers, was more than brilliant – it was genial, for it was the genius of Napoleon who created it. The American strategists improved it, creating the specific routes for the military actions and making the whole scheme closer to the present days, yet preserving the idea of the war held with the fierce temper of a tiger.
Rather unexpectedly, this proved to be a failure. However, there was nothing to blame the structure that Napoleon created for. The main reason for the defeat was the miscalculation that the government made when thinking through the strategy for the battle. The Communist forces that the American troops were to meet in June were the last straw that broke the camel’s neck.
Since it was understood quite well from the very beginning that the whole war was a big and tragic mistake for the entire United States, the actions that have been undertaken were the very kind of bravery that was supposed to show that even when losing, there must be the spirits kept up. And the top, the government and the structures that it was connected to, had a perfect view of the war result, with all the tragic consequences.
Once trying to get their brilliant idea to working, the government forgot about the fact that these were actually live people whom they were against, and their prior arms were live people as well. There are certain things that have to be remembered despite the bitter feeling they cause. Otherwise, the next generation will make the same mistake once again. Thus, people have to keep in mind all the things that they have learned from the past experiences, and derive the necessary lessons from these events.
References Addington, L. H. (2000) America’s War in Vietnam: A Short Narrative History. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Kissinger, H. (2003) Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America’s Involvement in an Extrication from the Vietnam War. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Vietnam War: The Battle Where There Could Be no Winners by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moss, G. (2010) Vietnam: An American Ordeal, 6th Edition. London: Pearson Publishing
Moyar, M. (2006) Triumph Forsaken. The Vietnam War, 1954-1965. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
The Terrorist Attacks in the United States Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
The terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001 that took place in New York City and Washington were the most traumatic attacks to ever occur in the United States. The country was caught unawares as thousands of innocent civilians lost their lives in the ensuing attacks. The Intelligence Community (IC) within the country came under attack for failing to detect the 19 terrorists who had somehow managed to enter the United States and hijacked four planes that would later be used in carrying out the attacks.
In the subsequent months, the US Congress criticized the intelligence community for failing to monitor and detect any terrorism activities within the country. Members of Congress called for the disbanding of the community for failing to protect the innocent lives of Americans after the attacks (Hulnick, 2004).
Investigations and hearings were conducted to find out what went wrong in the intelligence community. The testimonies in these hearings revealed that the terrorist attacks could have been prevented if intelligence gathering had been conducted thoroughly. The officers in charge of the IC lacked the capacity and understanding of conducting terrorism intelligence gathering.
There were also bureaucratic rivalries, reduced resources and risk avoidance measures that led to the inability of the IC to detect and stop the terrorists from attacking the country. The IC’s system was also not able to deal with any terrorist attacks since it was designed for the Cold War in 1942 and from that time it had not undergone any improvements (Hulnick, 2004).
President Bush created through executive order the Office of Homeland Security that would fall under the White House administration. The office was charged with the role of disseminating information connected to terrorism in all the state and federal levels of the country.
The homeland security system was supposed to detect and provide terrorist warnings in the form of threat conditions that would be used to determine the risk of the threat. Each threat would require the federal and state agencies to implement preventive measures that would reduce the risk of the threat during a period of increased alertness in the country (Peterson et al, 2000).
The Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) was a sub-branch of the Office of Homeland Security and its main purpose was to raise or lower the country’s threat levels between elevated yellow and high orange.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Homeland Security Act was signed into law in November 2002 which made the Office of Homeland Security to be known as the Department for Homeland Security. The new act would see the reorganization of the Department of Defense to protect the US from any terrorist attacks while at the same time reducing the vulnerability of the country to these attacks (Peterson et al, 2000)
The city that was most affected by the terrorist attacks was New York City. The attack of the World Trade Center in New York was the most devastating as thousands of lives were lost in the two buildings. New York City was a prime target given the high population of people and the number of government offices that have been established within the city.
This showed how vulnerable the city was to terrorism attacks before and after 9/11. Recently a lethal bomb was discovered in Times Square, a location within the city that normally has thousands of people in one day. This demonstrated that New York presented an irresistible attraction to people who were intent on causing harm to the country.
Even before the 9/11 attacks, a car bomb exploded outside the World Trade Centre in 1993. The main intention was to bring down both towers but it ended up destroying the north tower only. The 1993 February attack on the WTC was meant to be followed by several other attacks on major New York landmarks such as the UN headquarters, the George Washington Bridge and the Holland Tunnel (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, 2004).
According to the National Consortium’s statistics, 284 terrorist attacks occurred in five locations within New York City between 1970 and 2007 with 98 percent of these attacks being attributed to the 9/11 attacks. The most deadly attack to occur in New York before September 11 was the terrorist bombing in LaGuardia Airport in 1975 that killed 11 people.
Together with the September 11th attacks, the total number of people who died as a result of terrorist attacks in New York amounted to 4,000. This demonstrated that New York City was the most common target for terrorism attacks. Most of the areas that were targeted included businesses such as the WTC, non-governmental organizations (UN Headquarters), government agencies, major airports and airlines (JFK and LaGuardia Airport) and American citizens (National Consortium, 2010).
New York City was a prime target given the high population and the number of international and foreign based businesses that were located in the City. New York City was also a common target for terrorists given that it housed the largest financial market in the world, the NYSE. Targeting the City would affect the New York Stock Exchange market in an adverse way which would negatively affect the US economy. The high number of active perpetrators within the city also increased the vulnerability of New York to terrorist attacks.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Terrorist Attacks in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The presence of groups such as the Jewish Defense League (JDL) responsible for 27 attacks within the city, the Fuerza Armada de Liberacion Nacional (FALN) which was a separatist group from Puerto, responsible for 40 attacks within New York and Omega-7 which was an anti-Castro organization responsible for 16 attacks between 1970 and 2007. Al-Qaeda became the major face of terrorism in the US and in particular in New York as it was responsible for the 3,000 deaths that resulted form the 9/11 attacks (National Consortium, 2010).
The National Consortium report also identified other cities in the US that were common targets for terrorism attacks one of which was Miami, Florida. The city recorded 70 attacks between the1970 and 2007. The reason for being a common target was that Miami was home to the CIA’S second largest base of operations.
Miami was also home to the famous Miami Five who were believed to be Cuban spies. The Miami five were falsely accused for committing espionage despite their claims stating that they were monitoring the activities of a Miami based terrorist group that was planning an attack on Cuba (National Consortium, 2010).
Anti-Cuba terrorist organizations based in Miami were responsible for more than 3,000 Cuban and Miami deaths in both countries. Such terrorist organizations included Brothers to the Rescue and Commandos F4. The terrorist groups were responsible for the Cubana Flight 455 bombing in 90s.
The presence of terrorist training camps in Florida has also been a cause of concern for most Miami residents who fear reprisal attacks from Cuba on these terrorist cells. Other terrorist attacks that were committed against Cuban citizens by these terror cells include hotel bombings, attacks on Cuban diplomats, the bombing of a Barbados flights and the Bays of Pigs Invasion (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, 2004).
Luis Posada Carilles who is one of the many Cuban terrorists that lives freely in Miami, Florida admitted to bombing varies hotels in Havana during the 90s. The number of casualties that resulted from these bombings was more than 3,000 people killed and injured. Carilles also admitted to being responsible for distributing guns to Nicaraguan rebels who attempted to assassinate Fidel Castro.
Such a high number of terrorists and terrorist groups in Miami has led to the state being a common target for terrorist attacks on Cuban terrorists and innocent Miami residents. 70 attacks have been reported to have occurred within Miami between 1970 and 2007 most of which were related to Cuban nationals who were based in Miami (National Consortium, 2010).
The third state in the United States that is prone to terrorist attacks is Washington D.C. which is the capital of the United States. This has made it to be one of the most likely targets of current and future terrorist attacks within the country.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Terrorist Attacks in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Washington D.C. has faced a total 59 attacks from 1970 to 2007 based on the National Consortium’s statistics. The state houses major governmental bodies such as the US Congress, the White House and various historic US landmarks such as the Abraham Lincoln Monument that are important to America and its citizens.
Washington is also home to the Pentagon that was attacked during the September 11th terrorist bombings. After the 9/11 attacks, Washington faced another threat in the form of an anthrax attack that was disseminated through mail to the U.S. capital. Even though the two attacks were unrelated, they were both targeted at Washington and New York which were two of the most important states of the United States (Hulnick, 2004).
The state recently faced terrorism threats from a well known Taliban leader known as Baitullah Mesud who threatened to attack the US capital after the country continued to launch missile strikes against Afghanistan.
Apart from Mesud, Washington has also faced terrorist threats from groups such as Al-Qaeda. The reason for Washington’s vulnerability to terrorist attacks is that most of its organizations especially the US government agencies lack the control of human and vehicular traffic within and around their facilities.
The historic monuments also lack the proper mechanisms of controlling the number of visitors to the areas. Washington is also a suitable target for terrorism activities because of the large number of legislative offices and institutions that are based within the state (National Commission of Terrorist Attacks, 2004).
The terrorist attacks on the Pentagon in Washington affected the activities of the Department of Defense as the country grappled with the bombings of the World Trade Centre. The intelligence systems of the state were affected as one of the four hijacked planes crashed into one corner of the Pentagon offices.
Targeting the Pentagon was viewed to be targeting the country’s defense systems which fell under the Department of Defense. The US defense systems included the US Army the Navy and the Air Force. Other departments that have their offices within the Pentagon include the Missile Defense Agency, the National Security Agency, and the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA).
References Hulnick, A. (2004). Keeping us safe: secret intelligence and homeland security. Westport, US: Praeger Publishers.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks (2004). The 9/11 commission report: final report of the national commission upon the United States. United States: W.W. Norton Publishers Group.
National Consortium (2010). Background report: terrorist attacks in New York City. Web.
Peterson, M. B., Morehouse, B.,
Required: Around 3 pages or about 1500 words. • A topic related to the course syllabus and learning outcomes scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Around 3 pages or about 1500 words.
• A topic related to the course syllabus and learning outcomes
• One essay question: Pick one quality tool and do some research and articles reading to write about the tool, a real case of its implementation and the benefits learned.
• Read about the use of one quality tool as implemented by some improvement practitioner or an organization. Do a short write-up on what you can learn from how the tool was used.
• Follow this structure:
• Introduce the tool (10%)
• About the context or industry (10%): nature of business and why quality is important in that industry or context
• Objective(s) of using the tool (40%)
o What are they trying to achieve, improve or prevent?
o How did they make the tool work for them?
• Conclusion (40%):
o With all the information that you have now, how do you make sense of the use of this quality tool?
o What can be done to further improve upon the problem/issues the business was facing, by using the tool?
• Appendix: Attach pictures or any additional relevant information if any, to further clarify the case used in your report.
Concept of the Multicultural Education Essay essay help
Table of Contents Classrooms and Learning
Stereotypes in the Classroom
Classrooms and Learning According to York (2003) multicultural education is not only appropriate but necessary for children from very early age. Children see the existing differences and form their own viewpoint basing on adults’ reactions and behavior. Thus, it is essential to make young pupils understand that these differences are normal.
To develop unbiased perception, the issues of cultural diversity should be included into the curriculum. Every day children should face some of cultural diversity issues. Of course, it is important to choose the right activities so that children accepted the information as a part of their study, and not as a kind of preaching.
One of the effective ways to form normal perception of cultural differences can be class environment. Thus, it is important to create friendly environment for learners (York, 2003). It can be helpful to put on the walls some photographs of children playing (of course, the children should pertain to different ethnical groups). It is possible to have some books depicting interesting habits and customs of various cultural groups. Thus, children can read (or simply look through the pictures in) these illustrated books.
By all, means it is helpful to introduce various activities in the form of the game. For instance, it is possible to hand in colorful letter to children. The letters may be made of rubber or another material, or cut from paper. The main thing is: they should be of different colors and form such words as friendship, happiness, support, etc.
So, the teacher points out that these letters when separated do not make sense and feel bored and unhappy, but when they unite and co-operate they may create something important and significant. The teacher then makes the corresponding words. It is also possible to ask children to copy one of the pictures on the walls (where children of different cultures play). Thus, the learners get accustomed to diversity without even noticing it, they just copy what they see and they see normal and friendly environment where children play.
Multicultural Literature Reading various books on corresponding issues is also a very effective tool in multicultural education. For instance, the book “Smoky Night” (Bunting, 1994) promotes cross-cultural friendship and particularly fits for considering such educational goal as prejudice (York, 2003).
The story depicts the night when Los Angeles riots took place. A boy and his mother are watching at those horrible things from their apartment’s window. Eventually, the house of the boy and his mother is set on fire and they are forced to leave their apartment. They see many people in the street; they see Mrs. Kim who owns a shop where the mother does not buy anything because she prefers buying from their own people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The cats of the boy and Mrs. Kim cannot be found (those two cats did not get along). However, soon a fireman comes out of the house holding the two cats together in his hands. At this moment Mrs. Kim suggests that they should make friends with the family just like the two cats did. Eventually, everyone sees that in the street people help and support each other irrespective of their ethnicity.
Thus, it is possible to read the story with children making stops at some significant points. For example, it is possible to stop at the point where the relationship between the cats and people are depicted. It is possible to encourage children to contemplate on the reasons for such relationship.
Of course, it is necessary to discuss the reasons why the cats could be together, children should discuss the end of the story and state their opinion whether friendship among different people is important and why. The teacher should point out that together people can withstand any riots, disasters or any problems at all.
Stereotypes in the Classroom To become successful in multicultural education it is necessary to create friendly environment, develop the curriculum accordingly and devote much time to cross-cultural issues (York, 2003). Of course, it is also important to eliminate racial and other biased stereotypes which negatively influence the development of children. According to Banks and McGee Banks (2009) contemporary society has numerous stereotypes created and supported by media due to various political and social issues.
Moreover, even educators try to avoid considering such issues since they feel uncomfortable because of “their lack of experience in confronting such a potentially explosive issue, the conspiracy of silence about racism (as if not speaking about it will make it disappear)” and many other reasons or combination of such reasons (Banks and McGee Banks, 2009, p. 400).
However, it is essential to eliminate these stereotypes from the classroom. First of all, it is necessary to educate children so that they know that some stereotype is false and in reality many things are quite opposite.
For instance, one of the common stereotypes is that African Americans or Hispanic people perform poorly at school and cannot achieve good academic results. Fortunately, there are many examples which destroy such false statements, so the teacher can give some details from biographies of such famous people as Baraca Obama, Condoleezza Rice, Ralph Alvarez, etc. Of course, the teacher should point out how it is possible to achieve such great results, i.e. listen to the teacher carefully, try to fulfill all the tasks and help each other.
We will write a custom Essay on Concept of the Multicultural Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another common stereotype is that it is necessary to get along with people pertaining to the same group. So, if there are children from different groups it is necessary to encourage them to co-operate with each other, make them fulfill mutual tasks. Even if the class contains children from one ethnical group it is also possible to eliminate the stereotype.
It is necessary to read books considering corresponding issues, start discussions. It is essential to encourage children to express their own opinions. By all means, the teacher should help children to come to the right conclusions that cross-cultural friendship is beneficial for everyone.
Finally, the teacher should understand that children are, to great extent, influenced by their families. Thus, it is quite natural that the teacher should arrange meetings and define some major points of multicultural education.
Of course, there is no need to persuade the parents to change their personal points of view, but it is essential to explain that contemporary life requires elimination of racial and other stereotypes from children’s life since when the children grow up they can only benefit from positive perception of cultural and ethnical diversity.
Thus, it is necessary to point out that one of the major concerns of the teacher in terms of multicultural education is elimination of racial stereotypes since they contribute greatly to the development of racial and ethnical intolerance.
Teachers should use every possibility to remove these stereotypes from the class telling children stories of success, starting various discussions and meeting with children’s parents. Of course, it may seem quite difficult but it is essential to start the process now. Moreover, it is necessary to encourage people to start the discussion of such issues so that appropriate materials for teaching children can be worked out.
Reference List Banks, J.A.
Latin American Music Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction This paper discusses some of the colonial music composers in Spanish Caribbean. The author examines Tango, Baroque and Latin Jazz as some of the old classical music in the region. Further, the writer highlights the Latin American music during the 1970s mainstream and explains changes that emerged during this period.
Consequently, the paper describes how Latin music influenced the US and the world. The final segment of the pager discusses the achievements of Shakira as a modern popular Latin American musician and describes her contributions towards growth of Latin American music Industry.
Colonial Latin composers provided a benchmark for modern Latin American music. The colonial composers’ influence has led to sprouting of various musical styles, which, in a big way, revolutionized the music world. The prosperity and growth of modern musicians has its roots in the efforts of early Latin musicians; especially the composers. Modern Latin Musicians such as Shakira, Enrique Iglesias and others, on their part, have helped to popularize Latin music styles across the world.
Colonial Composers The colonial composers in Latin America, Spain and Portugal, were predominantly Roman Catholics. Their music compositions were tailored towards liturgical celebration. The colonial government in most Latin American countries influenced adoption of Roman rites and music.
Because of religion, popular spiritual music began emerging and impacting strongly on succeeding conventional music (King, 2004, p.275). Besides spiritual music, Portuguese and Spanish colonialists from the homeland also carried conventional music and style along to the colonies. The conventional music and style introduced complemented social, work and leisure aspects of the society.
Gaspar Fernandes is one of the most renowned composers of colonial Latin American music. He was a Portuguese and owing to his enthusiastic approach to music, the Spanish colonial masters appointed him as chapel master in Puebla, Mexico. His music propagated Christian ethics and was purposed towards the spiritual nourishment of the faithful.
Gaspar formed a choir comprising of African musicians that were former slaves. His composition and style focused on and stressed social issues such; ethnicity, race and slavery; the ills that bedeviled the colonial society. Besides, his compositions highlighted the cruelty of enslavement and how the same defined the relations that existed between African and whites in Mexico (King, 2004, p.132). One of Gaspar amiable song was “Eso rigor e repente”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Joan Cererols is another colonial composer in Latin America. He was a Benedictine monk and he was very enthusiastic about composing Christian music (Buelow, 2004, p.414). Born at Martorell in 1618, he joined Escolania de Montserrat choir school in 1626.
Father Joan, who was fascinated by his talent and skills in understanding vocal entries and polytonal discourse, inspired his interest in music (Buelow, 2004, p.414). These skills made him a unique composer when compared to his compatriots. His ability in composition contributed to popularity of his music. Joan’s notable production included; “Missa pro defunctis” and “Missamartyrum” composed in the 17th century (Buelow, 2004, p.160).
Classical Music of Latin America Latin America was musically influenced by the arrival of Spanish, Portuguese and Roman Catholic missionaries (Moore, 2010, p.74). Some of the genres introduced included; Baroque, Latin jazz and Tango (Moore, 2010, p.74). Baroque was a simple music unlike European Baroque, this was because Latin Americans did not have quality and efficient instruments for training (Moore, 2010, p.74).
Latin Jazz is a classical genre of music that started in Latin America. The composition embraced the old Cuban style, exploited Latin and African rhythms (Moore, 2010, p.88). Consequently, it incorporated harmonies of US, Caribbean, Latin and European origins. Moreover, the composition encompassed a straight rhythm, which differed from mainstream backbeat common with US jazz. The composition enshrined clave, guiro for percussion, timbale and conga (Moore, 2010, p.88). Latin jazz was embraced by small groups or in orchestras.
Lastly, Tango is also closely associated with classical music to have emerged in the region. Tango classical embraced specific instruments which included; violins, Bandon eons, piano and double bass (Moore, 2010, p.96). In addition, clarinet and guitars were common in Tango performances.
The 1970s, the Return to the Mainstream During 1970s, Latin American music reflected the music of 1920s (Roberts, 1999, p.188). In the1930s, Latin music was unified in mainstream US popular genres as a musical sub style. However, in 1970s, it emerged stronger in the US society and across the world (Roberts, 1999, p.188).
Increase in Salsa album production was also a common phenomenon in 1970s. This period recorded the highest production of Salsa albums ever created in Latin American Salsa history. For example, albums such as, “Maquino de Tiempo Time” done by Rafael Cotijo’s had a blend of Plena’s and Afro-Rican flavors (Roberts, 1999, p.188).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Latin American Music specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “Maquino de Tiempo Time” was the first Latin jazz fusion incorporated in Salsa tradition. The fusion strengthened commercial appealing across the region leading to increased production (Roberts, 1999, p.188).
Development in the1970s led to strengthening originality and creativity in Latin American music. Willie Colon for instance was a Bugalu cohort; he instilled and brought new changes in New York salsa, which was lively and innovative. This innovativeness included creative use of sound elements and artistic use of new constituents. He combined Jibaro Music of Puerto Rico, and infused Panamian, Brazilian and Colombian features (Roberts, 1999, p.192).
Creating of new bands was also a key characteristic of 1970s Latin mainstream music. Toro was one of the successful Latin American groups formed in 1972(Roberts, 1999, p.192). It emerged as a popular and influential group, although their music failed to capture Salsa roots. Sequida was also another group formed in 1970s. Sequida branched from New York Salsa. It was a successful and ambitious group, which helped in strengthening salsa during this decade (Roberts, 1999, p.192).
Major Changes That Occurred In the Latin Music World between 1970 and Today Dramatic changes occurred in Latin Music in 1970s. Salsa musicians became very creative. For example, Yomo incorporated Puerto Rican guitar, Larry Harlow introduced electric piano whereas Cecilia Cruz embraced Brazilian tunes (Roberts, 1999, p.193). Besides, this period increased diversification of Salsa making it transform into smooth and sweet romantic. Thus, salsa ingrained lyrics directed towards romance and love (Roberts, 1999, p.194).
Jazz fusion also underwent various changes; the style was bubbling, renewed and exiting. In addition, integration of new ingredients to Jazz music such as, “free-form improvisation” was common to style up Jazz music (Roberts, 1999, p.191). Various incorporations therefore encouraged fusion of jazz music intensifying the improvisatory aspects to 1990s.
Moreover, fusions albums were popular; although created by similar groups, style differed exponentially. Instead of embracing a codified style, some musical compositions assumed formerly outdates styles.
Rock music in Latin America was throbbing especially in Argentina in 1970s. Its composition varied i.e. the national rocks and homegrown rock such as Almendra (Roberts, 1999, p.198). At the end of 1970s, popularity of rock music was entrenched in the society. The popularity further surged when the government of the time banned English music from being aired in radios (Roberts, 1999, p.198).
Popularity and Influence Latin Music Internationally The impact of Latin music in the global scene is intense and widespread. Its perplexing sounds and rhythms have gone beyond Caribbean to global. Latin music artistes use Spanish and English, which are diverse modern languages. This has transpired into its preference across cultures and thus entry into wider markets around the world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Latin American Music by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Latin American music is has slowly but sure transformed to fuse with other different popular genres across the world. US artistes have heavily borrowed from Latin genres to establish their own compositions (Roberts, 1999, p.195).
Further, the influences of Latin American music find expression around the world through rumba, calypso and tango among other popular Latin genres (Roberts, 1999, p.197). This is because of diversity of culture and colonization. Embracing diversity and originality of style in music merged with unique cultures has contributed to its impact across the world (Roberts, 1999, p.253).
Influence of Latin Music in US Society US is endowed with diverse Latin and other Spanish speaking cultures. In recognizing their culture, a lot can be learned through Latin American Music. Away from Latin and Spanish cultures, Latin musical practice and style has influenced US in more than one way. The popularity of the Latin styles is noticeable in classical music.
Although it was heard earlier during ragtime, its influence inspired US and as such, US composers such as Philip Sousa and Victor Herbert. With a distinctive US musical language, the impact of Latin American music has stood resilient. Various elements of Latin music have been incorporated in popular US music and in other types of genres across the US (Roberts, 1999, p.246).
The Cuban musical style was a major influence on US music and society. Cuban music embraces a blend and varying extent of European, African, and units of homogenization origins. The blended style of “Habanera” is popular in US. This style had its origin from Argentinean Tango.
Tango also positively affected US music and altered jazz music as well (Roberts, 1999, p.245). The universality of Salsa is the major explanation for the popularity of Latin American music in US. The influence of Salsa is evident around major cities in US; it has influenced wearing style of most US musicians and public.
Latinos presence in the US and their music has evolved in forming a diverse culture. The Latin American Music has led to the establishment of “National Academy of Arts and Sciences”; an agency that recognizes and gives awards to prominent artist “the Grammys” every year (Waxer, 2002, p.263). The agency has added Latin American Music category assortment process. The category has further been broken down into various classes in appreciation of multiplicity existing in Latin music (Waxer, 2002, p.263).
The Latin American music has also influenced emergence of female singers in the US. Gloria Estafan, a Cuban female singer collaborated with Miami Sound machine in early 1980s (Waxer, 2002, p.263). Since then, women with Spanish heritage such as Selena and Shakira have emerged and shaped the American music industry (Roberts, 1999, p.194).
Emergence of Reggaeton in the music scene is credited to Latin music. Reggaeton hip-hop is one of the leading popular styles in the US music. Reggaeton combines rap like vocals and Latin rhythms. Artistes such as pit Bull and Daddy Yankee have been synonymous with embracing this style across the US (Waxer, 2002, p.263).
Popular Latin Artist Shakira is one of the most popular Latin artistes of our modern times. She was born as Isabel Mebarak Ripoll in 1972 (Krohn, 2007, p.35). Shakira is her professional or stage name. She is a songwriter, dancer and a musician. She emerged in music limelight in 1990s.
Her music life was influenced by her father, whom she used to watch writing stories using his typewriter. At the age of seven, Shakira was writing moving poems, which puzzled some of her friends. Some of her poems culminated to powerful music. Her first song was “Your dark glasses”; his father who had a taste of wearing dark glasses motivated it.
Her early exposure in public life helped her encounter Monica Ariza, a theater producer who later helped her to sharpen her music career. Monica convinced Ciro Vargas, a Sony executive to give Shakira an audition (Krohn, 2007, p.99).
The audition was granted and the talented Shakira mesmerized him and other directors. Impressive performance in the audition made the chief executive to sign Shakira to record her three albums i.e. Shakira’s Magia and Peligro album (Krohn, 2007, p.99). The albums were produced by Sony music in 1990 (Krohn, 2007, p.99).
The latter albums were officially released in 1991.The albums exemplified Shakira’s talent and influenced her exposure in Colombia. However, the album did not fetch enough money commercially. Shakira released her second album “Peligro” in 1992 and it was received with great enthusiasm than the previous “Magia” though it failed commercially because of failed popularization (Krohn, 2007, p.101).
In 1995, Shakira rose to the limelight and strengthened her attractiveness in Latin America through her album “Pies Descalzos” (Krohn, 2007, p. 103). She further recorded three tracks in Portuguese. The influence of this album and her popularity in many states encouraged her to return to Sony thus recording “Pies Descalzo” in 1995(Krohn, 2007, p.103).
Later, she successful performed “Esta Corazon?” and Pies Descalzos” which was available in Latin American markets in 1995 and globally in 1996. It was debuted as number one in more than eight countries around the world.
Shakira’s second self-produced album (produced by herself and Emilio Estan, Jr., as a co-producer) was known as “DondeEstan Los Ladrones?” This album was inspired by loss of her lyrics at the airport (Krohn, 2007, p.35). The album was a hit than “Pies Descalzos”. The success of “DondeEstan Los Ladrones” excited Shakira and she embarked on an English crossover album.
This was important for her to promote herself in a greater market while preserving the popularity of mainstream music and career diversification.”Whenever, Wherever” was the first English lead single in 2001 and 2002. The song is credited for having heavily borrowed from Andean music including Panpipes and Charango in its instrumentation. “Whenever, wherever” was internationally successful as it achieved number one slot in many countries (Krohn, 2007, p.88).
Shakira has encompassed several genres in her music productions. The most notably genres include folk, rock and mainstream pop hence her music is a synthesis of diverse features. Moreover, Shakira is one of the best and highest Latin America selling artists. She has sold over 60 million albums globally (Krohn, 2007).
“Hips don’t lie” was one of the most aired single in US radio history. Consequently, she was one of the first artists in history of commercial charts to claim a pre-eminent spot in top 40 mainstreams and Latin American Charts (Krohn, 2007).
Conclusion Colonialists helped to develop the Latin American music in a big way. Latin music styles are now appreciated all over the world. By embracing elements from Africans, Europeans and Indians among other cultures, Latin musical styles such as; Salsa, Tango, Baroque, Bassa and Nova have received a lot of attention internationally. Consequently, a good music foundation traced back to the colonial period has contributed to current level of performance by modern Latin American Musicians such as Shakira and Enrique Iglesias.
Reference List Buelow, G., J. (2004). A History of Baroque Music. Indiana: Indiana University Press
King, J. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Modern Latin American Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Krohn, K. (2007). Shakira, Minnesota: Twenty-First Century Books.
Moore, R. (2010). Music in the Hispanic Caribbean. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Roberts, J. (1999). The Latin Tinge: The Impact of Latin American Music on the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Waxer, L. (2002). Situating Salsa: Global Markets and Local Meanings in Latin Popular Music. New York: Routledge
Countering to the Hepatitis Disease Term Paper essay help online free
Recent reports have indicated that an estimated 2% of America’s population has contacted chronic strains of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) or the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). An average of 15000 annual deaths has been ascribed to Hepatitis or other liver related infections. It should be noted that up to 75% of the infected populace are not aware they have the disease. The state of affairs is worsened by the limited fiscal resources allotted by the exchequer.
A meager 2% of the medical budget is reserved for Hepatitis as compared to 69% slated for AIDS. The disparity exists; although, both diseases originate from viral infections (Peters, 2010). Limited resources have brought about reduced awareness levels in the public domain, which creates a challenge when enforcing disease surveillance measures. To counter the disease, enhanced societal education and accessible services are crucial.
This can be achieved by cooperation between management and healthcare providers at the different levels in which they operate. Prevention measures should also be enhanced, with prominence on vaccination against Hepatitis B promoted. This can be achieved if all states enforced legislation to make it a necessity before access to basic needs, like education (Peters, 2010).
Summarily, efforts should be launched simultaneously across all fronts, with emphasis on; outreach and awareness; deterring fresh occurrences, clear identification of infected persons; providing social and peer support for the identified persons; medical management of infected persons. Select groups in the society should also be monitored keenly, especially; users of illicit drugs; immigrants, tourists and other visitors; persons who were previously held or are currently serving jail time and expectant mothers (Peters, 2010).
Racial Inequality The differences occasioned by racial heritage play an integral role in determining the health status and lifespan of American citizens. It is notable that residents of color record lower life expectancy levels than their white counterparts. Surprisingly, killer diseases are similar across the board, with cancer, heart ailments and stroke being lead killers for both races.
The difference is occasioned by awareness levels and availability of necessary facilities. Statistics have also revealed that black women show lower rates of contacting breast cancer; although they are more susceptible to the same as compared to white ladies. This has also been accredited to lack of consciousness and necessary medical facilities (Gillian, 2010).
In addition, lifestyles of the two communities also add to their vulnerability. White residents live in affluent neighborhoods, with access to basic amenities and easy access to premier quality services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In these areas, security is the least of concerns hence relative peace of mind is existent among the residents. In the black neighborhoods, security is a paramount concern, a factor which contributes to their stress levels. Coupled with other factors, the apparent uneasiness resulting thereof impacts negatively on them, affecting their health in the process (Gillian, 2010).
Lack of jobs is another factor that contributes to the existing difference between the two races. The closure of industries and other job creating ventures resulted in high-unemployment rates. This translates to a lack of proceeds, making it difficult for them to access therapeutic insurance policies or cash required before an individual gains the right to use these services. This compares poorly with the white youths who have disposable income to spend due to employment opportunities or the fiscal ability of their parents (Gillian, 2010).
Female Circumcision This practice is widespread across a number of nations especially in Africa. The process is carried out differently, depending on the cultural values espoused by a community. Some natives are known to rub turmeric on the genitals, while others draw blood from the clitoris. It is noted that others are known to cut off sections of the clitoris. It is noteworthy, that the magnitude of flesh which is removed off from the clitoris varies depending on the community.
For some nations, this trend is backed by religious principles. This includes Indonesia among other Islamic states. Medical personnel have indicated that this practice does not have any benefits. The male version of the practice has been applauded for the myriad of positives that arise. It is affirmed that instances of abridged HIV infectivity rates have been reported (Corbett, 2008).
It is commendable that several nations in Africa have taken the initiative of outlawing the practice, following similar moves by western nations. This equates to a drop in the ocean since many nations still engage in the practice, using religion and culture as an excuse to propagate the practice.
For them, this practice regulates hormonal levels in the ladies and makes them more appealing brides. In addition, their libido levels are normalized. Summarily, health officers attached to the UN have emphasized illegality of this act, exerting pressure on policy makers to outlaw the practice. The move is bearing fruit in some nations like Indonesia, where government practitioners are forbidden from performing the same.
While such efforts mark considerable steps in the right direction, activists should be on the lookout for a backlash from natives. It is essential to rope in all stake holders and cultural leaders in attempts to minimize the habit, as opposed to waging open war against them (Corbett, 2008).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Countering to the Hepatitis Disease specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Corbett, S. (2008). A cutting tradition. The New York Times Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/20/magazine/20circumcision-t.html?_r=1
Gillian, H. (2010). Racial inequality: a public health issue. KALWNEWS. Web.
Peters, D. (2010). Hepatitis B and C remain public health issue — up to 5.3 million Americans infected. Medical News Retrieved from https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-02/w-hba022310.php
The No Child Left Behind Policy Research Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Benefits of NCLB
NCLB and Students
NCBL and Teachers
NCBL and Funding
Introduction In 2002, the then United States of America president George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) bill into law. NCLB affects the content of subjects, tests performed in school, mode of teacher training, education funding and spending of money in education circles.
Consequently, different people raised voices from all quarters in society with critics and adherents alike, giving their opinions. Nevertheless, it is important to analyze this act before passing any judgment. Like any other act, the NCLB act has its merits and demerits; therefore, any opinion should be grounded on facts to determine if the merits outweigh the demerits or vice versa. If the former outweighs the latter, then the act is beneficial. The reverse is also true. Given the validity and feasibility of this act, NCLB is beneficial.
Benefits of NCLB As aforementioned, NCLB affects three critical areas in education circles viz. students, teachers and funding. The benefits of NCLB to each one of these highlight how beneficial it is to the involved parties. Therefore, it is paramount to analyze each category separately in a bid to separate facts from propaganda. Notably, all the NCLB provisions seek to advance education standards thus benefiting, first the students and then to the United States of America as a country.
NCLB and Students Under NCLB act, students can transfer to better schools or access free tutoring. The legislation requires all schools to present Adequately Yearly Progress (AYP) thus enabling students to know whether their schools are progressing, retrogressing or stagnant.
In case where the school is not recording positive AYP results, students can transfer to better schools with a positive AYP results. The right to access better-performing schools empowers students for they can meet their academic goals without being restrained by unfavorable learning environments.
This provision standardizes the education system, moderating the hitherto scenario where students from a given demographic group could excel in school compared to other students in a different demographic setting. Moderating these dominant differences in education system is an achievement, because each student will be in a position to compete fairly on level grounds. Moreover, students will be empowered by knowing they can access quality education anywhere within a state.
NCBL calls for students to be “tested annually in reading and math in grades 3 through 8 and at least once in grades 10 through 12…science should be tested in at least one grade in elementary, middle and high school” (Hanushek and Raymond 299). On the face value, these requirements might not mean a lot; nevertheless, research carried out to determine the viability of NCBL indicates otherwise.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Margaret Spellings, the Education Secretary states that, NCBL is positively affecting education since its implementation. “The Act is challenging our students to succeed and our schools to improve” (Spellings 2). As aforementioned, NCBL seeks to improve performance and education standards and if it has achieved this objective, then it is beneficial.
NCBL and Teachers According to provisions of NCBL, teachers’ qualification to teach any core subject is preponderant. For instance, apart from possessing a bachelor’s degree, grade school teachers must undergo thorough tests to ascertain their competency in teaching core subjects. On the other hand, middle and senior high school teachers should aptly pass a given test to prove their competence in teaching. These provisions ensure students get seasoned information from quality teaching practices, thus elevating performance and education standards as well.
Research by the Education Trust shows that “students in schools with a large percentage of minority and low-income students are more likely to be taught by teachers who are inexperienced and lack a major or minor in the subjects they teach” (Peske and Haycock 15). In the wake of these findings, NCBL provisions come in handy to counter these poor teaching practices.
Instilling professionalism in the teaching career catapults students’ performance and education standards to great heights, something that the Education Secretary approves. “90% of teachers have met NCLB’s highly qualified teacher requirements… At-risk students are getting help earlier… children with disabilities are receiving more classroom time and attention… (Spelling 10).
These positive results from NCBL exemplify its usefulness in the education sector. Apart from seeking qualified teachers, NCBL seeks to incorporate qualified teacher’s aides in a bid to match the needs of all students. All these factors coupled with empowered students who are ready to learn, will foster education standards across all the states in the United States of America, hence qualifying NCBL as a beneficial act in contemporary America.
NCBL and Funding The above-mentioned programs cannot run without adequate funding and NCBL policy makers knew this very well as they structured its provisions. The policy makers stipulated sufficient funding avenues to ensure successful implementation of NCBL. Schools can now access and spend federal funds in teacher training among other programs geared towards improvement of education standards.
Under this program, schools can spend federal money to train or recruit and retain certified and seasoned teachers for the purposes of improving education standards. Moreover, federal funds can now be used to ensure students conduct scientifically sound researches as a way of empowering them.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The No Child Left Behind Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, “new regulations issued in October 2008 make it easier for schools to use Title I funds for outreach to parents to make them aware of their school choice and free tutoring options…spend non-Title I funds for teacher quality, technology, after-school learning, and Safe and Drug-Free schools” (Knaus 47). Given the fact that money is the driving force behind most successful stories, it is therefore important to support the NCBL act.
Even big companies sell shares to the public to raise money for development and expansion, and this underlines the important role NCBL is playing by enlisting federal fund as a source of funding schools’ projects. Moreover, as Spellings notes, this act will “ensure that high schools have resources to help low-income students” (10). This observation supports the bid to ensure equality in accessing better performing schools.
Conclusion The signing of NCBL into law in 2002 significantly affected the education system across the United States of America. By affecting different key issues from the syllabus content through funding programs to teacher training, NCBL act changed the education system positively.
Currently, students from low or poor performing schools can transfer to better-performing schools allowing students to compete fairly and meet their academic needs. On the other hand, teachers should be sufficiently qualified and seasoned in the core subjects for the well-being of the students.
Finally, schools can now use federal funds to equip students through teacher training among other issues that positively affect students’ performance. All these factors contribute to high education standards and this qualifies NCBL as a beneficial program.
Works Cited Hanushek, Eric, and Raymond Margaret. “Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 24. 2 (2005): 297-327. Print.
Knaus, Christopher. Still Segregated Still Unequal: Analyzing the Impact of No Child Left Behind on African American Students. Berkley: University of California Press, 2007. Print.
Peske, Heather, and Haycock Kati. “Teaching Inequality: How Poor and Minority Students Are Shortchanged on Teacher Quality.” The Education Trust, 2006. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The No Child Left Behind Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Spellings, Margaret. “Building on Results: A Blueprint for Strengthening The No Child Left Behind Act.” U.S. Department of Education, 2007. Web.
Efforts to Alleviate Ozone Depletion Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Depletion of ozone layer is the slow eradication of the ozone layer caused by the gases that are emitted into the atmosphere. The purpose of the ozone layer is to cushion the earth from the dangerous ultra violet rays of the sun thus it reflects back these rays. Were it not for this layer the earth could not be able to support any life (Hussen 128).
The ozone layer has its own mechanism of constructing and reconstruction which aides the process of sealing any openings on its surface. However there are some toxic substances that are capable of destroying the ozone layer permanently.
Dobson argues that these toxins contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Bromofluorocarbons (BFCs) which attach themselves to the ozone layer. They then split the molecules of the ozone layer and because they are permanently attached to the ozone layer they hinder the process of merging the split molecules thus the damage is cannot be repaired (1296).
That’s why products that contain CFCs have been banned in most countries. The ozone layer lies within the stratosphere which is a thin layer on the exterior of earth surface. Hussein asserts that since ozone layer acts as a barrier between the surface of the earth and the ultra violet radiations from the sun, any erosion of this layer will allow the ultra violet radiations to affect living creatures directly hence there would be no life on earth (128).
The stratosphere is the most prone area to depletion. The intensity of depletion is influenced by temperatures hence areas that have very low temperatures experience the highest intensity of depletion compared to areas that have high temperatures. CFCs were meant to be employed as a cooling agent in refrigeration.
This explains why developed countries are recycling old refrigerators because if they are not disposed properly they could emit these chemicals (Callan
Catatonic Depression Research Paper cheap essay help
Introduction Major depressive disorder is a mental ailment in which the victim exhibits an extreme mood, low self regard as well as loss of concern in activities that are usually considered to be pleasurable. Catatonic (depression) is a major type of depression that is exemplified by relentless motor function disturbances. It is nonetheless not viewed as a disconnect disorder but usually linked with other psychiatric conditions, such as, drug abuse.
It is caused by cognitions and environmental factors. The major cause of catatonic depression is negativity of a person or in the way he or she perceives different aspects of life. It is a disposition disorder and has an effect on an individual’s life, for example, the person’s health. It may even lead to suicide. This paper examines the causes, symptoms, prevention, treatment and various arguments in relation to Catatonic depression.
Dhossche (2006) asserts that catatonic syndrome is characterized by coexistence of psychiatric symptoms and motor symptoms. There is an association of catatonia with depression, alcoholism, syphilis and epilepsy. Catatonic signs can appear in a variety of disorders and it is not therefore purely a psychiatric condition associated with schizophrenia as it was earlier believed.
The identification of major depressive ailment is dependent on the self-reported occurrences from the patient himself/herself, demeanors accounted by acquaintances or family members, and a mental status test.
Nevertheless, there is no (laboratory) examination for the disorder (major depression). Therapeutic practitioners in general call for examinations for (physical) conditions that may result in similar indications so as to establish the outcomes and degree of the major depression. According to Gelder, Mayou and Geddes (2005), a depressive ailment may result in dawdling recovery of the sick individual and may impinge on or deteriorate the victim’s physical health if it is not noticed at some point in the early phases.
Beck and Alford (2009) asserts that in the class of disposition disorders, catatonic indicators are normally linked to bipolar I ailment which is a disposition disorder concerning depressive and mania phases. Signs and symptoms of catatonic exhilaration, for instance, unsystematic movement not linked to the surroundings or replication of phrases, words, and movements may take place for the period of manic stage.
The authentic catatonic indicators are unfeasible to make a distinction from those witnessed in catatonic (schizophrenia). The catatonic symptoms may also appear in combination with other mood disorders, including bipolar II disorder, mixed disorders and major depressive disorders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Causes of Catatonic depression
Catatonic depression is mainly caused by problems in production of neurotransmitters within the brain. These are substances that carry out impulses beside a nerve (from one nerve unit to the other). Serotonins (as well as norepinephrine) are believed to be the most essential neuro-transmitters that are linked to depression. Other causes include psycho-social, genetic among other factors.
This involves different aspects of personality, where there is negativity in ones way of life, there is a tendency to develop depression since ones emotions are affected in a negative way. This is caused by the inability of an individual to cope with situations and low self esteem. A person may develop depression due to ealy relationships with the parents or caretakers for example during infant stage for example loss of a parent or mistreatment and rejection of the child.
Social factors like poverty can cause mental disorders one of them being depression. Child abuse which may be physical, emotional or sexual can cause depression later in life as the child live to remember the ordeal many years after its occurrence. This is built on the argument that it is during the childhood days that a person’s develops and learns how to be a social being. Any ill-treatment may disfigure a child’s character development and afterward lead to depression and other intellectual and expressive disorders.
Some kinds of long-term drug use or over-use of drugs and alcohol can also cause depression or worsen depressive conditions.
Major depression is associated with causing an increased individual reproductive fitness. Depression may be hereditary where the depression disorders may be passed genetically. This is linked to some species and the manner in which they adapt to various stimuli especially those who perceive things in a negative manner.
Signs of Catatonic dejection
The most discrete indications are; motor immobility, intense negativism and denial to speak, replication of other individuals terms and deeds as well as eccentric movements.
Mainly, people with catatonic depression remain motionless and may remain in a position in which they have been placed for a long time, unnecessary activity that is performed without a specific reason, feelings of worthlessness, unnecessary guilt and regret, helplessness, hopelessness, self-hatred, poor concentration and memory, withdrawal from social situations and activities, reduced sexual desires, and thoughts of suicide. Catatonic depression patients may be stigmatized (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)
We will write a custom Research Paper on Catatonic Depression specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Prevention of Catatonic depression
Although there is no one major preventive measure for depressive disorders, the recommended way to prevent Catatonic depression is through Beck’s cognitive-behavioral therapy. The therapy works by breaking a person’s negative perceptions about him or herself, the world, and their general view of different aspects of life.
Catatonic (depression) Treatment
Preliminary treatment is intended at mitigating the victim from the catatonic situation. The commonly used form of treatment is the use of antidepressants medication. Electroconvulsive remedy is also an effectual treatment for catatonia and its associated causes, for instance, depression.
It has a more rapidly effect than anti-depressant (therapy) and hence it is suggested for urgent situations for example where one is refusing to take meals. Care should be taken in the provision of the medication since wrong use can worsen the situation. When first line treatment fails, other means are used, for example amantadine which may lead to tolerance when its use is prolonged hence causing psychosis.
Memantine is another alternative and is ideal for persons who can not put up with amantadine for the reason that it has decreased frequencies of psychosis. Hospitalization is necessary for people who posses signs of being violent and the ability to harm themselves or others. Counseling is also essential to the patients as it helps them change their negative attitude towards life and value themselves.
It helps the patients to raise their self- esteem and learn to live positively hence avoiding stress. Psychotherapy is very useful especially to older people and should be offered in conjunction with medication since it minimizes the chances of the disorder becoming recurrent. Physical exercise is also crucial in clearing moderate depressive disorders since it keeps the mind occupied and the body fit (Martin, Volkar and Lewis, 2007)
It is believed that depressed individuals usually have shorter life expectancies than those without depression. This is because of greater vulnerability to medical illnesses that lead to deterioration a person’s of health and also cases of suicide. Deficiency in societal support, for example, from the close family members may result in stress and strain, which is the commonly reported reason for depression.
There are some speculations by the American Psychiatric Association(2000) that states that exposure to ultra-violet light reduces the chances of getting depressive disorders. 30 minutes of vigorous exercise three times a week also reduce the vulnerability of being a victim of depressive disorders.
The mainly employed treatments (for depression) are medication, psychiatric therapy, and electroconvulsive (therapy). Psychotherapy is the treatment moist suitable for people under the age of 18years while electroconvulsive therapy is only used where other treatments can not work because of one reason or another.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Catatonic Depression by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Care and treatment of depression is mainly done outside the hospital unless for cases where the patients are violent and have signs of causing harm to themselves or to others. It is nevertheless hard to get excellent cure of depression in third world nations due to limited competent personnel as well as medication facilities.
Conclusion Major depressive disorder is inclusive of various kinds of disorders each with its causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment. However most disorders share most of the symptoms and characteristics and it is therefore difficult to directly identify a disorder. It is advisable to take preventive measures to ensure that a person does not suffer from these disorders and if the disorder occurs the patient should seek medication early enough to avoid worse effects.
Reference List American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Beck, T. A.,
Car’s Unique Types Classification Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Over the years, various types of cars have been developed. Manufacturing companies have designed and different types of cars to meet various consumer needs. However, there are three types of unique cars that have been marketed to meet specific consumer needs.
Characteristics: price and functionality
Unique characteristic: Low price
Example: Toyota corolla
Characteristics: Price and functionality
Unique characteristic: enhanced handling and speed
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Characteristics: price and functionality
Unique characteristics: Enhanced comfort and safety, status symbol.
Example: Mercedes Benz S-Class
There are numerous classes in which cars may be classified, however complete classification is hard to pin down as a car may fit into a range of classes, or not entirely meet the requirements of any class. Cars can be classified according to their size, performance, price, shape and mechanical specifications. There are generally three unique types of cars common to modern consumers: economy, sports and luxury cars.
The most common type of car common in the market is the economy car. The economy car is designed and marketed in such a manner that the consumer can acquire it at a price much lower than the average cost of a new car.
Economy cars vary with respect to profitability, size, performance and production numbers. During early production, most cars produced were expensive and could only be afforded by rich. However, production companies realized that they could boost up their profits by manufacturing affordable cars for the general population. The Model T car produced by Ford in 1908 became the first economy car to be sold in the world. The first major characteristic of economy cars is that they have low prices.
Economy cars are also usually small and the features of the car usually depend on the year of manufacture. They usually have the compulsory safety features such as safety belts but they may lack convenience features such as GPS systems and air conditioning. An example of an economy car is the Japanese Toyota Corolla which has sold more units than any other car in the world.
We will write a custom Essay on Car’s Unique Types specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second type of unique cars is the sports car. Sports cars are vehicles designed to have better performance and power than normal cars. Many sports cars are designed for two passengers, have two doors and have sleek bodies. Originally, sports cars had small bodies however contemporary sports cars vary in size with many manufacturers increasing their seating room in order to enhance practicality.
These types of cars are designed to do extremely well at maneuverability, acceleration, braking and top speed. The main distinguishing feature of sports cars is that the handling characteristics of these cars have been greatly improved. The driver is usually able to keep the car in control even under very difficult conditions.
While a powerful engine is not a prerequisite, most sports cars do contain powerful engines. Sports cars are relatively expensive; much more expensive than economy cars and other typical cars common in the market. The Porsche Company is an example of a manufacturing company that has been linked with the production of unique sports cars designed to meet specific tastes and needs. As compared to other cars in the market, sports cars are intended to emulate sporting performance.
The final type of unique cars common in the market is luxury or comfortable cars. These cars are designed to boost ease and comfort. These cars usually are geared for luxury and contain features that aim to achieve this goal. Luxury cars usually contain innovative equipments, greater performance and features designed to convey prestige or brand image.
The principal characteristic of luxury cars is that they are designed for comfort far above typical cars. They usually contain features such as leather seats, custom dashboards, and anti-lock brakes. Modern luxury cars also offer better handling and performance but this is secondary to comfort and safety. Luxury cars are highly expensive and are usually targeted at wealthy buyers and collectors.
The style of construction and technological features of luxury cars are such that they convey high class. As compared to the other cars common in the market, luxury cars are intended for comfort and to convey prestige and status of the owner. Mercedes Benz is a company that has been linked with the production of luxury cars including the Mercedes Benz S-Class model.
Cars have evolved over the years to become an essential part of human life. There have been many types of vehicles designed over the years however three types of vehicles stand out in the contemporary market.
Economy, sports and luxury cars are vehicles designed for a particular group of consumers and vary in terms of price, functionality and embedded features. Consumer power, taste and preferences are essential elements in deciding the type of car one will buy and it is for these reasons that most manufacturers seek to design and produce these three types of vehicles.
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Online Persona: Ethical Implications Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
What are the ethical implications of an online persona that is radically removed from your real persona? Is it ethical to create an online persona that is inconsistent with the social or professional identities you have in real life? The short answer is no. Conscious misrepresentation of oneself in any way shape or form violates ethical standards of truth and moral constancy.
However, the question requires an additional consideration: what harm does this ethical manhandling cause? For the purposes of this essay, let us accept that a fabricated online persona remains ethically unsound, as we consider the social harm this causes, namely, the perpetuation of crippling social stigmas, and the erosion of social trust.
Freedom reigns online. Ordinary social constraints drop. As Professor John Suler explains, “the opportunity to be physically invisible” online frees participants to experiment socially, in what’s known in psychological discussions as the Disinhibition effect (Suler 1). “People don’t have to worry about how they look or…about how others look or sound in response to what they say.
Seeing a frown, a shaking head, a sigh, a bored expression, and many other subtle and not so subtle signs of disapproval or indifference can inhibit what people are willing to express” (Suler 1). Not so online. Anonymity creates a distance and “a form of altered ethical sensitivity, wherein digital objects are not perceived as real objects and, at the moral level, people judge them differently” (Capri and Gorsky 58).
The motivations to deceive online often stem from self-esteem issues (Capri and Gorsky 54). People whose authentic social identities limit or trap them often “play with their identity online” (Capri and Gorsky 58). Deceptions in these cases still fall under the purview of ethical violation, however, are they harmful?
Is it not more ethically suspect to deny an “unpopular, overweight, non-athletic, and unattractive” man or woman the opportunity to live a more socially fulfilling life through an “avatar…more self confident and self-contained” than his or her real self? (Capri and Gorsky 54)
The answer is no. The harm here roots much deeper than social ostracization. Online deception may offer a temporary means to escape social “loser” status, however, long term, it upholds the belief that these very same unattractive sorts have no value as they are, and must engineer an identity in order to acquire attention, social recognition, and even love.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ultimate forum for online deception remains the online dating world; however, one difference bears scrutiny: online dating culminates in a face to face to meeting, and the pressure of this inevitable “reveal” tends to restrain deception. “Online representations of one’s ideal self—when combined with the increased accountability engendered by an anticipated face-to-face interaction—may serve as a tool to enable individuals to minimize the discrepancy between their actual and their ideal selves” (Ellison, Heino,
The Strategies to Harvest Maximum Benefits Essay essay help online
My preferred topic is organizational change; it is essentially defined as a process that involves transition from one way or system of performing work (which includes the culture) to a new way or cultural relation of an organization. I have chosen Taxes Electric Inc which is a small organization with vibrant presence in the market.
To position itself effectively in the market, the management has identified particular areas that need to be changed. A strategic team has been appointed by the management to draft a paper on how the organization will implement the strategies to harvest maximum benefits. After several sittings, the strategic team identified several areas that needed some changes. Among some of the areas to be reviewed was, the organizational structure, operations, and organizational culture.
The organizational structure was reviewed with some of hierarchy levels being scrapped to avoid conflicts and redundancy. This meant that some employees would lose their position or be redeployed to serve under other departments. Those affected received this with a lot of resistance because of the change in the status quo. The current structure had a poor reporting relationship with many employees unable to tell whom to report to. There were many overlaps of duties and responsibilities that rendered operations inefficient.
The current operations of the company were very inefficient. With the global economic meltdown, the company employees had to contend with working more hours for less pay.
This strategy was not received well by the employees. The strategic team identified that to support the change strategies developed, a strong organizational culture had to be cultivated. The culture will encourage innovativeness and greater individual flexibility. The employees should develop ownership of the company and freely participate in increasing company’s productivity.
The transition mechanism put in place to oversee the changes was not successful. The greatest mistake was the composition of the strategic team. Top management was over represented giving an impression that is unbalanced. This invoked a lot of resistance from the lower level employees who felt left-out of the process.
The management did not communicate the need to change to its employees in time. The employees learnt of the changes through informal networks prompting the management to resort to damage control. The need to change though positive was critically negated by the management of transition process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to change theories, people are always resistant to change. If the management of Texas Electric Inc needed to implement changes in the organization, they needed to be keen in managing the transition. Kurt Lewin theory explains change transition in his ‘freeze, ‘unfreeze’, and ‘refreeze’ model. Before the change, the organizational behavior is in the ‘freeze’ stage (repeated pattern of behavior based on the past experiences which people are unwilling to change).
To ‘unfreeze’ these behaviors, the organization should communicate and develop the need to change amongst its employees. When all the employees have understood the need to change, then the desired change strategy can be implemented. After implementation, behavioral effectiveness and efficiency can only be achieved when individuals ‘refreeze’ the changes. This can be done through monitoring and support where necessary.
Texas Electric could have easily managed change and obtained the desired result if they had adopted such a system. The company needed to have communicated the need for change to all its members. The next stage would be to build consensus on what areas need to be reviewed and the potential implication to both the employee and the employer.
Appointments to the strategic team should reflect the composition of the organization in order to build credibility. When specific strategies have been achieved, then the implementation process should be followed by close monitoring mechanism and support in order to achieve the desired goal.
Special Education; the Inclusion Debate Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction In the current society there are those people who need special attention if they are to be successful in education system operated. These people are people with either mental or physical disability. They are people with an emotional imbalance and thus they learn at a slow pace than emotionally stable people. When in school children require special attention from teachers.
Traditionally, the system that existed is segregating the disabled to schools that could cater for their needs. However, there are some conditions that can be handled by ordinary schools. Inclusion refers to making learning institutions compatible to both the needs of special education and ordinary children. It takes the form of administrative measures to be taken, teachers, and infrastructures. The curriculum should be adjusted to ensure that children with special needs are catered for.
Advocators of an inclusion system quote the numerous advantages that the system has on the disabled person; they are of the opinion that disability is not a disease but a condition. It takes the collaboration of teachers, pupil’s participation, policy makers and parent to make these programs a success (Hines, 2008). This paper discusses the need for special education in today’s society; it will discuss the methods that are used in an inclusion system and the advantages that the system brings to a child.
Literature review Forms of inclusion
There are different forms of disabilities that schools have to cope with. There are those who cannot see those with mental disability, the dump, and the physically disabled. If all these classes of pupils are in a class, then there are deliberate measures that need to be taken to accommodate them. Sometimes the measures may be on an individual child or the entire group. To accommodate them there is the use of Modification and Accommodation strategies, they are used interchangeably; however they have a slight difference in approach.
Modification targets at the situation in class where a student with disability is taught according to the level that he can understand. If he can only get the basics then he is allowed to read only that. In times of homework allocation, his work may be lesser than that of other students or have more time.
On the other hand, if the disability is such that the child cannot keep up the pace of others in class understanding, there should be recorded learning tools to be given to the child. The role of the parent in such a case comes because he has to ensure that the child learns. The same can be done to the blind. Class modification takes three angles they are;
• Instructional modification
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is where the role of the teacher takes effect, the teacher should ensure that the disabled has been accommodated in the class and understands to his level best. This may include involving the disabled in various class activities to make them develop a good sense of themselves. When the student is given homework and exams the work load of the disabled may be reduced or the time of its submission increased. The use of Braille’s and record taping is another modification.
• Assignment modification
This is where the assignments given to the disabled are leveled to his capacity. The much he understands is the level that he should be given exams and assignments on but graded with the rest of the class.
• Grading modification
This is where the student is graded with others but the exam that he undertook is different from the rest. On the other hand, the length of the exam in terms of questions may be reduced or the time allocated increased. This will ensure that the student feels that he is playing on the same ground with the rest while he is actually not. This will make him feel as others and not regard himself as inferior (Rainforth
China – Key Statistics on Economic Development Research Paper college essay help online
China is an important and strategic nation not only in the Asian continent, but from the international perspective as well. In recent years, with China adopting the liberalization and globalization policies in right earnest, the world community has been forced to take note of China’s strength while expressing different kinds of reactions.
While on the one hand China is not liked by some countries for the cheaper labor rates, some countries issue boycott calls for products exported from the mainland China for a number of reasons. Infringement of intellectual property rights (IPR) laws was another reason for which the country has received negative media coverage.
Even after organizing a never before show in the form of Olympics in the year 2008, by pumping in huge amounts of its resources, the country has been able to take the recessionary trends in its stride. While a number of developed nations like US, Germany, UK etc. were under acute pressure on account of recession, China continued to showcase an average GDP growth of 10.3 percent during the period of 2003–09 (Datamonitor, 2010).
It is worthwhile here to note that while the credit crunch led recession resulted in negative growth figures in many countries around the world, China was able to come out with growth figures of around 9 percent even in the year 2008, a dip of about 4.6 percent from the 12.6 percent in the year 2007 (Datamonitor, 2010).
Stimulus packages provided by the government certainly had a big role in maintaining such growth figures, but then such packages were also provided by other governments as well. Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao was a satisfied person after finding out that the economic stimulus packages had the desired impact on sustaining the economic growth of the country.
The stimulus packages worth more than $595 seems to have the desired impact on almost all aspects of the economy, as the industrial sector was also able to provide an estimated 22 million jobs to the job market (Xinhua, 2010). It is worth pointing out here that despite the stimulus packages provided by the US government the job market in America has lost about 7.9 million jobs since the start of the recession (Reuters, 2010).
Respective Chinese governments have put in place the economic reforms for about two decades now. It has witnessed gradual transition of Chinese economy from a highly regulated economy to an open one.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Impressive GDP growth, improvement in economic indicators, increasing income levels of an average Chinese are some of the factors pointing towards the increased say of Chinese people in world affairs. Hoguet, (2004) pointed out that Chinese economy has shown a growth rate of 9.3 percent per annum, with a per capita income that is growing at about 10 percent per annum.
The country seems to have continued the trend with a robust performance from its industrial sector. The industrial sector accounted for 49 percent of the GDP in the year 2009 followed by its services and agriculture sector with contributions of 41 percent and 10 percent respectively (Datamonitor, 2010). Key statistics of Chinese economic development include;
Robust GDP figures: On an average the GDP growth rate was 10.3 percent during the period 2003-2009. There were some dips in between, which were set off by impressive growth figures in subsequent years.
Inflation: The inflation figures have been a cause of worry for almost all major economies around the world, with unabated efforts from respective governments to bring it under control. Rising inflation figures have been a cause of worry for the Chinese economy as well. The National Bureau of Statistics of China indicate that the year-on-year consumer price inflation rate reached a high of 3.3 percent in July 2010 from 2.9 percent in June 2010 i.e. in just about a month (EIU, 2010).
Investment inflows from abroad: Foreign investments have played key role in the revival and sustenance of Chinese economy. While on the one hand China has been providing a cost effective manufacturing environment to the leading industrialists from around the world, on the other the indigenous manufacturing sector has been able to provide better export figures for the country. During the beginning of the liberalizing policies the focus of Chinese government was towards inviting as much of foreign investment as possible, but with consolidation of investments from abroad, the government has started focusing on the quality of investments instead of sheer quantity. While the FDI figures for 2006 stood at $69.5 billion, it was $108 billion in 2008 (Datamonitor, 2010). Leading manufacturing units in different sectors like Automobile, Computers, and Telecommunication etc. have ensured that they are in a position to leverage the location advantage by shifting their manufacturing facilities in the mainland China. Attractive areas for investments from abroad include manufacturing, energy conservation, environmental protection and modern services.
Strong Focus on Infrastructure Development: Infrastructure facilities prove to be the backbone of a vibrant economic environment in any country. If the industrial sector is provided with a robust infrastructure, it helps in instilling a sense of confidence amongst the manufacturers as well as service providers. The transportation system of China is stated to be one of the best in the Asian continent. With an effective and widespread railway network China has been able to connect even the remotest corners of the country to the centers of shipping and manufacturing. The study by Datamonitor (2010) indicates that Chinese railways had its footprints on an area of more than 78,000km by the end of the year 2007. The railway network is amply supported by the road network and other means of transport.
Overseas Investments: In sync with the invitation to foreign governments and companies for investment in the country, a number of Chinese companies have also been venturing out by entering into strategic tie-ups with foreign companies and governments. This is helping the economy of China in many ways. While the revenues generated from such ventures have a role in boosting the economy of China, it is also helping in putting off the deceleration in domestic investment climate in the recent past. It is pertinent to note that the nominal urban fixed-asset investment growth in the country has slipped from 25.5 percent in January-June 2010 to 24.9 percent in January-July 2010 (EIU, 2010). In August 2010, Tongling, and China Railway Construction came out with announcements of their intention to develop a copper project in Ecuador at a cost of about $3 billion (EIU, 2010). Corriente Resources, a Canadian mining company, was also acquired by Chinese investors in the year 2009.
Adherence to the environment issues: There have been allegations to the effect that Chinese companies have not been following the environment standards. But, the government of China has been continuously on an effort to improve its environment adherence record. In August 2010 itself the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued orders to over 2,000 energy-intensive factories in this regard (EIU, 2010). Such measures are bound to further strengthen the Chinese economic environment.
References Datamonitor (2010). Country Analysis Report – China: In-depth PESTLE Insights. Datamonitor Americas, New York.
EIU (2010). Country Report –China. Economic Intelligence Unit, UK, London.
Hoguet, George R. (2004). How Best to Benefit from China. State Street Global Advisors, Boston 2004.
Kaiser, Emily (2010). Will the U.S. job market break its losing streak? Reuters, Jan 3, 2010. Available online at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-economy-weekahead-outlook/will-the-u-s-job-market-break-its-losing-streak-idUSTRE6021CC20100103 (Sept, 16, 2010).
Xinhua (2010). China’s economic stimulus creates 22 million jobs. Available online at http://www.china.org.cn/business/2010-09/16/content_20945671.htm (Sept 16, 2010)
Chrysler Group LLC Report a level english language essay help
Executive Summary The competitiveness of a business in the changing business environment is dependent on the quality of decisions that its managers make. When making business decisions, there is need to use past and the present to make futurist decisions.
This calls for a pool of information to be available for interpolation and analysis. Use of information technology can keep such important information; Business intelligence tools are the tools that a business can use to keep such information to be used in decision making. It is thus important for the company to adopt business intelligence tools.
Introduction Chrysler Group LLC is an automobile company that was incorporated in 1925. It has its headquarters in Detroit, Michigan in United States of America. It is ranked the thirteenth successful motor company in the world. Seven years in the last ten, the company’s sales have been decreasing (see appendix 1). The trend of sales is a reflection of how competitive the motor industry has become (Chrysler official website, 2010).
The competitiveness of a business is vested on the quality of its management decisions. A number of systems that aim at meeting a certain objective in the business arena have been developed. They are either home-made or all user systems (commercial systems). Business intelligence is the name used to refer to the total collection of such system; it was first coined in September 1996, in Gartner Group report.
To make informed decision there is need to have reliable information (Olszak
A Clean, well lighted Place Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The short story “A Clean, well lighted Place” has been written by the author named Ernest Hemingway in the year of 1962. The story is basically a narration of different stages of life where the interest and thought process of people changes with time. Age is the biggest focus line of this story as people’s thought process changes with the growth in age.
The author had illustrated different stages of human life with the help of illustrating characters of old waiter, young waiter and an old man at the café. This paper evaluates the similarities and differences in the traits of all three characters.
The author had illustrated the younger age of human’s life to be full of excitement. The author has portrayed the character of the younger aged waiter as a young human who has his short terms goals. The author claims that the young waiter did not really felt considerate of the older persons around him.
To the young waiter, older people are filthy and clumsy who have nothing better to do in life (Hemingway). In the story, the author had described the traits of younger waiter’s personality as impulsive, inconsiderate of older people, focused to a conservative vision of sleeping with his wife and one who had no idea how death could come to his life in his later years of older age.
“I have a wife waiting in bed for me (Hemingway 28).”
The second stage of human life has been projected with the help of character of an old man who stays in the café till late night to drink. He does not spill a single drop of liquor on the counter and when he leaves the bar, he walks with dignity instead of unsteady walk. The older age of the man had been regarded to a stage where there are no hopes left but the fear of darkness at home (Hemingway). The darkness had been used as a symbol of death. Staying at the café for longer hours helped the older man to escape from the fear of darkness. The café was well-lighted that had been used as an escape from the darkness.
The light is very good and also, now, there are shadows of the leaves (Hemingway 62)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third character which is quite similar to the character of old man is the waiter at the café who is also old. The young waiter asked him about the old man who stays for loner hours at the café late night.
“I wish he would go home. I never get to bed before three o’clock. What kind of hour is that to go to bed? (Hemingway 8)“
In reply to the question of the young waiter, the older waiter answers from his experience stating that older stage of life is full of fear of darkness (death). The older waiter states that the older man was in a progression towards old weary days that ends with death (Hemingway).
Through the above analysis of the traits of the three characters of the story A Clean, well lighted Place, it comes to our understanding that the old man was in a progression of an older age and had similar personality traits as the older waiter had. The younger waiter had been projected as a different human who is in his younger age and does not understand the fear of death and the need of light as an escapee in the older age.
Works Cited Hemingway, E. A Clean Well-lighted Place. New York: Creative Education, 1990.
The Role of Marketing in Business Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The role of marketing
Introduction Marketing refers to the commercial processes involved in promoting and selling and distributing a product or service. It is basically the mechanism through which producers of commodities and service providers build up consumer interest in their goods and/or services.
Marketing comes up with an elaborate and systematic course of action that forms the base for sales methods, business communication and enterprise growth. It is an incorporated practice by way of which firms establish and develop solid client affiliations and build value for their commodity and service consumers and for themselves.
Marketing application was perceived as a creative trade in years gone by and it involved promotions, circulation and general trading. However, with the advancement of intellectual study in marketing, there is a wide scale use of other sciences like psychology, economics, mathematics, among others, which end up making marketing a science in itself.
Nevertheless, marketing is also interconnected to many of the imaginative arts. Marketing literature is normally proficient at recreating itself and its lexicon in relation to the prevailing times and the culture.
The whole process commences with marketing exploration and passes through market partitioning, commerce arrangement and implementation, finishing up with pre and after-sales promotional undertakings.
The role of marketing The main purpose of marketing is to identify the consumer of a product or service, to retain the client, and to gratify him or her. With the customer as the spotlight of any business, it is therefore appropriate to conclude that marketing is a key element of the running of such establishments. Over time, marketing developed to meet up the stasis in growing new marketplaces brought about by already developed client bases and overproduction of commodities and services.
Marketing strategies Taking up and practicing of marketing schemes and strategies calls for business establishments to alter their emphasis from just production to the observed needs and wants of the commodity and/or service end users as the way of staying gainful.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Attaining organizational aspirations is usually dependent on establishing the needs and wants of the target clientele and working toward achieving them. Any business organization needs to satisfy the needs of its customers in a much better way than its competitors in the marketplace. This is what gives a distinction between good and bad marketing approaches.
Approaches used in the past are generally considered to be below par as compared to their contemporary counterparts. These approaches have had to change with time in line with consumer tastes. The earlier strategies were namely; the production approach, the commodity/service approach and the selling approach. In the production orientation, the profit driver(s) lay in the production processes.
An establishment laying emphasis on this orientation specialize focuses on generating as much as possible of a given commodity or a service(s). The company in question basically takes advantage of the economies of scale, ensuring that the least effective scale is hit. This approach is effective when a high demand for a commodity or service is in the offing and there is a certainty that customer likes do not swiftly alter.
The mainstay of the product approach is the commodity or service quality. An establishment using this approach assumes that so long as its commodity(s) and/or services are of acceptable quality then customers will always buy them.
Selling methods are the profit drivers in the selling approach. A firm employing this lays emphasis on the selling or promotion of a given commodity or service, minus establishing new customer wants or needs. As a result, this involves selling an already present commodity/service by use promotion skills. This orientation is not the best as it relies on likelihood that changes in customer likes and wants leading to a reduction in demand will not arise.
Good marketing has various approaches which include; relationship marketing which lays the spotlight on the consumer, business marketing which lays emphasis on an establishment or a firm and the social marketing approach that has its emphasis on the society. The mainstay of the relationship marketing orientation is establishing and maintaining good customer relations.
The entire association between suppliers and consumers is normally under focus here, with the intention being to provide the best possible consideration, consumer services and thus ensure client devotion.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Marketing in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the business marketing orientation, establishment and maintenance of relationships between firms or companies is the main profit driver. In such a set up, marketing occurs between organizations. The commodity or service focus is on industrial goods or services rather than end user products.
The profit driver for social marketing is normally the gain for the society at large. The approach has the same attributes as the marketing approach but has an additional provision that there will be no detrimental activities to society in the commodity itself and all other processes involved in getting the product to the end user.
Conclusion Good marketing needs to focus on the customer or the end user of a commodity or service. With this, a lasting relation between the producer/marketer and the client will be created. With the advancement of technology, marketing needs to be taken to an even higher level by use of the worldwide web through internet marketing, commonly referred to as e-marketing. More precise target on an audience is easy to achieve in such cases.
The Concept of Reconstruction Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Reconstruction is regarded as the phase of struggle for United States after the defeat of confederacy in the civil war in the year of 1877. The phase of Reconstruction experienced a number of resolutions as proposed by Republicans and federal government to make positive effort. In the same era, Abraham Lincoln observed the plans of effort laid by Republicans.
Lincoln stood forward and critiqued the plans along with the proposal of better options to practice during the era of reconstruction. Another major contribution was by Congressional Republicans in the era of reconstruction. In this paper, we shall compare and contrast the concept of Lincoln and republicans with respect to reconstruction.
The Reconstruction idea that appeared the most valid was Lincoln’s idea on Reconstruction. In 1863, Abraham Lincoln planned to reconstruct the south back in to the Union which was the most reasonable plan in contrast with the Republicans. The Republicans were surprised to know that how the Southern states were allowed to be back in the Union.
Later on, the Republicans produced the same idea that had put Lincoln in the direct confrontation and after a little while it was cleared that the idea of Lincoln is more reasonable. Republican plan for reconstruction was to give the control to the American Army and take away the controls from the southerners.
The plan by Congressional Republicans is named as Radical Republican Reconstruction. The plan by Republicans was greatly debated as it was being regarded that Republicans were basically implementing their interest of staying in power through the plan of Reconstruction (Belz, 1998).
On the other hand, the plan by Abraham Lincoln plan was being accepted by masses rapidly and trouble-free. He gave reason that as South did not succeed their economic and political leaders instigated the secession and the war (Belz, 1998). Lincoln sought to harmlessly re- integrate the South back into the Union.
He presented arguments that the government was indissoluble and was for sure politically unfeasible (Belz, 1998). In other words one of the Lincoln plans for the Reconstruction was earlier than a state could be readmitted in the Union 10 percent of the voters wanted to take oath to the U.S.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To stop this plan of Lincoln, the Republicans introduced Wade-Davis Bill of 1864. This design of Republicans gave rise to the voters and it increased 10percent to fifty percent of the number of voters. However, this bill did not get passed because Lincoln, the president refused to sign.
This decision had put Lincoln in a clash with the congress. The drastic Republicans only hunted to help white Northerners. In order to solve the situation of turmoil, Black Code was enacted by the southern governments because Black Code completely restricted the voting rights of black. Black Code was an opinion of northern or whites as they had a fear that if the blacks were to come to the North it would possibly mean smaller quantity of jobs for white Northerners, or even opposing for them.
For a political group to desire something so poorly that they would think about hurting people for their personal benefit seemed cruel. Lincoln’s Reconstruction design possibly did not go into complete effect but it was still extra logical than the Lincoln’s design (Belz, 1998). Republicans understood that the South should be penalized for beginning the war and they wished to guard the constitutional rights of Freedmen.
Moreover, Lincoln’s another plan took place in the period of 1865-1877. In the following duration his government exercised to readmit the confederate states back into the United States.
Republicans panned to divide the South in 5 different districts and then wanted to place them under the military rule. Thirdly, it should be noted that the plan of reconstruction by Abraham Lincoln supported the black and whites altogether that was purely an American vision that was required in the era of reconstruction.
The Republicans of Congress sought to enfranchise blacks and supply economic help in the South for two major reasons. The first reason was to maintain blacks in the South so it would not damage or race with whites in the North and secondly to generate a midpoint for the Southern Republican Party (Belz, 1998).
Through the above argumentative analysis it could be said that the concept of Reconstruction was perplexed by different people through their contributions but the accurate is Lincoln’s Reconstruction design which was reasonable due to facts that he had notion to put into the design or plan as he knew not extra that 10 percent of people would all have a allegiance oath, there was no exceptions in Lincoln’s plan, whatever was assumed was done, and he did generate laws for his own individual benefit.
We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of Reconstruction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the other party Republican had an entirely different perspective of Reconstruction opposite to Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan of re- integrating the South back into the Union, and was for an enrichment of the U.S.
Reference List Belz, H. (1998). Abraham Lincoln, Constitutionalism and Equal rights in the Civil War Era. New York: Fordham Univ Press.
Women and Political Life Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Historically, women have been on the wrong side with fewer political and legal rights as compared to men. Even in career opportunities, women have failed to secure high positions due to male dominance.
It is as if these women still live in the colonial world. However, as compared to the colonial woman, today’s woman has achieved significantly rights that they never had or participated. Traditionally, the society viewed women as people with low intellectual power and weak to perform muscular tasks. They therefore subjected them to motherhood and wifehood.
Nonetheless, the dawn of the 20th century saw women assume some roles that men described superior to women. In fact, during the colonial times, women could note even vote to elect a leader. Voting was a prerogative of men. Some nations prohibited women from schooling and instead, assigned them household cores.
Since the dawn of the 20th century, women in some nations gained their right to vote, started attending schools and colleges to get education and some even acquired big jobs including political seats. This did not happen just by chance. Women had to fight in order to gain such rights. It was not easy to change a society deeply rooted in traditionalism and traditions that segregated women to accept ‘feminization’.
In order to gain political and legal rights, women had to convince the society to reevaluate its traditional views on women. The current society not only views women as a creative foundation of human life, but also, equal with men. In the past, the society considered women intellectually inferior compared to male. In addition, the society that mainly constituted male dominance considered women as the spring of evil and enticement.
For instance, in the ancient Greek mythology, a female by the name Pandora, opened the forbidden box and from there came despondency and plagues that continues to invade human beings even up to today. On the other hand, in the Roman world, the society enacted laws that portrayed men as children, perpetually lesser to men. Surprisingly, even the then theological teachings condemned women as a spring of all evil and wickedness (DinKin, 1995, pp. 1-12).
For example, St. Jerome who served Christian Church as a Father in the fourth century wrote that women were like the gateway of the fiend, the conduit of impiety, serpent’s sting, and overall, a dangerous object. Other theologians also had their own way of describing women. Thomas Aquinas in one of his theological sermons said that God created women to act as assistants to men, and that their main role was to conceive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He went further to say that if men needed assistance, only other men will assist them. In Asia and particularly in the Middle East, the society was fair towards women. In countries like India, women had the right to own property and exercise other freedoms. However, after 500 BC, Hinduism evolved and set out new dimensions regarding women. According to Hinduism, women had to respect men and always be obedient towards men. In addition, the religion prohibited women from walking in front of men.
Moreover, the religion disallowed women from owning property and prohibited widows from remarrying. In general, the society valued a male child more than a female child. The paper examines the roles of women during colonial times. Further, the paper will examine how the roles of a colonial woman have changed to fit the modern environment. In the past, women participated in roles different from the contemporary.
The paper will analyze the past and present roles of women and as to whether these roles befit women. Even with the changed roles, women still face enormous challenges. Yes, it is true there are opportunities for women all over the world, but the society continues to delegate minor responsibilities to women. History has shown that if societies grant women personal and intellectual freedoms, women can achieve great things.
For example, history portrays women as hardworking when it comes to political and legal matters aimed at changing the society that all of us live in. in the Middle Ages, women who participated in church activities as nuns, performed imperative roles that later shaped religion in Europe. The aristocratic women performed vital societal roles emanating from the reputation and authority they had.
From one era to another, women rulers influenced generations towards achieving success. For example, women rulers like Queen Elizabeth who ruled England in the 16th century remains an icon even up to today. On the other hand, the political lives of Catherine the Great of Russia and Victoria of England remain great inspiration to women around the world who aspire to be political leaders (Elaine, 2005, pp. 13-41).
Role of Colonial Women in Political Life During the colonial period, women had few roles to participate. This is because the society did not value women much and instead, it delegated household responsibilities to women. These and many other legal injunctions ensured women never participated politics and other public sphere cores. However, during American Revolution, perceptions about women started changing slowly. Women had to fight to have a say in political life and other freedoms.
In United States, men dominated the public space of both politics and occupation. Thus, women had to fight in order to join their male counterparts in political life. They instigated liberation fronts to demand the denied freedoms. Little they know that the struggle had to take more time than expected. Nevertheless, they never got discouraged easily but instead, increased their determination and strength to achieve the denied freedoms.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Women and Political Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although they did not achieve all of their rights, women assumed new responsibility termed “Republican Motherhood” that improved their accessibility towards educational prospects and gave them a chance to take part in public roles. Ironically, women did not achieve full lawful egalitarianism and voting citizenship (Compton New Media Incorporation, 1995, p.1).
In America, there were three types of women with different roles. These included African, Native Indians and Europeans. These women had specific roles that they performed within their societies. In most cases, these roles were traditional in nature. For example, preparing meals was the role of women.
Women also wove clothes, took care of children and taught them how to be good citizens. When colonial masters entered America, they got appalled with the way women performed these household chores. They especially goy mesmerized with the manner in which women stayed around homesteads raising children, doing artistry works, cultivating farms. Men engaged themselves in hunting, building houses and doing fishing. Consequently, the colonies established commercial companies and employed men to work for them.
However, with time, the colonial masters wanted to instigate permanency in their mining and tobacco firms. Therefore, they decided to employ women. The roles of women did not change because they got involved in farming for the colonial masters. Life was not easy for them in colonial farms. In fact, some of them even died of diseases, while the few who survived got married to rich men (Brown, 1996, pp.70-82).
Women never participated in politics but helped men in making political rights. The fact that women never voted is a surety that women were mere creatures in political decision-making. In fact, the society required women to get married before they reach 25. Any woman who was not married above this age became a social misfit. Surprisingly, as soon as they got married, the laws considered them dead. It is this particular law that prohibited them from participating in politics and instead delegated them household chores.
Moreover, women had no control over family earnings, land or property acquisition and never appeared in legal courts to give evidence. These curtailments became obstacles for women to participate in politics. Thus, their political life was doomed and reduced to hearsay rather than actively participating in it (Kamensky, 1995, p. 41-43).
Changed Roles Women have fought tirelessly to gain political status. For example, since 1920, American women participate in election through voting. Nevertheless, they still have long way to go as their political roles are quite minimal.
For example, up to today, no woman has served United States presidency. In United States, women serve in senate and governor posts. Until recently, Hillary Clinton, the wife of former President Bill Clinton, served as the senator of New York.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Women and Political Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More She is currently the chief diplomat of United States serving as the Secretary of State in Obama Administration. In Africa, the president of Liberia is a woman while is Asia, the sitting president of Philippine is a woman. Today, most nations allow women to elect their leaders and women have the right to vie to vie for political seats. Thus, the contemporary woman has the role of electing leaders she wishes.
Major constitutional amendments all over the world have awarded women parliamentary seats and in some governments, women get automatic percentage of seats to serve either in the public service or in politics. Today, women have the right to own and inherit property (Eileen, 2009, pp. 8-43).
Historical versus Contemporary Roles of Women The historical women engaged themselves in household chores leaving prestigious roles to men. This is because the society considered women inferior to men in all spheres of life. For instance, in past, women could not participate in politics, practice medicine, preach or become lawyers leave alone appearing in court to give evidence.
However, with long struggles coupled with civilization, women now enjoy varied positions in politics, medicine, teaching, writing, teaching and many more. It is important to note that the political gear termed “feminization” contributed greatly during the women movement in America and Europe. They instigated reforms that saw men change their attitudes towards women.
In the colonial era, the societies disallowed women from schooling. As a result, many women did not know how to read and write. At a snail’s pace, major political reforms in many countries for example, United States saw acceptance of girl child education. In 18th century, women could acquire professional education but limited to medicine. The few medical schools present trained women on obstetrics only.
However, a century later, women started training in other medical field like nursing. Research done in 1890 showed that about five percent of doctors in United States were women ninety years later, the percentage increased to 17 percent. (Compton New Media Incorporation, 1995, p.1)
In the past, women could not even give evidence in court. However, this has changed where women can now take law as a profession, previously regarded as a man’s job. Statistics reveal that by 1989, there were as many as 22 percent women lawyers and judges. In addition, women serve in other professions like engineering previously dominated by men. However, there is still a challenge as women regard themselves inferior to men.
That has seen many women take simple careers like teaching art subjects leaving science and engineering fields to men. Research shows that there are many women working as elementary school teachers than other levels of learning like high schools, colleges and universities. The few who teach colleges and universities handle disciplines like home economics, sociology, art subjects and nursing.
In other positions of work, women serve as less involving positions like secretarial, bookkeeping, typing and other service jobs that do not require much energy. During the Second World War, women had the opportunity to serve in the Army just like their male counterparts but as secretaries, nurses and typists.
However, they contributed significantly in the war through resisting underground movements. In other countries like Israel, women are almost equal with men where both male and female recruited in the force participate in full combat training. Thus, it is clear women can perform chores initially preserved for men.
Unlike in the past where women only performed household chores and farming, the contemporary woman can do diverse jobs including working as a civil servant or serving people in politically. In United States alone, women constitute about 45 percent of working Americans. Unlike in the past, women are now assuming managerial positions ranging from managers to head of private and government institutions. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 saw women start earning the same salary like their male counterparts.
Thus, women are now in a position to own property. With money, women can engage in active politics and compete with their male counterparts for political seats. Despite these major changes, the contemporary woman still participates in historical roles performed previously by the colonial women. For example, the contemporary society still believes that women should perform household tasks like washing, cleaning and cooking.
It is quite hard to find a man involving himself in any of these tasks. Research indicates that majority of women perform household cores in addition to raising children. Nevertheless, some men are now involving themselves in these activities especially in homes where both the husband and wife work as employees.
Challenges facing women Poverty
Poverty remains an issue affecting most households. In most cases, women from poor backgrounds lead a poor political life. Many of them do not participate in choosing their leaders. Poverty-stricken women are prone to human rights violation. Many of them do not have accessibility to basic needs and clean water.
These are many other inadequacies violate women’s human rights. In some countries, women fail to secure employment due to sex discrimination. They end up leading a poor life. In some situations, women receive less pay as compared to men. Traditional practices that prevent women from inheriting property and land remain a major challenge to women ailing from uncivilized communities. If the society denies women right to education, those women will remain ignorant and live a wretched life.
Institutions and Electoral Laws
In many countries, institutional and electoral laws prevent men from participating fully in the political arena. These laws contain some element of exclusion that locks out women from exploiting their political ambitions. For example, in Europe, the uninominal voting system has prevented women from acquiring political seats as many view it as an acme of individualizing the process of competition.
The system supports famous women who might be holding other constitutional offices hence making them double office holders. Such scenario becomes detrimental to the ordinary women, as it tends to maintain the political class through feminization. This feminization enters government level and showers it with oligarchic manners to continue developing self-replicating elites (Council of Europe, 2003, pp. 23-26).
Opportunities for women Gender Equality
Once imposed, gender equality will earmark a new era in the political lives of women, as they will favorably compete with their male counterparts minus favoritism. For a long period, politics has been the preserve of men. However, women can use their numbers and trespass this perception.
Gender equality break fundamentalism of any kind, discard male superiority and promote competition. In addition, countries that have successfully imposed gender equality have empowered women and instilled gender hierarchy in their system of governance.
This great opportunity will make women shine politically if fully adopted. Under parity democracy, both women and men represent a certain institution. Some researchers call it a mechanism of rethinking democracy even as people continue to deliberate on it. Parity democracy leads to social partnership between male and female hence forming a social contrast. Where there is democracy, women do not exist on paper, but they actively participate in politics to promote democratic edifice (Council of Europe, 2003, p. 23).
Reference List Brown, M. (1996). Good Wives, Nasty Wenches
Students Procrastination Problem Problem Solution Essay college application essay help
Procrastination is the habit of postponing doing things that needs to be done. It can also be defined as the act of avoiding doing certain things that ought to be done. This is a problem affecting most of my classmates especially when it comes to assignments.
I have observed that most students tend to avoid doing assignments until the last minute and some are not even able to meet the deadline. It is normal to procrastinate (and most people do it) but excessive procrastination often leads to problems. People are left with guilt feelings when they are not able to accomplish a task at the right time.
This is not a problem that is only affecting learning institutions; it also affects employees in the work place. It is like an addiction and once you develop it, it becomes very hard to leave. In this paper I will address the problem of excessive procrastination, look at the reasons why students procrastinate and give recommendations. In doing this, I will use books and the internet to gather information about the problem that will help me in making recommendations on solving the problem.
I have reviewed different perspectives from different scholars and found that, excessive procrastination causes anxiety because the tasks being avoided must be done. It also results in poor performance because the assignments are done in a hurry when the student does not have ample time to research on the topic. If this problem is not addressed, it can interfere with individual’s school performance as well as their personal success.
American Psychological Association Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction In future, I would like to join American Psychological Association. The reason for this decision is the benefits that I am going to get from the organization. This paper gives an analysis of the organization as well as expanding further on the reasons that makes me take the decision.
Background and History
APA (American Psychological Association) was founded by 31 members in 1892, as a professional body for psychologists from United States of America. Currently it has a membership of over 150, 000 in 54 branches. The association is the largest in United States and combines scholars in different areas of psychology. It has its headquarters in Washington DC.
Mission Statement for the Association
Advancing the communication, creation, communication, and psychological (knowledge) application in a bid to improve individuals lives as well as the society at large.
Continual Pursuit of Excellence
Knowledge and Application Based on Methods of Science
Outstanding Service to its Members and to Society
Social Justice, Diversity, and Inclusion
Ethical Action in All That We Do (APA Official website, 2010).
Reasons for Choosing the Organization The organization is composed of different professionals who have specialized in different areas of sociology, philosophy, and psychology. Annually the organization has meetings with its members where they share different observations in their area of specialization. Other than being a local organization, the company has international recognition.
It calls international meetings with other nations where they share experiences and knowledge. These interactions bring about net working environments and give a chance to enlarge ones knowledge in a certain area. When a member has attended a meeting, he is given a certificate which is recognized all over the world and given preference in America.
On a monthly basis there is a magazine and a journal produced for the members to read on various developments of the firm. The magazine is freely available to members who have paid annual subscription. In the magazine discussion focuses more on current trends in psychology and the way it affects the world.
To be a more productive member in the organization; I am planning to enroll in psychology classes. Other than understanding different trends in psychology, I will also understand different aspects in current changing world. Understanding the world will assist me in my main field which is economics; I will be able to understand the trends that are in business and the world economy at large and making decisions will be easier.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In America the organization members are highly respected due to the precedence of integrity set by other members. Being a member of the organization will not only boost my knowledge in the area of psychology but will assist me when making decision in future on my career. The core values set on the other hand place responsibility of care in me and thus I will become a respectable professional with integrity (Jo-Ida
The Concept of Metadata Essay college application essay help
The concept of metadata has gained popularity. Creation of videos and photography make use of metadata. It is also used in web pages and in a library to archive information. The metadata must always meet worldwide standards. Metadata is well structured using established schemes like models and standards of metadata. It has three categories.
They include descriptive, structural, and administrative type of metadata. Metadata mean different things. Some say it is a device that understands information while others use it as a record. Main uses include data recovery, framework of electronic resources and digital documents.
Metadata is also used in the extraction and maintenance of information. 99% of the information is digitally created while only 0.1% is written on the paper. About seventy percent of the created data is never printed and, only 20% may be printed. This has seen metadata gaining popularity.
The term metadata simply refers to any amount of information providing in depth information on one material or other multiple. It provides insight on the ways of creating data, the reasons for the data and the date of creation.
It also captures the data author, where on network the data is and standards which were used. The concept of metadata applies to electronically stored data and its use. It describes the structure, meaning and how the files are administered. Its main rationale is to make it effortless to repossess, handle or use as a resource. The web page usually displays metadata in Meta tags form (NICO, 2004).
Metadata can be related to some discussions I experienced. The discussion was about state of art in Sub-Saharan Africa. Internet acted as a major source of information to the discussion. The United Nations website and other principal sources provided detailed information on the topic. Several sites gave insight to every situation under discussion. There were linkages to other websites with detailed information, which made the discussion easier than books.
The sites spelled out clearly the dates of publications and places of publications. Some websites required authentication. An article was written after the discussion. It came out with information art in Sub-Saharan Africa to back up other previous findings. The report contained the list of participants. It spelled out the place of discussion and soft copies given to the relevant authorities. A copy will be posted on the Internet.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A good example of metadata is an image. It may comprise of metadata which specifies its size. The size may include side dimensions and units of measurements. The color aspect may also be depicted. This may entail contrast, colors used and the extent of the colors. Metadata specifies the resolution of the image.
The date of creation and who created the image are also shown in the metadata. Related information like the links to the image and where it is found in the metadata.
Electronic discovery is cheaper than the discovery of paper-based information. Large corporations and societies and states have an easy time going through the information.
This has increased overall production. The Collection, storage and evaluation of information act as evidence (Michele