Table of Contents Introduction
Competition between the Fab Four
Why the issue became a scandal
How Burson-Marsteller responded
Introduction Burson-Marsteller is a public relations firm. This is a giant American company that won the best public relations company award. The firm is an experienced and respected organization that has won many other accolades and received major contracts. The issue about the public relations company Burson-Marsteller (B-M) turned out to scandalous because it brought disrepute on practitioners1.
The matter was also not addressed well at the time it went public. These companies were Burson- Marsteller and Facebook.
The companies failed in all their attempts to deal with the issue. They failed in their communication strategy and in the manner in which they responded to the media inquiries. A preview of the issue tells us that B-M was caught creating a whisper campaign against Google for an undisclosed Facebook client.
Google and Facebook are involved in competition to control online advertisements. Burson and Marsteller’s were competing reporters who were instructed to write destructive information about Google. B-M had been hired by Facebook to do the dirty job as well.
B-M understood the competition between the two and saw an opportunity to make money without giving due diligence to its integrity and the damage it would have on its image in case the issue leaked. The two employees were on the job when they were caught. The matter circulated to members of the public.
Competition between the Fab Four The Fab four American companies are Facebook, Google, Amazon, and Apple. These technology companies have defined and transformed the world in terms of information technology and entertainment in the twenty first century. Initially, these companies operated different businesses.
With time, they continuously transformed and fought for market dominance in the social networking industry, mobile phones and accessories, and laptops. Some of these products are their common products. All these companies are determined to be market leaders in technology.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their aim is to control the world living rooms. The competition has grown to a neck-throat level. Some of these companies have resorted to smear campaigns. This is to enable them receive undue advantage over others. A case in focus is what happened last year between Facebook and Google. The issue involved another public relations company, Burson-Marsteller.
Each of these companies ensures that information is safeguard in the best way possible. They opt to keep both their customers and competitors guessing what product would be next in the market. This has been the key to their success. These companies are reshaping the behavior of customers because they are influencing to use electronic gadgets to access the web. These include tablets, laptops, and mobile phone devices. The competition is likely to go a notch higher as they fight to outsmart each other.
Competition between these companies is a result of intensive advertising and the enormous resources. These are the hardware, data, and the media. This means that they have to be always innovative. They are all moving in one direction implying that their objective is to control the living rooms. They have developed a system in the market that leads to imitation2.
Why the issue became a scandal The process employed by B-M deliberately ignored the code of ethics that touches on the disclosure. This in itself implies that B-M had a hidden agenda on the overall issue. The tactics applied here such as, whispering, were negative modes, which the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) discourages. The society discourages other vices including brand washing, dirty laundering, and flogging3.
The company did not undertake due diligence in its initial steps to observe the code of ethics. Due diligence was expected from B-M because it is an experienced and renowned public relations company. The failure on their part or deliberate omission led to the issue exploding and becoming a scandal. The status of this company required it to think beyond money. It was expected to factor in other areas relevant to the company, which include the impact of the contract on the company’s image and returns on integrity.
The two accused companies did not handle the matter well when it was busted. The leadership of Burson- Marsteller resorted to shifting blame from one end to the other. The leaders claimed not to have authorized the contractual agreement, blaming it on the junior employees.
At one time, they issued a statement arguing that it was actually not a smear campaign and that they had withdrawn from the contractual agreement. A standpoint or official statement was required, but it was conspicuously missing. By the time the organization came to accept that what had happened was wrong and very unethical, it was too little too late. The damage on its part had already occurred.
We will write a custom Essay on Scandal in Burson-Marstelle Firm specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The management came out late to state that what had happened did not conform to the standardized rules of service. The statement was of no use because the damage had already been caused. Facebook on its part failed to take responsibility. Google being its competitor was disgusting to see Facebook employ dirty tricks that were shameful against its rivals.
The two companies ought to have owned the released information, and subsequently issue an apology. They should have punished the employees who were responsible and then proceeded to clean their images. It was also necessary for them to deposit an explanation regarding the same issue to PRSA4.
How Burson-Marsteller responded Burson-Marsteller is a giant company in the public relations industry. Its response was expected to be professional. It, however, did not handle the issue professionally. This scandal was uncovered weeks after the company had received the best public relations company award.
The company fumbled to try to contain a scandal that was already blowing out of proportion. This was not professional and only served to escalate the issue5. It showed that it was prepared to neither hear the truths nor get the feelings of other players in the industry such as clients and competitors, who posted their comments on the Facebook page.
It employed a defensive mission instead of being apologetic. In addition to this, it denied being involved as soon as the issue was uncovered. One of its employees cheated that the organization had communicated with Jessica. She argued that the company was suffering from malice.
Burson-Marstellar continued to handle the issue badly when the organization declined to take action against the two employees who had orchestrated the smear campaign. The organization instead promised to offer the two employees additional classes on ethics. These people were former senior journalists. They had earned their respect through good work before. The question of taking them for extra ethics classes was therefore unnecessary6.
It only added proved that Burson – Marsteller’s was incompetent in handling communication issues, especially those arising from the media. This was wrong and did not augur well for the company. It would have been positive if the company took disciplinary actions against the two.
Failure of the same only meant that the actions of the company could be interpreted to mean the top management of the company was involved. Another reaction came from its former Chief Executive Officer who rebuked the action wondering what had gone wrong at Burson-Marsteller. A statement from the boss on the matter was evaluated to mean failure by the current leadership in handling administration matters, including communication7.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Scandal in Burson-Marstelle Firm by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Lessons There are various lessons that can be learned from the public relations scandal. The two companies failed to use important aspects of the two-way symmetrical public relations model. The two companies did not show honesty in their contractual engagement. The best way would be to embrace honesty. Moreover, the companies should have accepted to compromise through embracing a two-way communication model.
This was lacking because B-M did not even reveal its client. Understanding the rules of disclosure would be very important. Transparency includes making public the necessary information. This avoids misinterpretation and misrepresentation of the company. It is also a need under the code of conduct.
B-M deliberately concealed information regarding Facebook, which is its client. Rules are very clear and the company overlooked them. Strict adherence could have helped the company in ending the mistake. It is also good to speak with one voice. Specific people should be assigned the duty of giving information when a crisis arises. This allows the media and the public to receive accurate information.
When the matter found its way to the public, B-M and Facebook did not show any effort that focused on achieving mutual respect. A public apology and taking actions against the two employees would have been the best way to resolve the conflict. Furthermore, B-M and Facebook failed to explore the concept of negotiation and the willingness to make compromises, as illustrated by Grunig and Todd.
They instead started offering conflicting statements over the issue. The best approach would have been to solve conflicts and promote mutual understanding.
B-M saw the rivalry between Facebook and Google and wanted to make money out of the confusion. This was in disregard to the two-way symmetric model of public relations. B-M should have resisted the urge to make money using dirty means for the sake of its reputation.
Strict adherence to the code of ethics by both the management and employees is paramount. The follow-up activities by the company to ensure implementation of the same are also a necessity. If the management of B-M were to adhere to the code of ethics, it would be definite that the matter would have taken a very different direction.
It is imperative to understand that a company shouldering any misbehavior by its employees should therefore be prepared to handle the consequences8. Burson –Marstellar and Facebook should have weighed these options, including what effect their actions would have on their company images and integrity. They did not know that these factors were important in the flop of their agendum9.
It is also necessary to understand the dynamics of the industry in which a firm is operating10. The social media is powerful such that secretes are no more. Therefore, learning what the organization can engage in may save it from a problem. The ever-advancing technology does not leave room for secrets.
Bibliography Applegate, Jane. Great Ideas for Your Small Business. Hoboken, N.J: Bloomberg Press, 2011.
Briscoe, Schuler. International Human Resource Management. New York: Routledge, 2012
Croteau, Hoynes. Media/Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2012.
Dowling, Festing. International Human Resource Management: managing people in a multinational context. Sydney: Thomson Learning, 2008.
Meyerson, Mitch. Success Secrets of the Online Marketing Superstars. Chicago: Dearborn Trade Pub, 2005.
Miller, David. Tales from Facebook. New York: Polity, 2011.
Nankervis, Chatterjee. Perspectives of Human Resource Management in the Asia Pacific. Sydney: Pearson Education Australia, 2006.
Perlman, Corey. Eboot Camp: Proven Internet Marketing Techniques to Grow Your Business. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley
The relationship of Columbia River and the humankind surrounding it Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Columbia River has been providing the surrounding human beings with salmon for a long period. In the beginning, a remarkably healthy relationship between this natural feature, and the people surrounding it was very healthy and productive.
The people used to treat all natural features with respect, as thy also benefited from them. It was the responsibility of everyone to protect rivers and other features. On the other hand, natural features used to provide enough sustainability to humankind.
Everyone would wish this mutual relationship to last forever. Before the arrival of non-Indians, the land and water bodies were rich and very productive.
The people who lived around this basin relied on salmon, as part of their religion and culture. The society had a culture of honoring salmon, as they served them with plenty food, and surplus to trade with in other regions (Roe 117).
The above chart shows the positioning of Columbia River in Washington Oregon, and Idaho (Columbiariver.com).
The culture of the people around the river connected Columbia River both spiritually and physically. This was made possible through salmon providing humankind with the necessary energy to move on with life.
On the other hand, Native Americans made efforts to experience and learn more about the great river. The cultures of these people taught them that salmon as part of smolts they used to go to pacific for some food and a chance to grow (Cox 307).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the changes in temperature and other forces in the pacific, failed to favor the life of salmon, making them go back to their streambeds for reproduction and death. According to the beliefs of the Native Americans, salmon were coming back through spiritual forces, as they were less expected back.
When salmon got back in Columbia River, it turned as a great joy to these people, as they considered this as their harvesting season. They took this issue as a gift, as they were never involved in either planting or growth of salmon. Their work was only harvesting.
The history of the area provides evidence that Coyote used to advise the Indians on how to cook salmon properly. Coyote also shaped the big rocks at the falls, so that people would use them to catch fish.
According to one historian named Richard White the technologies that were initiated by indigenous humans as one of natural technologies of the Columbia (Cox 118). It was the culture of these people for men to work hard in hunting the fish, and women to preserve them.
The major method, which was used to preserve these fishes were by smoking, to make them available during the fluctuations.
This region also provided humans with enough sun energy that would dry those fishes. Most Indians proffered drying their fish with sun energy, unlike the Native Americans who used to smoke.
Nevertheless, the relationship of Columbia River and the people surrounding it started changing slowly. For the last 150 years, several wasteful and disrespectful practices affected the river, and other natural features around the area.
We will write a custom Report on The relationship of Columbia River and the humankind surrounding it specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These activities marked the onset of conflict among the people who solely depended on these natural resources. The natural resources were destroyed, due to lack of adhering to the treaty that was made in 1855 (Hall 23).
Lack of good human management of the Columbia River and ocean resulted to destruction of the natural resources. The people around the region discovered that things are getting out of their hands, when they realized some species are disappearing.
Several attempts of fighting back for the productivity of Columbia River were made by these people. It was evident that, salmons have been the sole source of sustenance of people within the locality. Some people used salmon when offering religion gifts, as well as played as a great part of their culture.
Geology of Columbia River The formation of Columbia River is estimated to have started approximately between 12 and 17 million years ago. This period is dated back to the Miocene. Approximately between 700000 and 2million years ago, is when the Columbia River started taking its current shape (Roe 98).
Geologists date this period with Pleistocene, when the activities of forming cascades ranges were ongoing. In addition, the formation activities of cascades ranges resulted to the mechanical movement of Columbia rivers delta, towards the north side of its current position.
The above figure shows the Columbia River flood basalts leaving organic rocks exposed (geology.com).
For a period, the Columbia River slowly eroded the surrounding land. Geologists considered some of those activities as minor, while others were significant to be noted.
For instance, there was a great impact of the river towards the end of the final ice age. During this period, the river flooded, the steeps were destroyed, leading to strong walls that exist today along the river (Cox 312).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The relationship of Columbia River and the humankind surrounding it by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Severally, the Columbia River caused strange and strong floods, some going as high as Crown Point. To some extent, the flooding resulted to quick soil erosions to the nearby land, leaving large layers of rocks exposed.
Fresh water The Columbia River is a fresh water system, surrounded with green trees such as big leaf maple and vine maple. The various precipitation within this area results to different types of ecosystems.
The major feature that contributes to increment of fresh water in this river is the availability of temperate rainforest wit average annual rain of 1900mm. Other important natural resources that contribute to the existence of fresh waters are the waterfalls.
The area has more than 90 waterfalls, with some as high as 190m high. Much of the Columbia water flows into Pacific Ocean. It is considered as the most dominant water system in that region. It has been estimated that approximately 15million people rely on the presence of fresh water from this river (Roe 106).
People’s several activities like transportation, fishing and industrial water rely on the Columbia fresh water. Globally, this is the highly utilized river in hydro electrification generation. The hydropower is generated from this river through the establishment of more than 400 dams.
The Columbia ice fields are the relied source of water for Columbia River. Among all economic activities supported by the river fresh water, the most crucial for people surrounding it is fishing.
The above figure shows the flow of Columbia River fresh water flow (geology.com).
There was a time, when people around the basin decided to look for a permanent solution, to save their natural resource. These people could not let the natural provision of fresh water to be destroyed.
They searched for ways of saving salmon and its entire species, as a way of sustaining themselves and boosting the economy in the area. The plan was meant to be their solution, to safeguard the future of their grandchildren, and many generations to come (Cox 216).
The efforts of humankind to save the productivity of Columbia River received some religion support from “catholic bishops of Columbia river watershed”. The religion forum suggested that the values that these people will express, the objectives that they will raise, and their insights would dictate the direction of solving the issue.
The main theme of restoring and solving the complex issues of Columbia River was that it entailed the spiritual, social, and cultural lives of the people around the basin.
Works Cited Cox, Ross. The columbia River: Adventures during a residence of six years. New York: Biblio Bazaar, 2010.
Hall, Stewart. The columbia River. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, 2007.
Roe, JoAnn. The Columbia River: A historical travel guide. Michigan: Fulcrum Pub, 2004.
The Runners World Marketing Strategy Report essay help
The Runners World primary business was to sell shoes and provide advice to people in the booming jogging business as identified in the case study.
The Runners world have shown commitment to marketing concepts evident in the problem recognition process based on the facts that a market can only exist when there are unsatisfied needs, the desire to address the needs, the ability to communicate between involved parties, and that there is something to exchange to satisfy the needs.
In this case, the problem recognition included the need to satisfy people in the jogging exercises.
The marketing concepts was also evident in adding value for the customers because of the quality of the products offered by Runners World, which emphasized on Nike shoes and attempts to establish good customer relationships reflected in the aggressive marketing campaigns and the positive image developed.
The underlying concepts included creating, delivering, and communicating value to the customers.
Runners World ensures customer satisfaction based on the underlying desire to establish and identify their needs by collecting information about customer needs, and then using the gathered information to address the needs.
That is evidently reflected in the search for information such as customer interest in style shoes, and the economic side that influences buyer decision making to purchase the product. In addition to that, Runners World has added differently priced shoes to address the economic demographic needs of the customers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Providing specialized shoes for different categories of sports provided additional sources for customer satisfaction. The case study shows evidence of the desire to develop the right combination of product, price, place, and promotion that are key issues in satisfying consumer needs.
The Runner’s World distribution channels include the Nike line and other retail outlets. In summary, Runners World has a store from which to distribute their shoes in the supply chain that starts from the manufacturing to the store supply chain.
In addition to that, the business could employ department stores, use discount stores, and use of regular stores which point to the competition the current business is facing, justifying the conclusion that the Runners World had a similar supply chain.
The primary target for the Runners World were the jogging group that provided a significant rise in the sales and a boom in the business. The secondary market included walking people as evident in the walking shoes that were later addressed as a need in the market.
That was in addition to the secondary market that included the aerobic exercises market, the basketball market, the cross trainers market, and the tennis players.
Additional secondary market included people not involved in serious exercises such as buyers of casual shoes. The market could target both men and women.
The underlying motivation impelled customers to buy the above stated products is based on the right mix that addresses customer needs unique to their income levels and demographically diverse environment.
We will write a custom Report on The Runners World Marketing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The products address customer value, lead to customer satisfaction, and the information provided in marketing of the products.
The business registered a decrease in performance in profits and sales because of a rise in completion from other manufacturers and stores, especially the supply of low priced products that many consumers opted to buy.
That is in addition to changes in the products the Runners World is offering the customers because of the changing trend in consumer behavior.
The overall Runners World marketing strategy is to promote and enhance the marketing position of the current store and product line to address current diverse product needs of the customer to increase sales and generate more profits.
The promotions used include increased choices of products that could address the varied customer needs. The other approach is to retrain the current marketing staff to conduct qualified product marketing to improve on public relations to convince people about the need to buy.
In addition, the use of fashion oriented people could improve the promotional marketing aspect.
The pricing strategy was to provide products priced according to the economic incomes of the target markets.
Products with similar features, but with different price ranges and quality, but same purpose and varied quality are provided to satisfy the customer needs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Runners World Marketing Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The competitors include Wal-Mart, which has introduced products with rock bottom prices with an assortment of lower quality products at lower prices.
In addition, there are other retail chains that include Lady Foot Locker who have targeted specific market segments.
The market position enjoyed by Runners World has significantly dropped compared with other competitors because of declining sales and the fact that the entry of the new players cut a significant share of the market.
In addition to that, the entry of the new players was based on lower prices and lower quality products that could address the lower income market segment while providing the same services and needs to the customers.
There is every possibility that the Runners have to formulate a new marketing strategy to address the rising competition and position the organization strategically to gain a competitive position.
The changes have adversely affected the sales volumes of the Runners World, the products the organization is offering, reduced the profits, and significantly impacted negatively on the market position of the firm.
There will be a need for the Runners to refocus the type of products on offer to address the changes in the needs because of the changing demographics.
The greatest strengths include provision of quality products and the provision of a variety of products.
The greatest weaknesses include highly priced products and poor marketing mix.
Recommendations The Runners World need to refocus on redefining a new marketing strategy and formulate a new marketing mix to address the competitive edge competitors have already driven Runners World to. These include a focus on the marketing strategy embedded in the organization’s vision.
One critical problem with the case is the Runners World never conducted a continuous assessment of their competitors and the changing market environment to gather information to help in continuously formulating a new marketing strategy.
There is need to come up with new strategies to identify the changing market needs, to identify the most appropriate products to address the needs, and analyze the competitors to establish approaches of revising their strategies to position Runners World and attain a better position.
That is because the firm failed in realizing new marketing trends, failed to identify the threats due to new entrants, failed to revise their pricing strategies, and their product promotion approaches.
There is further need to assess the pricing, product, promotion, and place concepts and integrate them into the new strategy suing market intelligence information.
Music Industry: Michael Jackson and 50 Cent Careers Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The career of Michael Jackson
50 Cent and his rise to prominence
Introduction It is often believed that the career of a performer depends only on his/her talent. However, one should not disregard that the outcome greatly depends on the managerial skills of the artist and the promotion of his/her works.
Moreover, one should not disregard the cultural environment in which this person lives. This paper is aimed at discussing the careers of two successful performers, namely Michael Jackson and 50 Cent.
They represent dramatically different styles; in particular, pop-dance and hip-hop, but their careers have some common traits.
Certainly, these artists may differ in term of musical genre, style, and influence on other musicians; yet, by looking at their progress, one can see that the success of a performer can be attributed to talent, hard work, and the knowledge of the music industry.
Moreover, without managerial skills it may be difficult for them to rise to prominence. These are the main issues that one can identify.
The career of Michael Jackson Michael Jackson began his career in the early sixties when he was a member of the Jackson 5. This band was managed by Michael’s father, Joseph who attempted to promote the band.
One should point out that his musical career began at the time of the civil rights movement was very strong in the United States.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Certainly, one cannot say that his success can be attributed only to the social changes in the country; however, they removed various barriers that prevented many black artists from reaching the popular concert halls or signing contracts with recording studios.
The influence of social environment cannot be disregarded. Additionally, Michael Jackson grew up at the time when Black Arts Movement was extremely popular, and it was aimed at showing that African-American could invent their distinct culture and art.
In his turn, Michael Jackson strived to create his own original style that did not exist before and this style is one of his major achievements. Thus, social and cultural environment affected this artist.
He achieved recognition in the eighties when he became the symbol of an emerging musical style, called dance-pop. This style has such attributes as constant tempo, emphasis on grooves or beats, and catchy lyrics that is more likely to be remembered by listeners (Warner 2003, p. 15).
In the eighties, the name of Michael Jackson was associated with many successful songs and albums. In particular one can mention his studio album Thriller that still remains the best-selling album in the United States and all over the world (Hombach 2001, p. 97).
This album contains many successful songs; among them one can distinguish Billie Jean; this song was written and composed by Jackson. This song is blend of such styles as rhythm and blues (R
Plato’s dialogue Crito Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu
Is it necessary for people to listen to the opinion of the majority because they live in the society? Is the majority’s vision of the problem always right? Plato’s dialogue Crito is based on the discussion of such issues as justice and injustice with references to the notion of the majority’s opinion.
Crito insists that a person must listen to the opinion of the majority, and Socrates argues that it is impossible to pay attention to the opinions of all the people because it is important to concentrate only on the wise men’s ideas and examine it in relation to his specific situation and his vision of it.
In spite of the fact the opinion of a single person can be discussed as irrelevant in comparison with the opinion of many people, Socrates’ focus on the value of the opinion helps determine the main aspects of the issue and find the most appropriate variants to resolve it.
Socrates’ argument based on the principles of value, expertise, and justice is more convincing than the opinion of Crito which depends on the notion of reputation in its association with cowardice and tangibles.
Discussing the situation of Socrates’ being in prison, Crito provides his vision of the problem’s resolution with references to his values and ideals. Crito claims that it is possible to save Socrates from execution giving some money to the guard.
His decision is based on the idea that it is a kind of injustice to have money and not to use them to save the friend. It is the problem of reputation, and according to Crito’s arguments, it is possible to conclude that reputation is the social notion which depends on the opinion of the majority.
Crito draws Socrates’ attention to the fact that there can be “no worse reputation than to be thought to value money more highly than one’s friends, for the majority will not believe that you yourself were not willing to leave prison while we were eager for you to do so” (Plato 44e).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Crito supports his argument about the necessity to concentrate on the majority’s opinion, emphasizing that “the majority can inflict not the least but pretty well the greatest evils if one is slandered among them” (Plato 44d).
One the one hand, Crito’s arguments can be discussed as relevant if the majority is the group of people who can be discussed as wise.
On the other hand, the majority is the group of different people, and their opinion can be based on the principles of justice as well as injustice. That is why, Socrates disagrees with Crito’s position.
Socrates’ argument sounds more convincing because it is organized consequentially, and the principles on which it is based are correlated with the ideas of virtues. Thus, according to Socrates, the opinion can be discussed as valuable when it is expressed by wise persons who are experts in their spheres.
It is impossible to rely on the opinion of any person because of the lack of knowledge. Moreover, Socrates states that “the most reasonable people, to whom one should pay more attention, will believe that things were done as they were done” (Plato 44e).
From this point, it is also necessary to pay attention to the personal reflection on the problem and on the opinion.
Socrates emphasizes that “we must therefore examine whether we should act in this way or not, as not only now but at all times I am the kind of man who listens only to the argument than on reflection seems best to me” (Plato 46c).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Plato’s dialogue Crito specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Basing on the reasonable opinion of wise persons and connecting its importance with the notion of justice, Socrates concentrates on the fact that unjust actions can lead only to injustice.
However, Crito develops the argument in the discussion with Socrates, stating “I do not think that what you are doing is just, to give up your life when you can save it” (Plato 45d). Nevertheless, if Crito pays attention to the life of a concrete person, Socrates discusses the issue with references to the larger context.
Injustice can lead to injustice and this chain can be endless. It is impossible to resolve the problematic issues with the help of definite unjust actions because of their consequences.
The discussion of Crito and Socrates is based on the opposition of the basic principles which they operate, developing their arguments. Socrates determines the notion of value paying attention to the idea of justice.
Thus, unjust actions which are not based on the reasonable opinions of the experts and which are harmful for the people’s body and soul can corrupt the person. Furthermore, when the person’s soul is corrupted it is worse than the corruption of a body.
From this point, unjust actions based on the wrong values cannot be discussed as the way to justice. Socrates’ argument helps understand that Crito’s ideas depend on the wrong values which are reputation as the reflection of the majority’s opinion and money which can be used for supporting unjust actions.
Socrates’ arguments lead to Crito’s agreeing with the philosopher’s position. Thus, Socrates presents his main argument stating that “we should not then think so much of what the majority will say about us, but what he will say who understands justice and injustice, the one, that is, and the truth itself” (Plato 48a).
It is possible to rely on the opinion of a person who knows the truth about the issue because of taking the expert’s position. Furthermore, relating to the situation of Socrates’ imprisoning, it is necessary to rely on something which is credible according to this definite situation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Plato’s dialogue Crito by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More That is why, Socrates bases his argument on the discussion of the Laws as the main source of the truth for resolving his situation. It is important to analyze the fact of Socrates’ imprisoning from the perspective of justice which comes from the city’s Laws.
Socrates proposes to examine the situation from the point of the Laws, saying “if what we say is true, you are not treating us rightly by planning to do what you are planning. We have given you birth, nurtured you, educated you; we have given you and all other citizens a share of all the good things we could” (Plato 51d).
From this point, a person cannot decide what to do without references to the Laws. In spite of the fact the Laws can be interpreted as unjust in relation to Socrates’ situation, it is his duty to rely on them as the source of the truth.
Having presented the basic ideas which reflect his vision of the problem of justice and injustice, Socrates concentrates on persuading Crito. Socrates uses questions, answering which Crito begins to agree with the philosopher’s position.
The discussion of the idea that it is relevant or not to focus on the opinion of the majority develops with references to such concepts as reputation, expertise, and values.
Thus, according to Socrates different people can have different values, and such values and money and reputation which is based on the other people’s opinion are the values used by not wise men. Moreover, wise men rely on their knowledge of the subject and their values are related to the notion of justice.
In this case, the possibility of Socrates’ escape from prison can be discussed as logical according the majority’s opinion, but it is unjust with references to the ideals of justice based on the Laws. Therefore, according to Socrates, the Laws can speak the truth and support the idea of justice.
Socrates’ point of view and position can be considered as more reasonable because he develops his argument basing on the ideals of justice. Socrates examines the issue from several perspectives and concludes that people should rely on the opinions of the wise people, but not all the persons are wise.
That is why, the majority’ opinion is not always good or reasonable. Thus, Crito’s claim can be discussed as less convincing in comparison with Socrates’ one because those values which are accentuated by Crito cannot be considered as relevant due to their unjust nature.
Furthermore, Socrates emphasizes that the person’s decision should be based on those opinions which are not only reasonable but also reflect the personal understanding of truth.
Work Cited Plato. “Crito”. Classics of Western Philosophy. Ed. Steven M. Cahn. USA: Hackett, 2002. 42-48. Print.
How Does Peer Pressure Contribute to Adolescent Depression? Research Paper college essay help
Depression is one of the most widespread psychological problems adolescents face now. It has been acknowledged that a number of factors contribute to development of adolescent depression.
Notably, peer pressure is one of the most significant factors that cause development of depressive symptoms. At this period of their lives, adolescents need to feel a part of their peer communities, they want to be respected or even admired by their peers.
At the same time, disapproval and rejection on the part of peers lead to development of depression. Therefore, it is possible to note that peer pressure is one of the most significant factors contributing to the development of adolescent depression.
Many researchers agree that depression is a common psychological issue among adolescents. At this stage of human development, individuals are vulnerable to depression. Thus, Klykylo and Kay (2012) provide a detailed analysis of psychological constraints children and adolescents may experience.
The researchers pay special attention to adolescent depression. The researchers claim that peer pressure is one of the major factors contributing to development of depressive symptoms in adolescents. Klykylo and Kay (2012) note that both male and female adolescents develop depression due to peer pressure.
However, the authors also note that different types of peer pressure affect males and females differently. Thus, body image is very important for adolescent females and inability to fit a specific pattern becomes one of the reasons for development of depressive symptoms.
At the same time, toughness and popularity among peers is more important for adolescent males than females. The authors depict a number of strategies that can be used by practitioners to help adolescent patients cope with their problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As has been mentioned above, adolescent females are especially vulnerable to particular types of peer pressure. Some researchers focus on these specific factors. Thus, Strauman et al. (2011) provide an in-depth analysis of common factors contributing to development of depression in adolescent females.
The researchers depict specific cases that show the correlation between peer pressure and development of depressive symptoms in adolescent females. Notably, self-image and popularity can be regarded as the most influential factors. Adolescent females try to fit a specific pattern that prevails in their peer community.
Popularity among girls is closely connected with appearance. More so, it is possible to note that popularity can be seen as a certain indicators of the right and ‘suitable’ appearance.
The authors also note that many girls find it difficult to fit the accepted image pattern and develop severe depression.
Admittedly, self-image and weight control behaviors are also closely connected with popularity as well as with development of depressive symptoms in girls. Mackey and Greca (2008) implemented a survey that included 263 adolescent females.
The researchers found a strong correlation between peer pressure, self-image, weight control behaviors and development of depressive symptoms in adolescent females. It has been verified that girls tend to strive for peer appreciation and certain kind of fitness to a particular image pattern which is regarded as appropriate in certain groups.
Importantly, media create certain image which is regarded as exemplary, but it is peer pressure that makes adolescent females adhere to the image created. Inability to fit the image makes adolescent females feel frustrated and develop depressive symptoms.
We will write a custom Research Paper on How Does Peer Pressure Contribute to Adolescent Depression? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is necessary to add that self-image and popularity are closely connected with peer pressure, which is also one of the most significant factors contributing to adolescent depression development.
Girls who do not fit a specific patter are often victims are neglected which are two common forms of peer pressure.
Interestingly, such factor can also be traced in adolescent males. As has been mentioned above, popularity can be regarded as a factor that influences both male and female adolescents. According to the research implemented by Teunissen et al. (2011), popularity among peers is very important for adolescents of both genders.
Thus, 600 participants were involved in the research that showed a strong correlation between lack of popularity among peers and development of depressive symptoms. The researchers note that girls are more vulnerable as they need peers’ appreciation while adolescent males are more independent, in this respect.
However, popularity among adolescent males differs greatly from female popularity concept. Thus, adolescent males try to gain an image of a tough guy without paying much attention to appearance (though appearance can also be important for adolescent males).
It is also necessary to note that a number of factors are associated with development of depression in adolescent males. Thus, Chhabra and Sodhi (2011) note that socio-economic factors contribute greatly to the development of depressive symptoms in adolescent males.
For instance, economic status of the family often makes adolescent males feel outsiders as peers tend to take into account financial well-being of peers. Again, this has a lot to do with popularity among peers. Being unpopular often leads to victimization.
Peer pressure is manifested in the creation of a specific fitness patterns. Thus, to be a part of a group, one should fit economically. If peers think an individual does not fit, they do not accepts the individual or create a specific atmosphere to make the individual leave.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How Does Peer Pressure Contribute to Adolescent Depression? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, adolescent males often develop depressive symptoms as they feel disapproval or neglect of their peers.
Apart from, socio-economic factors bullying can be regarded as one of the factors which contribute to development of depression in adolescent males. Kaltiala-Heino and Fröjd (2011) claim that bullying does not only contribute to development of depressive symptoms in victimized adolescent, but it also affects those who bully others.
Notably, bullying and victimization have often been considered as some of the factors contributing to adolescent depression, but it has hardly been studied from the perspective of bullies. Obviously, bullying has dual effects on adolescents and it can also be the cause as well as an effect of adolescent depression.
Moreover, it has been acknowledged that bullying contributes to development of depressive symptoms. Admittedly, this topic needs more attention and further research as it is unclear what exactly makes adolescent males bully others and how exactly it affects psychological state of bullies.
It is also important to state that though there is quite a lot of information on major factors contributing to development of adolescent depression, further research is necessary.
Thus, it has been acknowledged that peer pressure is one of major factors, but it is still quite unclear why adolescents pay so much attention to their peers’ opinion. It is also important to understand to what extent peer pressure affects adolescents and development of adolescent depression.
This will help develop specific intervention strategies aimed at neutralizing effects of peer pressure. These strategies should help adolescents cope with their psychological problems.
Reference List Chhabra, G.S., Sodhi, M.K. (2011). Factors contributing to psycho-social ill-health in male adolescents. Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences, 10(3), 1-4.
Kaltiala-Heino, R., Fröjd, S. (2011). Correlation between bullying and clinical depression in adolescent patients. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 2, 37-44. doi: https://www.dovepress.com/correlation-between-bullying-and-clinical-depression-in-adolescent-pat-peer-reviewed-article-AHMT.
Klykylo, W.M., Kay, J. (Eds.). (2012). Clinical child psychiatry. New York, NY: John Wiley
Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible Proposal best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of the Study
Significance of the Study
Reference List from Main Paper
Introduction Religious positions on social issues encapsulate a wide variety of instances such as gay marriage, stem cell research, the death penalty, divorce and other such issues that have ethical and moral underpinnings.
It is usually the case that religious positions on such issues often result in positive or negative effects depending on the inherent intent of the religious group involved.
In justifying their position on such issues, religious groups utilize the supposed inerrancy and infallibility of the bible, as stated by their respective religious doctrines, in order to show that their position on particular social issues is based off of the word of God (Durland, 2007).
Importance of the Study What you have to understand is that the bible being inerrant does not mean that the interpretations of the bible that manifest itself through religious doctrine are sufficiently inerrant themselves.
On the other hand, the premise of the infallibility of the bible is based on the fact that it was created as a direct action of divine intervention wherein the Holy Spirit inspired the original writers of the text to create the scriptures that we know of in the present.
It must be noted though that various biblical scholars have indicated that the bible was originally meant as a guide for social interaction and not as a means of dictating how people should live. Not only that, it was not meant to encompass issues related to overpopulation, medicine and the spread of AIDS.
As such, this study sheds light on the current problem in utilizing the concepts of inerrancy and infallibility of the bible and will attempt to argue against its continued usage by religious groups who reinterpret the bible and use biblical scripture out of context in order to justify their own agendas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Significance of the Study The significance of this study is related to its use in enlightening individuals that religious positions on social issues based on the inerrant and infallible nature of the bible are inherently fallacious.
It was seen in the work of Grass (2007) that interpretations of the certain text within the bible is selective in that different religious groups had diverging methods of interpreting particular types of scripture (Grass, 2007).
For example, one religious group in particular, the Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, actually interprets biblical text in such a way that they indicate that all women should be subservient to men and that only men should have leadership roles both in households and at work.
On the other hand, the religious group “Christians for Biblical Equality” interprets the bible under the context of men and women being equals and possessing the ability to have the same rights and roles.
It is due to these diverging methods of interpretation of biblical scripture that the justification of church groups regarding their position on certain social issues based on the inerrancy of the bible must be called into question.
For something to be considered inerrant it should not have multiple interpretations. It should have a single all encompassing interpretation that is not subject to the whims and agendas of third parties.
If such a text is subject to interpretation, then it cannot be considered completely inerrant and as such should not be utilized as a means of justifying particular social positions based on its supposed inerrancy.
We will write a custom Proposal on Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Durland, Stanley. “The Structure of Biblical Inspiration.” Journal Of Spirituality
Films About Africa and Africans Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
General view of Africa and Africans
Ways in which non-Africans are presented
Introduction Africa is characterized by political instability as experienced in many countries. Political situations have remained unstable in most countries since one-party systems and military regimes replaced the multiparty democracy in those regions.
Since the implementation and acceptance of the borders created by the Europeans in the 1880s, one-party system was seen as a potential solution to conflicts between various ethnic groups.
The films portray African leaders as those primarily focused on their personal gain as well as retention of power which leads to inter-cultural conflicts (BBC, 2008).
A good example of such movies is Hotel Rwanda which is based on a true story concerning the responsibility actions of Paul Rusesabagina, a Hutu working as a manager in Belgium five Star Hotel in Kigali.
Rusesabagina together with his Tutsi wife managed to save over one thousand lives (Adhikari, 2007). The scriptwriter and director of the film Terry George’s aim, as he claimed, was to show people a love story of an individual in the midst of the conflict and make the audience to feel it.
However, a lot can be withdrawn from the contractedness of the film in relation to genocide as true experience. The central theme in this film is the possibility of a change from the traditional social set-up of the black liberation struggles and the current violent struggle for egocentricity.
Hotel Rwanda portrays the good versus the bad guy stereotypes within the African context. The movie features how some Hutu extremist exterminated Tutsi, and at the same time, powerful Hutu provided assistance to their fellow powerful Tutsi friends (George, 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Within the same context, some Tutsi killed Hutu in the process of defending themselves and their families (George, 2004). The black screen violence could be traced back to what is referred to as Hollywood’s Blaxploitation period.
Despite African blacks presented as heroic icons within these films, their political significance is referred to as “popcorn” violence leading to destruction of peaceful democracy (Melvern, 2005).
Hotel Rwanda clearly shows the aspect of racism arising based on biological traits. The film shows the extent to which such traits are treated in African countries, particularly to a point where identities are demonized leading to the ugly reality of neighbors turning against each other (Lu, 2004).
The African continent is also characterized by military conflicts amongst the ethnic divides within same countries. The films portray Africa as one of the most affected continent by wars as compared to other regions of the world (Global Security, 2007).
The frequent conflicts show African leaders within the continent as those unable to implement efficient methods capable of bringing solutions. The arising conflicts are at times based on economic reasons as revealed by growth and structure of income within most countries populations.
Such situations have led to the destruction of infrastructure and educational facilities as well as killing good percentage of working population. This makes successful economic performance impossible since economic goals are rarely achieved.
Taking into account the movies about Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya, the violence and its consequences are clearly presented to the audience there (Anderson, 2003). Such films include Simba, Safari and Something of Value (Anderson, 2003).
We will write a custom Essay on Films About Africa and Africans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The horror of slavery amongst the Africans is revealed through frequent hangings and bizarre mutilations of human rights by their white counterparts. The confrontations that took place as well as the random conflicts made it possible to recognize the individuals who were at the frontlines.
At the same time, those films feature material relations that surrounded human day to day livelihoods during such times. The Africans are shown as people who are deprived of common good.
Hence, they always seem to feel uneasy and troubled as compared to their white counterparts who in contrary are depicted as peaceable and enjoying their lives. This leads to stereotyping which gives some ground of legitimacy to racial ideologies.
The Mau Mau films show how the stereotyping led to complications in the lives of African perpetrators as well as the victims of regime.
This reveals the level of widespread of color-blindness within the African society, based on the confusion about the true political views and significance of race (Anderson, 2003).
General view of Africa and Africans From the perspective of the films, Africa is portrayed as a continent under siege. Africans are presented as a race which is described through the use of many daunting ironies based on unsettled paradigm shifts.
More than forty years have passed after majority of the countries gained independence from the Whites. However, Africans are portrayed as ill-educated people belonging to prisons since, according to some stereotypes, struggle surpasses public education to them.
They are viewed as those who have little influence on conditions that are structurally determined; hence Africans appear at the bottom of economic and social gap. Those people are associated with ghetto streets where they are supposed to live.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Films About Africa and Africans by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Africans are marred with fear of each other, their ethnic background, thus the region seems to have a different enemy to fight. The feeling of unity amongst individuals and countries does not exist making it impossible to work on defined common principles together.
The ever increasing differences cannot allow for the formation of some kind of African Union. This is further complicated by the existence of 2000 different languages increasing the possibility of conflicts of interests (BBC, 2008).
Ways in which non-Africans are presented The history of ethnicity as portrayed in Hollywood films is a clear reflection of ethnic inequalities within the African society. The non-Africans have been presented in these films as superior race.
Whites, in contrast, turn out to lead a lifestyle worth following and have a superior status, which is as well worthy to be achieved. They are shown to belong to the race united by achieving its main objectives.
The films have a lot of racism aspects, such as African men are linked to persistent violence and women are seen to have sexual promiscuity as the main characteristics of their identity.
Based on the colonial era, the foundation of USA was depicted as that which called for a war against the British forces for liberation purposes.
Despite the US case viewed as similar to Africa during the similar period, the thirteen states within America were portrayed as having fought cooperatively not divisively as it happened in Africa.
Hence according to the film makers, the whites understood the aspect of shared identity amongst people from different states with different backgrounds (Denzin, 2002).
Conclusion Such films on Africa and Africans complicate the issues on societal relations within African countries. Revelation on identities through films portrays the racial and ethnic wars as well as murderers and their victim, hence fueling political discriminations.
The gender sensitivity portrayed in the film also promotes discrimination in the role of an African woman in the society.
References Adhikari, M. (2007). “Hotel Rwanda: Too Much Heroism, Too Little History — or Horror?”. In V. Bickford-Smith and R. Mendelsohn (Eds.) Black and White in Colour: African History on Screen. (pp. 279-99). Athens: Ohio UP.
Anderson, D. M. (2003). “Mau Mau at the Movies: Contemporary Representations of an Anti-Colonial War.” South African Historical Journal, 48 (1), 71-89
BBC. (2008). The Story of Africa. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.co.uk/
Denzin, N. K. (2002). Reading race: Hollywood and the cinema of racial violence. California, CA: Thousand Oaks.
George, T. (Executive Producer). (2004). Hotel Rwanda. [DVD]. United States: MGM Home Entertainment.
Global Security. (2007). The World at War. Retrieved from https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/
Lu, M. (2004).Movie reviews: Hotel Rwanda. Web.
Melvern, L.(2005). A People Betrayed. The role of the west in Rwanda genocide. New York, NY: Zed publishers.
The China’s Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) Report essay help free: essay help free
One of the greatest events which had a notable effect on shaping of Chinese history was the China’s Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) also known as the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution”.
It may be regarded as the political event of the century, taking into account the far reaching effect it had on the China’s politics, economy and culture. The architect and creator of it all was the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Mao Zedong.
According to Joseph, “The Cultural Revolution can be traced to the mid–1950s when Mao first became seriously concerned about the path that China’s socialist transition had taken in the years since the CCP had come to power in 1949” (par. 2).
Mao believed that a privileged class of professionals, who had emerged since 1949, following China’s progress, was acquiring too much power at his expense. Mao understood the fact that new elite was unaware of the common and widely-accepted lifestyle of an ordinary citizen in China.
The revolution seemed to be aimed at purging the CCP of anyone, who did not fully support Mao. Mao Zedong’s desire was to create a country with a classless society where all the peasants, workers and educated people would be working together for the common good of China (Trueman par. 4).
This decade-long event can be divided into three main phases. The mass phase (1966–1969) was described by the activities of a vicious ‘army’ of school and college students, also known as ‘The Red Guards’, who responded to Mao’s call to “raise a revolution”. This phase saw most of Mao’s rivals in the top leadership deposed, including the China’s president, Liu Shaoki (Joseph par. 4).
The military phase (1969-1971) was mainly dominated by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) who Mao had called upon to suppress the anarchy of the ‘Red Guards’ (Joseph par. 7). Mao saw the need to suppress the ‘Red Guards’ after the activities of the ‘Red Guards’ had gone out of hand.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In some areas, they fought against themselves and even turned their aggression against the foreigners. The British Embassy was completely burnt down as a result. (Trueman par. 6)
The military phase ended in September 1971 with an attempted coup by the defense minister Lin Biao. Biao was one of Mao’s main allies in launching the China’s Cultural Revolution. His attempt, however, had failed, and he later died in a plane crash while on his way to the Soviet Union.
The succession phase (1972-1976) mainly concerned who would succeed Chairman Mao and Premier Zhou Enlai, both of whom were in deteriorating health.
After the death of Mao Zedong in September 1976, his key allies, also known as ‘The Gang of Four’ which also included his widow, Jiang Qing, were arrested. This marked the end of the Cultural Revolution.
The China’s Cultural Revolution is generally regarded as the most depressing moment in the country’s recent history. As Joseph puts it,
The movement’s ideals were betrayed at every turn by its destructive impulses. Hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of officials and intellectuals were physically and mentally persecuted.
The much–vaunted initiatives that were to transform the nation often had disastrous consequences for China’s education and cultural life (par. 8)
We will write a custom Report on The China’s Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The decade-long event remains a landmark in the Chinese history making which will be remembered as the one which had a great effect on shaping of China.
Works Cited Joseph, William. China’s Cultural Revolution: A Brief Overview, 4 Aug 2003. Web.
Trueman, Chris. The Cultural Revolution. 2000. Web.
Japanese Immigrants to the US Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Process of Entering the US
Americans Attitude to Japanese
Japanese’s Values and Beliefs
Current Conditions in Japan
Opinion on Their Journey
Japanese are among the different ethnic groups that immigrated to the United States between 1870s and 1880s. At that time, the Japanese economy was in the transition stage slowly transforming into the economy that it has today, and this led to numerous economic hardships, like unemployment and crime.
Bankruptcies were wide spread in the economy and civil disorders were common. Such economic hardships forced most Japanese people to immigrate to the US and particularly to Hawaii (Schaefer, 2011).
During the time, the sugar industry in Hawaii was booming, which attracted the Japanese, who were mostly laborers. A decade from 1885, almost 30,000 Japanese have moved to Hawaii seeking jobs and hoping to return home.
When America took over the Island of Hawaii in 1900, the sugar plantation owners anticipated the legislation of American laws against the contract labors (Johnson, 2010).
To beat the ban, they imported about 26,000 laborers from Japan in 1899; this was the single largest group of Japanese to leave for America in one year. Finally, the law annulled the contract labor permitting all the Japanese to migrate freely to the mainland USA.
Process of Entering the US For many years, Hawaii was densely populated by the Japanese people, as opposed to other regions in the USA, and it was due to racial discrimination in the country.
Racial discrimination was not significant in Hawaii as it was in the mainland US this had become known to the Japanese government, and it stopped issuing passports to citizens wishing to travel to the mainland US.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, many of those who received permission to travel to Hawaii found their way to mainland US (Johnson, 2010).
Americans Attitude to Japanese The initial relationship between the Japanese and the American people were similar to those of Chinese and American relationships, as Chinese had also immigrated as laborers to Hawaii.
The Chinese in Hawaii and mainland had ventured into small business and were successful, and this led to resentment and rejection from the Americans because of their hard work.
The Japanese had followed the same pattern, initially like a substitute to Chinese labor, but soon there was a growing dislike for Japanese.
These attitudes were more severe in the mainland as opposed to Hawaii and regulations were put in place that limited their progress and activities. In Hawaii, the laws limited the movement of the Japanese to more skilled jobs, and in the mainland they were not allowed to own land.
The theory of racial profiling can be used to describe the experiences of the Japanese Americans, and it became even worse during the Second World War (Schaefer, 2011).
Japanese’s Values and Beliefs Japanese society does not believe in one God like most Americans who believe in God who controls everything and determines the fate of people. The Japanese believe in a number of virtues that affect the character and the destiny of the individuals.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Japanese Immigrants to the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Japanese have all along been a collective society as compared to the American way of life where emphasis is made more on group values rather than on individual ones. These social groups play a significant role in helping other members in the community; this could explain their relative success of the Japanese.
The Americans are individualistic society, where individuals look on to themselves and the members of the immediate family (Onozawa, 2003).
The Japanese have an exceptionally strong filial piety, where all members of the society respect the elderly and take care of them. They value them as an excellent source of oral traditions that are passed to future generation.
Current Conditions in Japan Since the first immigrants moved to the US, the economic conditions in Japan have changed drastically (Schaefer, 2011). Since 1950, Japan has been among the strongest and the fastest growing economies in the world and by 1995 it had caught up with the American economy.
It is now one of the most highly industrialized and developed nations in the world and occupies the third position after the United States and China (Onozawa, 2003).
When the first immigrants were heading to the US, the country was primarily agricultural, but now it has turned into an industrialized nation with sectors such as manufacturing, service and trade, playing a vital role in the economy (Onozawa, 2003).
According to IMF, Japan has one of the highest per capita incomes, and the unemployment level is extremely low. The country is a member of G8, meaning that it has a powerful influence on the world’s politics and economics.
Japan currently ranks as the top most innovative country in the world, as seen in the number of patents registered. From 1968, Japan was the second largest economy until 2010 when China dislodged it to third position.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Japanese Immigrants to the US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Almost 70 out of the 500 fortune companies are Japanese, and despite the effects of the Second World War, they emerged with resilience, and its economic growth is almost unbelievable (Schaefer, 2011).
Opinion on Their Journey Given the experiences of the Japanese immigrants in the USA, especially during and after the Second World War, the journey did not benefit them; instead they lost all they acquired (Johnson, 2010).
When the Pearl Harbor was attacked, it marked a turning point and ushered in the most traumatic experiences of the Japanese immigrants. As a result, many Japanese were murdered and even more were taken to custody and they lost all their investments and jobs.
Their assets were liquidated by the state, and after the war Japanese were mostly laborers, while those in professional jobs dropped significantly (Johnson, 2010). I would not have made the same decision of moving to the US, in my opinion I would have remained in Japan.
Reference List Johnson, R. (2010). Be Good Americans: The Message of the Japanese-American Courier. The Great Depression in Washington State. Web.
Onozawa, N. (2003). Immigration from Japan to the U.S.A., Historical Trends and Background. Web.
Schaefer, R. (2011). Racial and Ethnic Groups. (13th ed.). Washington, DC: Pearson.
The Role of Vitamin D for Tuberculosis Treatment Essay scholarship essay help
The Potential Role of Vitamin D for Prevention and Treatment of Tuberculosis and Infectious Diseases This study investigates the use of vitamin D for the deterrence and cure of tuberculosis and other contagious infections. Deficiency of vitamin D is a global problem which results in higher occurrences of the immune system ailments.
Its deficiency also augments the proliferation of communicable diseases. Vitamin D is a vital micronutrient for healthy bones and prevention (or treatment) of many chronic ailments because of its intricate activity on the immune system.
Dini and Bianchi (2012) cite that deficiency of vitamin D leads to an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). This study explains the use of vitamin D as a drug before the invention of antibiotics.
The unearthing of vitamin D as a therapeutic agent begins with the detection of rickets as a childhood malady and the subsequent association of rickets to lack of exposure to sunshine.
Cod liver oil, which contains vitamin D, is then used as a cure for rickets and tuberculosis.
Studies show that vitamin D production increases in the body when special receptors (Toll-like receptors or TLR) sense the presence of the tuberculosis bacteria. This vitamin is in the form of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D.
Its synthesis encourages “VDR-mediated transactivation of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis” (Dini and Bianchi, 2012, p. 319).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cathelicidin has antiviral and antibacterial results. TLR instigation also yields defensin-2, another peptide with antibiotic properties.
This study hopes to find out how cathelicidins control immune reactions. This knowledge aids the creation of complexes containing the normal chemotherapy, antimicrobial proteins, and dietary shortage rectification components. Such complexes symbolize a significant advancement in TB therapies.
Pharmaceutical Aerosols for the Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis This study investigates the ability to offer TB treatment in a unique form by deviating from the traditional tablets and injections. It aims to improve the competence of TB treatment in terms of cost-effectiveness and efficiency.
Hanif and Garcia-Contreras propose the use of powdered aerosols to mitigate the hindrances posed by liquid drug formulations (2012). Pharmaceutical aerosols provide the advantage of effective drug distribution and cost effectiveness.
Tuberculosis remains a key community health hazard worldwide although it can be treated and precluded. Hanif and Garcia-Contreras cite that a significant number of people who contract the TB bacteria develop the disease and die.
Treatment of obtrusive airway ailments always involves aerosols. However, the recent inventions see this treatment extend to cure lung diseases related to cystic fibrosis. An individual acquires tuberculosis by breathing in aerosol drops containing the infectious bacteria from the infected person.
The basis of this research is that since tuberculosis mainly upsets lungs, then the lungs are a substitute means of administering TB drugs.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Vitamin D for Tuberculosis Treatment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, this method requires precise drug formulations and administrative procedures for effectiveness. Pharmaceutical companies can utilize numerous techniques to produce the fine particles suitable for inhalation.
An earlier therapy approach, the Directly Observed Therapy Short Course (DOTS), requires direct monitoring of TB patients as they take their medicine.
This is extremely involving as Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli (MTB) are among the most stubborn human pathogens due to their ability to multiply remarkably fast intracellularly and outside the living cells (2012).
This study uses small animal models to test the efficacy of the powdered aerosols and hopes to extend the same tests to bigger models. It also hopes to improve the available inhalers for the administration of large dosages essential in TB treatment.
The Value of Systematic Physical Training in the Prevention and Cure of Pulmonary Tuberculosis This study examines the benefits of physical exercise in the mitigation and cure of tuberculosis and other chest infections. Doctors notice “long, narrow, flat-chested” people have a high risk of contracting tuberculosis and low chances of healing (Ingals, 1898, p.40).
Physical exercises improve the wellbeing of the respiratory system. According to Ingals, pathological studies show shrunken air-cells provide the most suitable environment for multiplication of the tuberculosis bacteria (1898).
He attributes this to anemia which reduces the ability of the air-cells to fight infections. Prevalence reports estimate 80% of the human populace has the Koch’s bacillus (1898).
Ingals explains that the Koch’s bacillus is not detrimental, and ample body resistance is sufficient to avoid the real illness.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Vitamin D for Tuberculosis Treatment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This study aims at educating the public “to strengthen the resisting power of all the body tissues, but more especially those of the lungs, because they afford the most favorable conditions for the spread of the disease” (Ingals, 1898, p.41).
It suggests that large heights above the sea level offer the most excellent circumstances for preclusion of pulmonary tuberculosis. The high attitudes also aid in healing the disease in its initial phases. A patient’s attempt to take in more air expands the air cells thereby strengthening the lungs.
The study suggests that patients ought to learn how to inhale deeply and methodically inflate the lungs several times daily. Ingals further demonstrates the actual steps to follow when breathing to meet the desired effects. He asserts that continuous physical exercise may improve a narrow-chested individual’s ability to fight tuberculosis.
References Dini, C.
The Epic of Gilgamesh Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
The theme of Love
The theme of Power
Love in the Mesopotamian society
Power in the Mesopotamian society
Love and power in present day society
Abstract Gilgamesh, the King of Uruk, was a tyrant and a leader who greatly oppressed his charges. He considered himself to be God which led to the fact that he perceived himself much superior to others.
Enkidu, another man who is also depicted in the Epic of Gilgamesh as having a power in terms of how he treated his companions, meets King Gilgamesh in some of the scenes in the epic ensuing their unrivalled friendship later. The theme of love can be traced in the behavior of these two friends as well.
As a sign of platonic love for his new-found friend, Gilgamesh offers Enkidu a portion of his treasures and shares his power with him. These two themes become very evident and obvious when Enkidu dies.
On realizing that he can never have again his great friend by his side, the king cries in grief and embarks on a journey to achieve his immortality.
The ancient Mesopotamian societies depicted love and power in many areas. Most recorded stories have shown that people in power proclaimed themselves as deities in an attempt to show superiority to others. Another notable attribute of the male rulers is their oppression of women.
Women were usually given the role of doing house chores and making sure that their husbands are attended to. This form of male chauvinism shows similar traits among the rulers of the present day society and those in the Mesopotamian society.
Introduction The Epic of Gilgamesh is perhaps one of the oldest epic poems that were ever recorded. It tells the story of Gilgamesh, the King of Uruk, who ruled the empire between 2750 and 2500 BCE.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The epic portrays how Gilgamesh, an arrogant and oppressive leader, met and made friends with a savage called Enkidu who had in turn a tremendous impact on his life.
This paper seeks to discuss how the themes of love and power permeate the poem. It also makes parallels between the Mesopotamian society and the modern one in terms of both themes under discussion.
The theme of Love Love is seen as a major theme in the Epic of Gilgamesh. This theme motivates changes within the characters. An example of such a change is evident in Enkidu who was believed to be an introvert formed from clay and siliva by Aruru.
At first, Enkidu is portrayed as a very wild man who was brought up by animals. He knows very little about other human beings and their way of life. Later on in the poem, he interacts with human beings and starts to get used to the new environment.
There occurs a turning point in Enkudu’s life. He drew closer to civilization by interacting with human beings and this climaxed in wrestling match with Gilgamesh.
This friendship with Gilgamesh makes Enkidu shun his wild character and embrace a nobler demeanor (Damrosch
Foreigners and Foreign Ideas Research Paper essay help online
Introduction In the early centuries, China was ruled by dynasties. The last dynasty that ruled China was the Qing Dynasty between 1644 to 1912. In the 19th century, the dynasty underwent reforms and modernisation as Chinese leaders embraced foreign ideas and foreigners.
There was the need to interact and learn new ways of life because of the ever-changing world. The paper delineates on the significance of foreigner and foreign ideas, their views, and the role of the views during the reformation period and modernisation of China between 1860s and 1890s.
Significance of foreigners and foreign ideas during the Qing Dynasty Reforms and Modernisation Reforms and modernisation caused a paradigm shift in the away Chinese people viewed and perceived the ideas of foreigner. One of the personalities that were credited for these changes in perception was Feng.
Feng was an intellectual that recognised that the world was changing and that the Chinese nation was required to open up and appreciate other worldviews. This could enable the Chinese to be part of the wider world (Feng 1964, p. 51).
Foreigners and foreign ideas had great significance in China especially during the Qing Dynasty reformation and modernisation between 1860-1890s. These ideas led to the appreciation of western sciences in China as central or necessary sources of knowledge.
Most of the western education areas such as mathematics, science and geography became pertinent in China. The subjects were incorporated in some of the academies, and were taught in China.
For instance, the introduction of western subjects led to the established of Kuang fang- yen kuan academy at Shanghai that taught western sciences and languages (Feng 1964, p. 51). Foreigners in China were perceived negatively. Most Chinese believed that all foreigners were bad people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, they could not be trusted or believed in whatever way. Chinese people were suspicious and jealous about all kinds of barbarians and that they had a negative attitude towards them. However, this reformation and modernisation brought a turning point in their perceptions.
The view of the Chinese was changed. They realised that foreigners required good treatment and respect. This contributed to the adoption of different cultures and worldviews that helped to establish positive relationships between the Chinese and foreigners (Rozman 2002, p. 217).
Foreign ideas were also of importance during this period of reformation because they helped the Chinese people to acquire relevant skills in various industries that later empowered china as a nation.
China’s relationship with foreigners helped it to acquire various skills in manufacturing of machines and weapons besides helping to acquire military skills and training (Feng 1964, p. 53).
Even though this was done in disguise, China aimed at getting skills and knowledge that could empower and strengthen it to be self-reliant in various areas. Furthermore, foreigners and foreign ideas acted as a waking up call for the people of China during the Qing Dynasty reforms and modernisation.
They made the Chinese people think on the ways that they could liberate themselves to depend on their own.
The ideas they received from the western countries and other developed countries made China change its mindset to prepare itself sufficiently in terms of military, weapons, ships, and other areas that made it strong to compete with the rest of the countries such as western and countries such as France and England.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Foreigners and Foreign Ideas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Foreigners or foreign ideas also influenced the administration and governance issues of China. The Chinese people appreciated the way western nations governed themselves. Therefore, China entrenched some of its values in its system of governance.
For instance, it became opened minded and sought to have a government that respected the rule of law through the establishment of efficient legal systems. It believed that a visionary government was important in ensuring the success of the countries in different areas.
Another importance of the foreigners and their ideas is that they made the Chinese to set up schools to train its people on various issues of diplomatic (Rivlin 2009, p. 45).
This was intended to stir innovation to greater heights to enable the people of China widen their scope of knowledge to ensure that they benefited from the ways other countries lived and prospered.
Chinese views on foreigners and/or foreign ideas Chinese people viewed foreigners as uncouth. This therefore made many of the Chinese people have a negative perception about the foreigners. However, in the reformation and modernisation era, this mindset changed as they began to appreciate the ideas of foreigners.
They even adopted such ideas in their own culture to aid in achieving their goals and objectives. They viewed foreigners in good faith, appreciated them, and even gave them their due respect.
Chinese people had a feeling that the ideas of foreigners surpassed theirs. The foreigners had high skills in sciences and general knowledge that surpassed theirs. For instance, they believed that they could supplement their skills and knowledge with those of other countries to ensure prosperity of strength.
Their Confucian teachings and ethics could serve as a foundation to attaining the level of prosperity they required to attain (Reed 2007, p. 291). They also viewed themselves as inferior compared to the Americans, Russian, French, and the English people, yet they had the largest territory.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreigners and Foreign Ideas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, they were inferior in terms of using their soils correctly, maintaining a close relationship between the leaders/rulers and the common people, and their deeds to the foreigners. This inferiority was believed to be innate. It was their own mandate to control or ensure that they worked hard to end this inferiority to become equals.
They also felt that they were not sufficiently armed and that they needed assistance from the westerns in areas of military and arms. They also viewed foreigners especially from west as being intelligent when it came to making weapons.
They used mathematical concepts in their references and always modified or altered their army often according to various circumstances. They believed that they were at par when it came to military and civil systems but not in firearms.
On the revision of treaty, the Chinese view was to promote positive relations with foreign countries especially in their dealings. They endeavoured to show determination in all their undertakings. For instance, they resolved that they could not be forced to do things that they could not manage.
Therefore, they opposed such instances. On the other hand, they showed generosity and broad mindedness in order to achieve their objectives. Therefore, their view to the foreigners and foreign ideas was that they needed to be generous and supportive to their initiatives towards the end.
They were not to be swayed or involved in cunning arguments with the foreigners (Hung 1964, p. 58). Furthermore, they viewed foreigners as friends and people that required to be given respect all the time to ensure that peace was maintained and good relationships established.
For instance, they believed in Confucius, which claimed that, if people were able to rule their own country, no one would dare insult them (p. 64). Therefore, they believed that, in their unity, strictness, soberness, they could not be offended by or insulted by any foreigners.
They would have to live in harmony to avoid any anxiety in life (Hung-Chang 1964, p. 64). They also believed that the foreigners/ barbarians were very difficult to manage because of their nature (Hung-Chang 1964, p. 64). Therefore, to cope with the situation, they abided by the four principles, which were part of the Confucius’ teachings.
These included hsin, tu, Chung, and ching (Li 2010, p. 336). The Chinese words meant sincerity, earnestness, faithfulness, and respectfulness. They believed that, if they abided by these values, they would coexist well with the foreigners (Hung-Chang 1964, p. 64).
Roles of the views in shaping China during and after this period Chinese people had different views about the foreigners and foreign ideas. These views helped China during the transformation and modernisation period and even in the later development of China. During the period, they helped China to accept and change their perceptions about the foreigners.
They helped China to open its doors to foreigners to have a worldwide view about life. China had constricted and secluded itself from the western and other countries.
This made it have limitation in its scope of thinking and knowledge because it lacked the wide spectrum of life that was going outside the country (Xuezhao 2010, p. 56). One of the changes that this worldview changed is it made China to begin appreciating other countries.
For instance, China began reading books from their cultures, which helped it broaden its scope of knowledge. Furthermore, it helped to transform the Chinese’ linguistic acquisition.
Many Chinese enrolled in schools and studied foreign languages such as English that helped them participate in issues that were beyond their borders (Chan
Aristotle’s Definition of Virtue Essay writing essay help
In the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle provides a definition of virtue which has been discussed and disputed by many thinkers.
In particular, he writes that virtue is “a state that decides, consisting in a mean, relative to us, which is defined by reference to a reason, that is to say, to the reason by reference to which the prudent person would define it” (Aristotle as cited in Cahn 273).
This paper is aimed at discussing this interpretation in more detail because Aristotle highlights very important aspects of ethics.
First of all, Aristotle emphasizes the point that virtue is a temporary state of mind, and it is not an inherent quality of an individual. This definition may imply that vice and virtue may be characteristics of every human being.
Secondly, the philosopher sets stress on the idea of the mean or balance. This is probably the most crucial part of his argument because Aristotle extremism is not appropriate for ethical judgment.
Provided that this section had been absent, this definition might have led to the belief that there is a sharp distinction between ethical and unethical judgments or decisions. This section highlights the necessity of moderation and ability to avoid intolerance.
Furthermore, in the Nichomachean Ethics Aristotle adds the phrase “relative to us” (Aristotle as cited in Cahn 273).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This part of the definition should not be disregarded, because it implies that there is not universal standard of virtue since ethical norms are set by different individuals and communities and they may not be the same.
This is one of the key issues that should be taken into consideration by people who speak about ethics.
Apart from that, Aristotle adds two important components to his definition of virtue. In particular he mentions that virtue always refers to reason. Although this argument seems self-evident, for many people ethics is based on emotions, rather than rationality.
This is why the philosopher chose to include this point in the definition. Finally, it is important to mention that Aristotle refers to such a concept as prudence.
In this case, the word prudence means the ability to understand ones interests and goals. Again in this way, Aristotle shows the strong connection between the rationality of a human being and virtue.
Overall, by defining virtue in this way, Aristotle strived to explain how people should think about ethics, moral norms. He emphasizes such aspects as rationality, prudence, and absence of universal standards. These are the main points to which the philosopher attracts the readers’ attention in his works.
Works Cited Cahn, Steven. Classics of Western Philosophy, New York: Hackett, 2002. Print.
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Integrated Marketing Communication Plan (Billabong Company) Report essay help online: essay help online
Executive Summary This Plan details the promotion and marketing strategies to be used by Billabong Company which is a market leader in the sale of garments to surfers. Despite its immense success, the company sales have been declining due to increased competition and the perception that the company’s products are old and un-fashionable.
In light of these predicaments, the company intends to launch a new campaign that will increase sales and change the consumer’s perceptions. The main target market includes surfers and the beachgoers. The target market age group ranges from sixteen to mid twenties.
This campaign intends to increase the company sales, change the consumer perceptions about their products, expand the target market to include beachgoers, increase the market share by 30%, enable the company become the leading brand among surfers and to increase traffic in the company’s website.
The promotion and advertising tactics include SLSA Design Competition, runway show, re-launch of the company’s website and 12 months summer competition. The campaign events will be advertised through posters, online advertising, sending direct mail to participants, public relations activities and through radio advertising.
A three stage process will be used to evaluate the performance of the campaign, these include, the pre-test evaluation, post-test evaluation and measuring the effectiveness of the campaign. The bottom up method will be used to determine the campaign budget.
Campaign Evaluation Billabong advertising and promotion strategies will be evaluated through the following methods.
Screening of advertising and promotional messages
All advertising and promotions messages will be checked and re-read several times by the whole group. Errors and ambiguity will be corrected. The language used will also be evaluated to determine its complexity, meanings and impact (Waller 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Interview with target audience
Interviews with the target audience will be carried out. During these interviews, the audience will be asked to interpret what different images and messages portray to them. Based on their response, corrections to advertisements and promotional pictures will be done.
A focus group comprising of the target audience, billabong management team and the marketing team will be formed. The members will be asked questions regarding their perceptions, attitudes and opinions towards the different campaign images, posters and messages. Based on their response, the messages will be corrected and rephrased.
After conducting the campaign, a number of evaluations will be carried to ascertain the customers change in perceptions. The principle aim will be to determine the perception shift so that the company is viewed as setting new fashion trends in the industry. The following strategies will be used.
Checking the customer feedback
The feedback and discussions on the company’s website and the social media will be used to determine the perception that customers have after promotions and campaigns.
Focus groups comprising of a group of 30 people drawn from target market will be interviewed. Pertinent questions to test customer’s perceptions and attitudes will be asked and their responses will determine the successfulness of their campaigns (Belch
Developing HRMS by Raymond Wesley Report essay help online free
Introduction Human resource management system (HRMS) involves the process that merges and intersects the functions of HR with information technology (IT).This implies that HRMS takes the place of manual personnel HR systems so that paperwork is maintained at minimal levels.
Their central concern is to ensure that processing of HR-related data is both automated coupled with providing avenues for enhancing integrity of such data. Consequently, “HRMS allows an agency immediate access to employees’ records and enhanced reporting functionality thus providing managers with timely information to make essential human resource decisions” (Agarwala 2003, p.178: Laursen
Ocean Fisheries Sustainability Expository Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Fishing activities around the world have a big impact on sustainable growth and reproduction of species which live in the ocean. Large scale fishing activities that use advanced processes endanger the wellbeing of fish and other species which live in the ocean.
It is necessary for fishing industries to use better fishing methods in the ocean to ensure that their activities do not endanger the ecological balance. This paper will discuss ways ocean fishing can be made more sustainable.
Ocean fishing has increased at a very fast rate. The international waters are governed by international treaties whose enforcement is weak. Large scale industrial fishing is mainly responsible for the dwindling numbers of fish in the ocean. Trawlers that use large nets with small holes scoop big quantities of fish.
These nets trap fish species that are still breeding which stifles their growth. Fish species do not get the chance to replenish and this severely limits the quantities of fish in the ocean.
Large seine trawlers are responsible for this destructive practice which threatens to make some species to become extinct (National Research Council 116). To reverse this trend, there is a need to use pole and line fishing methods instead of purse seining which destroys marine ecology.
Marine life is vital for ecological balance on planet earth. The total quantity of fish caught from the world’s oceans has increased which has led to over-exploitation. It is estimated that on average, 100 million metric tons of fish are caught annually in the world’s oceans since 2000. Marine resources are getting exploited and there is a growing danger of some marine fish and species becoming extinct.
The fishing procedures have become more advanced yet fish supplies in major oceans have continued to dwindle. Fish industries need to share information with their governments to understand the average sustainable fish yields to be caught from oceans.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Danson and D’Orso argue that breeding grounds such as continental shelves and coastal fringes need to be protected (67). Ocean zones that are close to the shoreline are most vulnerable to over fishing yet they are the most suitable for plankton growth; the main food for many fish species.
The use of the logistic growth curve has failed to conserve fisheries. The logistic curve approach does not take into account the age, the quantity and the reproductive capacity of the fish being caught. The approach does not propose means through which people involved in the fishing industry can be managed.
Ocean ecosystems are interconnected and complex and as such, the logistic growth curve is not a suitable tool for managing ocean fisheries (Helfman 290). The ecological environment in which fish breed and survive has become unpredictable because of the rapid increase in fishing activities. Countries have not agreed on a common way through which restrictions that are imposed on large scale fishing activities are to be observed.
The fourth option of assigning each fisherman a quota is more sustainable. It is necessary to control the manner in which the quotas are transferred. The allocation of quotas should only be done after the equipment to be used for catching fish is assessed and certified to be appropriate (Morissey and Sumich156).
Fishing zones need to be divided to ensure that fishing in vulnerable breeding areas is prohibited. Marine sanctuaries need to be established to protect the biodiversity of the world’s oceans from destruction. Marine sanctuaries offer rare ocean species the chance to breed and replenish their quantities.
Works Cited Danson, Ted, and Michael D’Orso. Oceana: Our Endangered Oceans and What We Can Do to Save Them. London: Rodale, 2011. Print.
Helfman, Gene S. Fish Conservation: A Guide to Understanding and Restoring Global Aquatic Biodiversity and Fisheries Resources. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2007. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Ocean Fisheries Sustainability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Morrissey, John, and James Sumich. Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life. London: Jones and Bartlett, 2011. Print.
National Research Council. Sharing the Fish: Toward a National Policy on Individual Fishing Quotas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1999. Print.
Acadian Culture in Cape Breton in Nova Scotia Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction The island of Cape Breton is located along the coast of northern America. It is a constituent of the province of Nova Scotia in Canada (Dronet 12). The island has four counties namely: Inverness, Richmond, Victoria and cape Breton. In the recent past, this island has experienced a sharp reduction in population.
However, the most remarkable thing is the eternal presence of the Acadian way of life. The Acadian culture is predominantly visible in Cape Breton (Dronet 13). The cultural practices in the Acadian culture have managed to stand the test of time.
It is common for ancient cultures to fade away with time. However, the people of Cape Breton have managed to retain various aspects of the Acadian culture. This is evident in their music, dance, art, farming, cuisine, and other cultural practices.
Discussion The Acadian culture has an impressive array of inherent components that define it. These components have specific characteristics that make them unique. They clearly set the Acadian culture apart from other cultures (Dronet 17).
Of importance to historians and researchers is the fact that these aspects of the Acadian culture have managed to remain relevant to the contemporary world. This fact makes the Acadian culture unique because majority of traditional cultures have been diluted by western values that are anchored on modern civilization (Szivos 22).
One aspect of the Acadian culture that has remained relevant is music. It is arguably the most relevant and vibrant aspect of the Acadian culture. Before the dawn of the internet revolution, musical instruments were an integral part of Acadian households. Acadian musical instruments include guitar, fiddle, and organ (Szivos 24).
Over the years, Acadian people have propagated their music by ensuring that it passes on to emerging generations through oral instruction and active participation (Szivos 25). The Acadian music is rich in poetry, knowledge, and philosophy. Besides, their music is humorous and spiritual.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Acadian music is usually simple and based on topical issues that are rich in cultural heritage (Szivos 27). Mostly, their music is used to pass and communicate vital cultural information to young generations.
Acadian music is composed depending on the mood of the occasion (Salzman 14). There are songs that are composed for different occasions such as: sleeping time, showing love and affection, narrating historical events, giving counsel to the young and keeping people happy and motivated while working.
The Acadian music constitutes various styles. They include: reels, waltz dance, two-step dance, and the quadrille dance (Salzman 16). These types of music are known to inspire people into taking dancing seriously. It is important to note that in Acadian culture, music goes together with dance.
In fact, Acadians use dance as a way to express their rich musical heritage. Dance has become one of the most accepted and common avenues for expressing the rich Acadian cultural identity. Most of these songs were formulated by the early occupants of medieval Acadia (Salzman 20).
Another important and defining aspect of Acadian culture is their food. Food is at the centre of Acadian heritage. Over the last centuries, Acadian culture has been displayed and propagated through traditional cuisine. There are three most popular Acadian traditional dishes. They are: chicken fricot, rapure and meat pie (Griffiths 12). Chicken fricot is the most favoured dish in Acadia.
Chicken is its key ingredient. This dish is mostly cooked during festivities and merry-making. This dish is usually popular when there is a huge gathering of people, mostly for celebration or while conducting one of many traditional ceremonies that are a common feature in Acadian cultural heritage. Apart from chicken, Acadians use wild rabbit in the preparation of fricot.
Rapure is another popular Acadian dish. This dish is mostly favoured for occasions when there are special guests in the community of Acadians (Griffiths 16). In most contexts, this dish is cooked from pork. However, this varies depending on those who are preparing the dish. The other traditional Acadian dish is traditional meat pie. This dish is found all over the Acadian society.
We will write a custom Essay on Acadian Culture in Cape Breton in Nova Scotia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This dish mostly prepared during the Christmas festive season. In Acadian culture, Christmas cannot be considered complete in the absence of traditional meat pie (Griffiths 23). It is cooked with fresh swine meat. Chicken is also added as part of the ingredients. The pie is mostly eaten without mixing with any other dish.
Another aspect of Acadian culture is their literature. In fact, the Acadian culture has been kept alive by its rich and comprehensive heritage in literature. There are numerous literary publications that are particularly concerned with propagation and preservation of the Acadian culture. Through such literature, the Acadian culture has remained alive through generations (Griffiths 24).
The culture is transmitted through short stories, riddles and fables. In most cases, these fall under the category of oral literature. This practice has ensured that the Acadian cultural heritage is passed on to other generations. Some observers have constantly argued that the Acadian culture is a self-preserving culture (Griffiths 30).
This means that the culture has internal mechanisms that provide avenues for continuity. The most important aspect of cultural literature is that it gives a clear picture of how certain aspects and affairs of a culture have been carried out over time. This ensures continuity of culture and its inherent factors. The Acadians have many pieces of literature that contain their rich cultural heritage.
Another important aspect of the Acadian culture is their farming practices. Acadians were especially known for their ability to transform and reclaim marshy land and making it sufficiently arable (Gough 15). The Acadians were solely acclaimed for their farming practices.
This practice was acquired through their interaction with Frenchmen. The Acadians became particularly known for their ability to transform poor land into a state of agricultural viability (Gough 18). They were too good in reclaiming land, to the extent that their migration patterns were greatly influenced by the presence of poor farming land.
Works Cited Dronet, Curney. A Century of Acadian Culture: The Development of a Cajun Community. Newyork: Pelican Publishing, 2001. Print.
Gough, Barry. Historical Dictionary of Canada. Newyork: Scarecrow Press, 2011. Print
Not sure if you can write a paper on Acadian Culture in Cape Breton in Nova Scotia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Griffiths, Naomi. The contexts of Acadian history, 1686-1784. Newyork: McGill- Queens, 1992. Print.
Salzman, Jack. American Studies: An Annotated Bibliography 1984-1988. London: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Print.
Szivos, John. Talking Acadian: Communication, Work, and Culture. Toronto: John Chetro-Szivos, 2006. Print.
Respond for the movie “Killer of sheep” related with neo-realism style and blue anaestetic Essay (Movie Review) essay help
Blue anesthetic meets with Neo-Realism in the movie Killer of Sheep (1977). The writer brings a blues aesthetic to a style of filmmaking in his work (Kapsis 49). The films deal with what is termed as the “ravages of fascism”. This fascism causes the decay of communities and leaves rifts in national identity.
The films clearly shows Italians “Oppressed and suffering”. Their oppression could not however, be completely blamed on the Black Shirts and the Nazis” (Kapsis 52). There is also a representation of resistance by providing a “continuing critique of the conditions, institutions, and individual predilections that cause poverty, violence, spiritual distress and isolation” (Kapsis 32). This depicts the use of Neo-Realism more clearly.
Burnett makes use of the neorealist aesthetic even more powerfully because of the addition of the blues. Long before the beginning of the cinema, the blues was able to generate cultural self-reflection in the very initial stages by embracing humanity.
The blues is a type of music which was in existence much earlier than the European literary movements of the early 20th Century in naturalism and realism that can be traced forward to neo-realism in the cinema (Murray 69). Much earlier in the years like 1550, English lexicographers have found records with the phrase “to look blue” meaning “to suffer fear, anxiety, low spirits and discomfort” (Murray 63).
In this movie, Killer of Sheep, there is an unusual innovation made by the soundtracks course throughout the entire film as more than the accompaniment, but as a character. The presence of the character imbues the movie with an overall feel of blues. This clearly underscores the poetic modes of the movie’s visual story.
This effect results into a blues nuance that dominates the entire film. The soundtrack blends with R
How Does Water Hyacinth Harm the Local Ecosystem? Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Water hyacinth is a perennial aquatic plant which freely floats in tropical as well as sub-tropical waters. Water hyacinth is native in South America but has since been introduced to many regions. This plant has glossy, broad, ovate and thick leaves and rises up to 1 meter above the water surface.
Water hyacinth is among is among the fastest growing plants ever known and reproduces through stolons or runners that form daughter plants. There has been raging debate on the overall significance of water hyacinth on human society. Despite that the plant has some economic and ecological benefits; its adverse effects are overwhelming.
The presence of Waterhyacith has been associated with numerous economic and ecological damages. Water hyacinth has great harm on the local ecosystems. Water hyacinth degrades water quality and affects habitats for aquatic life. This research paper will explore, discuss and analyze how water hyacinth harms the local ecosystem.
Identification of Waterhyacith Water hyacinth has been ranked as one of the worst invasive species. The reputation of water hyacinth has been doomed due to its ecological and economic effects. Being a native plant in South America, water hyacinth has spread to other regions of the world. Water hyacinth produces beautiful flowers, though its problems are higher. Water hyacinth can be easily identified since it freely floats on water surface.
This plant has dark green, shiny and glossy leaves. The leaves are elliptical and round in shape. The leaves of water hyacinth are approximately 6 inches wide alongside being waterproof. Another key feature of water hyacinth is that it rises over 3 feet above the water surface.
The roots of water hyacinth are distinctive and hang below water surface, whereby they have a feathery appearance. Despite the harmful effects of water hyacinth on ecosystems, the plant has very attractive flowers (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).
Fig 1. Water hyacinth Flowers
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effects of Waterhyacith on local ecosystems Water hyacinth has great harm on the local ecosystem and affects aquatic life and water quality. This plant blocks photosynthesis thus degrading water quality. The reduction of water quality through deprivation of oxygen has a cascading effect on aquatic life. Fish, plants and other sea life are adversely affected by this phenomenon. The biological diversity is greatly degraded by water hyacinth.
This is because water hyacinth has a negative effect on submersed plants. Water hyacinth also interferes with immersed plant communities through crushing and pushing them. By so doing, the general ecosystem is impacted. Animal communities are negatively affected through the elimination of plants as well as blocking the access of water which the animals rely on for nesting and shelter (Mariana et al, 2006).
The effects of water hyacinth are enormous on the ecosystem. This can be attributed to the fast growing nature of the plant. Water hyacinth grows very dense to the point that a single acre of the weed weighs over 200 tons. This is a great catastrophe to the ecosystem in the sense that it blocks oxygen in the waters thus inhibiting aquatic life.
The thick and dense mats formed by water hyacinth overwhelm lakes and rivers thus inhibiting biological and economic process. The life of other plants and animals is jeopardized by the rapid growth of water hyacinth. The enormous growth and concentration of the plant decreases water flow as well as leads to oxygen depletion.
As a result, a good environment for mosquito breeding is developed. Native plant species are overwhelmed by the plant thus leading to their elimination. Based on these changes, water hyacinth alters the entire ecosystems which animals and plants rely on (Weijden and Bol, 2007).
Degradation of water quality Water hyacinth has a distinctive effect on water quality. Past research has shown that the dense mats formed by the plant have adverse effects on water quality. The plant forms dense and interlocking mats which affect the oxygen flow in the water. As a result of the dense and interlocking mats formed by the weed, the dissolved oxygen concentrations declines, hence degrading water quality.
A low level of phytoplankton productivity also takes place which in turn dooms water quality. The higher levels of sedimentation resulting from the dense mats as well as the complex root structure of water hyacinth also affect water quality.
We will write a custom Research Paper on How Does Water Hyacinth Harm the Local Ecosystem? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Water hyacinth leads to high levels of evapo-transpiration rates due to the dense leaves of the plant. This is in comparison with the evaporation rates hence leading to heavy sedimentation (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).
The levels of temperatures and PH in waters are also affected by the plant. Water hyacinth destabilizes temperatures and PH levels in the lagoons. This scenario prevents stratification thus increasing mixing in water levels. This phenomenon affects water quality since oxygen levels are degraded. The rates and levels of photosynthesis are also greatly inhibited by water hyacinth.
Water hyacinth does not produce oxygen as compared to other submerged vegetation and phytoplankton. This leads to low levels of dissolved oxygen concentration thus negatively affecting water quality.
The capacity of the plant mats determines the level of oxygen concentrations. High concentrations of water hyacinth mats lead to low penetration levels of light into water columns thus inhibiting photosynthesis (Mariana et al, 2006).
Decrease in dissolved oxygen concentrations
Water hyacinth has been associated with the degradation of oxygen in water. This is in comparison with other aquatic invasive species like Sagittaria lancifolia and Hydrilla verticillata. Research has shown that water hyacinth greatly reduces oxygen concentration.
Water hyacinth has been categorized as the only plant leading to a massive decline in average levels of oxygen concentrations. An inverse relationship between water hyacinth and dissolved oxygen concentration has been identified. a significant decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen beneath water hyacinth mats in relation to that of open water has also been established.
This offers a clear picture of the negative effects of the plant in decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).
A point of concern is that the rate of decreasing oxygen concentration is not constant. The size of a water hyacinth mat that can cause a significant decrease in oxygen varies from one region to another.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How Does Water Hyacinth Harm the Local Ecosystem? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Over 25% of cover in 0.05ha can decrease oxygen concentration to levels which threaten aquatic life mostly fish survival. Nevertheless, a negative relationship exists between dissolved oxygen and water hyacinth concentration (Streever, 1999).
In the case of dissolved oxygen, areas infested with water hyacinth usually demonstrate lower ranges as compared to waterhyacith free waters. Shorelines without the plants or with lower concentrations have high levels of dissolved oxygen. This is in comparison with water hyacinth free regions.
The absence or decline of dissolved oxygen has adverse effects on the ecosystem. Low levels of dissolved oxygen inhibit plant growth and survival of aquatic life. The low concentration of dissolved oxygen is a result of blockage by the water hyacinth mats.
The metabolic activities of aquatic life are jeopardized thus leading to extinction of some of the animals, plants and insects. This leads to loss of biodiversity, which is in this case a great harm to the ecosystem (Weijden and Bol, 2007).
Absorption of heavy metals
Alongside the decrease of oxygen concentration, water hyacinth absorbs heavy metals. Water hyacinth is dangerous in the sense that it absorbs large amounts of nutrients in the water column as well as heavy metals. This is a serious problem in relation to aquatic life.
The mercury concentrations of water hyacinth are very high. Research on water hyacinth in California indicated that water hyacinth leaves had same mercury levels as the sediments beneath. Poor disposal of the plant on the environment will definitely lead to contamination.
This will lead to ecological problems since animals and plants which depend on the contaminated environment will be affected. Nevertheless, the ability of water hyacinth to absorb large amounts of nutrients justifies its use as a tertiary or secondary biological alternative for waste water treatment (Streever, 1999).
Water hyacinth has a higher capacity of holding heavy solids as compared to shorelines without the plant. Water hyacinth waters have a higher turbidity as compared to clear waters. The levels of suspended solids in infested waters are alarming.
Water hyacinth traps phytoplankton and detritus which in turn affect water quality. Water which would have otherwise been fit for domestic use is rendered useless. High level of suspended solids inhibits zooplankton organisms hence decreasing energy transfer. The safety of human transport and other recreational activities in infested waters is jeopardized (Mariana et al, 2006).
Alteration of water PH levels
Water hyacinth affects pH levels and free carbon dioxide. PH levels are greatly decreased by the presence of water hyacinth. On the other hand, a high level of free carbon dioxide exists in areas infested with water hyacinth. In comparison with water hyacinth free shorelines, areas infested with the plant have a higher free carbon dioxide.
These high carbon dioxide levels are as a result of respiration, decay and the decomposition process of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth mats which are dense and large in size also prevents free entry of oxygen. This phenomenon is very harmful to aquatic and human life.
Oxygen demand for aquatic life is doomed, hence leading to death of some species. This leads to decline of biodiversity, thus illustrating the harm of the plant on the local ecosystem (Richard et al, 2011).
The high absorption rate of water hyacinth on nutrients is harmful to the environment. This is because it destabilizes PH level of the waters as well as the surrounding environment. The high absorption rate of nitrate, ammonium and phosphate can not only cause ecological harm but also affect aquatic and human life.
Despite that the high intake capacity is useful in reducing nutrient concentrations; it may lead to environmental contamination. Land on which the plant is disposed will be affected by the chemicals. This will have adverse effects on plants, animals and humans (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).
Depletion of Nutrients
Water hyacinth has a great impact on the ecosystem since it affects the overall nutrient composition. This may lead to the disappearance of some of the plant species or animal species which depend on them. Existence of water hyacinth leads to a high decrease in phosphorous and nitrogen. This calls for continuous control of the plant so as to counter its negative effects on the ecosystem.
Despite that waterhyacith provides phytoremediation, it leads to significant nutrient loss. This however depends on the concentration of water hyacinth. In light with this scenario, the decrease in nutrients affects the biological process of the plants and animals. Plant and animal loss will definitely occur thus demonstrating the effects of water hyacinth on the ecosystem and biodiversity (Streever, 1999).
The levels of nitrate concentration as a result of water hyacinth are lower compared to shorelines without water hyacinth. The average of nitrate concentration in water affected by water hyacinth is significantly lower as compared to that of shorelines free from the plant.
This is associated with absorption of nitrates by water hyacinth. The high capacity of nitrate absorption by water hyacinth is hazardous since it affects the overall concentrations of nitrates in the waters. This has great negative impacts on PH levels and also on the aquatic life (Weijden and Bol, 2007).
Increase in Water temperatures
Water temperatures in water hyacinth infested areas are slightly above average. Research shows that the average temperatures of water in areas infested with water hyacinth is higher compared to the shoreline temperatures. The difference in water temperature would not occur without the water hyacinth. This clearly shows the effects of water hyacinth in influencing water temperatures.
Higher water temperatures are attributed to the dense mats of the plant, which in turn hinders transfer of heat. Decay of organic matter resulting from the water hyacinth also leads to heat generation hence leading to temperature rise.
Temperature fluctuations in areas infested with water hyacinth is hereby a common phenomenon. Breeding of insects like mosquitoes is hereby likely as a result of the temperature changes (Richard et al, 2011).
Breeding of harmful insects
From another perspective, water hyacinth offers favorable conditions and environment for the breeding of mosquitoes and other animals and insects. The breeding of these insects like mosquitoes will definitely threaten human life since it leads to diseases.
Snails also get a prime habitat as a result of the water hyacinth. A good example of the snail species is the parasitic flatworm. This is a dangerous species of snails which causes schistosomiasis (Mariana et al, 2006).
Water hyacinth forms good breeding places for mosquitoes and other insects. The prolific and high growth of water hyacinth leads to excellent breeding areas for harmful insects like mosquitoes. Incidents of malaria, skin rash, encephalitis, cough; gastrointestinal disorders, bilharzias and schistosomiasis are very rampant in areas infested by water hyacinth.
Water hyacinth is harmful to aquatic life since it reduces the concentration of oxygen by de-oxygenating the water. Nutrients for young fish are also reduced. This is due to the high absorption rates of nutrients by water hyacinth.
The effects of water hyacinth are diverse and a catastrophe for aquatic life. The large and dense mats of water hyacinth block water supply and thus, affecting local subsidence fishing. This is an ecological disaster which calls for urgent measures in addressing the problem (Streever, 1999).
Inhibits fishing and transport
Water hyacinth has been blamed for starving subsistence farmers and will become a major problem if not controlled. This is associated with the diseases it enhances through the breeding of snails and mosquitoes which threaten humans.
The blocking or covering of waters by water hyacinth also inhibits fishing. Invasion of water hyacinth into waters associated with human activities can easily unbalance natural lifecycles. Aquatic life can hereby suffer a fatal blow as a result of the waterhyacith. This in turn contributes to loss of biodiversity (Weijden and Bol, 2007).
Fig 2. Water Hyacinth
Lack of controlling and managing water hyacinth will lead to total coverage of ponds and lakes. This can have unprecedented effects on the local ecosystems. Covering of water deprive the native aquatic plants light and oxygen thus killing them.
Fish and other aquatic life will also be harmed since their food which consists of aquatic plants is no more. Death of aquatic plants and animals translates to loss of biodiversity (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).
Water hyacinth has a serious impact on local ecosystems in the sense that it inhibits free movement of aquatic life and humans. It has become common knowledge that water hyacinth inhibits water activities. For instance, boating, fishing and other human expeditions are also obstructed by water hyacinth.
The robust growth of water hyacinth outstrips other aquatic life. This leads to unnecessary competition for survival thus leading to near eradication of some of the species (Tacio, 2009).
The effects of water hyacinth on fishing and transportation are immediate. This is due to the thick mats and covering of the waters by the plant. Access to the beaches is hindered by waterhyacinth. This is due to the dense mats of the plant which hinder human transport. The dense mats formed by waterhyacinth hinter fishing. The movement of fish and other aquatic life is adversely affected by the water hyacinth.
This is an ecological problem in the sense that free movement of the aquatic life is hindered. On the other hand, water hyacinth inhibits irrigation, water treatment and water supply. These are natural and human processes which ought to be facilitated for sustainable coexistence.
Without proper water treatment and supply, biological and environmental catastrophes can emerge. For instance, the contaminated water is both harmful to humans and aquatic life. This is a clear manifestation of the hazardous nature of water hyacinth on the (Richard et al, 2011).
Reduction in biodiversity
Water hyacinth is an ecological disaster due to its prolific growth. This has resulted to its categorization as an ecological nuisance. The fast rate of growth of water hyacinth leads to covering of water surface thus affecting the growth and survival of other aquatic life. The fast proliferation of water hyacinth threatens the survival and development of aquatic species.
The effects of water hyacinth on water temperatures, photosynthesis, PH and nutrients are a serious threat to the survival of other aquatic life. For instance, the effects of water hyacinth in preventing penetration of light are unacceptable. Based on this phenomenon, the adverse effects of water hyacinth on the ecology are demonstrated (Mariana et al, 2006).
Water hyacinth has a serious effect on biological diversity. The prolific growth and spread of the plant has negative impacts on native submersed plants. Immersed plant communities are also altered by the growth of water hyacinth. This is because water hyacinth has fast growth and as a result pushes and crushes the native plants. Animal communities and other aquatic life are also altered by water hyacinth.
This is because the plant affects the local environments by altering temperatures, oxygen, PH and inhibiting penetration of light. By eliminating some of the plants, the animal communities are also affected. This is because the animals depend on the plants and vice verse.
Fish and other aquatic life usually disappear due to the changed environments in aspects of temperatures and PH. A serious human problem resulting from water hyacinth is that it results in the breeding of dangerous animals and insects.
For instance, areas infested with water hyacinth have higher chances of snakes and crocodiles. This ecological problem is a not only a threat to the human species but also to the entire biodiversity (Tacio, 2009).
Control of Waterhyacith Due to the adverse effects and harm of water hyacinth on the environment, there is the need for prevention and control. Research has established different ways in which the weed can be eliminated or managed. At present, there are different control approaches for controlling the rapid spread of water hyacinth. The harmful effects of water hyacinth on the ecology and economical prospects have called for its control.
Chemical, biological and physical control mechanisms have been established. Despite that each control mechanism has its benefits; they have also reported diverse weaknesses and drawbacks. Chemical through the use of herbicides affects communities and environment, thus the need to abandon it.
In addressing the problem of water hyacinth, there is a need to identify and administer the best control mechanism. Mechanical approaches of controlling water hyacinth have been widely used. In this approach, dredgers, mowers and other manual extraction methods are used. Nevertheless, this approach is costly and is not possible in large areas.
On the contrary, mechanical approaches for eradicating water hyacinth also offers only short-term solutions. Biological approach to eradication of water hyacinth is most favored due to its long-term and short-term effects. This is not only a sustainable but also an economical approach to controlling the weed (Tacio, 2009).
Manual or mechanical control
Physical control is mostly applied in short-term basis and in small scale. Mechanical methods are the best approach in providing short-term solutions. Nevertheless, this approach is costly and requires both machinery and human labor (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2010).
Early control using physical means targets concentrated areas. Physical methods remove the weed from their mats and dump them on land to die. Manual removal of the weed has proved successful in small scale as especially in farm drains and dams. However, the high rate of growth of water hyacinth makes it hard to attain total eradication. This approach is only successful when the rate of removal is higher than the plant’s rate of re-growth. From another perspective, physical of manual removal is not successful in large scale. This is widely due to the higher costs and labor (Denise et al, 2007).
Research has shown that mechanical control of water hyacinth is at times effective. Large infestations of the weed have been manually eradicated though at a higher cost. The time and cost of eradicating water hyacinth through manual means is high. It order to attain success, the removal should be done before flowing and seed set of the water hyacinth (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2010).
Fig 2. Dredging of waterhyacinth
The use of herbicides in the removal of water hyacinth has been overwhelming in recent days. Chemical removal of water hyacinth has proved successful, whereby it has been applied for years in different regions. The success rate of using chemical methods is higher as compared to manual methods.
Nevertheless, there has been high concern for the health of communities as well as the environment in relation to chemical removal. In areas where people wash and collect drinking water as well as fishing, chemical application can turn hazardous. A number of herbicides have been registered which help in the control of water hyacinth. High volume spraying is the most used approach in the application of herbicides.
Handgun power sprays from the banks or on a boat can be adopted in applying the herbicides. Aerial spraying of herbicides can also be considered for large infestations. Herbicides should be considered in growing season mostly in Spring so as to enhance effectiveness.
Spraying recklessly can result in environmental and human catastrophes. Spraying on heavy infestation leads to sinking of the mats, which eventually rot. This can result into ecological disasters through de-oxygenation of water hence potentially killing aquatic life like fish.
In this case, spraying should be consciously undertaken by spraying only portions like a third of the area at a time. Physical or manual removal of some of the weeds before spraying is also advantageous and sustainable (Denise et al, 2007).
Biological methods of removing water hyacinth have been the most recommended due to their sustainability and ecological friendliness. Biological researchers have identified insects which can be effectively used to combat the spread of water hyacinth.
Two weevil species including neochetna bruchi, neochetina eichhomiae and moth species, Xubida infusellus, and niphograpta albiguttalis have been discovered to help control water hyacinth. These insects have proved to be successful in destroying the spread of water hyacinth.
The insects which feed on leaves by creating small scars have great effect in controlling water hyacinth. The laying of eggs by the insects on the water hyacinth leads to infection by fungi and bacteria thus causing the plant to be waterlogged and ideas.
Nevertheless, the inactivity of these insects during winter makes it hard for them to be relied on. Neochetina bruchi on the other hand has proved to be reliable during winter hence complements the inactivity of the other insects (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2010).
It is however notable that biological control can not be solely applied in control of the weed. Biological control only reduces the prolific growth of water hyacinth but does not lead to total eradication. Biological control ensures substantial reduction in growth rates and flowering thus countering the proliferation of water hyacinth.
The damages on the plants lead to sinking of the mats thus reducing their effects. Since chemical and mechanical control techniques are quite expensive and inefficient, biological removals offer the only suitable approach in controlling water hyacinth.
Researchers have confidence that biological methods are more resilient and effective as compared to the use of herbicides and mechanical control. This is the most sustainable approach to combating invasive water hyacinth, hence reducing their ecological damages (Denise et al, 2007).
Other control mechanisms to water hyacinth include cultural control, mulching, windrowing, and managing flood-stranded infestations. In the case of cultural control, nutrients run to infested areas should be limited. Reduction of water levels in dams and drains can significantly reduce water hyacinth.
Introduction of salty water into infested waterways can also help in combating the spread of water hyacinth. Flood-stranded infestations should be managed by using Earthmoving equipments to remove water hyacinth. This is applicable to verges and roads, which helps in breaking down the water hyacinth.
Windrowing water hyacinth with tractor-mounted blade is an effective approach to removing water hyacinth (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2010).
Conclusion The study has clearly demonstrated the harm of water hyacinth on the local ecosystems. Water hyacinth has greatly impacted on the physico-chemical environments thus affecting the ecosystems. Based on the research, water hyacinth affects local water temperatures, PH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, photosynthesis and nutrients in the water.
These influences have great harm on the local ecosystems by altering the normal environments for biological, cultural and economic activities. Aquatic life is adversely affected by the changes in the water environments thus leading to eradication of some species. Water hyacinth has led to significant reduction in biodiversity in infested areas due to the alteration of favorable conditions for survival aquatic plants and animals.
Based on these problems, effective water hyacinth control measures should be adopted. Chemical, biological, mechanical and cultural control methods should be considered. Cultural and biological methods of water hyacinth control are most sustainable hence the need for their prioritization.
References Denise, B. et al. (2007). Undesirable Side-Effects of Water Hyacinth Control in Shallow Tropical Reservoir. Freshwater Biology. Vol 52 (6), p1120-1133.
Mariana, M. et al. (2006). An Experimental Study of Habitat Choice by Daphnia: Plants Signal Danger More than Refuge in Subtropical Lakes. Fresh Water Biology. Vol 51 (7), p1320-1330.
NSW Department of Primary Industries (2010). Water Hyacinth- Weed of National Significance. Web.
Richard, M. et al. (2011). Invasive Plants as Catalysts for the Spread of Human Parasites. Neobiota. 9.1156.
Streever, W. (1999). An International Perspective on Wetland Rehabilitation. London: Routledge.
Tacio, H. (2009). Water Hyacinth Ecological Value, Environmental Impacts. Web.
Villamagna, M. Murphy, R. (2010). Ecological and Socio-economic Impacts of Invasive Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes): A Review. Freshwater Biology. Vol 55 (2), p282-298.
Weijden, W. and Bol, L. (2007). Biological Globalization: Bio-Invasions and Their Impacts on Nature- The Economy and Public Health. New Jersey: McGraw Hill.
The Melanin Theory Essay college admission essay help
Melanin theorists purport that black people are more superior to the whites (Cashmore and Jennings 181) because they have greater quantities of melanin. They attribute whites’ alleged “inhumanity” and “inferiority” to lack of melanin. Melanin theorists also maintain that melanin bestows upon people of color some superhuman abilities.
The theorists are unanimous that melanin is both a superconductor and a semiconductor. They contend that melanin can absorb electromagnetic radiation and is capable of converting light and magnetic fields to sound. To these theorists, “melanin can process information without reporting to the brain because it is the chemical basis of the soul” (Barnes 88).
The presence of neuromelanin in a human brain’s substantia nigra aids in transmission of neuronal impulses. The proponents of the melanin theory also advance that “higher levels of melanin in the skin enable nerve synapses to fire more quickly and efficiently” (Barnes 90). This element underscores the black men’s athleticism.
These theorists also believe, “The lower incidence of Parkinson’s diseases among the Blacks is due to the high hypodermic melanin levels in their skin, which acts as a preventative against development of the diseases” (Irving 315). However, the melanin theory is a stereotype for it has no scientific backing to prove its claims as expounded in this paper.
The architects of this theory believe that white people are mutants and that whiter skin is a form of albinism with the likes of Wade Nobles opining that “Blacks are fully human because of their higher levels of skin melanin” (Cashmore and Jennings 116).
In addition, Nobles holds that the “central nervous system and the essential melanic system make one a full human” (Cashmore and Jennings 116). Therefore, to be human is to be black.
Frances Welsing coined the idea of hue-man instead of human to “illuminate the existing inherent and behavioral differences between black and white people” (Welsing The Isis Papers 200).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barnes, another Melanin theorist, states that melanin “is responsible for civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and righteousness, and that is why the whites behave in a barbaric manner” (81).
He further adduces that melanin’s ability to absorb frequencies enhances the black man’s ability to feel his surroundings. In the eyes of the people of color, whites are rigid, cold, unfeeling, and calculating because their skins have lower levels of melanin.
In addition, some theorists relate the pigment melanin with intelligence and creativity. Europeans being the “ice-people” are therefore born cold and greedy, militaristic, and authoritarian. Frances Welsing also purports, “The prevalence of high blood pressure among African Americans is due to the fact that melanin picks up energy vibrations from people who are stressed up” (Welsing Blacks hypertension 65).
Dark skinned people therefore absorb stress in others hence stand higher chances of experiencing high blood pressure. Barnes also purported that white scientists created drugs like cocaine among others, which chemically bind with melanin by the mere fact that they are both alkaloids, hence the high likelihood of black people getting addicted faster or even stay addicted for longer.
Barnes argues, “The blacks can test positive for Cocaine even after a year has elapsed courtesy of cocaine’s ability to co-polymerize into melanin” (18).
Some of the arguments advanced by Melanin Theorists like Barnes that the whites deliberately created drugs like cocaine, which have high affinity for melanin, to make the black people get addicted faster and for longer cannot be factual. No one disputes that “melanin binds with cocaine; however, skin melanin cannot be linked to the mechanism of addiction” (Mieczkowski and Kruger 6).
An argument to the effect that in circumstances when hair has been used to test drug use, “people with darker hair are more likely to test positive for cocaine use because cocaine has high affinity for melanin, is not true because even the whites with dark hair can test positive for the same” (Mieczkowski and Kruger 8).
We will write a custom Essay on The Melanin Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Barnes’ accusation of the white scientists has no element of absolutism because so far, there is no evidence that points to white conspiracy to compound addictive substances that target the blacks.
However, people should not forget that there exists an established link between an aspect of melanin-related biology and substance addiction, especially the melanin found in the brain. Drug addiction is facilitated by complex neuronal processes that converge on the shell of nucleus accumbens that receive inputs from the lateral hypothalamus. Melanin concentrating hormone is produced from the lateral hypothalamus.
Regardless of the fact that the mechanism for nicotine addiction has not been fully understood, “melanin has a biochemical affinity for nicotine and that the greater the amount of melanin an individual may be having the harder it can be for him or her to quit smoking” (Mieczkowski and Kruger 11).
People who become dark skinned due to sun tanning, irrespective of whether they are black or white, are at risk of developing nicotine addiction. Welsing’s claim that “dark skinned people absorb the stress in others resulting in high blood pressure” (Blacks hypertension 65) cannot entirely be true if scientific studies that have been conducted in this field are anything to go by.
Science has for sure linked blacks to norepinephrine. The bodies of human beings produce this substance when subjected to certain levels of stress. This substance constricts blood vessels, but whites and blacks exhibit elevated blood pressure when subjected to pressure.
Melanin theorists stir fallacious thinking, as some of the reasons they advance are full of logical fallacies and accepting them in totality leads to error in thinking hence fictitious characterization of science.
While trying to support the truth of their opinions, melanin theorists seemingly resign to their views. They think that their entitlement is indispensable for the truth of the argument. They never seem to realize that “their entitlement to their opinions has no consequence for scientific truth neither does it validate the views they express” (White and Billing 191). Their entitlement is not backed with evidence.
The theorists’ assertion that possession of greater quantities of melanin makes black people superior and that its lack is a pointer as to why the whites are inhuman and inferior is not backed with any evidence to that effect. Some of their arguments are indeed a distortion of scientific facts.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Melanin Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The theory therefore has no credibility in mainstream science. Human rights and entitlements cannot be used to support a view, as the focus will shift from scientific evidence to human rights.
Being entitled to a given opinion in scientific discourses can only be equated to being wrong especially when there are no facts, evidences, and reason to support such opinions. Only data and evidence can make an opinion correct. Evidences adduced should be independent of one’s view.
The proponents of this pseudoscientific theory have committed the fallacy of argument to ignorance. Apparently, they have a belief that things have to be true because they have not been proved otherwise. They are oblivious of the fact that inability to prove a claim “does not necessarily mean that the claim is true” (White and Billing 181).
Look at it this way, an individual can claim that s/he is capable of running 100m sprint in less than 3 seconds. However, if s/he refuses to be tested in a race, “people’s inability to falsify the claim does not make the claim true by default; moreover, the fact that no scientific study has associated melanin to creativity and intelligence does not give melanin theorists license to posit that melanin is the source of intelligence and creativity” (White and Billing 181).
Moreover, this does not qualify them to assert that “ice-people” are cold and greedy, militaristic, and authoritarian because they were born melanin-deficient.
Carol Barnes also commits the fallacy of argument to ignorance by asserting, “Melanin is responsible for civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and righteousness” (Barnes 81). In fact, no scientific study has illuminated this; however, the absence of any evidence cannot make such sentiments true.
Melanin theorists also commit the fallacy of generalization by suggesting that black people are proficient in athletics because they have higher amounts of melanin in their skin. Across the world, many athletes are successful, but they are not black.
It is also wrong to think that melanin is responsible for civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and righteousness. In the contemporary world, there exist many uncivilized and unrighteous blacks in spite of having elevated melanin levels in their skins. Barnes, one of the ardent Melanin theorists, asserts that melanin “gives human beings the ability to feel because it is the absorber of all frequencies of energy” (81).
Barnes advances that white people are perceived by people of color as being rigid, heartless, and cold because they have least amounts of melanin. The burden of truth lies with Barnes with regard to proving her assertions. She never tells why she thinks that black skinned people can never be rigid, heartless, and cold. Her sentiments are mere assertions, as she never uses science to support her position with positive evidence.
In conclusion, melanin theorists propagate the misconception that Blacks are superior to Whites because the former have higher melanin levels in their skin than the latter. Apparently, according to these theorists, the presence of high melanin levels in Blacks underscores their athleticism and resistance to the Parkinson’s disease.
Moreover, Blacks are purportedly more human by the virtue of having high melanin levels; actually, to be human is to be black according to melanin theorists. In a twist of argument, melanin theorists explain that Blacks are prone to hypertension and high stress levels because their melanin absorbs stress from their surroundings.
Moreover, Blacks are prone to drug addiction because melanin has high affinity for drugs like cocaine. However, these arguments are full of assumptions and fallacies for lack of scientific proof. Therefore, these theorists commit the fallacy of argument to ignorance, fallacy of generalization, and fallacy of appeal to authority.
For instance, they commit the fallacy of appeal to spite by portraying the whites as an inferior race. By substituting attack on ethnicity and racism, the theorists are oblivious of fallacy of circumstantial Ad Hominem in their arguments.
Works Cited Barnes, Carol. Melanin: The Chemical Key to Black Greatness. New York: Lushena Books, 2001. Print.
Cashmore, Ernest, and James Jennings. Racism: essential readings. New York: Sage, 2001. Print.
Irving, Kessler. “Epidemiologic Studies of Parkinson’s Disease: II. A Hospital-based Survey.” American Journal of Epidemiology 95.16 (1972): 308-318. Print.
Mieczkowski, Tom, and Michael Kruger. “Interpreting the color effect of melanin on Cocaine and benzoylecgonine assays for hair analysis: Brown and black samples compared.” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 14.1 (2007): 7–15. Print.
Welsing, Frances. “Blacks, hypertension, and the active skin melanocyte”. Urban Health 4.3 (1975): 64–72. Print.
Welsing, Frances. The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors. New York: Third World Press, 1990. Print.
White, Fred, and Simone Billing. The Well Crafted Argument. New York: Cengage, 2010. Print.